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Sample records for everyday moral knowledge

  1. uncovering the everyday moral knowledge of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo exploramos el uso de la perspectiva metafísica de Margaret Urban Walter, particularmente el uso de narrativas, para informar sobre el desarrollo de un abordaje de investigación que revela el conocimiento moral cotidiano de las enfermeras. Un método basado en el trabajo de Walter permite analizar las dimensiones de poder inherentes en la experiencia moral de las enfermeras, así como fundamentar con una moral epistemológica robusta, el abordaje narrativo ético de la enfermería, y distinguir los diferentes tipos de narrativas. Un número de cuestiones analíticas basadas en el trabajo de Walker son aquí presentadas y empleadas para analizar la práctica narrativa e ilustrar cómo las narrativas pueden ser usadas para delinear el conocimiento moral de las enfermeras dentro del contexto de su trabajo real.

  2. Eavesdropping on Character: Assessing Everyday Moral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollich, Kathryn L; Doris, John M; Vazire, Simine; Raison, Charles L; Jackson, Joshua J; Mehl, Matthias R

    2016-04-01

    Despite decades of interest in moral character, comparatively little is known about moral behavior in everyday life. This paper reports a novel method for assessing everyday moral behaviors using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR)-a digital audio-recorder that intermittently samples snippets of ambient sounds from people's environments-and examines the stability of these moral behaviors. In three samples (combined N = 186), participants wore an EAR over one or two weekends. Audio files were coded for everyday moral behaviors (e.g., showing sympathy, gratitude) and morally-neutral comparison language behaviors (e.g., use of prepositions, articles). Results indicate that stable individual differences in moral behavior can be systematically observed in daily life, and that their stability is comparable to the stability of neutral language behaviors.

  3. Moral knowledge and moral factuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n1p69For naturalistic and non-intuitionistic moral realists, moral knowledge is more problematic than ordinary and scientific factual knowledge. For without special faculties of moral discernment, how could we ever detect moral facts and properties? Physical facts and properties may be accessible to perceptual recognition. But how could moral facts and properties ever be similarly accessible? To address this challenge, we need a meta-ethical account that does two things. First, it must explain how the discernment of moral facts and properties ultimately consists only of the detection of appropriate physical items. Second, it must explain why, despite this fact, moral perception seems so very puzzling. In this paper I endeavor to provide such an account. It is largely because of the relational nature of moral properties, and the corresponding externalistically determined normative content of moral property terms, I argue, that our epistemic access to moral knowledge appears mysterious. The metaphysics of moral factuality does a lot to explain the seeming elusiveness of moral knowledge, and in ways that are surprisingly mundane.

  4. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

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    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  5. The Everyday Moral Judge – Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699

  6. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Körner

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal, goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy. Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  7. Social psychology. Comment on "Morality in everyday life".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C

    2015-05-15

    In examining morality in everyday life, Hofmann et al. (Reports, 12 September 2014, p. 1340) conclude that being the target of (im)moral deeds impacts happiness, whereas committing them primarily affects one's sense of purpose. I point to shortcomings in the analyses and interpretations and caution that, based on the methodological approach, conclusions about everyday life relationships between morality and happiness/purpose are premature. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Professional Knowledge and Everyday Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing their pro......Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing......, that are not traditionally valued, nor by “users” or the professionals themselves, into account. With inspiration from a Danish researcher of everyday life and her concept of ‘the unnoticed/unrecognized’ (det upåagtede) (Bech-Jørgensen 1994), this paper will discuss how understandings of professional identity...

  9. Knowledge and Moral Consciousness

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    Markus Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El artículo presenta una reconstrucción sistemática del esquema de El destino del hombre, de Fichte, a la luz de algunos desarrollos recientes en la metafísica de la intencionalidad. Me propongo mostrar cómo Fichte descubre una doble “verdad del escepticismo”. En primer lugar, el escepticismo debe entenderse como comprensión de que nuestro conocimiento del mundo como un todo no puede apoyarse en el modelo del conocimiento empírico. En segundo lugar, esta comprensión conduce a reflexionar sobre nuestro punto de vista moral acerca del mundo. Como el mundo como tal no es objeto, sino una presuposición de la investigación, nuestros concepto acerca del mundo como tal revelan más sobre nuestra decisión acerca de cómo conceptualizar la totalidad, que acerca de cualquier hecho que pudiera ser captado mediante un conocimiento meramente teórico. La primacía fichteana del punto de partida ético se opone así a las metafísicas naturalistas de nuestro tiempo, que objetivizan el mundo al definirlo como la totalidad dada de todos los hechos modalmente robustos.Abstract:The paper offers a systematic reconstruction of the outlines of Fichte’s Vocation of Man in the light of some recent developments in the metaphysics of intentionality. I intend to show that Fichte discovers a double “truth of skepticism”. Firstly, skepticism ought to be understood as the insight that our knowledge regarding the world as a whole cannot be based on the model of empirical knowledge. Secondly, this insight leads to a reflection upon our moral standpoint towards the world. Since the world as such is not an object, but a presupposition of inquiry, our concepts of the world as such reveal more about our decision as to how to conceptualize totality, than about any fact which might be grasped by purely theoretical knowledge. Thus, Fichte’s primacy of the practical stands in opposition to the naturalistic metaphysics of our time, which objectifies the

  10. Children's Everyday Experience as a Focus of Moral Education

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    Iwasa, Nobumichi

    2017-01-01

    Two influential tragic incidents in 2011 are discussed in connection with the cultivation of morality in Japan. One is the suicide of a junior high school student due to bullying in his school--a scandal which eventually led to the country's redefinition of the status of moral education in the school curriculum. The other is the huge earthquake…

  11. Genre, the organization of knowledge and everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. From the point of view of genre theory, this paper explains how the organization of knowledge can be understood as an articulation of everyday communication with and in digital media. I argue that, with genre, a theoretical frame can be offered to cast the organization of knowledge...... as a communicative activity in everyday life. Method. This is a text-based argument which pulls together different sources for developing and discussing the contention. Analysis. I will start out with some brief reflections on digital media and communicative interaction. From there I will look into some steps...... already made toward understanding knowledge organization as an everyday activity, before providing some examples of how the organization of knowledge in digital media can be understood as genre-based communication in everyday life. Results. Due to the saturation of digital media in everyday life, genre...

  12. Moral landscapes and everyday life in families with Huntington´s Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with understanding moral aspects of everyday life in families with Huntington’s Disease (HD). It draws on findings from an empirical research project in Denmark in 1998e2002 involving multi-sited ethnography to argue that medical genetics provides a particular framework...

  13. A Moral Experience Feedback Loop: Modeling a System of Moral Self-Cultivation in Everyday Life

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    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    This "systems thinking" model illustrates a common feedback loop by which people engage the moral world and continually reshape their moral sensibility. The model highlights seven processes that collectively form this feedback loop: beginning with (1) one's current moral sensibility which shapes processes of (2) perception, (3)…

  14. Social psychology. Response to Comment on "Morality in everyday life".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2015-05-15

    Voelkle challenges our conclusions regarding the relationship between morality and momentary happiness/sense of purpose based on methodological concerns. We show that our main conclusions are not affected by this methodological critique and clarify that the discrepancies between our and Voelkle's effect size estimates can be reconciled by the realization that two different (but compatible) research questions are being asked. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Diagnosing dementia: Ethnography, interactional ethics and everyday moral reasoning.

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    Hillman, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    This article highlights the contribution of ethnography and qualitative sociology to the ethical challenges that frame the diagnosis of dementia. To illustrate this contribution, the paper draws on an ethnographic study of UK memory clinics carried out between 2012 and 2014. The ethnographic data, set alongside other studies and sociological theory, contest the promotion of a traditional view of autonomy; the limiting of the point of ethical interest to a distinct moment of diagnosis disclosure; and the failure to recognise risk and uncertainty in the building of clinical 'facts' and their communication. In addressing these specific concerns, this article contributes to the wider debate over the relationship between sociology and bioethics (medical ethics). At the heart of these debates lies more fundamental questions: how can we best understand and shape moral decision-making and ethics that guide behaviour in medical practice, and what should be the guiding ideas, concepts and methods to inform ethics in the clinic? Using the case of dementia diagnosis, this article illustrates the benefits of an ethnographic approach, not just for understanding this ethical problem but also for exploring if and how a more empirically informed ethics can help shape healthcare practices for the better.

  16. Does Formal Environmental Knowledge Inform the Everyday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected through questionnaires, followed by focus group interviews with learners. The findings suggest that learners have sound theoretical knowledge and awareness of environmental problems, but are not action competent with regard to such problems. In the context of this study, formal knowledge therefore ...

  17. Medical ethical knowledge and moral attitudes among physicians in Bavaria.

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    Wandrowski, Jana; Schuster, Tibor; Strube, Wolfgang; Steger, Florian

    2012-02-01

    Everyday clinical practice requires knowledge of medical ethics and the taking of moral positions. We investigated the ethical knowledge and attitudes of a representative sample of physicians with regard to end-of-life decisions, euthanasia, and the physician-patient relationship. 192 physicians (96 women, 96 men; mean age 50) in a random sample of Bavarian physicians completed our structured questionnaire. Data were collected from September to November 2010. There was much uncertainty among the respondents about the relevant knowledge for end-of-life decisions and the implementation of existing guidelines and laws on euthanasia and advance directives. Attitudes to ethical questions were found to be correlated with the length of time the physicians had been in practice. Physicians' personal values and moral attitudes play a major role in clinical decision-making. We used a questionnaire to examine physicians' opinions about end-of-life issues and to determine the factors that might influence them. We found their knowledge of medical ethics to be inadequate. Competence in medical ethics needs to be strengthened by more ethical teaching in medical school, specialty training, and continuing medical education.

  18. Acute psychosocial stress and everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men: The impact of cortisol.

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    Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

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    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  20. It's immoral, but I'd do it! Psychopathy traits affect decision-making in sacrificial dilemmas and in everyday moral situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Lotto, Lorella; Buodo, Giulia; Sarlo, Michela

    2017-05-01

    This research investigated whether emotional hyporeactivity affects moral judgements and choices of action in sacrificial moral dilemmas and in everyday moral conflict situations in which harm to other's welfare is differentially involved. Twenty-six participants with high trait psychopathy (HP) and 25 with low trait psychopathy (LP) were selected based on the primary psychopathy scale of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. HP participants were more likely to sacrifice one person to save others in sacrificial dilemmas and to pursue a personal advantage in everyday moral situations entailing harm to another's good. While deciding in these situations, HP participants experienced lower unpleasantness as compared to LP participants. Conversely, no group differences emerged in choice of action and unpleasantness ratings for everyday moral situations that did not entail harm to others. Importantly, moral judgements did not differ in the two groups. These results suggest that high psychopathy trait affects choices of action in sacrificial dilemmas because of reduced emotional reactivity to harmful acts. The dissociation between choice of action and moral judgement suggests that the former is more closely related to emotional experience. Also, emotion seems to play a critical role in discriminating harmful from harmless acts and in driving decisions accordingly. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Everyday vs academic knowledge among early childhood teachers (six questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Julia Guzmán

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, the result of a qualitative research process, serves as a reflection on the ways in which early childhood teachers who belong to schools with different characteristics and possess different levels of training, learn to teach reading and writing to boys and girls. It was found that, independent of their level of training and education, practice in the classroom served as their main source of learning. From these findings, some questions emerge about the relationship between the theory and the everyday practice in the training of educators and what this suggests for the institutions responsible for such activity.

  2. HIV/AIDS Content Knowledge and Presentation Strategies in Biology for Effective Use in Everyday Life

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    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS education should empower students to create knowledge using everyday life experiences. Such knowledge should then be used to construe experience and resolve social problems such as risk behaviour that leads to infection. In South Africa, attempts to reduce the spread of HIV include incorporating HIV/AIDS education in the biology…

  3. Teaching as practice: Blending the intellectual and moral in pursuit of science teachers' practical knowledge

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    Salloum, Sara Labib

    This study aimed to (a) explore and understand the intricacy of science teaching as a morally committed practice engaging teachers' practical knowledge; (b) explore science teacher practical knowledge by probing and understanding teachers' interpretations, commitments, and dialectic interactions between them; and (c) scrutinize science teachers' actions in terms of their interpretations and commitments as they go about realizing 'internal goods' of their practice and resolving dilemmas of everyday science teaching practice. Case studies of three physical science teachers in different socioeconomic contexts in Lebanon were conducted using ethnographic methods of indepth dialogues, observation, and artifact analysis. An interpretive approach to data analysis was adopted to ensure that the generated themes and assertions reflected participant teachers' interpretation and commitments. A commitment of preparing students for the official exams and doing well in them prevailed across the three contexts. This commitment originated from the teachers' interpretations of their duty as 'good' teachers who will not let students and the school down. In the public schools, teachers saw that students' passing the Brevet exams gains them a right of passage to a safe zone. In the private school, the teacher saw her duty to have student attain high grades in preparation for their future educational and career plans. Each teacher's case was described in terms of a teacher's standing commitments, associated interpretations, and manifestations in action. A characterization for each teacher's practice was offered in light of interactions between commitments, interpretations and actions. Characterizations that emerged included: a disciplining governess, role model with missionary tendencies, and good employee with a mission. The concept of gap-closing (between interpretations and commitments) was used to explain development of teachers' practical knowledge. Nature of gap closing and its

  4. Moral and Social Development: Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Learning and Teaching Strategies in the Early Years

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    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…

  5. Anticipation of guilt for everyday moral transgressions: The role of the anterior insula and the influence of interpersonal psychopathic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Seara-Cardoso; Sebastian, Catherine L.; Eamon McCrory; Lucy Foulkes; Marine Buon; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Essi Viding

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by atypical moral behaviour likely rooted in atypical affective/motivational processing, as opposed to an inability to judge the wrongness of an action. Guilt is a moral emotion believed to play a crucial role in adherence to moral and social norms, but the mechanisms by which guilt (or lack thereof) may influence behaviour in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits are unclear. We measured neural responses during the anticipatio...

  6. Negotiating clinical knowledge: a field study of psychiatric nurses' everyday communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2008-01-01

    was highly dependent on the individual nurses' practical ability to participate in the game. Furthermore, the nurses colluded in their mutual communication to enable the collective display and sense of knowing that protected them against explicit signs of uncertainty about the clinic. The game of clinical...... knowledge influenced processes of clinical decision-making among the nurses as the game added to a distorted widening of a 'fictional distance' between patients and the representations produced by the nurses.......Nursing practices at psychiatric hospitals have changed significantly over the last decades. In this paper, everyday nursing practices were interpreted in light of these institutional changes. The objective was to examine how mental health nurses' production of clinical knowledge was influenced...

  7. Ethical Knowledge in Teaching: A Moral Imperative of Professionalism

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    Campbell, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, literature from both the academic and the professional fields has focused attention on the moral dimensions of teaching and the ethical demands they place on the daily practice of teachers. On one hand, consideration of ethical intent and behaviour seems quite simple and self-evident. In teaching, as in life more generally, core…

  8. Continuous sedation until death: the everyday moral reasoning of physicians, nurses and family caregivers in the UK, The Netherlands and Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Continuous sedation is increasingly used as a way to relieve symptoms at the end of life. Current research indicates that some physicians, nurses, and relatives involved in this practice experience emotional and/or moral distress. This study aims to provide insight into what may influence how professional and/or family carers cope with such distress. Methods This study is an international qualitative interview study involving interviews with physicians, nurses, and relatives of deceased patients in the UK, The Netherlands and Belgium (the UNBIASED study) about a case of continuous sedation at the end of life they were recently involved in. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by staying close to the data using open coding. Next, codes were combined into larger themes and categories of codes resulting in a four point scheme that captured all of the data. Finally, our findings were compared with others and explored in relation to theories in ethics and sociology. Results The participants’ responses can be captured as different dimensions of ‘closeness’, i.e. the degree to which one feels connected or ‘close’ to a certain decision or event. We distinguished four types of ‘closeness’, namely emotional, physical, decisional, and causal. Using these four dimensions of ‘closeness’ it became possible to describe how physicians, nurses, and relatives experience their involvement in cases of continuous sedation until death. More specifically, it shined a light on the everyday moral reasoning employed by care providers and relatives in the context of continuous sedation, and how this affected the emotional impact of being involved in sedation, as well as the perception of their own moral responsibility. Conclusion Findings from this study demonstrate that various factors are reported to influence the degree of closeness to continuous sedation (and thus the extent to which carers feel morally responsible), and that some of these

  9. Morales

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    Mario Rivero

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Con alquien que, como Armando Morales, ha alcanzado un lenguaje plástico, no cabe tanto hacer una exposición analítica, como aceptar o rechazar la obra en bloque. Podrá ella gustar o no, "llegar" o dejar de llegar como se dice, pero no puede dudarse que es algo pasmosamente conseguido como conjunto, al que podría definírsele como una exploración progresiva en busca de una pureza esencial.

  10. [Everyday knowledge--body knowledge--knowledge of experience--specialized knowledge: acquisition, assessment and the orientation of logic concerning cultures of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouvie, Eva

    2007-06-01

    The essay explores changes in the understanding, legitimisation, and practice of midwifery. It was one of the earliest professional activities for women. During the eighteenth century a new culture of expertise emphasized theoretical knowledge and adherence to medical disciplines over the empirical practice gained by women. This early phase of professionalisation, with its hierarchies and preferred use of medically accredited knowledge, was not, however, solely divided along gender lines. Female professionalism was not just supplanted by male academic medicalisation. New ways of attaining and assessing knowledge, a different perception of how it is organised, and above all, social change created new patterns of understanding. This process achieved a new professional ethos. In pursuing the issue of gender, various examples are chosen to illustrate how changes in scientific knowledge and its relevant application are mediated. The construct of scientific knowledge and how it is used reflects gender relations and power structures. There is not only competition between female and male perceptions of knowledge, but also male stereotyping of female knowledge, in particular male notions of what kind of knowledge is necessary and how this is perceived by women. Karen Offen used the term ,knowledge wars' to describe how a monopoly of scientific expertise and relevant knowledge works within the professions.

  11. Second-Language Teachers' Moral Knowledge Base: A Comparison between Experienced and Less Experienced, Male and Female Practitioners

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    Akbari, Ramin; Tajik, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The second-language teacher education community has become increasingly interested in the moral dimensions of teaching. Herein ELT practitioners' "moral knowledge base", as a window into their mental lives, has not received the attention it deserves. The present study was conducted to document likely differences between the frequencies of…

  12. An Actor's Knowledge and Intent Are More Important in Evaluating Moral Transgressions Than Conventional Transgressions.

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    Giffin, Carly; Lombrozo, Tania

    2017-06-02

    An actor's mental states-whether she acted knowingly and with bad intentions-typically play an important role in evaluating the extent to which an action is wrong and in determining appropriate levels of punishment. In four experiments, we find that this role for knowledge and intent is significantly weaker when evaluating transgressions of conventional rules as opposed to moral rules. We also find that this attenuated role for knowledge and intent is partly due to the fact that conventional rules are judged to be more arbitrary than moral rules; whereas moral transgressions are associated with actions that are intrinsically wrong (e.g., hitting another person), conventional transgressions are associated with actions that are only contingently wrong (e.g., wearing pajamas to school, which is only wrong if it violates a dress code that could have been otherwise). Finally, we find that it is the perpetrator's belief about the arbitrary or non-arbitrary basis of the rule-not the reality-that drives this differential effect of knowledge and intent across types of transgressions. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. THE ROLE OF A FOUNDATIONALIST APPROACH TO MORAL KNOWLEDGE IN ETHICS MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS

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    SABINA IRIMIE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic function that afoundationalist architecture of moral knowledge may have in managing ethics in an economiccontext. The role of studying values using a foundational structure is to make the values thatare basic for some members to become derivative for the rest of the members or at least to beconstantly considered as relevant criteria in decision-making processes. The Ethical Delphi isproposed as an efficient tool for homogenizing values that cannot otherwise be asserted. Hence,those values could not be formalized in standard tools for managing ethics.

  14. From School Knowledge to Everyday Life: Introducing an Alert Bell to Upgrade the Common Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie René de Cotret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of school education is that students develop knowledge they will be able to use in their professional and personal life. However, it seems that school does not completely reach its goal. Too often, learned knowledge is not used when it should be. Actually, many research results illustrate the fact that well learned knowledge is not necessarily used outside its belonging discipline, for instance in a day-today context, even if it could be helpful. We assume that, in those cases, decisions are based on common sense instead of school knowledge, however the later was learned. Developing a didactic of common sense, our research project has two goals: the first one is to better understand the dynamic between school knowledge and common sense knowledge involved in day-to-day situations. The second one is to design a device that will upgrade the common sense in order for it to mobilize relevant learned school knowledge when dealing with problems pertaining to real life situations. This paper will focus on the first steps of the research dealing with the second goal.

  15. Developmental Consistencies in Socio-Moral Knowledge: Justice Reasoning and Altruistic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotner, Roberta; Bearison, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the issue of developmental consistencies between and within levels of moral reasoning, altruism, and perspective coordination. The relative contributions of perspective coordination and moral reasoning to altruistic behavior were examined in fifth grade. (Author/RH)

  16. Exploring the knowledge behind predictions in everyday cognition: an iterated learning study.

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    Stephens, Rachel G; Dunn, John C; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Making accurate predictions about events is an important but difficult task. Recent work suggests that people are adept at this task, making predictions that reflect surprisingly accurate knowledge of the distributions of real quantities. Across three experiments, we used an iterated learning procedure to explore the basis of this knowledge: to what extent is domain experience critical to accurate predictions and how accurate are people when faced with unfamiliar domains? In Experiment 1, two groups of participants, one resident in Australia, the other in China, predicted the values of quantities familiar to both (movie run-times), unfamiliar to both (the lengths of Pharaoh reigns), and familiar to one but unfamiliar to the other (cake baking durations and the lengths of Beijing bus routes). While predictions from both groups were reasonably accurate overall, predictions were inaccurate in the selectively unfamiliar domains and, surprisingly, predictions by the China-resident group were also inaccurate for a highly familiar domain: local bus route lengths. Focusing on bus routes, two follow-up experiments with Australia-resident groups clarified the knowledge and strategies that people draw upon, plus important determinants of accurate predictions. For unfamiliar domains, people appear to rely on extrapolating from (not simply directly applying) related knowledge. However, we show that people's predictions are subject to two sources of error: in the estimation of quantities in a familiar domain and extension to plausible values in an unfamiliar domain. We propose that the key to successful predictions is not simply domain experience itself, but explicit experience of relevant quantities.

  17. Urban knowledge through popular culture. Some reflections on everyday encounters with the melodramatic city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available I suspect that it is an obvious observation, but some time ago it occurred to me that a good deal of what I know about cities is a product of the cultural resources that I have consumed over the years. Various TV shows, musical works, films, books and the like have contributed to an accumulated general and sometimes more locally specific knowledge about cities.

  18. Continuous sedation until death. The everyday moral reasoning of physicians, nurses and family caregivers in the UK, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raus, K.; Brown, J; Seale, C.; Rietjens, J.A.; Janssens, M.J.P.A.; Bruinsma, S.; Mortier, F.; Payne, S.; Sterckx, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuous sedation is increasingly used as a way to relieve symptoms at the end of life. Current research indicates that some physicians, nurses, and relatives involved in this practice experience emotional and/or moral distress. This study aims to provide insight into what may

  19. Continuous sedation until death: The everyday moral reasoning of physicians, nurses and family caregivers in the UK, the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Raus (Kasper); J. Brown (Jayne); C. Seale (Clive); J.A.C. Rietjens (Judith); R. Janssens (Roel); S.M. Bruinsma (Sophie); F. Mortier (Freddy); S. Payne (Sheila); S. Sterckx (Sigrid)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Continuous sedation is increasingly used as a way to relieve symptoms at the end of life. Current research indicates that some physicians, nurses, and relatives involved in this practice experience emotional and/or moral distress. This study aims to provide insight into what

  20. The Impact of Developmentally-Based Preservice Teacher Education on Teachers' Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Sustained Engagement in Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Deborah W.; Nucci, Larry

    2016-01-01

    This article presents outcomes of two studies examining the impact of preservice teachers' preparation on their practice, knowledge, and self-efficacy for supporting students' social and moral development and conducting moral education in the classroom. The studies centered on the Developmental Teacher Education program at the University of…

  1. Medical ethics, moral philosophy and moral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T H

    1987-01-01

    Medical ethics is commonly assumed to be a form of 'applied moral philosophy' in which practical moral judgments are deduced from moral theories. This account of the relationship between moral theory and moral judgment is inadequate in several reports. The deductivist approach often results in inadequate attention being given to social, historical and developmental contexts. It also fails to explain some common phenomena in practical moral reasoning. In contrast to the emphasis in deductivism, a case-centered or casuistic practical ethics insists on immersion in the particularities of cases and on interpretation of details in light of moral maxims and other mid-level forms of moral reasoning. Two features of casuistics that ought to be distinguished but frequently are not, are: (1) the emphasis on immersion and interpretation, and (2) a claim about the relation between moral judgment and moral theory as sources of moral knowledge. Once we consider case-centered moral judgments as sources of moral knowledge, we must also begin to look critically but open-mindedly to moral traditions which, upon examination, appear to be more dynamic and to have more reformist potential than is commonly assumed.

  2. Everyday Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Wegener, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how vocational teachers’ everyday practices can constitute innovative learning spaces that help students to experience engagement and commitment towards education and thus increase their possibilities for completing their studies despite notable...... difficulties. Design/methodology/approach – Based on two ethnographic field studies, we analyse vocational teaching situations in which teachers and students engage in daily remaking of the vocational educational training practice. It is argued that these everyday situations can be understood as innovative...... transformation of participation and practice. Findings – The exploration of teachers’ practicing new learning spaces sheds light on innovation potential embedded in everyday educational practices. The paper thus challenges the celebration of radical innovation and argues that innovation emerges from everyday...

  3. Moral and spiritual education of the youth in the heritage of N. Pirigov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorozhbit V.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analyze of aims, content and forms of moral and spiritual education of the youth in N. Pirogov's pedagogical texts. It is stated that the ideal of educator the scientist discovered in the sincere person, who is ready for duty for the motherland, is self confident, sees the freedom as a basic moral imperative. As a means of moral and spiritual education the scientist pointed out the example of educator, pedagogue, tutor. The content of moral and spiritual education was seen in a unity of humanistic and scientific courses. The main form is self knowledge. The condition of the moral and spiritual bringing up is inspiration. It is stated that the success of moral and spiritual bringing up depends on the educator's ability to study everyday life and aspiration of the youth.

  4. Developmental Consistencies in Children's Socio-Moral Knowledge: Justice Reasoning and Altruistic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotner, Roberta; Bearison, David J.

    This study examined the relationship between moral reasoning and altruistic behavior in 120 boys, 4- to 11-years old. Subjects were administered Damon's Positive- Justice Interview, and were presented helping and sharing tasks under five behavioral conditions corresponding to Damon's justice levels. Findings supported cognitive- developmental…

  5. The everyday elasticity of compliance in a symptomless disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felde, Lina Hoel

    2011-01-01

    is to describe people's everyday elasticity of compliance in shifting contexts in everyday life. The empirical material presented, based on interviews with people with elevated cholesterol, suggests that people with symptomless diseases can be perceived to be living in a virtual 'temporal limbo', living 'here...... give-and-take. This elasticity of compliance reveals a reflexive critique of medical compliance as a moral standard and leads us to discuss how people are adequately compliant in everyday moral contexts....

  6. Everyday Tectonics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    or Carlo Scarpa’s Brion Cemetery that posses an ability to enrich the lives of their users are signified by an in-depth attention to the correlation ofbetween structure, materials and details. InWithin the architectural history and theorydiscourse such works are referred to, as key examples of a tectonic...... consciousness, and (construction) technique. 1 Conclusions In addressing the … As st formulated by Lefebvre: ‘Why should the study of the banal be banal? Are not the surreal, the extraordinary, the surprising, even the magical, also part of the real? Why wouldn’t the concept of everydayness reveal...... challenge for research, practice, and education, which focus onwhen dealing with everyday architecture that is based on where the development of tectonic thinking and methods as fundamentals is inevitably key.: What conditions the realization of everyday architecture? And how to position and release...

  7. Everyday neuromorality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskies, Adina

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, scientists are observing and recording human emotions through neuroimaging. Such capability is causing widespread uneasiness, writes Adina Roskies, for it has the potential to result in a sort of demystification of the mental that makes freedom of the will seem impossible and threatens to leave us open to manipulation as never before. Relax, the author argues: Moral responsibility is fundamentally social, and self-control is what makes us free. Understanding cognitive function may cause us to revise, but will not force us to abandon, common notions of moral responsibility and control.

  8. Everyday imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Allan, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    ’s detailed analysis of open-ended questionnaires from ‘millennial’ smartphone users elucidates the varied experiential, compositional, and technological aspects associated with smartphone imagery in everyday life. It argues that the associated changes do more than just update previous technologies but rather...

  9. Knowledge and networks - key sources of power in global health: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-02-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today.

  10. Knowledge and Networks – Key Sources of Power in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Hanefeld

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today.

  11. Moral issues in mentoring sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunink, G.; Leeuwen, van R.; Jansen, M.; Jochemsen, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the results of research that investigated whether student nurses identified the moral aspects of everyday nursing care situations and, if so, how they dealt with them. We intended to elucidate the role of mentoring situations in moral development. Student written documents

  12. Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Shiffman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of individuals and organizations have considerable influence over the selection of global health priorities and strategies. For some that influence derives from control over financial resources. For others it comes from expertise and claims to moral authority—what can be termed, respectively, epistemic and normative power. In contrast to financial power, we commonly take for granted that epistemic and normative forms of power are legitimate. I argue that we should not; rather we should investigate the origins of these forms of power, and consider under what circumstances they are justly derived.

  13. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  14. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    What are the implications of ongoing processes of modernization and individualization for social relations in everyday life? This overall research question is the pivotal point in empirical studies at the Centre of Childhood-, Youth- and Family Life Research at Roskilde University. One research...... project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...

  15. Everyday Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Lewis; Haladyn, Dennis; Grønnebæk, Christian; Hansen, Johannes; Jensen, Mikkel; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper will strive to comprehend performance-studie’s ability to enlighten individuals’ upon an inferred technological impact within their everyday lives. More precisely, revolve around its paradigmatic capacity to act as a foundation for the pragmatic establishment of an interactive exhibition, where such reflection is to occur. Thus proposing a reflection encapsulated and enabled through the interaction of a representative system constituent of systematically arranged technological arte...

  16. Racial identification, knowledge, and the politics of everyday life in an Arizona science classroom: A linguistic ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brendan Harold

    This dissertation is a linguistic ethnography of a high school Astronomy/Oceanography classroom in southern Arizona, where an exceptionally promising, novice, white science teacher and mostly Mexican-American students confronted issues of identity and difference through interactions both related and unrelated to science learning. Through close analysis of video-recorded, naturally-occurring interaction and rich ethnographic description, the study documents how a teacher and students accomplished everyday classroom life, built caring relationships, and pursued scientific inquiry at a time and in a place where nationally- and locally-circulating discourses about immigration and race infused even routine interactions with tension and uncertainty. In their talk, students appropriated elements of racializing discourses, but also used language creatively to "speak back" to commonsense notions about Mexicanness. Careful examination of science-related interactions reveals the participants' negotiation of multiple, intersecting forms of citizenship (i.e., cultural and scientific citizenship) in the classroom, through multidirectional processes of language socialization in which students and the teacher regularly exchanged expert and novice roles. This study offers insight into the continuing relevance of racial, cultural, and linguistic identity to students' experiences of schooling, and sheds new light on classroom discourse, teacher-student relationships, and dimensions of citizenship in science learning, with important implications for teacher preparation and practice.

  17. Moral Emotions and Morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Orsi Portalo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to explore the ambivalent role played by the so called moral emotions in moral thinking, overall when the concept of responsibility is concerned. In the first part of this paper I show how moral emotions such as guilt and shame can appear in circumstances that are not under the agent’s control, and therefore the agent could be though of free or responsibility for them. By contrast, in the second part of this essay I put how the absence of moral emotions, or their twisted development, makes as well the flourishing of individual morality impossible.

  18. Purist or Pragmatist? UK Doctoral Scientists' Moral Positions on the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Sally; Hughes, Gwyneth; Walsh, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Doctoral scientists increasingly forge non-academic careers after completing the doctorate. Governments and industry in advanced economies welcome this trend, since it complements the "knowledge economy" vision that has come to dominate higher education globally. Knowledge economy stakeholders consider doctoral scientists to constitute…

  19. Exploring young children’s artefact engagements as premises for creating purposeful intergenerational knowledge of digitalized everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    ’s digitalization focuses primarily on children’s learning and thus becoming the future workforce, as well as on digital artefacts’ potentials for pedagogical staff to closely and comprehensively document and monitor this becoming. Meanwhile, single municipalities and institutions relate differently to this top....... It is acknowledged, though, that dissent also always implies an alternative hope as well as temporary stabilizations of meaning. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to not only inquire into dissenting practices and knowledges, but also to how these relate to consenting practices and knowledges. Pivotally...... engagement with how and why children more generally engage with any kind of sociomaterial artefact, creating joint knowledge through both dissensus and consensus. In order to ground digitalization in children’s as well as adults’ (well)being, the paper proposes that the analytical focus must be put on which...

  20. Moral intuitions, moral expertise, and moral reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musschenga, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral

  1. The meaning of teacher competence in contexts of change: In search of missing elements of a knowledge base for teacher education – moral purposes and change agentry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, N.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis contributes to an articulation of a more comprehensive knowledge base for teacher education. It explores the concept of teacher competence as basis for teacher education including preparation for moral roles and change agentry. The thesis develops tools for exploration of the

  2. Everyday sexism

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Laura

    2014-01-01

    'If Caitlin Moran's How To Be A Womanis the fun-filled manual for female survival in the 21st century, everyday sexism is its more politicised sister' (Independent on Sunday). After experiencing a series of escalating sexist incidents, Laura Bates started theeveryday sexism projectand has gone on to write 'a pioneering analysis of modern day misogyny' (Telegraph). After an astounding response from the wide range of stories that came pouring in from all over the world, the project quickly became one of the biggest social media success stories of the internet. From being harassed and wolf-whistled at on the street, to discrimination in the workplace and serious sexual assault, it is clear that sexism had become normalised. But Bates inspires women to lead a real change and writes this 'extremely powerful book that could, and should, win hearts and minds right across the spectrum' (Financial Times). Often shocking, sometimes amusing and always poignant, everyday sexism is a protest against inequality and a manif...

  3. The blurring of boundaries between research and everyday life: dilemmas of employing one's own experiential knowledge in disability research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mogendorff, K.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers with experiential disability knowledge increasingly engage in socio-medical research. In this paper the author discusses her experiences with employing her own lived experiences with disability in academic and non-academic research projects. Incorporating one's own lived experiences in

  4. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  5. Children’s everyday transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses children’s everyday transitions across home and the day-care institution, as well as between different activities and communities. Employing a cultural-historical approach, historical and socio-structural conditions for everyday life are analysed on the basis of subjective...... meanings and experiences of action possibilities (Chaiklin, Hedegaard, & Jensen, 1999). Employing the concept of conduct of everyday life (Dreier, 2008, 2011; Holzkamp, 2013; Højholt & Kousholt, 2017), this chapter analyses the active, creative and coordinating processes involved in leading a compound...... everyday life. Analysing transitions from the children’s perspective produces knowledge about how children actively deal with and arrange their conditions as they move between different communities and practices, as well as the struggles and possibilities involved, which are not always visible to adult...

  6. School Everyday Life in Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ferraço

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at questioning school everyday life in images, based on intercessors and concepts from Deleuze and Guattari’s Philosophy of Difference. It is based on data-image-graffiti produced during investigations developed by us with public schools’ everyday life in the city of Vitória, ES, Brazil. The text claims that, in order to speak about school everyday life in images to favor the sudden, the production of meaning and the multiplicity of knowledge, it is necessary to invest in another research attitude - one that considers chaos, chance and permanent openness and complexity of school everyday life as forces to constitute an immanence plane and create concepts. The article affirms the idea of impossibility of choosing images that would be considered the most representative to speak about events in the schools.

  7. Power in global health agenda-setting: the role of private funding Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ruth E

    2015-03-04

    The editorial by Jeremy Shiffman, "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health", highlights the influence on global health priority-setting of individuals and organizations that do not have a formal political mandate. This sheds light on the way key functions in global health depend on private funding, particularly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  8. Moral distress in everyday nursing: hidden traces of power and resistance Sufrimiento moral en el cotidiano de la enfermería: huellas ocultas de poder y resistencia Sofrimento moral no cotidiano da enfermagem: traços ocultos de poder e resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Luiz Devos Barlem

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To know the strategies of resistance adopted by nursing staff, facing situations of moral distress, from an ethical perspective. METHOD: The authors conducted qualitative research through semi-structured interviews, with fifteen nursing staff members of a university hospital in the extreme south of Brazil, using textual discourse analysis and the theoretical reference of Foucault. RESULTS: Two categories were constructed: denial of oneself and the other - in which one perceives that the nursing staff can perform actions that are governed predominantly by immobility and conformism, avoiding confrontations with whoever represents power in situations that provoke moral distress in them; possibility to care for oneself and for the other - in which nursing workers in situations that provoke moral distress for them exercise power and endurance. CONCLUSION: it was perceived that some professionals seem to use ethical coping strategies, in order to ensure and preserve their professional values. However, often the choice of some nursing professionals may be to relapse into immobility and the absence of building strategies of endurance. This situation may represent their reduced exercise of power and insufficient resistance in the face of ethical problems, contributing to the intensification of their invisibility in the area of health.OBJETIVO: conocer las estrategias de resistencia adoptadas por los trabajadores de enfermería, frente a las situaciones de sufrimiento moral, bajo una perspectiva ética. MÉTODO: se realizó una investigación cualitativa, por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas con quince trabajadores de enfermería de un hospital universitario en el extremo sur de Brasil, a través del análisis textual-discursivo y de los referenciales teóricos de Foucault. RESULTADOS: se construyeron dos categorías: negación de sí mismo y del otro - donde se observa que los trabajadores de enfermería pueden realizar acciones

  9. Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Moral education: School as a just community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miočinović Ljiljana Đ.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Kohlberg’s view of moral education, how it was developing and changing over time. Starting from a theoretical postulate that thinking constitutes the essence of morality and from empirical findings of the stage development of moral judgment, in his early works Kohlberg defines moral education as "encouraging the natural course of moral judgment development". As a principal method of work, Kohlberg recommends the encouragement of a cognitive conflict by means of discussing hypothetic moral dilemmas. Criticisms that he is over-intellectualizing moral education, getting acquainted with a collective upbringing in kibbutz's, active participation in work in schools and prisons and finding that moral judgment and acting in everyday life is a response to the prevailing moral atmosphere of a group are leading to the changes in moral education goals and development of a new approach known as "just community". Now a group is in the focus of moral education, not an individual any longer, the major area of studies being group norms and expectations. The "just community" approach does not remain only at the classroom level discussing hypothetical moral dilemmas but directly influences the structure of school justice i.e. its rules and discipline, processes they are passed as well as the rights and duties of both teachers and students. Its goal is no longer to develop moral judgment of an individual student but to develop a group as moral community founded upon the norms of trust, participation and collective responsibility.

  11. Dilemas morales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a) agente se ve confrontado(a) con dos obligaciones morales que le i...

  12. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  13. HUBUNGAN PERHATIAN ORANGTUA DENGAN MORAL REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaufani Gianoza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Family is the first environment encountered by children. One of the the phenomenons face in the family is the lack of parents attention to their children. Thus, in the everyday life, their behaviors are less accordance with norms and religious values. This study aimed to describe the attention of parents, moral of adolescents, and examine the relationship between them. The type of this study is a descriptive correlation with the findings of parents attention is high, while adolescent moral classified as poor, and there is a significant relationship between the attention of parrents to the moral of adolescents. Keywords: Parrents Attention; Adolescents Moral

  14. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1......,000 respondents each conducted after every referendum on moral policies in Switzerland between 1992 and 2012. Results based on cross-classified multilevel models show that religious behaving instead of nominal religious belonging plays a crucial role in decision making on moral issues. This supports the idea...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  15. The everyday ethics of field work research with vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Patients are increasingly involved in health informatics research. Researchers are always aware of the ethical dimensions of their research, but studies in the field with patients--especially among the frail, elderly, cognitively impaired--present specific additional 'everyday moral dilemmas'. Reflecting on experiences of a hospital study of patients with dementia, this paper draws attention on the type and constant presence of this situated ethics, the immediacy of decision-making, and the importance of everyday ethics for health informatics.

  16. Revealing Power in Truth; Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Shiffman’s editorial appropriately calls on making all forms of power more apparent and accountable, notably productive power derived from expertise and claims to moral authority. This commentary argues that relationships based on productive power can be especially difficult to reveal in global health policy because of embedded notions about the nature of power and politics. Yet, it is essential to recognize that global health is shot through with power relationships, that they can take many forms, and that their explicit acknowledgement should be part of, rather than factored out of, any reform of global health governance.

  17. Moral education and moral consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalajtzidis Ján

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the presented paper is to suggest a new possible approach in moral education in Slovakia. The starting point for the presented argumentation is the position that moral education (ethics education in Slovakia is based on insufficient foundations. One of the possible propositions of how to overcome this shortcoming is to supersede prosocial behavior (insufficient base with value education and promotion of the development of critical and analytical moral thinking. The paper suggests that one of the possible ways how to achieve this goal is by the help of introducing the issue of moral (ethical consumption as a topic of moral education.

  18. DILEMAS MORALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a agente se ve confrontado(a con dos obligaciones morales que le instan a actuar. Un dilema moral es una situación extrema de conflicto moral en la que nuestro(a agente no puede seguir un curso de acción que sea conforme con sus dos obligaciones en conflicto. Para que un conflicto moral tenga el carácter de ser un auténtico dilema moral (genuine moral dilemma y no simplemente un aparente dilema moral (apparent moral di- DILEMAS MORALES SANDRA REALPE Licenciada en Filosofía, Univalle, Maestría en Filosofía, Univalle, Diplomado en Psicología Aplicada, Universidad de Londres, Diplomado en Etica de los Negocios Universidad de Colorado, profesora Universidad Icesi, Facultad de Derecho y Humanidades. E-mail: sandrarealpe@hotmail.com lemma, ninguna de las obligaciones en conflicto es en efecto más fuerte o logra invalidar a la otra obligación. A raíz de un artículo escrito en 1962 por E. J. Lemmon, titulado precisamente “Dilemas morales” (Moral Dilemmas, se abrió un debate entre los filósofos anglosajones contemporáneos acerca de la existencia o no de los auténticos dilemas morales. Informar sobre este debate reciente, esclarecer los argumentos de sus principales protagonistas, y hacer presente en nuestro medio un novedoso debate que es importante para reflexionar sobre un buen número de problemas morales, son nuestros principales propósitos en el presente ensayo. ...

  19. Encountering the Everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , as sociologists, need to take everyday life seriously. This is the objective of this book. Encountering the Everyday: An Introduction to the Sociologies of the Unnoticed provides the first comprehensive and updated globally applicable introduction to everyday life sociology for many years. The contributors...... and the absurdists. Finally, a section deals with the most recent approaches such as the specifically Scandinavian everyday life perspectives, the sociology of emotions, social semiotics, cultural studies and postmodern interpretive interactionism. The chapters all accessibly introduce the reader to the ‘core......' of these traditions and perspectives and provide an entry-point for students and scholars alike into the world of the everyday. The book is edited by Michael Hviid Jacobsen, PhD, Associate Professor of Sociology and Director of Studies at Aalborg University, Denmark. He has previously published books on everyday life...

  20. Moral heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2005-08-01

    With respect to questions of fact, people use heuristics--mental short-cuts, or rules of thumb, that generally work well, but that also lead to systematic errors. People use moral heuristics too--moral short-cuts, or rules of thumb, that lead to mistaken and even absurd moral judgments. These judgments are highly relevant not only to morality, but to law and politics as well. examples are given from a number of domains, including risk regulation, punishment, reproduction and sexuality, and the act/omission distinction. in all of these contexts, rapid, intuitive judgments make a great deal of sense, but sometimes produce moral mistakes that are replicated in law and policy. One implication is that moral assessments ought not to be made by appealing to intuitions about exotic cases and problems; those intuitions are particularly unlikely to be reliable. Another implication is that some deeply held moral judgments are unsound if they are products of moral heuristics. The idea of error-prone heuristics is especially controversial in the moral domain, where agreement on the correct answer may be hard to elicit; but in many contexts, heuristics are at work and they do real damage. Moral framing effects, including those in the context of obligations to future generations, are also discussed.

  1. The Possibility of Inductive Moral Arguments | Nelson | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is it possible to have moral knowledge? 'Moral justification skeptics' hold it is not, because moral beliefs cannot have the sort of epistemic justification necessary for knowledge. This skeptical stance can be summed up in a single, neat argument, which includes the premise that 'Inductive arguments from non-moral premises ...

  2. Moral Hindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhut, Nadine; Meder, Björn; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    How are judgments in moral dilemmas affected by uncertainty, as opposed to certainty? We tested the predictions of a consequentialist and deontological account using a hindsight paradigm. The key result is a hindsight effect in moral judgment. Participants in foresight, for whom the occurrence of negative side effects was uncertain, judged actions to be morally more permissible than participants in hindsight, who knew that negative side effects occurred. Conversely, when hindsight participants knew that no negative side effects occurred, they judged actions to be more permissible than participants in foresight. The second finding was a classical hindsight effect in probability estimates and a systematic relation between moral judgments and probability estimates. Importantly, while the hindsight effect in probability estimates was always present, a corresponding hindsight effect in moral judgments was only observed among "consequentialist" participants who indicated a cost-benefit trade-off as most important for their moral evaluation.

  3. Moral vindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions. Philosophers can draw on these explanations, in some cases, in order to vindicate episodes of moral change. Explanations can support justifications by showing that they are not mere rationalizations. In addition, philosophical justifications are a fertile source for empirical hypotheses about the rational learning mechanisms that shape moral intuitions and emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Everyday Ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday...

  5. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  6. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  7. Beyond the Call of Beauty : Everyday Aesthetic Demands under Patriarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred; Ware, Lauren

    This paper defends two claims. First, we will argue for the existence of aesthetic demands in the realm of everyday aesthetics, and that these demands are not reducible to moral demands. Second, we will argue that we must recognise the limits of these demands in order to combat a widespread form of

  8. Moral emotions and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

    2007-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy.

  9. Nurse moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Roberta; Tramontano, Carlo; Paciello, Marinella; Kangasniemi, Mari; Sili, Alessandro; Bobbio, Andrea; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Ethics is a founding component of the nursing profession; however, nurses sometimes find it difficult to constantly adhere to the required ethical standards. There is limited knowledge about the factors that cause a committed nurse to violate standards; moral disengagement, originally developed by Bandura, is an essential variable to consider. This study aimed at developing and validating a nursing moral disengagement scale and investigated how moral disengagement is associated with counterproductive and citizenship behaviour at work. The research comprised a qualitative study and a quantitative study, combining a cross-validation approach and a structural equation model. A total of 60 Italian nurses (63% female) involved in clinical work and enrolled as students in a postgraduate master's programme took part in the qualitative study. In 2012, the researchers recruited 434 nurses (76% female) from different Italian hospitals using a convenience sampling method to take part in the quantitative study. All the organisations involved and the university gave ethical approval; all respondents participated on a voluntary basis and did not receive any form of compensation. The nursing moral disengagement scale comprised a total of 22 items. Results attested the mono-dimensionality of the scale and its good psychometric properties. In addition, results highlighted a significant association between moral disengagement and both counterproductive and citizenship behaviours. Results showed that nurses sometimes resort to moral disengagement in their daily practice, bypassing moral and ethical codes that would normally prevent them from enacting behaviours that violate their norms and protocols. The nursing moral disengagement scale can complement personnel monitoring and assessment procedures already in place and provide additional information to nursing management for designing interventions aimed at increasing compliance with ethical codes by improving the quality of the

  10. Socrates the Moral Reformist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Shafi Beik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Socrates is in search of a specific knowledge that by achieving it, one would both realize the moral virtues and practically become virtuous. Based on morality on knowledge, Socrates unifies his philosophy with his way of life, and discovers a criterion by which he could criticize the customary morality, religion, politics, and rhetoric of the Greeks, and expose their moral defects. The common defects that are the subjects of his moral examination and rectification include: the belief that committing injustice is better than suffering it; revenge and reciprocation (the lex talionis: a gift for a gift and an evil for an evil; popular piety based on the belief in the deceit and strife among gods, and deceitfulness and callousness of the gods towards human beings, and commercial transaction between gods and humankind (i.e. gods’ receiving sacrificial gifts from human beings in exchange for providing their needs; allowing the superordinate to exploit the subordinate; and lastly, the method of persuasive and deceitful rhetoric.

  11. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed......, they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  12. Every Kind of Everyday...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Lusty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of Michael Sheringham, Everyday Life: Theories and Practices from Surrealism to the Present (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006 and Kathleen Stewart, Ordinary Affects (Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2007

  13. Moral Development, HIV/AIDS Knowledge, and Attitude toward HIV/AIDS among Counseling Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, J. Richelle; Foster, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS will likely require services from mental health professionals to address the complex psychosocial effects of the illness. In the United States, counseling students are not likely to be well prepared to serve clients affected by HIV/AIDS, and little is known about their HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. The present…

  14. Educating Moral Emotions: A Praxiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce; Reichenbach, Roland

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a praxiological analysis of three everyday educational practices or strategies that can be considered as being directed at the moral formation of the emotions. The first consists in requests to imagine other's emotional reactions. The second comprises requests to imitate normative emotional reactions and the third to…

  15. Conversing on Ethics, Morality and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    In philosophical use, "ethics" and "moral philosophy" are more closely synonymous--one deriving from Greek, "ethike" and the other from Latin "moralis." In typical social science paradigms, there generally prevails a consensual sense of contemporary everyday use of "ethics," except where earlier…

  16. Moral transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2010-12-01

    In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens.

  17. Walking the Everyday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bissen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, @matthewalking (Bissen, 2013 has published real-time public texts of walks in the city. This text-based Twitter feed has developed a narrative of a particular everyday life and developed a space of interface with others that represents a centering of perspective within an urban landscape. Walking the city provides a spatial, tactile, social, and embodied knowledge of the environment as each of us emerges into a space, orients ourselves, and determines a path that is highly localized, but is in connection with distant spaces and cultures. According to Ben Jacks in “Walking the City: Manhattan Projects,” “for urban dwellers and designers, walking is a fundamental tool for laying claim to, understanding, and shaping a livable city. Walking yields bodily knowing, recovers place memory, creates narrative, prioritizes human scale, and reconnects people to places” (75. @matthewalking’s walks, at times for as long as 5 hours, attempt to center an experience of an urban existence in a spatial narrative of the city that at once prioritizes a connection to place, but also is projected outward into a mediated relationship with others. The project is a series of unbounded walks, or dérives (drift, through the city that are logged on Twitter and traced to create an archive map of a set of particular urban experiences. The dérive concept as outlined in “The Theory of the Dérive,” by Guy Debord is when “one or more persons during a certain period drop their relations, their work and leisure activities, and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there” (62.

  18. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  19. Individual Moral Development and Moral Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  20. Mathematics in everyday life

    CERN Document Server

    Haigh, John

    2016-01-01

    How does mathematics impact everyday events? The purpose of this book is to show a range of examples where mathematics can be seen at work in everyday life. From money (APR, mortgage repayments, personal finance), simple first and second order ODEs, sport and games (tennis, rugby, athletics, darts, tournament design, soccer, snooker), business (stock control, linear programming, check digits, promotion policies, investment), the social sciences (voting methods, Simpson’s Paradox, drug testing, measurements of inequality) to TV game shows and even gambling (lotteries, roulette, poker, horse racing), the mathematics behind commonplace events is explored. Fully worked examples illustrate the ideas discussed and each chapter ends with a collection of exercises. Everyday Mathematics supports other first year modules by giving students extra practice in working with calculus, linear algebra, geometry, trigonometry and probability. Secondary/high school level mathematics is all that is required for students to und...

  1. Everyday Struggels with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Schwartz, Sander Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Technology has not only become an integral part of people’s lives but also of people’s everyday struggles. Struggles with technology are complex in nature; we tend to not only struggle with their basic functions but also with how they make us feel. During the course of our life we tend to master...... and struggle with technology in different ways. This struggle has been studied in relation to media literacy (Livingstone, 2004), to domestication theory (Silverstone et al. 1992), or in everyday life (Bakardjieva, 2005). This work enhances these lines of studies by exploring everyday struggles with technology...... from a life stage (Erikson, 1959) point of view. In particular, we explore what are common struggles people have with technology and what are distinct struggles in relation to life stages. In conclusion, we will present our findings by outlining what we call ‘technological biographies’. Those...

  2. Freud's psychoanalysis: a moral cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-08-01

    That psychoanalytical treatment in its classical Freudian sense is primarily a moral or ethical cure is not a very controversial claim. However, it is far from obvious how we are to understand precisely the moral character of psychoanalysis. It has frequently been proposed that this designation is valid because psychoanalysis strives neither to cure psychological symptoms pharmaceutically, nor to superficially modify the behaviour of the analysand, but to lead the analysand through an interpretive process during which he gradually gains knowledge of the unconscious motives that determine his behaviour, a process that might ideally liberate him to obtain, in relation to his inner desires, the status of a moral agent. There resides something appealing in these claims. But it is the author's belief that there is an even deeper moral dimension applying to psychoanalytical theory and praxis. Freudian psychoanalysis is a moral cure due to its way of thematizing psychological suffering as moral suffering. And this means that the moral subject - the being that can experience moral suffering - is not primarily something that the psychoanalytical treatment strives to realize, but rather the presupposition for the way in which psychoanalysis theorizes psychological problems as such. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  3. Interventions in everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so in their eve......The purpose of psychotherapy is to help clients address and overcome problems troubling them in their everyday lives. Therapy can therefore only work if clients include it in their ongoing lives to deal with their problems. Detailed, systematic research is needed on how clients do so...

  4. Geometry in everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Graumann, Günter; Blum, Werner

    1989-01-01

    My conception of "practice-oriented-mathematical-education", which must be seen as one point of view side-by-side with others, has the aim to qualify pupils to master life and is based on a method of working on problems which are true to life. Therefore I plead for geometry teaching, where the formation of sound geometric concepts and the relevance of applications of geometry in everyday life is important. After discussing this conception a schedule of activities of everyday life where geomet...

  5. Learning from moral inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richmond

    2017-10-01

    Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency. The same psychological process also can function to revise current moral norms when their straightforward applications are morally inconsistent with more basic moral commitments. Through this moral learning and related kinds, people can learn how to identify issues of moral priority when moral norms conflict and, when necessary, how to revise their moral norms. The recent revolution in dominant moral norms around gay sex and gay marriage in Europe and North America provides a possible illustration. When coupled with other modes of moral learning in the context of ambiguous but deeply rooted moral norms, such as those of sanctity and authority, reflection on moral inconsistency can help to justify this large-scale moral change, even among those who find gay sex, by its nature, morally repugnant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lessons in Everyday Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Kit

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents and discusses some of the lessons she has learned in everyday leadership. It's the kind of leadership one learns when he or she doesn't expect it--and the kind of lessons one teaches when he or she doesn't even know he or she is doing it.

  7. Grief and everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2016-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how everyday practices among parents who suffer the loss of a child include the use of both analogue and digital means, both established media and materialities occasionally functioning as media in order to create meaning-making relations to the dead child, the bereaved ...

  8. MORALE Assignment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carienvt

    and mental well-being of a person, relieves stress, improves resilience and enables .... Practical, everyday matters of survival and personal well-being .... Working conditions. The military environment is characterised by challenging conditions. 'Battle fatigue' is a term often used to describe the point where a person's ...

  9. Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahel, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)

  10. Tax Morale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Monica Singhal

    2014-01-01

    ... literature on tax compliance and the administration of tax policy. While tax administrators are obviously concerned about enforcement, they also tend to place a great deal of emphasis on improving tax morale, by which they generally mean increasing voluntary compliance with tax laws and creating a social norm of compliance. The OECD (2001), f...

  11. MORALE Assignment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carienvt

    Another problematic situation in war occurs when the enemy identified by the political leaders of the state is not perceived as the enemy by the soldiers in battle. In the Vietnam War, this was a major problem. As anti-war sentiments in the. United States grew, US troops' morale dropped dramatically, even to the extent.

  12. Fruits of Knowledge: Polemics, Humour and Moral Education in the Writings of Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain, Lila Majumdar and Nabaneeta Dev Sen

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses literary sources, by three women writing in Bengali, from c.1900 to contemporary times. These writings offer far more complex, heterogeneous, innovative and creative strategies for the shaping, reform and moral education of subjects, than have hitherto been recognised. Authors focused on in the article are Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (1880-1932), Lila Majumdar (1908-2007) and Nabaneeta Dev Sen (1938-). “Moral education” and “reform” have tended to carry with them a stereotypic...

  13. Moral sensitivity in Primary Health Care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida M

    2017-04-01

    to characterize the profile and describe the moral sensitivity of primary health care nurses. this is a quantitative, transversal, exploratory, descriptive study. The data were collected through the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire translated and adapted to Brazil. 100 primary health care nurses participated, from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data collection took place during the months of March and July 2016, in an online form. The analysis of the data occurred through descriptive statistical analysis. the nurses had an average moral sensitivity of 4.5 (out of 7). The dimensions with the greatest moral sensitivity were: interpersonal orientation, professional knowledge, moral conflict and moral meaning. the nurses of Rio Grande do Sul have a moderate moral sensitivity, which may contribute to a lower quality in Primary Health Care.

  14. Stuck in a Moral Prison: Exploring the Roots of Why Indonesian Students Moralize Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E. Donelson-Sims

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a belief in Indonesian culture, held by educators and students, that literature teaches morals. While learning literature offers a potential benefit, a problem arises when instilling and/or recycling moral knowledge is recognized as the only reason to learn literature. When identifying established morals becomes the stopping point, other elements may be ignored, such as critical thinking, culture, history, perspectives, and marginalization. Four literature lecturers and seven students were interviewed. Data revealed all participants had varying definitions of “morals,” leading to potential classroom confusion. All participants agreed morals ought to be considered, but only the (majority of students identified them as the most important in literary study. Additionally, not all students enjoyed finding morals; some were rather bored by examining morals. Lastly, most participants believed Indonesian culture and education contributes to the habit of searching for morals, and valuing them at the expense of other learning benefits.

  15. Human values and moral exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goodale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses empirical data from the anthropology of human rights and the ethics of everyday life to examine the relationship between dominant value frames, moral action, and the rise of ‘counter-humanities’ in the form of cultural identitarianism, racial and class-based nationalism, apocalyptic theologies, and nativist populism. This article focuses, in particular, on the emergence and growing power of the value frame of human rights in the post-Cold War period and argues that the more recent spread of violent movements based in forms of moral exclusion was an ironic consequence of the power of human rights. After considering, and then rejecting, the possibility that citizenship can stand in for ‘humanity’ as a more sustainable value frame, the article concludes with an argument for the promise of a post-utopian solidarity inspired by the humanism of Montaigne and More and the pluralism of Berlin.

  16. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  17. Neurocomputational model of moral behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alessio

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim.

  18. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about resistance in everyday life, illustrated through empirical contexts from different parts of the world. Resistance is a widespread phenomenon in biological, social and psychological domains of human cultural development. Yet, it is not well articulated in the academic literature...... and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  19. The psychiatric report as moral tool: a case study in a French district court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fabrice; Lézé, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Mental health evaluation within a legal setting is widely seen as a power to judge. The aim of this paper is to challenge this current thesis, which was popularised by Michel Foucault, who encapsulated the notion in a brief sentence: "The sordid business of punishing is thus converted into the fine profession of curing" (Foucault, 2003: 23). On the basis of an ethnography of a French district court (between September 2008 and May 2009, n = 60 trials) including interviews with judges (n = 10) and psychiatrists (n = 10), we study the everyday penal treatment of sexual offenders using psychiatric reports. Our findings show how (i.) the expectations of the judges select the psychiatrists' skills (based on the following criteria for their reports: accessibility of knowledge, singularization and individualization of content) and (ii.) reframe the psychiatric report as a moral tool. The clinical reasoning of forensic psychiatrists in their reports offer moral affordances due to their clinical caution regarding the risk of recidivism (therapeutic and criminological reversal, moral prevention). Both the judges' evaluation and the psychiatrists' clinical authority are shaped by a moral economy of dangerousness, which eclipses the idea of lack of criminal responsibility. In conclusion, we show that these unintended effects are necessarily of interest to most clinical practitioners engaged in work as expert witnesses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Trampe

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+ and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1 connector emotions (e.g., joy, which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2 provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude, which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3 distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment, which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  1. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  2. Being anorexic: hunger, subjectivity, and embodied morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2008-09-01

    This article explores the embodied process of being anorexic and the moral repertoires within which this process is entangled. The point of departure for this discussion is that, while critical feminist epistemology plays an important role in politicizing anorexia as a symbolic cluster of meanings, it has provided us with limited analytical tools for an in-depth understanding of an anorexic's lived experiences and of the embodied realities involved in being anorexic. At the same time, autobiographical accounts of anorexia provide insightful emic perspectives on being anorexic but are not engaged with symbolic and theoretical etic perspectives on anorexia. This article attempts to bridge this gap through an anthropological exploration of anorexia from within; that is, as a situated embodied knowledge of anorexic women anchored in concrete lived experiences. Findings from an ethnographic study of young women who were diagnosed with anorexia and admitted to an outpatient hospital unit in Israel suggest that anorexic women actively construct a "heroic moral subjectivity," in which the experience of hunger plays a crucial role, and in which everyday (mundane) practices gain "out-of-the-ordinary" meanings. While these findings partially accord with feminist philosophical explorations of anorexia, I argue that it is only via a detailed ethnographic account that we can follow the ongoing phenomenological and semiotic process through which such heroic subjectivity actually develops. Using an anthropological perspective to bear on the phenomenology of anorexia as an embodied experience contributes toward extending our understanding of the concrete ways in which "culture" becomes present in anorexia. The concluding section discusses gaps between feminist and anorexic narratives of anorexia in terms of therapeutic encounters.

  3. Diagnosing dementia: Ethnography, interactional ethics and everyday moral reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights the contribution of ethnography and qualitative sociology to the ethical challenges that frame the diagnosis of dementia. To illustrate this contribution, the paper draws on an ethnographic study of UK memory clinics carried out between 2012 and 2014. The ethnographic data, set alongside other studies and sociological theory, contest the promotion of a traditional view of autonomy; the limiting of the point of ethical interest to a distinct moment of diagnosis disclosu...

  4. Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Erzo F.P. Luttmer; Singhal, Monica

    2014-01-01

    There is an apparent disconnect between much of the academic literature on tax compliance and the administration of tax policy. In the benchmark economic model, the key policy parameters affecting tax evasion are the tax rate, the detection probability, and the penalty imposed conditional on the evasion being detected. Meanwhile, tax administrators also tend to place a great deal of emphasis on the importance of improving "tax morale," by which they generally mean increasing voluntary complia...

  5. From Folk Morality to Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peikani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to our terminology, the mechanism people follow in moral judgments, which is far from the sayings and rules of moral philosophers, is folk morality. Above all, people in moral judgments regard human moral capacity and do not expect full morality of any one. People suppose that perfect moral life is an ideal which is beyond human abilities. This hidden presupposition forms the foundation of human moral behavior. On the other hand, it seems that the moral systems originating from moral philosophy have been constructed a priori and, assuming a perfect man, they expect people to become such a person. It seems that it is necessary for moral philosophers to change their way and begin speculation with respect to people’s moral capacities. In this paper, we argue that minimal ethical speculation increases the level of morality in society. The basis of this turn is new progresses and findings in the field of psychology and the connection between psychology and moral philosophy a connection which will be more and more important for moral philosophers parallel to scientific progresses. Of course, this is an immature idea and therefore confronts with some critiques.

  6. Wikipedians’ Knowledge and Moral Duties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer erkendelsesteoretiske og etiske forpligtelser i Wikipedias Neutral Point of View (NPOV) politik. Analyserne afslører revner i NPOV politikkens konceptuelle fundament i forhold til begreber som mening, fakta, viden, sikkerhed, tvivl, og kognitiv autoritet. Ydermere diskuterer...... artiklen NPOV politikkens etiske position som antagende en absolutistisk kerne og etisk relativisme ved kanterne. Artiklen konkluderer, at Wikipedia burde genkonceptualisere og omskrive NPOV politikken og erkende, at videns lokalitet er væsentligt, at de sprogspil Wikipedianere er en del af er væsentlige...

  7. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  8. Moral Resilience: Managing and Preventing Moral Distress and Moral Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Vicki D

    2016-01-01

    Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity. They know it does not come without pain of dealing with adversity, but they believe the virtue of moral courage is necessary to meet the ethical obligations of their profession (ANA, 2015b).

  9. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Problem Solving across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Does Formal Environmental Knowledge Inform the Everyday ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental literacy is essentially the capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and ..... Copenhagen: Research Centre for Environmental and Health Education. Jensen, B. & Schnack, K. (1997). The action competence approach in Environmental Education. Environmental Education ...

  11. Structuring the self: Moral implications of getting an ADHD diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    2017-01-01

    : In this article, I examine experiences of getting an ADHD diagnosis in adulthood. I illustrate how getting an ADHD diagnosis is a process in which existential questions are raised; judgements and choices are made; and everyday practices are scrutinized, evaluated and changed. Inspired......) the trial where moral judgements are made; 2) the workshop where practices are cultivated; and 3) the moral laboratory where everyday experiments are carried out. In closing, I will briefly discuss the societal conditions for how diagnoses have become carriers of self-understandings....

  12. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  13. Nurses' moral experiences of assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, James; Wright, David Kenneth; Paradis, Maude

    2016-01-01

    Legislative changes are resulting in assisted death as an option for people at the end of life. Although nurses' experiences and perspectives are underrepresented within broader ethical discourses about assisted death, there is a small but significant body of literature examining nurses' experiences of caring for people who request this option. To synthesize what has been learned about nurses' experiences of caring for patients who request assisted death and to highlight what is morally at stake for nurses who undertake this type of care. Qualitative meta-synthesis. Six databases were searched: CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, Joanna Briggs Institute, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. The search was completed on 22 October 2014 and updated in February 2016. Of 879 articles identified from the database searches, 16 articles were deemed relevant based on inclusion criteria. Following quality appraisal, 14 studies were retained for analysis and synthesis. The moral experience of the nurse is (1) defined by a profound sense of responsibility, (2) shaped by contextual forces that nurses navigate in everyday end-of-life care practice, and (3) sustained by intra-team moral and emotional support. The findings of this synthesis support the view that nurses are moral agents who are deeply invested in the moral integrity of end-of-life care involving assisted death. The findings further demonstrate that to fully appreciate the ethics of assisted death from a nursing standpoint, it is necessary to understand the broader constraints on nurses' moral agency that operate in everyday end-of-life care. Ethical considerations: Research ethics board approval was not required for this synthesis of previously published literature. In order to understand how to enact ethical practice in the area of assisted death, the moral experiences of nurses should be investigated and foregrounded.

  14. Sleep and moral awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

    2015-01-01

    The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness...

  15. Fruits of Knowledge: Polemics, Humour and Moral Education in the Writings of Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain, Lila Majumdar and Nabaneeta Dev Sen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses literary sources, by three women writing in Bengali, from c.1900 to contemporary times. These writings offer far more complex, heterogeneous, innovative and creative strategies for the shaping, reform and moral education of subjects, than have hitherto been recognised. Authors

  16. Contextual and Perceptual Brain Processes Underlying Moral Cognition: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human morality has been investigated using a variety of tasks ranging from judgments of hypothetical dilemmas to viewing morally salient stimuli. These experiments have provided insight into neural correlates of moral judgments and emotions, yet these approaches reveal important differences in moral cognition. Moral reasoning tasks require active deliberation while moral emotion tasks involve the perception of stimuli with moral implications. We examined convergent and divergent brain activity associated with these experimental paradigms taking a quantitative meta-analytic approach. Data Source A systematic search of the literature yielded 40 studies. Studies involving explicit decisions in a moral situation were categorized as active (n = 22); studies evoking moral emotions were categorized as passive (n = 18). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Activation Likelihood Estimation to determine reliable patterns of brain activity. Results & Conclusions Results revealed a convergent pattern of reliable brain activity for both task categories in regions of the default network, consistent with the social and contextual information processes supported by this brain network. Active tasks revealed more reliable activity in the temporoparietal junction, angular gyrus and temporal pole. Active tasks demand deliberative reasoning and may disproportionately involve the retrieval of social knowledge from memory, mental state attribution, and construction of the context through associative processes. In contrast, passive tasks reliably engaged regions associated with visual and emotional information processing, including lingual gyrus and the amygdala. A laterality effect was observed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with active tasks engaging the left, and passive tasks engaging the right. While overlapping activity patterns suggest a shared neural network for both tasks, differential activity suggests that processing of

  17. Contextual and perceptual brain processes underlying moral cognition: a quantitative meta-analysis of moral reasoning and moral emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Gunes; Spreng, R Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Human morality has been investigated using a variety of tasks ranging from judgments of hypothetical dilemmas to viewing morally salient stimuli. These experiments have provided insight into neural correlates of moral judgments and emotions, yet these approaches reveal important differences in moral cognition. Moral reasoning tasks require active deliberation while moral emotion tasks involve the perception of stimuli with moral implications. We examined convergent and divergent brain activity associated with these experimental paradigms taking a quantitative meta-analytic approach. A systematic search of the literature yielded 40 studies. Studies involving explicit decisions in a moral situation were categorized as active (n = 22); studies evoking moral emotions were categorized as passive (n = 18). We conducted a coordinate-based meta-analysis using the Activation Likelihood Estimation to determine reliable patterns of brain activity. Results revealed a convergent pattern of reliable brain activity for both task categories in regions of the default network, consistent with the social and contextual information processes supported by this brain network. Active tasks revealed more reliable activity in the temporoparietal junction, angular gyrus and temporal pole. Active tasks demand deliberative reasoning and may disproportionately involve the retrieval of social knowledge from memory, mental state attribution, and construction of the context through associative processes. In contrast, passive tasks reliably engaged regions associated with visual and emotional information processing, including lingual gyrus and the amygdala. A laterality effect was observed in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, with active tasks engaging the left, and passive tasks engaging the right. While overlapping activity patterns suggest a shared neural network for both tasks, differential activity suggests that processing of moral input is affected by task demands. The results provide novel

  18. Can Kant Have an Account of Moral Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kate A.

    2009-01-01

    There is an apparent tension between Immanuel Kant's model of moral agency and his often-neglected philosophy of moral education. On the one hand, Kant's account of moral knowledge and decision-making seems to be one that can be self-taught. Kant's famous categorical imperative and related "fact of reason" argument suggest that we learn the…

  19. Evolution, Moral Justification, and Moral Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Peters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Does evolutionary theory have the potential to undermine morality? In his book The Evolution of Morality, Richard Joyce (2006 argues for a positive answer. He contends that an evolutionary account of morality would undermine moral judgements and lend support to moral scepticism. I offer a critique of Joyce’s argument. As it turns out, his case can be read in two different ways. It could be construed as an argument to establish a general scepticism about the justification of moral judgements. Or it could be read as an argument that targets only a particular meta-ethical position, namely moral realism. My claim is that it fails on both interpretations. There is no reason to believe that evolutionary considerations undermine morality.

  20. The Geography of the Everyday

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Robert Edward

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with the premise that the everyday is constitutionally elusive, a mobile structure is formulated and then deployed to, if not capture the everyday, at least corner it. Using Ian Hacking's notion that a formidable analytical apparatus could be created using Erving Goffman's "bottom-up" micro-sociology in combination with Michel Foucault's "top-down" macro-critique, a comprehensive approach is constructed to track the feints and parries of the everyday. This analytical apparatus is ex...

  1. Ethics and the Computer: Children's Development of Moral Reasoning about Computer and Internet Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnam, Bruce; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study of third and fifth grade students that investigated moral dilemmas involving computer and Internet use. Significant differences were found between children's moral reasoning in everyday situations compared to those involving computer and Internet use, but gender differences were not consistently detected. (Author/LRW)

  2. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  3. Everyday-Oriented Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munnecke, Max

    The exploration of radical innovation has long been regarded as fundamental to business growth. In the 21st century, modern organisations increasingly seek to combine business innovation with the broader goal to confront social and environmental challenges. Vision projects are related phenomena...... which explore and map radical innovation opportunities within everyday activities. The aim of a vision project is to produce an innovation map that can empower an organisation to navigate between potential innovation opportunities and pro‐actively confront modern challenges for the benefit of people......, business, and society. The study addresses the concern that vision projects do not produce sufficient navigational innovation maps, and seeks to improve their quality by modelling a new methodological framework. The study was conducted as a series of four research cycles which modelled and experimented...

  4. Everyday Language Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazume, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Itho, Noriko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Fujishiro, Hiroko; Sugeno, Michio

    The aim of this study is to provide all people, from small children to aged persons, with a computational environment for everyday language communication. In order to achieve this, we propose a framework for a language-based operating system. In this paper, we explain our approach to dealing with the meaning of language, the architecture of the language operating system and its components. In particular, we describe the notion of language protocol and its resource representation (i.e., semiotic base), compared to the other protocols and their resource representations. We argue that by processing meaning of language rather than processing information, we attempt to provide a more human-like computer system and an intelligent computational environment to all people.

  5. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Why be moral? Children's explicit motives for prosocial-moral action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengsavang, Sonia; Willemsen, Kayleen; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on young children's morality has stressed the autonomous and internal nature of children's moral motivation. However, this research has mostly focused on implicit moral motives, whereas children's explicit motives have not been investigated directly. This study examined children's explicit motives for why they want to engage in prosocial actions and avoid antisocial behavior. A total of 195 children aged 4-12 years were interviewed about their motives for everyday prosocial-moral actions, as well as reported on their relationship with their parents. Children's explicit motives to abstain from antisocial behavior were found to be more external and less other-oriented than their motives for prosocial action. Motives that reflected higher levels of internal motivation became more frequent with age. Moreover, positive parent-child relationships predicted more other-oriented motives and greater explication of moral motives. Overall, the study provides evidence that children's explicit moral motivation is far more heterogeneous than prominent theories of moral development (past and present) suggest.

  7. Why Be Moral? Children's Explicit Motives for Prosocial-Moral Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eSengsavang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on young children's morality has stressed the autonomous and internal nature of children's moral motivation. However, this research has mostly focused on implicit moral motives, whereas children's explicit motives have not been investigated directly. This study examined children’s explicit motives for why they want to engage in prosocial actions and avoid antisocial behavior. A total of 195 children aged 4 to 12 years were interviewed about their motives for everyday prosocial-moral actions, as well as reported on their relationship with their parents. Children's explicit motives to abstain from antisocial behavior were found to be more external and less other-oriented than their motives for prosocial action. Motives that reflected higher levels of internal motivation became more frequent with age. Moreover, positive parent-child relationships predicted more other-oriented motives and greater explication of moral motives. Overall, the study provides evidence that children’s explicit moral motivation is far more heterogeneous than prominent theories of moral development (past and present suggest.

  8. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  9. IS MORALITY AN ILLUSION?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    with whom a moral agent shared his or her social space. ... dresses this issue through the re-examination of the meaning of morality, as well as that of ethics. It ex- ...... Physics, Book II; 1-4. Barcalow, E., 1994. Moral Philosophy. California: Wordsworth. Battersby, C., 1978. “Morality and the Ik.” Philos ophy. 53, 201-214.

  10. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  11. Domestic Violence as Everyday Terrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Cunningham, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society.......Seeing bride kidnapping and domestic violence as everyday terrorism unpacks the political nature of so-called “private” phenomena and how they reify patriarchal society....

  12. Taking a Common-Sense Approach to Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines how one veteran high school teacher wrote up an everyday moral dilemma (obliquely involving drug trafficking) for his students to discuss and solve. Notes problem-solving steps and questions, and how the students worked their way to a solution through discussion. (SR)

  13. Amoral, im/moral and dis/loyal: Children's moral status in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Zlatana

    2017-11-01

    This article is a discursive examination of children's status as knowledgeable moral agents within the Swedish child welfare system and in the widely used assessment framework BBIC. Departing from Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice, three discursive positions of children's moral status are identified: amoral, im/moral and dis/loyal. The findings show the undoubtedly moral child as largely missing and children's agency as diminished, deviant or rendered ambiguous. Epistemic injustice applies particularly to disadvantaged children with difficult experiences who run the risk of being othered, or positioned as reproducing or accommodating to the very same social problems they may be victimised by.

  14. Avaliação do conhecimento popular e práticas cotidianas em saúde bucal Evaluate of popular knowledge and everyday practices in oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Unfer

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento popular e as práticas cotidianas em saúde bucal de usuários de serviços públicos de saúde. MÉTODOS: A população estudada foi selecionada a partir de uma amostra estratificada de usuários que procuraram atendimento nas unidades sanitárias da zona urbana de Santa Maria, RS. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada e organizados em conjuntos de categorias descritivas, permitindo sua distribuição em tabela de freqüência. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que predominam usuários entre 21 e 40 anos de idade, do sexo feminino e com padrão socioeconômico baixo. A busca pela saúde e o controle das doenças bucais são atribuídos à responsabilidade individual de realizar a higiene bucal e procurar tratamento dentário. A presença e os benefícios do flúor no creme dental e na água de beber não foram reconhecidos pela população estudada. CONCLUSÕES: Os programas de saúde devem considerar os aspectos relativos ao conhecimento e as práticas em saúde bucal, para viabilizar o processo de capacitação da população e promover a responsabilização coletiva da promoção da saúde em todos os níveis da sociedade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the popular knowledge and everyday practices in oral health of public services' users. METHODS: The target population was selected from a stratified sample and included users seeking medical care in health care units in Santa Maria - RS. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview and organized into descriptive categories groups, allowing the distribution in a frequency table. RESULTS: It was verified the predominance of the age group between 21 to 40 years old and females. The socioeconomic pattern is characterized by low schooling and family income. The search for oral diseases control are due to individual awareness of the need of oral hygiene and dental care; fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water and its benefits were not known

  15. Smartphones and hyper everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Amigo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some results from our research on technological media convergence and everyday life. The results suggest that new changes would be happening on the space-temporal dimension of daily experience on people and in the way in which those give stability, structure and meaning to the intersubjective world, as a consequence of uses, appropriations and meanings about smartphones. We propose the concept of enriched everyday life or hyper everyday life in order to explain what we consider one of the principal transformations in daily life to people in the contemporary world related to the incorporation of smartphones.

  16. Alcohol Dependence Associated with Increased Utilitarian Moral Judgment: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas. PMID:22761922

  17. Alcohol dependence associated with increased utilitarian moral judgment: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas.

  18. Altered moral decision-making in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Rott, Elisa; Ebersbach, Georg; Kalbe, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Moral decision-making essentially contributes to social conduct. Although patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show deficits in (non-moral) decision making and related neuropsychological functions, i.e. executive functions, theory of mind (ToM), and empathy, moral decision-making has rarely been examined in PD patients. We examined possible alterations of moral decision-making and associated functions in PD. Twenty non-demented PD patients and 23 age- and education-matched healthy control participants were examined with tests that assess reasoning, executive functions (set-shifting and planning), ToM and empathy, decision-making under risk, and moral intuitions. Moral decision-making was assessed with a close-to-everyday moral dilemma paradigm that opposes socially oriented "altruistic" choices to self-beneficial "egoistic" choices in 20 moral dilemma short stories (10 high and 10 low emotional). Concurrently, electrodermal activity was recorded. PD patients made more egoistic moral decisions than healthy controls. Remarkably, while reasoning, planning and empathy correlated with moral decision-making in the control group, in the PD group neuropsychological functions and dopaminergic medication did not correlate with moral decisions. No evidence for reduced skin conductance responses in PD patients and no relationships between skin conductance responses and moral decisions were observed. This study provides evidence for moral decision-making dysfunctions in PD patients who made more egoistic moral decisions. As a possible underlying mechanism, reduced exercise of attentional control due to a dysfunctional interplay between the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia is discussed. Future research will have to determine the impact of PD patients' moral decision-making dysfunctions on everyday life and further determine correlates of the deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Searching for Ethics and Responsibility in Everyday Life Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2014-01-01

    Living an everyday life among other people entails evaluating their behavior according to our own ideas about what is right and wrong – good or bad. And living according to our own ethics in a mobile risk society entails ambivalences and opens up the issue of responsibility. This article discusses...... how moral and ethical considerations are always part of individual’s interaction with others, exemplified through the experiences of being a cyclist in Copenhagen. The article finalizes by touching upon the role of social sciences whom for a long time has learned to ignore or reject ethical and thus...

  20. Reflexive fatherhood in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at fathering practices in Denmark, using the findings from a research project on everyday family life in Denmark. It takes a social psychological perspective and employs discursive psychology and theories about reflexive modernisation. It shows how fathers orient towards intimacy...... this analysis and discussion, the article offers a way to understand the complexities of fathering in everyday life from the perspective of fathers....

  1. [Neuroethics (I): moral pathways in normal brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2014-03-01

    Morality is made of rules and values that guide human behavior. They barely change among different cultures. Social accomplishments are the result of moral development, due to a taint of fairness which pervades any human activity. The moral functions are the consequence of evolution and have their own specific neural circuits. To describe their appearance, starting and underlying mechanisms in the normal brain. Moral responses are basically homogeneous. They are linked to the emotional development, as much basic and individual (fear, wrath) as social (compassion, justice). Their emergence is the result of the emotional dichotomies pleasure/pain and reward/punishment, which lead to the basic moral dichotomy good/bad. For their working it is required the running of the prefrontal cortex (ventromedian and dorsolateral), the anterior cingular cortex and the superior temporal sulcus, that asses and elaborate and utilitarian moral response; and also the insula, the amygdale and the hypothalamus, that perform a quicker and emotionally rooted response. In addition, the mirror neuronal system (fronto-parietal) enables motor learning and empathy, linking this factor to the theory of mind. Moral sense and its responses underlay the complex social development that humans have reached and enjoyed. Thus opens ways for improving benefits in human groups and individuals alike. In addition, the knowledge of the normal function of the moral circuits is permeating and influencing the many areas of neuroculture.

  2. Human morality and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  3. Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Michelle; Helms, Niels Henrik; Dræbel, Tania Aase

    2016-01-01

    Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning: Students knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories in a range of professional bachelor educations Helms, N.H., Vestbo, M., Steenfeldt, V.O., Dræbel, T.A., Hansen, T.A.E., Storm, H., and Schmidt, L.S.K. (University College Zealand...... and epistemic machines. In this panel, we will unfold three subprojects representing different educational contexts and research approaches: Lived experiences of clinical training Vibeke Østergaard Steenfeldt Within the framework of life world phenomenology, this study examines nursing students’ lived...... experiences of their clinical training. The purpose is to develop knowledge about how transformation, translation and application of professional knowledge are incorporated during clinical training programmes. Data is generated by narrative interviews with nursing students four weeks after the beginning...

  4. Moral Education as Intercultural Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2018-01-01

    In a diverse country such as Peru, moral education should reflect social, cultural, political and spiritual dilemmas of both indigenous and non-indigenous peoples and their communities. To promote understanding and respect amongst people from different sociocultural backgrounds, moral education should encourage a dialogue between indigenous values…

  5. Moral Appearances: Emotions, Robots, and Human Morality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Can we build ‘moral robots’? If morality depends on emotions, the answer seems negative. Current robots do not meet standard necessary conditions for having emotions: they lack consciousness, mental states, and feelings. Moreover, it is not even clear how we might ever establish whether robots

  6. 'Promising spaces': Universities' critical-moral mission and educative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by contemporary utopian studies the paper brings together traditional ideas about how transmitting university knowledge connects to universities' critical-moral functions; Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach adapted for education; and Bernstein's theories about knowledge distribution.

  7. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. The Moral University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moral University examines the ways that universities act morally toward students, faculty, their communities and the nation. It considers the effectiveness of moral reasoning courses in the curriculum and the growth of leadership courses. The book deals with the myriad ways in which universities act positively toward their communities. It also…

  9. Moral Education and Caring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)

  10. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  11. The Management of Difference in Everyday School Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Martha

    2015-01-01

    for participation. Our goal is to create knowledge about the way difference is constructed and managed in schools. How is the concept of ‘difference’ conceived of, produced and reproduced through everyday practices and how is the management of difference embedded in school culture. Further our goal is to create...... knowledge about the consequences that occur for different students as a result of specific ways of managing differences by teachers.......The paper will present and discuss our field study of everyday life in a Danish fifth grade classroom. Our aim has been to observe, describe and analyze those everyday practices in the classroom that ultimately result in offering students different positions, identities and opportunities...

  12. Connecting science to everyday experiences in preschool settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Anita

    2014-06-01

    In this paper I discuss the challenges of teaching science concepts and discourse in preschool in light of the study conducted by Kristina Andersson and Annica Gullberg. I then suggest a complementary approach to teaching science at this level from the perspective of social construction of knowledge based on Vygotsky's theory (1934/1987). In addition, I highlight the importance of the relational aspect of knowing using feminist standpoint theory (Harding 2004). I also draw from feminist research on preservice elementary teachers' learning of science to further underscore the connection between learning content and everyday experiences. Combining these research strands I propose that science needs to be grounded in everyday experiences. In this regard, the idea is similar to the choices made by the teachers in the study conducted by Andersson and Gullberg but I also suggest that the everyday experiences chosen for teaching purposes be framed appropriately. In and of itself, the complexity of everyday experiences can be impediment for learning as these researchers have demonstrated. Such complexities point to the need for framing of everyday experiences (Goffman 1974) so that children can do science and construct meaning from their actions. In the conclusion of my discussion of science and its discourse in preschool settings, I provide examples of everyday experiences and their framings that have the potential for engaging children and their teachers in science.

  13. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  14. Foundations of organizational moral climate theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans Bennink

    2012-01-01

    Why consider moral climate and examine about three hundred contributions to organizational moral climate theory? Moral climate has become a key theme in organizational theory and business ethics. It helps understanding organizational morality and manking organizations morally better. Moral climate

  15. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...... non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence....

  16. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-05-01

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials.......This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...

  18. Patients' experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Doris; Jensen, Birte Østergaard

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation of patients with previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared with patients being transplanted due to other indications, those with COPD prior to lung transplantation report more problems in the form of shortness of breath, fatigue, sexual problems, insomnia and increased appetite. In addition, they are often faced with problems returning to normal working life. How these problems influence the patient's everyday life is unknown. An exploratory qualitative study. Ten COPD patients (five females and five males) aged 51-69 and more than six months post transplantation, were interviewed using of a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were taperecorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed four themes of experience: a second chance; an ordinary life without chronic rejection; even minor daily activities take time with chronic rejection; and need for support and knowledge that were considered important by the participants for their situation and daily life. This is the first study describing the experiences of everyday life after lung transplantation of patients with COPD prior to surgery. The findings highlight the importance of addressing these patients' experiences of gratitude, positive life orientation and informational needs in relation to everyday life. Health professionals should be aware of the kind of problems both women and men may experience a long time after the lung transplantation. They constitute a basic knowledge of a patient's everyday life that is important when planning individual counselling and rehabilitation.

  19. Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Michelle; Helms, Niels Henrik; Dræbel, Tania Aase

    Everyday life; Lived Experiences and Designed Learning: Students knowledge cultures and epistemic trajectories in a range of professional bachelor educations Helms, N.H., Vestbo, M., Steenfeldt, V.O., Dræbel, T.A., Hansen, T.A.E., Storm, H., and Schmidt, L.S.K. (University College Zealand....... This research is a part of a greater national (Danish) research programme, the general objective is to generate knowledge about how professional bachelor educations and profession didactics can be developed to help in realizing learning objectives and educational policy goals. This specific project seeks...... and epistemic machines. In this panel, we will unfold three subprojects representing different educational contexts and research approaches: Lived experiences of clinical training Vibeke Østergaard Steenfeldt Within the framework of life world phenomenology, this study examines nursing students’ lived...

  20. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu....

  1. Children perspectives on everyday life and the pedagogical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Lind, Unni

    ’s own perspectives on everyday life. The second aim is reflection on the significance of such children’s perspectives on pedagogical knowledge and practice. Our research on children as participants in research and in institutional developments addresses overall interests in democratization...

  2. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  3. In Pursuit of Everyday Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    2017-01-01

    Creativity researchers have long paid careful attention to individual creativity, beginning with studies of well-known geniuses, and expanding to personality, biographical, cognitive, and social-psychological studies of individual creative behavior. Little is known, however, about the everyday psychological experience and associated creative…

  4. Intercultural Education in Everyday Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, Ruanni

    2014-01-01

    While there is substantive work in intercultural education, especially that which proposes intellectual or conceptual road maps for pedagogic interculturalism and, more specifically for the classroom, there is a need to surface the complexity of everyday intercultural classroom practices. This article reflects on some Singapore students' responses…

  5. The Everyday Work of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Schools attempting to transform themselves by adopting desirable characteristics generally fail because they have skipped a long, difficult self-discovery process involved in becoming effective schools. Leadership may be as simple as knowing oneself, envisioning alternative realities, being persistent, and building everyday relationships. (MLH)

  6. The Everyday Use of Celebrities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.; Kooijman, J.; Marschall, P.D.; Redmond, S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores what celebrities may do for us when we are not especially aware of them, combining the work Dutch popular culture and everyday media use, using the prerogative of the long-term media researcher who aims to theorize from empirical material. The chapter first introduces and

  7. The Everyday Condition of Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Afloroaei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The question I intend to answer is whether one can speak of a tacit metaphysics, not expressed conceptually, but nevertheless common. If the answer is positive and providing that it is specific to day-to-day life, such metaphysics may be called everyday metaphysics. To this end, I review the meaning of everyday life and its ambivalent character. Next, I present several milestones in the debate on the subject, from authors who have focused on a kind of usual, common or ‘natural’ metaphysics. Lastly, I formulate the idea under consideration, namely that everyday life implies or underlies a certain metaphysics. I note that it is an implicit metaphysics – not expressed formally – and rather free. Embraced in experience with a certain degree of freedom, it is recognisable by means of certain representations active in our mind, by the manner of speaking or of understanding and by the common forms of expression. Its vibrancy, concrete and relaxed character makes it highly evocative of the mental life of an era. It ensures a truly essential difference in our everyday mode of being.

  8. Audio Satellites: Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Jonas Rasmussen; Breinbjerg, M.; Højlund, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web browser, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life in a collaborative...

  9. Piaget e a consciência moral: um kantismo evolutivo? Piaget and the moral conscience: an evolving kantism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Beatriz de Lucca Freitas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais resultados de uma pesquisa sobre a teoria da moral de Jean Piaget. No estudo de seus textos sobre a moral, utilizamos o método da análise estrutural. Essa análise possibilitou-nos descobrir em Recherche o seu plano inicial de pesquisa e propor uma interpretação original do significado de seu livro O julgamento moral na criança. Além disso, constatamos que ele buscou traçar o caminho que conduz o ser humano da anomia à autonomia moral. Esses resultados permitiram explicar por que a sua teoria da moral, assim como a sua teoria do conhecimento, pode ser compreendida como um kantismo evolutivo.This paper gives the main results of a research on Piaget's theory of morality. In the study of his texts on morality, the method of structural analysis was used. This analysis made it possible to discover in Recherche his initial research project and to propose an original interpretation of his book The moral judgment of the child. Besides, it became evident that he tried to outline the way which leads the human being from a non-moral world to moral autonomy. These results show that his theory of morality, as well as his theory of knowledge, may be understood as an evolving kantism.

  10. Explaining Moral Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex

    2017-03-01

    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  11. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...... ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...

  12. Moral realism in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Psychometric evaluation of a new assessment of the ability to manage technology in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2011-03-01

    Technology increasingly influences the everyday lives of most people, and the ability to manage technology can be seen as a prerequisite for participation in everyday occupations. However, knowledge of the ability and skills required for management of technology is sparse. This study aimed to validate a new observation-based assessment, the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The META has been developed to assess the ability to manage technology in everyday life. A sample of 116 older adults with and without cognitive impairment were observed and interviewed by the use of the META when managing their everyday technology at home. The results indicate that the META demonstrates acceptable person response validity and technology goodness-of-fit. Additionally, the META can separate individuals with higher ability from individuals with lower ability to manage everyday technology. The META can be seen as a complement to existing ADL assessment techniques and is planned to be used in both research and practice.

  14. The development of morality

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R. J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence that individuals distinguish between moral and conventional rules is reviewed. Moral rules prohibit actions that result in victims (e.g., violence, stealing, etc.). Conventional rules prohibit actions that do not result in victims (e.g., not saying please, dressing in opposite sex clothes). Previous theoretical accounts of the development of the moral/conventional distinction are discussed. These theories are contrasted with an approach that is developed here. It is pr...

  15. Moral Agency, Moral Imagination, and Moral Community: Antidotes to Moral Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traudt, Terri; Liaschenko, Joan; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Moral distress has been covered extensively in the nursing literature and increasingly in the literature of other health professions. Cases that cause nurses' moral distress that are mentioned most frequently are those concerned with prolonging the dying process. Given the standard of aggressive treatment that is typical in intensive care units (ICUs), much of the existing moral distress research focuses on the experiences of critical care nurses. However, moral distress does not automatically occur in all end-of-life circumstances, nor does every critical care nurse suffer its damaging effects. What are the practices of these nurses? What specifically do they do to navigate around or through the distressing situations? The nursing literature is lacking an answer to these questions. This article reports a study that used narrative analysis to explore the reported practices of experienced critical care nurses who are skilled at and comfortable working with families and physicians regarding the withdrawal of aggressive treatment. A major finding was that these nurses did not report experiencing the damaging effects of moral distress as described in the nursing literature. The verbal communication and stated practices relevant to this finding are organized under three major themes: (1) moral agency, (2) moral imagination, and (3) moral community. Further, a total of eight subthemes are identified. The practices that constitute these themes and subthemes are further detailed and discussed in this article. Understanding these practices can help mitigate critical care nurses' moral distress. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  16. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  17. A New Theory of Wisdom: Integrating Intelligence and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengyan, Wang; Hong, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of wisdom, which integrates intelligence and morality as its two constituent elements. According to our definition, wisdom is a mental capacity of combining intelligence with moral virtue in the process of gaining knowledge and acting. Possessing this integrated quality, an individual would be able to act wisely…

  18. Questions of Concern for the Field of Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research on interpersonal and moral development of urban and rural students and young adults in Iceland, the United States, Europe, Japan, and China. Asserts that knowledge structures used to make meaning in a socio-moral conflict situation are highly dependent on the culture. (CFR)

  19. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  20. Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckels, Erin E; Jones, Daniel N; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2013-11-01

    Past research on socially aversive personalities has focused on subclinical psychopathy, subclinical narcissism, and Machiavellianism-the "Dark Triad" of personality. In the research reported here, we evaluated whether an everyday form of sadism should be added to that list. Acts of apparent cruelty were captured using two laboratory procedures, and we showed that such behavior could be predicted with two measures of sadistic personality. Study 1 featured a bug-killing paradigm. As expected, sadists volunteered to kill bugs at greater rates than did nonsadists. Study 2 examined willingness to harm an innocent victim. When aggression was easy, sadism and Dark Triad measures predicted unprovoked aggression. However, only sadists were willing to work for the opportunity to hurt an innocent person. In both studies, sadism emerged as an independent predictor of behavior reflecting an appetite for cruelty. Together, these findings support the construct validity of everyday sadism and its incorporation into a new "Dark Tetrad" of personality.

  1. Psychology and the conduct of everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psychology and the Conduct of Everyday Life moves psychological theory and research practice out of the laboratory and into the everyday world. Drawing on recent developments across the social and human sciences, it examines how people live as active subjects within the contexts of their everyday...

  2. Studying Normal, Everyday Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Daren C. Brabham

    2015-01-01

    Social media research has tended to focus on stand-out cases and has made use of big data methods to make claims about human experience and sociality. This commentary urges researchers to consider the everyday, normal experiences of most social media users, to consider the place of social media in a broader social context, and to consider marrying big data approaches with interviews and surveys of users.

  3. Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Ie, Amanda Yen Lin

    2014-01-01

    The present research assessed whether levels of depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive-compulsive distress, and psychopathy were differentially related to distinct thought suppression profiles. As a means to achieving this goal, the Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression (PETS) scale was constructed to measure the frequencies with which various target thoughts are suppressed. The PETS scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and scores were positively co...

  4. Metaphysics and Methods in Moral Enquiry and Education: Some Old Philosophical Wine for New Theoretical Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    If we reject sentimentalist accounts of the nature of moral motivation and education, then we may regard some form of reason as intrinsic to any genuine moral response. The large question for moral education is therefore that of the nature of such reason--perhaps more especially of its status as knowledge. In this regard, there is evidence of some…

  5. Exploring the Reliability and Validity of the Social-Moral Awareness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor…

  6. Conocimiento práctico y conocimiento académico en los profesores del nivel inicial (seis preguntas Everyday vs academic knowledge among early childhood teachers (six questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Julia Guzmán Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo, producto de un proceso de investigación cualitativa adelantado con profesoras del nivel inicial, quienes contaban con diferentes niveles de formación y trabajaban en colegios con diversas características, se centra en la reflexión sobre las formas en que aprenden a enseñar a leer y a escribir a los niños. Se encontró que independientemente del nivel de formación que tengan las profesoras, su principal fuente de aprendizaje son las prácticas. A partir de estos hallazgos se plantean algunas preguntas sobre la relación entre la teoría y las prácticas cotidianas en la formación docente y lo que esto sugiere a las instituciones formadoras de maestros.Abstract This paper, the result of a qualitative research process, serves as a reflection on the ways in which early childhood teachers who belong to schools with different characteristics and possess different levels of training, learn to teach reading and writing to boys and girls. It was found that, independent of their level of training and education, practice in the classroom served as their main source of learning. From these findings, some questions emerge about the relationship between the theory and the everyday practice in the training of educators and what this suggests for the institutions responsible for such activity.

  7. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  8. Moral Life and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2016-01-01

    Nel Noddings, Lee Jacks Professor of Education, Emerita, at Stanford University, agrees with Professors Lapsley and Woodbury that moral aims are central to education. She has argued that the main aim of education is to produce better people--better in "all aspects of a complete life: moral, physical, social, vocational, aesthetic,…

  9. Moral Education versus Indoctrination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, David

    2016-01-01

    Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…

  10. Moral og videnproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Research report concerning moral and ethical problems inherent in the consulting engineers' profession. Based upon 25 in-depth interviews in 11 firms, the report is contributing to the understanding of the concepts and meaning of moral and ethics in a world of technical rationality. The objectivity...

  11. Moral og Videnproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    En analyse af relationerne mellem viden og moral i de tekniske rådgivningskulturer. Publikationen beskriver de moralske og etiske overvejelser der præger rådgivernes professionelle univers i den praktiske udførelse af konsulentprojekter, og eftersporer den gensidige konstruktion af viden, moral og...

  12. Moral ape philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Our closest relative the chimpanzee seems to display proto-moral behavior. Some scholars emphasize the similarities between humans and chimpanzees, others some key differences. This paper aims is to formulate a set of intermediate conditions between a sometimes helpful chimpanzee and moral man. I

  13. Moral Philosophy I

    OpenAIRE

    Lebech, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Moral Philosophy I is a course currently given at the Faculty of Philosophy, NUIM. It defines ethics as what we think it is appropriate to do, and consequently analyses what it is to do something (action theory); what it is to consider something appropriate (value theory) and who 'we' are (community theory). It does so by treating immigration as a moral problem.

  14. The Breakdown of Morale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how morale in teams can break down. It interprets high morale as team members working together productively, either because of a sense of fairness or because of implicit incentives from repeated interactions. Team members learn that lay-offs will occur at a fixed

  15. IS MORALITY AN ILLUSION?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    For well over two millennia, philosophers and theologians assumed that morality presupposed com- pliance to a set of ideals used for the regulation of human conduct, in consideration for other individuals with whom a moral agent shared his or her social space. Accordingly, ethical inquiry was pursued with the primary aim ...

  16. Morality in clinical space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Sara Seerup; Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Birgitte; Stenager, Egon

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the moral implications of treatment of young people with functional somatic symptoms. Based on an ethnographic field study at a Danish pain clinic for youngsters (age 8 to 18), the paper seeks to unearth the cultural, moral values that clinical practice steers by and upholds, ...

  17. Observations of Everyday Biodiversity: a New Perspective for Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Cosquer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is one of the keys to achieving biodiversity conservation goals. Increasing public involvement in conservation activities requires investigation into what makes people more aware of nature, especially in an ordinary and local context, in their everyday lives. Among the initiatives developed to increase the public's awareness of conservation issues and individual environmental practices, citizen-science programs are based on an invitation to observe and survey nature. In our study, we examined the consequences of participation in a participative citizen-science program that takes place in an everyday-life context on individuals' knowledge and beliefs about biodiversity. This program, the French Garden Butterflies Watch, is addressed to the non-scientifically literate public and is run by the French National Museum of Natural History (MNHN. We examined the ways increased knowledge or strengthened beliefs or ideas about biodiversity can foster pro-conservation attitudes and behavior. We explored how repeated interactions with nature influence the development of knowledge in this area, and how these repeated observations of biodiversity become integrated into complex cognitive processes over time and space. We showed that repeated observations of nature can increase individual knowledge and beliefs. Our results brought out three important conclusions: (1 conservation issues must be integrated into a wider network of social relationships; (2 observing everyday nature often makes people consider its functional and evolutionary characteristics; and (3 scientific knowledge seems necessary to help people to develop their own position on ecosystems.

  18. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Caring for tomorrow's workforce: Moral resilience and healthcare ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Settimio

    2016-02-01

    Preparing tomorrow's healthcare workforce for managing the growing complexity of care places high demands on students, educators, and faculties. In the light of worrying data about study-related stress and burnout, understanding how students manage stressors and develop resilience has been identified as a priority topic of research. In addition to study-related stressors, also moral stressors are known to characterize the students' first clinical experiences. However, current debates show that it remains unclear how healthcare ethics education should address them. In order to clarify this issue, this study first develops the notion of moral resilience as a response to moral stressors involving both situations of moral complexity and moral wrongness. Second, it explores the potential of healthcare ethics education in fostering moral resilience. For this purpose, it defines moral resilience operationally as a reduction of moral distress in a given axis of time measured by a validated tool. The educational transferability was assessed within an explorative, quantitative pre-post interventional study with a purposive sample of 166 nursing students. The educational intervention comprised a lecture introducing the typology of moral stressors. Before and after the lecture, students were presented vignettes depicting morally stressful situations. The competent research ethics committee confirmed that no ethical approval was needed. Informed consent was obtained from participants. Three of four vignettes showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in measured levels of distress after the lecture (p education in providing students with transformative knowledge that fosters moral resilience. In times of global scarcity of educational resources, healthcare ethics education has an important contribution to offer in the promotion of students' mental and physical health by strengthening the knowledge base of moral resilience. This legitimates its costs for societies

  20. Negotiating Moral Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. The normal procedure would be to kill research animals after the termination of an experiment; in this case, however, a decision was reached to close down the lab. The moral landscape had changed, and it was no longer considered acceptable to use nonhuman primates in Danish biomedicine. From...... being considered a biological resource serving as a model of man, the monkeys had become moral subjects with a claim to a life suiting their natural needs. Simultaneously, the monkeys became instrumental in creating moral legitimacy for the actors involved in their rescue. What we see is an instance...... of pathfinding in a changing moral landscape where actors negotiate nonhuman primate nature as they create new moral positions for themselves....

  1. [Moral development in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, E

    1989-08-01

    In child psychiatry the developmental aspect is emphasized. Recognition of normal sequence of development in so-called "normal children" makes it possible to reveal pathological conditions (either retardation or acceleration of development, distortion or atypical development). Change-motion-development are philosophical categories considered a manifestation or life--of psychobiological maturation and growth. When investigating the moral development three theories were applied: the developmental theory (Piaget)--learning (Kohlberg), the dynamic theory (Sandler). Among factors which influence in a certain way the moral behaviour the following were selected: age, sex, temperament, family environment. The author describes three stages of moral development in children: preventional stage (moral heteronomy) up to the age of 8 years, conventional and pst conventional (moral autonomy) in adolescence.

  2. "And so They Ordered Me to Kill a Person": Conceptualizing the Impacts of Child Soldiering on the Development of Moral Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainryb, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 300,000 child soldiers serve in various armed groups around the world, and become directly implicated in the perpetration of kidnappings, killings, and torture. Considering that children construct moral concepts and a sense of themselves as moral beings in the context of their everyday interactions with others, the concern with how…

  3. Common sense in moral philosophy of the age of Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sokurenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Age of Enlightenment had a special meaning for the history of moral philosophy, because in this period the morality becomes a special subject of philosophic interest, philosophic concept of morality is formed. The problem of rational grounding of morality becomes a central one. The important role in this problem solving was the idea of common sense – one of the fundamental ideas of Scottish and French Enlightenment. In the Scottish philosophy concept of «common sense» was developed by representatives of ethical sentimentalism (A. Shaftesbury, F. Hutcheson and by the founder of the rationalist understanding of morality Th. Reid. In France, the idea of common sense was widely developed in the works of Enlightenment philosophers. Scottish enlighteners understood common sense as a kind of inherent, intuitive principle, put by God into human being. This paper analyzes the significance of the concept «common sense» and its features of interpretations by Scottish philosophers. The quintessence of philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment was practical philosophy of I. Kant, in formation of which the idea of common sense played the key role. German classic clearly defined field of application of common sense. He considered an appeal to common sense in matters of science and philosophy unacceptable, but claimed that it was common sense people must rely in everyday practice. Such an understanding of this idea has allowed Kant to justify main concept of his moral philosophy ­ concept of the autonomous subject.

  4. What Is Everyday Ethics? A Review and a Proposal for an Integrative Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Natalie; Bell, Emily; Racine, Eric

    2016-01-01

    "Everyday ethics" is a term that has been used in the clinical and ethics literature for decades to designate normatively important and pervasive issues in healthcare. In spite of its importance, the term has not been reviewed and analyzed carefully. We undertook a literature review to understand how the term has been employed and defined, finding that it is often contrasted to "dramatic ethics." We identified the core attributes most commonly associated with everyday ethics. We then propose an integrative model of everyday ethics that builds on the contribution of different ethical theories. This model proposes that the function of everyday ethics is to serve as an integrative concept that (1) helps to detect current blind spots in bioethics (that is, shifts the focus from dramatic ethics) and (2) mobilizes moral agents to address these shortcomings of ethical insight. This novel integrative model has theoretical, methodological, practical, and pedagogical implications, which we explore. Because of the pivotal role that moral experience plays in this integrative model, the model could help to bridge empirical ethics research with more conceptual and normative work. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  5. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  6. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  7. Why Be Moral? Moral Identity Motivation and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Victor, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Moral identity research to date has largely failed to provide evidence for developmental trends in moral identity, presumably because of restrictions in the age range of studies and the use of moral identity measures that are insensitive to age-related change. The present study investigated moral identity motivation across a broad age range (14-65…

  8. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  9. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  10. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  11. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  12. The Media: Moral Lessons and Moral Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Sue

    1993-01-01

    A lesson on female stereotypes in advertising begins a discussion of the mass media's role in the lives of young women. It is suggested that conventional moral wisdom about media education for children does not reflect the complexity of the media's influence but is narrow and ethnocentric. (MSE)

  13. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  14. The development of moral emotions and decision-making from adolescence to early adulthood: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Colasante, Tyler; Buchmann, Marlis; Malti, Tina

    2014-04-01

    Adolescents' emotions in the context of moral decision-making repeatedly have been shown to predict actual behaviour. However, little systematic information on developmental change regarding these emotion expectancies has been available thus far. This longitudinal study investigated anticipated moral emotions and decision-making between the ages of 15 and 21 in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1,258; 54 % female; M = 15.30 years). Anticipated moral emotions and decision-making were assessed through a semi-structured interview procedure. Using Bernoulli hierarchical linear modeling, it was found that positive feelings after a moral transgression (i.e., "happy victimizer" responses) decreased over time, whereas positive feelings after a moral decision (i.e., "happy moralist" responses) increased. However, this pattern was contingent upon the moral scenario presented. Systematic relationships between anticipated moral emotions and moral personality characteristics of sympathy, conscientiousness, and agreeableness were found, even when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and cognitive ability. Overall, this study demonstrates that the development of anticipated moral emotions is not limited to childhood. Furthermore, our findings suggest that moral emotions serve as an important link between moral personality development and decision-making processes that are more proximal to everyday moral behavior.

  15. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Challenges of the future holistic strategy and synergy of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Hočevar Ciuha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyday we witness uncertain future. Modern sociologists today's social situation name as "liquid modern period", "end of certainty","world without ligatures". As this is a time of social and economic bifurcation, it is also a time of opportunities. The article outlines the social background of modern and postmodern categories, with consequences which are visible in the educational structure of schools and in a psychology of a modern human person. The discrepancy between dialectic of narrative knowledge and didactics as pragmatics of scientific knowledge ­ which is legitimised through institutional network of language games ­ lies the cause of storm chaotic economic ­ social conditions and human moral values breakage. Holistic strategy, which primarly understands a man as an integrated human being, we set up lifelong education and learning as a corrective model of the current educational system and vision for the future.

  17. Religion and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Revisiting Folk Moral Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.

  19. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  20. Berkeley's moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, G

    1990-03-01

    Berkeley held that the moral duty of mankind was to obey God's laws; that--since God was a benevolent Creator--the object of His laws must be to promote the welfare and flourishing of mankind; and that, accordingly, humans could identify their moral duties by asking what system of laws for conduct would in fact tend to promote that object. This position--which is akin to that of 'rule' Utilitarianism--is neither unfamiliar nor manifestly untenable. He was surely mistaken, however, in his further supposition that, if this theory were accepted, the resolution of all (or most) particular moral dilemmas would be simple and straightforward.

  1. Meat, morals, and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    Much research has demonstrated that people perceive consumers of "good," low-fat foods as more moral, intelligent, and attractive, and perceive consumers of "bad," high-fat foods as less intelligent, less moral, and less attractive. Little research has contrasted perceptions of omnivores and vegetarians, particularly with respect to morality and gender characteristics. In two between-subject studies, we investigated people's perceptions of others who follow omnivorous and vegetarian diets, controlling for the perceived healthiness of the diets in question. In both studies, omnivorous and vegetarian participants rated vegetarian targets as more virtuous and less masculine than omnivorous targets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  3. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823244

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  4. First Steps in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    1996-01-01

    Defines moral education as an education in morality. Identifies morality as a particular way of life that has its own logic and reason. Recommends looking anew at fundamental concepts of moral education and building approaches and methods out of these new perspectives. Discusses overcoming resistance to this approach. (MJP)

  5. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  6. Another Prospect on Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, James

    1980-01-01

    The author critiques John Wilson's view of moral education for being too linear, ignoring the complexity of moral development. He proposes a more generalized moral education, with greater emphasis on affect and social context. For Wilson's article, see "Journal of Moral Education," p3-9, Oct 1979 (EJ220532). (SJL)

  7. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  8. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  9. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELIABILITY OF INTUITIVE MORAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nadurak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is a critical analysis of the reliability of intuitive moral decisions. Methodology. The work is based on the methodological attitude of empirical ethics, involving the use of findings from empirical research in ethical reflection and decision making. Originality. The main kinds of intuitive moral decisions are identified: 1 intuitively emotional decisions (i.e. decisions made under the influence of emotions that accompanies the process of moral decision making; 2 decisions made under the influence of moral risky psychological aptitudes (unconscious human tendencies that makes us think in a certain way and make decisions, unacceptable from the logical and ethical point of view; 3 intuitively normative decisions (decisions made under the influence of socially learned norms, that cause evaluative feeling «good-bad», without conscious reasoning. It was found that all of these kinds of intuitive moral decisions can lead to mistakes in the moral life. Conclusions. Considering the fact that intuition systematically leads to erroneous moral decisions, intuitive reaction cannot be the only source for making such decisions. The conscious rational reasoning can compensate for weaknesses of intuition. In this case, there is a necessity in theoretical model that would structure the knowledge about the interactions between intuitive and rational factors in moral decisions making and became the basis for making suggestions that would help us to make the right moral decision.

  10. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aesthetic properties of everyday objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Christine; Knäuper, Bärbel; Eisermann, Jens; Leder, Helmut

    2007-06-01

    This research addresses whether one underlying concept of appreciation exists across different classes of objects. Three studies were done. To identify aesthetic properties relevant for the aesthetic judgment of everyday objects and paintings, in Study 1 expert interviews were conducted with 12 interior designers, object-oriented designers and architects, and 12 students of art history. In Study 2, multidimensional unfolding (MDU) was used to examine whether common judgment criteria can be identified for the objects of the different classes. A sample of 217 German subjects participated. 2- or 3-dimensional MDU solutions resulted for each object class. The identified dimensions were labeled using the aesthetic properties derived from the expert interviews (Study 1). These dimensions represent relevant dimensions of aesthetic judgment on which object properties vary. Study 2 suggested that people use different dimensions of aesthetic judgment for different object classes. The identified dimensions were then used to construct three sets of systematically varied everyday objects and one set of systematically varied paintings. Using this stimulus material in Study 3, conjoint analysis indicated these dimensions are differentially important for the overall aesthetic judgment.

  12. From moral to legal judgment : the influence of normative context in lawyers and other academics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Spranger, Tade M.; Erk, Susanne; Walter, Henrik

    Various kinds of normative judgments are an integral part of everyday life. We extended the scrutiny of social cognitive neuroscience into the domain of legal decisions, investigating two groups, lawyers and other academics, during moral and legal decision-making. While we found activation of brain

  13. Moral Purpose Writ Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that moral and spiritual leaders strive to make a difference in the lives of students; to reduce the achievement gap in one's school, district, and the larger educational environment; and to foster growth opportunities and leadership in others. (PKP)

  14. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  15. Conflict and Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A conflict procedure in which reliance on adult values was opposed to reliance on damage as a measure of blame was found to facilitate second-grade children's use of intention in making moral judgments of story pairs. (ST)

  16. The Morality of Property

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Henry Edward; Merrill, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between property and morality has been obscured by three elements in our intellectual tradition. First is the assumption, which can be traced to Bentham, that property is a pure creature of law.' An institution assumed to be wholly dependent on law for its existence is unlikely to be infused with strong moral content. Second is the related tradition, also Benthamite, of examining questions about property law from a utilitarian perspective. 2 Utilitarianis...

  17. Moral ape philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Our closest relative the chimpanzee seems to display proto-moral behavior. Some scholars emphasize the similarities between humans and chimpanzees, others some key differences. This paper aims is to formulate a set of intermediate conditions between a sometimes helpful chimpanzee and moral man. I specify these intermediate conditions as requirements for the chimpanzees, and for each requirement I take on a verificationist stance and ask what the empirical conditions that satisfy it would be. ...

  18. Absoluteness or relativity of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the case study of absoluteness or relativity of morals. The questions are in a new way comprehended: Can exist absolute morals? Is how its content? Is necessary it for humanity? Is moral personality absolute value? Does justify the purpose of means? It is substantiated, that reflecting about the problem of absoluteness or relativity of morals, one ought not to be abstracted from the religion ­ billions of people find in it the basis of their morals. Accumulated ethical experience is infinitely rich and diverse in humanity: it includes and the proclaimed prophets godly revelations, and the brilliant enlightenment of secular philosophers. Are analyzed such concepts, as morals, absolute morals, relativity, moral rigorizm, moral personality, formal ethics. The specific character of the moral relativity, which proclaims historicity and changeability of standards and standards of human behavior, is established. Moral rigorizm is understood as the principle, according to which the man must act only from the considerations of moral debt, whereas all other external motivations (interest, happiness, friendship, etc have no moral value. Is shown the priority significance of the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, in which strong idealizations and abstractions of the ethics of moral rigorizma are substituted by the weaker ­ more realistic and more humane. In the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, as in the life, moral estimations completely can be and in the overwhelming majority of the cases are relative.

  19. Tightening the focus: moral panic, moral regulation and liberal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Sean P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to tighten the focus of moral panic studies by clarifying and elaborating on an analytical framework that conceptualizes moral panic as a form of moral regulation. The first part of the article explains why moral panic should be conceptualized as a form of moral regulation. The second part presents a rejoinder to Critcher's (2009) critique of the widening focus of moral panic studies. The third part elaborates on the conceptual relationship between the sociologies of moral panic and moral regulation by offering fresh insights into the sociological and political importance of moral panic as a technique of liberal government. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  20. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  1. Walking as a social practice: dispersed walking and the organisation of everyday practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Tim; Rettie, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    This paper uses social practice theory to study the interweaving of walking into everyday practices and considers how greater awareness of everyday walking can influence its position within the organisation and scheduling of everyday life. Walking is of policy interest because of its perceived benefits for health. This paper asserts that increased awareness of everyday walking allows users to become more active without having to reschedule existing activities. Using Schatzki's distinction between dispersed and integrative practices, it argues that increasing awareness of dispersed walking can enlist walking into the teleoaffective organisation of some social practices and prompt the performance of new 'health practices' within everyday domains of life such as shopping and employment. While this analysis offers useful insights for the design of behaviour change strategies, it also points to some unintended consequences of using digital feedback to increase walking awareness. In directing the gaze of participants at one particular element of their daily practices, the paper suggests, digital walking feedback provides a 'partial' view of practices: by highlighting the exercise value of walking at the expense of other values it can prompt feedback recipients to pass moral judgements on themselves based on this partial view. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/WV7DUnKD5Mw. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  2. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  3. 'Patient participation' in everyday activities in special care units for persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Ann Karin; Larsson, Maria; Athlin, Elsy

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore 'patient participation' in everyday activities for persons with dementia living in special care units in nursing homes. Studies about how 'patient participation' appears in the context of special care units for persons with dementia are lacking. The study has an explorative design. Grounded theory was chosen. Data collection was carried out by means of open observations and additional conversations with residents and personnel. Simultaneously, data analysis was performed with open, axial and selective coding. The findings showed that 'patient participation' concerned 'A matter of presence' as the core category. The other categories described as 'presence of personnel' and 'presence of residents', were strongly connected to the core category as well as to each other. Presence of personnel comprised three levels; being there in body, which required physical presence; being there in mind, which required presence with all senses based on knowledge and competence; and being there in morality which was understood as being fully present, as it was based on humanistic values and included the two other levels. Presence of residents comprised 'ability and wish' and 'adaptation'. The presence of the personnel had a huge impact on the ability and will to participate of the residents. Organizational conditions concerning leadership, amount of personnel and routines as well as housing conditions concerning architecture and shared accommodation, could stimulate or hinder 'patient participation'. The study highlighted the great impact of the personnel's presence in body, mind and morality on the participation capacity of the residents. The great importance of the nurse leaders was stressed, as they were responsible for organizational issues and served as role models. Group supervision of the personnel and their leaders would be an implication to propose, as these kinds of reflection groups offer opportunities to reflect on values, actions and

  4. Moral Enhancement Should Target Self-Interest and Cognitive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlskog, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement. First, we should consider decreasing self-interested motivation rather than increasing prosociality directly. Second, this should be complemented with cognitive enhancement. These suggestions are tested against existing and emerging evidence on cognitive capacity, mindfulness meditation and the effects of psychedelic drugs and are found to have sufficient grounding for further theoretical and empirical exploration. Furthermore, moral effects of the latter two are hypothesized to result from a diminished sense of self with subsequent reductions in self-interest.

  5. Universal moral grammar: theory, evidence and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, John

    2007-04-01

    Scientists from various disciplines have begun to focus attention on the psychology and biology of human morality. One research program that has recently gained attention is universal moral grammar (UMG). UMG seeks to describe the nature and origin of moral knowledge by using concepts and models similar to those used in Chomsky's program in linguistics. This approach is thought to provide a fruitful perspective from which to investigate moral competence from computational, ontogenetic, behavioral, physiological and phylogenetic perspectives. In this article, I outline a framework for UMG and describe some of the evidence that supports it. I also propose a novel computational analysis of moral intuitions and argue that future research on this topic should draw more directly on legal theory.

  6. The moral sense of humanitarian actors: an empirical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rességuier, Anaïs

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines humanitarianism's moral positioning above private and political interests to save lives and alleviate suffering. It does not aim to assess the legitimacy of this stance, but rather to probe the way in which humanitarian actors relate to this moral dimension in their everyday work. It investigates empirically humanitarian ethics from the perspective of humanitarian actors, drawing on interviews conducted in Beirut, Lebanon, in 2014. As it is exploratory, three key conceptual innovations were required. The first of these is the introduction of the tools developed to consider a neglected reality: humanitarian actors' 'moral sense' vis-à-vis the humanitarian sector's 'moral culture'. Second, the study shows how the sector's moral culture is structured around the notion of 'concern for persons in need'. Third, it analyses the way in which the sector and its actors handle the asymmetrical relationships encountered daily. Ultimately this paper seeks to valorise humanitarian actors' creativity in their common practices and explore potential challenges to it. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  7. Moral Perceptions of College Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Eric

    This thesis argues that college-level science education is in need of explicit moral focuses centered on society's use of scientific knowledge. Many benefits come with scientific advancements but unfortunately the misuse of scientific knowledge has led to planetary crises that should be a concern for all who inhabit the Earth (e.g., climate change). The teaching of the misuses of science is often left out of college science classrooms and the purpose of this thesis is to see what effect college science students' education has had on their moral perception of these pressing issues. To evaluate how college science students morally perceive these global issues within their educational experiences, two focus group interviews were conducted and analyzed. Students converged on three themes when thinking of society's misuse of science: 1) there is something wrong with the way science is communicated between science and non-science groups; 2) misusing science for private benefit is not right, and 3) it is important for people to comprehend sustainability along different scales of understanding and action. This thesis concludes that although to some extent students were familiar with moral features that stem from society's misuse of science, they did not attribute their learning of those features from any of their required coursework within their programs of study.

  8. SOCIÉTÉ ET MORALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HUMÃ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The moral is also a field of options. We can not hope about the moral pride of Superman; where there isn’t any compassion, dedication, understanding and sacrifice, there isn’t any moral. Also we do not believe in any false moral of solvent egalitarianism and of abstract universal love. At the same time, we do not retain the moral quotient of the technical license, producer of uncivilized “freedoms”. On the contrary we believe that the moral is born minute by minute on the grueling road of the daily tension, disinterested commitment in the communion.

  9. Do mundo amoral à possibilidade de ação moral From a non-moral world to the possibility of a moral action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Beatriz de Lucca Freitas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available No plano de pesquisa do jovem Piaget, pode-se constatar que, além de construir uma teoria do conhecimento alicerçada na Biologia, ele aspirava estabelecer uma teoria sobre a moral. Através da análise dos textos por ele escritos sobre a questão moral, à luz da análise estrutural de sua obra, constatamos que o seu projeto inicial sobre a moral permaneceu inacabado. A análise dos conceitos da moral piagetiana nos permitiu, porém, verificar o que desse projeto foi realizado: Piaget buscou estabelecer as condições necessárias (mas não suficientes para a ação moral. O principal objetivo desse artigo é explicitar quais são essas condições, segundo esse autor.In the young Piaget’s research project we can observe that, besides constructing a theory of knowledge based on Biology, he also sought to establish a theory of morality. Through the analysis of his written texts on moral issues and in taking into consideration all his witings, we ascertain that his initial project on morality remained clearly unfinished. However, the analysis of Piaget’s concepts of his moral theory shows that part of this project was already developed: Piaget tried to establish the necessary conditions (but nevertheless not sufficient for the moral action. The main aim of this paper is to highlight which are these conditions, according to Piaget.

  10. Religion and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose “religion” and “morality” into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts—in particular, sanitized conceptions of “prosocial” behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories “religion” and “morality” must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PMID:25528346

  11. [Orbitofrontal cortex and morality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Michitaka; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Research on the neural substrates of morality is a recently emerging field in neuroscience. The anatomical structures implicated to play a role in morality include the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. In particular, the orbitofrontal or ventromedial prefrontal areas are thought to be involved in decision-making, and damage to these areas is likely to cause decision-making deficits and/or problems in impulsive control, which may lead to antisocial and less moral behaviors. In this article, we focus on case presentation and theory development with regard to moral judgment. First, we discuss notable cases and syndromes developing after orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, such as the famous cases of Gage and EVR, cases of childhood orbitofrontal damage, forced collectionism, squalor syndrome, and hypermoral syndrome. We then review the proposed theories and neuropsychological mechanisms underlying decision-making deficits following orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, including the somatic-marker hypothesis, reversal learning, preference judgment, theory of mind, and moral dilemma.

  12. "Everyday Memory" Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Pickles, Andrew; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    "Everyday memory" is conceptualised as memory within the context of day-to-day life and, despite its functional relevance, has been little studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first study of its kind, 94 adolescents with an ASD and 55 without an ASD completed measures of everyday memory from the Rivermead…

  13. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  14. Mediating epistemic access through everyday language resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most rural and township English additional language classrooms, everyday language discursive practices of bi/multilingual students are underutilised. This study reports on how grade 4 emergent isiZulu-English bilingual children used their everyday language resources as a tool for epistemic access. Drawing on ...

  15. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  16. Moral guidance, moral philosophy, and moral issues in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J; Long, T

    1999-04-01

    Approaches to teaching ethics to nurses have been debated in literature for some years. Three issues in particular are commonly addressed: the intentions of such teaching; the value of examples and case studies; and the compatibility of philosophical approaches with the clinical reality experienced by students. It is argued here that moral guidance as a strategy is unacceptable, and that a basic introduction to philosophical methods is the key to effective learning of the skills required for autonomous analysis and decision making. A means for including the use of personal experiences and case study material is presented which relies upon the provision of a framework of analysis to facilitate structured thinking and the pursuit of justifiable arguments. The approach suggested is compatible with students' existing experiences and work-context, and enhances the integration of ethical reasoning into the multi-faceted totality of clinical practice.

  17. "Whoever increases his knowledge merely increases his heartache." Moral tensions in heart surgery patients' and their spouses' talk about information seeking. Discourse analysis, Social constructionism, Heart surgery, Information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen Kimmo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses accounts of information behaviour that are produced by 20 heart surgery patients and their spouses. It is shown that patients and their significant others have to act in a context in which health ideologies stressing self sufficiency and patient compliance play a strong role. Thus, the analysed accounts and narratives of information seeking reflect moral demands that ill persons and their significant others are facing in contemporary society. The author uses social constructionist discourse analysis to examine how the interviewees have to relate their descriptions of information practices to existing moral presuppositions on how rational individuals should behave.

  18. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  19. Morals and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Armin; Szech, Nora

    2013-05-10

    The possibility that market interaction may erode moral values is a long-standing, but controversial, hypothesis in the social sciences, ethics, and philosophy. To date, empirical evidence on decay of moral values through market interaction has been scarce. We present controlled experimental evidence on how market interaction changes how human subjects value harm and damage done to third parties. In the experiment, subjects decide between either saving the life of a mouse or receiving money. We compare individual decisions to those made in a bilateral and a multilateral market. In both markets, the willingness to kill the mouse is substantially higher than in individual decisions. Furthermore, in the multilateral market, prices for life deteriorate tremendously. In contrast, for morally neutral consumption choices, differences between institutions are small.

  20. From moral agents to moral factors: the structural ethics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Kroes, P.; Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It has become a popular position in the philosophy of technology to claim that some or all technological artifacts can qualify as moral agents. This position has been developed to account for the moral role of technological artifacts in society and to help clarify the moral responsibility of

  1. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  2. The everyday challenges of Pro-environmental practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Sara Kristine Gløjmar

    2013-01-01

    . However, awareness of climate change problems and intentions to live pro-environmentally friendly do not always translate into actual changed practice. In this sense, there is often a discrepancy between attitude and actual behaviour. This article is an in-depth empirical investigation of the logics......Much research and policy planning aimed at climate change mitigation currently focuses on individual behavioural change as a means to reduce carbon emissions. An often used approach in order to achieve this is the attempt to influence behaviour through transfers of knowledge and information...... guiding everyday pro-environmental practices, the aim was to examine the challenges experienced in this regard. Based on visits to households in Copenhagen, four major challenges are identified and discussed. The paper argues that everyday life, as the starting point of individual pro...

  3. Towards a holistic study of morality

    OpenAIRE

    Stojiljković Snežana D.

    2002-01-01

    The to date studies of morality do not provide a holistic picture of a moral person since they most often rely only upon some dimensions of morality neglecting the others. The same goes for leading theoretical orientations in the psychology of moral, such as psychoanalysis, theories of learning and cognitive-development theory. Each enters into one of the dimensions only thus reducing the domain of morality either to moral emotions, moral behavior or to moral thinking. Rest is severely critic...

  4. Berkeley's moral philosophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, G

    1990-01-01

    Berkeley held that the moral duty of mankind was to obey God's laws; that--since God was a benevolent Creator--the object of His laws must be to promote the welfare and flourishing of mankind; and that, accordingly, humans could identify their moral duties by asking what system of laws for conduct would in fact tend to promote that object. This position--which is akin to that of 'rule' Utilitarianism--is neither unfamiliar nor manifestly untenable. He was surely mistaken, however, in his furt...

  5. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety......Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...

  6. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  7. The design of everyday things

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Don

    2013-01-01

    Even the smartest among us can feel inept as we fail to figure out which light switch or oven burner to turn on, or whether to push, pull, or slide a door. The fault, argues this ingenious—even liberating—book, lies not in ourselves, but in product design that ignores the needs of users and the principles of cognitive psychology. The problems range from ambiguous and hidden controls to arbitrary relationships between controls and functions, coupled with a lack of feedback or other assistance and unreasonable demands on memorization. The Design of Everyday Things shows that good, usable design is possible. The rules are simple: make things visible, exploit natural relationships that couple function and control, and make intelligent use of constraints. The goal: guide the user effortlessly to the right action on the right control at the right time. In this entertaining and insightful analysis, cognitive scientist Don Norman hails excellence of design as the most important key to regaining the competitive e...

  8. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  9. Tsunami-tendenko and morality in disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Disaster planning challenges our morality. Everyday rules of action may need to be suspended during large-scale disasters in favour of maxims that that may make prudential or practical sense and may even be morally preferable but emotionally hard to accept, such as tsunami-tendenko. This maxim dictates that the individual not stay and help others but run and preserve his or her life instead. Tsunami-tendenko became well known after the great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011, when almost all the elementary and junior high school students in one city survived the tsunami because they acted on this maxim that had been taught for several years. While tsunami-tendenko has been praised, two criticisms of it merit careful consideration: one, that the maxim is selfish and immoral; and two, that it goes against the natural tendency to try to save others in dire need. In this paper, I will explain the concept of tsunami-tendenko and then respond to these criticisms. Such ethical analysis is essential for dispelling confusion and doubts about evacuation policies in a disaster. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  11. Special Focus on Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Nicholas, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Issues of morality and children are examined. Information on moral judgment research with children is discussed with implications for educational interventions. Research suggesting that characteristics of moral dilemmas and solutions are related to sex and grade is presented. Areas to be pursued in research and practical application are…

  12. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  13. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  14. Teaching Moral Thinking: A Reconceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Aline

    1992-01-01

    Examines various models of rationality. Describes mature moral thinking as a progressive integration of logical thinking, dialectical thinking, and sense of paradox. Considers the type of rationality called for by moral thinking, transformations in moral thinking undergone while acquiring rationality, and types of teaching that foster progress in…

  15. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  16. Public Spaces and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…

  17. The promises of moral foundationalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musschenga, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for

  18. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  19. Surveying the moral landscape: moral motives and group-based moralities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2013-08-01

    We present a new six-cell Model of Moral Motives that applies a fundamental motivational distinction in psychology to the moral domain. In addition to moral motives focused on the self or another, we propose two group-based moralities, both communal in orientation, but reflecting distinct moral motives (Social Order/Communal Solidarity vs. Social Justice/Communal Responsibility) as well as differences in construals of group entitativity. The two group-based moralities have implications for intragroup homogeneity as well as intergroup conflict. Our model challenges the conclusions of Haidt and colleagues that only conservatives (not liberals) are group oriented and embrace a binding morality. We explore the implications of this new model for politics in particular and for the self-regulation versus social regulation of morality more generally.

  20. Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This article compares two analytical frameworks ostensibly formulated to widen the focus of moral panic studies. The comparative analysis suggests that attempts to conceptualize moral panics in terms of decivilizing processes have neither substantively supplemented the explanatory gains made by conceptualizing moral panic as a form of moral regulation nor provided a viable alternative framework that better explains the dynamics of contemporary moral panics. The article concludes that Elias's meta-theory of the civilizing process potentially provides explanatory resources to investigate a possible historical-structural shift towards the so-called age of (a)moral panic; the analytical demands of such a project, however, require a sufficiently different line of inquiry than the one encouraged by both the regulatory and decivilizing perspectives on moral panic. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  1. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Defense mechanisms and morality: a link between isolation and moralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between morality and perceptual defense mechanisms was studied. Three new scales were constructed to measure different aspects of morality: moralism (the tendency to evaluate everything in terms of right and wrong), conscience (strength of feelings of right and wrong) and reparation (inclination to repair the damage one has caused). Perceptual defense mechanisms were measured with Kragh's Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Three hypotheses about relationships between morality and defense mechanisms, derived from psychoanalytical literature, were tested on 54 male University students. Results show positive correlations between the defense mechanism isolation of affect and moralism, and between identification with the aggressor and reparation. Total amount of perceptual defense correlated positively with moralism. It is argued that the psychological study of morality should take unconscious processes into consideration.

  3. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  4. Moral and metaphors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    2005-01-01

    This summary is based on a workshop discussion at the conference "Elusive Consumtion", Gothenburg, June 2002. The workshop took it point of departure in a keynote speech held by Richard Wilk, Indiana University, USA, on 'Morals and Metaphors'. Consumption is not an exact, but a fuzzy concept. Thus...

  5. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  6. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  7. The New Moral Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…

  8. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  9. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  10. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  11. Neuroscience and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, T

    2001-10-01

    Humans are social animals who use specialized brain mechanisms to assess the actions of others. This system for social cognition can be studied by imaging techniques, and its damage can lead to inappropriate social and moral behavior. Neuroscience can thus enrich our understanding of behaviors traditionally thought to be outside the province of science.

  12. Rethinking Moral Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.; Johnson, D.; Moor, J.; Tavani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Questions regarding the moral responsibility of Internet access and service providers relating to possible negative aspects of information on the Internet call for a reassessment of the ways in which we think about attributing blame, guilt, and duties of reparation and compensation. They invite us

  13. Knowledge, responsibility, decision making and ignorance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, Lotte

    2001-01-01

    of and ignoring) seems to be commonly applicable to describing persons living at risk for Huntington´s Disease (HD). So what does everyday conduct of life look like from an "ignorance" perspective? And how can we discuss and argue about morality and ethics taking these seemingly diverse ways of living at risk...

  14. Moral decision-making and theory of mind in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Polzer, Christin; Ebersbach, Georg; Kalbe, Elke

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive impairments in theory of mind (ToM), executive processing, and decision-making are frequent and highly relevant symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These functions have been related to moral decision-making. Their association to moral decision-making in PD, however, has not been studied yet. It was hypothesized that moral decisions in patients with PD differ from those in healthy control participants, and that more egoistic decisions are related to ToM as well as executive dysfunctions in patients with PD. Nineteen patients with PD and 20 healthy control participants were examined with an everyday moral decision-making task, comprised of 10 low and 10 high emotional forced-choice moral dilemma short stories with egoistic and altruistic options. All participants received an elaborate neuropsychological test battery. Electrodermal skin conductance responses were recorded to examine possible unconscious emotional reactions during moral decision-making. The groups performed comparably in total scores of moral decision-making. Although ToM did not differ between groups, it was inversely related to altruistic moral decisions in the healthy control group, but not in patients with PD. Executive functions were not related to moral decision-making. No differences were found for skin conductance responses, yet they differed from zero in both groups. Our findings indicate that moral decisions do not differ between patients with PD and healthy control participants. However, different underlying processes in both groups can be presumed. While healthy control participants seem to apply ToM to permit egoistic moral decisions in low emotional dilemmas, patients with PD seem to decide independently from ToM. These mechanisms as well as neuropsychological and neurophysiological correlates are discussed.

  15. Everyday Life, Sensuality, and Body Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Charlotte

    1987-01-01

    present an empirical study of women whose everyday lives were radically disrupted. Finally, recent trends in body culture will be discussed and evaluated from a feminist point of view. Thus, viewed from the perspective of sport, the purpose of this essay is to offer new approaches to the subject of sport......The purpose of this essay is to elucidate two kinds of sensuality, a dominant one and a concealed one, both viewed in the perspective of our everyday lives. My point of departure is the assumption that the interweaving of social power, the body and sensuality is constituted at the level of everyday...

  16. Striving for the moral self : The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, J.; Mullen, E.; Murnighan, J.K.

    People's desires to see themselves as moral actors can contribute to their striving for and achievement of a sense of self-completeness. The authors use self-completion theory to predict (and show) that recalling one's own (im)moral behavior leads to compensatory rather than consistent moral action

  17. Individual Differences in Prototypical Moral and Conventional Judgments and Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, Marc; Smetana, Judith G

    2017-02-13

    This article examined links between 4- and 6-year-olds' (n = 101; Mage  = 5.12 years, SD = 0.67; 53% male) ability to distinguish moral and conventional transgressions along different criteria and teacher ratings of proactive and reactive aggression. Latent difference score modeling revealed that moral transgressions were judged more unacceptable and wrong independent of rules and authority than conventional violations, but significant variability in moral-conventional distinctions was also observed. Proactive aggression was associated with less-and reactive aggression was associated with greater-differentiation in moral and conventional concepts. Proactive aggression was not associated with deficits in moral knowledge when other common assessments of early moral understanding were employed, highlighting the importance of using theoretically informed measures of moral judgments and aggression. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. MORALITY BEYOND CONTRACTUALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Naves de Brito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I intend to outline a moral concept whichcould be the bases for an immanent theory of values which issustained by the economy of feelings involved in the moralconfrontation characteristic of the social life of animals possessing acomplex nervous system, as is particularly the case with certainspecies of mammals, including homo sapiens. What gives a moraldimension to these feelings is the way in which they interfere with and determine the mutual behaviour of individuals within a group, and it is through this process that values are devised, sustained and transmitted. The route I will take is as follows: I will begin by discussing the problem of normativity, on the basis of an updating of the naturalist fallacy by way of the genetic fallacy, and from the point of view of a theory of value. This means that I will not approach the issue directly via the problem of duty, but by showing that it is connected to, and better understood within, a perspective of value. The choice in a moral theory of the measure of what is good in it has fundamental implications for the concept of duty, which is at the heart of of any discussion concerning normativity. This connection shall be clarified. I will then dispute the thesis that the individual (in the civil and legal sense attributed to the term by the Enlightenment is an adequate starting-point for practical philosophy, and criticise the limits which tradition has placed on what can be considered moral whilst, by the same token, criticising classical contractualist concepts of morality which has been the bases for the majority of moral approaches in contemporary philosophy including for naturalistic ones.

  19. 'Promising Spaces': Universities' Critical-Moral Mission and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together traditional ideas about how transmitting university knowledge connects to universities' critical-moral functions, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach adapted for education, and Basil Bernstein's theories about knowledge distribution. Focusing on the educative function, the aim is to develop a ...

  20. [The moral values of Malthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilquin, E

    1998-01-01

    "More than his other writing, Malthus' first essay 'Essay on the Principle of Population' is a militant text, its arguments based more strongly on moral positions than scientific data.... In Malthusian demographic theory, 'vice' and 'moral constraint', factors in human behaviour, play a fundamental role that is indissociable from their moral significance. With his primary concern to preserve human freedom, but torn between his tendency toward idealism and his demand for realism, Malthus developed a pragmatic morality, a morality of the lesser evil, today described as 'Malthusian pessimism'." (EXCERPT)

  1. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  2. Law and Morals. Prolegomena (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae V. DURĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the pages of this study we have emphasized the relation between Law and Morals, between what is just and in just, talking thus not only about the nature of the Law and of the Morals, but also about the relation between the juridical norms and the moral principles. An evaluation of the historical process of the emergence of Law and Morals – be it brief – has enabled us to notice that the Law has evolved step by step from the Moral norms and from the customs of a moral nature, hence the conclusion that the positive juridical norms should also express, in their content, values of a moral nature. In fact, from an ontological point of view, between Law and Morals could not be a divorce, since the notions of “righteousness” and of “justice” themselves are categories of Morals. That is why the theory of juridical positivism, according to which the rule of Law can exist in the absence of Morals since the state is the only source of Law, has no credibility both from a historical and philosophical and from a juridical point of view. Finally, the increasingly higher interest of the philosophers and jurists of our time to perceive and express the content of the nature of Law adequately and, ipso facto, the relation between this one and Morals, was also determined by the international and European legislation regarding the human fundamental rights and liberties.

  3. Law and Morals. Prolegomena (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae V. DURĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the pages of this study we have emphasized the relation between Law and Morals, between what is just and in just, talking thus not only about the nature of the Law and of the Morals, but also about the relation between the juridical norms and the moral principles. An evaluation of the historical process of the emergence of Law and Morals – be it brief – has enabled us to notice that the Law has evolved step by step from the Moral norms and from the customs of a moral nature, hence the conclusion that the positive juridical norms should also express, in their content, values of a moral nature. In fact, from an ontological point of view, between Law and Morals could not be a divorce, since the notions of “righteousness” and of “justice” themselves are categories of Morals. That is why the theory of juridical positivism, according to which the rule of Law can exist in the absence of Morals since the state is the only source of Law, has no credibility both from a historical and philosophical and from a juridical point of view. Finally, the increasingly higher interest of the philosophers and jurists of our time to perceive and express the content of the nature of Law adequately and, ipso facto, the relation between this one and Morals, was also determined by the international and European legislation regarding the human fundamental rights and liberties.

  4. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moral distress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Parsons, Robin; Rodriguez, Lori; Goyal, Deepika

    2013-11-01

    For nurses, moral distress leads to burnout, attrition, compassion fatigue, and patient avoidance. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design, we assessed the frequency, intensity, and type of moral distress in 51 emergency nurses in 1 community hospital using a 21-item, self-report, Likert-type questionnaire. Results showed a total mean moral distress level of 3.18, indicative of overall low moral distress. Situations with the highest levels of moral distress were related to the competency of health care providers and following family wishes to continue life support, also known as futile care. Moral distress was the reason given by 6.6% of registered nurses for leaving a previous position, 20% said that they had considered leaving a position but did not, and 13.3% stated that they are currently considering leaving their position because of moral distress. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Sociomateriality of Creativity in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the sociomateriality of creativity in everyday life. Whilst creativity research has traditionally been concerned with the intellectual and individual skills promoting creativity, such as the ability to apply divergent thinking, this author anchors creativity in social practice...

  7. Personal ways of handling everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Meinert

    While there has been repeated calls for Personality Psychology to study persons' behavior in real situations (for instance, Funder, 2001; Baumeister, Funder & Vohs, 2005), what persons actually do in their everyday lives is still a neglected area of research in Personality Psychology.  But studying...... behavior risks substituting a context-free personality with a personality bound to a single given situation - when persons actually move in and across different contexts in their everyday lives.  Therefore, this project studies "personality" from a different angle: Everyday situations are set within social...... structures of daily life, such as work schedules, transport itineraries, business opening hours, and calendars with workdays and weekends.  These structures order the activities of persons.  The project explores how persons conduct their everyday life in relation to such arrangements, by looking...

  8. Self-recognition in everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Brédart, Serge; Young, A. W.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A sample of everyday difficulties was collected, encompassing errors and unusual experiences participants had encountered when recognising their own faces in everyday life, with the aim of characterising similarities and differences between the reported difficulties and the major forms of self-recognition impairments described in the neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric literatures (prosopagnosia, mirrored-self misidentification, and Capgras delusion). METHOD: A total of 70 p...

  9. The Third Tear in Everyday Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Katya Mandoki

    2010-01-01

    Although totally overlooked by mainstream aesthetic theory, various paths were nevertheless left open for addressing everyday aesthetics, a natural yet surprisingly controversial topic. Why they were never taken until recently, when the theme of everyday aesthetics is now becoming fashionable, can be explained not only by the obvious fact of philosophical aesthetics’ restrictive focal point on art but, among other reasons, by a kind of fetishism that demands an object of recognized value for...

  10. Rituals of interaction in everyday life: Goffman, Durkheim player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Lopes de Carvalho Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n34p137 This article proposes an exegesis of Goffman’s affiliation to Durkheim’s sociology, relating two works: Interaction Ritual and The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. He emphasizes two aspects that estimate present in both authors: the rites and the sacredness of the individual and the moral dimension of life in society. For Goffman the interaction rites are occasions to affirm the moral and social order. In a face-to-face, each social actor seeks to provide him a prized image, the “face” or “positive social value a person effectively claims by line of action that others assume that it adopted in the particular contact course.” In Interaction Ritual, Goffman critical sociologists and social anthropologists who, being engaged in the symbolic significance of modern society from Durkheim, did not take into account the notion of soul, present in the Elementary Forms of Religious Life. After identifying the intellectual and scientific influence in the formation of habitus and sociological métier Goffman, the text proposes to examine notions such rules, soul, rites, deference and the size necessary for the understanding of the social fabric in the order of interaction. It follows exposing a comparative table of the rites as described by Goffman modeled from Durkheim’s typology. It is expected that the reading of Goffman the light of Durkheim is an access road to the sociology of the first, and a way to update the contributions of the second reading of the social fabric of everyday life.

  11. Bullying and defending behavior: The role of explicit and implicit moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Research on bullying has highlighted the role of morality in explaining the different behavior of students during bullying episodes. However, the research has been limited to the analysis of explicit measures of moral characteristics and moral reasoning, whereas implicit measures have yet to be fully considered. To overcome this limitation, this study investigated the association between bullying and defending, on one hand, and both explicit (moral disengagement, self-importance of moral values) and implicit (immediate affect toward moral stimuli [IAMS]) moral components, on the other hand. Young adolescents (N=279, mean age=11years, 9months, 44.4% girls) completed a series of self-report scales and individually performed a computer task investigating the IAMS. Two hierarchical regressions (bootstrapping method) were performed. Results showed that moral disengagement was associated with bullying and defending behavior at high levels of IAMS, however not when IAMS was low. In contrast, self-importance of moral values was not significantly associated to the two behaviors when IAMS was high whereas both associations were significant at low levels of IAMS. These results significantly expand previous knowledge about the role of morality in bullying and defending behavior. In particular, they highlight the role of the interaction between explicit and implicit moral dimensions in predicting bullying and defending behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moral integrity and moral courage: can you teach it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia Jeanne; Hoffpauir, Rebecca; Newbanks, Shirlene; Kelley, Jane H

    2013-04-01

    Nursing has been spared the ethical scandal of many other professions, but issues of compromised moral integrity are growing in practice and education. This study was structured to investigate faculty perceptions of the challenges encountered regarding moral integrity in academia and strategies to promote nursing students' moral integrity and moral courage. A content analysis of the responses to questions about challenges and strategies was completed. Themes identified from the data on student and instructor beliefs and behaviors correspond to those found in the literature. The need for instructors to model a high level of integrity and to create high-integrity classrooms and a community of learning were identified as essential. A finding different from other study results is that beliefs drive moral behaviors and must be the focus of strategies for change. A consensus was expressed that mechanisms are urgently needed to further identify and integrate strategies to enhance student moral integrity. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Getting moral enhancement right: the desirability of moral bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-03-01

    We respond to a number of objections raised by John Harris in this journal to our argument that we should pursue genetic and other biological means of morally enhancing human beings (moral bioenhancement). We claim that human beings now have at their disposal means of wiping out life on Earth and that traditional methods of moral education are probably insufficient to achieve the moral enhancement required to ensure that this will not happen. Hence, we argue, moral bioenhancement should be sought and applied. We argue that cognitive enhancement and technological progress raise acute problems because it is easier to harm than to benefit. We address objections to this argument. We also respond to objections that moral bioenhancement: (1) interferes with freedom; (2) cannot be made to target immoral dispositions precisely; (3) is redundant, since cognitive enhancement by itself suffices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy behav...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  15. Moral og frihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted

    2011-01-01

    at eliminere denne tvetydighed ved at levere en rationel rekonstruktion af det meningsmæssige indhold i begrebet kontrakausal frihed, således at en mere præcis teoretisk forståelse kan afløse de vage intuitioner vi har på området. Det er endvidere artiklens tese, at forbindelsen mellem frihed og moral skyldes...

  16. Tillid, socialitet og moral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer tillids og mistillids dobbeltkarakter som umiddelbar indstilling og villet handling. Det argumenteres, at tillid er et væsenligt fænomen til forståelse af menneskelig socialitet, idet tillid i sin grund er et forhold, der udspænder sig mellem mennesker. Desuden undersøges forh...... forholdet til moral, hvor det hævdes, at tillid mellem mennesker ikke nødvendigvis er moralsk legitimeret....

  17. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Westrin, C. G.; Nilstun, T.; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  18. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  19. Morality problems in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Abakarova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Having been defined the position of morality in the modern ecological space it was found that ecological crisis increases because of spirit crisis, education crisis and human crisis. Defining the different levels of human spirituality it is revealed that at the highest level the nature is perceived as a human value, a value just as for people living in it.

  20. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  1. Rebuilding morale after downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H

    2001-01-01

    Motivating employees is one of a manager's most important roles, but it is a challenge in today's shifting health-care market. Decreasing funding and a changing patient population are forcing hospitals to either cut costs or go out of business. In such a tense environment, the possibility of layoffs continually looms over our heads. Whether your laboratory is contemplating job cuts or you already have been through them, you know there is no worse threat to employee morale. A March 1996 Strategic Management survey reported that poor morale is the worst human resource problem among 81% of 691 U.S. hospitals. Ronald Henkoff said it best in the January 1994 issue of Fortune Magazine: "A distressing 80% of downsizers admit that the morale of the remaining employees has been mugged. These sullen, dispirited, hunkered-down folks, lest we forget, are the very people who are supposed to revitalize our enterprise and delight our customers." Many times, when we focus on cost constraints and customer service, we overlook what we might do to improve trust among our staff. Rather than letting bad feelings run their course after 1999 job cuts, we decided to intervene. We developed new management tools and recovery interventions at Children's Medical Center to ward off discontent after the changes.

  2. Empathy mediates the effects of age and sex on altruistic moral decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B. Rosen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM, which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet.One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female, aged 19 to 86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice everyday life situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships.A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision-making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM.Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called positivity effect and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological

  3. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  4. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  5. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  6. The Failure of New Atheism Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Delfino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available New atheists, such as Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris, generally speaking, are committed to two main beliefs. The first is scientism, which is the view that only science can give us complete and reliable knowledge of reality. The second is metaphysical naturalism, which is the view that no supernatural entities exist. In this article the author focuses on the metaphysical naturalism that new atheists and other naturalists accept, with the goal of answering the following question: Can metaphysical naturalism provide an adequate foundation for objective moral values? He argues that the answer is “no” and he discusses several serious problems inherent in a naturalistic account of the foundation of morality.

  7. Motivational Aspects of Moral Learning and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses a puzzle about moral learning concerning its social context and the potential for moral progress: Won't the social context of moral learning shape moral perceptions, beliefs, and motivation in ways that will inevitably "limit" moral cognition, motivation, and progress? It addresses the relationships between…

  8. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  9. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  10. Moral transhumanism: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennison, Michael N

    2012-08-01

    Although transhumanism offers hope for the transcendence of human biological limitations, it generates many intrinsic and consequential ethical concerns. The latter include issues such as the exacerbation of social inequalities and the exponentially increasing technological capacity to cause harm. To mitigate these risks, many thinkers have initiated investigations into the possibility of moral enhancement that could limit the power disparities facilitated by biotechnological enhancement. The arguments often focus on whether moral enhancement is morally permissible, or even obligatory, and remain largely in the realm of the hypothetical. This paper proposes that psilocybin may represent a viable, practical option for moral enhancement and that its further research in the context of moral psychology could comprise the next step in the development of moral transhumanism.

  11. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Social theory and the everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    that the tradition of social theory can benefit from being linked to Wittgenstein’s method which suggests a way of theorizing on the basis of detailed case-knowledge; that it can profit from bringing this method into an explicit relation to existing approaches, styles and tools in social theory. Despite its sketchy...... and unfinished character, Wittgenstein’s case study method can be a guide for a way of bridging the widening gap between theoretical and empirical forms of research that can be observed in the social sciences today....

  13. Nurse ethical awareness: Understanding the nature of everyday practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee; Grace, Pamela

    2017-08-01

    Much attention has been paid to the role of the nurse in recognizing and addressing ethical dilemmas. There has been less emphasis, however, on the issue of whether or not nurses understand the ethical nature of everyday practice. Awareness of the inherently ethical nature of practice is a component of nurse ethical sensitivity, which has been identified as a component of ethical decision-making. Ethical sensitivity is generally accepted as a necessary precursor to moral agency, in that recognition of the ethical content of practice is necessary before consistent action on behalf of patient interests can take place. This awareness is also compulsory in ensuring patient good by recognizing the unique interests and wishes of individuals, in line with an ethic of care. Scholarly and research literature are used to argue that bolstering ethical awareness and ensuring that nurses understand the ethical nature of the role are an obligation of the profession. Based on this line of reasoning, recommendations for education and practice, along with directions for future research, are suggested.

  14. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Doerrenberg, Philipp; Peichl, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  15. Nudging the Public Sphere: A Habermasian Perspective on Public Deliberation as an Aim of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an account of the understanding citizens need in order to justify moral principles in the public sphere and it identifies an important role for moral education in the promotion of that civic understanding. I develop this account through a contrastive analysis of Phillip Kitcher's conception of public knowledge and Jurgen…

  16. Learning about concepts through everyday language interactions in preschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjems L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In several Nordic countries, the pedagogy in preschools has a social pedagogical ideal. The focus is on development of social competence, aiming to empower children. There is only minimal focus on teaching and academic learning. The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of support children’s concept formation can receive when children are engaged in everyday language interactions with preschool teachers in Norway. Theoretically, the article is based on theories developed from Vygotsky’s (1987 perspectives on language as a mediating tool. Design. Two classrooms with two preschool teachers and 18 children in each class participated in the study. The preschool was chosen because it especially focused on children’s language learning. Method. This study is a qualitative study based on video-taped observations in one preschool, and the data are video-taped observations of language interactions between two preschool teachers and children in two preschool classrooms. Most language interactions in Norway occur in everyday conversations such as play, art activities and meals. Results. The teachers interacted with the children around topics that engage the children and topics they took initiative to talk about. The teachers invited the children in warm ways to use language to make meaning of the shared topic. However, they seldom presented supplementary concepts or expanded the children’s concept understanding with their own knowledge. Conclusion. The social pedagogical ideal may have made them associate such sharing of knowledge with teaching.

  17. Dietary education must fit into everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmann Hempler, Nana; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study...... diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. RESULTS: Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection...... between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants' taste preferences in the educational setting. CONCLUSION: Dietary education...

  18. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...

  19. The Third Tear in Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Mandoki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although totally overlooked by mainstream aesthetic theory, various paths were nevertheless left open for addressing everyday aesthetics, a natural yet surprisingly controversial topic. Why they were never taken until recently, when the theme of everyday aesthetics is now becoming fashionable, can be explained not only by the obvious fact of philosophical aesthetics’ restrictive focal point on art but, among other reasons, by a kind of fetishism that demands an object of recognized value for legitimating an aesthetic inquiry. This new popularity entails, however, certain theoretical risks such as clinging to traditional art-centric and beauty-centric categories to explain the everyday and borrowing their concepts uncritically. In this paper I will examine some of these paths and risks with special emphasis on current events which exude aesthetics throughout their pores and require attention from this discipline.

  20. Executive Summary: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn

    To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward. The full report is available online at http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/Moral-Distress-Supplement.aspx.

  1. Parental Morality and Family Processes as Predictors of Adolescent Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fiona A.; Matawie, Kenan M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parents' moral thought and family processes are involved in the socialization of adolescent moral thought. Olson et al's (1992) Circumplex Model and White's (2000) Family Socialization Model provided the conceptual framework for predicting that families high in cohesion, adaptability and communication…

  2. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    In an influential paper, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability there are p......In an influential paper, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability...... there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the paper is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  3. Moral Judgments as Descriptions of Institutional Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Ferber, Rafael

    1994-01-01

    It deals with the question of what a moral judgment is. On the one hand, a satisfactory theory of moral judgments must take into account the descriptive character of moral judgments and the realistic language of morals. On the other hand, it must also meet the non-descriptive character of moral judgments that consists in the recommending or condemning element and in the fact that normative statements are derived from moral judgments. However, cognitivism and emotivism or “normativism” are...

  4. Moral Traditions And Norms Of Education

    OpenAIRE

    ALDAMBERGENOVA, Gauhar; Kanayeva, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses moral and political, moral and economic, moral and business, moral and pragmatic, hygienic and other relations. The concept of " ethical tradition" includes not only moral values but also a set of core components associated with the development of ethical and moral qualities that characterize it against the backdrop of life events. Here it is pertinent to note that it is very import...

  5. Effects of brain lesions on moral agency: ethical dilemmas in investigating moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Markus; Müller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the "brain produces behavior" is a guiding idea in neuroscience. It is thus of no surprise that establishing an interrelation between brain pathology and antisocial behavior has a long history in brain research. However, interrelating the brain with moral agency--the ability to act in reference to right and wrong--is tricky with respect to therapy and rehabilitation of patients affected by brain lesions. In this contribution, we outline the complexity of the relationship between the brain and moral behavior, and we discuss ethical issues of the neuroscience of ethics and of its clinical consequences. First, we introduce a theory of moral agency and apply it to the issue of behavioral changes caused by brain lesions. Second, we present a typology of brain lesions both with respect to their cause, their temporal development, and the potential for neural plasticity allowing for rehabilitation. We exemplify this scheme with case studies and outline major knowledge gaps that are relevant for clinical practice. Third, we analyze ethical pitfalls when trying to understand the brain-morality relation. In this way, our contribution addresses both researchers in neuroscience of ethics and clinicians who treat patients affected by brain lesions to better understand the complex ethical questions, which are raised by research and therapy of brain lesion patients.

  6. Religiosity And Moral Competence: A Study Of Malaysia's Accounting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaru Mustapha ZUBAIRU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the earliest part of the twenty-first century, the world was rocked by several financial scandals; from Enron to WorldCom; Tyco to Parmalat; Arthur Andersen to Shell, and more recently, the global financial crisis; these scandals directed the world’s attention towards the seemingly ever-growing moral malaise amongst accountants and business people. In order to address this alarming increase in unethical and immoral behaviours among accountants and business people in Malaysia, the government mandated the teaching of Islamic and Moral studies at all levels of education. The underlying assumption was that an increased level of religiosity would translate into higher levels of moral competency. This paper sought to assess the effectiveness of Malaysia's educational policy of mandatory Islamic studies in developing the moral competencies of the country's future Muslim accountants. This was achieved by determining whether a positive relationship existed between the religiosity and moral competencies of Muslim accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The results revealed that although a small and positive correlation existed between the students' religiosity and moral competencies, a knowledge gap existed preventing them from being able to fully apply Islamic principles in an accounting context

  7. Information Behaviour, Health Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Health Behaviour in Icelanders' Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsdottir, Agusta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about how different groups of Icelanders take advantage of information about health and lifestyle in their everyday life. Method: A random sample of 1,000 people was used in the study and data was gathered as a postal survey. Response rate was 50.8%. Analysis: K-means cluster analysis was…

  8. When Traditions Become Innovations and Innovations Become Traditions in Everyday Food Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the way learning to cook remains important for the maintenance of "ethnic" food traditions and how sharing food knowledge plays a role in intercultural exchanges. Ethnographic data from an ongoing study in Melbourne is presented to highlight how, in everyday practices, both tradition and innovation are involved in…

  9. Children's Use of Meta-Cognition in Solving Everyday Problems: Children's Monetary Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chwee Beng; Koh, Noi Keng; Cai, Xin Le; Quek, Choon Lang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how children use meta-cognition in their everyday problem-solving, particularly making monetary decisions. A particular focus was to identify components of meta-cognition, such as regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition observed in children's monetary decision-making process, the roles of…

  10. The Critique of The Moral Worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Heymann

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El examen de la visión moral del mundo que Hegel realiza en la Fenomenología del Espíritu VI C es polémico y hostil en sus acentos. Sin embargo, las objeciones puntuales a los planteamientos comunes a la ética kantiana y fichteana son justas y deben ser tenidas en cuenta cuando tratamos de rescatar lo que la ética kantiana tiene de convincente.La crítica de Hegel se centra en la relación que se da en todo actuar entre la conciencia y la naturaleza: tanto la naturaleza a la cual la acción se aplica y en medio de la cual se desenvuelve, como la naturaleza interior que alimenta y da fuerza ejecutiva al pensar y querer. Hegel muestra que la reivindicación de una autarquía de la conciencia moral no es sólo quimérica; ella desconoce la razón de ser y la posibilidad interna de la acción. Al poner de manifiesto la esencial incompletitud de todo saber moral, sea en la forma de una conciencia en general, sea en la de una individualidad que se autoafirma, Hegel abre una perspectiva a su noción de espíritu absoluto, entendido como la conciencia que reconoce en la contrariedad y en su insuficiencia su propio y adecuado elemento vital. Abstract:Hegel's examination of the “moral worldview” in his Phenomenology of Spirit , VI C, is anything but friendly. Nevertheless, his precise objections to the common basis of Kant's and Fichte's ethics are justified, and we must give them due attention if we want to work out what we find convincing in Kantian ethics. Hegel's critique focuses on the relationship between consciousness and nature: both the world in which action takes place and develops, and our inner nature which nurtures and gives executive force to our thought and our inclinations. To consider moral consciousness autarchic is not only unrealistic, according to Hegel; it also means to ignore the rationale and the internal possibility of action. By revealing the essential incompleteness of all moral knowledge, this chapter opens a

  11. The rat-a-gorical imperative: Moral intuition and the limits of affective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joshua D

    2017-10-01

    Decades of psychological research have demonstrated that intuitive judgments are often unreliable, thanks to their inflexible reliance on limited information (Kahneman, 2003, 2011). Research on the computational underpinnings of learning, however, indicates that intuitions may be acquired by sophisticated learning mechanisms that are highly sensitive and integrative. With this in mind, Railton (2014) urges a more optimistic view of moral intuition. Is such optimism warranted? Elsewhere (Greene, 2013) I've argued that moral intuitions offer reasonably good advice concerning the give-and-take of everyday social life, addressing the basic problem of cooperation within a "tribe" ("Me vs. Us"), but that moral intuitions offer unreliable advice concerning disagreements between tribes with competing interests and values ("Us vs. Them"). Here I argue that a computational perspective on moral learning underscores these conclusions. The acquisition of good moral intuitions requires both good (representative) data and good (value-aligned) training. In the case of inter-tribal disagreement (public moral controversy), the problem of bad training looms large, as training processes may simply reinforce tribal differences. With respect to moral philosophy and the paradoxical problems it addresses, the problem of bad data looms large, as theorists seek principles that minimize counter-intuitive implications, not only in typical real-world cases, but in unusual, often hypothetical, cases such as some trolley dilemmas. In such cases the prevailing real-world relationships between actions and consequences are severed or reversed, yielding intuitions that give the right answers to the wrong questions. Such intuitions-which we may experience as the voice of duty or virtue-may simply reflect the computational limitations inherent in affective learning. I conclude, in optimistic agreement with Railton, that progress in moral philosophy depends on our having a better understanding of the

  12. Universal moral grammar: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre

    2007-09-01

    A new framework for the study of the human moral faculty is currently receiving much attention: the so-called 'universal moral grammar' framework. It is based on an intriguing analogy, first pointed out by Rawls, between the study of the human moral sense and Chomsky's research program into the human language faculty. To assess UMG, we ask: is moral competence modular? Does it have an underlying hierarchical grammatical structure? Does moral diversity rest on culture-dependant parameters? We review the evidence and argue that formal grammatical concepts are of limited value for the study of moral judgments, moral development and moral diversity.

  13. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  14. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  15. Teaching Morality in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lillian; Ogletree, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Describes development of theories of moral education, including those of William McGuffy, John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Lawrence Kohlberg. Illustrates relationship of Kohlberg's stages of moral maturity to Piaget's stages of cognitive development. Notes criticisms of Kohlberg's theory, and describes alternatives including behavior modification and…

  16. Children's Moral Relationships with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; McCoy, Ann

    Two studies of the development of children's moral relationships with nature addressed such questions as: (1) What does it mean to say that we have an obligation not to harm the natural environment? (2) Does the natural environment feel pain? (3) Does it have rights? or (4) Is moral obligation an inappropriate construct by which to understand the…

  17. The social dynamics of morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, I try to answer fundamental questions about how morality functions in various settings. In particular, I use a wide range of content domains, measures, methods and manipulations to examine how people react to the morally motivated behavior of others. In exploring this issue, I

  18. An Anatomy of Moral Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braham, M.; van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This paper examines the structure of moral responsibility for outcomes. A central feature of the analysis is a condition that we term the 'avoidance potential', which gives precision to the idea that moral responsibility implies a reasonable demand that an agent should have acted otherwise. We show

  19. Moral Reasoning and Political Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, James; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This study showed that subjects who reasoned at the conventional moral level were politically conservative, while preconventional subjects favored violent radicalism. The seemingly intimate relationship between the logical structures of moral argumentation and the content of political idealogy is discussed. (Author/JB)

  20. Teaching Moral Reasoning through Gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches…

  1. Moral Values and University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. Paul

    1977-01-01

    Reviews current approaches to moral education that seem most applicable to higher education: Durkheim's and Dewey's noncognitive approaches; Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental approach; British moral educators' rational-analytic approaches; and Feinberg's and Polyani's comprehensive perspectives. Includes a discussion of some existing U.S.…

  2. Avoidance, evasion, and taxpayer morality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christians, Allison

    2014-01-01

    ...). (1) I suggested that both the media and the activists were, in effect, combining tax evasion and tax avoidance into a single tax compliance framework with which to build a single message about the integral role of morality in taxpayer behavior. However, a turn to morality to avoid delineating in law between that which is illegal (evas...

  3. Moral values in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugelers, W.; Peterson, P.; Baker, E.; McGaw, B.

    2010-01-01

    Moral values are interwoven in all aspects of teaching: in the curriculum, in the school culture, and as moral examples in teachers' behavior. Working with values is an essential part of teaching. Educating students to become teachers requires the teachers to learn how values are embedded in

  4. Moral Action in Everyday Life: An Ethics Process to Foster Interest & Determination in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Sekerka, Leslie E.

    2006-01-01

    Business Ethics in a Global World: China, India, and Beyond - Santa Clara University -March 10, 2006 - Leslie E. Sekerka, Ph.D.Assistant Professor, Organizational Behavior & EthicsNaval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA

  5. Moral philosophy and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narveson, J

    1986-03-01

    There are two main moral issues regarding suicide: first, whether suicide is morally permissible, and if so, in what circumstances; and second, whether a person who knows that someone is contemplating or attempting suicide has an obligation to intervene and if so, how strong that obligation is. With respect to the first issue, it is difficult to resist the conclusion that suicide is not wrong in itself. To characterize suicide as murder of one's self is incorrect. Even if people who commit suicide deprive the community of some good, there is no general duty to provide good services to others. Theological objections to suicide are not persuasive. And suicide could be rational. For example, if one's scheme of values is to maximize the overall value of experience, and if at some point in the future negative value outweighs positive value, suicide would be rationally indicated. With respect to intervention, different considerations apply to persons involved with someone contemplating or attempting suicide, professionals, and the general public. Those who are involved have their own lives to live and need not alter them even when another person's life is at stake. Professionals should not become paternalistic authorities who keep subjects alive against their will and miserable for indefinite periods. The general public has only a weak duty to save strangers from suicide.

  6. Choosy moral punishers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

  7. The moral bioenhancement of psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarini, Elvio; Malatesti, Luca

    2017-10-01

    We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can justify to a psychopath being the recipient of mandatory moral bioenhancement because he has a reason to require the application of this prescription to other psychopaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Crime fiction and moral emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The article first discusses how crime fiction centrally activates moral emotions related to feelings of social trust and social conflicts. The article uses psychological theory to analyse audio-visual fiction, and it takes an evolutionary stance in relation to morality; within film studies......, and especially within literary studies, the inspiration from evolutionary studies has been strong in the last decade. Humans are adapted to group living, and emotions linked to fairness have an innate basis. The article then shows how different crime stories activate different stages in Kohlberg’s functional...... typology of moral systems and how different stages relate to different social systems. Further, a functional description of the various moral emotions is used to characterize crime fictions. The use of moral emotions in crime fiction is exemplified in Oplev’s The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009), angry...

  9. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  10. Silence as a Response to Everyday Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2016-01-01

    of fantasy—understood as unconscious or subconscious mental processes—may contribute to the analysis of everyday violence and psychic distress. Distinguishing between what I term deliberate and subconscious silence, I explore the role that fantasy plays when Vietnamese women silently endure intimate partner...

  11. The Dynamic Structure of Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    1986. Available as Technical Report 918, MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab- oratory, 1986. Pierre Bourdieu , Outline of a theory of practice, Cambridge...everyday cognition (see for example Bourdieu 1977, Garfinkel 1967, Lave 1988, Rogoff and Lave 1984, Scribner 198-1, Wertsch 1985). Much of this work is

  12. Everyday Inclusive Web Design: An Activity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Website accessibility is a problem that affects millions of people with disabilities. While most current accessibility initiatives target government or commercial sites, a growing segment of online content is being created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible to users with disabilities. Everyday inclusive Web…

  13. Audio Satellites – Overhearing Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten; Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    around or displaced arbitrarily in a given landscape. In the web interface, the different sound streams from the individual satellites can be mixed together to form a cooperative soundscape. The project thus allows people to tune into and explore the overheard soundscape of everyday life...

  14. Naturalistic driving : observing everyday driving behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic Driving is a relatively new research method for the observation of everyday driving behaviour of road users. For this purpose, systems are installed in subjects’ own vehicles that unobtrusively register vehicle manoeuvres, driver behaviour (such as eye, head and hand manoeuvres) and

  15. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  16. Mechanisms of Fatigue in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, Johanna M.; Nater, Urs M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to find out which factors predict and increase fatigue in everyday life with the aim of shedding light on mechanisms relevant for the chronification of fatigue. We expected stress to (prospectively) predict fatigue. Also, we expected fatigue to (prospectively) predict stress because it diminishes subjective coping abilities. Further, we expected hypoactivity of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) ax...

  17. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Sørensen, Bodil; Jochumsen, Bente Würtz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value...

  18. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  19. Bringing Performance Art into Everyday Life Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This position paper presents the concept of a tangible and modular interconnected “platform” for interactive digital artworks in everyday environments. Furthermore it presents a proposal for the study of human-human interaction through the use of digital systems embedded in these platforms. Final...

  20. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  1. An approach to facilitate healthcare professionals' readiness to support technology use in everyday life for persons with dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Everyday technologies (ETs) like microwave ovens and automatic telephone services as well as assistive technologies (ATs) are often used in the performance of everyday activities. As a consequence, the ability to manage technology is important. This pilot study aimed to clarify the applicability of a model for knowledge translation to support healthcare professionals, to support technology use among older adults with dementia and their significant others. An additional aim was to explore the ...

  2. Everyday use of assistive technology devices in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Ingvil; Fallang, Bjørg; Østensjø, Sigrid

    2016-11-01

    To gain more knowledge about ATDs as social-cultural objects in school settings, particularly from the children's perspective. Nine children with cerebral palsy, aged five to six years, were observed 3 days in kindergarten and twice in the first year at primary school. At the primary school, we interviewed the children. During the interviews, the children were shown photos taken during the observations. In addition, dialogues with parents, therapists and school staff were carried out. ATDs seem to have the potential both to exacerbate disability and to enhance selfhood, embodied capacities and participation. Through use, ATDs become social objects with symbolic values that influence their use. Devices corporally embedded into the child's body schema appeared as facilitators for participation in culturally valued activities. In contrast, devices prescribed as medical interventions tended to be greeted with ambivalence by the children themselves, their parents and school staff. A device incorporated into one situation was not necessarily relevant for use in another. In recognizing the value of exploring children's experiences, professionals are left with the challenge of creating space for children to reflect on the worthiness of an ATD across place, time and functionality. Implications for Rehabilitation Used in everyday life, ATDs become social objects with potential both to exacerbate disability and to enhance selfhood, embodied capacities and participation. The child's everyday environment is a vulnerable setting for implementing rehabilitation interventions, such as ATDs. Creating space for children to reflect on the worthiness of an ATD, regarding place, time and functionality, may enhance their participation in everyday life.

  3. Morality and Ecological Moral: contributions to the teaching practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligiane Raimundo Gomes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research searched to investigate if the acquisition of the notion of respect to the environment, that we call “ecological moral”, is constructed during the childish development, solidarily to the construction of the morality, presupposing that the notion of respect on the ecological field is the same that found the conquest of the moral autonomy. For this investigation, it had been taken a sample of 15 participants, five by age group – form 6 to 8 years old, 10 to 11 years old and 13 to 15 years old. Through the piagetian clinical method, it was told to the children and adolescents two groups of stories: three stories were taken from Piaget’s studies about morality, focusing the conscience of rules and the notions of lie and justice, and four another hypothetical stories were created specifically to study the respect to the environment, focusing, respectively, the selective collection, the extinction of the birds, the pollution of a river and the cutting of tree. The statements of the participants were analysed according to the theoretical reference of Piaget concerning to the morality, also helped by some studious that have been amplifying the application field of Piaget’s theory. The data analysis allowed us to set up three levels for the development of the notion of respect to the environment, proving that the ecological moral has a psychogenetic dimension and there is a relation between the development of the morality and the acquisition of the ecological moral.

  4. Moral bioenhancement: much ado about nothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada; Salles, Arleen

    2015-05-01

    Recently, some have proposed moral bioenhancement as a solution to the serious moral evils that humans face. Seemingly disillusioned with traditional methods of moral education, proponents of bioenhancement believe that we should pursue and apply biotechnological means to morally enhance human beings. Such proposal has generated a lively debate about the permissibility of moral bioenhancement. We argue here that such debate is specious. The claim that moral bioenhancement is a solution - whether permissible or not - to the serious moral problems that affect human beings is based on several problematic framing assumptions. We evaluate here three of such assumptions: the first rests on a contested understanding of morality, the second consist in a mistaken conception of human moral problems, and the third relates to problematic presuppositions grounding the interpretation of existent scientific evidence presented to defend moral bioenhancement. Once these framing assumptions are identified and critically evaluated, it becomes clear that the moral bioenhancement debate is misguided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children's Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beißert, Hanna M; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children's moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children's daily lives. Participants (N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that - at least in middle childhood - moral developmental status seems to be independent from children's general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  6. The Moral and Ethical Dimensions of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangubhai, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written about teacher thinking and knowledge that underpin teacher behaviour in the classroom. Until the 1990s considerably fewer writers considered the moral and ethical dimension of teaching. This article reports on a study that analysed six Languages Other Than English (LOTE) teachers' reports about their teaching. Under the broad…

  7. Directions for Mind, Brain, and Education: Methods, Models, and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Zachary; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we frame a set of important issues in the emerging field of Mind, Brain, and Education in terms of three broad headings: methods, models, and morality. Under the heading of methods we suggest that the need for synthesis across scientific and practical disciplines entails the pursuit of usable knowledge via a catalytic symbiosis…

  8. Plato's Anti-Kohlbergian Program for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Following Lawrence Kohlberg it has been commonplace to regard Plato's moral theory as "intellectualist", where Plato supposedly believes that becoming virtuous requires nothing other than "philosophical knowledge or intuition of the ideal form of the good". This is a radical misunderstanding of Plato's educational programme,…

  9. Underprivileged citizens´use of technology for everyday health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    In this doctoral thesis, I address the problem of inequality in health by focusing on how underprivileged citizens experience and manage health-related problems in their everyday lives. Particularly, I focus on the citizen’s use of technology for engaging in health-related occupation. The field......’ everyday health management using technology. To achieve this aim, three consecutive studies were conducted....... of research for the thesis is occupational science (OS), while Deweyan pragmatism is called upon as a theoretical frame. The overall aim of this thesis is to develop conceptual knowledge on how to support underprivileged citizens’ engagement in health-related occupation, with attention to these citizens...

  10. Filsafat Moral Ibn Hazm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tajuddin Arafat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKajian ini menitikberatkan pada telaah atas pemikiran etik Ibn Hazm al-Andalusy dalam karyanya al-Akhlaq was-Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan content analysis, tujuan riset ditemukan bahwa dalam karyanya tersebut terdapat beberapa nilai-nilai filosofis yang berkaitan dengan upaya memperbaikimoralitas dan mencari cita-cita luhur manusia, yaitu kebahagiaan. Menurutnya, dalam menghadapi problematika kehidupan serta mencari kebahagiaan, manusia harus lebih menekankan pada upaya-upaya untuk menghilangkan rasa sedih dan kegalauan (thard al-hamm. Selain itu, Ibn Hazm menyatakan bahwa ada empatkebajikan utama, kebajikan lainnya sebagai dasar atas: keadilan (al-’adl, intelegensi (al-fahm, keberanian (an-najadat, dan kedermawanan (al-jud. Sebaliknya, ada empat keburukan utama, di mana seluruh keburukan lainnya didasarkan atas keempatnya, yaitu: ketidak adilan (al-ja`ur, kebodohan (al-jahl, ketakutan (aljubn,dan kekikiran (asy-syuh.Kata kunci: Filsafat Moral, Thard al-Hamm, Kebajikan Utama, Nazahat al-Nufus AbstractThis study emphasizes on Ibn Hazm Al Andalusy’s ethical thoughts in his magnum opus: al Akhlaq was Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. By using content analysis approach, it’s found that there are some philosophical points of Ibn Hazm’s ehical thoughts which looks for good morality and happiness. Ibn Hazm stated that man shall make more efforts on removing downcast, confusion, and anxiety (thard al hamm. He alsodeclared that there are four main righteousnesses (al-fadha`il: justice (al-’adl, intelligence (al-fahm, bravery (an-najadat, and generosity(al-jud.On the contrary, there are also four main adnesses; injustice (al-jaur, folly (al-jahl, fear (al-jubn, and niggardliness (asy-syuh.Keywords: Moral Philosophy, Remove Of Anxiety, Righteousness, Chastity Of Soul

  11. Access to everyday activities in public space : views of people with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Brorsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about problematic situations in public space as experienced by community-dwelling people with dementia, and about how they meet these situations when doing everyday activities there. The aim also included increasing knowledge about transactions between people with dementia and public space. In Study I experiences of accessibility in public space in people with AD were illuminated, with particular focus on places, situations and ac...

  12. Autoridad moral y obediencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauri Álvarez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de autonomía moral ilustrado, que persiste en nuestros días, ha considerado a la obediencia como una conducta ciega e irracional, olvidando el carácter virtuoso que tuvo en el pensamiento de Tomás de Aquino, que asume el de Aristóteles. En este artículo se discute esa concepción ilustrada, demostrando el carácter racional de esa virtud, que ha sido afirmado por destacados autores contemporáneos, tales como Gadamer, Weil y Bochenski; como también por aquellos que en nuestra época reconocen la necesidad del binomio autoridad–obediencia para el desarrollo del autogobierno de la persona humana, tales como MacIntyre, o por Murdoch quien se refiere a las virtudes que lo facilitan.

  13. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-12-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research.

  14. China: moral puzzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T M

    1990-01-01

    This is the first of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim." The author, vice president of Beijing Medical University and vice chairman of the Beijing Academic Association for Morality, identifies population control, euthanasia, and the allocation of health care resources as bioethical issues of current interest in his country. Population policy in China is grounded in public welfare arguments. The idea of a right to choose one's death is found in Chinese philosophy, although Chinese legal experts believe that euthanasia is not compatible with present criminal, civil, or family law. Allocation of health resources remains a problem in China, even throughout the free medical service that serves a small portion, largely composed of government employees, of the country's population of 1.08 billion.

  15. Euthanasia: moral paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, H A

    2001-11-01

    Over the past 30 years, euthanasia has been under continuous debate in The Netherlands. This contribution aims to provide a moral assessment of this debate. It is argued that euthanasia should be understood within a historical context, as a protest against medical power and as a way to bring about good death. Within the euthanasia debate, two paradoxes are identified which make the issue inherently complex and hard to regulate. The first paradox results from the dialectical relation between individual autonomy and relief of suffering as the major justifications of euthanasia. Although euthanasia represents an ultimate effort to give the individual patient control over his dying, the result of the debate is an increase of medical power. The second paradox is that although euthanasia emerged from a commitment to good death, it is resulting in a reduced range of options to bring about good death.

  16. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium......-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is overall moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates; because the agent bears less risk in this case, he actually benefits from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates......; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, which is harmful to him. An increase in overconfidence--either about the base probability of success or the extent to which effort affects it--makes it more likely that high levels of effort are implemented in equilibrium....

  17. The Evolution of Contractual Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary explanations of altruism and human cooperation, first set forth by pioneers such as Darwin, Hamilton and Trivers, suggest that biology might be capable of offering a plausible scientific explanation of the core of human morality. According to this project, morality and human cooperation arise when resourcesare scarce; they cannot be exploited by isolated individuals; and individuals cannot maintain a long-term position of domination over others in order to advance their selfish ends. An important philosophical question that arises with respect to this project has to do with the concepts of de morality and moral motivation that itpresupposes. The evolutionary project has not been clear in this respect. The article argues in favor of two theses: 1 evolutionary explanations of cooperation suggest a contractual type of morality, but they are ambiguous regarding the motivations favored by natural selection, thus reflecting, without resolving it, a traditionaldisagreement between Hobbes’s moral contractualism (selfish motivations and that of Kant (altruistic motivations; 2 in their current form, these explanations cannot resolve that disagreement, but a reflection on the role of the capacity to interpret the motivations and character of others in the evolution of morality could provide arguments in favor of Kantian contractualism.

  18. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The rise of moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Small Children’s Development of a Conduct of Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja; Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    Small Children’s Development of Conduct of Everyday Life. Nordic countries are characterised by a high rate of small children attending day care – in Denmark 18 % of children less than a year and 86 % one-to-three year-olds attend either day care or nursery (Haagensen, 2011). Still we need more...... knowledge about the specific meanings of these societal arrangements and how the youngest children develop their conduct of everyday life in the transitions across home and institutional arrangements as nursery or day care (Haavind, 2011) The aim of this paper is to discuss small children’s (aged 0 to 3...... years) development of a personal conduct of everyday life through participation in social practices among peers, parents and professionals - especially focussing on the children’s life in day care or nursery. We present an on-going two-year ethnographic study during which, we do participatory...

  1. Mirrored morality: an exploration of moral choice in video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Andrew J; Lewis, Nicky

    2012-11-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine how players make moral choices in video games and what effects these choices have on emotional responses to the games. Participants (n=75) filled out a moral foundations questionnaire (MFQ) and then played through the first full act of the video game Fallout 3. Game play was recorded and content analyzed for the moral decisions made. Players also reported their enjoyment of and emotional reactions to the game and reflected on the decisions they made. The majority of players made moral decisions and behaved toward the nonplayer game characters they encountered as if these were actual interpersonal interactions. Individual differences in decision making were predicted by the MFQ. Behaving in antisocial ways did increase guilt, but had no impact on enjoyment.

  2. Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -esteem with the degree of consideration given to certain contextual elements of the moral dilemmas presented. One research question guided the study. The sample consisted of 130 respondents comprising 60 second year students and 70 ...

  3. The Moral Shadows of Shame and Contempt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Are shame and contempt moral, immoral, or non-moral emotions? The answer, I argue in this paper, is less than straightforward.......Are shame and contempt moral, immoral, or non-moral emotions? The answer, I argue in this paper, is less than straightforward....

  4. Towards a holistic study of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Snežana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The to date studies of morality do not provide a holistic picture of a moral person since they most often rely only upon some dimensions of morality neglecting the others. The same goes for leading theoretical orientations in the psychology of moral, such as psychoanalysis, theories of learning and cognitive-development theory. Each enters into one of the dimensions only thus reducing the domain of morality either to moral emotions, moral behavior or to moral thinking. Rest is severely critical and considers those single-dimensional theories of morality unsustainable but also goes one step further. Instead of widely adopted division into emotional, behavioral and cognitive sides of morality, Rest offers his own model of 'four components of morality'. Internal processes in question are 'responsible' for moral behavior, that is they are leading to moral action. It is pointed out that there are numerous cognitive-affective interactions and that internal processes are affected by many situational factors without exerting equal influence on all people. Moral behavior can be expected only if four components are developed and act in harmony. Despite being insufficiently developed, Rest's model reveals possible ways for overcoming 'fallacy' and points to research trends that would lead to a more complete and holistic picture of moral development and moral behavior.

  5. "Living Drawing": Aesthetic Teaching for Moral Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon

    2016-01-01

    With its inherent attributes such as qualitative immediacy, imaginativeness, and embodiment, John Dewey's concept of aesthetic experience makes a difference in moral education, in the ways of empathetic moral perception, moral reasoning, and moral action. If it matters then how can we help students gain aesthetic experience? By analyzing teacher…

  6. To the problem of moral harmony

    OpenAIRE

    GRECHISHNIKOVA NINA PETROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The article devoted to understanding the processes of transformation of public morality. Author specially stopped on the morality of the middle class, as a naturally phenomenon, and shows how utilitarian morality of the middle class becomes a means of resolving a moral dilemma «success or virtue».

  7. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  8. Moral conflicts between groups of agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, A.

    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like 'In the interest

  9. Adult Moral Development: Ancient, Medieval, & Modern Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S.

    1990-01-01

    Traces two accounts of moral maturation--love and reason--from Greek philosophy through Saint Augustine to Kohlberg. Considers that the moral perspective of any age level falls short of an entirely satisfactory conception of morality, allowing the possibility for moral wisdom in both children and adults. (SK)

  10. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  11. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  12. Concern for Close or Distant Others: The Distinction between Moral Identity and Moral Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Research has analyzed the relationship between moral identity--the extent to which people experience their moral character as being central to their self-conception--and the inclusion of other people within one's own moral circle. These studies underline that the higher the moral identity, the larger the moral circle. However, recent studies have…

  13. Moral Law and Moral Education: Defending Kantian Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine why Kantian ethics has had such a hard time of it. I look at readings of Kant's moral theory that have had great force in the 20th century and conclude that these have much to do with an ensuing confusion, which has led to charges of rigidity, formality and severity. Then I demonstrate that when we make moral judgements we…

  14. Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires children use to negotiate a socio-scientific issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to society at large. It focuses on how different interpretative repertoires were used by the students in discussions to legitimise or question their everyday lifestyles. They discussed four possible options that a government might consider to help reduce carbon dioxide production. Six main repertoires were identified: Everyday life, Self-Interest, Environment, Science and Technology, Society and Justice. The Everyday life repertoire was used when students related their discussion to their everyday lifestyles. Science and technology-related solutions were offered to maintain or improve things, but these were sometimes rather unrealistic. Arguments related to environment and health frequently appeared to have a superior status compared to the others. Findings also highlighted how conflicts between the students were actually productive by bringing in several perspectives to negotiate the solutions. These primary school students were, therefore, able to discuss and negotiate a complex real-world SSI. Students positioned themselves as active contributors to society, using their life experiences and limited knowledge to understand the problems that affected their everyday lives. Honing these skills within a school science community of practice could facilitate primary students' engagement with SSIs and empower them as citizens.

  15. The everyday work at a Swedish emergency department--the practitioners' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Henrik; Jakobsson, Eva; Furåker, Carina; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    In the everyday work at emergency departments (EDs), the patients being cared for have different needs and perceived symptoms. To meet their need for emergency care, knowledge of the work is important. The aim of this study is to explore the everyday work at a Swedish ED from a practitioner's perspective. This study has a qualitative, exploratory design with observations and interviews at two EDs. Data were analysed by content analysis. The everyday work is characterised by a rapid, short and standardised encounter with limited scope to provide individualised care, which leads to a mechanical approach. It is also characterised by an adaptive approach in which practitioners strive to be adaptable by structuring everyday work and cooperation to achieve a good workflow. The study shows that the practitioners' encounter with patients and relatives is rapid and of limited duration. The care activities that practitioners mainly perform comprise standard medical management and are performed more mechanically than in a caring way. The practitioners strive to balance the requirements and the realisation of the everyday work through structures and in cooperation with other practitioners, although they work more in parallel than in integrated teams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. From ideals to resignation - interprofessional teams perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Jenny; Graneheim, Ulla Hällgren; Ringnér, Anders; Lindgren, Britt-Marie

    2016-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychiatric inpatient care has been described by both ward staff and patients as being demanding and disorganized, lacking opportunities for quality interactions in everyday life through joint activities. Qualitative research on interprofessional teams' perspectives on everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care is lacking. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Staff have ideals about care and collaboration, but the obstacles they face in everyday life, such as a poor environment, power asymmetry, lacking structure and the demands of managing chaos, mean that they appear to resign and shift focus from the patients' best interests to self-survival. Different professions in general describe the same obstacles in everyday life on the wards but there are also profession-specific perspectives on distancing and feelings of abandonment. To our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the international evidence. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Given these findings we suggest interventions such as Protected Engagement Time as well as reflective dialogues within interprofessional teams. This would help staff to resume their caring role in everyday life in psychiatric inpatient care and put their ideals into practice. Introduction Patients and ward staff describe psychiatric inpatient care as demanding, characterized by unpredictable events, yet research on interprofessional teams perspectives of everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care lacks. Aim This study aims to explore everyday life processes in psychiatric inpatient care, as reported by staff in interprofessional teams. Method A grounded theory design was used and 36 participants were interviewed. Results The analysis resulted in a process-oriented core category From ideals to resignation. Related to this core category were three further categories: Knowing where to go, Walking a path of obstacles and Shifting focus from the patient's best

  17. Recognizing Moral Identity as a Cultural Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fanli; Krettenauer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Current research on moral identity shows that moral identity predicts moral action in Western cultures but not in non-Western cultures. The present paper argues that this may be due to the fact that the concept of moral identity is culturally biased. In order to remedy this situation, we argue that researchers should broaden their scopes of inquiry by adding a cultural lens to their studies of moral identity. This change is important because although some concept of moral identity likely exists in all cultures, it may function in different ways and at different levels in each place. We propose that moral identity is a context-dependent construct tied to varying social and cultural obligations. We argue that Western moral identity stresses an individually oriented morality, whereas, people from Eastern cultures consider a highly moral person to be societally oriented. We conclude by discussing the implications of this view for future research.

  18. Chief Nursing Officers' Experiences With Moral Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestia, Angela S; Sherman, Rose O; Demezier, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    This study explores if moral distress and its lingering residue were experienced by chief nursing officers (CNOs). Chief nursing officers, by virtue of their position and experience, are expected to uphold their professional values and act for the benefit of others. Exploration is needed to determine if the inability to do so contributes to the moral distress of these leaders. Twenty CNOs were interviewed to determine the lived experience related to moral distress and moral residue. An interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was used. Six themes emerged describing CNO experience of moral distress including lacking psychological safety, feeling a sense of powerlessness, seeking to maintain moral compass, drawing strength from networking, moral residue, and living with the consequences. Moral distress is a common experience for CNOs. Although CNOs act with moral courage, they still experience moral distress. Further research and professional discussion are needed to support nurse executive leaders.

  19. Investigating how everyday people experience security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg

    experiences that everyday users of technology encounter. The background for introducing this method is a project under the heading of IT Security for Citizens, which bridges between research competencies in HCI and security. In this project we develop methods and concepts to analyze digital signature systems...... and security sensible systems in a broad sense, from the point of view of contemporary CHI. The project includes literature studies of usable security, as well as empirical investigations and design work. This paper reports on my method to target user experiences of and with security technology.......In this paper I propose a method for analyzing everyday people's experiences with IT-security. I furthermore report how I applied the method. The proposal is motivated by work of other researchers and their efforts to get beyond secure behavior, and to get an insight in secure or insecure...

  20. Erving Goffman and Everyday Life Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary social life is marked by increasing levels of physical movement of people, goods and symbols. Within this context much theoretical activity points at notions of globalisation and the network society (e.g. Castells 1996). Such macro-theoretical interpretations capture only parts...... with the ambition of showing a vocabulary that makes the macro-societal conditions for contemporary mobility comprehensible from the vantage point of the ‘little practices' of everyday life. The exploration of everyday life mobility using Goffman as guide makes us see that waiting in line for the bus, riding...... in for example studies of global migration and large-scale population shifts, even though such ‘macro phenomena' also could be studied at the ‘micro level' (this distinction being perhaps less fruitful at the end of the day). The chapter offer a novel way of conceptualising the sociological meaning...

  1. Everyday Memory in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Luen; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Ma, Hui-Ing; Lai, Hsuan-An

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have deficits in working memory, but little is known about the everyday memory of these children in real-life situations. We investigated the everyday memory function in children with DCD, and explored the specific profile of everyday memory across different domains. Nineteen children with…

  2. Everyday cognition in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janet K; Kim, Ji-In; Downing, Nancy; Farias, Sarah; Harrington, Deborah L; Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of daily functions affected by cognitive loss in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD) is necessary in practice and clinical trials. We evaluated baseline and longitudinal sensitivity of the Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales in prodromal HD and compared self- and companion-ratings. Everyday cognition was self-assessed by 850 participants with prodromal HD and 768 companions. We examined internal structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on baseline data. For longitudinal analysis, we stratified participants into Low, Medium, and High disease progression groups. We examined ECog scores for group differences and participant-and-companion differences using linear mixed effects regression (LMER). Comparison with the Total Functional Capacity (TFC) scale was made. CFA revealed good fit of a 5-factor model having a global factor (total score), and subfactors (subscales) of memory, language, visuospatial perception, and executive function. At study entry, participants and companions in the Medium and High groups reported significantly worsened everyday cognition as well as significant functional decline over time. Losses became more pronounced and participant and companion ratings diverged as individuals progressed. TFC showed significant functional loss over time in the High group but not in the Medium group. Disease progression is associated with reduced self- and companion-reported everyday cognition in prodromal HD participants who are less than 13 years to estimated motor onset. Our findings suggest companion ratings are more sensitive than participants' for detecting longitudinal change in daily cognitive function. ECog appears more sensitive to specific functional changes in the prodrome of HD than the TFC. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Small Talk: Children's Everyday `Molecule' Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children's `sayings and doings' (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, Cultural Studies of Science Education 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children's everyday awareness of and meaning-making with cultural molecular artefacts. Our everyday world is populated with an ever increasing range of molecular or nanoworld words, symbols, images, and games. What do children today say about these artefacts that are used to represent molecular world entities? What are the material and social resources that can influence a child's everyday and developing scientific ideas about `molecules'? How do children interact with these cognitive tools when given expert assistance? What meaning-making is afforded when children are socially and materially assisted in using molecular tools in early chemical and nanoworld thinking? Tool-dependent discursive studies show that provision of cultural artefacts can assist and direct developmental thinking across many domains of science (Schoultz et al., Human Development 44:103-118, 2001; Siegal 2008). Young children's use of molecular artefacts as cognitive tools has not received much attention to date (Jakab 2009a, b). This study shows 6-11-year-old children expressing everyday ideas of molecular artefacts and raising their own questions about the artefacts. They are seen beginning to domesticate (Erneling 2010) the words, symbols, and images to their own purposes when given the opportunity to interact with such artefacts in supported activity. Discursive analysis supports the notion that using `molecules' as cultural tools can help young children to begin `putting on molecular spectacles' (Kind 2004). Playing with an interactive game (ICT) is shown to be particularly helpful in assisting children's early meaning-making with representations of molecules, atoms, and their chemical symbols.

  4. Evidence-Based Dentistry in Everyday Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudray, Kiran; Walmsley, Anthony Damien

    2016-12-01

    This article informs readers of a method of implementing evidence-based dentistry in practice. Following these steps, practitioners should be able to use this skill in an efficient manner. The importance of evidence-based dentistry and its relevance to situations encountered in everyday practice is also highlighted. Clinical relevance: This article highlights a series of steps to be followed by practitioners to ensure that treatment provided is supported by the most recent, good quality evidence.

  5. Everyday life through the eyes of ethnologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškareva Natal`ja L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on some of the new and distinctive patterns of scientific discourse with special reference to the differences between ethnological research of ordinary life and history of everyday life as a part of "new social history". The author try to show the changing paradigms in humanities, reorganization of its problematic, new sociological (ethnometodological, interdisciplinary methods which were adopted in modern ethnology, as well as in the social history as a whole.

  6. Emotions and the moral order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we follow Averill, who tells us that emotions reflect “the thought of an epoch, the secret of a civilization”. In this light, to understand the meaning of an emotion is to understand the relevant aspects of the sociocultural systems of which the emotion is a part. We argue...... that a number of the most central emotions in human lives are identified with reference to the moral order of the sociocultural system rather than with reference to physiological conditions or body states. We present a normative theory of emotions and refer to research on “emotionologies” of different cultures...... to demonstrate that specific moral orders are associated with specific forms of emotionality. If properly cultivated, moral emotions become “orientation guides” that enable persons to respond adequately to what happens in their local, moral worlds, and, as researchers, we can only grasp what such emotions...

  7. PEMBINAAN MORAL DAN KREATIVITAS REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumihatul Ummah MS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entering teen-age, in general, either adolescent son or daugther is hard to be arranged though by its own parents. This matter is problem had by each adolescences, there are four the important matters which become fundamental study at this research, that is: (1 Condition of moral and adolescent creativity in countryside of Bancelok, (2 Effort of moral construction and adolescent creativity in countryside of Bancelok, (3 Resistances faced in moral construction and adolescent creativity in countryside of Bancelok, and also (4 Effort is done to increase the moral construction and adolescent creativity [in countryside of Bancelok. This Research uses approach qualitative. There are four elements becoming the source of informations in this research, that is; old fellow, elite figure society, government officer, and young man figure. Whereas relating to field study (data collecting using the observation method, interview, and documentation. Later, data that is gathered to be analysed using two approaches, that is: descriptive informative and descriptive analysis.

  8. Transformational leadership and moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nick; Barling, Julian; Epitropaki, Olga; Butcher, Vicky; Milner, Caroline

    2002-04-01

    Terms such as moral and ethical leadership are used widely in theory, yet little systematic research has related a sociomoral dimension to leadership in organizations. This study investigated whether managers' moral reasoning (n = 132) was associated with the transformational and transactional leadership behaviors they exhibited as perceived by their subordinates (n = 407). Managers completed the Defining Issues Test (J. R. Rest, 1990), whereas their subordinates completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio, 1995). Analysis of covariance indicated that managers scoring in the highest group of the moral-reasoning distribution exhibited more transformational leadership behaviors than leaders scoring in the lowest group. As expected, there was no relationship between moral-reasoning group and transactional leadership behaviors. Implications for leadership development are discussed.

  9. Triggers of eating in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Comer, Lisa

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the triggers of eating in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote healthy eating and to prevent overeating. Here, the proximal predictors of eating are explored in a natural setting. Research from laboratory settings suggests that restrained eaters overeat after experiencing anxiety, distraction, and the presence of positive or negative moods, but not hunger; whereas the only factor that triggers eating in unrestrained eaters is hunger. In this study, 137 female participants reported hourly for 2 days on these potential predictors and their eating using electronic diaries, allowing us to establish the relationships between these factors while participants went about their normal daily activities. The main outcome variables were the number of servings eaten and whether or not food was eaten. Contrary to findings from laboratory settings, in everyday life restrained eaters (1) did not overeat in response to anxiety; (2) ate less in the presence of positive or negative moods; and (3) ate more in response to hunger. The relationships between these factors and eating among unrestrained eaters were closer to those found in laboratory settings. In conclusion, predictors of eating must be studied in everyday life to develop successful interventions.

  10. Mobile Video in Everyday Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Erika; Lehikoinen, Jaakko; Impiö, Jussi

    Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.

  11. Analisis Penayangan Film Kartun Anak-Anak di Televisi Swasta Nasional Indonesia dalam Memberikan Pesan Moral pada Anak-Anak

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrahaeni, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study describes the analysis of a cartoon showing children in national private television in providing moral knowledge. The research was conducted in three private television is RCTI, MNCTV, and SpacetoonTV. The research looked at the moral messages given through these cartoons. Most of television is already presenting cartoon movies that give a moral message. However, the results of this study indicate that Indonesia has not been presented on national television films in the...

  12. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  13. Moral Permissibility of Active Euthanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reid Rucker

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to examine the moral arguments commonly presented in the current debate on active and passive euthanasia in the United States. I claim the belief that there is a moral permissibility difference between active and passive euthanasia, which is that active euthanasia is impermissible and passive euthanasia is permissible, is unable to be supported by the arguments given in its defense. I first clarify what types of medical conditions commonly associated with...

  14. Learning a commonsense moral theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman-Weiner, Max; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a computational framework for understanding the structure and dynamics of moral learning, with a focus on how people learn to trade off the interests and welfare of different individuals in their social groups and the larger society. We posit a minimal set of cognitive capacities that together can solve this learning problem: (1) an abstract and recursive utility calculus to quantitatively represent welfare trade-offs; (2) hierarchical Bayesian inference to understand the actions and judgments of others; and (3) meta-values for learning by value alignment both externally to the values of others and internally to make moral theories consistent with one's own attachments and feelings. Our model explains how children can build from sparse noisy observations of how a small set of individuals make moral decisions to a broad moral competence, able to support an infinite range of judgments and decisions that generalizes even to people they have never met and situations they have not been in or observed. It also provides insight into the causes and dynamics of moral change across time, including cases when moral change can be rapidly progressive, changing values significantly in just a few generations, and cases when it is likely to move more slowly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology and Everyday Functioning in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Rasch Analysis of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, M.; Nygard, L.; Kottorp, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As people with intellectual disabilities (ID) today live integrated in society and use different technological artefacts and services in their everyday life, more in-depth evaluation methods are crucial to detect strengths and limitations of their everyday technology use. The Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) was originally…

  16. The Possibility of Moral Reasoning in Hare’s Prescriptivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m zamani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approaches to moral philosophy have experienced diverging directions regarding the possibility and justification of reasoning. Hare claims that in spite of the fact that intuitivists like Moore, Ross, and Prichard block the use of reasoning by accepting the intuitiveness of knowledge of good and bad, emotivism takes the same rout by focusing on emotions and emphasizing the freedom of choice. While descriptivism and also naturalism accept the possibility of reasoning through admitting the indicative nature of ethical speech, they reject or limit the freedom of choice. He tries to justify both the freedom of choice and the possibility of rational reasoning in moral. In so doing, Hare takes refuge in the non-self-contradiction and compatibility principles to insist on the universalizability of rules of moral reasoning. To make judgments of relevance is the prerequisite in morals which subsequently encompasses universalizability and the possibility of reasoning. Using the linguistic analysis, Hare tries to show that as language in which predicate-logic governs statements, imperatives and moral sentences are governed by rational relationships and principles of compatibility. From this point of view, an individual’s judgments are justifiable, provided that it is not in contradiction with his previous judgments. The aim of this study is to state, analyze, and criticize Hare’s views regarding the provision of rational reasoning and its possibility in terms of the challenges he faces with regard to competing schools of thought.

  17. The Immoral Landscape? Scientists Are Associated with Violations of Morality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan T Rutjens

    Full Text Available Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328 that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared those with judgments of various control groups, including atheists. A persistent intuitive association between scientists and disturbing immoral conduct emerged for violations of the binding moral foundations, particularly when this pertained to violations of purity. However, there was no association in the context of the individualizing moral foundations related to fairness and care. Other evidence found that scientists were perceived as similar to others in their concerns with the individualizing moral foundations of fairness and care, yet as departing for all of the binding foundations of loyalty, authority, and purity. Furthermore, participants stereotyped scientists particularly as robot-like and lacking emotions, as well as valuing knowledge over morality and being potentially dangerous. The observed intuitive immorality associations are partially due to these explicit stereotypes but do not correlate with any perceived atheism. We conclude that scientists are perceived not as inherently immoral, but as capable of immoral conduct.

  18. The Immoral Landscape? Scientists Are Associated with Violations of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T; Heine, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328) that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared those with judgments of various control groups, including atheists. A persistent intuitive association between scientists and disturbing immoral conduct emerged for violations of the binding moral foundations, particularly when this pertained to violations of purity. However, there was no association in the context of the individualizing moral foundations related to fairness and care. Other evidence found that scientists were perceived as similar to others in their concerns with the individualizing moral foundations of fairness and care, yet as departing for all of the binding foundations of loyalty, authority, and purity. Furthermore, participants stereotyped scientists particularly as robot-like and lacking emotions, as well as valuing knowledge over morality and being potentially dangerous. The observed intuitive immorality associations are partially due to these explicit stereotypes but do not correlate with any perceived atheism. We conclude that scientists are perceived not as inherently immoral, but as capable of immoral conduct.

  19. [Role of the orbitofrontal cortex in moral judgment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Masaru

    2010-11-01

    The neural substrates of moral judgments have recently been advocated to consist of widely distributed brain networks including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior temporal lobe and superior temporal gyrus. Moral judgments could be regarded as a conflict between the top-down rational/logical processes and the bottom-up irrational/emotional processes. Individuals with OFC damage are usually difficult to inhibit emotionally-driven outrages, thereby demonstrating severe impairment of moral judgments despite their well-preserved moral knowledge. Individuals with OFC damage frequently present with anti-social less moral behaviors. However, clinical observation indicates that some OFC patients may show "hypermoral" tendency in the sense that they are too strict to overlook other person's offense. Two representative cases with OFC damage were reported, both presented with extreme rage against others' offensive behaviors. To further elucidate the "hypermorality" of OFC patients, an experiment was performed in which patients with OFC damage and healthy control participants were asked to determine punishments for other's fictitious crimes that varied in perpetrator responsibility and crime severity. Individuals with OFC damage punished more strictly than healthy controls those persons for mitigating circumstances. The results are consistent with clinical observation of OFC patients' highly rigid and inflexible behaviors against third person's offense.

  20. Experiences of participation in everyday occupations among persons aging with a tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Ulrica; Lilja, Margareta; Gray, David; Isaksson, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to gain understanding of participation in everyday occupations through life stories of persons aging with a traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A narrative method was used for data collection and a paradigmatic analysis was used to analyze data. The analysis resulted in three themes that illustrate how the participants acted to participate in everyday occupations, how that changed over time, and some concerns about their future. The first theme illustrates how participants following SCI acted to become agents of their lives and participate in everyday occupations. The second theme illustrates how participants had to prioritize participation in meaningful occupations due to personal and environmental factors. The third theme shows how they had to try new strategies to continue participation in occupations, due to secondary health complications related to aging. This study captures how persons aging with tetraplegia acted to participate in everyday occupations from soon after the injury until several decades later. In addition, their ability to act and participate changed over time. Our findings provide knowledge that can guide clinicians in their work within this complex area of rehabilitation. Besides, it can also guide the work with policy recommendations for healthcare and social service systems. Aging with a SCI is a complex daily struggle in order to be able to continue acting and participating in everyday occupations, and thereby this gives implications for a lifelong support. This study provides knowledge that can guide clinicians in their work within this complex area of rehabilitation. Knowledge from this study can guide the work with policy recommendations for healthcare and social service systems.

  1. Kohlberg's theory about moral judgment development and the instruments used for evaluation of moral judgment and moral competence in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Unger Raphael Bataglia; Alessandra de Morais; Rita Melissa Lepre

    2010-01-01

    O presente artigo tem por objetivo abordar as bases, finalidades e composição de dois instrumentos de avaliação de juízo moral: a Moral Judgment Interview (MJI) e o Defining Issues Test (DIT), e um de competência moral: o Moral Judgment Test (MJT). Retoma a teoria do desenvolvimento moral de Kohlberg que fundamenta esses instrumentos, assim como os últimos estudos realizados com os mesmos. A MJI é uma entrevista semiestruturada que avalia o nível de juízo moral. O DIT é um teste objetivo que ...

  2. The Foreign Language Effect on Moral Judgment: The Role of Emotions and Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether and why the use of a foreign language influences moral judgment. We studied the trolley and footbridge dilemmas, which propose an action that involves killing one individual to save five. In line with prior work, the use of a foreign language increased the endorsement of such consequentialist actions for the footbridge dilemma, but not for the trolley dilemma. But contrary to recent theorizing, this effect was not driven by an attenuation of emotions. An attenuation of emotions was found in both dilemmas, and it did not mediate the foreign language effect on moral judgment. An examination of additional scenarios revealed that foreign language influenced moral judgment when the proposed action involved a social or moral norm violation. We propose that foreign language influences moral judgment by reducing access to normative knowledge.

  3. Living with Risk in Everyday Life - A Comparative Analysis on Handling and Reflecting Risk in Everyday Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elverdam, Beth; Hoel Felde, Lina Klara

    experiences, situated in social and cultural values. In managing risk, patients protect or try to re-establish a normal everyday life and a stable biography. Conclusion: Ordinary persons' handling of risk in everyday life is multidimensional. GPs need to be aware that patients' perceptions and handling...... analysis. Results: Although risk is communicated in the media and by health personnel, and thus has a general presence in society, participants in everyday life place risk at the periphery of life. Risk is not part of their everyday reflections. When risk manifests itself in everyday life, it is reflected...

  4. Sidetracked by trolleys: Why sacrificial moral dilemmas tell us little (or nothing) about utilitarian judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Research into moral decision-making has been dominated by sacrificial dilemmas where, in order to save several lives, it is necessary to sacrifice the life of another person. It is widely assumed that these dilemmas draw a sharp contrast between utilitarian and deontological approaches to morality, and thereby enable us to study the psychological and neural basis of utilitarian judgment. However, it has been previously shown that some sacrificial dilemmas fail to present a genuine contrast between utilitarian and deontological options. Here, I raise deeper problems for this research paradigm. Even when sacrificial dilemmas present a contrast between utilitarian and deontological options at a philosophical level, it is misleading to interpret the responses of ordinary folk in these terms. What is currently classified as “utilitarian judgment” does not in fact share essential features of a genuine utilitarian outlook, and is better explained in terms of commonsensical moral notions. When subjects deliberate about such dilemmas, they are not deciding between opposing utilitarian and deontological solutions, but engaging in a richer process of weighing opposing moral reasons. Sacrificial dilemmas therefore tell us little about utilitarian decision-making. An alternative approach to studying proto-utilitarian tendencies in everyday moral thinking is proposed. PMID:25791902

  5. Interdisciplinary collaboration experiences in creating an everyday rehabilitation model: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aud Moe,1,2 Hildfrid V Brataas1,2 1Faculty of Health Science, Nord University, Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag, 2Center of Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway Background: When functional impairment occurs, assistance to achieve self-help can lead to qualitatively more active everyday life for recipients and better use of community resources. Home-based everyday rehabilitation is a new interdisciplinary service for people living at home. Rehabilitation involves meeting the need for interprofessional services, interdisciplinary collaboration, and coordination of services. Everyday rehabilitation is a service that requires close interdisciplinary cooperation. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about employees' experiences with establishing a new multidisciplinary team and developing a team-based work model. Method: The study had a qualitative design using two focus group interviews with a newly established rehabilitation team. The sample consisted of an occupational therapist, two care workers with further education in rehabilitation, a nurse, a physiotherapist, and a project leader. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results: The data highlight three phases: a planning phase (ten meetings over half a year, a startup phase of trials of interdisciplinary everyday rehabilitation in practice (2 months, and a third period specifying and implementing an everyday rehabilitation model (6 months. During these phases, three themes emerged: 1 team creation and design of the service, 2 targeted practical trials, and 3 equality of team members and combining interdisciplinary methods. Conclusion: The team provided information about three processes: developing work routines and a revised team-based flow chart, developing team cooperation with integrated trans- and interdisciplinary collaboration, and working with external exchange. There is more need for secure network solutions. Keywords: everyday rehabilitation

  6. Liberté morale, interdépendence et le point de vue d’Immanuel Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Boca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article questions the relationship between moral freedom and social interdependence than any individual consciousness evolves. Imperative knowledge through reason was imposed in modernity. Kant’s point of view illustrates this spirit of modernity. The article focuses a critical perspective based on the imperative of moral responsibility.

  7. Robots and the Limits of Morality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I ask whether we can coherently conceive of robots as moral agents and as moral patients. I answer both questions negatively but conditionally: for as long as robots lack certain features, they can be neither moral agents nor moral patients. These answers, of course, are not new...... and biological bases of moral practices and arguing that the relevant differences in such bases are sufficient, for the time being, to exclude robots from adopting, both, an active and a passive moral role....

  8. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  9. Everyday cryptography fundamental principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Keith M

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography is a vital technology that underpins the security of information in computer networks. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the role that cryptography plays in providing information security for technologies such as the Internet, mobile phones, payment cards, and wireless local area networks. Focusing on the fundamental principles that ground modern cryptography as they arise in modern applications, it avoids both an over-reliance on transient currenttechnologies and over-whelming theoretical research.Everyday Cryptography is a self-contained and widely accessible in

  10. Designing self-care for everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Nunes, Francisco; Grönvall, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Managing chronic conditions can be challenging. People in such conditions, and the people around them, have to: deal with symptoms, adapt to the resulting disability, manage emotions, and change habits to keep the condition under control. Self-care technologies have the potential to support self......-care and mediate the relationship between patients (and caregivers) and the condition. However, these technologies often disregard the complexity of the settings in which they are used and fail to become integrated in everyday life. In this workshop we will discuss how to design self-care technologies...

  11. Moral expansiveness: Examining variability in the extension of the moral world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimston, Daniel; Bain, Paul G; Hornsey, Matthew J; Bastian, Brock

    2016-10-01

    The nature of our moral judgments-and the extent to which we treat others with care-depend in part on the distinctions we make between entities deemed worthy or unworthy of moral consideration-our moral boundaries. Philosophers, historians, and social scientists have noted that people's moral boundaries have expanded over the last few centuries, but the notion of moral expansiveness has received limited empirical attention in psychology. This research explores variations in the size of individuals' moral boundaries using the psychological construct of moral expansiveness and introduces the Moral Expansiveness Scale (MES), designed to capture this variation. Across 6 studies, we established the reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the MES. Moral expansiveness was related (but not reducible) to existing moral constructs (moral foundations, moral identity, "moral" universalism values), predictors of moral standing (moral patiency and warmth), and other constructs associated with concern for others (empathy, identification with humanity, connectedness to nature, and social responsibility). Importantly, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to engage in prosocial intentions and behaviors at personal cost independently of these established constructs. Specifically, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to prioritize humanitarian and environmental concerns over personal and national self-interest, willingness to sacrifice one's life to save others (ranging from human out-groups to animals and plants), and volunteering behavior. Results demonstrate that moral expansiveness is a distinct and important factor in understanding moral judgments and their consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Abortion, infanticide and moral context.

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    Porter, Lindsey

    2013-05-01

    In 'After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?', Giubilini and Minerva argue that infanticide should be permitted for the same reasons as abortion. In particular, they argue that infanticide should be permitted even for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be best interests) of the newborn. They claim that abortion is permissible for reasons that do not primarily serve the interests (or would-be interests) of the fetus because fetuses lack a right to life. They argue that newborns also lack a right to life, and they conclude that therefore, the same reasons that justify abortion can justify infanticide. This conclusion does not follow. The lack of a right to life is not decisive. Furthermore, the justificatory power of a given reason is a function of moral context. Generalisations about reasons across dissimilar moral contexts are invalid. However, a similar conclusion does follow-that fetus-killing and newborn-killing are morally identical in identical moral contexts-but this conclusion is trivial, since fetuses and newborns are never in identical moral contexts.

  13. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Dimensi moral dalam kekuasaan politik

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    Muchson AR

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest legitimation of authority is religious legitimation, a doctrine of the Middle Ages. The King is believed as the figure manifested of God authority. like the religious concept, the Javanese mystical concepts believe that the King authority comes from the supernatural power, not from people support. Although that opinion is considered as religious legitimation, but Islam is not like it. The Holy Qur'an more emphasizes for justice and morality in political system. In the Javanese mystical perception, King is looked as a microcosm who can reserves the power of a macrocosm and then emanates it. The King's character should indicate natural power, such as power of the sun, moon, star, etc. The other side of harmony with whole world, the King must be able to create a social harmony.  Political ethics in democracy political system based on Pancasila also emphasizes that the legitimation of authority comes from people mandate, as a principle of democracy. Even though, the authority's moral and moral responsibility of authority must be appreciated and respected. The opinion that authority is not a moral legitimation and the authority is not personification of moral goodness should be rejected

  15. Discussion on Christianization of Everyday Life among St. Petersburg Clergy in 1907–1908

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    I. VORONTSOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Revolution of 1905 gave birth to the internal Church movement for renewal of Church life. Impressed by the revolutionary events the liberal clergy and laity of this movement called it “liberation”; in the period of the movement there was really a number of reforms that would free the Church from excessive state “custody ”. But there met and the other kinds of impulses of the “liberation” of Petersburg: the clergy, the strengthening of the role of Christianity got interested in everyday life, was wondering about the prospects for the introduction of the pastoral responsibilities of addressing social issues. There was a discussion on this topic in the “Society of Lovers of religious and moral education in the spirit of the Orthodox Church ”, the discussion took place in a number of forms of Church renovation included the offi cial recognition of the Russian Church “the Christianization of labour”. In their opinion the Christianization of all elements of everyday life would help draw in the Church wall to isolate themselves from the Church of the social strata of Russian society. Content of the discussion got into print and was propagated by priest Vladimir Kolachev, reworded features some “doctrine” and received a response in the provincial press. This discussion held at the St. Petersburg 1907–1908 by the clergs. It is highlighted the tendency of sociologization the moral teachings of Christianity in the beginning of the XX-th century in Russia and show the rejection of traditional ascetic outlook among representatives of the secular clergy.

  16. Les connaissances au quotidien : perceptions et savoirs des populations riveraines de l’Amazonie sur leurs ressources halieutiques Conhecimentos no cotidiano : percepções e saberes de populações ribeirinhas da Amazônia sobre seus recursos haliêuticos  Knowledge in everyday life: perceptions and knowledges of riparian Amazonian populations on their fishery resources

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    S. Paquet

    2011-12-01

    nova luz sobre as questões relacionadas a gestão dos recursos hídricos e levantam lacunas impedindo uma real apropriação dos problemas ambientais e o surgimento de soluções locais. De fato, nós mostramos que o desmatamento e a erosão das margens do rio foram percebidos como as principais mudanças ambientais observadas ao longo do tempo. A diminuição na abundância e/ou a redução do tamanho dos peixes também foi relatada pelos entrevistados. A falta de conexão pelos pescadores entre as mudanças observadas nos ecossistemas naturais e as mudanças ocorridas nas populações de peixes chamou a nossa atenção. Por conseguinte, qualquer intervenção visando o desenvolvimento e/ou a implementação de métodos sustentáveis de exploração dos recursos haliêuticos deve passar por uma atividade preliminar de informação. A intenção sendo gerar a apropriação local das questões ambientais e de favorecer a emergência de soluções ao seio mesmo das comunidades em questão.In this paper we are interested on subsistence fishing practiced by riparian Amazonian populations. The results presented, concerning the traditional knowledge of inhabitants, their perceptions about the environmental changes and the evolution of fishery resources as well as the some solutions regarding these changes, derived from two surveys administated to twelve communities of the Tapajós Basin. These results shed new light on issues related to the management of fisheries resources and highlight the gaps preventing a real appropriation of environmental problems and the emergence of local solutions. Indeed, we show that deforestation and erosion of river banks were perceived as the major environmental changes observed over the time.The decrease in abundance and/or reduction in the sizes of fish was also been reported by respondents. The lack of connection between the observed changes in natural ecosystems and changes in fish stocks caught our attention. Consequently, any

  17. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Metaphor and analogy in everyday problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Lucas A; Landau, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    Early accounts of problem solving focused on the ways people represent information directly related to target problems and possible solutions. Subsequent theory and research point to the role of peripheral influences such as heuristics and bodily states. We discuss how metaphor and analogy similarly influence stages of everyday problem solving: Both processes mentally map features of a target problem onto the structure of a relatively more familiar concept. When individuals apply this structure, they use a well-known concept as a framework for reasoning about real world problems and candidate solutions. Early studies found that analogy use helped people gain insight into novel problems. More recent research on metaphor goes further to show that activating mappings has subtle, sometimes surprising effects on judgment and reasoning in everyday problem solving. These findings highlight situations in which mappings can help or hinder efforts to solve problems. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:394-405. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1407 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Environmental Adaptations Improve Everyday Action in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rachel K; Rhodes, Emma; Giovannetti, Tania

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive functioning, particularly executive functioning, is a strong predictor of functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation has been shown to improve specific cognitive processes, but adjunctive interventions are required for meaningful gains in adaptive functioning, particularly in people with chronic illness. This study examined whether (and how) environmental adaptations, used without training, may circumvent cognitive difficulties and facilitate everyday task performance in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were administered cognitive measures and two versions of the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT)-a standard version (ST-NAT), and a user-centered version (UC-NAT) that incorporated environmental adaptations designed to facilitate task performance. The NAT conditions were counterbalanced across participants. Analyses compared performance between the NAT versions and examined the cognitive correlates of each NAT condition. Individuals with schizophrenia made fewer errors on the UC-NAT as compared to the ST-NAT; this between-group difference was significant for all error types. Compared to the ST-NAT, the UC-NAT performance was not significantly associated with an executive function measure of planning. Environmental adaptations may be implemented without extensive training to improve everyday action in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Environmental adaptations that reduce planning demands may be most effective in this population.

  20. Uncertainty Regarding Waste Handling in Everyday Life

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    Susanne Ewert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available According to our study, based on interviews with households in a residential area in Sweden, uncertainty is a cultural barrier to improved recycling. Four causes of uncertainty are identified. Firstly, professional categories not matching cultural categories—people easily discriminate between certain categories (e.g., materials such as plastic and paper but not between others (e.g., packaging and “non-packaging”. Thus a frequent cause of uncertainty is that the basic categories of the waste recycling system do not coincide with the basic categories used in everyday life. Challenged habits—source separation in everyday life is habitual, but when a habit is challenged, by a particular element or feature of the waste system, uncertainty can arise. Lacking fractions—some kinds of items cannot be left for recycling and this makes waste collection incomplete from the user’s point of view and in turn lowers the credibility of the system. Missing or contradictory rules of thumb—the above causes seem to be particularly relevant if no motivating principle or rule of thumb (within the context of use is successfully conveyed to the user. This paper discusses how reducing uncertainty can improve recycling.

  1. Self-recognition in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Young, Andrew W

    2004-08-01

    A sample of everyday difficulties was collected, encompassing errors and unusual experiences participants had encountered when recognising their own faces in everyday life, with the aim of characterising similarities and differences between the reported difficulties and the major forms of self-recognition impairments described in the neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric literatures (prosopagnosia, mirrored-self misidentification, and Capgras delusion). A total of 70 participants recalled experiences from memory. Incidents (n = 51) were recorded on questionnaire sheets that were filled out at home. Reports of three categories of incidents were analysed: misidentifications (the participant misidentified her/his own face as being that of another familiar person; n = 5), recognition failures (the participant judged that his/her own face was that of an unfamiliar person; n = 20) and perception of unusual aspects (the participant confidently recognised his/her own face but found that the seen face did not fit well the representation she/he had of his/her own face; n = 26). In the reported incidents, experiences showing some similarities to those of patients with prosopagnosia, Capgras delusion or mirrored-self misidentification were noted. However, across the whole study, no incident involved a failure of reality testing; in contrast to pathological forms of error, in all of the reported incidents from our study the participant realised that a mistake had been made. The importance of decision processes in pathological forms of own-face misrecognition is discussed.

  2. Moral distance in dictator games

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    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  3. Your morals depend on language.

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    Albert Costa

    Full Text Available Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  4. Your morals depend on language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Foucart, Alice; Hayakawa, Sayuri; Aparici, Melina; Apesteguia, Jose; Heafner, Joy; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-01-01

    Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  5. "Moral Ecology" and "Moral Capital": Tools towards a Sociology of Moral Education from a South African Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    Research and pedagogy in the field of morality and moral education has long been dominated by philosophical and psychological disciplines. Although sociological studies and theorising in the field have not been absent, it has been limited and non-systematic. Drawing on a study that investigated the lived morality of a group of young South Africans…

  6. Morals matter in economic games.

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    Felix C Brodbeck

    Full Text Available Contrary to predictions from Expected Utility Theory and Game Theory, when making economic decisions in interpersonal situations, people take the interest of others into account and express various forms of solidarity, even in one-shot interactions with anonymous strangers. Research in other-regarding behavior is dominated by behavioral economical and evolutionary biological approaches. Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models Theory (RMT, [1] and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, [2] it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals' decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic processes. To test our propositions we developed the 'Dyadic Solidarity Game' and its solitary equivalent, the 'Self-Insurance Game'. Four experiments, in which the moral motives "Unity" and "Proportionality" were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule ("treat others how you wish to be treated" could be established. Individuals with a "Unity" motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a "Proportionality" motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making.

  7. Moral philosophy and theology: why is there so little difference for Roman Catholics?

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    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2003-01-01

    The cardinal question in Christian moral theory and bioethics is whether the knowledge that Christians have (1) by grace and (2) by revelation (e.g., regarding the character of human and cosmic history as reaching from creation through the Incarnation and the Redemption to the Second Coming and the restoration of all things) makes a crucial contribution to understanding morality, as for example issues such as the good death and the morality of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. This article argues that such a contribution is made by grace and revelation. The reduction of Roman Catholic moral theology and bioethics to secular bioethics is explored, as well as the necessity of the unique knowledge possessed by Christians for adequate end-of-life decision-making.

  8. Moral transgressions corrupt neural representations of value.

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    Crockett, Molly J; Siegel, Jenifer Z; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-06-01

    Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others. Lateral prefrontal cortex encoded profit gained from harming others, but not self, and tracked the blameworthiness of harmful choices. Moral decisions also modulated functional connectivity between lateral prefrontal cortex and the profit-sensitive region of dorsal striatum. The findings suggest moral behavior in our task is linked to a neural devaluation of reward realized by a prefrontal modulation of striatal value representations.

  9. Moral traditions and norms of education

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    Gauhar ALDAMBERGENOVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses moral and political, moral and economic, moral and business, moral and pragmatic, hygienic and other relations. The concept of " ethical tradition" includes not only moral values but also a set of core components associated with the development of ethical and moral qualities that characterize it against the backdrop of life events. Here it is pertinent to note that it is very important to assess personality according to his deeds. Each person has the vision of the concept of " value", which is not formed by itself it is made on the basis of norms , concepts , moral relations , transmitted from generation to generation through the h istorical experience. Monitoring of normative behavior of personality is not a reckless submission standards , it examines the various forms of behavior within a framework . Personality does not simply follow moral standards; on the contrary , it is active an d inquisitive in mastering and applying them in practice.

  10. Has Richard Rorty a moral philosophy?

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    Mohammad Asghari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I try to show that Richard Rorty, although is not a moral philosopher like Kant, nerveless, has moral philosophy that must be taken seriously. Rorty was not engaged with moral philosophy in the systematic manner common among leading modern and contemporary moral philosophers. This paper has two parts: first part, in brief, is concerned with principles of his philosophy such as anti-essentialism, Darwinism, Freudism, and historicism. Second part which be long and detailed, considers many moral themes in Rorty's thought such as critique of Kantian morality, solidarity, moral progress, cruelty and concept of other, etc. Subsequently, I will try to answer the research question of the article namely, has Rorty a moral philosophy?

  11. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY

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    CIPRIAN IULIAN ŞOPTICĂ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article concerns the what, the how and the whyof moral phenomenology. The first question we take into consideration is „What is moral phenomenology”? The second question which arises is „How to pursue moral phenomenology”? The third question is „Why pursue moral phenomenology”? We will analyze the study Moral phenomenology:foundation issues1, by which the American phenomenologist Uriah Kriegel aims three lines of research: the definition of moral phenomenology and the description of field research within the phenomenological tradition; the establishment of a method of moral phenomenology research; the emphasis of the purpose of such research and its importance for moral philosophy in general.

  12. Predicting Compliance Behavior from Moral Judgment Scales

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    Froming, William J.; Cooper, Robert G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments with college males examined the relationship between moral judgment and compliance in a modified Asch paradigm. Moral judgment was assessed using Kohlberg's dilemmas in one experiment and with Rest's Defining Issues in the second experiment. (Editor/RK)

  13. Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.

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    Enns, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

  14. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's "historical principle" this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  15. Legal Theory and Moral Philosophy

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    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to raise the hypothesis that, in its current state, according to the metaethical grounds that explicitly or implicitly sustain any interesting conception of the law, legal theory can be conceived as (a part of moral philosophy. This hypothesis is inferred from two questions that is worth asking to any legal theorist: 1 Is there an objective morality? 2 Which is the relevance of the answer to the preceding question for the conceptual and normative ways through which it is possible to provide an account of law as a social practice?

  16. Seeking Moral Autonomy in a Chinese Context: A Study of Elementary Moral Education Standards

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    Lee, Lena; Misco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explored Chinese moral education standards for grades one and two by using the heuristic of moral autonomy and by employing a typology of moral autonomy, one based on Kantian and Deweyan ideas about moral autonomy and agency. Given the larger charge for all of schooling to develop independence, problem-solving, and creativity…

  17. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Situations: Basic Moral Sensitivity, Moral Disengagement and Defender Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…

  18. Moral Behavior as Rule Governed Behavior: A Psychosocial Role-Theoretical Approach to Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtines, William M.

    Research on moral development and behavior has traditionally emphasized person related variables such as level or stage of moral reasoning, individual differences in moral traits and dispositions, or past reinforcement history. The effects of context on moral action and decision, in contrast, have received relatively little attention. It is…

  19. The price of morality. An analysis of personality, moral behaviour, and social rules in economic terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessling, T.

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the present study was the rationality of moral behaviour and moral conviction. Assumptions like "morality pays" or "good ethics is good business" are not a priori right. Whether morality as personal conviction is also economically rational or not depends in large part on the

  20. Harry Potter's Provocative Moral World: Is There a Place for Good and Evil in Moral Education?

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    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    In a challenging critique of moral education in public schools, James Davison Hunter argues that the unspoken imperative of all moral education is to teach only those virtues, principles, and other moral teachings about which there is essentially no disagreement in American society. Hunter claims that almost every major form of moral education in…