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Sample records for everett washington pearl

  1. Precipitation thresholds for landslide occurrence near Seattle, Mukilteo, and Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheevel, Caroline R.; Baum, Rex L.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.

    2017-04-27

    Shallow landslides along coastal bluffs frequently occur in the railway corridor between Seattle and Everett, Washington. These slides disrupt passenger rail service, both because of required track maintenance and because the railroad owner, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, does not allow passenger travel for 48 hours after a disruptive landslide. Sound Transit, which operates commuter trains in the corridor, is interested in a decision-making tool to help preemptively cancel passenger railway service in dangerous conditions and reallocate resources to alternative transportation.Statistical analysis showed that a majority of landslides along the Seattle-Everett Corridor are strongly correlated with antecedent rainfall, but that 21-37 percent of recorded landslide dates experienced less than 1 inch of precipitation in the 3 days preceding the landslide and less than 4 inches of rain in the 15 days prior to the preceding 3 days. We developed two empirical thresholds to identify precipitation conditions correlated with landslide occurrence. The two thresholds are defined as P3 = 2.16-0.44P15 and P3 = 2.16-0.22P32, where P3 is the cumulative precipitation in the 3 days prior to the considered date and P15 or P32 is the cumulative precipitation in the 15 days or 32 days prior to P3 (all measurements given in inches). The two thresholds, when compared to a previously developed threshold, quantitatively improve the prediction rate.We also investigated rainfall intensity-duration (ID) thresholds to determine whether revision would improve identification of moderate-intensity, landslide-producing storms. New, optimized ID thresholds evaluate rainstorms lasting at least 12 hours and identify landslide-inducing storms that were typically missed by previously published ID thresholds. The main advantage of the ID thresholds appears when they are combined with recent-antecedent thresholds because rainfall conditions that exceed both threshold types are more likely to induce

  2. Map showing recent and historic landslide activity on coastal bluffs of Puget Sound between Shilshole Bay and Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Harp, E.L.; Hultman, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Many landslides occurred on the coastal bluffs between Seattle and Everett, Washington during the winters of 1996 and 1997. Shallow earth slides and debris flows were the most common, but a few deep-seated rotational earth slides also occurred. The landslides caused significant property damage and interfered with rail traffic; future landslides in the area pose significant hazards to property and public safety. Field observations indicate that ground-water seepage, runoff concentration, and dumping at the tops of the bluffs all contributed to instability of the bluffs. Most landslides in the study area occurred in colluvium, residuum, and landslide deposits derived from the Vashon Drift, particularly the advance outwash. In the northern part of the area, colluvium derived from the Pleistocene Whidbey Formation was also involved in shallow landslides. Comparison of recent activity with historic records in the southern part of the map area indicates that landslides tend to occur in many of the same areas as previous landslides.

  3. 77 FR 44678 - Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc., a Subsidiary of Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Everett Mill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...., a subsidiary of Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Everett Mill, including on-site leased workers from... Everett, Washington location of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc., a subsidiary of Kimberly-Clark Corporation... workers of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc., a subsidiary of Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Everett Mill...

  4. Analysis of sediments and soils for chemical contamination for the design of US Navy homeport facility at East Waterway of Everett Harbor, Washington. Final report. [Macoma inquinata; Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.W.; Crecelius, E.A.

    1985-03-01

    Contaminated sediments in the East Waterway of Everett Harbor, Washington, are extremely localized; they consist of a layer of organically-rich, fine sediments overlying a relatively cleaner, more sandy native material. The contaminated layer varies in thickness throughout the waterway from as much as 2 meters to only a few centimeters. Generally, the layer is thicker and more contaminated at the head of the waterway (northern end) and becomes thinner and less contaminated as one proceeds southerly out of the waterway and into Port Gardner. These sediments contain elevated levels of heavy metals and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and scattered concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Approximately 500,000 cubic yards of material exhibit elevated chemical contamination compared to Puget Sound background levels. The contaminated sediments in this waterway require biological testing before decisions can be made regarding the acceptability of unconfined disposal.

  5. Edward Everett Hale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appeared in a story by Edward Everett Hale entitled The Brick Moon. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily.

  6. The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    A review of Peter Byrne's biography of Hugh Everett III, "The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family", (Oxford University Press, 2010).

  7. Conodont pearls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenister, B F; Klapper, G; Chauff, K M

    1976-08-13

    Conodonts are zoologically enigmatic, toothlike phosphatic microfossils occurring in marine sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cambrian to Triassic. Dimpled spheres of less than 1 millimeter in diameter are sporadic associates of conodonts and have identical chemical composition and microstructure. Mineralogy, morphology, and occurrence of these spheres suggest that they are pearls secreted by the conodont-bearing animal.

  8. Reality in quantum mechanics, Extended Everett Concept, and consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Mensky, Michael B.

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual problems in quantum mechanics result from the specific quantum concept of reality and require, for their solution, including the observer's consciousness into quantum theory of measurements. Most naturally this is achieved in the framework of Everett's "many-worlds interpretation" of quantum mechanics. According to this interpretation, various classical alternatives are perceived by consciousness separately from each other. In the Extended Everett Concept (EEC) proposed by the pres...

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory, and Reality Many Worlds?: Everett, Quantum Theory, and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Robert M.

    2011-04-01

    Few, if any, issues in physics have engendered as much discussion as the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. It is generally agreed that the `normal' dynamical evolution of the state vector in quantum mechanics is given by a unitary map. The linearity of this map implies that the state vector will, in general, be found in a superposition of eigenstates of a given observable (or, similarly, that the density matrix describing a subsystem will not correspond to a definite value of this observable). However, when we make a measurement of an observable, we always obtain a define value—although it is impossible to predict with certainty which value will be obtained. The traditional response to this issue is to postulate that when a measurement is made, the wavefunction `collapses' to an eigenstate of the observable being measured, perhaps due to the inherent classicality of the measuring apparatus (Bohr), or to the consciousness of the observer (Wigner), or possibly to some modification of quantum dynamics that occurs even when observations are not being made. The main motivation for the Everett (`many worlds') interpretation is to avoid introducing any such collapse postulate. This volume commemorates the 50th anniversary of the publication of Everett's paper in 1957 and contains 20 original articles as well as the transcripts of several discussions that took place at meetings devoted to the Everett interpretation at Oxford University and the Perimeter Institute. The attractiveness of the Everett interpretation is very succinctly summarized by a sentence from Vaidman's contribution (p 582): `The collapse, with its randomness, non-locality and the lack of a well-defined moment of occurrence, is such an ugly scar on quantum theory, that I, along with many others, am ready to follow Everett and deny its existence.' But the main drawback of the interpretation is then equally succinctly stated in the next sentence: `The price is the many worlds interpretation, i

  10. Copenhagen vs Everett, Teleportation, and ER=EPR

    OpenAIRE

    Susskind, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Quantum gravity may have as much to tell us about the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics as it does about gravity. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Everett's Relative State Formulation are complementary descriptions which in a sense are dual to one another. My purpose here is to discuss this duality in the light of the of ER=EPR conjecture.

  11. Public Works Center Pearl Harbor Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-15

    AOA17 6 228 PUBLIC MORKS CENTER PERL HARBO FLEET MOORINGS 1/1 UNDERWATER INSPECTION PLAN(O) NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND WASHINGTON DC...PUBLIC WORKS .......... CENTER.... ..... PEARL HARBOR.... 00~ D...... CENRWTTE E 4PAR INSPCTIO voOEA ENGINEEORINS *...... AND.. COSTUCIN.ROET.FFC...Public Works Center Pearl Habor F’aet Moorings Underwater Inspection Plan 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF

  12. Copenhagen vs Everett, teleportation, and ER=EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Quantum gravity may have as much to tell us about the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics as it does about gravity. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Everett's Relative State Formulation are complementary descriptions which in a sense are dual to one another. My purpose here is to discuss this duality in the light of the of ER=EPR conjecture. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Interview with Dennis Pearl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…

  14. 77 FR 21866 - Safety Zone; Sunken Vessel, Puget Sound, Everett, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... established a 100 yard safety zone around the Vigor Marine Dry Dock in Everett, WA. On March 22, 2012 it was... a 200 yard safety zone surrounding the dry dock. As salvage operations continue to recover the... waters within 200 yards of Vigor Marine Dry Dock in Everett, WA. Vessels wishing to enter the zone must...

  15. 77 FR 8279 - Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc., a Subsidiary of Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Everett Mill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Everett Mill, including on-site leased workers from Injury Free, Incorporated... location of Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc., a subsidiary of Kimberly- Clark Corporation, Everett Mill. The..., Inc., a subsidiary of Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Everett Mill to be considered leased workers. The...

  16. The problem of confirmation in the Everett interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Emily

    2014-08-01

    I argue that the Oxford school Everett interpretation is internally incoherent, because we cannot claim that in an Everettian universe the kinds of reasoning we have used to arrive at our beliefs about quantum mechanics would lead us to form true beliefs. I show that in an Everettian context, the experimental evidence that we have available could not provide empirical confirmation for quantum mechanics, and moreover that we would not even be able to establish reference to the theoretical entities of quantum mechanics. I then consider a range of existing Everettian approaches to the probability problem and show that they do not succeed in overcoming this incoherence.

  17. The emergent multiverse quantum theory according to the Everett interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, David

    2014-01-01

    The Emergent Multiverse presents a striking new account of the 'many worlds' approach to quantum theory. The point of science, it is generally accepted, is to tell us how the world works and what it is like. But quantum theory seems to fail to do this: taken literally as a theory of the world, it seems to make crazy claims: particles are in two places at once; cats are alive and dead at the same time. So physicists and philosophers have often been led either to give up on the idea that quantum theory describes reality, or to modify or augment the theory. The Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics takes the apparent craziness seriously, and asks, 'what would it be like if particles really were in two places at once, if cats really were alive and dead at the same time'? The answer, it turns out, is that if the world were like that-if it were as quantum theory claims-it would be a world that, at the macroscopic level, was constantly branching into copies-hence the more sensationalist name for the Everett in...

  18. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Wang et al., 2000; 2004), sediment transport for Pearl Harbor, HI (Wang et al., 2009a; 2009b) and TMDL for fecal coliform and Combined Sewage...Sewer Overflows in the Port Washington Narrows and Fecal Coliform Transport in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington. Prepared by Space and Naval

  19. Reality in quantum mechanics, Extended Everett Concept, and consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensky, M. B.

    2007-09-01

    Conceptual problems in quantum mechanics result from the specific quantum concept of reality and require, for their solution, including the observer’s consciousness into the quantum theory of measurements. Most naturally, this is achieved in the framework of Everett’s “many-world interpretation” of quantum mechanics. According to this interpretation, various classical alternatives are perceived by consciousness separately from each other. In the Extended Everett Concept (EEC) proposed by the present author, the separation of the alternatives is identified with the phenomenon of consciousness. This explains the classical character of the alternatives and unusual manifestations of consciousness arising “at the edge of consciousness” (i.e., in sleep or trance) when its access to “other alternative classical realities” (other Everett’s worlds) becomes feasible. Because of reversibility of quantum evolution in EEC, all time moments in the quantum world are equivalent, while the impression of flow of time appears only in consciousness. If it is assumed that consciousness may influence the probabilities of alternatives (which is consistent in case of infinitely many Everett’s worlds), EEC explains free will, “probabilistic miracles” (observing low-probability events), and decreasing entropy in the sphere of life.

  20. Evaluation of Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives for U.S. Navy Homeport at Everett, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    12. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was determined according to the ASTM Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (C-109) procedure...lists the detection * Personal Communication, 1986, Mitchell Kaplan, Trident Engineering, Baltimore, Md. H1l 260 - 240 - FLYASH : LIME: SEDIMENT RATIO a...il a* 0.7 - 0.6 - 0.5 - 0.4 - 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1:0.3:1.0 0.1:0.4:1.0 0.1:0.5:1.0 LIME/ FLYASH FORMULATIONS Figure H12. Fraction of contaminant resistant

  1. Feasibility Study for Habitat Development Using Dredged Material at Jetty Island, Everett, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    seashore sal tgrass (D~zjallbIs- s.pI SAtU), Jaunea (WTuimgO Asnai), Lilaeopsis 412,aaps.i. .i~dankaLa), low clubrush ({icixa entzmus)c ditcbgrass (.a...Jamea, Lilaeopsis , ditchgrass, low clubrush, and seaside plantain are .lso present in this zone In minor amounts and can be expected to establish at

  2. Ernest Everett Just: Egg and Embryo as Excitable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, W. Malcolm; Newman, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) was an African American embryologist of international standing whose research interests lay in the area of fertilization and early development in marine invertebrates. Perhaps best known for his discovery of the dynamical and structural blocks to polyspermy that sweep over the egg upon fertilization, E. E. Just also was the first to associate cell surface changes with stages of embryonic development. He was deeply familiar with the natural history of the animals whose eggs he studied, and his knowledge of natural settings led him to emphasize the importance of using laboratory conditions that closely match those in nature. Based on more than thirty years of work, he came to believe that it was the cell surface that played the most critical role in development, heredity and evolution. He promoted a holistic view of cells and organisms in opposition to the gene-centric view that was becoming more prevalent with the rise of genetics, but rejected the vitalism espoused by some biologists of his era, calling instead for “a physics and chemistry in a new dimension …superimposed upon the now known physics and chemistry” to account for biological phenomena. Just’s incisive critique of genetic reductionism finds echoes in contemporary multiscale, systems approaches in biology. His speculations on the relationship between developmental and evolutionary mechanisms resonate with today’s evolutionary developmental biology. After a brief biographical sketch, this paper outlines and discusses some of Just’s scientific contributions, and shows how his ideas remain relevant today. PMID:24665037

  3. Water Pearls Optics Challenges for Everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Water pearls are superabsorbent polyacrylate beads that can expand about 200 times when submerged in water and are often used for decorative purposes in flower vases. A bag of pearls costs about a dollar. The pearls are very useful for teaching science, especially optics. Since water pearls are mainly made of water, their index of refraction…

  4. Probabilities and Shannon's Entropy in the Everett Many-Worlds Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wichert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a controversial suggestion by David Deutsch that decision theory can solve the problem of probabilities in the Everett many-worlds we suggest that the probabilities are induced by Shannon's entropy that measures the uncertainty of events. We argue that a relational person prefers certainty to uncertainty due to fundamental biological principle of homeostasis.

  5. The Philosopher and the Lecturer: John Dewey, Everett Dean Martin, and Reflective Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael; Harbour, Clifford P.

    2013-01-01

    Adult education scholars have not yet examined the connections between the philosopher, John Dewey, and the lecturer on adult education, Everett Dean Martin. These scholars generally portray Dewey as indifferent to their field. However, Dewey's correspondence with a New York newspaper editor in 1928, recommending Martin's The Meaning of…

  6. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  7. Cancer risk from asbestos in drinking water: summary of a case-control study in western Washington.

    OpenAIRE

    Polissar, L; Severson, R K; Boatman, E S

    1983-01-01

    We conducted a case-control, interview-based study of the risk of developing cancer from asbestos in drinking water. An area that included Everett, Washington, was selected for the study because of the unusually high concentration of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water from the Sultan River. Through a population-based tumor registry, 382 individuals with cancer of the buccal cavity, pharynx, respiratory system, digestive system, bladder, or kidneys, diagnosed between 1977 and 1980, were ide...

  8. Detection and partial identification of proteins in pearls formed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, more than 20 proteins have been identified in nacre, yet none have been detected in pearl thus far. This study aimed to detect and identify protein in pearl. Two batches of pearls formed in Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea) were purchased from two pearl farms. They were ground into a powder of >10,000 mesh followed by ...

  9. Van Fraassen, Everett, and the Critique of the Copenhagen View of Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Osnaghi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bas van Fraassen advocates a “Copenhagen variant” of the modal interpretation of quantum mechanics. However, he believes that the Copenhagen approach to measurement is not fully satisfactory, since it seems to rule out the possibility of providing a physical account of the observation process. This was also what John Wheeler had in mind when, in the mid-1950’s, he sponsored the “relative state” formulation proposed by his student Hugh Everett. Wheeler, who considered himself an orthodox Bohrian, tried to convince Bohr to accept the improvement of the Copenhagen approach represented in his eyes by Everett’s proposal. This attempt gave rise to a lively debate, which has been only recently documented, and which provides an interesting framework for the appraisal of van Fraassen’s own programme.

  10. Kinds of nucleus for effective pearl cultivation of the pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanachatree, K.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeding is the most important aspect of pearl cultivation, and appropriate nucleus can determine the quality of a pearl : nacre secretion and accumulation around the nucleus. This affects harvest time, nucleus extrusion, survival rate of the pearl oysters and the production cost. In order to provide nuclei to substitute for those imported from China which are made from freshwater pearl oyster-shells, 3 kinds of the local shells of Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin and Pinctada maxima were selected for seed production. The obtained nuclei have various diameters depend on the shell width at the hinge region. The average diameters are 5.44, 6.78, 7.54 and 6.10 mm, while their production costs are 5, 7.7, 18.5 and 7.5 baht per 1 nucleus, respectively, for Pinctada fucata, Pteria penguin, Pinctada maxima and freshwater pearl oysters (control group. After nucleus implantation into the gonad of culture pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, and rearing in the sea, the obtained pearls using nuclei made from the shells of Pinctada fucata and Pinctada maxima (both belong to the same genus as the implanted culture pearl oysters have as good nacre formation as that from freshwater pearl oysters. In contrast, the pearl production using nuclei made from Pteria penguin-shells have significantly worse nacre formation. Survival rate of the culture oysters seeded with nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells is highest at 47%, nucleus extrusion 8% only, and harvest rate 31%; while with Pinctada maxima-shells, these values are 38%, 17.5% and 14%, respectively. So the nuclei made from local Pinctada fucata-shells are appropriate for pearl cultivation and are comparable to imported nuclei. Although the obtained pearls are small, the nuclei made from Pinctada fucata-shells have low cost, low nucleus extrusion and high productivity.

  11. HARP NWHI- Pearl and Hermes Reef

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off Pearl and Hermes Reef in 2009. It has been recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time frames for information).

  12. Assessing Pearl Quality Using Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Does the Same Donor Produce Consistent Pearl Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamangkey, Noldy Gustaf F.; Agatonovic, Snezana; Southgate, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of commercial quality (“acceptable”) pearls produced using two donors, and a group of “acceptable” pearls from other donors were analyzed using reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Three pearls with different colors produced by the same donor showed different absorption spectra. Cream and gold colored pearls showed a wide absorption from 320 to about 460 nm, while there was just slight reflectance around 400 nm by the white pearl with a pink overtone. Cream and gold pearls reached a reflectance peak at 560 to 590 nm, while the white pearl with pink overtone showed slightly wider absorption in this region. Both cream and gold pearls showed an absorption peak after the reflectance peak, at about 700 nm for the cream pearl and 750 nm for the gold pearl. Two other pearls produced by the same donor (white with cream overtone and cream with various overtones) showed similar spectra, which differed in their intensity. One of these pearls had very high lustre and its spectrum showed a much higher percentage reflectance than the second pearl with inferior lustre. This result may indicate that reflectance is a useful quantitative indicator of pearl lustre. The spectra of two white pearls resulting from different donors with the same color nacre (silver) showed a reflectance at 260 nm, followed by absorption at 280 nm and another reflectance peak at 340 nm. After this peak the spectra for these pearls remained flat until a slight absorption peak around 700 nm. Throughout the visible region, all white pearls used in this study showed similar reflectance spectra although there were differences in reflectance intensity. Unlike the spectral results from white pearls, the results from yellow and gold pearls varied according to color saturation of the pearl. The results of this study show that similarities between absorption and reflectance spectra of cultured pearls resulting from the same saibo donor are negligible and could not be detected with UV

  13. Assessing pearl quality using reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy: does the same donor produce consistent pearl quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamangkey, Noldy Gustaf F; Agatonovic, Snezana; Southgate, Paul C

    2010-09-20

    Two groups of commercial quality ("acceptable") pearls produced using two donors, and a group of "acceptable" pearls from other donors were analyzed using reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Three pearls with different colors produced by the same donor showed different absorption spectra. Cream and gold colored pearls showed a wide absorption from 320 to about 460 nm, while there was just slight reflectance around 400 nm by the white pearl with a pink overtone. Cream and gold pearls reached a reflectance peak at 560 to 590 nm, while the white pearl with pink overtone showed slightly wider absorption in this region. Both cream and gold pearls showed an absorption peak after the reflectance peak, at about 700 nm for the cream pearl and 750 nm for the gold pearl. Two other pearls produced by the same donor (white with cream overtone and cream with various overtones) showed similar spectra, which differed in their intensity. One of these pearls had very high lustre and its spectrum showed a much higher percentage reflectance than the second pearl with inferior lustre. This result may indicate that reflectance is a useful quantitative indicator of pearl lustre. The spectra of two white pearls resulting from different donors with the same color nacre (silver) showed a reflectance at 260 nm, followed by absorption at 280 nm and another reflectance peak at 340 nm. After this peak the spectra for these pearls remained flat until a slight absorption peak around 700 nm. Throughout the visible region, all white pearls used in this study showed similar reflectance spectra although there were differences in reflectance intensity. Unlike the spectral results from white pearls, the results from yellow and gold pearls varied according to color saturation of the pearl. The results of this study show that similarities between absorption and reflectance spectra of cultured pearls resulting from the same saibo donor are negligible and could not be detected with UV

  14. Assessing Pearl Quality Using Reflectance UV-Vis Spectroscopy: Does the Same Donor Produce Consistent Pearl Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Southgate

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of commercial quality (“acceptable” pearls produced using two donors, and a group of “acceptable” pearls from other donors were analyzed using reflectance UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Three pearls with different colors produced by the same donor showed different absorption spectra. Cream and gold colored pearls showed a wide absorption from 320 to about 460 nm, while there was just slight reflectance around 400 nm by the white pearl with a pink overtone. Cream and gold pearls reached a reflectance peak at 560 to 590 nm, while the white pearl with pink overtone showed slightly wider absorption in this region. Both cream and gold pearls showed an absorption peak after the reflectance peak, at about 700 nm for the cream pearl and 750 nm for the gold pearl. Two other pearls produced by the same donor (white with cream overtone and cream with various overtones showed similar spectra, which differed in their intensity. One of these pearls had very high lustre and its spectrum showed a much higher percentage reflectance than the second pearl with inferior lustre. This result may indicate that reflectance is a useful quantitative indicator of pearl lustre. The spectra of two white pearls resulting from different donors with the same color nacre (silver showed a reflectance at 260 nm, followed by absorption at 280 nm and another reflectance peak at 340 nm. After this peak the spectra for these pearls remained flat until a slight absorption peak around 700 nm. Throughout the visible region, all white pearls used in this study showed similar reflectance spectra although there were differences in reflectance intensity. Unlike the spectral results from white pearls, the results from yellow and gold pearls varied according to color saturation of the pearl. The results of this study show that similarities between absorption and reflectance spectra of cultured pearls resulting from the same saibo donor are negligible and could not be detected

  15. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge...... the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The number of post......-tensioning cables, the rise to span ratio, the height of the filling, and the height of the Super-Light Decks. We find that Pearl-Chain Bridges can be adjusted to resist specific moment loads by changing the normal force in the arch cross section by altering the above parameters. It is also found that the negative...

  16. Wild Black-lip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) Spat Collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Pearl farming is a growing aquaculture activity in Tanzania but requires sufficient young pearl oysters to make it feasible. Collection of spat in the wild is the most viable way of doing this and was tested to establish whether it would yield sufficient juvenile pearl oysters to support an industry. A total of.

  17. 32 CFR 765.6 - Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 765.6... RULES RULES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC § 765.6 Regulations for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, is responsible for prescribing and enforcing such rules and...

  18. Resource potential and status of pearl oyster fishery in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Many cultivable species of pearl oysters are known to occur in the Indo-Australian Archipelago which is an important region in the world distribution of pearl oysters. An account of the development of Indian pearl fisheries that took place over...

  19. Testing Pearl Model In Three European Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    The Plant Protection Product Directive (91/414/EEC) stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. The use of models has become an unavoidable step before pesticide registration. In this context, European Commission, and in particular DGVI, set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pes- ticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project, with one of its objective being the validation and im- provement of existing pesticide fate models. The main topic of research presented here is the validation of the PEARL model for different sites in Europe. The PEARL model, actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure, was validated in three well- instrumented sites: Vredepeel (the Netherlands), Brimstone (UK), and Lanna (Swe- den). A step-wise procedure was used for the validation of the PEARL model. First the water transport module was calibrated, and then the solute transport module, using tracer measurements keeping unchanged the water transport parameters. The Vrede- peel site is characterised by a sandy soil. Fourteen months of measurements were used for the calibration. Two pesticides were applied on the site: bentazone and etho- prophos. PEARL predictions were very satisfactory for both soil moisture content, and pesticide concentration in the soil profile. The Brimstone site is characterised by a cracking clay soil. The calibration was conducted on a time series measurement of 7 years. The validation consisted in comparing predictions and measurement of soil moisture at different soil depths, and in comparing the predicted and measured con- centration of isoproturon in the drainage water. The results, even if in good agreement with the measuremens, highlighted the limitation of the model when the preferential flow becomes a dominant process. PEARL did not reproduce well soil moisture pro- file during summer months, and also under-predicted the arrival of

  20. Pearls and pitfalls in the horror cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzi, R M

    1998-01-01

    Observations on the neurologic signs and symptoms of Count Dracula, Wolfman, and Frankenstein's Monster are presented as viewed by a specialist in neuromuscular disease. Key clinical features of these horror movie figures illustrate a variety of pearls in the diagnosis of a variety of neurologic disorders, including porphyria, lead poisoning, osteosclerotic myeloma, and myasthenia gravis.

  1. Response of Tunisian autochthonous pearl millet (Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.) from six provenances of Tunisia were subjected to germination and shoot and root length tests on filter paper treated with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) solutions made up to provide osmotic potentials of 0, -1 and -2 MPa. Mean germination percent for all ...

  2. Computer vision based nacre thickness measurement of Tahitian pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesdau, Martin; Chabrier, Sébastien; Gabillon, Alban

    2017-03-01

    The Tahitian Pearl is the most valuable export product of French Polynesia contributing with over 61 million Euros to more than 50% of the total export income. To maintain its excellent reputation on the international market, an obligatory quality control for every pearl deemed for exportation has been established by the local government. One of the controlled quality parameters is the pearls nacre thickness. The evaluation is currently done manually by experts that are visually analyzing X-ray images of the pearls. In this article, a computer vision based approach to automate this procedure is presented. Even though computer vision based approaches for pearl nacre thickness measurement exist in the literature, the very specific features of the Tahitian pearl, namely the large shape variety and the occurrence of cavities, have so far not been considered. The presented work closes the. Our method consists of segmenting the pearl from X-ray images with a model-based approach, segmenting the pearls nucleus with an own developed heuristic circle detection and segmenting possible cavities with region growing. Out of the obtained boundaries, the 2-dimensional nacre thickness profile can be calculated. A certainty measurement to consider imaging and segmentation imprecisions is included in the procedure. The proposed algorithms are tested on 298 manually evaluated Tahitian pearls, showing that it is generally possible to automatically evaluate the nacre thickness of Tahitian pearls with computer vision. Furthermore the results show that the automatic measurement is more precise and faster than the manual one.

  3. Indra's pearls the vision of Felix Klein

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, David; Wright, David

    2002-01-01

    Felix Klein, one of the great nineteenth-century geometers, rediscovered in mathematics an idea from Eastern philosophy: the heaven of Indra contained a net of pearls, each of which was reflected in its neighbour, so that the whole Universe was mirrored in each pearl. Klein studied infinitely repeated reflections and was led to forms with multiple co-existing symmetries. For a century these ideas barely existed outside the imagination of mathematicians. However in the 1980s the authors embarked on the first computer exploration of Klein's vision, and in doing so found many further extraordinary images. Join the authors on the path from basic mathematical ideas to the simple algorithms that create the delicate fractal filigrees, most of which have never appeared in print before. Beginners can follow the step-by-step instructions for writing programs that generate the images. Others can see how the images relate to ideas at the forefront of research.

  4. Pearls for publishing papers: Tips and tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karalikkattil T Ashique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the stringent regulations from various academic bodies making it desirable for a post graduate resident to have submitted an original article prior to appearance for their exams or those working in teaching institutions to have published articles to claim credit for applying for promotions and private practitioners to increase their visibility on the academic front, everyone is on a publishing spree. In this article, we attempt to elucidate the processes involved in publication; approaching it in a systematic and practical manner, incorporating some tips and tricks. This collection of pearls is aimed to serve as a beginner′s guide to scientific writing and publications. The pearls cover assorted topics like- benefits of publications, collecting resources, various tools available and technical processes related to how a manuscript is processed.

  5. Evaluation of Sediment Contamination in Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    migration pathway. The burrowing activities (bioturbation) by bottom-dwelling organisms such as snapping shrimp, mantis shrimp, worms , and certain...diatoms, sea anemones, feather duster worms , Hawaiian anchovy (nehu), shorebirds, certain fish species, and larval forms of many resident biota, may be...antifouling paint leachates on Pearl Har- bor organisms: site-specific flow-through bioassay tests," Naval Ocean Systems Cen- ter Technical Report TR-1079, San

  6. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Gonçalves Zenóbio; Thaís Ribeiral Vieira; Roberta Paula Colen Bustamante; Hayder Egg Gomes; Jamil Awad Shibli; Rodrigo Villamarin Soares

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examinat...

  7. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Gonçalves Zenóbio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases.

  8. Enamel Pearls Implications on Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Vieira, Thaís Ribeiral; Bustamante, Roberta Paula Colen; Gomes, Hayder Egg; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarin

    2015-01-01

    Dental anatomy is quite complex and diverse factors must be taken into account in its analysis. Teeth with anatomical variations present an increase in the rate of severity periodontal tissue destruction and therefore a higher risk of developing periodontal disease. In this context, this paper reviews the literature regarding enamel pearls and their implications in the development of severe localized periodontal disease as well as in the prognosis of periodontal therapy. Radiographic examination of a patient complaining of pain in the right side of the mandible revealed the presence of a radiopaque structure around the cervical region of lower right first premolar. Periodontal examination revealed extensive bone loss since probing depths ranged from 7.0 mm to 9.0 mm and additionally intense bleeding and suppuration. Surgical exploration detected the presence of an enamel pearl, which was removed. Assessment of the remaining supporting tissues led to the extraction of tooth 44. Local factors such as enamel pearls can lead to inadequate removal of the subgingival biofilm, thus favoring the establishment and progression of periodontal diseases.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glauccum [L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was applied to pearl millet genotypes in order to assess the degree of polymorphisms within and among genotypes and to investigate if this approach was suitable for genetic studies of pearl millet. 20 genotypes were evaluated using 30 different 10-mer primers of ...

  10. Influence of variety and management level on pearl millet production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is the most important food crop in Niger and most other West African Sahelian countries. The study was conducted as a factorial combination of three pearl millet varieties and two management levels at Kollo, Niger. Low management consisted of 10,000 hills ha-1 with no fertiliser ...

  11. A harbinger of plate tectonics: a commentary on Bullard, Everett and Smith (1965) ?The fit of the continents around the Atlantic?

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, John F.

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, geology was transformed by the paradigm of plate tectonics. The 1965 paper of Bullard, Everett and Smith was a linking transition between the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics. They showed, conclusively, that the continents around the Atlantic were once contiguous and that the Atlantic Ocean had grown at rates of a few centimetres per year since the Early Jurassic, about 160?Ma. They achieved fits of the continental margins at the 500 fathom line (approx. 900?m),...

  12. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  13. Analysis of Shellfish Growing Areas of Alabama, Florida and Georgia, USA - Using the Pearl Shellfish Sanitation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred S. Conte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the United States (U.S., National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP standards, the shellfish growing areas in modeling, shellfish sanitation, water quality, shellfish closure rules the U.S. must be closed for harvest when the estimated 90th percentile of fecal coliform concentrations exceeds the NSSP limit of 14/43 Most Probable Number/100 mL (NSSP, 2009, NSSP, 2011. Pearl is a model that identifies harvest areas at risk for fecal coliform contamination (Conte and Ahmadi, 2012. Once the risk areas are identified, the Aquarius model can be used to adjust closure rules (Conte and Ahmadi, 2011. In multi-state analyses using the Pearl model, we have developed a hypothesis that state agencies are inadvertently applying the model's Pearl Limit of 8/26 MPN/100 mL in place of the NSSP limit of 14/43 MPN/100 mL for a 5-tube test to guard against shellfish-related illnesses (Conte and Ahmadi, 2012; 2013; 2014. The datasets used to develop the hypothesis were from Oakland Bay, Washington (Pacific Northwest, Arcata Bay, California (Pacific Northern California, and seven shellfish bays of the Texas Gulf Coast (Western Gulf of Mexico. The main purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis using different datasets from shellfish growing areas in the states of Alabama (Eastern Gulf of Mexico, Florida (Eastern Gulf of Mexico and south Atlantic Coast and Georgia (South Atlantic Coast, all located in the southeastern United States. An additional objective is to use the state’s datasets in Pearl analyses to detect the shellfish growing areas that pose a possible health risk to shellfish consumers during some periods

  14. 16 CFR 23.20 - Misuse of terms such as “cultured pearl,” “seed pearl,” “Oriental pearl,” “natura,” “kultured...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.20 Misuse of terms such as “cultured... like meaning to describe, identify, or refer to any industry product other than a pearl taken from a... describe, identify, or refer to a pearl or cultured pearl that does not possess the beauty, symmetry...

  15. 2014 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mean Low Low Water Near-Infrared Mosaic of Puget Sound - Everett to Spring Beach, Washington: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  16. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  17. Esmya® and the PEARL studies: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martin; Dutta, Deborata

    2016-01-01

    Ulipristal acetate was investigated in four phase 3 trials. In PEARL I, ulipristal produced significant normalisation of blood loss within 1 week and decreased fibroid volume. In PEARL II, ulipristal produced faster and more consistent control of bleeding than leuprorelin acetate and had a more favourable side-effect profile. Ulipristal-induced decreases in fibroid volume persisted for 6 months, whereas fibroids regrew after leuprorelin was stopped. PEARL III showed that ulipristal was effective during long-term treatment, with norethisterone further reducing the magnitude of bleeding in the off-treatment period. PEARL IV investigated ulipristal over four cycles, finding little difference between 5 and 10 mg ulipristal, further changes in menstruation and fibroid volume with repeat courses, and no increase in side effects. PMID:29334010

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  19. Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  20. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Pearl Harbor Hawaii Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  1. Pearl River Fish Kill Post Incident Monitoring Report 2012 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF) completed a three year fish and mussel monitoring project during the years 2012 through 2014 in the Pearl...

  2. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Bai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM. Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  3. Parels en puzzels bij weidegang = 'Pearls and puzzles' with grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, M.; Gosselink, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Choosing a suitable farming system and optimising and continuing this approach in practice gives dairy farmers the most 'pearls' and the fewest 'puzzles'. This applies both to grazing and non-grazing systems.

  4. EAARL Coastal Topography--Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely...

  5. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  6. The impact of Immigration and Customs Enforcement on immigrant health: perceptions of immigrants in Everett, Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Chu, Jocelyn; Leung, Carolyn; Marra, Robert; Pirie, Alex; Brahimi, Mohamed; English, Margaret; Beckmann, Joshua; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Marlin, Robert P

    2011-08-01

    U.S. immigrants have faced a changing landscape with regard to immigration enforcement over the last two decades. Following the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996, and the creation of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency after the attacks of September 11, 2001, detention and deportation activity increased substantially. As a result, immigrants today are experiencing heightened fear of profiling and deportation. Little research exists on how these activities affect the health and well-being of U.S. immigrant communities. This study sought to address this gap by using community-based participatory research to investigate the impact of enhanced immigration enforcement on immigrant health in Everett, Massachusetts, USA, a city with a large and diverse immigrant population. Community partners and researchers conducted 6 focus groups with 52 immigrant participants (documented and undocumented) in five languages in May 2009. The major themes across the groups included: 1) Fear of deportation, 2) Fear of collaboration between local law enforcement and ICE and perception of arbitrariness on the part of the former and 3) Concerns about not being able to furnish documentation required to apply for insurance and for health care. Documented and undocumented immigrants reported high levels of stress due to deportation fear, which affected their emotional well-being and their access to health services. Recommendations from the focus groups included improving relationships between immigrants and local police, educating immigrants on their rights and responsibilities as residents, and holding sessions to improve civic engagement. Immigration enforcement activities and the resulting deportation fear are contextual factors that undermine trust in community institutions and social capital, with implications for health and effective integration processes. These factors should be considered by any community seeking to

  7. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  8. A Comprehensive Copper Compliance Strategy: Implementing Regulatory Guidance at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Earley, P. J; Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Gauthier, R. D; Arias-Thode, Y; Thompson, J; Swope, B

    2007-01-01

    Studies were performed to develop a new National Pollution Discharge Elimination Systems Permit for the discharge of effluents from the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility into Pearl Harbor...

  9. Durability of Materials in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller

    . The construction of the Pearl-Chain arch is simple. The arch is assembled on its side, next to the road that the bridge will span, by placing a number of plane prefabricated Super-Light Decks that consist of lightweight aggregate concrete and conventional concrete, in the desired arch shape. Mortar joints are cast...... is stabilized by casting a fill material between the spandrel walls of the arch. Finally, the road surface is cast on top of the fill material. New bridges are designed for a service lifetime of at least 100 years. Hence, the specifications of the materials used in Pearl-Chain Bridges are high. This PhD study...... documents that the materials used in Pearl-Chain Bridges have the necessary strength and durability to ensure their longevity. The scope of the PhD study is limited to assessing the fill material placed on the Pearl-Chain arch, and the mortar joints and lightweight aggregate concrete used in the Pearl...

  10. Women in History--Pearl Buck: An Advocate for Women and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Pearl Buck, an advocate for women's rights and minority children, an author of Chinese history, and a pioneer in many ways. Buck established the Welcome House in 1949 in order to help unadoptable children find families (Conn, 1996). In 1964, Buck founded the Pearl S. Buck Foundation, now Pearl S. Buck International, which…

  11. Washington County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Washington County from 2011 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  12. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, R L

    1997-10-01

    Pearlizing agents have been used for many years in cosmetic formulations to add a pearlescent effect. Cold pearl surfactant-based blends are mixtures of glycol stearates and surfactants which can be blended in the cold into a wide range of personal-care formulations to create a pearlescent lustre effect. Under controlled manufacturing conditions constant viscosities and crystalline characteristics can be obtained. The development of these blends has been driven by efforts to improve the economics of adding solid pearlizing agents directly into a hot mix formulation. This paper summarizes the history of pearlizers, describes their advantages and physical chemistry of the manufacturing process. Finally some suggestions for applications are given. Les agents nacrants sont utilises depuis de nombreuses annees dans les formulations cosmetiques pour ajouter un effet nacre. Les melanges a froid a base de tensioactif nacre sont des melanges de stearates de glycol et de tensioactifs qui peuvent etre melanges a froid dans une large gamme de formulations d'hygiene personnelle pour creer un effet de lustre nacre. On peut obtenir des viscosites et des proprietes cristallines constantes avec des conditions de fabrication maitrisees. Le developpement de ces melanges a ete porte par les efforts pour ameliorer les couts de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee de l'ajout d'agents nacrants solides directement dans une formulation melangee a chaud. Cet article resume l'histoire des agents nacrants, decrit leurs avantages et al physico-chimie du procede de fabrication. On emet a la fin cetaines suggestions d'applications.

  13. Responses of pearl millet ( Pennisetum flaucum ) to varying sowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trial was conducted during the 2009 wet season at Bagauda, Kano University of Science and Technology Temporary Research farm (110390N, 080200E) to determine the optimum sowing date and the most successful variety of Pearl millet for the area. The treatments were factorially combined and arranged in a ...

  14. Raymond Pearl and the shaping of human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; Garruto, Ralph M

    2010-02-01

    Raymond Pearl (1879-1940) was a significant figure in the field of biology. He founded the journal Human Biology and almost single-handedly promoted and established the scientific discipline of human biology. His scientific versatility was one of his most important features during the first four decades of the 20th century, and he played a major role in developing the fields of biodemography, human population biology, human life-cycle and life span approaches, fertility, growth, the biology of longevity and senescence, and mortality. He was one of the earliest biologists to combine biometric analyses and experimental studies to explore the dimensions of human biology. Pearl also was broadly educated in the arts, music, literature, history, the classics, and science. His writing was sophisticated and often witty, and his views were sometimes provocative and controversial. His network of colleagues and friends among the literary and science worlds was substantial. The following biographical memoir of Raymond Pearl is designed to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the founding of his journal Human Biology and is a tribute to this great scientist. Pearl's sudden death at age 61 truncated a scientific career that was one of the most productive of the 20th century.

  15. Characteristics of local pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum ) grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between sensory textural properties of \\"fura\\" and the physicochemical properties of the flours indicated that swelling capacity and water added to hydrate flour are reliable indicators for predicting the textural quality of \\"fura\\". Keywords: fura production, pearl millet grains, physicochemical, characteristics

  16. In vitro transformation of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L). R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro transformation of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L). R. BR.): Selection of chlorsulfuron-resistant plants and long term expression of the gus gene under ... Genomic DNA of resistant cells presented an electrophoretic pattern revealing the integration of the mutant ALS gene into the genome of Pennisetum glaucum.

  17. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest in pearl culture in the Western Indian Ocean ... West Indian Ocean. These include the settlement of mangrove oyster, Saccostrea cucullata within the intertidal zone in Kenya (Van Someren and. Whitehead ..... Abundance of different species/taxa (mean±SE) identified from black plastic sheet collectors deployed.

  18. Holistic Flood Risk Assessment In Coastal Areas : The PEARL Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vojinovic, Zoran; Abebe, Y.; Sanchez, A.; Medina Pena, N.; Nikolic, I.; Manojlovic, N; Makropoulos, C.; Pelling, M.; Abbott, M.; Piasecki, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal floods are one of the most dangerous and harmful natural hazards affecting urban areas adjacent to shorelines. The present paper discusses the FP7-ENV-2013 EU funded PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastaL regions) project which brings together world leading expertise in both

  19. HINTS in the Acute Vestibular Syndrome: Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Nathan H; Van Stavern, Gregory P; Gold, Daniel R

    2018-01-09

    The acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is characterized by the rapid onset of vertigo, nausea/vomiting, nystagmus, unsteady gait, and head motion intolerance lasting more than 24 hours. We present 4 patients with AVS to illustrate the pearls and pitfalls of the Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew (HINTS) examination.

  20. Isolation of Fungal Species from Fermentating Pearl Millet Gruel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mycological and physicochemical qualities (pH and titratable acidity) of fermenting pearl millet gruel were evaluated using routine methods. Several species of yeasts and moulds were isolated and the mould species identified based on their observable macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The moulds ...

  1. Effect of malting conditions on pearl millet malt quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pelembe, LAM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of malting conditions on pearl millet malt quality in two varieties, SDMV 89004 and SDMV 91018, was investigated. Grain was steeped and germinated at four temperatures, 20degrees, 25degrees, 30degrees and 35degreesC, over 5 days...

  2. Assembly and lifting of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Viebæk, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    in buildings and bridges. The assembly and lifting of two Pearl-Chain arches, with a span of 13 m and rise of 1 m, is considered in this paper. Precast “Super-Light Deck” elements were used for the arches, which had a thickness of 22 cm. Both arches were successfully lifted, rotated in mid-air, and placed...

  3. reaction of intercropping cowpea with pearl millet infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    observation) which were later threshed (with mortar and pestle) and weighed using an electric weighing balance from each plot. Data collected were subjected to paired T- test to separate the means of sole and intercropping to bring out the differences between them. RESULTS. Reaction of intercropping cowpea with pearl.

  4. The Use of UV-Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy as an Objective Tool to Evaluate Pearl Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the quality of pearls involves the use of various tools and methods, which are mainly visual and often quite subjective. Pearls are normally classified by origin and are then graded by luster, nacre thickness, surface quality, size, color and shape. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to classify and estimate the quality of 27 different pearls from their UV-Visible spectra. Due to the opaque nature of pearls, spectroscopy measurements were performed using the Diffuse Reflectance UV-Visible spectroscopy technique. The spectra were acquired at two different locations on each pearl sample in order to assess surface homogeneity. The spectral data (inputs) were smoothed to reduce the noise, fed into ANNs and correlated to the pearl’s quality/grading criteria (outputs). The developed ANNs were successful in predicting pearl type, mollusk growing species, possible luster and color enhancing, donor condition/type, recipient/host color, donor color, pearl luster, pearl color, origin. The results of this study shows that the developed UV-Vis spectroscopy-ANN method could be used as a more objective method of assessing pearl quality (grading) and may become a valuable tool for the pearl grading industry. PMID:22851919

  5. Doxorubicin-loaded PLA/pearl electrospun nanofibrous scaffold for drug delivery and tumor cell treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiamu; Jin, Junhong; Yang, Shenglin; Li, Guang

    2017-07-01

    A drug-loaded implantable scaffold is a promising substitute for the treatment of tissue defects after a tumor resection operation. In this work, natural pearl powder with good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity was incorporated into polylactic (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was also loaded in the PLA/pearl scaffold, resulting in a drug-loaded composite nanofibrous scaffold (DOX@PLA/pearl). In vitro drug delivery of DOX from a PLA/pearl composite scaffold was measured and in vitro anti-tumor efficacy was also examined, in particular the effect of the pearl content on both key properties were studied. The results showed that DOX was successfully loaded into PLA/pearl composite nanofibrous scaffolds with different pearl content. More importantly, the delivery rate of DOX kept rising as the pearl content increased, and the anti-tumor efficacy of the drug-loaded scaffold on HeLa cells was improved at an appropriate pearl powder concentration. Thus, we expect that the prepared DOX@PLA/pearl powder nanofibrous mat is a highly promising implantable scaffold that has great potential in postoperative cancer treatment.

  6. Comparison of hydration, tyrosinase resistance, and antioxidant activation in three kinds of pearl powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dong-Zi; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Hwang, Hann-Jang; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, people have bred freshwater pearls as a substitute for natural pearls that occur in seawater, and they have also developed water-soluble pearl powder (P-w) and ultra-micro (P-mu) and ultra-nano pearl powder (P-n) products. However, neither the scientific value of pearl powder, nor the differences in efficiencies of different pearl powder products is still unknown. In this study, the effectiveness of three kinds of pearl powder products in various applications was compared. Tests for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and evaluations of the skin surface hydration of test subjects showed that pearl powder has a satisfactory moisturizing effect on skin and that P-mu has a distinctly stronger moisturizing effect than P-w. The three pearl powder products can also significantly reduce the activation of tyrosinase and free radicals. In tests for reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for scavenging free radicals, P-n and P-mu showed better performance than P-w. These results provide a reliable scientific basis for the use of pearl powder in beauty treatment, resistance to aging, and clinical medical treatment.

  7. Developing a national spat collection program for pearl oysters in the Fiji Islands supporting pearl industry development and livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranesh Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultured pearl farming in Fiji relies on wild spat collection to supply the oysters used for pearl production. This supply can be inconsistent and a research program was implemented to determine recruitment of pearl oysters to spat collectors at sites throughout Fiji as a basis for developing a national spat collection program to improve reliability of oyster supply to the industry. Twenty-nine sites across Fiji were used in this study. Spat collectors consisted of a 100 m longline from which 310 individual spat collectors were suspended. Spat collectors were deployed for a period of 10–15 months when the number of pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin spat attached to each collector was counted and shell size recorded. A total of 5478 P. margaritifera juveniles were collected from all sites with the highest number of recruits (693 and the highest number of recruits per collector (2.10 ± 0.17 occurring at Nacobau (Vanua Levu. The largest mean dorso-ventral measurement (DVM of P. margaritifera at any site was 8.61 ± 0.30 cm while the smallest was 4.26 ± 0.13 cm. Some sites did not record any P. margaritifera recruitment during the study and these were generally sites with relatively turbid water. A total of 4224 Pt. penguin were collected from all sites, with the highest number of recruits (495 recorded from Namarai (Viti Levu. The mean DVM of Pt. penguin ranged from 7.53 cm to 13.62 cm across sites. Results indicate that Pt. penguin have greater tolerance of more turbid inshore sites than P. margaritifera based on greater levels of recruitment at these sites. Results identified sites supporting high levels of pearl oyster recruitment as a basis for an ongoing national spat collection program, and support better targeting of spat collection activities that maximise oyster supply to the Fijian pearl industry. The national spat collection program will generate significant livelihood benefits across

  8. The influence of pearl oyster farming on reef fish abundance and diversity in Ahe, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Laurent E; Carpenter, Kent E

    2014-01-15

    Many cultured pearl farms are located in areas of the Pacific that have thriving, highly diverse fish communities but the impacts of farming on these communities are poorly understood. We studied the effects of pearl oyster farming on shore fish abundance and diversity in the lagoon of Ahe, French Polynesia by adapting roving diver census methods to the coral reef bommies of the lagoon and compared 16 sites with high pearl farming impact to others with no direct impact. Pearl farming has a slightly positive effect on reef fish abundance (N) and no significant impact on fish diversity (H) or community composition. This is important when considering the ecological sustainability of pearl farming in French Polynesia and suggests that a potential synergy between pearl farms and marine conservation should be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  11. Pearls in running drops on an inclined glass substrate excited by Lamb waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Tietze, Sabrina

    2017-10-26

    We demonstrate that pearling droplets will be released from droplets as they sliding down a partially wetting glass plate excited by Lamb waves. During the movement, we find that the transitions at generating pearling are independent of the drop size and depend only on a critical capillary number Ca. Further up, the position of the pearls must be at or around the droplet's advancing or receding end of the initial state.

  12. Micronutrient density and stability in West African pearl millet – potential for biofortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürger, Anna; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Gondah, Jadah

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is one of the most important cereals in West and Central Africa (WCA). Human populations in WCA are strongly affected by micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification, the development of pearl millet varieties with enhanced micronutrient levels...... among minerals and agro morphological traits. The study included 72 WCA pearl millet genotypes which were grown in three environments in Niger, contrasting in soil fertilization. Significant genotypic effects, moderate estimates of heritability, and genetic variation for mineral densities, especially...

  13. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shivani; Malhotra, Sumit; Baliga, Vidya; Hans, Manoj

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial plaque has been implicated as the primary etiologic factor in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Anatomic factors (such as enamel pearls) are often associated with advanced localized periodontal destruction. The phenomenon of ectopic development of enamel on the root surface, variedly referred to as enameloma, enamel pearl, enamel drop or enamel nodule, is not well-understood. Such an anomaly may facilitate the progression of periodontal breakdown. A rare case of enamel pearl on the lingual aspect of mandibular central incisor associated with localized periodontal disease is presented. Removal and treatment of enamel pearl along with possible mechanisms to account for the pathogenesis of ectopic enamel formation are also discussed.

  14. Pearl necklace sign in diabetic macular edema: Evaluation and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirasagar Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 The purpose of this study was to describe significance and prevalence of the newly reported pearl necklace spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT sign, in diabetic macular edema (DMO, (2 to track the course of this sign over a period of at least 10 months. Materials and Methods: The pearl necklace SDOCT sign refers to hyperreflective dots in a contiguous ring around the inner wall of cystoid spaces in the retina, recently described for the first time in 21 eyes with chronic exudative maculopathy. A retrospective analysis was performed of SDOCT images of all patients presenting to the DMO referral clinic of a tertiary eye care center, over a period of 24 months. Images of patients displaying this sign were sequentially analyzed for at least 10 months to track the course of the sign. Results: Thirty-five eyes of 267 patients (13.1% were found to display the pearl necklace sign. Twenty-eight eyes responded to intravitreal ranibizumab treatment with resolution of edema. In 21 eyes, the dots coalesced to form a clump, visible in the infrared fundus photograph as hard exudates; in seven eyes, dots disappeared without leaving visible exudates. In three eyes, the sign was seen in subfoveal cystoid spaces, with subsequent development of hard exudates, and drop in visual acuity of 20 letters or more. Conclusion: Pearl necklace SDOCT sign is not infrequent in DMO. This sign is a precursor to hard exudates in the majority of cases. If this sign is seen subfoveally, drop in visual acuity can be expected, despite treatment.

  15. Chromosome elimination by wide hybridization between Triticeae or oat plant and pearl millet: pearl millet chromosome dynamics in hybrid embryo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Ueda, Toshie; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2010-11-01

    Wide crossing is one of a number of practical methods that can be used to expand genetic variation in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, in crosses between wheat and distantly related species such as maize (Zea mays) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), non-wheat chromosomes are often eliminated from the hybrid during embryogenesis. In this study, we used pearl millet pollen to pollinate the pistils of a range of plants in the tribe Triticeae, as well as oat. Seven days after pollination, the dynamics of the pearl millet chromosomes in the embryos were observed using in situ hybridization, probing both the pearl millet genomic DNA and its centromere-specific repeats. In embryos from the crosses with oat, all seven of the pearl millet chromosomes were retained. However, in hybrids with the Triticeae species, chromosome elimination occurred during embryogenesis. Pearl millet chromosome showed chromosome rearrangements and non-disjunction together with micronuclei. These rearranged chromosomes and micronuclei derived from the breakage of bridges and retention of acentric fragments in anaphase, respectively. The cause of the chromosome elimination of wheat-pearl millet hybrid is not malfunction of the kinetochores binding to the spindles but the malfunction of the sister chromatids segregation at anaphase especially of chromosome arm.

  16. Increasing dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus export by the Pearl River (Zhujiang)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Li, Lili; Luan, Shengji; Wang, Huanzhi; Yang, Shunshun; Zhang, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    The Pearl River (Zhujiang in Chinese) has been exporting excess of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), causing eutrophication in the coastal waters of southern China for decades. However, sources of these nutrients and their locations are not well studied for the Pearl River basin. As a consequence,

  17. Congress Investigates: Pearl Harbor and 9/11 Congressional Hearing Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackerby, Christine

    2011-01-01

    On the morning of December 7, 1941, Japanese bombers staged a surprise attack on U.S. military forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Sixty years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States was attacked again. On the morning of September 11, 2001, four commercial airplanes hijacked by 19 terrorists killed nearly 3,000 people when they crashed…

  18. The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect of Socio-Economic Factors on Pearl Millet ( Pennisetum glaucum l.) Production in ... Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... The study investigated farmers' socio-economic factor affecting pearl millet production in randomly selected villages in Magumeri Local Government Area of Borno State. A total of ...

  19. Uncertainty and stochastic sensitivity analysis of the GeoPEARL pesticide leaching model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Tiktak, A.; Berg, van den F.

    2010-01-01

    GeoPEARL is a spatially distributed model describing the fate of pesticides in the soil–plant system. It calculates the drainage of pesticides to local surface waters and the leaching into groundwater. GeoPEARL plays an important role in the evaluation of Dutch pesticide policy plans. This study

  20. Results of hydrologic monitoring on landslide-prone coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joel B.; Baum, Rex L.; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Michel, Abigail R.; Stark, Ben

    2017-08-31

    A hydrologic monitoring network was installed to investigate landslide hazards affecting the railway corridor along the eastern shore of Puget Sound between Seattle and Everett, near Mukilteo, Washington. During the summer of 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring equipment at four sites equipped with instrumentation to measure rainfall and air temperature every 15 minutes. Two of the four sites are installed on contrasting coastal bluffs, one landslide scarred and one vegetated. At these two sites, in addition to rainfall and air temperature, volumetric water content, pore pressure, soil suction, soil temperature, and barometric pressure were measured every 15 minutes. The instrumentation was designed to supplement landslide-rainfall thresholds developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with a long-term goal of advancing the understanding of the relationship between landslide potential and hydrologic forcing along the coastal bluffs. Additionally, the system was designed to function as a prototype monitoring system to evaluate criteria for site selection, instrument selection, and placement of instruments. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system, present the data collected since installation, and describe significant events represented within the dataset, which is published as a separate data release. The findings provide insight for building and configuring larger, modular monitoring networks.

  1. A harbinger of plate tectonics: a commentary on Bullard, Everett and Smith (1965) 'The fit of the continents around the Atlantic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, John F

    2015-04-13

    In the 1960s, geology was transformed by the paradigm of plate tectonics. The 1965 paper of Bullard, Everett and Smith was a linking transition between the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics. They showed, conclusively, that the continents around the Atlantic were once contiguous and that the Atlantic Ocean had grown at rates of a few centimetres per year since the Early Jurassic, about 160 Ma. They achieved fits of the continental margins at the 500 fathom line (approx. 900 m), not the shorelines, by minimizing misfits between conjugate margins and finding axes, poles and angles of rotation, using Euler's theorem, that defined the unique single finite difference rotation that carried congruent continents from contiguity to their present positions, recognizing that the real motion may have been more complex around a number of finite motion poles. Critically, they were concerned only with kinematic reality and were not restricted by considerations of the mechanism by which continents split and oceans grow. Many of the defining features of plate tectonics were explicit or implicit in their reconstructions, such as the torsional rigidity of continents, Euler's theorem, closure of the Tethyan ocean(s), major continental margin shear zones, the rapid rotation of small continental blocks (Iberia) around nearby poles, the consequent opening of small wedge-shaped oceans (Bay of Biscay), and misfit overlaps (deltas and volcanic piles) and underlaps (stretched continental edges). This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  2. It Could Be a Pearl to You: Exploring Recruitment and Retention of the Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS) With Hard-to-Reach Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley; Hammerback, Kristen; Snowden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We partnered with 3 social service organizations to identify hard-to-reach populations, barriers to reach, and strategies for improving recruitment and retention for Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS), a home-based depression-care management program for elders. We conducted semistructured interviews with staff and former PEARLS participants. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Veterans, African Americans, Filipino men, other immigrants and English-language learners, old-older adults, rural communities, and people with limited education were identified as hard to reach. The themes of trust, cultural appropriateness, meet them where they are, and framing and reframing, cut across barriers to participation in PEARLS and approaches for overcoming these barriers. Research findings will be used to inform technical assistance activities with PEARLS providers, changes to PEARLS program and training materials, and future PEARLS research activities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cultural Diversity in Nursing Education: Perils, Pitfalls, and Pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Hedi; Schim, Stephanie; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the classroom challenges nursing educators to identify issues that complicate teaching (perils), analyze barriers for themselves and their students (pitfalls), and select new strategies for working with nontraditional students (pearls). This article identifies concerns arising from attitudes and values within nursing and common approaches to diversity education, and then discusses key issues in nursing education that relate to human nature, culture, faculty workload, and student demographics. Finally, some strategies are proposed for increasing the effectiveness of professional preparation with diverse students through a focus on culturally congruent education and development of faculty cultural competence. PMID:20143759

  4. Variability of thermohaline properties in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua (ESP)

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes, Carlos L.; Ballestero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Several hydrographic surveys were carried out in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua between april 1995 and december 1997 under the DIPAL (Proyecto para el Desarrollo Integral de la Pesca Artesanal en la Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur) project. Surface temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have been measured in 88 hydrographic campaigns. The annual cycle shows maximum and minimum temperatures in May (29.4 °C) and December (25.6 °C) respectively, maximum salinity (25.6 °C) in April, one...

  5. George Washington: A Grounded Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highway, Suite 1204·, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC......a broad array of experiences, enabled him to become a leader who profoundly affected those around him. George Washington reflected a man of the

  6. Washington State Biofuels Industry Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Richard [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-09

    The funding from this research grant enabled us to design, renovate, and equip laboratories to support University of Washington biofuels research program. The research that is being done with the equipment from this grant will facilitate the establishment of a biofuels industry in the Pacific Northwest and enable the University of Washington to launch a substantial biofuels and bio-based product research program.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of the freshwater pearl mussel (Cristaria plicata) mantle unravels genes involved in the formation of shell and pearl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhiming; Wu, Wenjian

    2017-04-01

    Cristaria plicata, a bivalve widespread in Eastern Asia fresh water, is utilized as the freshwater pearl mussel in China. With a high economic value in pearl production, it is also an ideal object used for the studies on biomineralization in freshwater. In the research, we performed a large-scale sequencing of Cristaria plicata mantle transcriptome using Illumina HiSeq™ 2500, obtaining 98,501 unigenes with 67,817,724 bases. 22.28 and 16.64% of the unigenes were annotated in the NR and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. Most of the annotated unigenes were homologous with proteins of Crassostrea gigas (47.4%) and some were similar to proteins of Aplysia californica (16.7%). Here, we identified 109 homologous unigenes of 15 decided shell matrix proteins, including nacrein, Pif, perlucin, tyrosinase (Tyr), PfN44, PUSP1, chitinase, shell matrix protein, MSI80, fibronectin type III, AmOxCo, perlwapin, BMSP, PfCHS1 and CaLP. Two other mantle transcriptomes of Pinctada margaritifera and Pinctada fucata were also analyzed to perform a biomineralization protein comparison of the three molluscan transcriptomes. All the three compared mollusks shared four proteins, including nacrein, Pif, Tyr and PfCHS1. It was also discovered that Cristaria plicata shared more biomineralization proteins with Pinctada fucata than that with Pinctada margaritifera. Our study explored a whole draft of mantle transcriptome of freshwater mussel and unraveled genes involved in the formation of shell and pearl, making it possible to identify massive novel biomineralization proteins in mollusks.

  8. Grace Under Fire: The Army Nurses of Pearl Harbor, 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Gwyneth R

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the military events of December 7, 1941; however, little has been documented about the nurses' work and experience at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The aerial assault on Pearl Harbor was the first time in US history that Army nurses had been on the front line of battle. Nurses quickly triaged and stabilized those who could be saved, and provided compassion and comfort to those who were dying, in an environment where the nurses were unsure of their own survival. Traditional historical methods and a social history framework were used in this investigation. Primary sources included oral histories from the US Army Medical Department Center of History and Heritage and the State of Hawaii's website, Hawaii Aviation. Secondary sources included published books, newspaper articles, military websites, and history texts. Due to the limited bed capacity, Hickam Field Hospital converted to an evacuation hospital. Nurses, physicians, and medical corpsman triaged, stabilized, and transported those likely to survive, while staging the dead behind the building. The emergency room at Tripler Hospital was quickly flooded with patients from the battlefield, but the staff was able to sort patients appropriately to the wards, to the operating room, or provide comfort care as they died. At Schofield Hospital, collaboration between tireless doctors, nurses, and corpsmen was key to providing life-saving surgery and care.

  9. Surface deformation during an action potential in pearled cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Matan; Fillafer, Christian; Ben-Porath, Gal; Schneider, Matthias F.

    2017-11-01

    Electric pulses in biological cells (action potentials) have been reported to be accompanied by a propagating cell-surface deformation with a nanoscale amplitude. Typically, this cell surface is covered by external layers of polymer material (extracellular matrix, cell wall material, etc.). It was recently demonstrated in excitable plant cells (Chara braunii) that the rigid external layer (cell wall) hinders the underlying deformation. When the cell membrane was separated from the cell wall by osmosis, a mechanical deformation, in the micrometer range, was observed upon excitation of the cell. The underlying mechanism of this mechanical pulse has, to date, remained elusive. Herein we report that Chara cells can undergo a pearling instability, and when the pearled fragments were excited even larger and more regular cell shape changes were observed (˜10 -100 μ m in amplitude). These transient cellular deformations were captured by a curvature model that is based on three parameters: surface tension, bending rigidity, and pressure difference across the surface. In this paper these parameters are extracted by curve-fitting to the experimental cellular shapes at rest and during excitation. This is a necessary step to identify the mechanical parameters that change during an action potential.

  10. A harbinger of plate tectonics: a commentary on Bullard, Everett and Smith (1965) ‘The fit of the continents around the Atlantic’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, John F.

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, geology was transformed by the paradigm of plate tectonics. The 1965 paper of Bullard, Everett and Smith was a linking transition between the theories of continental drift and plate tectonics. They showed, conclusively, that the continents around the Atlantic were once contiguous and that the Atlantic Ocean had grown at rates of a few centimetres per year since the Early Jurassic, about 160 Ma. They achieved fits of the continental margins at the 500 fathom line (approx. 900 m), not the shorelines, by minimizing misfits between conjugate margins and finding axes, poles and angles of rotation, using Euler's theorem, that defined the unique single finite difference rotation that carried congruent continents from contiguity to their present positions, recognizing that the real motion may have been more complex around a number of finite motion poles. Critically, they were concerned only with kinematic reality and were not restricted by considerations of the mechanism by which continents split and oceans grow. Many of the defining features of plate tectonics were explicit or implicit in their reconstructions, such as the torsional rigidity of continents, Euler's theorem, closure of the Tethyan ocean(s), major continental margin shear zones, the rapid rotation of small continental blocks (Iberia) around nearby poles, the consequent opening of small wedge-shaped oceans (Bay of Biscay), and misfit overlaps (deltas and volcanic piles) and underlaps (stretched continental edges). This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750142

  11. Testing the FOCUS model PEARL in an Italian site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    2003-04-01

    Pesticides are integral part of the modern agricultural production system . The use of pesticide has soared during the post war period, and now the consumption of pesticide has been reducing in Europe. However, the reduction is difficult to attribute to one specific factor since the application of pesticide is highly variable and linked to climatic, out-breaks of diseases, etc. Furthermore, new molecules are being produced which are more efficient and require a lower dosage. In the EU, the placing on the market of Plant Protection Products (PPP) is regulated at the Community Level by the Council Directive (91/414/EEC). The PPP stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. In this context, European Commission set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project with one major objective being the validation and improvement of existing pesticide fate models. The research presented here focuses on the validation of the PEARL model in an Italian site. The PEARL model, which is one of the FOCUS model, is actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure. The test site is located near Bologna (Italy). The 35 months long experiment was conducted on a 107m by 28m plot with a loamy soil for . The experiment involved the application of KBr as a tracer and two applications of ethoprophos and three applications of Aclonifen. A sequential approach was used for the Bologna site. During this exercise only the measured soil physical parameters were used. The simulation with the PEARL model yielded negative values for both soil moisture profile and pesticide content. In a second step, the water transport module was calibrated, using measured soil moisture profile. This improved greatly the prediction of the soil water balance. Information relative to pesticide degradation and sorption where then included. This allowed a good

  12. Forest statistics for northeast Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Hazard

    1963-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of six northeast Washington counties: Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman. The collection of field data was made during the years 1957 to 1961 in three separate inventory projects.

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Pearl and Hermes Reef, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Pearl Hermes Reef in...

  14. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 13 sites at Pearl and Hermes...

  15. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 15 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  17. Environmental Assessment for Waterfront Facilities Maintenance and Improvements, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Oahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    Commander, Navy Region Hawaii (CNRH) proposes to repair, maintain, and improve waterfront berthing and maintenance facilities for ships and submarines on an as-needed basis within the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex (PHNC...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Reef in the Northwestern...

  19. Urban Villages as Spaces of Cultural Identity: Urban Migrant Writers in the Pearl River Delta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Lingling

    2013-01-01

      Through an analysis of a case study of urban migrant writers and urban villages in the Pearl River Delta, this article examines the relationship between migrants and urban spaces in contemporary China...

  20. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  1. 12 CFR 4.4 - Washington office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington office. 4.4 Section 4.4 Banks and... EXAMINERS Organization and Functions § 4.4 Washington office. The Washington office of the OCC is the main office and headquarters of the OCC. The Washington office directs OCC policy, oversees OCC operations...

  2. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh water in abundance is contained in large artesian reservoirs in sand and gravel deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary ages in the Pearl River basin, a watershed of 8,760 square miles. Shallow, water-table reservoirs occur in Quarternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene) that blanket most of the uplands in .the southern half of the basin and that are present in smaller upland areas and along streams elsewhere. The shallow reservoirs contribute substantially to dry-weather flow of the Strong River and Bogue Chitto and of Holiday, Lower Little, Silver, and Whitesand Creeks, among others. About 3 billion acre-feet of ground water is in storage in the fresh-water section, which extends from the surface to depths ranging from about sea level in the extreme northern part of the basin to more than 3,000 feet below sea level in the southern part of the basin. Variations in low flow for different parts of the river basin are closely related to geologic terrane and occurrence of ground water. The upland terrace belt that crosses the south-central part of the basin is underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits and yields more than 0.20 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area to streamflow, whereas the northern part of the basin, underlain by clay, marl, and fine to medium sand, yields less than 0.05 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area (based on 7-day Q2 minimum flow computed from records). Overall, the potential surface-water supplies are large. Because water is available at shallow depths, most of the deeper aquifers have not been developed anywhere in the basin. At many places in the south, seven or more aquifers could be developed either by tapping one sand in each well or by screening two or more sands in a single well. Well fields each capable, of producing several million gallons of water a day are feasible nearly anywhere in the Pearl River basin. Water in nearly all the aquifers is of good to excellent quality and requires

  3. Casting: Pearls and pitfalls learned while caring for children's fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Shawn; McDowell, Mitchell; Schlechter, John

    2016-09-18

    Casting is a routine procedure used for fracture care in the pediatric population. The purpose of this review is to provide pearls and pitfalls that our institution has learned from previous literature. When applying the cast, we recommend using cotton padding for the liner and fiberglass or plaster depending on how much swelling is expected. A well-molded cast must be applied in order to prevent further fracture displacement. Cast valving is a valuable technique that allows a decrease in pressure which prevents discomfort and complications like compartment syndrome. Preventing thermal injuries, skin complications, and a wet cast are other important considerations when caring for casts. Appropriate use of a cast saw, avoiding pressure spots, and properly covering the cast are ways to respectively prevent those complications. Lastly, patient education remains one of the most valuable tools in ensuring proper cast maintenance.

  4. Control of nacre biomineralization by Pif80 in pearl oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, So Yeong; Jo, Byung Hoon; Choi, Yoo Seong; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2017-08-01

    Molluscan nacre is a fascinating biomineral consisting of a highly organized calcium carbonate composite that provides unique fracture toughness and an iridescent color. Organisms elaborately control biomineralization using organic macromolecules. We propose the involvement of the matrix protein Pif80 from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata in the development of the inorganic phase during nacre biomineralization, based on experiments using the recombinant form of Pif80. Through interactions with calcium ions, Pif80 participates in the formation of polymer-induced liquid precursor-like amorphous calcium carbonate granules and stabilizes these granules by forming calcium ion-induced coacervates. At the calcification site, the disruption of Pif80 coacervates destabilizes the amorphous mineral precursors, resulting in the growth of a crystalline structure. The redissolved Pif80 controls the growth of aragonite on the polysaccharide substrate, which contributes to the formation of polygonal tablet structure of nacre. Our findings provide insight into the use of organic macromolecules by living organisms in biomineralization.

  5. Quality Improvement Pearls for the Palliative Care and Hospice Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Arif H; Nicolla, Jonathan M; Power, Steve

    2017-11-01

    Rapid changes in how palliative care clinicians are evaluated and paid present an imperative for clinicians to adeptly and routinely perform quality improvement in usual practice. Like empathic communication and facilitating goals of care discussions, quality improvement skills must be learned, honed, and practiced, so identifying problems and brainstorming solutions becomes a natural component of delivering serious illness care. Using our experience in both failures and successes in performing quality improvement, here we provide a prioritized list of 10 pearls specifically aimed to palliative care and hospice professionals. We aim to demystify quality improvement, highlight areas where rigor and a systematic approach are needed for success, and offer our own lessons learned and mistakes made to promote success for our colleagues and our field. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Super-light Structures with Pearl-chain Reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Bagger, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Steel structures are considered to be light compared to concrete structures. This paper presents a newly invented type of structure which is often light compared to steel structures, and therefore it is called "Super-light Structures", or SLS. The basic idea of SLS is to build a skeleton...... of prefabricated segments of a strong material, assembled by one or more prestressing wires. By means of pearl-chain reinforcement, it becomes affordable to provide structures with a wide variety of shapes. This allows a more resource-economical design, because it removes practical hindrances for application...... and maintenance, and increased safety for fire, earthquake, and explosions. This moves the limits for resource economic buildings, and enables great architectural freedom. This paper presents the new patented technology and possible applications of it....

  7. Fenomenologia del riutilizzo: Dante in M. Pearl e S. Meredith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gelmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Partendo da alcune riflessioni di Ceserani, il saggio propone l’analisi di due recenti rielaborazioni americane del capolavoro dantesco: il romanzo The Dante club di M. Pearl e il film indipendente Dante’s inferno, di S. Meredith. In entrambe le opere si mettono in luce l’efficacia del dispositivo del contrappasso in termini diegetici e il discorso politico implicito nelle due narrazioni. Starting with some brief remarks by Cesarani, the essay focuses on two recent American re-adaptations of Dante’s masterpiece, i.e. M. Pearl’s novel The Dante club and Dante’s inferno, an independent movie by S. Meredith. In each work, the author traces the effectiveness of the pattern of contrappasso in diegetic terms, along with their implicit political narratives. 

  8. Waking the Sleeping Giant at Pearl Harbor: A Case for Intelligence and Operations Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    learned of Japan’s initial attack plans.147 A member of the State Department, Max W. Bishop did obtain from the Peruvian minister to Japan, Dr... Literature on the Debacle,” Military Affairs 50, no. 1 (January 1986): 29. 181Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor, 387; Toll, Pacific Crucible, 1941-1942, 118...2000. Coox, Alvin D. “Repulsing the Pearl Harbor Revisionists: The State of Present Literature on the Debacle,” Military Affairs 50, no. 1

  9. Nutrients, antinutrients & bioaccessible mineral content (invitro) of pearl millet as influenced by milling

    OpenAIRE

    Suma, P. Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2011-01-01

    Pearl millet is an underutilized grain crop commonly used as whole flour for traditional food preparation and hence confined to traditional consumers and to people of lower economic strata. In this study two commercially available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu & MRB) obtained from the local market were milled into whole flour, semi refined flour & bran rich fraction. These milling fractions were evaluated for nutrients, antinutrients and mineral bioaccessibility. The bran rich fraction, a...

  10. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shivani; Malhotra, Sumit; Baliga, Vidya; Hans, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial plaque has been implicated as the primary etiologic factor in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Anatomic factors (such as enamel pearls) are often associated with advanced localized periodontal destruction. The phenomenon of ectopic development of enamel on the root surface, variedly referred to as enameloma, enamel pearl, enamel drop or enamel nodule, is not well-understood. Such an anomaly may facilitate the progression of periodontal breakdown. A rare case of...

  11. Evaluation of milled pearl millet in the feeding of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Catelan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in order to estimate the nutritional value and the performance of growing rabbits fed different levels of pearl millet (ADR 7010. In the digestibility trial, nutritional values of pearl millet were determined in 22 45-day-old New Zealand White rabbits, allotted in a completely randomized design, subjected to two treatments - a reference diet and a test diet with 70% of its volume composed of reference diet and 30% of pearl millet - and 11 replications. The apparent digestibility values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and gross energy of the pearl millet were 88.7, 85.4, 24.4 and 75.0%, respectively. In the performance trial, 120 32-day-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Rabbits were allotted in a completely randomized design and subjected to six treatments, with 10 replications and two animals for each experimental unit. The diets were formulated with increasing levels of pearl millet (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, substituting the corn in the reference diet, according to the digestible energy. No differences were observed in daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion, carcass traits and feed cost per kilogram of rabbit. Regardless of the amount of corn substituted, pearl can replace corn in diets for growing rabbits.

  12. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  13. Promoting Excellence and Reflective Learning in Simulation (PEARLS): development and rationale for a blended approach to health care simulation debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, Walter; Cheng, Adam

    2015-04-01

    We describe an integrated conceptual framework for a blended approach to debriefing called PEARLS [Promoting Excellence And Reflective Learning in Simulation]. We provide a rationale for scripted debriefing and introduce a PEARLS debriefing tool designed to facilitate implementation of the new framework. The PEARLS framework integrates 3 common educational strategies used during debriefing, namely, (1) learner self-assessment, (2) facilitating focused discussion, and (3) providing information in the form of directive feedback and/or teaching. The PEARLS debriefing tool incorporates scripted language to guide the debriefing, depending on the strategy chosen. The PEARLS framework and debriefing script fill a need for many health care educators learning to facilitate debriefings in simulation-based education. The PEARLS offers a structured framework adaptable for debriefing simulations with a variety in goals, including clinical decision making, improving technical skills, teamwork training, and interprofessional collaboration.

  14. Determination of Free and Bound Phenolic Acids, and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities and Total Polyphenolic Contents in Selected Pearled Barley

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YOSHIDA, Atsuko; SONODA, Keisuke; NOGATA, Yoichi; NAGAMINE, Takashi; SATO, Maki; OKI, Tomoyuki; HASHIMOTO, Shunjiro; OHTA, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    The content of insoluble bound phenolic acids in pearled barley was determined by an analytical system consisting of alkaline hydrolysis extraction, high-performance liquid chromatographic separation...

  15. Cancer risk from asbestos in drinking water. Summary of a case-control study in western Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polissar, L.; Severson, R.K.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-11-01

    A case-controlled, interview-based study of the risk of developing cancer from asbestos in drinking water was conducted. Cases and controls were selected from the Everett, Washington, area which has used the Sultan River as source of drinking water since 1918. Sultan River tapwater has concentrations of chrysotile asbestos around 200 million fibers/liter. Through a population based tumor registry, 382 individuals with cancer of the buccal cavity, pharynx, respiratory system, digestive system, bladder, or kidneys, diagnosed between 1977 and 1980, were identified. Data on asbestos exposure were collected based on residence and workplace history, and on individual water consumption. Logistic regression was used to estimate cancer risk. Summarizing the findings for imbibed asbestos, very few elevated risks of statistical significance were found. Considering the relative risk for each of the sites and for each of the four asbestos exposure variables, no instance was found in which the risk was elevated for both males and females. The only statistically significant elevated risks occurred for male pharynx and male stomach. 20 references.

  16. Rapid identification of pearl powder from Hyriopsis cumingii by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy combined with computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wei, Wei; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Xichang; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chuanxian; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Changhua

    2018-01-01

    Pearl powder, an important raw material in cosmetics and Chinese patent medicines, is commonly uneven in quality and frequently adulterated with low-cost shell powder in the market. The aim of this study is to establish an adequate approach based on Tri-step infrared spectroscopy with enhancing resolution combined with chemometrics for qualitative identification of pearl powder originated from three different quality grades of pearls and quantitative prediction of the proportions of shell powder adulterated in pearl powder. Additionally, computer vision technology (E-eyes) can investigate the color difference among different pearl powders and make it traceable to the pearl quality trait-visual color categories. Though the different grades of pearl powder or adulterated pearl powder have almost identical IR spectra, SD-IR peak intensity at about 861 cm- 1 (v2 band) exhibited regular enhancement with the increasing quality grade of pearls, while the 1082 cm- 1 (v1 band), 712 cm- 1 and 699 cm- 1 (v4 band) were just the reverse. Contrastly, only the peak intensity at 862 cm- 1 was enhanced regularly with the increasing concentration of shell powder. Thus, the bands in the ranges of (1550-1350 cm- 1, 730-680 cm- 1) and (830-880 cm- 1, 690-725 cm- 1) could be exclusive ranges to discriminate three distinct pearl powders and identify adulteration, respectively. For massive sample analysis, a qualitative classification model and a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS), respectively. The developed method demonstrated great potential for pearl powder quality control and authenticity identification in a direct, holistic manner.

  17. Rapid identification of pearl powder from Hyriopsis cumingii by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy combined with computer vision technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Wei, Wei; Bai, Zhiyi; Wang, Xichang; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Chuanxian; Liu, Xia; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Changhua

    2018-01-15

    Pearl powder, an important raw material in cosmetics and Chinese patent medicines, is commonly uneven in quality and frequently adulterated with low-cost shell powder in the market. The aim of this study is to establish an adequate approach based on Tri-step infrared spectroscopy with enhancing resolution combined with chemometrics for qualitative identification of pearl powder originated from three different quality grades of pearls and quantitative prediction of the proportions of shell powder adulterated in pearl powder. Additionally, computer vision technology (E-eyes) can investigate the color difference among different pearl powders and make it traceable to the pearl quality trait-visual color categories. Though the different grades of pearl powder or adulterated pearl powder have almost identical IR spectra, SD-IR peak intensity at about 861cm-1 (v2 band) exhibited regular enhancement with the increasing quality grade of pearls, while the 1082cm-1 (v1 band), 712cm-1 and 699cm-1 (v4 band) were just the reverse. Contrastly, only the peak intensity at 862cm-1 was enhanced regularly with the increasing concentration of shell powder. Thus, the bands in the ranges of (1550-1350cm-1, 730-680cm-1) and (830-880cm-1, 690-725cm-1) could be exclusive ranges to discriminate three distinct pearl powders and identify adulteration, respectively. For massive sample analysis, a qualitative classification model and a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established successfully by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS), respectively. The developed method demonstrated great potential for pearl powder quality control and authenticity identification in a direct, holistic manner. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  19. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  20. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours, run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours. The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU. Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU, trough (442 RVU, breakdown viscosity (20 RVU, final viscosity (975 RVU, setback (533 RVU, peak time (5.47 min and pasting temperature (89.60 °C. These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  1. Temporal variation and regional transfer of heavy metals in the Pearl (Zhujiang) River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Gengchong; Li, Ying; Tong, Yindong; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals are highly persistent in water and have a particular significance in ecotoxicology. Heavy metals loading from the Pearl River are likely to cause significant impacts on the environment in the South China Sea and the West Pacific. In this study, using monthly monitoring data from a water quality monitoring campaign during 2006-2012, the temporal variation and spatial transfer of six heavy metals (lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the Pearl River were analyzed, and the heavy metal fluxes into the sea were calculated. During this period, the annual heavy metal loads discharged from the Pearl River into the South China Sea were 5.8 (Hg), 471.7 (Pb), 1524.6 (Cu), 3819.6 (Zn), 43.9 (Cd), and 621.9 (As) tons, respectively. The metal fluxes showed a seasonal variation with the maximum fluxes occurring from June to July. There is a close association between metal fluxes and runoff. The analysis of the heavy metal transfer from the upstream to the downstream revealed that the transfer from the upstream accounted for a major portion of the heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta. Therefore, earlier industry relocation efforts in the Pearl River watershed may have limited effect on the water quality improvement in surrounding areas. It is suggested that watershed-based pollution control measures focusing on wastewater discharge in both upstream and downstream areas should be developed and implemented in the future.

  2. Variability of thermohaline properties in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Brenes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several hydrographic surveys were carried out in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua between april 1995 and december 1997 under the DIPAL (Proyecto para el Desarrollo Integral de la Pesca Artesanal en la Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur project. Surface temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have been measured in 88 hydrographic campaigns. The annual cycle shows maximum and minimum temperatures in May (29.4 °C and December (25.6 °C respectively, maximum salinity (25.6 °C in April, one month before the thermal peak, and minimum salinities (2‰ between July and August, when the annual precipitation index attains its seasonal maximum in the study area. In the case of dissolved O2 the maximum values of oxygen saturation were observed between March and May (90%, when the water turbidity in the lagoon is at its lowest and freshwater contributions from the rivers attains its minimum value. During the rainy season, in the second half of the year, there is an important decrease in oxygen contents, mainly as a consequence of the degradation of organic matter of riverine origin.

  3. Thallium distribution in sediments from the Pearl river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Jin; Chen, Yongheng [Guangzhou University, Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Lippold, Holger [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Institute of Radiochemistry, Research Site Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Wang, Chunlin [Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-10-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a rare element of high toxicity. Sediments sampled in three representative locations near industries utilizing Tl-containing raw materials from the Pearl River Basin, China were analyzed for their total Tl contents and the Tl contents in four sequentially extracted fractions (i.e., weak acid exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fraction). The results reveal that the total Tl contents (1.25-19.1 {mu}g/g) in the studied sediments were slightly high to quite high compared with those in the Chinese background sediments. This indicates the apparent Tl contamination of the investigated sediments. However, with respect to the chemical fractions, Tl is mainly associated with the residual fraction (>60%) of the sediments, especially of those from the mining area of Tl-bearing pyrite minerals, indicating the relatively low mobility, and low bioavailability of Tl in these sediments. This obviously contrasts with the previous findings that Tl is mainly entrapped in the first three labile fractions of the contaminated samples. Possible reasons were given for the dominating association of Tl with the residual fraction (>95%) of the mining area sediments. The significant role of certain K-containing silicates or minerals of these sediments on retaining Tl in the residual fraction, discovered by this study, provides a special field of research opportunity for the Tl-containing wastewater treatment. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Libraries in Washington: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/washington.html Libraries in Washington To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Bellingham PeaceHealth St. Joseph Medical Center Library 2901 Squalicum Parkway Bellingham, WA 98225 360-788- ...

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Washington single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. Washington's public and private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  7. Pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges: Using small-scale results in full-scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Truelsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a new prefabricated arch solution for highway bridges. This study investigates the feasibility of pervious concrete as a filling material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The study is divided into two steps: (1) small-scale tests where the variation in vertical void...

  8. Washington Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. J.; Schelling, J.

    2012-12-01

    Washington State has participated in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) since its inception in 1995. We have participated in the tsunami inundation hazard mapping, evacuation planning, education, and outreach efforts that generally characterize the NTHMP efforts. We have also investigated hazards of significant interest to the Pacific Northwest. The hazard from locally generated earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, which threatens tsunami inundation in less than hour following a magnitude 9 earthquake, creates special problems for low-lying accretionary shoreforms in Washington, such as the spits of Long Beach and Ocean Shores, where high ground is not accessible within the limited time available for evacuation. To ameliorate this problem, we convened a panel of the Applied Technology Council to develop guidelines for construction of facilities for vertical evacuation from tsunamis, published as FEMA 646, now incorporated in the International Building Code as Appendix M. We followed this with a program called Project Safe Haven (http://www.facebook.com/ProjectSafeHaven) to site such facilities along the Washington coast in appropriate locations and appropriate designs to blend with the local communities, as chosen by the citizens. This has now been completed for the entire outer coast of Washington. In conjunction with this effort, we have evaluated the potential for earthquake-induced ground failures in and near tsunami hazard zones to help develop cost estimates for these structures and to establish appropriate tsunami evacuation routes and evacuation assembly areas that are likely to to be available after a major subduction zone earthquake. We intend to continue these geotechnical evaluations for all tsunami hazard zones in Washington.

  9. Investigation about Creation Possibility of Pearl Farming in North Gorontalo, Indonesia for the Solution to Economical Poverty and Environmental Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Hiroki; Jahja, Mohamad; Sakakibara, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    As a solution to economic poverty, we investigated the possibility of developing pearl farming in Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara region of Indonesia. The approximate income of farmers is 15 - 28 million rupiah/year, and that of fishers is 51 million rupiah/year. As these incomes are low and unreliable, it is important that food processing and other industries are developed and that agriculture and fisheries are promoted. Pearl farming minimize environmental load. The coastal environmental conditions are good for pearl shell growth. From 2001 till 2013, pearl farming was undertaken by a Japanese company in Kabupaten Gorontalo Utara, but the operation caused because of conflict with local people and issues with the actions of manager. To establish successful pearl farming businesses it is more important to address social issues than environmental factors.

  10. Is sustainable development a motor or a constraint for the professionalization of the pearl oyster industry in Tahiti?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Valette, Hélène; Lacoste, Élise; Pérez-Agúndez, José A.; Raux, Pascal; Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila

    2016-12-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of the pearl oyster industry in French Polynesia territory. Its purpose is to examine the perceptions of the priorities for the development of this industry towards sustainable development. These perceptions were apprehended by a survey of pearl oyster farmers and other stakeholders of the sector (management authorities, scientists). After describing the methodological protocol of these investigations, it comes to confront the priorities chosen by professionals (i.e. pearl farmers) concerning sustainable development, with the perceptions of others stakeholders in the sector. Secondly it comes to build a typology of the priorities of pearl farmers concerning sustainable development. This analysis enables the assessment of the degree of convergence within the sector, which is the base material for defining a shared action plan at the territory scale. This is the first study compiling data of surveys of various professionals and stakeholders of the pearl farming industry in such a large area in French Polynesia.

  11. Peeling and aspiration of elschnig pearls! An effective alternative to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhargava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 years. 85.71% patients achieved best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 20/20 at 3 m. Recurrence of pearls, uveitis and cystoid macular edema were the most common causes of reduced vision. Peeling and aspiration of pearls seem to be a viable alternative to Neodymium yttrium garner aluminium (Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy for membranous PCO.

  12. Cycling of nutrients and silicon in pigeonpea and pearl millet monoculture and intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a no-tillage system, cover crops must be used that combine shoot dry matter production and nutrient recycling. The aim of this study was to evaluate shoot dry matter production, decomposition rate and macronutrient and silicon release from pigeonpea and pearl millet in monoculture and intercropping systems. A randomized block design was used with a 3 x 6 factorial arrangement, with four replications. The first factor consisted of three cover crops (pigeonpea, pearl millet and intercropping of these cover crops and the second consisted of six sampling times [0, 18, 32, 46, 74 and 91 days after desiccation (DAD]. Pearl millet produced greater amounts of shoot dry matter and content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, C and Si and had a higher decomposition rate and macronutrient and Si release than the other cover crops. The rates of decomposition and daily nutrient release from shoot dry matter were highest in the first period of evaluation (0-18 DAD. Over time, the C/N, C/P and C/S ratios increased, while C/Si and the decomposition rate decreased. Potassium was the nutrient most quickly released to the soil, especially from pearl millet residue. Silicon had the lowest release rate, with 62, 82 and 74 % of the total content in the shoot dry matter remaining in the last evaluation of pearl millet, pigeonpea and in the intercrop system, respectively. The shoot dry matter from the intercrop system had a different decomposition rate than that from the pearl millet monoculture and pigeonpea. Plants with greater shoot dry matter production and lower C/Si ratio are more effective in a no-tillage system for providing a more complete and persistent soil cover.

  13. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p raw pearl millet supplementation than CTL diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Development and shelf-life evaluation of pearl millet based upma dry mix

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, S.; Yadav, Deep N.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya

    2012-01-01

    Upma, a popular breakfast of southern India, traditionally made from wheat, was prepared using pearl millet semolina (PMS). Prior to preparation of semolina, pearl millet grains were hydro-thermally treated to reduce anti-nutritional factors and inactivate lipase activity. Hydrothermal treatments (soaking up to moisture 30 ± 2%, steaming 1.05 kg cm−2, 20 min) reduced the anti-nutritional factors significantly (p ≤ 0.05). No lipase activity was detected after steaming. Central composite rotata...

  15. Homogeneity and Strength of Mortar Joints in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Arvidsson, Michael; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2015-01-01

    The load carrying mortar joints in Pearl-Chain Bridges are cast vertically which means that they have a placing depth of up to 2.40 m. In the present paper, the feasibility of casting 2.40 m high homogeneous vertical mortar joints is examined. Three high-strength, expansive, self-compacting, read.......40 m high mortar joints. Moreover, the strength of the three mortars meets the requirements for the Pearl-Chain Bridge application. However, when inspected two of the mortars had many surface air bubbles which is a serious concern regarding durability of the mortar joints....

  16. Trace metal levels in sediments of Pearl Harbor (Hawaii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Tamura, T.

    1986-09-01

    This study was conducted to measure the distribution of lead and other trace metals in the sediments of Pearl Harbon (Hawaii) to determine whether paint chips from vessels of the US Navy's Inactive Fleet have affected the environmental quality of Middle Loch. Sediment cores (ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 m long) were collected from Middle Loch near the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility and in an area of West Loch that is relatively isolated and unaffected by naval operations. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc averaged 180 ..mu..g/g, 49 ..mu..g/g, and 272 ..mu..g/g, respectively, in recent Middle Loch sediments. These concentrations are significantly higher than those in either historical Middle Loch sediments or recent West Loch sediments. However, except for lead, the concentrations in recent Middle Loch sediments are similar to those of older Middle Loch sediments, which indicates that the increase in trace metal contamination began before the onset of Inactive Fleet operations (about 1946). Increased trace metal levels in recent Middle Loch sediments might be expected to result from two potential sources: (1) sewage discharges and (2) paint from inactive vessels. Since paint contains elevated levels of lead and zinc but little copper, the elevated copper levels in Middle Loch sediments tend to implicate sewage as the source of trace metal contamination. Moreover, the lead:zinc ratio of recent Middle Loch sediments (0.18:1) is a factor of 10 lower than that measured in paint (2.1:1), and the Middle Loch lead:zinc ratio is not significantly greater than that measured in recent West Loch sediments (0.21:1). Hence, we suggest that sewage rather than paint is the major source of trace metal contamination of Middle Loch. This is consistent with the findings of a previous study by US navy personnel.

  17. [Community structure of planktonic rotifers in the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Xin-Hui; Lai, Zi-Ni; Yu, Jing; Wang, Chao; Zeng, Yan-Yi; Liu, Qian-Fu; Yang, Wan-Ling

    2014-07-01

    Four ecological investigations were carried out on planktonic rotifers in Pearl River Delta in 2012. The community structure, including spatial and temporal patterns of species composition, dominant species, biomass and biodiversity, was investigated. The correlation between the community structure of rotifers and the environmental factors was discussed. Moreover, the aggregation structures of rotifers were analyzed. A total of 53 rotifer species were found. Dominant species changed markedly with season and space. Polyarthra trigla had higher dominance. In terms of seasonal changes, the density and biomass were higher in dry season than in wet season, while the biodiversity and evenness indices were vice versa. The biomass and biodiversity of rotifers showed highly significant differences among seasons. In terms of spatial distribution, the average density and the average biomass showed an increase from the southwest to the northeast. The highest density and biomass were recorded in Shiqiao. The biodiversity and evenness indices had an opposite spatial distribution, with the highest values being recorded in Qingqi. The rotifer density was significantly different among the investigated sites, while the biomass and biodiversity were not significantly different. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant positive correlation between rotifer density and biomass, as well as between biodiversity and evenness indices, and a highly negative correlation between biodiversity and biomass. The biodiversity and evenness indices both decreased markedly with the increase of biomass. Principal component analysis indicated that the rotifer density was closely correlated with environment factors, such as water temperature, pH, dissolved oxy- gen, chlorophyll a content, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen, in different seasons. Aggregation analysis based on rotifer density revealed five aggregation structures in the investigated sites, indicating significant differences

  18. Settlement of the USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service Submerged Resources Center, undertook investigations at the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in 2002, 2003, and 2005 to characterize geological factors affecting the deterioration and movement of the hull of the USS Arizona. Since sinking on the morning of December 7, 1941, the hull of the USS Arizona has been slowly but steadily disappearing below the surface of Pearl Harbor. Continuous sediment coring at three of four locations around the hull of the Arizona was only partially successful, but it was sufficient to identify a varied sedimentary substrate beneath the hull. A boring near the stern reveals a thick, continuous sequence of soft, gray clay to the bottom of the boring. In contrast, borings near the bow and starboard side, below about 5 meters subbottom depth, indicate the presence of very stiff, brown clay and coral debris and an absence of soft clay. Multisensor core logger scanning of the recovered cores distinguishes the lower density of the soft, gray clay at the stern from the higher density of the stiff, brown clays and coral debris at the bow and starboard side. Uniaxial consolidation testing of the soft gray clay indicates a normally consolidated sequence, whereas the stiff, brown clay and coral debris are overconsolidated. Profiles of shear wave velocity vs. depth obtained through spectral analysis of interface wave testing around the perimeter of the hull in 2005 identified areas of higher velocity, stiffer sediment at the bow and starboard side, which correspond to the dense, stiff clay recovered near the bow and starboard borings. Low shear-wave velocities at the port midship and quarter of the hull correlate with the lower density, softer sediment recovered from the boring at the stern. Cross sections of the subbottom of the Memorial combine results from the sediment borings and geophysical surveys and depict a wedge of soft clay unconformably overlying

  19. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  20. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    During 2008-2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation in cooperation with the Triangle J Council of Governments Cape Fear River Flow Study Committee and the North Carolina Division of Water Resources to collect hydrologic data in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington in central North Carolina to help determine if suspected flow losses occur in the reach. Flow loss analyses were completed by summing the daily flow releases at Jordan Lake Dam with the daily discharges at Deep River at Moncure and Buckhorn Creek near Corinth, then subtracting these values from the daily discharges at Cape Fear River at Lillington. Examination of long-term records revealed that during 10,227 days of the 1983-2010 water years, 408 days (4.0 percent) had flow loss when conditions were relatively steady with respect to the previous day's records. The flow loss that occurred on these 40 days ranged from 0.49 to 2,150 cubic feet per second with a median flow loss of 37.2 cubic feet per second. The months with the highest number of days with flow losses were June (16. percent), September (16.9 percent), and October (19.4 percent). A series of synoptic discharge measurements made on six separate days in 2009 provided "snapshots" of overall flow conditions along the study reach. The largest water diversion is just downstream from the confluence of the Haw and Deep Rivers, and discharges substantially decrease in the main stem downstream from the intake point. Downstream from Buckhorn Dam, minimal gain or loss between the dam and Raven Rock State Park was noted. Analyses of discharge measurements and ratings for two streamgages-one at Deep River at Moncure and the other at Cape Fear River at Lillington-were completed to address the accuracy of the relation between stage and discharge at these sites. The ratings analyses did not indicate a particular time during the 1982-2011 water years in which a consistent bias occurred in the

  1. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of pesticide leaching in a cracking clay soil with the PEARL model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorza, R.P.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Testing of pesticide leaching models is important to increase confidence in their use in pesticide registration procedures world-wide. The chromatographic PEARL model was tested against the results of a field leaching study on a cracking clay soil with a tracer (bromide), a mobile pesticide

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Belowground Nutrient Dynamics Following Three Harvest Intensities on the Pearl River Floodplain, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.B. Schilling; B.G. Lockaby; Robert Rummer

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: The influence of clear and partial cut harvests on belowground nutrient cycling processes was examined on the Pearl River floodplain, Mississippi. Foci examined by this study included fine root biomass and detritus, fine root production, fine root nutrient contents, soil respiration rates, and microbial biomass C, N, and P during the first...

  5. 76 FR 71598 - Pearl Harbor National Wildlife Refuge, Honolulu County, HI; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... additional pools would be protected. We would continue to cooperate with the Bishop Museum to catalog avian..., including working with partners such as the Bishop Museum and the Smithsonian Institution to pursue an in..., HI 96813, telephone number (808) 586-3500; and Pearl City Public Library, 1138 Waimano Home Road...

  6. Response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny recurrent selection for ... African Crop Science Journal ... This led to grain yield of 1,047 from 611 kg ha-1 in Lam population and 943 from 693 kg ha-1 in Omoda population.

  7. Spatial and vertical distribution of bacteria in the Pearl River estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... Bacterial phylotypes in different stations were closely related uniquely to the overlying water environment. ... sediment samples. Key words: Bacterial community structure, the Pearl River estuary, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ... employed for monitoring microbial diversity under the changing ...

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 63-64M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 63 and 64 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Changing spatial concentration of sectoral employment in China’s Pearl River Delta 1990 - 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Fangfang; Boerboom, L.G.J.; Geertman, Stan; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Using county-level employment data, we analyse how the spatial concentration of jobs has changed in China's Pearl River Delta (PRD) between 1990 and 2005. Despite unique Chinese policies that exhibit strong influence on the economic landscape, we detect key parallels with the patterns found in

  11. Frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel used in Pearl-Chain Bridges: an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Andersen, Iben Brøndum

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel determined by the ASTM D5918-13 standard as a conservative estimate of the frost heave risk of fill in overfilled arch bridges, particularly in Pearl-Chain Bridges. Frost heave of granular materials has been of great research interes...

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Spatial and vertical distribution of bacteria in the Pearl River estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the spatial and vertical change of bacteria community structure in the Pearl River estuary sediment, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out in this study. Results of multidimensional scaling analyses (MDS) were in good agreement with the ...

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. A Musical Journey Through John Steinbeck's "The Pearl": Emotion, Engagement, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Roger

    2005-01-01

    With over 125 references to music, John Steinbeck's "The Pearl" almost cries for popular music as part of its instructional delivery. The teaching of popular music within the classroom responds to many of today's accepted practices: reader response, writing instruction, humanities exploration, multiliteracy, multiple intelligences, and…

  16. Changing spatial concentrations of sectorial employment in China's Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, F.; Boerboom, L.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Using county-level employment data, we analyse how the spatial concentration of jobs has changed in China’s Pearl River Delta (PRD) between 1990 and 2005. Despite unique Chinese policies that exhibit strong influence on the economic landscape, we detect key parallels with the patterns found in

  17. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Pearl and Hermes Atoll (100-103), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-103b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Pearl and Hermes Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  18. response of locally adapted pearl millet populations to s1 progeny

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In the semi-arid zones of Uganda, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is mainly grown for food and income; but rust (Puccinia substriata var indica (L.) R. Br.) is the main foliar constraint lowering yield. The objective of the study was to genetically improve grain yield and rust resistance of two locally adapted ...

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent...

  20. Frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel used in Pearl-Chain Bridges: an experimental investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Andersen, Iben Brøndum

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates frost susceptibility of sub-base gravel determined by the ASTM D5918-13 standard as a conservative estimate of the frost heave risk of fill in overfilled arch bridges, particularly in Pearl-Chain Bridges. Frost heave of granular materials has been of great research interest...

  1. Numerical simulation and analysis of saltwater intrusion lengths in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Feng, H.; Zheng, J.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vegt, van der M.; Zhu, Y.; Cai, H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, large-scale saltwater intrusion has been threatening the freshwater supply in the metropolitan cities surrounding the Pearl River delta (PRD). Therefore, a better understanding of the saltwater intrusion process in this region is necessary for local water resource management. In

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Revisiting "Pearl Harbor": Resistance to Reel and Real Events in an English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Ardiss; Norton, Bonny

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we draw on disruptive scenes in a postsecondary classroom to examine a critical incident concerning conflicting readings of the film "Pearl Harbor" (2001). We raise crucial questions for pedagogical work with popular film: Who speaks for whom about the meaning of a given film? Under what conditions do students resist…

  4. Genomic tools in pearl millet breeding for drought tolerance: Status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn Debelo Serba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet (Penisetum glaucum (L R. Br. is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by hundreds of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production.

  5. Lifting the curse: Pearl Jam’s "Alive" and "Bushleaguer" and the marketplace of meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Weglarz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In tracing how Pearl Jam consciously and unconsciously create their fans by their actions, I argue that work and fandom of the band are synonymous for fans who wish to become producers in a metaphorical marketplace of fandom. I use theories of fandom to examine and explain two important (and related phenomena: first, the relationship between fans and musicians and the creation, adoption, and promotion of a sphere in which fans themselves can becomes producers as well as consumers; and second, the backlash of fans against musicians endorsing a particular political orientation through their compositions and performances. In particular, I focus on that group of Pearl Jam fans who took issue with the band's public disapproval of George W. Bush during their 2003 tour, but whose opposition to the band's position cannot be explained by ideological differences or a belief that music and politics are spheres that should not overlap. Instead, these fans oppose a shift they perceive in the band's attitude toward a democratic exchange of meanings, an important way for Pearl Jam fans to become producers rather than just consumers. As a result, the backlash from these fans, while sparked by Pearl Jam's anti-Bush live performance of "Bushleaguer," is due more to a disjunction between the band's long-term endorsement of democratic and participatory politics and what the fans saw a shift toward counterdemocratic prescriptive politics.

  6. 76 FR 13616 - Picayune Wood Treating Site Picayune, Pearl River County, MS; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...Under Section 122(h)(1) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Picayune Wood Treating Site located in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi for publication.

  7. Pearl millet-based intercropping systems in the semiarid areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of agronomic practices, cultural methods and application of organic manures in maintaining crop productivity in pearl ... Il est souvent cultivé en monocrop mais le rendement est généralement faible à cause de la gestion inappropriée et des pluies érratiques.

  8. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael, D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  9. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  10. Long-term NO2 monitoring by satellite in the Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Shi, Runhe; Liu, Pudong; Zhang, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the air quality has been continuing to deteriorate and threaten public health in the Pearl River Delta. China, the host country for the 2010 Asian Games, faced the great challenge of air quality issues, particularly in the Pearl River Delta, where the Asian Games were held. The major aim of this study is to reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of NO2 in the Pearl River Delta during October 2004 to December 2010. The long-term characteristics and variations of the NO2 column concentration before and during the 2010 Asian Games were analyzed by using the NO2 product OMNO2e from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that the annual average of the NO2 column concentration has a significant downward trend from 2005 to 2010 in the Pearl River Delta: the total column concentration of NO2 (TotNO2) in the atmosphere decreased from 9.207×1015 molec/cm2 to 8.173×1015 molec/cm2, with an average annual rate of -2.247%; the tropospheric column concentration of NO2 (TropNO2)decreased from 6.685×1015 molec/cm2 to 5.646×1015 molec/cm2, with an average annual rate of -3.109%. The ratio TropNO2/TotNO2 indicating the amount of NO2 exhausted by human activities also decreased from 0.726 in 2005 to 0.691 in 2010. During the 2010 Asian Games, the weekly average of the TropNO2 in Pearl River Delta was maintained at a low level. The NO2 average distribution in the Pearl River Delta is characterized by the maximum in the geometric center, outwardly smaller, and the shrinking areas with high TropNO2 concentration from 2005 to 2010. Foshan, Jiangmen and Kwangchowan were severely polluted cities during the Games. However, the air quality of the Pearl River Delta was improved compared to its historical periods due to governmental preventive/control measures during the 2010 Asian Games.

  11. Pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges: Using small-scale results in full-scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Truelsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    distribution and strength properties is determined for 800 mm high blocks cast in different numbers of layers, and (2) full-scale implementation in a 26 m long Pearl-Chain Bridge. With a layer thickness of 27 cm, the small-scale tests indicated homogenous results; however, for the full-scale implementation......Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a new prefabricated arch solution for highway bridges. This study investigates the feasibility of pervious concrete as a filling material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The study is divided into two steps: (1) small-scale tests where the variation in vertical void...

  12. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  13. Pearl and Hermes, NWHI, 2004 Sea Surface Temperature and Meterological Standard Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Pearl and Hermes, NW Hawaiian Islands 27.85N, 175.82W, ARGOS ID 21376 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature,...

  14. Diseases and parasites of laboratory reared and wild population of banded pearl spot Etroplus suratensis (Cichlidae) in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Banded Pearl spot Etroplus suratensis, the inhabitant of coastal backwaters and lagoons is one among the few finfish species identified for brackishwater farming. Common diseases and parasites from the wild population of Goa and from the laboratory...

  15. Industrial upgrade and economic governance in the Pearl River Delta—a case study of Dongguan city

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Xiaoming; Liang, Zhiqing

    2016-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta, one of the main regions of China’s export-oriented economy, has benefited from its traditional economic structure for three decades which in turn appeared to hinder further economic development recently...

  16. Biodiversity of marine communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with observations in 1996 on introduced exotic species (NODC Accession 0000330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine and estuarine invertebrate and fish communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii were surveyed between January and October, 1996. Samples were taken and...

  17. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  18. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  19. 2008 USGS/NPS/NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL): Pearl River Delta, LA and MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi was produced from remotely sensed,...

  20. Process optimization for manufacture of pearl millet-based dairy dessert by using response surface methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Alok; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Alam, Tanweer; Yadav, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Kheer, a cereal based dessert containing rice, milk and sugar as major ingredients, is very popular in India and South East Asian countries. A process for manufacturing a dairy dessert based on pearl millet and milk as main ingredients was optimized. During the investigation, the effect of different levels of dairy whitener and pearl millet, and temperature was studied by employing a 3 factor central composite rotatable design version 7.1.6. The best formulation with 18.49% dairy whitener and...

  1. Fabricating a pearl/PLGA composite scaffold by the low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Mingen; Li Yanlei; Suo Hairui; Wang Qiujun; Ge Yakun; Xu Ying [Center Laboratory of Biomanufacture and Tissue Engineering, Hang Zhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yan Yongnian; Liu Li, E-mail: xumingen@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: xumingen@hdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education and Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Here we developed a composite scaffold of pearl/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pearl/PLGA) utilizing the low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM). LDM makes it possible to fabricate scaffolds with designed microstructure and macrostructure, while keeping the bioactivity of biomaterials by working at a low temperature. Process optimization was carried out to fabricate a mixture of pearl powder, PLGA and 1,4-dioxane with the designed hierarchical structures, and freeze-dried at a temperature of -40 deg. C. Scaffolds with square and designated bone shape were fabricated by following the 3D model. Marrow stem cells (MSCs) were seeded on the pearl/PLGA scaffold and then cultured in a rotating cell culture system. The adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts were determined using scanning electronic microscopy, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, immunofluorescence staining and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the composite scaffold had high porosity (81.98 +- 3.75%), proper pore size (micropores: <10 mum; macropore: 495 +- 54 mum) and mechanical property (compressive strength: 0.81 +- 0.04 MPa; elastic modulus: 23.14 +- 0.75 MPa). The pearl/PLGA scaffolds exhibited better biocompatibility and osteoconductivity compared with the tricalcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold. All these results indicate that the pearl/PLGA scaffolds fulfill the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  2. Corrections Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Corrections contracts with community colleges to provide basic education and job training at each of the state's 12 adult prisons so upon release, individuals are more likely to get jobs and less likely to return. Washington State community colleges build a bridge for offenders to successfully re-enter…

  3. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  4. Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-15

    FINANCIAL REPORTING AT THE WASHINGTON HEADQUARTERS SERVICES Report No. D-2001-081 March 15, 2001...to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Financial Reporting at the Washington Headquarters Services Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number...underlying financial reporting processes that cause abnormal balances on the trial balances of Other Defense Organizations. An account balance is abnormal

  5. INDIAN HEAVEN ROADLESS AREA, WASHINGTON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Barnes, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mining activity surveys the Indian Heaven Roadless Area, Washington offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic or nonmetallic mineral resources. Preliminary investigations of the geothermal potential of the area are inconclusive; however, a hot spring is located approximately 10 mi south of the roadless area, and the data indicate an aquifer of unknown extent at a temperature of less than 212 degree F. Geothermal lease applications were filed on about 23. 5 sq mi of the roadless area indicating potential interest in the development of a geothermal resource. In addition, about 39 sq mi of the roadless area have been leased for oil and gas exploration.

  6. Washington State biomass data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    This is the first edition of the Washington State Biomass Databook. It assess sources and approximate costs of biomass fuels, presents a view of current users, identifies potential users in the public and private sectors, and lists prices of competing energy resources. The summary describes key from data from the categories listed above. Part 1, Biomass Supply, presents data increasing levels of detail on agricultural residues, biogas, municipal solid waste, and wood waste. Part 2, Current Industrial and Commercial Use, demonstrates how biomass is successfully being used in existing facilities as an alternative fuel source. Part 3, Potential Demand, describes potential energy-intensive public and private sector facilities. Part 4, Prices of Competing Energy Resources, shows current suppliers of electricity and natural gas and compares utility company rates. 49 refs., 43 figs., 72 tabs.

  7. Super-light and pearl-chain technology for support of ancient structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per

    2014-01-01

    optimal and often curved paths of strong concrete assembled from smaller segments by prestressing wires, so that expensive curved moulds and supports can be avoided. Pearl-chains can provide a resistance to impact and earthquake of ancient structures. High-strength concrete and prestressed carbon fibre...... reinforcement may be applied, because the new technology solves the main problems for that, since the light aggregate concrete provides a fire protection needed for both materials and provides a stabilization of the slender cores in compression. The paper explains more about the new technology......The patented super-light technology is inspired by ancient Roman concrete structures with strong concrete placed, where the engineer would like the forces to be, and light concrete fills out the shape stabilizing the strong and protecting it. Pearl-chain technology is invented in order to create...

  8. Control of Polychaetes by Dipping Infected Pearl Oyster on Different Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Hadiroseyani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dip treatment on pearl oysters (Pinctada maxima was conducted in different concentrations of saline water to eliminate boring polychaetes. Results shows that polychaetes leave the osyters which treated on saline water at 0 ppt, 45 ppt, and 60 ppt as long as 15 minutes each. It also shows that the oysters got high survival rate 7 days after the treatment. Key words : Polychaetes, pearl oyster, dipping, salinity   ABSTRAK Pengendalian polikaeta pengebor dengan menggunakan berbagai konsentrasi larutan garam telah dilakukan pada tiram mutiara (Pinctada maxima. Berdasarkan jumlah polikaeta yang keluar, hasil percobaan ini menunjukkan bahwa perendaman dengan konsentrasi garam 0 ppt. 45 ppt, dan 60 ppt selama 15 menit lebih efektif dibandingkan pada konsentrasi 15 dan 30 ppt. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup tiram mutiara yang diamati 7 hari setelah perendaman dalam larutan garam mencapai 100%. Kata kunci : Polikaeta. tiram mutiara, perendaman. salinitas

  9. A Photobook of the Shimmer: Pearl Fisheries, Photography, and British Colonialism in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Lionel Wendt’s photographs of the Sri Lankan shoreline and its pearling economy during the British occupation in the 1930s and 1940s. It considers the light they shed on labour, as well as the tangled relationships between wealth and waste, in an environment where the detritus (cultch generated by harvesting luxury pearls also formed the most common building materials. The ambivalences of Wendt’s aesthetic are connected to the qualities of pearlescence and the shimmer, which themselves were freighted with both metaphorical meaning and technical possibility, for theorists of modernity like Walter Benjamin and early scientists of photography alike. Considering what was, and was not depicted in Wendt’s photographs, the article describes the materiality of the coercive labour that existed in the Gulf of Manaar, as well as its connected imaginaries, both local and colonial.

  10. Engineering safe and secure cyber-physical systems the specification PEARL approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gumzej, Roman

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of holistic design and development of cyber physical systems to achieve their safe and secure operation. It shows that by following the standards for embedded system’s safety and using appropriate hardware and software components inherently safe system’s architectures can be devised and certified. While the standards already enable testing and certification of inherently safe and sound hardware, this is still not the case with software. The book demonstrates that Specification PEARL(SPEARL) addresses this issue and proposes appropriate solutions from the viewpoints of software engineering as well as concrete program components. By doing so it reduces the complexity of cyber physical systems design in an innovative way. Three ultimate goals are being followed in the course of defining this new PEARL standard, namely: 1. simplicity over complexity, 2. inherent real-time ability, and 3. conformity to safety integrity and security capability levels.

  11. Pearl millet genome sequence provides a resource to improve agronomic traits in arid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Shi, Chengcheng; Thudi, Mahendar; Mariac, Cedric; Wallace, Jason; Qi, Peng; Zhang, He; Zhao, Yusheng; Wang, Xiyin; Rathore, Abhishek; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Fan, Guangyi; Bajaj, Prasad; Punnuri, Somashekhar; Gupta, S K; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Yong; Couderc, Marie; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Paudel, Dev R; Mungra, K D; Chen, Wenbin; Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Garg, Vanika; Desai, Neetin; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Conner, Joann A; Ghatak, Arindam; Chaturvedi, Palak; Subramaniam, Sabarinath; Yadav, Om Parkash; Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Hamidou, Falalou; Wang, Jianping; Liang, Xinming; Clotault, Jérémy; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Cubry, Philippe; Rhoné, Bénédicte; Gueye, Mame Codou; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Dupuy, Christian; Sparvoli, Francesca; Cheng, Shifeng; Mahala, R S; Singh, Bharat; Yadav, Rattan S; Lyons, Eric; Datta, Swapan K; Hash, C Tom; Devos, Katrien M; Buckler, Edward; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Paterson, Andrew H; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Grando, Stefania; Wang, Jun; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Xin; Vigouroux, Yves; Xu, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Pearl millet [Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone] is a staple food for more than 90 million farmers in arid and semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa, India and South Asia. We report the ∼1.79 Gb draft whole genome sequence of reference genotype Tift 23D2B1-P1-P5, which contains an estimated 38,579 genes. We highlight the substantial enrichment for wax biosynthesis genes, which may contribute to heat and drought tolerance in this crop. We resequenced and analyzed 994 pearl millet lines, enabling insights into population structure, genetic diversity and domestication. We use these resequencing data to establish marker trait associations for genomic selection, to define heterotic pools, and to predict hybrid performance. We believe that these resources should empower researchers and breeders to improve this important staple crop.

  12. Optimization of PIXE quantitative system to assist the traceability of pearl and other gemstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S., E-mail: s.murao@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, (Japan); Sera, K. [Cyclotron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Goto, S.; Takahashi, C. [Takizawa Laboratory, Japan Radioisotope Association, Takizawa, Iwate (Japan); Cartier, L. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Nakashima, K. [Yamagata University, Yamagata, (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent rise of social attention towards ethical consumerism, ethical jewellery, blood diamonds and the traceability of gemstones has challenged scientists to construct analytical systems to deliver in line with such expectations by offering traceability solutions. It is important to develop traceability protocols for gemstones and pearls that are ethically traded, as this will further encourage members of the trade to engage in ethical and fair trade practices. Of various kinds of available methods, Proton/particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) seems to be robust and promising in this context because of its trace element analysis capabilities without destruction. The authors conducted both vacuum and in-air experiments to optimize conditions to identify important peaks and to quantify the signals that correspond to gemstone materials from specific geographic origins. PIXE results for cultured pearls from Micronesia and commercial-quality crystals from Pakistan, both sources of fair trade gemstone materials, will be presented. (author)

  13. An assessment of yield gains under climate change due to genetic modification of pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Piara; Boote, K J; Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Gupta, S K; Srinivas, K; Bantilan, M C S

    2017-12-01

    Developing cultivars with traits that can enhance and sustain productivity under climate change will be an important climate smart adaptation option. The modified CSM-CERES-Pearl millet model was used to assess yield gains by modifying plant traits determining crop maturity duration, potential yield and tolerance to drought and heat in pearl millet cultivars grown at six locations in arid (Hisar, Jodhpur, Bikaner) and semi-arid (Jaipur, Aurangabad and Bijapur) tropical India and two locations in semi-arid tropical West Africa (Sadore in Niamey and Cinzana in Mali). In all the study locations the yields decreased when crop maturity duration was decreased by 10% both in current and future climate conditions; however, 10% increase in crop maturity significantly (pclimate situations in India and West Africa. Drought tolerance imparted the lowest yield gain at Aurangabad (6%), the highest at Sadore (30%) and intermediate at the other locations under current climate. Under climate change the contribution of drought tolerance to the yield of cultivars either increased or decreased depending upon changes in rainfall of the locations. Yield benefits of heat tolerance substantially increased under climate change at most locations, having the greatest effects at Bikaner (17%) in India and Sadore (13%) in West Africa. Aurangabad and Bijapur locations had no yield advantage from heat tolerance due to their low temperature regimes. Thus drought and heat tolerance in pearl millet increased yields under climate change in both the arid and semi-arid tropical climates with greater benefit in relatively hotter environments. This study will assists the plant breeders in evaluating new promising plant traits of pearl millet for adapting to climate change at the selected locations and other similar environments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Cultural Resources Inventory of the Pearl River Basin, Louisiana and Mississippi. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Anthropology University, MS 39759 University of Southern Mississippi Dave Heisler (phone); Department of Anthropology Blanche Tompkins, Secretary...Monticello, Georgetown and Jackson, Mississippi are depicted. County boundaries are defined. Stone, W. J. 1839 Diagram of the Surveying District South of... Diagram of the Surveying District South of Tennessee. (U.M.) Surveying districts east and west of Pearl River are depicted. Townships which have been

  15. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s-1 shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  16. Supply Chain Management for Sustainable Development: Perspective from the Greater Pearl River Delta (China)

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoi, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by the University of Hong Kong. This thesis investigates the application and implications of supply chain management as a modern management model in regulating corporate outsourcing activities within the Greater Pearl River Delta. Globalisation has accelerated the application of supply chain management as a mechanism to enhance corporate performance. At the same time this rapid economic development has also accele...

  17. Transitional properties of droughts and related impacts of climate indices in the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Liu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Drought is the natural hazard poorly understood so far due to various mechanisms behind. Moreover, disastrous effects of drought on human society necessitate accurate forecasting of drought behaviors. In this case, to improve forecasting of drought in the Pearl River basin, a trivariate copula model has been developed and used to include the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) into model structure of Markov chain. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been used to monitor the drought in this study. Comparison with the preliminary correlation analysis between each month climate index and SPEI series indicated that the trivariate copula performs satisfactorily well in evaluation of influences of climate indices on the transition probabilities of drought. It is considered that the region with the negative vertical velocity is dominated by more precipitation and vice versa. Moreover, field patterns of 500 hPa vertical velocity anomalies related to each climate index have further corroborated the influences of climate indices on the drought behaviors. Besides, the mean extreme drought durations under different conditions of each climate index have also been investigated in this study. Results indicated that the mean extreme drought duration tends to be longer in the western part of the Pearl River basin during positive phase of ENSO while tends to be shorter during the positive phase of NAO and vice versa; in the central part of the Pearl River basin, the mean extreme drought duration tends to be shorter during the positive phase of ENSO, NAO and PDO while tends to be longer during the positive episode of IOD, and vice versa; in the eastern part of the Pearl River basin, the mean extreme drought duration tends to be shorter during the positive episode of ENSO and PDO, and vice versa. This study sheds new light on transitional behaviors of

  18. Contamination and biomethylation of organotin compounds in pearl/fish culture areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Tao, Hiroaki; Hojo, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Uwakai of Japan is famous for pearl and yellowtail fish culture. Recently, pearl culture farming in that region has suffered from a low production of pearls. An illegal use of organotin antifouling paints on fishing nets was reported. In the line of pollution studies, thus, the present investigation was carried out to examine the contamination status and fate of organotin compounds. Totally, 23 water, 10 sediment and 8 pearl oyster tissue samples were analyzed for tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPT), and their breakdown products (di- and mono compounds) by gas chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICP-MS). The results show that the TBT concentrations in water, sediment and biota were in the range from 0.11 to 10.6 ng Sn l(-1), 0.35 to 2500 ng Sn g(-1), and 50.4 to 181 ng Sn g(-1), respectively. The values for sediment and biota are expressed on the dry-weight basis. Triphenyltin in water, sediment and biota were in the range from 0.009 to 0.108 ng l(-1), non-detect to 12.7 ng g(-1), and non-detect to 6.83 ng g(-1), respectively. Although the TBT concentration in seawater is below the tentative assessment level of 10 ng l(-1) set by the Japanese Environment Agency in 1992, it may cause endocrine disruption/other effects in aquatic organisms. Octyltin compounds (mono-, di- and trioctyltin) were also quantified in seawater and sediment. The detection of dibutyldimethyltin (DBDMT) and tributylmonomethyltin (TBMMT) in sediment (methylated butyltins comprised 2.8-31% of total butyltins), and TBMMT in seawater suggested that biomethylation of anthropogenic tributyltins is a significant transformation pathway in the coastal environment.

  19. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  20. [Ecological risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticides in aquatic ecosystems of Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Tian, Hui; Mao, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jian-Min; Wu, Jun-Nian

    2014-03-01

    The risk quotient method and a probabilistic risk assessment method were applied for assessing aquatic ecological risk of nine organophosphorus pesticides, including thimet, dichlorovos, disulfoton, dimethoate, dimethyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, ethoprophos, sumithion and malathion on eight aquatic organisms in the Pearl River Estuary. Results using the risk quotient method revealed that the risk level of opossum shrimp was the highest among eight aquatic organisms of the Pearl River Estuary. The risk of water flea and midge was in medium level, followed by the rest six aquatic organisms, including diatom, oyster, carp, catfish and eel, which were in the low risk by the examined organophosphorus pesticides. It was found that thimet made the largest contribution to total aquatic ecological risk among nine organophosphorus pesticides to every organism. The results from probabilistic risk assessment showed that the total ecological risk in high water period was higher than that in low water period determined by the HC5 under the 95% confidence level. The largest contribution of thimet to total aquatic ecological risk subject to the HC5 in 50% confidence level was regarded as the toxic reference value. The probabilistic risk of a single contaminant showed that thimet and disulfoton were harmful to exceeded 10% organisms in the estuarine. The probabilistic risk of nine pesticides mixture in high water period was also higher than that in low water period, and both risks were greater than 5% which exceeded safety threshold for 95% organisms in the Pearl River Estuary.

  1. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Suma Pushparaj

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB. The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components.

  2. Morpho-physiological characterization of grapevine attacked by ground-pearl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ground pearl Eurhizoccoccus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is an important pest of Brazilian viticulture, related to symptoms of decline and death of plants. Despite this evidence, there is no technical information on insect-plant interactions and how the symptoms are established. Therefore, this study aimed to expose the physiological mechanisms related to the symptoms of the ground pearl attack. Seedlings of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and adult plants of a commercial vineyard of ‘Isabel’, were evaluated in vegetative development of commercial area, nutrition and metabolism of leaves by the contrast of healthy and infested plants by the insect. In attacked plants it was possible to verify a significant reduction of vegetative growth. However, foliar symptoms were not expressed in two years old seedlings. In adult plants attacked, leaves, tissues of branches, roots and fruits were evaluated. The largest effects were observed in necrotic leaves, which showed a reduction of potassium (-26%, boron (-21%, total chlorophyll (-43% and photosynthetic rate (-45%, in comparison to healthy plants. However, these same necrotic leaves showed a significant accumulation of starch (+316%. Therefore, these results suggest that ground pearl promotes the symptoms on the vine in a systemic way by blocking the transport of assimilates from leaves to other plant tissues.

  3. Larval connectivity of pearl oyster through biophysical modelling; evidence of food limitation and broodstock effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yoann; Dumas, Franck; Andréfouët, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that experiences spatial and temporal variability and needs to be optimized by understanding which factors influence recruitment. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Coupling a validated 3D larval dispersal model, a bioenergetics larval growth model following the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, and a population dynamics model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity patterns and recruitment potential is investigated. The relative contribution of reared and wild broodstock to the lagoon-scale recruitment potential is also investigated. Sensitivity analyses pointed out the major effect of the broodstock population structure as well as the sensitivity to larval mortality rate and inter-individual growth variability to larval supply and to the subsequent settlement potential. The application of the growth model clarifies how trophic conditions determine the larval supply and connectivity patterns. These results provide new cues to understand the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, their recruitment, and discuss how to take advantage of these findings and numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  4. Teratogenic effects of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments on Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Xinhui; Wu, Dan; Liu, Guannan; Tao, Li; Fu, Wenjun; Hou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments was investigated with Xenopus laevis embryos. The effects of sediment organic extracts on the mortality, body length and malformation of X. laevis embryos were tested by the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The 96-h LC₅₀ values for X. laevis embryos ranged from 62 to 137 g/L (g extracted sediment per L), and the toxicity effect on body length of larvae was not significant under 20 g/L. However, the teratogenic effects produced by sediment organic extracts were diverse, including edema, hypopigmentation, cardiac and ocular malformations, abdomen recurved and curved spine. The percentage of malformations increased with increasing sediment organic extracts, and even reached almost 100% at 10 and 20 g/L in Guangzhou district. A gradient of pollution in the Pearl River sediments was discerned from the teratogenic toxicity. Guangzhou district showed higher teratogenic toxicity compared with Panyu and Nansha districts as a possible consequence of high levels of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and NP in the sediments. The teratogenic effects of organic extracts from the Pearl River sediments were successfully assessed which indicated the feasibility of teratogenic potential studies of sediments using X. laevis embryos. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Use of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Bacterial Biopolymers for Cultured Pearl Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Simon-Colin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultured pearls are the product of grafting and rearing of Pinctada margaritifera pearl oysters in their natural environment. Nucleus rejections and oyster mortality appear to result from bacterial infections or from an inappropriate grafting practice. To reduce the impact of bacterial infections, synthetic antibiotics have been applied during the grafting practice. However, the use of such antibiotics presents a number of problems associated with their incomplete biodegradability, limited efficacy in some cases, and an increased risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We investigated the application of a marine antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, which is present in the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, in combination with two marine bacterial exopolymers as alternative treatment agents. In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls. The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination. The survival data were similar to that reported for antibiotic treatments. These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

  6. Southwestern Washington 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  7. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. EAARL Topography George Washington Birthplace National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of George Washington Birthplace National Monument was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  11. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  12. Report : public transportation in Washington State, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    This report is an update of the Public Transportation in Washington State publication, dated December 1981. In order to reflect the changes that have occurred since that time, this report contains the most current data obtainable. Chapter One of this...

  13. Pearl millet utilization in ccommercial laying hen diets formulated on a total or digestible amino acid basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Filardi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01 and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg or per dozen eggs (p<0.01 compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.

  14. Gold nanorod/Fe3O4 nanoparticle "nano-pearl-necklaces" for simultaneous targeting, dual-mode imaging, and photothermal ablation of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chungang; Chen, Jiji; Talavage, Tom; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Gold and pearls: Multifunctional nanoparticles, each composed of a single, amine-modified gold nanorod, decorated with multiple "pearls" of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles capped with carboxy groups, are prepared. Their effectiveness in simultaneous targeting, dual-mode imaging, and photothermal ablation of breast cancer cells is demonstrated.

  15. Use of Information-Seeking Strategies for Developing Systematic Reviews and Engaging in Evidence-Based Practice: The Application of Traditional and Comprehensive Pearl Growing--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Wendt, Oliver; Bhavnani, Suresh; Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Background: Efficient library searches for research evidence are critical to practitioners who wish to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP) as well as researchers who seek to develop systematic reviews. Aims: This review will propose the benefits of the search technique "Pearl Growing" ("Traditional Pearl Growing") as well…

  16. Impacts of Hurricane Katrina on floodplain forests of the Pearl River: Chapter 6A in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Stephen; Barrow, Wylie; Couvillion, Brady R.; Conner, William; Randall, Lori; Baldwin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Floodplain forests are an important habitat for Neotropical migratory birds. Hurricane Katrina passed through the Pearl River flood plain shortly after making landfall. Field measurements on historical plots and remotely sensed data were used to assess the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the structure of floodplain forests of the Pearl River.

  17. Environmental Assessment: MCON Project P-193, Waterfront Improvements for Wharves K10-K11, Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, O'ahu, Hawaii

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renard, Gail; Fee, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    ...) in the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Oahu, Hawaii. Based on information gathered during preparation of the EA, the Department of the Navy finds that the proposed waterfront improvements for Wharves K10-K11 at the FISC Pearl, Oahu, Hawaii will...

  18. Integrated management of pearl culture in French Polynesia in the context of global change: Synopsis of existing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Yannick; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Lo, Cedrik; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a state of the art on knowledge of the black pearl oyster aquaculture at the scale of French Polynesia. It also introduces the main results obtained throughout the multi-partners POLYPERL project. The goal of this project was to develop an integrated and participative action-research of the pearl oyster culture system, focusing on the environmental, technological, economical and societal dimensions impacting the industry. The research proposed ranges from the understanding of biological phenomena of the production system to socio-economic aspects and governance of the industry, taking into account the management of anthropogenic, climate and health risks. We introduce here the different papers from the POLYPERL project that are compiled in this volume of ECSS dealing with recent scientific work that can contribute to sustainability of the pearl industry in French Polynesia.

  19. EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND BACTERIAL INOCULANT ON THE TEMPERATURE, DENSITY AND pH OF PEARL MILLET SILAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANÍBAL COUTINHO DO RÊGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the temperature at different depths of the stack silo and strata front profile before and after the removal of silage. Also, the pH values in the upper and lower profile and the silage density of the fresh materials (FM and dry matter (DM in pearl millet silages with particle sizes of 5 or 20 mm, with or without inoculant, were assessed, using corn silage as controls. There was an interaction (P<0.05 silage × stratum profile and silage × depth profile for the temperatures before the removal of silage, and the pearl millet silages had lower temperatures in the upper stratum compared to corn. The temperature gradient between the silage and environment pearl millet and corn silos were smaller in the lower stratum profile. The temperature gradient after the removal of the silage was less than 50 cm deep at all the pearl millet silos. There were no differences in the densities of the FM and DM of the studied silages. The pH values of the silages before their removal were higher in the upper stratum and lower stratum in the bottom of all the pearl millet silages, in contrast with corn silage. The pearl millet silos had lower pH values in the lower stratum of the silo. Silages with 5 mm particle size provide lower temperatures in the middle portion of the panel before the removal of the silage. The use of bacterial inoculant in this study did not change the characteristics evaluated.

  20. Measuring consumers' interest in instant fortified pearl millet products: a field experiment in Touba, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kariuki, Sarah W; Traore, Djibril; Taylor, John Rn; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2017-10-09

    In Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavoured mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers' interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal, to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants. During affective tests, consumers made little distinction between the five products in appearance, aroma, taste and overall appreciation. The experimental auctions showed that, without providing additional information on the products, there was no difference in 'willingness to pay' (WTP) between them. However, after that information is provided, consumers were willing to pay a modest premium for instant flour, and a large premium for added mango and carrot extract and for added micronutrients, but were not willing to pay a premium if those micronutrients came from natural sources. Income increased overall WTP, while education increased WTP for instant flour. There is a potential market in low-income African countries for instant and fortified cereal food products, but likely in the higher income and education groups. The increased cost needs to be compared to the premiums consumers are willing to pay. In the next step, the new and promising products could be tested in pilot markets, with target consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2015-01-01

    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  2. Stationarity of annual flood peaks during 1951-2010 in the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The assumption of stationarity of annual peak flood (APF) records at 28 hydrological stations across the Pearl River basin, China, is tested. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are tested using the Pettitt technique and the Loess method. Trends of APFs are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall method and the Spearman technique. And then the stationarity of the APF series is further investigated by GAMLSS models and long-term persistence. Results indicate that: (1) abrupt changes in mean and variance have similar influences on the changing properties of APFs, such as stationarity. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are only field significant in the East River basin; (2) the change points have a considerable impact on the detection of trends, and these may be attributed to the fact that a abrupt increase or decrease in mean values will affect the trend variations. Besides, for the APF series being free of change points and trend, the GAMLSS models also corroborate stationarity of the APF series; (3) the nonstationarity in the Pearl River basin is mainly due to the existence of the change point. However, the APF series with change points in mean and/or variance are also characterized by long-term persistence, and thus it is infeasible to assert that the abrupt behaviors and/or trends of the APF series are the result of human activities or long-term persistence, especially in the East River basin. Results of this study will provide information for management of water resources and design of hydraulic facilities in the Pearl River basin in a changing environment.

  3. Simulation of pesticide leaching in a cracking clay soil with the PEARL model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza Júnior, Rômulo P; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2005-05-01

    Testing of pesticide leaching models is important to increase confidence in their use in pesticide registration procedures world-wide. The chromatographic PEARL model was tested against the results of a field leaching study on a cracking clay soil with a tracer (bromide), a mobile pesticide (bentazone) and a moderately sorbing, persistent pesticide (imidacloprid). Input parameters for water flow and solute transport were obtained from site-specific measurements and from literature. The model was tested using a stepwise approach in which each sub-model was sequentially and separately tested. Uncalibrated simulations for the water flow resulted in moisture profiles that were too wet. Calibration of the hydraulic relationships resulted in a good description of the moisture profiles. Calibration of the dispersion length was necessary to obtain a good description of bromide leaching. The calibrated dispersion length was 61 cm, which is very long and indicates a large non-uniformity of solute transport. The half-life of bentazone had to be calibrated to obtain a good description of its field persistence. The calibrated half-life was 2.5 times shorter than the half-life derived from the laboratory studies. Concentrations of bentazone in drain water and groundwater were described reasonably well by PEARL. Although measured and simulated persistence of imidacloprid in soil corresponded well, the bulk of the imidacloprid movement was overestimated by PEARL. However, imidacloprid concentrations in drain water were underestimated. In spite of the extensive calibration of water flow and tracer movement, the behaviour of the moderately sorbing pesticide imidacloprid could not be simulated. This indicates that the convection-dispersion equation cannot be used for accurate simulation of pesticide transport in cracking clay soils (even if extremely long dispersion length is used). Comparison of the model results from a poorly sorbed chemical (bentazone) and a moderately sorbed

  4. Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Fadi H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon. The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes. The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show δ18OV-PDB values of about -5.0‰ and δ13C V-PDB values of -11.8‰, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in δ18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2‰, and δ13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1‰. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals ‘invading’ the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes, and the slight depletion in δ18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated δ18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2‰ matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

  5. Exploring potential of pearl millet germplasm association panel for association mapping of drought tolerance traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with 'stay green' phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying

  6. Sequential fermentation of pearl millet by yeasts and lactobacilli--effect on the antinutrients and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetarpaul, N; Chauhan, B M

    1991-10-01

    Sequential culture fermentation by yeasts (S. diastaticus or S. cerevisiae) at 30 degrees C for 72 hr and then followed by lactobacilli fermentation (L. brevis or L. fermentum) at 30 degrees C for 72 h more resulted in a significant reduction in phytic acid and polyphenol content of pearl millet flour. Fermentation by S. diastaticus and L. brevis combination almost eliminated phytic acid from pearl millet flour. The combinations of S. diastaticus with both the lactobacilli reduced phytic acid more effectively than those of S. cerevisiae. The products fermented by S. cerevisiae and L. brevis and by S. diastaticus and L. brevis combinations had the highest protein and starch digestibility (in vitro).

  7. Single-Bundle Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Surgical Technique Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malempati, Chaitu S; Metzler, Adam V; Johnson, Darren L

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are some of the most common sports-related injuries. Treatment of these injuries with ACL reconstruction has evolved over the last several decades. Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction offers an accurate and reproducible method to reproduce native knee anatomy, restore knee kinematics, and ultimately restore function and decrease long-term degenerative effects. The importance of adequate arthroscopic visualization and a thorough understanding of the native anatomic ACL landmarks are discussed in this article. Furthermore, surgical technique, pearls, pitfalls, potential complications, rehabilitation, and outcomes are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pearls and pitfalls: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Anne K; Banks, Taylor A; Bay, Jeannie L

    2017-07-01

    A case of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) was presented, followed by a discussion of the clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Clinical pearls and pitfalls are emphasized for the use of the practicing allergist and the fellow in-training. The diagnosis of ALPS was guided by published criteria. A careful history and workup were needed to exclude other possible etiologies for the patient's symptoms and physical findings. ALPS often carries significant morbidity and is best managed through a multidisciplinary approach.

  9. The Community Orthopaedic Surgeon Taking Trauma Call: Pediatric Ankle Fracture Pearls and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Shital N; Mehlman, Charles T

    2017-11-01

    Pediatric ankle fractures are common and have unique fracture characteristics because of the presence of distal tibial and fibular physes. When displaced (>3 mm widening of the physis or >2 mm intra-articular gap/step-off), these fractures are typically treated with anatomical reduction and internal fixation. Computed tomography is recommended for preoperative evaluation and surgical planning for intra-articular fractures. These fractures in younger children with substantial growth remaining should be followed closely to monitor for any growth disturbance. Pearls and pitfalls related to the treatment of these fractures would emphasize the physeal-respecting approach to their management.

  10. [Transported fluxes of the riverine carbon and seasonal variation in Pearl River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Kai; Qin, Xiao-Qun; Yang, Hui; Huang, Qi-Bo; Liu, Peng-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The riverine carbon flux is a critical component of global carbon cycle. Riverine water samples were collected from eleven hydrometric stations in the main stream of Pearl River and its tributaries during April and July, 2012. The samples were analyzed for the space and seasonal distribution characteristics of the riverine suspended substance and carbon compositions. Carbon fluxes and erosion modulus of Pearl River basin were also estimated in Boluo, Shijiao, Gaoyao, namely Dongjiang, Beijiang, Xijiang, in these two hydrological seasons. The results showed that the total suspended substance (TSS) and organic carbon, including total particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have higher concentration in the high-water season than that in the normal-water season. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) has an overwhelming concentration compared to other carbon compositions in Pearl River basin. The DIC concentration shows an order of Xijiang, Beijiang and Dongjiang from high to low. The percentage of allogenic POC in Xijiang, Beijiang and Dongjiang are 78%, 72%, 26%, respectively, and C3 plants are the main sources of allogenic POC in those three tributaries. The transported fluxes of TSS, total carbon (TC), POC, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), DOC, DIC, total particulate carbon (TPC) and total organic carbon (TOC) are 134 x 10(12),12.69 x 10(12), 2.50 x 10(12), 1.01 x 10(12), 1.13 x 10(12), 8.05 x 10(12), 3.51 x 10(12) and 3.65 x 10(12) g x a(-1), respectively, and the erosion modulus of those compositions are 309 x 10(6), 28.98 x 10(6), 5.75 x 10(6), 2.27 x 10(6), 2.56 x 10(6), 18.4 x 10(6), 8.02 x 10(6) and 8.31 x 10(6) g x (km2 x a)(-1), respectively. Compared with average values of global large rivers, the erosion modulus of DOC, POC, and TOC in Pearl River basin are higher than the corresponding values.

  11. High performance parallelism pearls 2 multicore and many-core programming approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    High Performance Parallelism Pearls Volume 2 offers another set of examples that demonstrate how to leverage parallelism. Similar to Volume 1, the techniques included here explain how to use processors and coprocessors with the same programming - illustrating the most effective ways to combine Xeon Phi coprocessors with Xeon and other multicore processors. The book includes examples of successful programming efforts, drawn from across industries and domains such as biomed, genetics, finance, manufacturing, imaging, and more. Each chapter in this edited work includes detailed explanations of t

  12. Pharmacotherapy Pearls for the Geriatrician: Focus on Oral Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Including Newer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Ann J; Katz, James D

    2017-02-01

    Providing safe and effective pharmacotherapy to the geriatric patients with rheumatological disorders is an ongoing struggle for the rheumatologist and geriatrician alike. Cohesive communication and partnership can improve the care of these patients and subvert adverse outcomes. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, including methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, and leflunomide, and the newest oral agent for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, tofacitinib, have distinctive monitoring and adverse effect profiles. This article provides the general practitioner or geriatrician with clinically relevant pearls regarding the use of these interventions in older patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Microbial community in nitrogen cycle of aquaculture water of the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Luo, Jianfei; Lin, Weitie; Tian, Guoliang

    2012-05-04

    In order to study the characteristic of nitrogen transport, the community structure and diversity of related microorganisms in aquaculture water of the Pearl River Delta. We established an artificial aquaculture ecosystem to study the microbial community of 15N-stable isotope probing (15N-SIP) labeled nitrogen transport microorganisms. The 15N-labeled DNA was separated by CsCl-ethidium bromide density gradient centrifugation, and was used to construct 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of bacteria and archaea. Phylogenetic analysis shows that 19 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) from bacterial library were clustered in Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes. Proteobacteria (99.2%) was the dominant group, mainly consisted of Comamonas (15.7%), Nitrosomonas (12.4%), Enterobacteriaceae (11.5%) and Nitrobacter (11.5%). From archaeal library 9 OTUs were divided into 3 phyla: Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. We successfully elucidated the microbial community of nitrogen transport microorganisms in aquaculture water of Pearl River Delta by using 15N-SIP. The data of the community will provide essential information for isolating nitrogen degrading microorganism, and provide scientific basis for creating a healthy aquaculture environment.

  14. West Pearl Queen CO2 sequestration pilot test and modeling project 2006-2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, Bruce Phillip; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Symons, Neill Phillip; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Byrer, Charles (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Elbring, Gregory Jay; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Laboratory, Morgantown, WV); Aldridge, David Franklin; Lorenz, John Clay

    2008-08-01

    The West Pearl Queen is a depleted oil reservoir that has produced approximately 250,000 bbl of oil since 1984. Production had slowed prior to CO{sub 2} injection, but no previous secondary or tertiary recovery methods had been applied. The initial project involved reservoir characterization and field response to injection of CO{sub 2}; the field experiment consisted of injection, soak, and venting. For fifty days (December 20, 2002, to February 11, 2003) 2090 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into the Shattuck Sandstone Member of the Queen Formation at the West Pearl Queen site. This technical report highlights the test results of the numerous research participants and technical areas from 2006-2008. This work included determination of lateral extents of the permeability units using outcrop observations, core results, and well logs. Pre- and post-injection 3D seismic data were acquired. To aid in interpreting seismic data, we performed numerical simulations of the effects of CO{sub 2} replacement of brine where the reservoir model was based upon correlation lengths established by the permeability studies. These numerical simulations are not intended to replicate field data, but to provide insight of the effects of CO{sub 2}.

  15. Past and present dynamics of sorghum and pearl millet diversity in Mount Kenya region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Deu, Monique; Dussert, Yann; Rono, Bernard; Lamy, Françoise; Marangu, Charles; Kiambi, Dan; Calatayud, Caroline; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Robert, Thierry; Leclerc, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Crop populations in smallholder farming systems are shaped by the interaction of biological, ecological, and social processes, occurring on different spatiotemporal scales. Understanding these dynamics is fundamental for the conservation of crop genetic resources. In this study, we investigated the processes involved in sorghum and pearl millet diversity dynamics on Mount Kenya. Surveys were conducted in ten sites distributed along two elevation transects and occupied by six ethnolinguistic groups. Varieties of both species grown in each site were inventoried and characterized using SSR markers. Genetic diversity was analyzed using both individual- and population-based approaches. Surveys of seed lot sources allowed characterizing seed-mediated gene flow. Past sorghum diffusion dynamics were explored by comparing Mount Kenya sorghum diversity with that of the African continent. The absence of structure in pearl millet genetic diversity indicated common ancestry and/or important pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. On the contrary, sorghum varietal and genetic diversity showed geographic patterns, pointing to different ancestry of varieties, limited pollen-mediated gene flow, and geographic patterns in seed-mediated gene flow. Social and ecological processes involved in shaping seed-mediated gene flow are further discussed.

  16. Spatial assessment of water quality using chemometrics in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meilin; Wang, Youshao; Dong, Junde; Sun, Fulin; Wang, Yutu; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-03-01

    A cruise was commissioned in the summer of 2009 to evaluate water quality in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Chemometrics such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cluster analysis (CA) and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) were employed to identify anthropogenic and natural influences on estuary water quality. The scores of stations in the surface layer in the first principal component (PC1) were related to NH4-N, PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, and Chlorophyll a while salinity, turbidity, and SiO3-Si in the second principal component (PC2). Similarly, the scores of stations in the bottom layers in PC1 were related to PO4-P, NO2-N, NO3-N, and TP, while salinity, Chlorophyll a, NH4-N, and SiO3-Si in PC2. Results of the PCA identified the spatial distribution of the surface and bottom water quality, namely the Guangzhou urban reach, Middle reach, and Lower reach of the estuary. Both cluster analysis and PCA produced the similar results. Self-organizing map delineated the Guangzhou urban reach of the Pearl River that was mainly influenced by human activities. The middle and lower reaches of the PRE were mainly influenced by the waters in the South China Sea. The information extracted by PCA, CA, and SOM would be very useful to regional agencies in developing a strategy to carry out scientific plans for resource use based on marine system functions.

  17. Filamentary pattern in the cosmic web: galaxy filaments as pearl necklaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Elmo; Bussov, Maarja

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies form chains (filaments) that connect groups and clusters of galaxies. The filamentary network includes nearly half of the galaxies and is visually the most striking feature in cosmological maps. We study the distribution of galaxies along such a filamentary network, trying to find specific patterns. Our galaxy filaments are defined using the Bisous process. We use the two-point correlation function and the Rayleigh $Z$-squared statistic to study how the galaxies are distributed along the filaments. We show that galaxies and galaxy groups are not uniformly distributed along filaments, but tend to form a regular pattern. The characteristic length of the pattern is 7~$h-1$Mpc. A slightly smaller characteristic length 4~$h-1$Mpc can also be found, using the $Z$-squared statistic. One can say that galaxy filaments are like pearl necklaces, where the pearls are galaxy groups distributed more or less regularly along the filaments. We propose that this well defined characteristic scale could be used as a cosmological test.

  18. [Ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in coastal area of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ming; Li, Chunhou; Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanhua; Chen, Ruiwen

    2004-08-01

    Five cruises of phytoplankton survey were made in costal area of Pearl River estuary in 1998-1999. The results showed that 239 species were identified, 72.4% of which belonging to Bacillariophyta, 23.8% to Pyrrophyta, and 3.8% to others. The dominant species were warm and eurythermic species Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, Nitzschia delicatissima, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii and Thalassiosira subtilis, and changed with an obvious seasonal succession. The cell density ranged from 0.2 x 10(4) to 2,767.1 x 10(4) cell x m(-3), with an average of 98.7 x 10(4) cell x m(-3), and the mean cell density was obviously higher in summer and winter than in spring and autumn. The regional variation revealed that the cell density in shore area was visibly higher than that in offshore area, and the largest density area was at the southeast of Shangchuan Island all the year around. The range of mean Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou evenness index and biodiversity threshold was 2.63-3.17, 0.53-0.71 and 1.74-2.23, respectively. According to the diversity index, it was concluded that the diversity level of phytoplankton community in coastal area of Pearl River estuary was relatively high and stable.

  19. Occurrence of PPCPs in Pearl River Estuary and South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Kathrin; Waniek, Joanna J.; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2017-04-01

    The development of a coastal megacity has put the South China Sea under human induced stress. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are ubiquitous contaminants and can be used as anthropogenic indicators for pollution of the marine environment. They enter the marine environment indirectly via waste water or directly due to recreational activities. PPCPs make up a group of different pharmaceuticals such as antibiotic, anti-inflammatories etc. and personal care products such as UV-filters. A mayor concern is the unknown fate and the effect these pollutants on the marine environment and especially its organisms. In some studies it was proven that some of these PPCPs have an endocrine disrupting and/or a subtle chronic effect on aquatic organisms. They are of concern for the health of the marine environment and may have an effect on human health. With our study we could determine the occurrence of PPCPs in the Pearl River estuary and the South China Sea. Salicylic acid (metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid) and octocrylene (UV-filter) were found in the open Sea in low ng/L concentration. Octocrylene is used in sunscreen and as a light stabilizer in paints and polymer-based products. It is of environmental concern because of its potential to be bioaccumulative. In addition to our findings in the open South China Sea, could we detect PPCPs, especially antibiotics, in higher ng/L-concentrations in the Pearl River Estuary.

  20. Atmospheric influences on water quality: a simulation of nutrient loading for the Pearl River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Timothy Andrew; Rohli, Robert V

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of water quality conditions is essential in assessing the health of riverine ecosystems. The goal of this study is to determine the degree to which water quality variables are related to precipitation and air temperature conditions for a segment of the Pearl River Basin near Bogalusa, LA, USA. The AQUATOX ecological fate simulation model is used to estimate daily total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen concentrations over a 2-year period. Daily modeled output for each variable was calibrated against reliably measured data to assess the accuracy. Observed data were plotted against simulated data for controlled and perturbed models for validation, and stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to quantify the relationships between the water quality and meteorological variables. Results suggest that daily dissolved oxygen is significantly negatively correlated to concurrent daily mean air temperature with a total explained variance of 0.679 (p water quality in the Pearl Basin. Therefore, environmental planners should expect that future climatic changes are likely to alter water quality.

  1. Miocene–Pliocene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chunlian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Miocene–Pliocene sequence of three petroleum exploration wells (BY7-1-1, KP6-1-1 and KP9-1-1 in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB. In general, the three wells contain a fairly well-preserved, abundant foraminiferal fauna. The proposed planktonic foraminiferal zonation follows the scheme updated by Wade et al. (2011. Nineteen planktonic foraminiferal zones have been recognized, 14 zones (zones M1–M14 for the Miocene and 5 zones (zones PL1–PL5 for the Pliocene. The zonation is correlated with previously published biostratigraphic subdivisions of the Neogene succession in the PRMB and with international foraminiferal zonations. The zonal boundaries are mostly defined by the last appearance datum of zonal taxa of planktonic foraminifera, which is more reliable than the FAD (first appearance datum events for ditch cutting sampling. Changes in the coiling of Globorotalia menardii (s. l. are also used to define the zonal boundaries, where no LADs (last appearance datum are available. The Fohsella fohsi group, comprising useful taxa for delimiting zonal boundaries of the middle Miocene in other areas, has a poor record within the Pearl River Mouth Basin due to unfavorable ecological conditions, and cannot be used for the studied wells. Different from the previously reported zonal scheme for the PRMB, the present zonation is based on correlation with the current standard planktonic foraminiferal zonation, with calibrated absolute ages.

  2. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Zhang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1 compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1. 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1. The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b, and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  3. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the Pearl River Delta and coastal environment: sources, transfer, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihai; Yan, Wen; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Zhong, Lifeng

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and behavior of six endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage, river water, and seawater from the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The six EDCs under study were 4-nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). These EDCs, predominated by BPA, were found in high levels in the influents and the effluents of sewage treatment plants in the area. The relatively high concentrations (0.23-625 ng/L) of the EDCs detected in the receiving river water suggested that the untreated sewage discharge was a major contributor. The EDCs detected in eight outlets of the Pear River and the Pear River Estuary were in the ranges of 1.2-234 and 0.2-178 ng/L, respectively. The estrogen equivalents in the aquatic environments under study ranged from 0.08 to 4.5 ng/L, with E1 and EE2 being the two predominant contributors. As the fluxes of the EDCs from the PRD region to the nearby ocean are over 500 tons each year, the results of this study point to the potential that Pearl River is a significant source of the EDCs to the local environment there.

  4. Simulation of movement of pesticides towards drains with a preferential flow version of PEARL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Hendriks, Rob F A; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2012-02-01

    As part of the Dutch authorisation procedure for pesticides, an assessment of the effects on aquatic organisms in surface waters adjacent to agricultural fields is required. The peak concentration is considered to be the most important exposure endpoint for the ecotoxicological effect assessment. Macropore flow is an important driver for the peak concentration, so the leaching model PEARL was extended with a macropore module. The new model has two macropore domains: a bypass domain and an internal catchment domain. The model was tested against data from a field leaching study on a cracking clay soil in the Netherlands. Most parameters of the model could be obtained from site-specific measurements, pedotransfer functions and general soil structural knowledge; only three macropore-flow-related parameters needed calibration. The flow-related macropore parameters could not be calibrated without using the concentration in drain water. Sequential calibration strategies, in which firstly the water flow model and then the pesticide fate model are calibrated, may therefore be less suitable for preferential flow models. After calibration, PEARL could simulate well the observed rapid movement towards drains of two pesticides with contrasting sorption and degradation rate properties. The calibrated value for the fraction of the internal catchment domain was high (90%). This means that a large fraction of water entering the macropores infiltrates into the soil matrix, thus reducing the fraction of rapid flow. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Nutrients, antinutrients & bioaccessible mineral content (invitro) of pearl millet as influenced by milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, P Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2014-04-01

    Pearl millet is an underutilized grain crop commonly used as whole flour for traditional food preparation and hence confined to traditional consumers and to people of lower economic strata. In this study two commercially available pearl millet varieties (Kalukombu & MRB) obtained from the local market were milled into whole flour, semi refined flour & bran rich fraction. These milling fractions were evaluated for nutrients, antinutrients and mineral bioaccessibility. The bran rich fraction, a by product of flour milling contained significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher ash content (3.3 & 3.5 g/100 g in K & MRB respectively). Minerals like phosphorus, calcium and antinutrients like oxalates, phytates, were found mainly distributed in the bran fraction. The nutrient content of semi-refined flour was comparable to whole flour except for the fat content (1.3%). Due to partial separation of the bran fraction, semi refined flour was low in antinutrients which improved its mineral bioaccessibility making it nutritionally superior.

  6. Van der Waals interactions between planar substrate and tubular lipid membranes undergoing pearling instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, G. S.; Djondjorov, P. A.; Vassilev, V. M.; Dantchev, D. M.

    2017-10-01

    In the current article we study the behavior of the van der Waals force between a planar substrate and an axisymmetric bilayer lipid membrane undergoing pearling instability, caused by uniform hydrostatic pressure difference. To do so, the recently suggested "surface integration approach" is used, which can be considered a generalization of the well known and widely used Derjaguin approximation. The static equilibrium shape after the occurrence of the instability is described in the framework of Helfrich's spontaneous curvature model. Some specific classes of exact analytical solutions to the corresponding shape equation are considered, and the components of the respective position vectors given in terms of elliptic integrals and Jacobi elliptic functions. The mutual orientation between the interacting objects is chosen such that the axis of revolution of the distorted cylinder be parallel to the plane bounding the substrate. Based on the discussed models and approaches we made some estimations for the studied force in real experimentally realizable systems, thus showing the possibility of pearling as an useful technique for reduction of the adhesion in variety of industrial processes using lipid membranes as carriers.

  7. Variation of phytoplankton community structure from the Pearl River estuary to South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-10-01

    The Pearl River is located in the northern part of South China Sea. The environment of the Pearl River estuary (PRE) is significantly impacted by nutrients from anthropogenic activities. Along the anthropogenic pollution gradient from the PRE to South China Sea, the phylogenetic diversity and biomass of phytoplankton was examined in relation to physic-chemical variables. The richness of rbcL gene was higher in the open sea than the estuary, while the concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) was higher in the estuary than in the open sea. The cluster analysis of the sequences data resulted in seven phytoplankton community types and the dominant species of phytoplankton changed from Cryptophytes and Diatoms to Prymnesiophytes and Diatoms along the gradient. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by nutrients and salinity. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus, nitrite and ammonium (P phytoplankton diversity was highly positively affected by salinity (P phytoplankton distribution and biomass of the study area. Further research is necessary to reveal the influence mechanism of environmental factors on the phytoplankton.

  8. Surface science at the PEARL beamline of the Swiss Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntwiler, Matthias; Zhang, Jun; Stania, Roland; Matsui, Fumihiko; Oberta, Peter; Flechsig, Uwe; Patthey, Luc; Quitmann, Christoph; Glatzel, Thilo; Widmer, Roland; Meyer, Ernst; Jung, Thomas A; Aebi, Philipp; Fasel, Roman; Greber, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Photo-Emission and Atomic Resolution Laboratory (PEARL) is a new soft X-ray beamline and surface science laboratory at the Swiss Light Source. PEARL is dedicated to the structural characterization of local bonding geometry at surfaces and interfaces of novel materials, in particular of molecular adsorbates, nanostructured surfaces, and surfaces of complex materials. The main experimental techniques are soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Photoelectron diffraction in angle-scanned mode measures bonding angles of atoms near the emitter atom, and thus allows the orientation of small molecules on a substrate to be determined. In energy scanned mode it measures the distance between the emitter and neighboring atoms; for example, between adsorbate and substrate. STM provides complementary, real-space information, and is particularly useful for comparing the sample quality with reference measurements. In this article, the key features and measured performance data of the beamline and the experimental station are presented. As scientific examples, the adsorbate-substrate distance in hexagonal boron nitride on Ni(111), surface quantum well states in a metal-organic network of dicyano-anthracene on Cu(111), and circular dichroism in the photoelectron diffraction of Cu(111) are discussed.

  9. Relationship between nutrients and plankton biomass in the turbidity maximum zone of the Pearl River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Xu, Jie; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xia; Jiang, Zhijian; Ye, Feng; Liang, Ximei

    2017-07-01

    Nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and plankton (bacterio-, phyto- and zoo-) were compared in the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and adjacent areas (non-TMZ) in the Pearl River estuary. Our results showed that high levels of suspended substances had marked effect on dynamics of nutrients and plankton in the TMZ. Based on the cluster analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations, all stations were divided into two groups, TMZ with average TSS of 171mg/L and non-TMZ of 45mg/L. Suspended substances adsorbed PO4(3-) and dissolved organic carbon, resulting in higher particulate phosphorus and organic carbon (POC) and lower PO4(3-) and DOC in the TMZ, compared to the non-TMZ. However, suspended substances had limited effect on nitrogenous nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was light-limited due to high concentrations of suspended substances in the TMZ and a peak of phytoplankton abundance appeared in the non-TMZ. In contrast, the highest bacterial abundance occurred in the TMZ, which was likely partly responsible for low DOC levels. Two peaks of zooplankton abundance observed in the TMZ and non-TMZ in the Pearl River estuary were primarily supported by bacteria and phytoplankton, respectively. Our finding implied that high levels of suspended solids in the TMZ affect the trophic balance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sedimentation in the Lianhua Mountain Reservoir, Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Amuzu-Sefordzi, Basil; Li, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the biggest electronics manufacturing regions in the world. Due to the presence of abandoned industrial sites and the proliferation of large-scale electronics companies in the past four decades, it is therefore imperative to investigate the extent of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in the region. Spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in the Lianhua Mountain reservoir in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City, China were examined based on a sedimentary profile analysis. Higher concentrations of the heavy metals detected were recorded in bottom sediments whereas 70% of the detected PCBs recorded maximum concentrations in top sediments. The geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) indicate that the study area is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Also, the integrated pollution indices (IPI) were above 1, except Pb, which shows that the study area is contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of individual heavy metals and PCBs over a period of 60 years were also analyzed in order to establish a historical trend of pollution in the study area. This study provides baseline information on the level and historical trend of heavy metals and PCBs pollution in the study area.

  11. Regional Integrated Experiments on Air Quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004): Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Hu, M.; Zhong, L. J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Liu, S. C.; Andreae, M. O.; Wang, W.; Fan, S. J.

    The aims of the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments on Air Quality over Pearl River Delta of China 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004) were to characterize in depth the pollution, and to improve the understanding of the chemical and radiative processes in the atmosphere of Pearl River Delta (PRD) in South-Eastern China. This comprehensive program integrated ground-base in situ measurements, vertical observations (including aircraft) and model simulations. The intensive field campaign was conducted from 4 October to 5 November 2004 at two super-sites: an urban site in Guangzhou city (23.13°N, 113.26°E) and a non-urban site at Xinken (22.61°N, 113.59°E). They were coordinated with concurrent meteorological observations as well as measurements at stations of a regional monitoring network. Quality control and quality assurances, application of closure studies and observation-based modeling were the key elements of the research strategies for the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign. Knowledge and understanding of the important issues, including 3-D distribution of air pollution, ozone formation process and its control strategies, sources of volatile organic compounds, chemical and physical characteristics and radiative properties of aerosols, and the important role of nitrous acid atmospheric chemistry, have been improved substantially by this study.

  12. Effect of feeding an encapsulated source of butyric acid (ButiPEARL) on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, April Waguespack; Kessler, James W; Fuller, Lorraine; Williams, Susan; Mathis, Greg F; Lumpkins, Brett; Valdez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of an encapsulated butyric acid (ButiPEARL) based on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age and to investigate its effects on intestinal morphology. Experiment 1 ( EXP 1: ) consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replicate pens that contained 45 broilers, and Experiment 2 ( EXP 2: ) consisted of 6 treatments with 8 replicate pens that contained 50 broilers. Birds were weighed by pen on d 0, 21, 35, and 42. In EXP 1, the treatments were as follows: 1) control ( C: ); 2) C + 100 g ButiPEARL/ton; 3) C + 200 g ButiPEARL/ton; and 4) C + 300 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 2, the treatments were identical to EXP 1, with 2 additional treatments: 5) C + 400 g ButiPEARL/ton and 6) C + 500 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 1, two 42-d-old broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal and jejunal tissue collection. Only the samples from the broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments were analyzed for histology in EXP 1. For EXP 2, on d 21 and 35, two broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissue collection. For EXP 1 and 2, BW gain increased linearly with increasing butyric acid levels (P 500 g/ton. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Cereal domestication and evolution of branching: evidence for soft selection in the Tb1 orthologue of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Stanislas Remigereau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1 in maize. We investigate the role of the Tb1 orthologue (Pgtb1 in the domestication of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, an African outcrossing cereal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene cloning, expression profiling, QTL mapping and molecular evolution analysis were combined in a comparative approach between pearl millet and maize. Our results in pearl millet support a role for PgTb1 in domestication despite important differences in the genetic basis of branching adaptation in that species compared to maize (e.g. weaker effects of PgTb1. Genetic maps suggest this pattern to be consistent in other cereals with reduced branching (e.g. sorghum, foxtail millet. Moreover, although the adaptive sites underlying domestication were not formerly identified, signatures of selection pointed to putative regulatory regions upstream of both Tb1 orthologues in maize and pearl millet. However, the signature of human selection in the pearl millet Tb1 is much weaker in pearl millet than in maize. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that some level of parallel evolution involved at least regions directly upstream of Tb1 for the domestication of pearl millet and maize. This was unanticipated given the multigenic basis of domestication traits and the divergence of wild progenitor species for over 30 million years prior to human selection. We also hypothesized that regular introgression of domestic pearl millet phenotypes by genes from the wild gene pool could explain

  14. Treatment of an Unusual Non-Tooth Related Enamel Pearl (EP) and 3 Teeth-Related EPs with Localized Periodontal Disease Without Teeth Extractions: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiñas López, Simón; Warren, Roger N; Bromage, Timothy G; Matei, Ioana Chesnoiu; Khouly, Ismael

    2015-09-01

    Enamel may be found ectopically as enamel pearls (EPs), which are frequently associated with advanced localized periodontal (LP) destruction. This study presents a case in which an unusual non-tooth-related enamel pearl and three teeth-related enamel pearls with LP disease were found and treated without teeth extractions. A 47-year-old female patient presented at the New York University College of Dentistry with four EPs, three of which were associated with periodontal pockets and/or bleeding on probing (BOP), and one of them not related to any tooth. Periodontal therapy included scaling and root planing and open flap debridement with removal of the EPs. Two pearls were histologically analyzed by polarizing microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Clinical periodontal parameters, including probing depth and BOP, were measured. All enamel found in the pearls had the same general morphologic appearance when examined by a SEM. The non-tooth-related pearl could be classified as Rodriguez Ponte "adamantinóidea" pearl. Probing depths at 3 months and 9 months after EP removal diminished considerably. Only after the treatment was there no BOP. Before treatment it was in some areas, as shown in Table 1. The LP related to the EP was resolved. The authors conclude that early recognition of enamel pearls is important in the prevention of periodontal destruction, and removal of EPs by a surgical approach as an adjunct to mechanical periodontal treatment resulted in resolution of the LP. The authors state that this is the first time an "adamantinóideas" pearl is being reported on clinically in the literature.

  15. Making Space for Red Tide: Discolored Water and the Early Twentieth Century Bayscape of Japanese Pearl Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Kjell

    2017-05-01

    "Red tide" has become a familiar shorthand for unusual changes in the color of ocean waters. It is intimately related both to blooms of creatures like dinoflagellates and to the devastating effects they pose to coastal fisheries. This essay tracks the early twentieth century emergence of discolored water as an aquacultural problem, known in Japan as akashio, and its trans-oceanic transformation into the terms and practices of "red tide" in the post-World War II United States. For Japan's "Pearl King" Mikimoto Kōkichi and his contacts in diverse marine scientific communities, the years-long cycle of guarding and cultivating a pearl oyster went together with the ascription of moral qualities to tiny creatures that posed a threat to farmed bayscapes of pearl monoculture. As akashio, discolored water went from curiosity to marine livestock pest, one that at times left dead pearl oysters in its wake. Red tide arose from the sustained study of the mechanisms by which changes in the biological and chemical composition of seawater might become deadly to exclusively-claimed shellfish along Japanese coastlines, but came to be seen as a way to understand aquatic manifestations of harm in other parts of the littoral world.

  16. New Genetic Insights into Pearl Millet Diversity As Revealed by Characterization of Early- and Late-Flowering Landraces from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Diack

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. is a staple food and a drought-tolerant cereal well adapted to Sub-Saharan Africa agro-ecosystems. An important diversity of pearl millet landraces has been widely conserved by farmers and therefore could help copping with climate changes and contribute to future food security. Hence, characterizing its genetic diversity and population structure can contribute to better assist breeding programs for a sustainable agricultural productivity enhancement. Toward this goal, a comprehensive panel of 404 accessions were used that correspond to 12 improved varieties, 306 early flowering and 86 late-flowering cultivated landraces from Senegal. Twelve highly polymorphic SSR markers were used to study diversity and population structure. Two genes, PgMADS11 and PgPHYC, were genotyped to assess their association to flowering phenotypic difference in landraces. Results indicate a large diversity and untapped potential of Senegalese pearl millet germplasm as well as a genetic differentiation between early- and late-flowering landraces. Further, a fine-scale genetic difference of PgPHYC and PgMADS11 (SNP and indel, respectively and co-variation of their alleles with flowering time were found among landraces. These findings highlight new genetic insights of pearl millet useful to define heterotic populations for breeding, genomic association panel, or crosses for trait-specific mapping.

  17. Pesticide leaching to the groundwater in drinking water abstraction areas; analysis with the GeoPEARL model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijne, R.; Tiktak, A.; Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the new Dutch decision tree for the evaluation of pesticide leaching from soils, leaching to the shallow groundwater is assessed with the spatially distributed model GeoPEARL. The relative vulnerability of the groundwater in the drinking water abstraction areas is estimated. The general

  18. Process optimization for manufacture of pearl millet-based dairy dessert by using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Alok; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Alam, Tanweer; Yadav, Rajendra

    2013-04-01

    Kheer, a cereal based dessert containing rice, milk and sugar as major ingredients, is very popular in India and South East Asian countries. A process for manufacturing a dairy dessert based on pearl millet and milk as main ingredients was optimized. During the investigation, the effect of different levels of dairy whitener and pearl millet, and temperature was studied by employing a 3 factor central composite rotatable design version 7.1.6. The best formulation with 18.49% dairy whitener and 6.0% pearl millet and a process temperature of 87.5 °C yielded 46.76% of the product on the basis of the dairy whitener used. This formulation was found to be most appropriate for manufacture of pearl millet-based kheer with predicted scores of 7.62, 7.05, 7.32, 6.97, 6.95 and 7.29 for grain to liquid ratio, consistency, sweetness, grain texture, flavour and overall acceptability respectively.

  19. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  20. The creeping Pearl: Why has the rate of contraceptive failure increased in clinical trials of combined hormonal contraceptive pills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James; Portman, David

    2013-11-01

    Despite several drawbacks, the Pearl Index continues to be the most widely used statistical measure of contraceptive failure. However, Pearl indices reported in studies of newer hormonal contraceptives appear to be increasing. We searched PubMed and Medical Intelligence Solutions databases for prospective trials evaluating oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy to examine potential factors that could contribute to increasing Pearl indices. Numerous potential factors were identified, including an increased rate of failures of newer OCs, deficiencies in methods of calculating contraceptive failure rates, differences in study design and changes in patient populations resulting in increased rates of contraceptive failures due to the inappropriate or inconsistent use of the method. The two most likely important contributors to the increase in Pearl indices are more frequent pregnancy testing with more sensitive tests and less adherent study populations. Because study populations appear to be increasingly representative of the likely actual users once the product is marketed, we can expect to see even higher failure rates in ongoing and future studies. This result poses challenges for companies and regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Late Holocene (~ 2 ka) East Asian Monsoon variations inferred from river discharge and climate interrelationships in the Pearl River Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nan, Q.; Li, T.; Chen, J.; Nigam, R.

    A sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) was analyzed for grain size and organic geochemistry parameters (TOC and δ13Corg). The results showed that high mean grain-size value and increased sand content were correlated...

  2. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, Elisabeth Pawindé; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi re...

  3. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome in tissues secreting purple and white nacre in the pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Bai

    Full Text Available The triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea is the most important mussel species used for commercial freshwater pearl production in China. Mussel color is an important indicator of pearl quality. To identify genes involved in the nacre coloring, we conducted RNA-seq and obtained 541,268 sequences (298 bp average size and 440,034 sequences (293 bp average size in secreting purple and white nacre libraries (P- and W-libraries, respectively. The 981,302 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs were assembled into 47,812 contigs and 289,386 singletons. In BLASTP searches of the deduced protein, 22,495 were proteins with functional annotations. Thirty-three genes involved in pearl or shell formation were identified. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 358 differentially expressed genes, and 137 genes in the P-library and 221 genes in the W-library showed significantly higher expression. Furthermore, a set of SSR motifs and SNPs between the two samples was identified from the ESTs, which provided the markers for genetic linkage, QTL analysis and future breeding. These EST sequences provided valuable information to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation, color determination and evolution of the pearl or shell.

  4. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  5. Employee Training Needs and Perceived Value of Training in the Pearl River Delta of China: A Human Capital Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Alan Kai Ming; Altman, Yochanan; Roussel, Josse

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore Hong Kong firms' training needs in the Pearl River Delta, a booming region in the fast growing People Republic of China economy, by resorting to a human capital approach. Also, to identify the training policies selected by those firms in order to cater for those needs. Design/methodology/approach: A survey based…

  6. Application of Black Pearl carbon-supported WO 3 nanostructures as hybrid carriers for electrocatalytic RuSe x nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Fiechter, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    RuSe x electrocatalytic nanoparticles were deposited onto hybrid carriers composed of Black Pearl carbon-supported tungsten oxide; and the resulting system's electrochemical activity was investigated during oxygen reduction reaction. The tungsten oxide-utilizing and RuSe x nanoparticle-containing materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical diagnostic techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk voltammetry. Application of Black Pearl carbon carriers modified with ultra-thin films of WO 3 as matrices (supports) for RuSe x catalytic centers results during electroreduction of oxygen in 0.5 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4 (under rotating disk voltammetric conditions) in the potential shift of ca. 70 mV towards more positive values relative to the behavior of the analogous WO 3-free system. Also the percent formation (at ring in the rotating ring-disk voltammetry) of the undesirable hydrogen peroxide has been decreased approximately twice by utilizing WO 3-modified carbon carriers. The results are consistent with the bifunctional mechanism in which oxygen reduction is initiated at RuSe x centers and the hydrogen peroxide intermediate is reductively decomposed at reactive WO 3-modified Black Pearl supports. The electrocatalytic activity of the system utilizing WO 3-modified Black Pearl supports has been basically unchanged upon addition of acetic acid, formic acid or methyl formate to the sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte.

  7. Tectonic subsidence of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Zhu, Junzhang; Long, Zulie; Jiang, Guangzheng; Huang, Shaopeng; Hu, Shengbiao

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Mouth Basin, which is situated on the northern margin of the South China Sea, has attracted great attention not only because of its tectonic setting but also because of its abundant hydrocarbon resources. We have analyzed the Cenozoic tectonic subsidence history of 4 drilled wells and 43 artificial wells from the Zhu 1 Sub-basin of the Pearl River Mouth Basin by back-stripping, using newly interpreted seismic profiles. We also calculated the average tectonic subsidence rates of the four sags in the Zhu 1 Sub-basin. The rifting and post-rifting stages are separated by abrupt changes in the tectonic subsidence curves and average subsidence rates. In the eastern sags of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin, tectonic subsidence started to slow at ca. 30 Ma, compared with ca. 23.8 Ma in the western sags. This probably corresponds to the timing of break-up and suggests that rifting in the Pearl River Mouth Basin ended earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Anomalously accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred at 17.5-16.4 Ma during the post-rifting stage, with average subsidence rates as high as 301.9 m/Myr. This distinguishes the Pearl River Mouth Basin from classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, which demonstrate exponentially decaying post-rift tectonic subsidence.

  8. Experimental investigation of different fill materials in arch bridges with particular focus on Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2016-01-01

    to find the most optimal fill for Pearl-Chain Bridges. Sub-base gravel, cement-stabilized gravel, and pervious concrete were tested with respect to compressive strength, stiffness, splitting tensile strength, permeability, freeze–thaw durability, and shrinkage. This paper summarizes the advantages...

  9. Drivers' use of marijuana in Washington state : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In July 2014, Washington State allowed legal sales of : recreational marijuana. Working with the Washington : Traffic Safety Commission, NHTSA assisted the State in : conducting a roadside study to examine the prevalence : of marijuana use before and...

  10. An assessment of interstate safety investment properties in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) commissioned the current study, targeting the entire interstate : mainline network in Washington State, to provide strategic direction to multi-biennial investment interstate locations that of...

  11. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  12. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil McKay; Patricia M. Bassett; Colin D. MacLean

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1990-91 timber resource inventory of Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. The inventory was conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and...

  13. Timber resource statistics for western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin D. MacLean; Patricia M. Bassett; Glenn. Yeary

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1988-90 timber resource inventory of 19 counties in western Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  14. South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus, Bandung Consensus, or Peoples' Consensus? WG Martin. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/asr.v12i1.43533 · AJOL African Journals ...

  15. Recidivism of Supermax Prisoners in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…

  16. 40 CFR 81.348 - Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Washington. 81.348 Section 81.348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... along a meander line following the middle of the Lake and Roesiger Creek to Woods Creek; thence...

  17. Doctors of Osteopathy Licensed in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senters, Jo

    Based on information gathered by the Health Manpower Project through a survey cosponsored with the Washington Osteopathic Medical Association, this report begins with a statement of philosophy of osteopathic medicine and proceeds to comment on where such professional education is available. Remarks on the type of educational background of the…

  18. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Zachary P.; Wallis, Carolyn K.; Abbott, April N.; Olson, John C.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum. PMID:25609724

  19. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  20. Washington (Wash) C. Winn: In Memoriam

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-08

    Dr. Mike Miller and Dr. David Walker dicuss the career and life of noted clinical biologist, Dr. Washington C. Winn Jr.  Created: 3/8/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  1. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  2. Construction of cDNA subtractive library from pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata Gould) with red color shell by SSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yunyan; Huang, Liangmin; He, Maoxian

    2011-05-01

    The molecular basis of color polymorphism in the shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is largely unknown. We developed a red-shelled family line and used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to screen for differentially expressed genes in red- and non-red-shelled pearl oysters. We constructed forward and reverse cDNA subtractive libraries consisting of 2 506 and 797 clones, respectively. Among 343 randomly selected clones in the forward library, 304 sequences were identified in GenBank using BLASTx and BLASTn. Of the 304 sequences, 13 showed no similarity to known sequences and 291 were matched with known genes of the pearl oyster, including shematrin-1, shematrin-2, shematrin-6, shematrin-7, nacrein, nacrein-like protein, aspein for shell matrix protein, glycine-rich protein, mantle gene 5, 28S, EST00031, EST00036, 16S, and COI. In the reverse library, 7 clones were sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Two sequences shared similarity with EST00036 from the P. fucata subtraction cDNA library, four with the P. fucata mitochondrial gene for 16S rRNA and 1 with P. fucata shematrin-2. We evaluated the expression of 12 genes from the forward library using RT PCR. Two sequences matched with 16S and COI so were considered to be false positives. The remaining 10 sequences were differentially expression in the red-shelled pearl oysters. Our results suggest that differential expression of these genes may be related to color variation in the red-shelled family line of the pearl oyster.

  3. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.

  4. 78 FR 59955 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke...

  5. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  6. Evaluation of the Washington State Target Zero teams project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of its Target Zero strategic highway safety plan that has the goal to reduce traffic fatalities in Washington to zero by the year 2030, the State of Washington established three detachments of Washington State Patrol (WSP) troopers to f...

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in eggs may reduce reproductive success of ospreys in Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.; Johnson, B.L.; Letcher, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial and temporal assessments and reports of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in birds remain sparse. In the present study, PBDEs were detected in all 120 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected. The eggs were collected from nests along the Columbia, Willamette and Yakima rivers of Oregon (OR) and Washington (WA) and in Puget Sound (WA) between 2002 and 2007. PBDE congeners: 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154 (possible coelution with brominated biphenyl 153 [BB153]), 183, 190 (detected in one egg), 209 (not detected), and BB101 (only detected in 2006 and 2007) and total-??-hexabromocyclododecane (only detected in five eggs) were analyzed for in the egg samples. Eggs from reservoirs in the forested headwaters of the Willamette River (2002) contained the lowest concentrations of ???PBDEs (geometric mean [range], 98 [55.2-275] ng/g wet weight [ww]), while those from the middle Willamette River (2006) contained the highest (897 [507-1,880] ng/g ww). Concentrations in eggs from the Columbia River progressively increased downstream from Umatilla, OR (River Mile [RM] 286) to Skamokoa, WA (RM 29), which indicated additive PBDE sources along the river. In general, regardless of the year of egg collection, differences in PBDE concentrations reported in osprey eggs along the three major rivers studied (Columbia, Willamette and Yakima) seem to reflect differences in river flow (dilution effect) and the extent of human population and industry (source inputs) along the rivers. PBDE concentrations increased over time at two locations (Seattle, WA; Columbia River, RM 29-84) where temporal patterns could be evaluated. Only during 2006 (on the middle Willamette River, RM 61-157) and 2007 (on the lower Columbia River, RM 29-84) did ???PBDE concentrations in osprey eggs exceed 1,000 ng/g ww with negative relationships indicated at both locations between productivity and ???PBDE concentrations in eggs (P = 0.008, P = 0.057). Osprey eggs from

  8. Investigations of introduced species in Pearl Harbor; Oahu, Hawaii, from 1996-01-11 to 1996-09-18 (NODC Accession 0000330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine and estuarine invertebrate and fish communities in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii were surveyed between January and October, 1996. Samples were taken and...

  9. Biodiversity of Freshwater and Estuarine Communities in Lower Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with Observations on Introduced Species: Summary from Fieldwork Conducted in 1997-1998 (NODC Accession 0001114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor Biodiversity Project was funded by the Department of Defense Legacy Program, through the U. S. Navy. The project was performed in two phases. Phase...

  10. Water quality in Pearl Harbor and feeder streams during 1971 - 2001 collected primarily by oceanography students from Leeward Community College (NODC Accession 0000590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water quality data were collected in Pearl Harbor and surrounding feeder streams from 30 December 1971 to 24 August 2001. Data were collected by Leeward Community...

  11. Primary productivity in middle loch of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, collected by oceanography students from the Leeward Community College from 1975 to 1996 (NODC Accession 0000655)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary productivity data were collected in middle loch of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, from 20 November 1975 to 27 November 1996. Data were collected by Leeward Community...

  12. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 1 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  13. Water Fastness of Screen Printed Pearl Luster Pigments based on Synthetic and Natural Mica on Polyvinyl Chloride Foil and Rich Mineral Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirica Karlovits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine water fastness of screen printed pearl luster pigments based on synthetic and natural mica on polyvinyl chloride foil and Rich Mineral Paper. Three types of pearl luster pigments were used, each different from the other in composition, interference colour and particle size: one pigment based on synthetic mica (Pigment 1 and two pigments based on natural mica (Pigment 2 and Pigment 3. Pearl luster pigments were applied to the printing base (PVC transparent base in 15wt.% concentration and printed by means of screen printing technique. The test of water fastness was made on prints, where the samples were soaked in distilled water for 6 and 12 days. It was established that this water treatment did not have any significant impact on the durability of screen printed pearl luster pigments. The pigments could demonstrate slightly better water fastness after being printed on Rich Mineral Paper.

  14. Long-Term Management Strategy for Dredged Material Disposal for Naval Facilities at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Phase III - Analysis of Alternatives and Development of an LTMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palermo, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This report documents Phase III of a three-phase study to develop a Long-Term Management Study for disposal of dredged material unsuitable for ocean disposal from Pearl Harbor Naval Complex for the next 30 years...

  15. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 30 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  16. CRED Simrad EM3002d multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 30 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  17. Biodiversity of freshwater and estuarine communities in lower Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii with observations on introduced species: summary from fieldwork conducted in 1997 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0001114)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pearl Harbor Biodiversity Project was funded by the Department of Defense Legacy Program, through the U. S. Navy. The project was performed in two phases. The...

  18. Modelling pesticides volatilisation in greenhouses: Sensitivity analysis of a modified PEARL model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Doan Ngoc, Kim; van den Berg, Frederik; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2017-12-01

    The application of the existing PEARL model was extended to include estimations of the concentration of crop protection products in greenhouse (indoor) air due to volatilisation from the plant surface. The model was modified to include the processes of ventilation of the greenhouse air to the outside atmosphere and transformation in the air. A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed by varying selected input parameters on a one-by-one basis and comparing the model outputs with the outputs of the reference scenarios. The sensitivity analysis indicates that - in addition to vapour pressure - the model had the highest ratio of variation for the rate ventilation rate and thickness of the boundary layer on the day of application. On the days after application, competing processes, degradation and uptake in the plant, becomes more important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: A hotspot of microplastic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Lincoln; Cheung, P K

    2015-10-15

    Large plastic (>5mm) and microplastic (0.315-5mm) debris were collected from 25 beaches along the Hong Kong coastline. More than 90% consisted of microplastics. Among the three groups of microplastic debris, expanded polystyrene (EPS) represented 92%, fragments represented 5%, and pellets represented 3%. The mean microplastic abundance for Hong Kong was 5595items/m(2). This number is higher than international averages, indicating that Hong Kong is a hotspot of marine plastic pollution. Microplastic abundance was significantly higher on the west coast than on the east coast, indicating that the Pearl River, which is west of Hong Kong, may be a potential source of plastic debris. The amounts of large plastic and microplastic debris of the same types (EPS and fragments) were positively correlated, suggesting that the fragmentation of large plastic material may increase the quantity of beach microplastic debris. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  1. Total OH reactivity in ambient air measured in the Pearl-River Delta in China 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, S.; Holland, F.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2009-04-01

    We have developed a new instrument for the measurement of the total atmospheric OH reactivity, which is defined as the pseudo-first order loss-rate coefficient of OH, resulting from the reactions of OH with atmospheric trace gases like VOCs, CO, NOx etc. The instrument is capable of measuring the lifetime of OH (i.e., the reciprocal OH reactivity) in ambient air, by using a pulsed UV-pump laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe technique. The measurement range covers reactivities between 1 s-1 to about 150 s-1, corresponding to conditions from very clean to very polluted environments, with a time resolution of 1-3 min. Here we present measured OH reactivities which were collected during the PRIDE-PRD 2006 photochemistry field campaign in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in South-China, and present an analysis of the total burden of reactive VOCs encountered at PRD.

  2. The use of the PEARL model for assessing the migration of metribuzin in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolupaeva, V. N.; Gorbatov, V. S.; Shein, E. V.; Leonova, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    The use of the PEARL mathematical model for describing the transfer of metribuzin in the soil profile and its migration to ground water was studied. The model was adjusted using experimental data on the water regime and the lysimetric runoff of soddy-podzolic soils in large lysimeters of Moscow State University. Without adjustment, the model successfully predicted the residual metribuzin concentrations in the topsoil but underestimated its content in the lower soil layers. After adjustment, the model more adequately predicted the herbicide concentrations in the lower horizons of the soil profile. The model adjustment improved the accuracy of predicting the accumulative removal of metribuzin beyond the soil profile by three orders of magnitude. The validation of the model with an independent data set showed satisfactory accuracy for forecasting the lysimetric runoff in soddy-podzolic soil and a rather low accuracy for predicting the distribution of the pesticide in the soil profile.

  3. The National Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness. Proceedings. (Washington, D.C., April 6-7, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The principal addresses at this Women's Leadership Conference on Fitness were: (1) "Keynote Address" (C. Carson Conrad); (2) "Essential Nature of Fitness" (Lawrence E. Lamb); (3) "Effects of Exercise on Women from 20-50 Years Old" (Sharon Plowman); (4) "Fitness in Older Women" (Everett L. Smith); (5) "Female Musculo-Skeletal System" (Robert P.…

  4. [Integrated assessment of eco-environmental vulnerability in Pearl River Delta based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing-Yong; Huang, Mei; Liu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Hui-Min

    2011-11-01

    Based on the remote sensing data and with the help of geographic information system, an integrated assessment was conducted on the eco-environmental vulnerability of Pearl River Delta in 2004-2008. Spatial principal component analysis was used to generate the evaluation indicators, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to determine the weights of the evaluation factors. The reasons causing the vulnerability of the eco- environment in Pearl River Delta were discussed. In the study area, its middle part was the most vulnerable region, occupying 34.0% of the total, eastern part was the moderately vulnerable region, accounting for 25.5%, and western part was the lightly and slightly vulnerable areas, accounting for 28.7 and 11.8%, respectively. Totally, the moderately and lightly vulnerable areas occupied 54.2%, indicating that a majority of the Delta was under moderate and light vulnerability. The natural factors affecting the eco-environmental vulnerability of the Delta were altitude, heavy rain days, water and soil erosion rate, flooded infield rate, normalized difference vegetation index (ND VI) and landscape diversity index, whereas the human factors were population density, waste discharge per unit area, exhaust emission per unit area, land use change, chemical fertilization intensity, pesticide application intensity, amount of motor vehicles possessed by ten thousands people, and index of environmental protection investment. The main characteristics of the extremely and heavily vulnerable regions were low altitude, high frequency of flood disaster, large flooded infield, serious vegetation degradation, high pollution level and low environment protection investment index.

  5. Shift of anammox bacterial community structure along the Pearl Estuary and the impact of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bingbing; Liu, Jiwen; Yang, Hongmei; Hsu, Ting Chang; He, Biyan; Dai, Minhan; Kao, Shuh Ji; Zhao, Meixun; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) plays an important role in the marine nitrogen cycle. The Pearl Estuary, a typical subtropical estuary characterized by hypoxia upstream and high loads of organic matter and inorganic nutrients caused by anthropogenic activities, has received extensive attention. In this study, anammox bacterial community structures in surface sediments along the Pearl Estuary were investigated using 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidoreductase (HZO) genes. In addition, abundance of anammox bacteria in both water and surface sediments was investigated by quantitative PCR. Obvious anammox bacterial community structure shift was observed in surface sediments, in which the dominant genus changed from "Candidatus Brocadia" or "Candidatus Anammoxoglobus" to "Candidatus Scalindua" along the salinity gradient from freshwater to the open ocean based on 16S rRNA gene and HZO amino acid phylotypes. This distribution pattern was associated with salinity, temperature, pH of overlying water, and particularly C/N ratio. Phylogenetic analysis unraveled a rich diversity of anammox bacteria including four novel clusters provisionally named "Candidatus Jugangensis," "Candidatus Oceanicum," "Candidatus Anammoxidans," and "Candidatus Aestuarianus." The abundance of anammox bacteria in surface sediments, bottom and surface waters ranged from 4.22 × 105 to 2.55 × 106 copies g-1, 1.24 × 104 to 1.01×105 copies L-1, and 8.07×103 to 8.86×105 copies L-1, respectively. The abundance of anammox bacteria in the water column was positively correlated with NO2- and NO3-, and negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen, although an autochthonous source might contribute to the observed abundance of anammox bacteria.

  6. Development and shelf-life evaluation of pearl millet based upma dry mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Yadav, Deep N; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya

    2014-06-01

    Upma, a popular breakfast of southern India, traditionally made from wheat, was prepared using pearl millet semolina (PMS). Prior to preparation of semolina, pearl millet grains were hydro-thermally treated to reduce anti-nutritional factors and inactivate lipase activity. Hydrothermal treatments (soaking up to moisture 30 ± 2%, steaming 1.05 kg cm(-2), 20 min) reduced the anti-nutritional factors significantly (p ≤ 0.05). No lipase activity was detected after steaming. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with three independent variables i.e. vanaspati (vegetable fat), citric acid and water for rehydration were used to design the experiments. Sensory responses and rehydration ratio were used to study the individual and interactive effects of variables. Sensory score for taste varied from 6.5 to 8.1, mouth feel 6.7-8.0, overall acceptability 6.7-8.1 and rehydration ratio from 2.4 to 3.3. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients was: vanaspati 46.5 g 100 g(-1) PMS, citric acid 0.17 g 100 g(-1) PMS and water for rehydration 244.6 ml 100 g(-1) dry mix with 98.5% desirability. The prepared upma mix was monitored for peroxide value, free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid value as well as sensory quality during storage and was found stable for 6 months at ambient conditions (20-35 °C) in poly ethylene pouches (75 μ).

  7. Epstein pearls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alesio A, Nazif MM, McKibben DH, Davis HW. Oral disorders. In: Zitelli BJ, McIntire SC, Nowalk AJ, ... and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, ...

  8. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  9. The Washington Large Area Time Coincidence Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, R.; Berns, H.G.; Buchli, M.; Burnett, T.H.; Edmon, P.; Gran, R.; Haff, T.; Lemagie; Muhs, E.; Wheel, G.; Wilkes, R.J.

    2003-07-01

    WALTA (WAshington Large-area Time-coincidence Array) aims to study ultra-high energy (> 1018 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) by placing detector elements in Seattle area secondary scho ols, and linking their data acquisition systems to the University of Washington via a computer network. The goal of WALTA is to have teachers and students become active participants in forefront scientific project, while building a long term partnership between the scho ols and the university-based physics research community. Considerable progress has been made in recruiting and training teachers and equipping scho ol sites since the last ICRC, including development of a low-cost data acquisition card in collab oration with Fermilab and the University of Nebraska.

  10. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  11. The characteristics of the infection of juvenile Atlantic salmon with glochidia of the freshwater pearl mussel in rivers of Northwest Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieshko E.P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decline of freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L. populations is globally well documented, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the status of the species and its interaction with host fishes in the rivers of the White and Baltic Seas. This study aimed to identify the host fish of pearl mussel in four rivers of Karelia (Northwest Russia, to analyse the duration of the parasitic phase, and the susceptibility of fish hosts to the infestation. Juvenile sea-migrating and land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. were identified as the most important hosts. In the Keret’ River, reduced numbers of juvenile Atlantic salmon are likely to result in a decline of pearl mussel. This problem does not appear to be present for the other three studied rivers. Pearl mussel glochidia were mostly found in yearlings (0+, whereas older fish were infected less, suggesting a more complex pattern of host use than commonly expected. The remote location of Karelian pearl mussel rivers, the high number of pearl mussels in them, and their rather pristine state all suggest that these rivers have a high conservation priority. The importance of Atlantic salmon as a host fish and the emerging declines of Atlantic salmon populations, e.g., in the Keret’ River, suggest that the sustaining of this host species should have a high conservation priority.

  12. The fifth International Geological Congress, Washington, 1891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 5th International Geological Congress (IGC), the initial meeting in North America, was the first of the three IGCs that have been held in the United States of America (USA). Of the 538 registrants alive when the 5th IGC convened in Washington, 251 persons, representing fifteen countries, actually attended the meeting. These participants included 173 people from the USA, of whom forty-two represented the US Geological Survey (USGS). Fourteen of the US State geological surveys sent representatives to Washington. Eight participants came from other countries in the Western Hemisphere - Canada (3), Chile (1), Mexico (3), and Peru (1). The sixty-six European geologists and naturalists at the 5th IGC represented Austro-Hungary (3), Belgium (3), Britain (12), France (7), Germany (23), Norway (1), Romania (3), Russia (8), Sweden (4), and Switzerland (2). The USGS and the Columbian College (now the George Washington University) acted as the principal hosts. The American Association for the Advancement of Science and then the Geological Society of America (GSA) met in the Capital immediately before the Congress convened (26 August-1 September 1891). The 5th IGC's formal discussions treated the genetic classification of Pleistocene rocks, the chronological correlation of clastic rocks, and the international standardization of colors, symbols, and names used on geologic maps. The third of those topics continued key debates at the 1st through 4th IGCs. The GSA, the Korean Embassy, the Smithsonian Institution's US National Museum, the USGS, and one of the two Secretaries-General hosted evening receptions. Field excursions examined Paleozoic exposures in New York (18-25 August), Cretaceous-Pleistocene localities along the Potomac River south of Washington (30 August), and classic Precambrian-Pleistocene sequences and structures in the Great Plains, Yellowstone, Rocky Mountains, and Great Basin (2-26 September), with optional trips to the Grand Canyon (19-28 September) and Lake

  13. Paul Everett Meehl: the cumulative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels G; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2005-10-01

    In this brief biographical sketch of Paul Meehl, the authors examine the "cumulative record" of his scholarship and mentorship. This record sheds light on why Meehl is widely regarded as one of the most influential clinical psychologists of the 20th century, as well as on Meehl's remarkable intellectual life. Time has proven that Meehl's writings are exceptional in their quality, influence, breadth, and depth. In addition, Meehl's cumulative record raises important questions regarding the reinforcement contingencies in major research-oriented psychology departments. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Theological Argument for an Everett Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2012-01-01

    Science looks for the simplest hypotheses to explain observations. Starting with the simple assumption that {\\em the actual world is the best possible world}, I sketch an {\\it Optimal Argument for the Existence of God}, that the sufferings in our universe would not be consistent with its being alone the best possible world, but the total world could be the best possible if it includes an omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God who experiences great value in creating and knowing a universe with great mathematical elegance, even though such a universe has suffering. God seems loathe to violate elegant laws of physics that He has chosen to use in His creation, such as Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism or Einstein's equations of general relativity for gravity within their classical domains of applicability, even if their violation could greatly reduce human suffering (e.g., from falls). If indeed God is similarly loathe to violate quantum unitarity (though such violations by judicious collapses of the w...

  15. Investigating the Impacts of Landuse-landcover (LULC Change in the Pearl River Delta Region on Water Quality in the Pearl River Estuary and Hong Kong’s Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water quality information in the coastal region of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE is of great concern to the local community. Due to great landuse-landcover (LULC changes with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, water quality in the PRE has worsened during the last 20 years. Frequent red tide and harmful algal blooms have occurred in the estuary and its adjacent coastal waters since the 1980s and have caused important economic losses, also possibly threatening to the coastal environment, fishery, and public health in Hong Kong. In addition, recent literature shows that water nutrients in Victoria Harbor of Hong Kong have been proven to be strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent in the wet season (May to September, but it is still unclear how the PRE diluted water intrudes into Victoria Harbor. Due to the cloudy and rainy conditions in the wet season in Hong Kong, ASAR images will be used to monitor the PRE river plumes and track the intruding routes of PRE water nutrients. In this paper, we first review LULC change in the PRD and then show our preliminary results to analyze water quality spatial and temporal information from remote observations with different sensors in the coastal region and estuary. The study will also emphasizes on time series of analysis of LULC trends related to annual sediment yields and critical source areas of erosion for the PRD region since the 1980s.

  16. The distribution and partitioning of common antibiotics in water and sediment of the Pearl River Estuary, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ximei; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Xiangping; Shi, Zhen; Huang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiangdong

    2013-09-01

    Antibiotics released into the aquatic environment play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. In the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the coastal zone, the concentrations of antibiotics decreased from the Pearl River to the estuary, suggesting that antibiotics primarily originated from river tributaries and terrigenous sources. Within the PRE area, the concentrations of antibiotics in water were higher in the west coast than the east side, reflecting the high density of anthropogenic activities and hydraulic conditions along the west riverbank. Seasonal variations were also observed for most of detected antibiotics in water. The pseudo-partitioning coefficient of norfloxacin had a good correlation with the TOC content of sediments, as did erythromycin-H2O with the pH of water. The results suggest that environmental conditions can significantly affect the distribution of antibiotics between water and sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mix design for improved strength and freeze-thaw durability of pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Kevern, John T.; Schaefer, Vernon R.

    2017-01-01

    , fibers, and by internal curing using lightweight aggregate to best possibly meet the requirements for a fill material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The 28-day compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, shear strength, permeability, and freeze-thaw durability were determined and compared for eight...... density, and thus the easiest to place. The addition of a high-range water reducing admixture and lightweight sand (expanded shale) for internal curing improved the 28-day compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. The coarse aggregate gradation had a large influence on permeability; however......Pearl-Chain Bridges are an innovative precast arch bridge technology which can utilize pervious concrete as fill material. The present study investigates how the mix design of the pervious concrete fill can be influenced by use of an air-entraining admixture, a high-range water reducing admixture...

  18. Mix design for improved strength and freeze-thaw durability of pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Kevern, John T.; Schaefer, Vernon R.

    2017-01-01

    Pearl-Chain Bridges are an innovative precast arch bridge technology which can utilize pervious concrete as fill material. The present study investigates how the mix design of the pervious concrete fill can be influenced by use of an air-entraining admixture, a high-range water reducing admixture......, fibers, and by internal curing using lightweight aggregate to best possibly meet the requirements for a fill material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The 28-day compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, shear strength, permeability, and freeze-thaw durability were determined and compared for eight...... different mixture proportions using two different sizes of granite coarse aggregate and at two different water-to-cement ratios. The specimens had an average void content of 24-28 %. Specimens containing air entraining and high-range water reducing admixtures were most workable, as determined by fresh...

  19. Temporal trends of hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the Pearl River Estuary and the northern South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianzhi Peng; Zhendi Wang; Yiyi Yu (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2008-11-15

    Concentrations and fluxes of unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons (UCM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for two {sup 210}Pb dated sediment cores from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the adjacent northern South China Sea (NSCS). Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanes were also measured for identification of the hydrocarbon sources. The historical records of PAHs in the NSCS reflected the economic development in the Pearl River Delta during the 20th century. PAHs in the NSCS predominantly derive from combustion of coal and biomass, whereas PAHs in the PRE are a mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic in origins. The isotopic profiles reveal that the petrogenic hydrocarbons in the PRE originate predominantly from local spillage/leakage of lube oil and crude oils. The accumulation rates of pyrogenic PAHs have significantly increased, whereas UCM accumulation has slightly declined in the NSCS in the recent three decades.

  20. Evolutionary aspects of variability in bHLH orthologous families: insights from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoja, Fuki; Satoh, Nori

    2013-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play significant roles in multiple biological processes in metazoan cells. In recent work, we showed that three orthologous HLH families, pearl, amber, and peridot, have apparently been lost in the Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Homo sapiens lineages. To further address the gain and loss of bHLH proteins during bilaterian evolution, we examined the genome of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, which has recently been sequenced. We characterized the putative full set 65 bHLH genes and showed that genes previously categorized into the orthologous family PTFb, actually fall into two distinct orthologous families, 48-related-1 and 48-related-2. We also identified a novel orthologous family, clockwork orange. Based on these newly identified orthologous family members and on orphan bHLH factors, we propose that genes encoding bHLH factors in bilaterians are not as evolutionarily stable as previously thought.

  1. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 1 (February 14, 1941 - May 12, 1941)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    States about this time were those of Morito Morishima as Counsel General in New York City, Sadao Iguchi as Counsel to the Washington Embassy, and...New Orleans. San Francisco to relay to Honolulu, Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland, Vancouver. Trans. 5-19-41 No. 175 FROM: Seattle ( Sato ) TO: Tokyo (3

  2. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 4 (October 17, 1941 - December 7, 1941)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    between Frederick Moore, legal advisor to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, and Senator Thomas of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. ready for...RafaelAkino’srealfatherandGonzaloAkino( Aquino ),whoregardedtheaccusedashisownson,wouldconsiderwaysofpayingthefineandexpensesassoonastheboywasreturned 298. Consul...for the Arab world and that the other peoples of the world should live together in harmony and justice. Asking whether His Holiness would countenance

  3. A novel toll-like receptor from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii is induced in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuyuan; Liang, Haiying; Wang, Zhixin; Lei, Qiannan; Xia, Liqun

    2017-12-01

    Graft rejection due to immune incompatibility is a common occurrence in pearl culture, which often cause death to the host oyster. To improve cultured pearl production, host mortality and bead rejection rates must be reduced. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity, and may be related to allograft rejection. Here, we cloned the TLR4 cDNA from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii (PmTLR4). PmTLR4 cDNA was 3138bp, including a 2625bp open reading frame encoding 874 amino acids. The predicted PmTLR4 protein was structurally typical of the TLR family. PmTLR4 had relatively high sequence similarity and identity to the TLR4 of the Cyclina sinensis (48.1% and 27.6%, respectively). Multiple alignment of TLR4 sequences across species indicated that the Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor domain was conserved among species. PmTLR4 mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, with the most abundant mRNA expression in hepatopancreas and gill in P. fucata martensii. After being stressed by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure or the nucleus insertion operation, PmTLR4 mRNA expression increased significantly in the hemocytes as compared to controls. Peak level of PmTLR4 mRNA was observed 6h after the LPS injection, and 2d after the nucleus insertion operation. These data suggest that PmTLR4 may play a vital role in the induction of innate immunity and is therefore associated with allograft immunity in the pearl oyster P. fucata martensii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mendelian inheritance of rare flesh and shell colour variants in the black-lipped pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ky, Chin-Long; Nakasai, Seiji; Pommier, Steve; Sham Koua, Manaarii; Devaux, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    Pinctada margaritifera is French Polynesia's most economically important aquaculture species. This pearl oyster has the specific ability to produce cultured pearls with a very wide range of colours, depending on the colour phenotypes of donor oysters used. Its aquaculture is still based on natural spat collection from wild stocks. We investigated three rare colour variants of P. margaritifera - orange flesh, and red and white shell colour phenotypes - in comparison with the wild-type black flesh and shell commonly found in this species. The study aimed to assess the geographic distribution and genetic basis of these colour variants. Colour frequencies were evaluated during transfer and graft processes of pearl oyster seed captured at collector stations. Among the collection locations studied, Mangareva Island showed the highest rate of the orange flesh phenotype, whereas Takaroa and Takume atolls had relatively high rates of red and white shell phenotypes respectively. Broodstocks were made of these rare colour variants, and crosses were performed to produce first- and second-generation progenies to investigate segregation. The results were consistent with Mendelian ratios and suggest a distinct model with no co-dominance: (i) a two-allele model for flesh trait, whereby the orange allele is recessive to the black fleshed type, and (ii) a three-allele model for shell trait, whereby the black wild-type allele is dominant to the red coloration, which is dominant to the white shell. Furthermore, the proposed model provides the basis for producing selected donor pearl oyster lines through hatchery propagation. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Hydrological response to large-scale climate variability across the Pearl River basin, China: Spatiotemporal patterns and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xihui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the climatic driving forces can describe the observed variability in available water resources and the magnitude of flooding over the Pearl River basin. 62 stations with 41 years of monthly streamflow records and 28 stations with 60 years of annual maximum streamflow records were used in this study. Four climate indices related to the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans were used to analyze their influence on annual mean discharge (Qann) and annual maximum daily discharge (Qmax) of the Pearl River basin, and the indices are El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). We found that the variations in available water resources and the magnitudes of floods across Pearl River can be explained by climate variability, potentially. The Qann and Qmax in different regions of the domain were significantly related to different climate indices at the same year or at the last year. In addition, in many regions the strengths of the relationships between climate indices and Qann and Qmax have been non-stationary, with either strengthening or weakening trends during the study period. Furthermore, the quantifications of climate indices impacts on Qann and Qmax (i.e. sensitive) were also assessed. The results showed that Qmax was more sensitive to the variability of atmospheric circulation than Qann. In addition, Qann varied on average between 0.3 and 24%, while Qmax varied between 0.5 and 31% per unit climate index change. The above relationships between climate indices and Qann and Qmax provided relevant information for water resources management in Pearl River basin, allowing the identification of regions with higher flood risk and enhancement of human mitigation to floods.

  6. Crustal structure revealed by a deep seismic sounding profile of Baijing-Gaoming-Jinwan in the Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Xiuwei; Lv, Jinshui; Sun, Jinlong; Wang, Xiaona

    2018-02-01

    The Pearl River Estuary area, located in the middle part of the southern China coastal seismic belt, has long been considered a potential source of strong earthquakes above magnitude 7.0. To scientifically assess the potential strong earthquake risk in this area, a three-dimensional artificial seismic sounding experiment, consisting of a receiving array and seabed seismograph, was performed to reveal the deep crustal structure in this region. We used artificial ship-borne air-gun excitation shots as sources, and fixed and mobile stations as receivers to record seismic data from May to August 2015. This paper presents results along a line from the western side of the Pearl River Estuary to the western side of the Baijing-Gaoming-Jinwan profile. A two-dimensional velocity structure was constructed using seismic travel-time tomography. The inversion results show that the Moho depth is 27 km in the coastal area and 30 km in the northwest of the Pearl River Estuary area, indicating that the crust thins from land to sea. Two structural discontinuities and multiple low-velocity anomalies appear in the crustal section. Inside both discontinuity zones, a low-velocity layer, with a minimum velocity of 6.05 km s-1, exists at a depth of about 15 km, and another, with a minimum velocity of 6.37 km s-1, exists at a depth of about 21.5 km between the middle and lower crust. These low velocities suggest that the discontinuities may consist of partly molten material. Earthquakes with magnitudes higher than 5.0 occurred in the low-velocity layer along the profile. The deep Kaiping-Enping fault, rooted in the crust, may be one of the most important channels for deep material upwelling and is related to tectonic movement since the Cretaceous in the Pearl River Delta tectonic rift basin.

  7. Larval dispersal modeling of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera following realistic environmental and biological forcing in Ahe atoll lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Thomas

    Full Text Available Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  8. Biochemical and histopathological effects in pearl dace (Margariscus margarita) chronically exposed to a synthetic estrogen in a whole lake experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Vince P; Wautier, Kerry G; Evans, Robert E; Blanchfield, Paul J; Mills, Kenneth H; Chalanchuk, Sandra M; Godard, Danielle; McMaster, Mark E; Tetreault, Gerald R; Peters, Lisa E; Vandenbyllaardt, Lenore; Kidd, Karen A

    2006-04-01

    Potential effects of exposure to the synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined in several species of fish from a lake experimentally treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of the contaminant. Ethynylestradiol was added to Lake 260, a small Precambrian shield lake at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, from May to October of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Mean concentrations of EE2 in epilimnetic waters ranged between 4.5 and 8.1 ng/L during the three years, with overall means of 6.1 (+/- 2.8), 5.0 (+/- 1.8), and 4.8 (+/- 1.0) ng/L for the three years, respectively. Male and female pearl dace (Margariscus margarita) captured after EE2 additions began contained up to 4,000-fold higher concentrations of the egg yolk precursor vitellogenin than fish captured from the same lake before the EE2 additions or when compared to fish from reference lakes. Edema in the ovaries, inhibited development of testicular tissue, intersex, and histopathological kidney lesions were all evident in fish exposed to EE2. Some indications that EE2 exposure affected in vitro steroidogenic capacity of the ovaries and the testes existed, although results were not always consistent between years. Pearl dace abundance was similar in the lake treated with EE2 and the reference lake. A trend exists toward a reduced overall population of pearl dace from the treated and reference lakes, as do indications that young-of-the-year size classes are less abundant in the EE2-treated lake. Biochemical and histopathological impacts observed in fish exposed to EE2 in this study have not yet been linked to clear population level impacts in pearl dace. Monitoring of these populations is ongoing.

  9. Effect of temperature, food availability, and estradiol injection on gametogenesis and gender in the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Leprêtre, Maxime; Levy, Peva; Vanaa, Vincent; Parrad, Sophie; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick; Huvet, Arnaud; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera is a protandrous hermaphrodite species. Its economic value has led to the development of controlled hatchery reproduction techniques, although many aspects remain to be optimized. In order to understand reproductive mechanisms and their controlling factors, two independent experiments were designed to test hypotheses of gametogenesis and sex ratio control by environmental and hormonal factors. In one, pearl oysters were exposed under controlled conditions at different combinations of temperature (24 and 28°C) and food level (10,000 and 40,000 cells mL(-1) ); whereas in the other, pearl oysters were conditioned under natural conditions into the lagoon and subjected to successive 17β-estradiol injections (100 μg per injection). Gametogenesis and sex ratio were assessed by histology for each treatment. In parallel, mRNA expressions of nine marker genes of the sexual pathway (pmarg-foxl2, pmarg-c43476, pmarg-c45042, pmarg-c19309, pmarg-c54338, pmarg-vit6, pmarg-zglp1, pmarg-dmrt, and pmarg-fem1-like) were investigated. Maximum maturation was observed in the treatment combining the highest temperature (28°C) and the highest microalgae concentration (40,000 cells mL(-1) ), where the female sex tended to be maintained. Injection of 17β-estradiol induced a significant increase of undetermined stage proportion 2 weeks after the final injection. These results suggest that gametogenesis and gender in adult pearl oysters can be controlled by environmental factors and estrogens. While there were no significant effects on relative gene expression, the 3-gene-pair expression ratio model of the sexual pathway of P. margaritifera, suggest a probable dominance of genetic sex determinism without excluding a mixed sex determination mode (genetic + environmental). J. Exp. Zool. 325A:13-24, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Aerosol size and chemical composition measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Lab (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Tremblay, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Leaitch, R.; Kolonjari, F.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; AboEl Fetouh, Y.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian High Arctic (80N, 86W). The current aerosol measurement program at PEARL has been ongoing for more than a year providing long-term observations of Arctic aerosol size distributions for both coarse and fine modes. Particle nucleation events were frequently observed during the summers of 2015 and 2016. The size distribution data are also compared against similar measurements taken at the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory (82N, 62W) for July and August 2015. The nucleation events are correlated at the two sites, despite a distance of approximately 500 km, suggesting regional conditions favorable for particle nucleation and growth during this period. Size resolved chemical composition measurements were also carried out using an aerosol mass spectrometer. The smallest measured particles between 40 and 60 nm are almost entirely organic aerosol (OA) indicating that the condensation of organic vapors is responsible for particle growth events and possibly particle nucleation. This conclusion is further supported by the relatively high oxygen content of the OA, which is consistent with secondary formation of OA via atmospheric oxidation.Lastly, surface measurements of the aerosol scattering coefficient are compared against the coefficient values calculated using Mie theory and the measured aerosol size distribution. Both the actual and the calculated scattering coefficients are then compared to sun photometer measurements to understand the relationship between surface and columnar aerosol optical properties. The measurements at PEARL provide a unique combination of surface and columnar data sets on aerosols in the High Arctic, a region where such measurements are scarce despite the important impact of aerosols on Arctic climate.PEARL research is supported by the Natural Sciences and

  11. Distribution, source apportionment, and transport of PAHs in sediments from the Pearl River Delta and the northern South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M.; Zeng, E.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ghangzhou (China)

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in 59 surface sediments from rivers in the Pearl River Delta and the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea. Total PAH concentrations varied from 138 to 6,793 ng/g dry weight. The sources of PAH inputs to sediments in the Pearl River Delta were qualitatively and quantitatively determined by diagnostic ratios and principal components analysis with multiple linear regression. The results showed that on average coal and wood combustion, petroleum spills, vehicle emissions, and nature sources contributed 36%, 27%, 25%, and 12% of total PAHs, respectively. Coal and biomass combustion was the main source of PAHs in sediments of the South China Sea, whereas petroleum combustion was the main source of pyrolytic PAHs in riverine and estuarine sediments of the Pearl River Delta. Perylene was formed in situ in river sediments and then transported to coastal areas along with other PAHs. The relative abundance of perylene from five-ring PAHs can be used to estimate the contribution of riverine-discharged PAHs to coastal sediments.

  12. Detection of antibiotic resistance and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the Pearl rivers in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Ran [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Su Haochang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou Hongwei [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, 1838 North Guangzhou Street, Baiyun District, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Sidhu, Jatinder P.S. [CSIRO Land and Water, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia QLD 4067 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae family isolates from the Pearl rivers. The Enterobacteriaceae isolates were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In Liuxi reservoir, with an exception to ampicillin resistant strains (11%) no other antibiotic resistance bacterial strains were detected. However, multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates from the other sites of Pearl rivers was observed which is possibly due to sewage discharge and input from other anthropogenic sources along the rivers. Four tetracycline resistance genes tet A, tet B, tet C and tet D were detected in the isolates from the rivers. The genes tet A and tet B were widely detected with the detection frequencies of 43% and 40% respectively. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant enteric bacteria were also isolated from the pig and duck manures which suggest a wider distribution of human specific drugs in the environment. This investigation provided a baseline data on antibiotic resistance profiles and tetracycline resistance genes in the Pearl rivers delta. - High rates of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae from river water are attributed to wastewater contamination.

  13. Estimated Water Use in Washington, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Water use in the State of Washington has evolved in the past century from meager domestic and stock water needs to the current complex requirements of domestic-water users, large irrigation projects, industrial plants, and numerous other uses such as fish habitat and recreational activities. Since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has, at 5-year intervals, compiled data on the amount of water used in homes, businesses, industries, and on farms throughout the State. This water-use data, combined with other related USGS information, has facilitated a unique understanding of the effects of human activity on the State's water resources. As water availability continues to emerge as an important issue in the 21st century, the need for consistent, long-term water-use data will increase to support wise use of this essential natural resource. This report presents state and county estimates of the amount of public- and self-supplied water used for domestic, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power purposes in the State of Washington during 2005. Offstream fresh-water use was estimated to be 5,780 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Domestic water use was estimated to be 648 Mgal/d or 11 percent of the total. Irrigation water use was estimated to be 3,520 Mgal/d, or 61 percent of the total. Industrial fresh-water use was estimated to be 520 Mgal/d, or 9 percent of the total. These three categories accounted for about 81 percent (4,690 Mgal/d) of the total of the estimated offstream freshwater use in Washington during 2005.

  14. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  15. Social Marketing and the "New" Technology: Proceedings of a Washington Roundtable (Washington, DC, March 25, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    This document examines some of the key issues raised during the second Washington Roundtable on Social Marketing, convened by the Academy for Educational Development (AED) in 1998. AED invited participants to examine whether the interactive technologies that are revolutionizing commercial marketing--personal computers, the Internet (especially the…

  16. Restoration variables and postoperative hypersensitivity in Class I restorations: PEARL Network findings. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Peter; Wong, Ying; Matthews, Abigail G; Vena, Donald; Craig, Ronald G; Curro, Frederick A; Thompson, Van P

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated postoperative hypersensitivity at 1, 4, and 13 weeks following resin-based composite restoration of occlusal caries as well as the relationship to materials and technique employed by PEARL Network Practitioner Investigators (P-Is). PEARL P-Is (n = 45) enrolled patients with early occlusal caries lesions deemed to require treatment and placed restorations using their routine technique. Data on 485 restorations at 4 weeks included: baseline sensitivity; ranking of dentin caries activity; post-preparation use of antimicrobials, liners, and dentin bonding agent; type of resin-based composite (RBC) employed; whether layer or bulk fill was used; and patient demographics. Patients anonymously reported at 1, 4, and 13 weeks any sensitivity to hot, cold, sweets, clenching, and chewing as well as quality of life (QOL) related to the restoration(s). Appreciable hypersensitivity (AH)--ie, sensitivity of 3 or greater on an 11-point anchored scale--was reported in 30% of all 668 eligible carious teeth at baseline. Among them, 10% of study teeth with no baseline AH had developed AH at 4 weeks post-treatment. With restoration, 63% of teeth with baseline AH no longer had AH, while the remainder had no improvement. Neither change in AH nor change in greatest sensitivity was associated with use of a liner, use of flowable or hybrid RBC, or bulk or layer technique. With use of an antimicrobial, at 1 week, there was a significant but transient effect on AH (P = 0.006), which was generally not present at 4 weeks, although it continued for one product. At 4 weeks, the change in greatest sensitivity was associated with the type of dentin bonding agent, total etch or self etch, (P = 0.004). Using similar materials and techniques, P-Is had widely differing patient-reported outcomes. Patient self-reported post-restoration AH-either acquired or remaining-at 4 weeks was generally not related to the materials or techniques recorded in these small- to moderate

  17. Young people’s views about consenting to data linkage: findings from the PEARL qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Audrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic administrative data exist in several domains which, if linked, are potentially useful for research. However, benefits from data linkage should be considered alongside risks such as the threat to privacy. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC is a birth cohort study. The Project to Enhance ALSPAC through Record Linkage (PEARL was established to enrich the ALSPAC resource through linkage between ALSPAC participants and routine sources of health and social data. Qualitative research was incorporated in the PEARL study to examine participants’ views about data linkage and inform approaches to information sharing. This paper focusses on issues of consent. Methods Digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 55 participants aged 17–19 years. Terms and processes relating to consent, anonymization and data linkage were explained to interviewees. Scenarios were used to prompt consideration of linking different sources of data, and whether consent should be requested. Interview recordings were fully transcribed. Thematic analysis was undertaken using the Framework approach. Results Participant views on data linkage appeared to be most influenced by: considerations around the social sensitivity of the research question, and; the possibility of tangible health benefits in the public interest. Some participants appeared unsure about the effectiveness of anonymization, or did not always view effective anonymization as making consent unnecessary. This was related to notions of ownership of personal information and etiquette around asking permission for secondary use. Despite different consent procedures being explained, participants tended to equate consent with ‘opt-in’ consent through which participants are ‘asked’ if their data can be used for a specific study. Participants raising similar concerns came to differing conclusions about whether consent was needed. Views changed when presented

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  19. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  20. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from rivers of Pearl River Delta and its nearby South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Chen, S.J.; Mai, B.X.; Zeng, Y.P.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry

    2005-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are measured in surface sediments from rivers and estuary of Pearl River Delta and its nearby South China Sea. Total PAH concentration varied from 255.9 - 16 670.3 ng/g and a moderate to low level compare to relevant areas worldwide. The PAH concentration in sediments was: highest in the rivers of the Pearl River Delta, next highest in the estuary and lowest in theSouth China Sea. The most significant PAH contamination was at Guangzhou channel of Zhujiang river. A decrease trend for PAHs concentration with distance from estuary to open sea can be sees in South China Sea. Coal and biomass combustion is the major source of PAHs in nearshore of South China Sea, and petroleum combustion is the main source of pyrolytic PAHs in rivers and estuary of Pearl River Delta according to PAHs diagnostic ratios. Petroleum PAHs are revealed have a high contribution to PAHs in Xijiang River, estuary and some stations in Zhujiang River. A comparison of data from study in 1997 with data from present study indicates that there is no clear change in the PAH concentration over time but the source of PAHs in Pearl River Delta have been change from a main coal combustion to petroleum combustion and being reflect in the sediments in rivers and estuary of Pearl River Delta where there have high sedimentation rate.

  1. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC measurements in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-chung Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured levels of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs at seven sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region of China during the Air Quality Monitoring Campaign spanning 4 October to 3 November 2004. Two of the sites, Guangzhou (GZ and Xinken (XK, were intensive sites at which we collected multiple daily canister samples. The observations reported here provide a look at the VOC distribution, speciation, and photochemical implications in the PRD region. Alkanes constituted the largest percentage (>40% in mixing ratios of the quantified VOCs at six sites; the exception was one major industrial site that was dominated by aromatics (about 52%. Highly elevated VOC levels occurred at GZ during two pollution episodes; however, the chemical composition of VOCs did not exhibit noticeable changes during these episodes. We calculated the OH loss rate to estimate the chemical reactivity of all VOCs. Of the anthropogenic VOCs, alkenes played a predominant role in VOC reactivity at GZ, whereas the contributions of reactive aromatics were more important at XK. Our preliminary analysis of the VOC correlations suggests that the ambient VOCs at GZ came directly from local sources (i.e., automobiles; those at XK were influenced by both local emissions and transportation of air mass from upwind areas.

  2. Micro-PIXE mapping of mineral distribution in mature grain of two pearl millet cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis-Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Kruger, J.; Taylor, J.R.N. [Department of Food Science and Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used to map the distribution of several nutritionally important minerals found in the grain tissue of two cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). The distribution maps revealed that the predominant localisation of minerals was within the germ (consisting of the scutellum and embryo) and the outer grain layers (specifically the pericarp and aleurone); whilst the bulk of the endosperm tissue featured relatively low concentrations of the surveyed minerals. Within the germ, the scutellum was revealed as a major storage tissue for P and K, whilst Ca, Mn and Zn were more prominent within the embryo. Fe was revealed to have a distinctive distribution pattern, confined to the dorsal end of the scutellum; but was also highly concentrated in the outer grain layers. Interestingly, the hilar region was also revealed as a site of high accumulation of minerals, particularly for S, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, which may be part of a defensive strategy against infection or damage. Differences between the two cultivars, in terms of the bulk Fe and P content obtained via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), concurred with the average concentration data determined from the analysis of micro-PIXE spectra specifically extracted from the endosperm tissue.

  3. Coordinated Development between Urban Tourism Economy and Transport in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By selecting the panel data from 2005 to 2014 of 9 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China, this paper respectively establishes the evaluation index system of tourism economy and transport. It also applies a synthetic evaluation model and coupling coordination model to estimate comprehensive indices of tourism economy and transport system and their coordinated relationships. The results show that: (1 during 2005–2014, the synthetic indices of tourism economy generally presented constantly upward tendency and the synthetic indices of transport represented wave-like raising trend in the PRD region; (2 during 2005–2014, the 9 cities in the PRD region gradually tended to have coordinated development between tourism economy and transport, and the central area of the PRD region developed faster than the flanks; (3 the correlations between the tourism economy and transport of the cities with abundant tourism resources, developed economy, and advanced transport facilities were more remarkable, and the coordination degrees were higher. Besides, macro-policies, mega-events, and locations also impacted on coordinated development between the tourism economy and transport in the PRD region.

  4. Emergy Synthesis and Regional Sustainability Assessment: Case Study of Pan-Pearl River Delta in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomin Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, emergy analysis is used in association with the ternary diagrams and geographic information system (GIS tools to improve the evaluation of sustainability for the Pan-Pearl River Delta (PPRD region. Emergy accounting of PPRD is estimated, and various emergy-based indicators are reported. Ternary diagrams are drawn to provide a graphical representation of the emergy accounting data. Finally, the GIS tools are employed to assist in the emergy-based spatial analysis, and emergy density based on flat land area is mapped to reflect the intensity of emergy use in human activity areas. Results show the following: (1 the current development path of the PPRD region, with the value of emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.227 significantly lower than one, is unsustainable in the long run; (2 Guangdong has the lowest ESI value (0.071, and the ESI values of Fujian, Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi are lower than 0.5, indicating that the economy in these provinces overly relies on non-renewable and imported resources; (3 Guizhou has a high emergy yield rate and is thus the main energy supplier in PPRD; and (4 among the nine provinces in PPRD, only Hainan has an ESI value (2.145 higher than one.

  5. Novel pearl-necklace porous CdS nanofiber templated by organogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Pengchong; Lu, Ran; Huang, Ying; Jin, Ming; Tan, Changhui; Bao, Chunyan; Wang, Zongmu; Zhao, Yingying

    2004-07-20

    A new cholesterol organogelator 4 was synthesized and its gelation property was evaluated. It was confirmed that 4 was an effective gelator for various organic solvents and could self-assemble into network fibers with a bilayer of folded conformation in some organic solvents. Moreover, organogelator 4 could act as a template for the synthesis of novel pearl-necklace porous CdS nanofibers. The transcription process of organogel fibers into CdS nanofibers was investigated, and it was found that Cd2+ ions were coated on the organogel fibers by the interaction with ester groups of 4, which might lead to the change of the arrangement of the organogelator and seemed to serve as nucleation sites for metalization. The further growth of CdS began with these nucleation sites along the organogel fibers. Meanwhile, parts of 4 free from organogel fibers have an effect on the formation of the CdS nanofibers consisting of the network and wormlike CdS particles. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  6. Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the extent of arsenic (As) contamination in five common species of freshwater fish (northern snakehead [Channa argus], mandrarin fish [Siniperca chuatsi], largemouth bass [Lepomis macrochirous], bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis] and grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus]) and their associated fish pond sediments collected from 18 freshwater fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The total As concentrations detected in fish muscle and sediment in freshwater ponds around the PRD were 0.05-3.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w. wt) and 8.41-22.76 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt), respectively. In addition, the As content was positively correlated (p ponds were selected for investigation: (1) omnivorous food chain (zooplankton, grass carp and bighead carp) and (2) predatory food chain (zooplankton, mud carp and mandarin fish). Significant linear relationships were obtained between log As and δ (15)N. The slope of the regression (-0.066 and -0.078) of the log transformed As concentrations and δ (15)N values, as biomagnifications power, indicated there was no magnification or diminution of As from lower trophic levels (zooplankton) to fish in the aquaculture ponds. Consumption of largemouth bass, northern snakehead and bighead carp might impose health risks of Hong Kong residents consuming these fish to the local population, due to the fact that its cancer risk (CR) value exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels (10(-4)) stipulated by the USEPA.

  7. Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri V Satyavathi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reciprocal differences persist in nature because of the unequal contribution of cytoplasmic determinants from male and female gametes to the zygote. The inheritance of genetic differences is an important factor that influences various traits, including somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in vitro. In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually recognizable characteristics. The phenotypic nature of dwarf parents (green dwarf with long narrow leaves with a genetic basis for a given character controlled by nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants can be exploited for other breeding programs.

  8. Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyavathi, Valluri V; Manga, V; Rao, Muktinutalapati V Subba; Chittibabu, Malladi

    2016-03-01

    Reciprocal differences persist in nature because of the unequal contribution of cytoplasmic determinants from male and female gametes to the zygote. The inheritance of genetic differences is an important factor that influences various traits, including somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in vitro. In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually recognizable characteristics. The phenotypic nature of dwarf parents (green dwarf with long narrow leaves) with a genetic basis for a given character controlled by nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants can be exploited for other breeding programs.

  9. Microplastics in oysters Saccostrea cucullata along the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Ma, Li-Sha; Lin, Lang; Ni, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Shi, Hua-Hong; Yan, Yan; Zheng, Guang-Ming; Rittschof, Daniel

    2018-02-09

    As a transitional zone between riverine and marine environments, an estuary plays an important role for the sources, accumulation and transport of microplastics. Although estuarine environments are hotspots of microplastic pollution, the correlation between microplastic pollution and aquatic organisms is less known. Here we investigated microplastic pollution in wild oysters Saccostrea cucullata from 11 sampling sites along the Pearl River Estuary in South China. The microplastic abundances in oysters ranged from 1.4 to 7.0 items per individual or from 1.5 to 7.2 items per gram tissue wet weight, which were positively related to those in surrounding waters. The oysters near urban areas contained significantly more microplastics than those near rural areas. Fibers accounted for 69.4% of the total microplastics in oysters. Microplastic sizes varied from 20 to 5000 μm and 83.9% of which were less than 100 μm. Light color microplastics were significantly more common than dark color ones. Based on the results, oysters are recommended as a biomonitor for the microplastic pollution in estuaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screening of Pearl Millet F1 Hybrids for Heat Tolerance at Early Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten pearl millet genotypes selected on the basis of response to supra-optimal temperature tolerance were crossed in a half-diallel mating system. The 45 F1 hybrids produced were tested along with parents for heat tolerance and related traits at seedling stage. Field screening and laboratory screening techniques were simultaneously used for the evaluation of F1 hybrids and their parents. Heat tolerance was measured as seedling thermotolerance index (STI and seed to seedling thermotolerance index (SSTI under field conditions, but membrane thermostability (MTS in the laboratory. The hybrid H77/29-2 × CVJ-2-5-3-1-3 showed highest STI value followed by H77/833-2 × 96AC-93. The genotype H77/833-2 × 96AC-93 had the highest worth for SSTI. These three indices were highly correlated among themselves. STI values were invariably high, whereas SSTI has lower values, as it also covers the effect of under soil mortality (USM. It was seen that the heat tolerance indices STI and SSTI were not showing any perceptible pooled correlation with developmental traits except germination and emergence rate. Based on our results, it could be suggested that membrane thermostability (MTS may be used for screening large number of genotypes. Field based indices STI and SSTI may be used for evaluation of hybrids and varieties before they are released.

  11. [Development of non-road mobile source emission inventory for the Pearl River Delta region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jun; Zheng, Jun-yu; Yin, Sha-sha; Peng, Kang; Zhong, Liu-ju

    2010-04-01

    Based on the collected activity data and emission factors, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional non-road mobile source emission inventory was developed by categories with the use of appropriate estimation methods for different non-road mobile sources. The results show that the total emissions of SO2, NOx,VOC, CO and PM10 from non-road mobile sources in the PRD region were about 6.52 x 10(4) t, 1.24 x 10(5) t, 4.54 x 10(3) t, 2.67 x 10(4) and 4.51 x 10(3) t, respectively. The marine source is the largest non-road mobile source contributor to SO2, NOx, CO and PM10 emissions, accounting for 96.4%, 73.8%, 39.4% and 50.5%, respectively; Freighter and dry bulk carrier are important marine emission contributors, sharing 89.8%, 81.8%, 77.3%, 79.5% and 81.7% of the total marine SO2, NOx, VOC, CO and PM10 emissions. The non-road mobile source has become the third largest SO2 and NOx contributor in the PRD region, accounting for about 8.6% and 13.5% of the regional total SO2 and NOx emissions.

  12. A Pragmatic Analysis and Sociological Perspective on Pearl S Buck’s The Good Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmat Budi Santosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper observes the struggle for life of East Asia people that was portrayed in the novel The Good Earth. The Good Earth is also portrayal of a true account experienced by its author, Pearl S Buck. She got inspiration from the life of farmer in China. She wrote this novel using the original name as the main character.  Those names are Wang Lung and O Lan. They are couple and their life is on farm. The objectives of this study are to find the pragmatic and sociological aspects of the Novel. This research applies content analysis approach to understand the pragmatic and sociological life in Chinese society, especially in the novel. The finding of the study shows that the utterances in the novel reflect various speech acts i.e. expressive, assertive, commisive, persuasive, directive, and phatic. In the sociological aspect, the life of rural people in Chine is somewhat similar with that of in Indonesia. Otherwise, rural people have life style in common i.e. working hard, struggle for life, defending their belonging, and loving the nature.

  13. Mitochondrial genome of the cockscomb pearl mussel Cristaria plicata (Bivalvia, Unionoida, Unionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Sang Ki; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2012-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the cockscomb pearl mussel Cristaria plicata, which is an endangered species in South Korea, was sequenced. The circle genome (15,708 bp in size) consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. There were 26 noncoding regions (NCs) found throughout the mitogenome of C. plicata, ranging in size from 2 to 327 bp, and the two largest NC regions, NC286 and NC326, were found between ND5 and tRNA(Gln) (286 bp) and between tRNA(Glu) and ND2 (326 bp), respectively. The 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes of a female individual of C. plicata collected from Korea (15,708 bp) were compared to those of the Chinese individual (15,712 bp) published before. The result showed that ND3 is the most conserved with 100% nucleotide similarity, and each of the other protein-coding genes has ca. 99%, respectively. The two largest NCs among 26 NCs have totally 98% nucleotide similarity between Korean and Chinese ones.

  14. Public health and medical care for the world's factory: China's Pearl River Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodwin Victor G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While the growth of urbanization, worldwide, has improved the lives of migrants from the hinterland, it also raises health risks related to population density, concentrated poverty and the transmission of infectious disease. Will megacity regions evolve into socially infected breeding grounds for the rapid transmission of disease, or can they become critical spatial entities for the protection and promotion of population health? We address this question for the Pearl River Delta Region (PRD based on recent data from Chinese sources, and on the experience of how New York, Greater London, Tokyo and Paris have grappled with the challenges of protecting population health and providing their populations with access to health care services. In some respects, there are some important lessons from comparative experience for PRD, notably the importance of covering the entire population for health care services and targeting special programs for those at highest risk for disease. In other respects, PRD's growth rate and sheer scale make it a unique megacity region that already faces new challenges and will require new solutions.

  15. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of chitinase from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haimei; Wang, Deqing; Deng, Zhenghua; Huang, Guiju; Fan, Sigang; Zhou, Daizhi; Liu, Baosuo; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Dahui

    2017-01-01

    Chitinase is an enzyme that plays an important role in the chitin metabolism of a wide range of organisms. However, the function of chitinase in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is yet to be determined. In this study, a chitinase gene (named PfChi1) was cloned from P. fucata and its expression profiles were investigated. The full-length cDNA of PfChi1 was 2743bp and consisted of a 2187-bp open reading frame encoding 728 amino acid residues, a 47-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 509-bp 3'-UTR. Similar to other known chitinases, the PfChi1 protein is composed of an N-terminal leading signal peptide, a catalytic domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain. The results of qRT-PCR showed that PfChi1 was expressed in a wide range of tissues with relatively high levels in the mantle, muscle, gill, and gonad, and relatively low levels in hemocytes, the intestine, and the digestive gland (Pchitinase in P. fucata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of the Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Meteorological Fields over the Pearl River Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of urbanization on weather in Guangdong Province, China, were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model from 31 December 2009 through 3 January 2010. Model outputs were compared with extensive monitoring of meteorological data to examine the simulation ability. Model results between tests (with and without land-use change show that the urbanization had major effects on meteorological fields across nearly the entire Pearl River Delta region and particularly in urban areas. Studied fields (wind speed, temperature, precipitation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes were affected by the urbanization of the PRD region. The major influences occurred in urban areas, where wind speeds decreased greatly, while the daytime surface upward sensible heat flux clearly increased. Unlike the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux had a nonmonotonic increase or decrease. As a consequence of the two heat fluxes, 2-m temperature varied with location and time. Change of precipitation was complex. The main rain band became more concentrated, while precipitation decreased upwind of the urban area and increased downwind.

  17. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aquatic species from the Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cai-hong; Luo, Xiao-jun; Yu, Mei; Meng, Xiang-zhou; Mai, Bi-xian; Zeng, Eddy

    2006-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in biota samples collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The concentrations of sigma10 PBDEs (BDE28, 47, 66, 100, 99, 85, 154, 153, 138, 183) in fish species (including Platycephalus indicus, Pseudosiaena crocea , Pampus argenteus, Cynoglossus robustus, and Harpodon nehereus), shrimps (including Metapenaeus ensis and Metapenaeus affinis) and Squilla oratoria were from 37.8 ng x g(-1) to 407.1 ng x g(-1) (normalized to lipid), from 49.0 ng x g(-1) to 239.1 ng x g(-1) and from 142 ng x g(-1) to 444.5 ng x g(-1), respectively. BDE47 was the dominant congener in all biota samples, with a contribution to sigma10 PBDEs ranging from 53.7% to 66.9%. Differences in concentrations of PBDEs and PBDE patterns in different species may be related to the different feeding habit, living environment and uptaking or elimination rate. High ratios of concentrations of PBDEs in liver /muscle in fish species indicated that PBDEs tended to accumulate more in liver than in muscle.

  18. A novel "pearl box" cataract associated with a mutation in the connexin 46 (GJA3) gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Kamlesh; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Jai Rup

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To undertake mutation screening in the connexin 46 (GJA3) gene in seven congenital cataract families of Indian origin. Methods Seven Indian families with congenital cataract were analyzed by detailed family history and clinical evaluation. Each family had two to five affected members. Mutation screening was carried out in the candidate gene, connexin 46 (GJA3), using bidirectional sequencing of amplified products. Segregation of the observed change with the disease phenotype was further tested by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results Sequencing of the coding region of GJA3 showed the presence of a novel, heterozygous C260T change in one family (CC-472) who had two affected members. The cataract phenotype gave the appearance like a "pearl box" in these two affected individuals of this family. The observed C260T substitution created a novel restriction enzyme site for NlaIII and resulted in substitution of highly conserved threonine at position 87 by methionine (T87M). NlaIII restriction digestion analysis revealed this nucleotide change was not in unaffected members of this family or in 100 unrelated control subjects (200 chromosomes) with the same ethnic background. Conclusions This is a novel mutation identified in the second transmembrane domain of the connexin 46. These findings thus expand the mutation spectrum of the GJA3 in association with congenital cataract. PMID:17615540

  19. A historical perspective of river basin management in the Pearl River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qihao

    2007-12-01

    Three innovations in water and soil conservancy technology in the Pearl River Delta of South China, i.e., dike building, land reclamation, and dike-pond systems, were examined from a historical perspective. They were found to best reflect local farmers' efforts to cope with the challenges of various water disasters and to build a harmonious relationship with the changed environment. These technologies were critical to the agricultural success and sustainability over the past 2000 years, and reflected local farmers' wisdom in balancing land use and environmental conservation. Imprudent use of a new agricultural technology could damage the environment, and could disturb the human-environment relationship, as evidenced by the more frequent flooding that followed inappropriate dike building and premature reclamation. It is suggested that as the urbanization and industrialization process in the delta region continues, the kind of thinking that made the water and soil conservancy sustainable needs to be incorporated into the design of similar technologies for water use and river basin management today.

  20. Transmission of iridovirus from freshwater ornamental fish (pearl gourami) to marine fish (rock bream).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joon Bum; Cho, Hye Jin; Jun, Lyu Jin; Hong, Su Hee; Chung, Joon-Ki; Jeong, Hyun Do

    2008-10-16

    Freshwater pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri and seawater rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus infected by the iridoviruses PGIV-SP and IVS-1 were carrying similar numbers of viral particles (2.52 x 10(8) and 2.46 x 10(8) viral genome copies mg(-1) spleen tissue, respectively). The viral genome copy number for both iridoviruses decreased much faster in seawater than in freshwater, reaching a concentration of less than 0.5%, versus 26 to 54% in freshwater, after 4 d of incubation at 25 degrees C. The decrease in copy number altered the infectivity of the viruses, as reflected by the decreased cumulative mortality of rock bream injected intraperitoneally with the incubated iridoviruses. Moreover, uninfected rock bream cohabitated with PGIV-SP-challenged rock bream showed 100% cumulative mortality; a similar experiment using IVS-1 had the same result, implying the potential for iridoviral transmission from freshwater ornamental fish to marine fish even in a marine environment. Of 58 outwardly healthy marine fish groups collected from various markets, 2 rock bream groups and 1 sea perch group Lateolabrax sp. tested positive for PGIV-SP by 2-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus, PGIV-SP from freshwater ornamental fish may have crossed both environmental and species barriers to infect marine fish such as rock bream.

  1. The Magic Background of Pearl Harbor. Volume 3 (August 5, 1941 - October 17, 1941)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    a Propaganda Campaign in Japan Counselor Sadao Iguchi of the Japanese Embassy in Washington submitted a report to Secretary Tasiro in Tokyo on August...socks, and small arms. Confirming the arrival at San Francisco of the Russian freighter Minsk the report also Consul Jiseburo Sato , Japanese...537 on September 20, 1941 Consul Sato in Seattle in- Oklahoma-class battleship at San Francisco was announced by Consul Muto at San Francisco on

  2. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer; Gorgol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched a 10-year, multi-million dollar initiative, the Washington State Achievers Program (WSA), to increase opportunities for low-income students to attend postsecondary institutions in Washington State. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation granted funds to the College Success Foundation…

  3. Expanding Access and Opportunity: The Washington State Achievers Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the multi-year, multi-million dollar Washington State Achievers Scholarship program. Concerned about disparities in college participation for low-income students in the state of Washington versus their wealthier peers, the Gates Foundation partnered with the College Success Foundation…

  4. Assessing the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The production structure of the lumber manufacturing sector in western Washington was investigated using a translog cost function with capital. labor, and sawlog inputs. Analyses were performed with a panel data set of biennial observations from 1972 to 2002 on a cross section of 16 western Washington counties. Production structure was examined using Allen and...

  5. 77 FR 11582 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of... Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains and associated... human remains and associated funerary object may contact the Central Washington University Department of...

  6. 77 FR 15802 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University Department of... Washington University Department of Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in consultation... to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Central Washington University...

  7. Water resources of King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donald; Bingham, J.W.; Madison, R.J.; Williams, R.

    1968-01-01

    Although the total supply of water in King County is large, water problems are inevitable because of the large and rapidly expanding population. The county contains a third of the 3 million people in Washington, most of the population being concentrated in the Seattle metropolitan area. King County includes parts of two major physiographic features: the western area is part of the Puget Sound Lowland, and the eastern area is part of the Cascade Range. In these two areas, the terrain, weather, and natural resources (including water) contrast markedly. Average annual precipitation in the county is about 80 inches, ranging from about 30 inches near Puget Sound to more than 150 inches in parts of the Cascades. Annual evapotranspiration is estimated to range from 15 to 24 inches. Average annual runoff ranges from about 15 inches in the lowlands to more than 100 inches in the mountains. Most of the streamflow is in the major basins of the county--the Green-Duwamish, Lake Washington, and Snoqualmie basins. The largest of these is the Snoqualmie River basin (693 square miles), where average annual runoff during the period 1931-60 was about 79 inches. During the same period, annual runoff in the Lake Washington basin ( 607 square miles) averaged about 32 inches, and in the Green-Duwamish River basin (483 square miles), about 46 inches. Seasonal runoff is generally characterized by several high-flow periods in the winter, medium flows in the spring, and sustained low flows in the summer and fall. When floods occur in the county they come almost exclusively between October and March. The threat of flood damage is greatest on the flood plaits of the larger rivers, but in the Green-Duwamish Valley the threat was greatly reduced with the completion of Howard A. Hanson Dam in 1962. In the Snoqualmie River basin, where no such dam exists, the potential damage from a major flood increases each year as additional land is developed in the Snoqualmie Valley. 0nly moderate amounts of

  8. Interprofessional Initiatives at the University of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Lynne; Murphy, Nanci; Belza, Basia; Brock, Doug; Gallagher, Thomas H.; Lindhorst, Taryn; Morton, Tom; Schaad, Doug; Mitchell, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacists must collaborate with other health professionals to promote the optimal use of medications, relying on coordinated, interprofessional communication and care to do so. In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics.”2 At the University of Washington, the Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education (CHSIE) was established in 1997 to promote interprofessional curricular and clinical innovation in education, faculty development, and student activities, and to conduct evaluative research regarding the impact of interprofessional innovations. In this manuscript, we will describe the Center for Health Sciences Interprofessional Education, and highlight key projects that serve as examples of pharmacy involvement in interprofessional education, research, and service. PMID:19657496

  9. Business leaders bring their clout to Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M

    1990-04-20

    Big business has always been opposed to government interference in its affairs. But now, besieged by the high cost--increasing at an annual rate of 20 to 30 percent--of health benefits for employees, their families, and retirees, a significant number of major corporate executives are seeking greater government involvement in finding a solution to the problem. Interest in health care policy decisions is so high that business leaders are participating in special health care commissions as members or by providing testimony. Some corporations even send company advocates to Washington, DC, to track and influence health care policymaking. What exactly do these corporate leaders want? They are not all in agreement about the degree of government involvement that is necessary or desirable. Nevertheless, they do have strong opinions about delivery of health care at the local level.

  10. Integrated solid waste management of Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the City of Seattle, Washington, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. Actual data from records kept by participants is reported in this document. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may perform manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for MSW management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption for a one-year period, of an operating IMSWM systems.

  11. Simple and economical assay systems for evaluation of phosphinothricin resistant transgenics of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. (L.) Moench., and pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshavardhan, D; Santha, B; Rani, T S; Ulaganathan, K; Madhulety, T Y; Laxminarayana, C; Seetharama, N

    2003-02-01

    Five simple and rapid methods for evaluation of sorghum and pearl millet transgenics resistant to herbicide phosphinothricin (used as selectable marker) were studied. For rapid in vitro selection, three assays (establishment of sensitivity curves for embryogenic calli, determination of lethal doses for seed germination, and a rapid screening of cut young leaves based on the colour change of the medium) were established. For rapid screening of transgenic progeny, effects of in vivo Basta leaf spray and dip tests were studied at three different morphological stages. For all the above assays, LD50, and LD100 values were higher for pearl millet than sorghum. However, in both the crops, genotype effect was not significant. The assays standardized in the study were found to be effective for rapid, economical and mass-scale identification and characterization of transgenic plants of sorghum and pearl millet.

  12. Influence of plankton concentration on gametogenesis and spawning of the black lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Levesque, Emmanuelle; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Pennec, Marcel; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Pearl culture industry represents one of the dominant business sector of French Polynesia. However, it still entirely relies on unpredictable spat collection success. Our aim was to assess the influence of natural plankton concentration fluctuations on maturation and spawning of the black lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, during a 4 months survey conducted in Ahe atoll lagoon. Plankton concentration was assessed by chlorophyll a extraction and by microscope counts while gonadic index, gonado-visceral dry weights and histology were used to measure pearl oysters reproduction activity. We found that (i) plankton concentration fluctuations were mainly related to wind regime, (ii) gametogenesis rate was mainly related to plankton concentration, (iii) spawning occurred when maximal gonad storage was reached, (iv) plankton concentration was the main spawning synchronizing factor. These results contribute explaining P. margaritifera spat collection variability in French Polynesian atoll lagoon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metro de Washington EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese, Harry

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the works involved in the first stage of the Washington Underground (Subway system which was begun in 1969 and scheduled for completion in 1983 and is the most modern metropolitan railway in North America. Lines have double track and will carry three million passengers daily. Different construction methods have been used throughout: tunnel formed try digging a trench then roofed and covered, excavated tunnel and elevated structures. Stations features answer to the strictest demands, provided with closed circuit television, air conditioning, noise dampening Systems, special access ways, fire protection Systems and automatic traffic control. Special attention is given to the two bridges over the Pentagon and over the Anacostia, pointing out their differences and the elevated structure at the National Airport.

    Se describen en este articulo los trabajos de la primera fase del Metro de Washington que, iniciado en el año 1969 será, a su terminación en el año 1983, el más moderno sistema de ferrocarril metropolitano de Norte América. Es de doble carril y servirá para tres millones de usuarios. Se han empleado distintos sistemas de obra en su realización: túnel artificial realizado mediante una zanja que después se cubre; túnel perforado, y estructuras aéreas. Las características de las estaciones responden a las mayores exigencias, pues tienen circuito cerrado de televisión, aire acondicionado, sistemas para atenuar el ruido, accesos especiales, sistema de protección contra el fuego y control automático del Metro. Se estudian de un modo particular: los dos puentes sobre el Pentágono y el Anacostia, señalando sus diferencias y la estructura aérea del Aeropuerto Nacional.

  14. 77 FR 32631 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Klickitat County, Washington; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... located near Goldendale, Klickitat County, Washington, and Rufus, Sherman County, Oregon. The project... Avenue, Goldendale, Washington 98620; phone: (509) 773-5891. FERC Contact: Kelly Wolcott; phone: (202...

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Quantitative and Qualitative Forage Yield of Maize, Pearl Millet and Sorghum in Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh Khalesro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to compare three summer forage grasses including sorghum (Sorghum bicolor cv. Speedfeed, corn (Zea mayz S.C. 704 and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum cv. Nutrifeed for green chop forage production in double cropping system, a field experiment was conducted at research field of Tarbiat Modares University on 2006 growing season. Treatments were arranged in a split- plot design based on randomized complete blocks with four replications. In this research three forage crops as main factor and nitrogen rates (100, 200 and 300 kg N. ha-1 from the urea source as the sub- plot were studied. Results showed the positive response of crops to nitrogen increment, in such a manner that millet with 300 kg N ha-1 produced 85.8 t ha-1 fresh forage (%20.3 more than sorghum and %30.9 more than corn. Regarding to the sustainable agriculture objects, millet and sorghum with 200 kg N ha-1could be suggested. Forage yield advantages of millet and sorghum to corn was %10 and %12 respectively. They produce 72.4 and 73.5 t ha-1 fresh forage under this treatment. Finally regarding to general advantages of sorghum and millet to corn, especially in unsuitable condition like as drought and poor soil fertility, it seems that changing the corn with sorghum or pearl millet could be an appropriate option. Also decision making for recommending one of sorghum and millet need to more information like qualitative attributes in details and determining animal feeding indices (voluntary intake using in vivo methods. Keywords: Sorghum, Pearl millet, Corn, Nitrogen, Forage, Organic matter, Crud protein

  16. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenet, Dorcus C; Leiser, Willmar L; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F W; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I G

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  17. Synchrotron FT-IR analyses of microstructured biomineral domains: Hints to the biomineralization processes in freshwater cultured pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, A. L.; Vicente-Vilas, V.; Gasharova, B.; Jacob, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations in freshwater cultured pearls (bio-carbonate) by micro-Raman spectroscopy (Wehrmeister et al., 2008; Soldati et al., 2008), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging (Jacob et al., 2008) show that the pearl biomineralisation starts with a self assembling process in which an existing gel matrix of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and organic substances reorganizes and conglomerates in small domains; these conglomerates then form prisms and mature nacreous tablets of aragonite or vaterite. Raman spectroscopy shows that the calcium carbonate polymorphs have decreasing luminescence in the order ACC>Vaterite>Aragonite, coinciding with decreasing quantities of S and P (related to the organic matrix) measured by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) and Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA). Although little is known about the process of transformation of the ACC gel into vaterite and aragonite, it is speculated that this probably involves dehydration and change of the accompanying organic matrix. This is also supported by our laboratory FT-IR analysis. However, due to the small size of the areas of ACC (about 10 ?m) and the biogenic crystals an in-situ high spatially resolved IR-method is needed to record how the water content and organic matrix change in the biomineralisation sequence, to understand which processes take place in the self-organization. The beamline IR-1 at the ANKA synchrotron source (Karlsruhe, Germany) was used for this experiment. Freshwater cultured pearls from China cultured in Hyriopsis cumingii mussels by tissue nucleation methods (so-called beadless pearls) as well as by bead implantation methods (aragonite nucleus) were studied. The pearls were cut in half with a diamond-plated saw and polished with diamond paste on a copper plate. Micro-Raman spectroscopy maps (Department of Geosciences, at the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz) were generated

  18. Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjunatha, G.; Raj, S. Niranjan; Shetty, Nandini Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) donors Nitroso-R-Salt, 2-Nitroso-1-Naphthol and Sodium Nitro Prusside (SNP) were evaluated for their effectiveness in protecting pearl millet [(Pennisetum glaucum L.) R. Br.] plants against downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola [(Sacc). Schroet]. Optimization...... between the inducer treatment and subsequent pathogen inoculation was necessary for maximum resistance development. Disease protection ability of NO donors was also validated as durable in nature. Conversely, prior-treatment with NO scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5 tetrazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium...

  19. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcus C. GEMENET

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available West Africa (WA is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1 The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2 Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3 Plant responses to P deficiency; (4 Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5 Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6 Systems approaches to addressing soil P-deficiency in WA.Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not however be a sustainable solution in

  20. Identification of Genes Directly Involved in Shell Formation and Their Functions in Pearl Oyster, Pinctada fucata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong; Xu, Guangrui; Hu, Yilin; Pan, Cong; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2011-01-01

    Mollusk shell formation is a fascinating aspect of biomineralization research. Shell matrix proteins play crucial roles in the control of calcium carbonate crystallization during shell formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Characterization of biomineralization-related genes during larval development could enhance our understanding of shell formation. Genes involved in shell biomineralization were isolated by constructing three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries that represented genes expressed at key points during larval shell formation. A total of 2,923 ESTs from these libraries were sequenced and gave 990 unigenes. Unigenes coding for secreted proteins and proteins with tandem-arranged repeat units were screened in the three SSH libraries. A set of sequences coding for genes involved in shell formation was obtained. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays were carried out on five genes to investigate their spatial expression in several tissues, especially the mantle tissue. They all showed a different expression pattern from known biomineralization-related genes. Inhibition of the five genes by RNA interference resulted in different defects of the nacreous layer, indicating that they all were involved in aragonite crystallization. Intriguingly, one gene (UD_Cluster94.seq.Singlet1) was restricted to the ‘aragonitic line’. The current data has yielded for the first time, to our knowledge, a suite of biomineralization-related genes active during the developmental stages of P.fucata, five of which were responsible for nacreous layer formation. This provides a useful starting point for isolating new genes involved in shell formation. The effects of genes on the formation of the ‘aragonitic line’, and other areas of the nacreous layer, suggests a different control mechanism for aragonite crystallization initiation from that of mature aragonite growth. PMID:21747964

  1. Regeneration of the Urban Coastal area of Scheveningen: Pearl by the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oorschot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere was the advancing globalization so visible as in the coastal area of Scheveningen, one of northwest Europe’s seaside resorts with a wealthy tradition nearby the capital city of The Hague. In the 19th century a consortium of bankers from Paris, Frankfurt, and Amsterdam established a fashionable European beach resort right next to a medieval fishing village with a Kurhaus Spa and Casino accessible to the general public. At the end of the 20th century the bathing resort lost its image and most of the fishing industry moved away leaving the coastal zone in a crisis. The municipality decided to give the coastline an economic impulse. Not only that, their ambitions were grandiose. In 2005 they got the idea to make Scheveningen the Second International Center of The Hague with impressive architecture and town planning. The beach, the old fishing village, and the fishery at the harbor were connected into a close urban ensemble by the North Sea by a splendid boulevard. However, the financial crisis in 2008 put an end to extravagant developmental plans, to the great relief of coastal residents. They especially feared the expansion of tourism into the residential areas even though tourism had brought and would continue to bring prosperity to the area. The old fishing village was kept intact while the harbor transformed quite differently than sketched and the seaside decayed, losing to its rival the First International Center: the old town of The Hague. How could this have happened to the Pearl on the Sea? Was it the crisis or the stubbornness of residents and entrepreneurs? Or was it the unworldliness of administrators?  

  2. Humpback Dolphins in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta: Status, Threats and Conservation Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarski, Leszek; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Or, Carmen K M; Gui, Duan; Chan, Stephen C Y; Lin, Wenzhi; Porter, Lindsay; Wong, Wai-Ho; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Ho, Yuen-Wa; Chui, Scott Y S; Tiongson, Angelico Jose C; Mo, Yaqian; Chang, Wei-Lun; Kwok, John H W; Tang, Ricky W K; Lee, Andy T L; Yiu, Sze-Wing; Keith, Mark; Gailey, Glenn; Wu, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    In coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) is thought to number approximately 2500 individuals. Given these figures, the putative PRD population may appear strong enough to resist demographic stochasticity and environmental pressures. However, living in close proximity to the world's busiest seaport/airport and several densely populated urban centres with major coastal infrastructural developments comes with challenges to the long-term survival of these animals. There are few other small cetacean populations that face the range and intensity of human-induced pressures as those present in the PRD and current protection measures are severely inadequate. Recent mark-recapture analyses of the animals in Hong Kong waters indicate that in the past two decades the population parameters have not been well understood, and spatial analyses show that only a very small proportion of the dolphins' key habitats are given any form of protection. All current marine protected areas within the PRD fail to meet a minimum habitat requirement that could facilitate the population's long-term persistence. Demographic models indicate a continuous decline of 2.5% per annum, a rate at which the population is likely to drop below the demographic threshold within two generations and lose 74% of the current numbers within the lifespan of three generations. In Hong Kong, the case of humpback dolphins represents a particularly explicit example of inadequate management where a complete revision of the fundamental approach to conservation management is urgently needed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  3. Value of CT angiography in anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke: Imaging findings, pearls, and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Sarah, E-mail: drsarahpower@gmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); McEvoy, Sinead H., E-mail: sineadmcevoy@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Cunningham, Jane, E-mail: janecunningham0708@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Ti, Joanna P., E-mail: joannapearlyti@gmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Looby, Seamus, E-mail: seamuslooby@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); O' Hare, Alan, E-mail: alanohare@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Williams, David, E-mail: davidwilliams@rcsi.ie [Department of Geriatrics and Stroke Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brennan, Paul, E-mail: paulbrennan@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Thornton, John, E-mail: johnthornton@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Site of occlusion determines potential collateralization routes and impacts outcome. • Multifocality of arterial occlusion is common, seen in approximately 20% of cases. • ICA false occlusion sign can be seen in setting of ICA stenosis or carotid T occlusion. • False patency sign: hyperdense thrombus/calcified occlusive plaque misinterpreted as patent vessel. • Additional abnormalities on CTA may infer stroke mechanism or alter decision making. - Abstract: Hyperacute stroke imaging is playing an increasingly important role in determining management decisions in acute stroke patients, particularly patients with large vessel occlusive stroke who may benefit from endovascular intervention. CT angiography (CTA) is an important tool in the work-up of the acute stroke patient. It reliably detects large occlusive thrombi in proximal cerebral arteries and is a quick and highly accurate method in identifying candidates for endovascular stroke treatment. In this article we review the imaging findings on CTA in acute large vessel occlusive stroke using a pictorial case based approach. We retrospectively reviewed CTA studies in 48 patients presenting with acute anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke who were brought for intra-arterial acute stroke intervention. We discuss and illustrate patterns of proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, collateralization to the occluded territory, as well as reviewing some important pearls, pitfalls and teaching points in CTA assessment of the acute stroke patient. Performed from the level of the aortic arch CTA also gives valuable information regarding the state of other vessels in the acute stroke patient, identifying additional significant vascular stenoses or occlusions, and as we illustrate, can demonstrate other clinically significant findings which may impact on patient management and outcome.

  4. Sampling surface particle size distributions and stability analysis of deep channel in the Pearl River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao-chuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yu-liang; Lei, Zhi-yi; Ji, Xiao-mei

    2017-06-01

    Particle size distributions (PSDs) of bottom sediments in a coastal zone are generally multimodal due to the complexity of the dynamic environment. In this paper, bottom sediments along the deep channel of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) are used to understand the multimodal PSDs' characteristics and the corresponding depositional environment. The results of curve-fitting analysis indicate that the near-bottom sediments in the deep channel generally have a bimodal distribution with a fine component and a relatively coarse component. The particle size distribution of bimodal sediment samples can be expressed as the sum of two lognormal functions and the parameters for each component can be determined. At each station of the PRE, the fine component makes up less volume of the sediments and is relatively poorly sorted. The relatively coarse component, which is the major component of the sediments, is even more poorly sorted. The interrelations between the dynamics and particle size of the bottom sediment in the deep channel of the PRE have also been investigated by the field measurement and simulated data. The critical shear velocity and the shear velocity are calculated to study the stability of the deep channel. The results indicate that the critical shear velocity has a similar distribution over large part of the deep channel due to the similar particle size distribution of sediments. Based on a comparison between the critical shear velocities derived from sedimentary parameters and the shear velocities obtained by tidal currents, it is likely that the depositional area is mainly distributed in the northern part of the channel, while the southern part of the deep channel has to face higher erosion risk.

  5. Fractionation and ecological risk of metals in urban river sediments in Zhongshan City, Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiannan; Cao, Yingzi; Tan, Haijian; Wang, Yanman; Luo, Jiaqi

    2011-09-01

    Surface sediments collected from nine urban rivers located in Zhongshan City, Pearl River Delta, were analyzed for total concentration of metals with digestion and chemical fractionation adopting the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that concentration and fractionation of metals varied significantly among the rivers. The total concentration of eight metals in most rivers did not exceed the China Environmental Quality Standard for Soil, Grade III. The potential ecological risk of metals to rivers were related to the land use patterns, in the order of manufacturing areas > residential areas > agriculture areas. The concentration of Pb in the reducible fraction was relatively high (60.0-84.3%). The dominant proportions of Cd, Zn and Cu were primary in the non-residual fraction (67.0%, 71.8% and 81.4% on average respectively), while the percentages of the residual fractions of Cr and Ni varied over a wide range (43-85% and 24-71% respectively). The approaches of the Håkanson ecological risk index and Secondary Phase Enrichment Factor were applied for ecological risk assessment and metal enrichment calculation. The results indicated Hg and Cd had posed high potential ecological risk to urban rivers in this region. Meanwhile, there was widespread pollution and high enrichment of Cu in river sediments in this region. Multiple regression analysis showed that five water quality parameters (pH, DO, COD(Mn), NH(4)(+)-N, TP) had little influence on the distribution of metal fractionation. This result revealed that the ecological risk of metals was not eliminated along with the improvement in water quality. Correlation studies showed that among the metals, Group A (Cd, As, Pb, Zn Hg, r = 0.730-0.924) and Group B (Cr, Cu, Ni, r = 0.815-0.948) were obtained, and the metal contaminations were from industrial activities rather than residential.

  6. Petroleum systems of Zhu III depression in Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilin, Zhu; Li Mingbi; Wu Peikang (GNOOC, Hebei (China))

    1996-01-01

    Zhu III depression is located in the west part of Pearl River Mouth Basin, and covers an area of 11,000 sq km. Until now more than twenty wells have been drilled in the depression and its surrounding area, and all oil-gas fields and oil-gas discoveries are concentrated inside the depression. Integrated study indicates that there are two petroleum systems in Zhu III depression. One is Wenchang - Zhuhai, Zhujiang oil system which is mainly distributed in Wenchang B sag in the southwest part of the depression. Its source rock, the Wenchang formation is mainly composed of dark mudstone of lacustrine facies, with thicknesses up to more than 1000 m. Its reservoir includes tidal sandstone of transitional facies of Zhuhai formation and neritic sandstone of the lower part of Zhujiang formation. Through bounding faults and margin coarse sediment zone, oil generated from the Wenchang formation migrated into overlying sandstone of Zhuhai formation, which was overlaid by mudstone beds of bay facies of Zhuhai formation or neritic facies of Zhujiang formation, and formed oil accumulations. The other system is Enping - Zhuhai gas system, distributed in Wenchang A sag in the northeast part of the depression, whose source rock in the Enping formation deposited in the contracting stage of the lake, dominated by swamp coal measure in lithology and terrestrial plant clastics in kerogen components. The gas generated from Enping formation directly migrated into overlying tidal sandstone of Zhuhai formation and formed gas accumulations. Therefore, exploration in Wenchang A sag in the northeast part of the depression is for gas accumulations, and oil accumulations in Wenchang B sag in the southwest part of the depression, while oil-gas mixed accumulations are likely to be found in the transitional area of two systems.

  7. Petroleum systems of Zhu III depression in Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilin, Zhu; Li Mingbi; Wu Peikang [GNOOC, Hebei (China)

    1996-12-31

    Zhu III depression is located in the west part of Pearl River Mouth Basin, and covers an area of 11,000 sq km. Until now more than twenty wells have been drilled in the depression and its surrounding area, and all oil-gas fields and oil-gas discoveries are concentrated inside the depression. Integrated study indicates that there are two petroleum systems in Zhu III depression. One is Wenchang - Zhuhai, Zhujiang oil system which is mainly distributed in Wenchang B sag in the southwest part of the depression. Its source rock, the Wenchang formation is mainly composed of dark mudstone of lacustrine facies, with thicknesses up to more than 1000 m. Its reservoir includes tidal sandstone of transitional facies of Zhuhai formation and neritic sandstone of the lower part of Zhujiang formation. Through bounding faults and margin coarse sediment zone, oil generated from the Wenchang formation migrated into overlying sandstone of Zhuhai formation, which was overlaid by mudstone beds of bay facies of Zhuhai formation or neritic facies of Zhujiang formation, and formed oil accumulations. The other system is Enping - Zhuhai gas system, distributed in Wenchang A sag in the northeast part of the depression, whose source rock in the Enping formation deposited in the contracting stage of the lake, dominated by swamp coal measure in lithology and terrestrial plant clastics in kerogen components. The gas generated from Enping formation directly migrated into overlying tidal sandstone of Zhuhai formation and formed gas accumulations. Therefore, exploration in Wenchang A sag in the northeast part of the depression is for gas accumulations, and oil accumulations in Wenchang B sag in the southwest part of the depression, while oil-gas mixed accumulations are likely to be found in the transitional area of two systems.

  8. Petroleum migration and mixing in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunming Zhang [Jianghan Petroleum Univ., Geochemistry Research Center, Jingzhou, Hubei (China); China Univ. of Geosciences, Dept. of Energy Resources, Beijing (China); Sitian Li [China Univ. of Geosciences, Dept. of Energy Resources, Beijing (China); Jiaming Yang [China National Offshore Oil Corp., Beijing (China); Shaokun Yang; Jianrong Wang [Nanhai East Oil Co., Research Inst., Guangzhou (China)

    2004-02-01

    Two oil groups have been investigated in the Pearl River Mouth Basin using their geochemical characteristics. In combination with source data, the two oil groups may be extrapolated into two end-member oils: petroleum populations A and B. The oil population A with abundant 4-methylsteranes, derived from the deeper Wenchang source rocks, migrated and accumulated earlier. The oil population B with absent 4-methylsteranes was expelled from the Enping source rocks and is associated with a relatively later phase of migration and accumulation. The two distinctive oil populations migrated updip through the marine blanket-like sandstone carriers within the Zhuhai Formation to accumulate in a series of traps along the main migration pathways at different times. Most of the accumulations are mixtures of the two end-member oils. The variations of 4-methylsterane concentrations in the accumulations can be related to the contributions from the two sources: the oils, which migrated furthest, contain greater contributions from the Wenchang source rocks, whereas those with shorter migration paths have greater contributions from the Enping sources. The later migrated oils closer to the depression areas are highly mature and the former oils in the Liuhua oil fields are of relatively low maturity, which may indicate the main migration direction along the Hui-Liu Structure Ridge (HLSR). Oils with abnormally high maturity in the middle of the HLSR may suggest oil-filling points, from which branch conduits connected the source kitchens to the main migration pathway. Oils with abnormally low maturities may reveal minor contributions from some small sags in the Dongsha Massif in a later phase. (Author)

  9. Aerosol hygroscopcity, volatility and chemical composition between the Pearl River Delta Region and Okinawa: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Tan, H.; Zhao, J.; Hatakeyama, S.; Mochida, M.; Kondo, Y.; Xu, H.; Li, F.; Shimada, K.; Deng, Y.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol physical and chemical properties play important roles in affecting visibility and cloud formation, and the direct and indirect effects of Earth's radiative forcing. It is hence vital to understand aerosol properties in order to assess impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles. Aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility and chemical composition were measured at an urban site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of China and at a marine site in Okinawa of Japan in November 2014 and November 2016, respectively. A hygroscopic/volatile tandem differential mobility analyzer (H/V-TDMA) and aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) were used to measure hygroscopicity/volatility and chemical composition respectively during the campaign. Aerosol particles were apportioned to more complex emission sources in the PRD than in Okinawa, resulting in about an order of magnitude higher number concentrations of particles (10nm-400nm) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements show much higher total non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The two sites represent distinctly different chemical compositions in the total NR-PM1: organics was dominant in the PRD, while sulfate is the major component in Okinawa, reflecting different emission sources. The V-TDMA measurements showed almost no non-volatile (NV) species in 40-300nm particles, while particles in the same size range might contain black carbon or low volatile organics in the PRD. Size-resolved particles hygroscopicity and mixing state between the two measurement sites are also compared in the presentation.

  10. Bioactive and total endotoxins in atmospheric aerosols in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jessica Y. W.; Hui, Esther L. C.; Lau, Arthur P. S.

    2012-02-01

    Endotoxin, a toxic and pyrogenic substance in gram-negative bacteria in atmospheric aerosols was measured over a period of one year at Nansha, Guangzhou and Hong Kong in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmospheric aerosols were collected by high-volume samplers. The bioactive endotoxin levels in the samples were determined using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay after extraction with pyrogen-free water while the total endotoxin levels were measured by quantifying the biomarker, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) with GC-MS. Results showed that there was no significant difference (0.19 endotoxin level in PM 10 among sites (average concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 0.39 EU m -3). However, Hong Kong showed a significantly lower ( p endotoxin level in PM 10 (average of 17.4 ng m -3) compared with Nansha's 29.4 ng m -3 and Guangzhou's 32.7 ng m -3. The bioactive endotoxins were found to be associated with the coarse mode (PM 2.5-10) of the particulates of natural origins while the total endotoxins were associated more with the fine mode (PM 2.5) of the particulates of anthropogenic origins. When normalized with particulate mass, the endotoxin loading is much higher in summer as a result of the increased growth of the bacteria when climatic conditions are favorable. The chemically determined total endotoxins were 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than the bioactive endotoxins quantified using the LAL assay. Correlation analyses between the bioactive endotoxins and 3-OHFAs with different carbon length were analyzed. Results showed that the correlations detected vary among sites and particulate sizes. Although no generalization between the total and bioactive endotoxins can be drawn from the study, the levels reported in this study suggests that the discrepancies between the two measurement approaches, and the bioactive potential of 3-OHFAs with individual carbon chains deserve further investigation.

  11. Complex Network Simulation of Forest Network Spatial Pattern in Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Forest network-construction uses for the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of forest network's power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes decaying index value of the network's degree distribution. The parameters of forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network's main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc.) for networking a standard and base datum.

  12. Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium from Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Vanessa K; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Golke, Jan; Saw, Jimmy H W; Alam, Maqsudul; Donachie, Stuart P

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, helical bacterium designated PH27AT was cultivated from an anchialine pool on Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The obligately halophilic strain was motile by bipolar tufts of flagella and grew optimally at pH 7, and microaerobically or aerobically. Closest neighbours based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence identity are Marinospirillum celere v1c_Sn-redT (93.31 %) and M. alkaliphilum Z4T (92.10 %) in the family Oceanospirillaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. PH27AT is distinguished phenotypically from members of the genus Marinospirillum by its hydrolysis of gelatin, the absence of growth in media containing ≤ 1 % (w/v) NaCl and the ranges of temperature (12–40 °C) and pH (5–8) for growth. The major compound ubiquinone Q-9 distinguishes the quinone system of strain PH27AT from those in members of the genus Marinospirillum and other members of the Oceanospirillaceae, in which the major quinone is Q-8. Major polar lipids in PH27AT were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine. Spermidine and cadaverine dominated the polyamine pattern; large proportions of cadaverine have not been reported in members of the genus Marinospirillum. Genotypic and chemotaxonomic data show that PH27AT does not belong in the genus Marinospirillum or other genera of the family Oceanospirillaceae or the Halomonadaceae. We propose a new genus, Terasakiispira gen. nov., be created to accommodate Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species, with PH27AT ( = ATCC BAA-995T = DSM 16455T = DSM 23961T) as the type strain.

  13. Surface sediment properties and heavy metal pollution assessment in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangming; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Wang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Grain size and concentrations of heavy metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)) of 148 surface sediments and activities of 210Pb and heavy metal concetrantions of one sediment core from the Pearl River Estuary were analyzed. The surface sediments were dominated by silt and sandy silt. Sediment type controlled the spatial distribution patterns of the heavy metals. The heavy metal concentrations in the sediments ranged from 3.34 to 37.11 mg/kg for As, 0.06 to 2.06 mg/kg for Cd, 12 to 130 mg/kg for Cr, 5.8 to 170.6 mg/kg for Cu, 0.01 to 0.25 mg/kg for Hg, 23 to 78 mg/kg for Pb, and 32 to 259 mg/kg for Zn. Both contents of clay and organic carbons were significantly positively correlated with heavy metals. The baseline values of elements in the study area were 12.97 mg/kg for As, 0.14 mg/kg for Cd, 68 mg/kg for Cr, 28.9 mg/kg for Cu, 0.08 mg/kg for Hg, 33 mg/kg for Pb, and 92 mg/kg for Zn. The metal enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to assess anthropogenic contamination. Results showed slight to moderate Cd contamination in the region. Principle component analysis indicated that Cd could be attributed to anthropogenic sources; As and Hg were predominantly affected by human activities; and Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn were associated with both natural and anthropogenic sources.

  14. COMPLEX NETWORK SIMULATION OF FOREST NETWORK SPATIAL PATTERN IN PEARL RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest network-construction uses for the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of forest network’s power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes decaying index value of the network’s degree distribution. The parameters of forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network’s main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc. for networking a standard and base datum.

  15. Identification of genes directly involved in shell formation and their functions in pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Fang

    Full Text Available Mollusk shell formation is a fascinating aspect of biomineralization research. Shell matrix proteins play crucial roles in the control of calcium carbonate crystallization during shell formation in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Characterization of biomineralization-related genes during larval development could enhance our understanding of shell formation. Genes involved in shell biomineralization were isolated by constructing three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries that represented genes expressed at key points during larval shell formation. A total of 2,923 ESTs from these libraries were sequenced and gave 990 unigenes. Unigenes coding for secreted proteins and proteins with tandem-arranged repeat units were screened in the three SSH libraries. A set of sequences coding for genes involved in shell formation was obtained. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays were carried out on five genes to investigate their spatial expression in several tissues, especially the mantle tissue. They all showed a different expression pattern from known biomineralization-related genes. Inhibition of the five genes by RNA interference resulted in different defects of the nacreous layer, indicating that they all were involved in aragonite crystallization. Intriguingly, one gene (UD_Cluster94.seq.Singlet1 was restricted to the 'aragonitic line'. The current data has yielded for the first time, to our knowledge, a suite of biomineralization-related genes active during the developmental stages of P. fucata, five of which were responsible for nacreous layer formation. This provides a useful starting point for isolating new genes involved in shell formation. The effects of genes on the formation of the 'aragonitic line', and other areas of the nacreous layer, suggests a different control mechanism for aragonite crystallization initiation from that of mature aragonite growth.

  16. Taxonomy and Distribution of Freshwater Pearl Mussels (Unionoida: Margaritiferidae) of the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, Ivan N.; Bespalaya, Yulia V.; Vikhrev, Ilya V.; Aksenova, Olga V.; Aspholm, Paul E.; Gofarov, Mikhail Y.; Klishko, Olga K.; Kolosova, Yulia S.; Kondakov, Alexander V.; Lyubas, Artyom A.; Paltser, Inga S.; Konopleva, Ekaterina S.; Tumpeesuwan, Sakboworn; Bolotov, Nikita I.; Voroshilova, Irina S.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater pearl mussel family Margaritiferidae includes 13 extant species, which are all listed by IUCN as endangered or vulnerable taxa. In this study, an extensive spatial sampling of Margaritifera spp. across the Russian Far East (Amur Basin, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kurile Archipelago and Sakhalin Island) was conducted for a revision of their taxonomy and distribution ranges. Based on their DNA sequences, shell and soft tissue morphology, three valid species were identified: Margaritifera dahurica (Middendorff, 1850), M. laevis (Haas, 1910) and M. middendorffi (Rosén, 1926). M. dahurica ranges across the Amur basin and some of the nearest river systems. M. laevis is distributed in Japan, Sakhalin Island and the Kurile Archipelago. M. middendorffi was previously considered an endemic species of the Kamchatka. However, it is widespread in the rivers of Kamchatka, Sakhalin Island, the Kurile Islands (across the Bussol Strait, which is the most significant biogeographical boundary within the archipelago), and, likely, in Japan. The Japanese species M. togakushiensis Kondo & Kobayashi, 2005 seems to be conspecific with M. middendorffi because of similar morphological patterns, small shell size (<100 mm long) and overlapped ranges, but it is in need of a separate revision. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that two NW Pacific margaritiferid species, M. laevis and M. middendorffi, formed a monophyletic 18S rDNA clade together with the North American species M. marrianae and M. falcata. The patterns that were found in these Margaritifera spp. are similar to those of freshwater fishes, indicating multiple colonizations of Eastern Asia by different mitochondrial lineages, including an ancient Beringian exchange between freshwater faunas across the Pacific. PMID:26011762

  17. Phytoplankton pigments and functional community structure in relation to environmental factors in the Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cruises were undertaken in the Pearl River Estuary in November 2011 and March 2012 to analyze the distribution of phytoplankton pigments and to define the relationships of pigment indices and functional community structure with environmental factors. Among 22 pigments, 17 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorophyll a was found in all samples, with a maximum of 7.712 μg L−1 in spring. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant accessory pigment, with mean concentrations of 2.914 μg L−1 and 0.207 μg L−1 in spring and autumn, respectively. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c2, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, and diatoxanthin were high in the northern or northwest estuary in spring and in the middle-eastern and northeast estuary in autumn. Chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c3, prasinoxanthin, and peridinin were similarly distributed during the two cruises. Chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin positively correlated with nutrients in spring, whereas 19′-hex-fucoxanthin and 19′-but-fucoxanthin negatively correlated. The biomass proportion of microphytoplankton (BPm was higher in spring, whereas that of picophytoplankton (BPp was higher in autumn. BPm in spring was high in areas with salinity 30. BPm increased but BPn reduced with the increase in nutrient contents. By comparison, BPp reduced with the increase in nutrient contents in spring, but no relationship was found between BPp and nutrient contents in autumn. The ratios of photosynthetic carotenoids to photoprotective carotenoids in the southern estuary approached unity linear relationship in spring and were under the unity line in autumn.

  18. Temporal trends of hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the Pearl River Estuary and the northern South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Xianzhi [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehau Street, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: pengx@gig.ac.cn; Wang Zhendi [Environmental Science and Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Yu Yiyi; Tang Caiming; Lu Hong; Xu Shiping; Chen Fanrong; Mai Bixian; Chen Shejun; Li Kechang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehau Street, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Chun [Environmental Science and Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    Concentrations and fluxes of unresolved complex mixture of hydrocarbons (UCM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for two {sup 210}Pb dated sediment cores from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the adjacent northern South China Sea (NSCS). Compound-specific stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanes were also measured for identification of the hydrocarbon sources. The historical records of PAHs in the NSCS reflected the economic development in the Pearl River Delta during the 20th century. PAHs in the NSCS predominantly derive from combustion of coal and biomass, whereas PAHs in the PRE are a mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic in origins. The isotopic profiles reveal that the petrogenic hydrocarbons in the PRE originate predominantly from local spillage/leakage of lube oil and crude oils. The accumulation rates of pyrogenic PAHs have significantly increased, whereas UCM accumulation has slightly declined in the NSCS in the recent three decades. - The accumulation rates of pyrogenic PAHs have significantly increased in the northern South China Sea in the recent decades.

  19. A gradient analysis on urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern between 1985 and 2000 in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erfu; Wu, Zhuo; Du, Xiaodian

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization is an irreversible trend worldwide, especially in rapidly developing China. Accelerated urbanization has resulted in rapid urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern changes. Quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban land use and landscape pattern not only can reveal the characteristics of social transfer and economic development, but also can provide insights into the driving mechanisms of land use changes. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), landscape metrics, and gradient analysis to quantitatively compare the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use, urban sprawl, and landscape pattern for nine cities in the Pearl River Delta from 1985‒2000. For the whole study region, urbanization was obvious. The results show an increase in urban buildup land and shrinkage of cropland in the Pearl River Delta. However, the nine cities differed greatly in terms of the process and magnitude of urban sprawl for both the spatial and temporal dimensions. This was most evident for the cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Gradient analysis on urban landscape changes could deepen understanding of the stages of urban development and provide a scientific foundation for future urban planning and land management strategies in China.

  20. Development of upwelling on pathway and freshwater transport of Pearl River plume in northeastern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Jiang, Yuwu; Liu, James T.; Gong, Wenping

    2017-08-01

    In situ observations, satellite images, and numerical modeling results have shown that the Pearl River plume axis extends alongshore and passes through two separate upwelling regions—one off the Guangdong and Fujian coasts (the Yuedong upwelling) and the other in the Taiwan Bank during the initial and medium stages of the Yuedong upwelling, while it is directed offshore when the Yuedong upwelling is strong. Model experiments are conducted to examine the effects of wind strength and baroclinicity on the upwelling and the corresponding pathway and freshwater transport of the Pearl River plume. The baroclinic effect is important to intensifying the horizontal velocity at the upwelling front and freshwater transport in the northeastern South China Sea. The freshwater transport flux is further decomposed into advection, vertical shear, and tidal pumping components, and advection is the dominant contributor. As the Yuedong upwelling develops, the zone with a relatively high-pressure gradient moves offshore due to offshore Ekman transport and the shift in the upwelling front, which is responsible for the offshore transport of the river plume. When the river plume is transported to the outer-shelf, sometimes it can be further entrained into eddies, allowing its export to the open sea.

  1. Comparative analysis of QTLs affecting domestication traits between two domesticated x wild pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L., Poaceae) crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, V.; Martel, E.; Allouis, S.; Devos, M.; Lamy, F.; Sarr, A.; Robert, T.

    2002-05-01

    Comparative mapping of Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in domestication of adaptative syndrome traits of pearl millet was realized at the intra-specific level using two F(2) populations derived from domesticated ( Pennisetum glaucum ssp. glaucum) x wild ( Pennisetum glaucum ssp. monodii) crosses. The two domesticated parents analyzed differ in their geographical origins, agronomic characteristics and life cycles. In both populations, two regions of the genome were identified on linkage groups 6 and 7, that controlled most of the key morphological differences. The importance of these two linkage groups reveals their central role both in the developmental control of spikelet structure and in the domestication process of this crop. In contrast, QTLs involved in traits that are components of yield and measure differences in resource allocation (such as the shape of the spike, the number of spikes per plant and plant height) show a low level of correspondence among our two crosses. The results of the comparative mapping between cereals, although preliminary, reveal that genes involved in seed-shattering could correspond in maize, rice and sorghum. The evolutionary significance of our results, and especially the relationships between genome organization and cereal domestication, are discussed. The potential use of these results in pearl millet genetic-resources enhancement are presented.

  2. Hemocytes participate in calcium carbonate crystal formation, transportation and shell regeneration in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Yangjia; Liu, Chuang; Huang, Jingliang; Zheng, Guilan; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2016-04-01

    In this study, light microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscope, hematoxylin-eosin and fluorescent staining, and mass spectrometry methods were employed to observe the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystal formation, hemocyte release and transportation, and hemocyte distribution at the shell regeneration area and to analyse the proteome of hemocytes in the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. The results indicated that intracellular CaCO3 crystals were observed in circulating hemocytes in P. fucata, implying that there was a suitable microenvironment for crystal formation in the hemocytes. This conclusion was further supported by the proteome analysis, in which various biomineralization-related proteins were detected. The crystal-bearing hemocytes, mainly granulocytes, may be released to extrapallial fluid (EPF) by the secretory cavities distributed on the outer surface of the mantle centre. These granulocytes in the EPF and between the regenerated shells were abundant and free. In the regenerated prismatic layer, the granulocytes were fused into each column and fragmented with the duration of shell maturation, suggesting the direct involvement of hemocytes in shell regeneration. Overall, this study provided evidence that hemocytes participated in CaCO3 crystal formation, transportation and shell regeneration in the pearl oyster. These results are helpful to further understand the exact mechanism of hemocyte-mediated biomineralization in shelled molluscs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Amount and type of derelict gear from the declining black pearl oyster aquaculture in Ahe atoll lagoon, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Lo, Cedrik

    2014-06-15

    Pearl oyster aquaculture is a major activity in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. After the economic decline that characterized the last decade, concerns recently rose about discarded installations and materials that supported aquaculture practices and by facilities abandoned after they had to close their activities. In May 2013, a first inventory of the type and amount of pearl farms derelict gear (PFDG) was achieved on 47 sites in Ahe lagoon. Surveys were conducted within and outside the boundaries of aquaculture concessions. Twenty types of PFDG littered the lagoon floor and the water column. The most impacted areas were near abandoned grafting houses with up to nine types of PFDG. Forty-five percent of the sites were impacted, including outside concessions. While management authorities are fully aware of the problem, this first assessment is a wake-up call to stimulate the cleaning of lagoons, enhance awareness among farmers, and identify potential ecological consequences on lagoon ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Washington University Central Neuroimaging Data Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Jenny; Olsen, Timothy; Flavin, John; Ramaratnam, Mohana; Archie, Kevin; Ransford, James; Herrick, Rick; Wallace, Lauren; Cline, Jeanette; Horton, Will; Marcus, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, much of the neuroimaging work at Washington University (WU) has been facilitated by the Central Neuroimaging Data Archive (CNDA), an XNAT-based imaging informatics system. The CNDA is uniquely related to XNAT, as it served as the original codebase for the XNAT open source platform. The CNDA hosts data acquired in over 1000 research studies, encompassing 36,000 subjects and more than 60,000 imaging sessions. Most imaging modalities used in modern human research are represented in the CNDA, including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine (NM), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DX), and ultrasound (US). However, the majority of the imaging data in the CNDA are MR and PET of the human brain. Currently, about 20% of the total imaging data in the CNDA is available by request to external researchers. CNDA's available data includes large sets of imaging sessions and in some cases clinical, psychometric, tissue, or genetic data acquired in the study of Alzheimer's disease, brain metabolism, cancer, HIV, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toke Point, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Toke Point, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  6. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  7. Port Angeles, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Port Angeles, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  8. Westport, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Westport, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  9. La Push, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The La Push, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  10. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Tufted Puffin Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey is key to assessing the status and trends of Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) on their breeding colonies within Washington State and, with additional...

  11. Silviculture of mixed conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; P.H. Cochran

    1981-01-01

    The silviculture of mixed conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington is described. Topics discussed include ecological setting, damaging agents, silviculture, and management. The relevant literature is presented, along with unpublished research, experience, and observations. Research needs are also proposed.

  12. Final Report: Feasibility Study of Biomass in Snohomish County, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl Williams (Tulalip Tribes); Ray Clark (Clark Group)

    2005-01-31

    This report and its attachments summarizes the results of a unique tribal-farmer cooperative study to evaluate the feasibility of building one or more regional anaerobic digestion systems in Snohomish County, Washington.

  13. Neah Bay, Washington Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Neah Bay, Washington Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  14. Southwestern Washington 1/3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3-second Southwest Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1/3-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  15. LiDAR (Terrain), THURSTON COUNTY, WASHINGTON, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Fugro EarthData Company furnished the collection, processing, and development of LiDAR for 825 square miles in Washington (805 square miles of Thurston County and 20...

  16. Endangered Species Case - Washington Toxics Coalition v. EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page provides information on the Washington Toxics Coalition v. EPA case, related to protection of Pacific salmon and steelhead, and links to the biological opinions issued by the NMFS and EPA’s responses.

  17. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  18. Milheto na alimentação de poedeiras = Pearl millet in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da utilização de milheto como alimento energético, nas rações de poedeiras sobre o desempenho e qualidade de ovos, bem como realizar uma avaliação econômica a fim de verificar a viabilidade da utilização de milheto. Foram utilizadas 336 poedeiras comerciais, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, sete repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração-testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja e as demais com 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de substituição ao milho. A inclusão do milheto não influenciou o consumo de ração, porcentagem de postura, conversão alimentar e a qualidade interna e externa dos ovos. Para o índice de coloração de gema, houve redução linear à medida que o nível de milheto foi crescente nas rações. Comrelação à variável econômica, o nível de 20% de substituição por milheto mostrou menor viabilidade, quando comparado ao milho. Assim, o milheto pode substituir o milho em níveis superiores a 20% sem prejuízos para o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos, sendo economicamente viável. Porém, deve-se considerar a necessidade da inclusão de pigmentantes.The present study examined the effects of the use of pearl millet, as energetic source, in the diets of laying hens on the performance and eggs quality, as well as to accomplish an economic evaluation in order to verify the viability of using the pearl millet. Three hundred thirty-six commercial laying hens were used, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments, seven replicates and eight birds for experimental unit. The treatments consisted in a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and the others with different levels of pearl millet (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. The pearl millet inclusion did not influence the feed intake, egg production (%, feed conversion and internal and

  19. Antihemolytic and antioxidant properties of pearl powder against 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ling Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pearl powder, a well-known traditional mineral medicine, is reported to be used for well-being and to treat several diseases from centuries in Taiwan and China. We investigated the in vitro antihemolytic and antioxidant properties of pearl powder that could protect erythrocytes against 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced oxidative damage to membrane proteins/lipids. Human erythrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of pearl powder (50–200 μg/mL for 30 minutes and then exposed to AAPH for 2–6 hours. We found that AAPH alone time dependently increased the oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes, while pearl powder pretreatment substantially inhibited the hemolysis in a concentration-/time-dependent manner. AAPH-induced oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane lipids was evidenced by the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA levels. However, pearl powder remarkably inhibited the malondialdehyde formation, and the 200 μg/mL concentration showed almost similar malondialdehyde values to the control. Furthermore, pearl powder suppressed the AAPH-induced high-molecular-weight protein formation and concomitantly increased the low-molecular-weight proteins in erythrocytes. Antioxidant potential that was measured as superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content was significantly dropped by AAPH incubation, which suggests the vulnerability of erythrocytes to AAPH-induced oxidative stress. Noteworthy, erythrocytes pretreated with pearl powder showed restored superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels against AAPH-induced loss. Our findings conclude that pearl powder attenuate free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage to erythrocyte membrane lipids/proteins. The potent antioxidant property of pearl powder may offer protection from free radical-related diseases.

  20. 78 FR 64006 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington, Seattle, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, University of Washington (Burke Museum), has completed an...

  1. Impact of pCO2 on the energy, reproduction and growth of the shell of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moullac, G.; Soyez, C.; Vidal-Dupiol, J.; Belliard, C.; Fievet, J.; Sham-Koua, M.; Lo-Yat, A.; Saulnier, D.; Gaertner-Mazouni, N.; Gueguen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The possible consequences of acidification on pearl farming are disruption of oyster metabolism and change in growth. In the laboratory, we studied the impact of pCO2 (3540, 1338 and 541 μatm) on the physiology of pearl oysters exposed for 100 days. This experiment was repeated after an interval of one year. Several physiological compartments were examined in pearl oysters: the scope for growth by measuring ingestion, assimilation and oxygen consumption, gametogenesis by means of histological observations, shell growth by measurement and observation by optical and electronic microscopy, and at molecular level by measuring the expression of nine genes of mantle cells implied in the biomineralisation process. Results from both experiments showed that high pCO2 had no effect on scope for growth and gametogenesis. High pCO2 (3540 μatm) significantly slowed down the shell deposit rate at the ventral side and SEM observations of the inside of the shell found signs of chemical dissolution. Of the nine examined genes high pCO2significantly decreased the expression level of one gene (Pmarg-PUSP 6). This study showed that shell growth of the pearl oyster would be slowed down without threatening the species since the management of energy and reproduction functions appeared to be preserved. Further investigations should be conducted on the response of offspring to acidification.

  2. Lipid nanocarriers (GeluPearl) containing amphiphilic lipid Gelucire 50/13 as a novel stabilizer: fabrication, characterization and evaluation for oral drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Date, Abhijit A; Nagarsenker, Mangal S [Department of Pharmaceutics, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E.), Mumbai (India); Vador, Nimish; Jagtap, Aarti, E-mail: mangal_nag511@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: mangal@bcp.edu.in [Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E.), Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-08

    Purpose. To evaluate the ability of Gelucire 50/13 (an amphiphilic lipid excipient) to act as a stabilizer for lipid nanocarriers such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and to establish the ability of Gelucire 50/13 based lipid nanocarriers to improve oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs using repaglinide (RPG) as a model drug. Methods. The ability of Gelucire 50/13 to nanosize various solid lipids was evaluated. The ability of Gelucire 50/13 to yield NLC was evaluated by using Precirol ATO 5 as a model solid lipid and various liquid lipids (oils). Gelucire 50/13 based NLC (GeluPearl) were evaluated for their ability to improve the efficacy of RPG on oral administration in comparison to RPG tablets. The short term stability of RPG-GeluPearl was evaluated at 25 deg. C/60% RH. Results. Gelucire 50/13 could successfully yield SLN and NLC of various solid lipids, demonstrating its potential to act as a novel stabilizer. DSC studies indicated that Gelucire 50/13 interacts with Precirol ATO 5 and this interaction suppresses polymorphic transitions of both the components. RPG-GeluPearl exhibited significantly higher anti-diabetic activity compared to marketed RPG tablets. RPG-GeluPearl demonstrated good colloidal and chemical stability at the end of 1 month.

  3. The Use of the String of Pearls Locking Plate System in the Stabilisation of a Comminuted Calcaneal Fracture in a Giant Breed Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Scrimgeour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight-year-old male Pyrenean mountain dog was presented with a comminuted fracture of the right calcaneus following motor vehicle trauma. The fracture was stabilised with a plate-rod construct, using the String of Pearls locking plate system and an intramedullary pin. Healing was uncomplicated.

  4. Enhancing Learning in Statistics Classes Through The Use of Concrete Historical Examples: The Space Shuttle Challenger, Pearl Harbor, and the RMS Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R.; Webb, Farrell J.; Castelo, Carlos S.; Akagi, Cynthia G.; Jensen, Erick J.; Ditto, Rose M.; Spencer Carver, Elaine; Brown, Beverlyn F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of historical events as examples for teaching college level statistics courses. Focuses on examples of the space shuttle Challenger, Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), and the RMS Titanic. Finds real life examples can bridge a link to short term experiential learning and provide a means for long term understanding of statistics. (KDR)

  5. [Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-guang; Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuan-hang; Lü, Wan-Ming; Zhou, Yan

    2007-07-01

    The concentration of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its spatio-temporal distribution were researched in atmosphere of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by sampling with air sampling canisters and analyzing with pre-concentrator and gas chromatograph-mass spectrum instrument. The results showed that 1) MTBE could be prevalently checked in atmosphere of traffic area, industrial area, residential area and commercial area of the PRD, and its range of hourly average concentration in the long-term observation was from 0 - 1.250 microg m(-3), the summer had more serious pollution than the spring, and urban was the central area of high MTBE concentration, and suburban in the downwind was obviously polluted by the urban air. 2) During the enhanced observation in summertime, the diurnal average concentration of Guangzhou urban site was (1.520 +/- 0.370) microg m(-3), which was about 7 times of Huadou site in the downwind of Guangzhou and over 100 times of Conghua site in the background of Guangzhou. In urban, 2 peak values appeared in the period of 10:00 - 12:00 and 16:00 - 18:00 respectively, and the nighttime had the lowest average concentration, but the suburban in the downwind had the peak value in the nighttime. 3) During the enhanced observation in wintertime, the diurnal average concentration of Guangzhou urban site was (0.950 +/- 0.240) microg m(-3), which was 3.6 times of Xinken site in the downwind of Guangzhou. Several peak values appeared on the diurnal variation, the high concentration period of urban was in 18:00 - 22:00, and that of suburban was in 04:00 - 10:00 of the next day. 4) When it was weak sunshine, the concentration of MTBE beside the urban traffic roadside was decreasing with the height increasing, but when it was strong sunshine, it was increasing with the height increasing. So, except the original emission from the automobiles, MTBE still had the secondary pollution sources formed by air photochemical reaction.

  6. [Distribution of Regional Pollution and the Characteristics of Vertical Wind Field in the Pearl River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Wu, Dui; Fan, Shao-jia

    2015-11-01

    Based on the data of hourly PM2.5 concentration of 56 environmental monitoring stations and 9 cities over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, the distributions of PM2.5 pollution in PRD region were analyzed by systematic cluster analysis and correlational analysis. It was found that the regional pollution could be divided into 3 types. The first type was the pollution occurred in Dongguan, Guangzhou, Foshan and Jiangmen (I type), and the second type was the pollution occurred in Zhongshan, Zhuhai, Shenzhen and Huizhou (II type), while the last type was the pollution only occurred in Zhaoqing (III type). During the study period, they occurred 47, 7 and 128 days, respectively. During events of pollution type I, except Zhuhai, Shenzhen and Huizhou, the PM2.5 concentrations of other cities were generally high, while the PM2.5 concentration in whole PRD region was over 50.0 μg x m(-3) during events of pollution type II. The regions with higher PM2.5 concentration was mainly concentrated in Zhaoqing, Guangzhou and Foshan during events of pollution type III. The wind data from 4 wind profile radars located in PRD region was used to study the characteristics of vertical wind field of these 3 pollution types. It was found that the wind profiles of type I and III were similar that low layer and high layer were controlled by the southeast wind and the southwest wind, respectively. For type II, the low layer and high layer were influenced by northerly wind and westerly wind, respectively. Compared with other types, the wind speed and ventilation index of type II. were much higher, and the variation of wind direction at lower-middle-layer was much smaller. When PRD region was influenced by northerly winds, the PM2.5 concentration in the entire PRD region was higher. When PRD region was controlled by southeast wind, the PM2.5 concentrations of I and II areas were relatively lower, while the pollution in III area was relatively heavier.

  7. Light Absorption of Brown Carbon Aerosol in the Pearl River Delta Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    X.F. Huang, J.F. Yuan, L.M. Cao, J. Cui, C.N. Huang, Z.J. Lan and L.Y. He Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, ChinaCorresponding author. Tel.: +86 755 26032532; fax: +86 755 26035332. E-mail address: huangxf@pku.edu.cn (X. F. Huang). Abstract: The strong spectral dependence of light absorption of brown carbon (BrC) aerosol has been recognized in recent decades. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) of ambient aerosol was widely used in previous studies to attribute light absorption of brown carbon at shorter wavelengths, with a theoretical assumption that the AAE of black carbon (BC) aerosol equals to unit. In this study, the AAE method was improved by statistical extrapolation based on ambient measurements in the polluted seasons in typical urban and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China. A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were used to explore the relationship between the ambient measured AAE and the ratio of organic aerosol to BC aerosol, in order to extract the more realistic AAE by pure BC aerosol, which were found to be 0.86, 0.82 and 1.02 at 405nm and 0.70, 0.71, and 0.86 at 532nm in the campaigns of urban-winter, urban-fall, and rural-fall, respectively. Roadway tunnel experiment results further supported the effectiveness of the obtained AAE for pure BC aerosol. In addition, biomass burning experiments proved higher spectral dependence of more-BrC environment and further verified the reliability of the instruments' response. Then, the average light absorption contribution of BrC aerosol was calculated to be 11.7, 6.3 and 12.1% (with total relative uncertainty of 7.5, 6.9 and 10.0%) at 405nm and 10.0, 4.1 and 5.5% (with total relative uncertainty of 6.5, 8.6 and 15.4%) at 532nm of the three campaigns, respectively. These results indicate that the

  8. Diversity of fish sound types in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Repetitive species-specific sound enables the identification of the presence and behavior of soniferous species by acoustic means. Passive acoustic monitoring has been widely applied to monitor the spatial and temporal occurrence and behavior of calling species. Methods Underwater biological sounds in the Pearl River Estuary, China, were collected using passive acoustic monitoring, with special attention paid to fish sounds. A total of 1,408 suspected fish calls comprising 18,942 pulses were qualitatively analyzed using a customized acoustic analysis routine. Results We identified a diversity of 66 types of fish sounds. In addition to single pulse, the sounds tended to have a pulse train structure. The pulses were characterized by an approximate 8 ms duration, with a peak frequency from 500 to 2,600 Hz and a majority of the energy below 4,000 Hz. The median inter-pulsepeak interval (IPPI of most call types was 9 or 10 ms. Most call types with median IPPIs of 9 ms and 10 ms were observed at times that were exclusive from each other, suggesting that they might be produced by different species. According to the literature, the two section signal types of 1 + 1 and 1 + N10 might belong to big-snout croaker (Johnius macrorhynus, and 1 + N19 might be produced by Belanger’s croaker (J. belangerii. Discussion Categorization of the baseline ambient biological sound is an important first step in mapping the spatial and temporal patterns of soniferous fishes. The next step is the identification of the species producing each sound. The distribution pattern of soniferous fishes will be helpful for the protection and management of local fishery resources and in marine environmental impact assessment. Since the local vulnerable Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis mainly preys on soniferous fishes, the fine-scale distribution pattern of soniferous fishes can aid in the conservation of this species. Additionally, prey and predator

  9. [Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Dian-Rong; Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Hong-Da; Dong, Yan-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of < 40 m, especially at 10-20 m. The average stock density of the crustaceans was estimated to be 99.60 kg x km(-2), with the highest (198.93 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest (42.35 kg x km(-2)) in spring. Of the 3 species groups, crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg x km(-2)), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg x km(-2)), and squills (18.88 kg x km(-2)). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest density (0.67 kg x km(-2)) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest

  10. Oxidizable carbon and humic substances in rotation systems with brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loss

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The crop-livestock integration system significantly increases the carbon content in chemical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. This study aimed to evaluate chemical indicators of SOM attributes for sites under brachiaria/livestock and pearl millet/no livestock in Goias, Brazil. A third area covered with natural Cerrado vegetation (Cerradão served as reference. Soil was randomly sampled at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. Total organic carbon stocks (TOC, oxidizable carbon fractions (OCF (F1>F2>F3>F4, carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions were evaluated. F1/F4, F1+F2/F3+F4, C-HAF/C-FAF and (C-HAF+C-FAF/C-HUM indices were calculated, as well as stocks chemical SOM fractions. Brachiaria/livestock produced greater TOC stocks than pearl millet/no livestock (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. In terms of OCF, brachiaria/livestock generally exhibited higher levels in F1, F2, F4 and F1/F4 than pearl millet/no livestock. C-HUM (0-10 cm and C-HAF (0-20 cm stocks were larger in brachiaria/livestock than pearl millet/no livestock. Compared to the Cerradão, brachiaria/livestock locations displayed higher values for TOC (5-10 and 10-20 cm, C-HAF and C-HAF/C-FAF (5-10 cm stocks. TOC, C-HAF stock and OCF show that land management with brachiaria/livestock was more efficient in increasing SOM than pearl millet/no livestock. Moreover, when compared with pearl millet/no livestock, brachiaria/livestock provided a more balanced distribution of very labile (F1 and recalcitrant (F4 carbon throughout soil layers, greater SOM humification. Brachiaria/livestock leads to higher values of F1 and F4 in depth when compared to pearl millet/livestock and provides a more homogeneous distribution of C-FAF and C-HAF in depth compared to Cerradão.

  11. Environmental contaminant analysis of sea otters and prey from coastal Washington of the Washington Maritime NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analyses of blood and liver samples from live captured sea otters and liver samples from beach-cast sea otter carcasses off the remote Washington coast indicate...

  12. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  13. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. [Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Products Around the Pearl River Delta. South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Deng, Jie-fan; Wang, Ke; Liang, Wen-li; Zeng, Cai-ming; Peng, Si-qing; Zhang, Tian-bin; Yang, Guo-yi

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate and assess the distribution of pathalic acid easters (PAEs) in agricultural products from typical areas of the Pearl River Delta, South China, 131 agricultural products were sampled for determination of 6 PAEs priority pollutants classified by the U. S. EPA by GC-FID. The results showed that the total contents of the PAEs (sigma PAEs) in agricultural products samples ranged from nd to 79.86 mg x kg(-1) and the mean value was 2.84 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 98.5%. The average concentrations of sigma PAEs in different types of agricultural products were ordered by vegetables (3.03 mg x kg(-1)) > rice (2.52 mg x kg(-1)) > fruits (1.26 mg x kg(-1)). The mean concentration of PAEs distributed in the four typical cities of the Pearl River Delta, and decreased in the sequence of Zhuhai (6.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Dongguan (2.59 mg x kg(-1)) > Huizhou (1.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Zhongshan (1.12 mg x kg(-1)). Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) contributed more than 90. 8% of the total PAEs in samples, and were the main components of PAEs in agricultural products from the Pearl River Delta, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. Meanwhile, the average concentrations of sigma PAEs in cabbage mustard, lettuce occurred in Zhuhai and Dongguan cities, followed by lettuce and leaf lettuce in the corresponding DEHP from Zhuhai city, both exceeded the suggested standards in U.S.A. and Europe and were of high health risk. There were significant differences among 14 various vegetables in the contents of the 6 PAEs compounds, and the sigma PAEs contents in cabbage mustard and lettuce as part of leafy vegetables were higher than those in other vegetables, while the lowest were detected in flowering cabbage and edible amaranth. Therefore, the type of vegetables and its growing environment exposed to the atmosphere and soil were the main factors that significantly affected their accumulation of

  15. Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima : an Ironic Comparison = Pearl Harbor ve Hiroşima Saldırilarının İronik bir Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. MAHONEY

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century, veterans of America's wars have shown extraordinary human longevity in the postwar eras. As a result, contemporary public historical interpretations of the American second world war experience have been influenced by veterans' perceptions of historical issues for a longer time than was true of postwar eras before the twentieth centuıy. Public historical debates in the United States have recently focused on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (1941 and the American attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945. These events may seem quite dated by now, but they have remarkable contemporary resonance in light of debates over proliferation of nuclear weapons and tactics of so-called pre-emptive warfare. Though the aerial attacks are often related in popular American perception, the truth is they were incommensurate events in terms of their military and political objectives, their physical scale and results, and the natures of their targets.

  16. Butyltin Concentrations in Selected US Harbor Systems. A Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    ecological resources exist in both Pearl Harbo , and Honolulu Harbor. .0 Pearl Harbor exhibits the characteristically high biological complexity and...Naval Shipyard. Bremerton, Washington; Pearl Harbor and Honolulu Harbor/Kewalo Basin. Hawaii; Mayport-St. John’s River Complex. Florida; Charleston...18 Bremerton (Sinclair Inlet) Washington ....................................... 20 Pearl Harbor. Honolulu Harbor and

  17. Response of Fresh Water Distributions on Abrupt Changes of Topography in the Pearl River Networks of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Shousheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-D numerical model was used to study the response of fresh water transports and distributions on the abrupt changes of topography in the Pearl River Networks (RNPRD. The results indicate that both the tidal forces in Jiaomen and Humen and the runoff power in Modaomen are intensified, which leads to a fresh water movement from the northeast to the southwest side of the West and North River Delta Networks. However, the water distributions in the East River Delta Networks remain almost the same. The residual currents in the RNPRD decreased dramatically in the West and North River Delta Networks due to the increasing volume of the river channels. This decreasing trend was intensified in the North River Main Channel due to the annual water discharge redistribution in the RNPRD.

  18. The level of mercury contamination in mariculture sites at the estuary of Pearl River and the potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, H C; Zhao, K Y; Ding, W Y; Li, J B; Liang, P; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the Hg contamination in mariculture sites located at the estuary of Pearl River was to investigate with an attempt to analyse associated health risks of dietary exposure to both total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) in cultured fish and shellfish. The highest total mercury concentration (7.037 ± 0.556 ng L(-1)) of seawater was observed at Zhuhai Estuary. The Hg concentrations of sediment in Guishan Island were significantly higher (p mercury methylation mostly occurred at the sediment-water interface. Results of health risk assessments showed that fish consumption would impose a higher risk to children but less to adults, while shellfish produced in the studied area was safe for consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological nutrient recovery from culturing of pearl gourami (Trichogaster leerii ) by cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in aquaponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdom, Shima; Shekarabi, Seyed Pezhman Hosseini; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using different densities of cherry tomato as a bio-filter in a simple media-based aquaponic system to recycle nutrients from pearl gourami intensive culture wastewater was evaluated. Water quality parameters including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in outlet of the aquaponic system during a 60-day experimental period. Cherry tomato was planted at four densities of 0 (control), 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 9 (T3) plants per aquaponic unit with a constant fish stock density. Each treatment was equipped with aquaponic systems containing fish tank and plant growing bed. Productivity of the system was measured by recording the fish and plant growth indices. The potential in removing nitrogen of the water was the highest in T3 (with nine plants) compared to other treatments (p home-made production system.

  20. Frost Resistance and Permeability of Cement Stabilized Gravel used as Filling Material for Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Pearl-Chain Bridge Technology introduces a new innovative arch bridge solution which com-bines the statical advantages of an arch bridge with a minimum of traffic disturbance. The arch-shaped substructure is stabilized by a filling material, e.g. cement stabilized gravel, which should meet...... several requirements on its moisture properties. In this paper the frost resistance, the liquid water permeability and the water vapour permeability of cement stabilized gravel are examined for two different cement contents. It is found that a small increase in cement content from 4% to 5% increases...... the 28-days compressive strength from 6.2 MPa to 12.3 MPa. The frost resistance of cement stabilized gravel with 5% cement content is better than for cement stabilized gravel with 4% cement content. The liquid water permeability coefficient and the water vapour permeability coefficient are significantly...

  1. Trophic relationships and health risk assessments of trace metals in the aquaculture pond ecosystem of Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu Bon; Nie, Xiang Ping; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium, lead, zinc, Chromium, copper, nickel and manganese in sediments and in aquatic organisms were collected from the aquaculture pond ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China and analyzed to evaluate bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in food chains, as well as the potential health risk of exposure to the Hong Kong residents via dietary intake of these aquatic products. The results revealed that based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor, omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated more trace metals from sediment than carnivorous fish. Concentrations of seven trace metals in aquaculture pond of PRD significantly decreased with increasing trophic levels, showing that these trace metals were trophically diluted in predatory and omnivorous food chains. The hazard index values of all fish species were smaller than 1 for adults and children, indicating there was no health risk from the multiple metals via ingestion of the freshwater fish for the inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Optimization of ecological footprint model based on environmental pollution accounts: a case study in Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zeng, Hui; Wei, Jian-bing; Zhang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Hong-wei

    2008-08-01

    To solve the problem of ignoring the calculation of environment pollution in traditional ecological footprint model accounts, this paper put forward an optimized ecological footprint (EF) model, taking the pollution footprint into account. In the meantime, the environmental capacity's calculation was also added into the system of ecological capacity, and further used to do ecological assessment of Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in 2005. The results showed a perfect inosculation between the ecological footprint and the development characteristics and spatial pattern, and illustrated that the optimized EF model could make a better orientation for the environmental pollution in the system, and also, could roundly explain the environmental effects of human activity. The optimization of ecological footprint model had better integrality and objectivity than traditional models.

  3. Distributions of Core- and Polar- Archaeal Lipids in the Lower Pearl River and Estuary: Implications for TEX86 Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, C.; Wei, Y.; Dong, H.; Liu, W.

    2011-12-01

    Core isoprenoidal glycerol dibiphytanyl dlycerol tetraethers (C-iGDGTs) are the most widespread archaeal lipids in sediments and water, and have been used to construct a molecular proxy, TEX86, for studying past sea surface temperatures. However, recent analyses of intact polar (IP)-iGDGTs that are indicative of living archaea suggest that IP-iGDGTs produced in situ in marine sediments may subsequently convert IP-iGDGTs to C-iGDGTs after the cell death, thus compromising the validity of TEX86 for paleoclimate research. To help address this question, we investigated the distribution and abundance of IP- and C- iGDGTs in suspended particulates and surface sediments from the lower Pearl River and estuary. Our results show a strong positive correlation between the C- and P-iGDGTs pools, especially the iGDGT-0 (R2 = 0.786, pCrenarchaeota.

  4. Cave Pearl Data Logger: A Flexible Arduino-Based Logging Platform for Long-Term Monitoring in Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, Patricia A; Mallon, Edward K

    2018-02-09

    A low-cost data logging platform is presented that provides long-term operation in remote or submerged environments. Three premade "breakout boards" from the open-source Arduino ecosystem are assembled into the core of the data logger. Power optimization techniques are presented which extend the operational life of this module-based design to >1 year on three alkaline AA batteries. Robust underwater housings are constructed for these loggers using PVC fittings. Both the logging platform and the enclosures, are easy to build and modify without specialized tools or a significant background in electronics. This combination turns the Cave Pearl data logger into a generalized prototyping system and this design flexibility is demonstrated with two field studies recording drip rates in a cave and water flow in a flooded cave system. This paper describes a complete DIY solution, suitable for a wide range of challenging deployment conditions.

  5. InSAR Detection of Ground Deformation in Megalopolises of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing

    Megalopolises in the Pearl River Delta, including Guangzhou and Hong Kong, have experienced various degree of ground subsidence. The causes can be divided into two categories: natural subsidence and the human-induced subsidence. Monitoring the ground subsidence can not only help people to find out the distributions in both spatial and temporal fields, but also guide people to minimize the hazard ahead. Thus, it is significant to monitor the ground subsidence accurately, timely and frequently. This dissertation research uses the Environmental Satellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT ASAR) data received at the Chinese University of Hong Kong Satellite Remote Sensing Receiving Station and SAR Interferometry (InSAR) technology as a powerful tool for large-scale ground deformation monitoring in Guangzhou and Hong Kong areas. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method is used to detect ground deformation in the urban area of Guangzhou city. A ground deformation rate map with scattered distribution of point targets shows the maximum subsidence (rise) rate as high as -26 to -20 mma-1 (16-21 mma-1 ), implying that the study area is an active zone for ground deformation. Based on the point target map, a contour ground deformation rate map is generated. All the six ground collapse accidents that occurred in 2007-2008 fall within the subsidence zones, qualitatively validating the IPTA results. Ground subsidence and geological conditions on Datansha Island are examined. The results indicate that the local geological conditions and underground engineering projects are responsible for ground subsidence and ground collapse accidents occurred there. To interpret the distribution of active ground subsidence zones, a local geological map is used as a reference for generating a series of thematic maps. The results show that geological faults, rock distribution, over-development, and underground engineering projects may be four factors leading to the distribution of

  6. Nighttime observation and chemistry of HOx in the Pearl River Delta and Beijing in summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, K. D.; Rohrer, F.; Holland, F.; Fuchs, H.; Brauers, T.; Oebel, A.; Dlugi, R.; Hu, M.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nighttime HOx chemistry was investigated in two ground-based field campaigns (PRIDE-PRD2006 and CAREBEIJING2006) in summer 2006 in China by comparison of measured and modeled concentration data of OH and HO2. The measurement sites were located in a rural environment in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) under urban influence and in a suburban area close to Beijing, respectively. In both locations, significant nighttime concentrations of radicals were observed under conditions with high total OH reactivities of about 40-50 s-1 in PRD and 25 s-1 near Beijing. For OH, the nocturnal concentrations were within the range of (0.5-3) × 106 cm-3, implying a significant nighttime oxidation rate of pollutants on the order of several ppb per hour. The measured nighttime concentration of HO2 was about (0.2-5) × 108 cm-3, containing a significant, model-estimated contribution from RO2 as an interference. A chemical box model based on an established chemical mechanism is capable of reproducing the measured nighttime values of the measured peroxy radicals and kOH, but underestimates in both field campaigns the observed OH by about 1 order of magnitude. Sensitivity studies with the box model demonstrate that the OH discrepancy between measured and modeled nighttime OH can be resolved, if an additional ROx production process (about 1 ppb h-1) and additional recycling (RO2 → HO2 → OH) with an efficiency equivalent to 1 ppb NO is assumed. The additional recycling mechanism was also needed to reproduce the OH observations at the same locations during daytime for conditions with NO mixing ratios below 1 ppb. This could be an indication that the same missing process operates at day and night. In principle, the required primary ROx source can be explained by ozonolysis of terpenoids, which react faster with ozone than with OH in the nighttime atmosphere. However, the amount of these highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) would require a strong local source, for which

  7. Geochemistry, grouping and origins of crude oils in the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin, offshore South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry

    2003-07-01

    Thirty-seven crude oils and 20 source rocks were selected for detailed molecular geochemical and isotopic analyses in order to establish the genetic relationships between the discovered oils and various petroleum source facies in the Western Pearl River Basin, offshore South China Sea. Four groups of oils were identified. The Group I oils, distributed in the southwestern WC19-1 field of Wenchang B sag, are characterized by high abundance of 4-methyl steranes relative to regular steranes, low abundance of bicadinanes and high {delta}{sup 13}C values, showing good correlation with the medium-deep lacustrine source facies in the Wenchang Formation. The Group II oils represent the majority of the discovered oil reserves in the study area, including those from the Qionghai uplift and the northeast block of the WC19-1 oil field. These oils have moderate concentrations of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, abundant bicadinanes and low values, and correlate well with the shallow lake source facies of the Wenchang Formation in the Wenchang B and A sags. The group III oils, found in the Wenchang A sag and surrounding areas, are devoid of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, with abundant bicadinanes and similar {delta}{sup 13}C values to those of the Group II oils. These characteristics show close affinity with the coal-bearing sequence in the Enping Formation, thus suggesting a coaly source for these oils. The Group IV oils, found only in the WC8-3 field, display intermediate chemical compositions between the Group II and Group III oils, most likely from mixed sources in the Wenchang A sag. These oil-source genetic relationships suggest dominantly short distance oil migration and thus strong source facies controls on the geographic distribution of oil and gas fields within the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin.

  8. Geochemistry, grouping and origins of crude oils in the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin, offshore South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baojia Huang; Xianming Xiao [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangdong (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry; Mingqiang Zhang [CNOOC Nanhai West Research Institute, Guangdong (China)

    2003-07-01

    Thirty-seven crude oils and 20 source rocks were selected for detailed molecular geochemical and isotopic analyses in order to establish the genetic relationships between the discovered oils and various petroleum source facies in the Western Pearl River Basin, offshore South China Sea. Four groups of oils were identified. The Group I oils, distributed in the southwestern WC19-1 field of Wenchang B sag, are characterized by high abundance of 4-methyl steranes relative to regular steranes, low abundance of bicadinanes and high {delta}{sup 13}C values, showing good correlation with the medium-deep lacustrine source facies in the Wenchang Formation. The Group II oils represent the majority of the discovered oil reserves in the study area, including those from the Qionghai uplift and the northeast block of the WC19-1 oil field. These oils have moderate concentrations of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, abundant bicadinanes and low {delta}{sup 13}C values, and correlate well with the shallow lake source facies of the Wenchang Formation in the Wenchang B and A sags. The group III oils, found in the Wenchang A sag and surrounding areas, are devoid of C{sub 30} 4-methylsteranes, with abundant bicadinanes and similar {delta}{sup 13}C values to those of the Group II oils. These characteristics show close affinity with the coal-bearing sequence in the Enping Formation thus suggesting a coaly source for these oils. The Group IV oils, found only in the WC8-3 field, display intermediate chemical compositions between the Group II and Group III oils, most likely from mixed sources in the Wenchang A sag. These oil-source genetic relationships suggest dominantly short distance oil migration and thus strong source facies controls on the geographic distribution of oil and gas fields within the Western Pearl River Mouth Basin. (author)

  9. Far-reaching transport of Pearl River plume water by upwelling jet in the northeastern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Pan, Jiayi; Jiang, Yuwu; Lin, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Satellite images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) show that there was a belt of turbid water appearing along an upwelling front near the Chinese coast of Guangdong, and indicate that the turbid water of the Pearl River plume water could be transported to a far-reaching area east of the Taiwan Bank. Numerical modeling results are consistent with the satellite observations, and reveal that a strong jet exists at the upwelling front with a speed as high as 0.8 m s- 1, which acts as a pathway for transporting the high-turbidity plume water. The dynamical analysis suggests that geostrophic equilibrium dominates in the upwelling front and plume areas, and the baroclinicity of the upwelling front resulting from the horizontal density gradient is responsible for the generation of the strong jet, which enhances the far-reaching transport of the terrigenous nutrient-rich water of the Pearl River plume. Model sensitivity analyses also confirm that this jet persists as long as the upwelling front exists, even when the wind subsides and becomes insignificant. Further idealized numerical model experiments indicate that the formation and persistence of the upwelling front jet depend on the forcing strength of the upwelling-favorable wind. The formation time of the jet varies from 15 to 158 h as the stress of the upwelling-favorable wind changes from 0.2 to 0.01 N m- 2. With the persistent transport of the nutrient-rich plume water, biophysical activities can be promoted significantly in the far-reaching destination area of the oligotrophic water.

  10. Continuous vertical aerosol profiling with a multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, Birgit; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Althausen, Dietrich; Deng, Ruru

    2017-06-01

    A dataset of particle optical properties of the highly polluted atmosphere over the Pearl River Delta (PRD), Guangzhou, China, is presented in this paper. The data were derived from the measurements of a multi-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar PollyXT and a co-located AERONET sun photometer. The measurement campaign was conducted from November 2011 to mid-June 2012. These are the first Raman lidar measurements in the PRD that lasted for several months. A mean value of aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.54 ± 0.33 was observed by the sun photometer at 500 nm in the polluted atmosphere over this megacity for the whole measurement period. The lidar profiles frequently show lofted aerosol layers, which reach altitudes of up to 2 to 3 km and, especially during the spring season, up to 5 km. These layers contain between 12 and 56 % of the total AOD, with the highest values in spring. The aerosol types in these lofted layers are classified by their optical properties. The observed lidar ratio values range from 30 to 80 sr with a mean value of 48.0 ± 10.7 sr at 532 nm. The linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm lies mostly below 5 %, with a mean value of 3.6 ± 3.7 %. The majority of the Ångström exponents lie between 0.5 and 1.5, indicating a mixture of fine- and coarse-mode aerosols. These results reveal that mostly urban pollution particles mixed with particles produced from biomass and industrial burning are present in the atmosphere above the Pearl River Delta. Trajectory analyses show that these pollution mixtures arise mainly from local and regional sources.

  11. Gonad transcriptome analysis of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera: identification of potential sex differentiation and sex determining genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaniniuraitemoana, Vaihiti; Huvet, Arnaud; Levy, Peva; Klopp, Christophe; Lhuillier, Emeline; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Gueguen, Yannick; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2014-06-18

    Black pearl farming is based on culture of the blacklip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Mollusca, lophotrochozoa), a protandrous hermaphrodite species. At first maturation, all individuals are males. The female sex appears progressively from two years old, which represents a limitation for broodstock conditioning for aquaculture production. In marine mollusks displaying hermaphroditic features, data on sexual determinism and differentiation, including the molecular sex determining cascade, are scarce. To increase genomic resources and identify the molecular mechanisms whereby gene expression may act in the sexual dimorphism of P. margaritifera, we performed gonad transcriptome analysis. The gonad transcriptome of P. margaritifera was sequenced from several gonadic samples of males and females at different development stages, using a Next-Generation-Sequencing method and RNAseq technology. After Illumina sequencing, assembly and annotation, we obtained 70,147 contigs of which 62.2% shared homologies with existing protein sequences, and 9% showed functional annotation with Gene Ontology terms. Differential expression analysis identified 1,993 differentially expressed contigs between the different categories of gonads. Clustering methods of samples revealed that the sex explained most of the variation in gonad gene expression. K-means clustering of differentially expressed contigs showed 815 and 574 contigs were more expressed in male and female gonads, respectively. The analysis of these contigs revealed the presence of known specific genes coding for proteins involved in sex determinism and/or differentiation, such as dmrt and fem-1 like for males, or foxl2 and vitellogenin for females. The specific gene expression profiles of pmarg-fem1-like, pmarg-dmrt and pmarg-foxl2 in different reproductive stages (undetermined, sexual inversion and regression) suggest that these three genes are potentially involved in the sperm-oocyte switch in P. margaritifera. The study

  12. Diet and food consumption of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Cichlidae: relationships with gender and sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Bastos

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis for the aquarium fish trade worldwide and its wide distribution, many aspects of its biology, such as the relationships between its feeding ecology and reproductive behavior, are not fully understood in natural conditions on its native habitat. In this paper, we investigated its diet focusing on how differences in diet and food consumption are related to differences in gender and sexual maturity. The digestive tract of each individual was dissected and had its content analyzed, whereas each gonad was microscopically analyzed to determine gender (male/female and sexual maturity (immature/mature. A total of 28 females and 31 males were analyzed. Mature individuals were more common than immature specimens both for males (64.50% and females (64.30%. The analysis of 52 individuals with non-empty digestive tracts revealed a diet comprised of 27 items. According to the Index of Alimentary importance (%IAi, the most important food items in the diet were Gastropoda (37.30%, fragments of vascular plants (15.16%, detritus (10.14%, Amphipoda (9.24%, and fish scales (6.29%. Mature males had more empty stomachs (65.00% when compared to immature males (27.27% and immature (55.56% and mature females (40.00%. Also, mature females seemed to have more food consumption (greater mean values of total volume in their digestive tracts than mature males. Some hypotheses are proposed in order to distinguish if this gender-based difference in food consumption in mature individuals of the pearl cichlid could be associated with the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics or with asymmetrical time invested in parental care activities.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of lustrin A, a matrix protein from shell and pearl nacre of Haliotis rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X; Belcher, A M; Hansma, P K; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E

    1997-12-19

    A specialized extracellular matrix of proteins and polysaccharides controls the morphology and packing of calcium carbonate crystals and becomes occluded within the mineralized composite during formation of the molluscan shell and pearl. We have cloned and characterized the cDNA coding for Lustrin A, a newly described matrix protein from the nacreous layer of the shell and pearl produced by the abalone, Haliotis rufescens, a marine gastropod mollusc. The full-length cDNA is 4,439 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame coding for 1,428 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals a highly modular structure with a high proportion of Ser (16%), Pro (14%), Gly (13%), and Cys (9%). The protein contains ten highly conserved cysteine-rich domains interspersed by eight proline-rich domains; a glycine- and serine-rich domain lies between the two cysteine-rich domains nearest the C terminus, and these are followed by a basic domain and a C-terminal domain that is highly similar to known protease inhibitors. The glycine- and serine-rich domain and at least one of the proline-rich domains show sequence similarity to proteins of two extracellular matrix superfamilies (one of which also is involved in the mineralized matrixes of bone, dentin, and avian eggshell). The arrangement of alternating cysteine-rich domains and proline-rich domains is strikingly similar to that found in frustulins, the proteins that are integral to the silicified cell wall of diatoms. Its modular structure suggests that Lustrin A is a multifunctional protein, whereas the occurrence of related sequences suggest it is a member of a multiprotein family.

  14. Characterization of gas hydrate distribution using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin

    2016-01-01

    A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of gas hydrate distribution in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that gas hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic gas from the deeper sediment section into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial distribution of the gas hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of gas hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free gas. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the gas hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of gas from deeper thermogenic sources control the distribution of gas hydrates in this basin.

  15. Ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in the Pearl River and effects on the estuarine coastal waters: Nutrient management strategy in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J.; Broom, Malcolm; Chung, C. H.

    The Pearl River is the second largest river in China, and has a 454,000 km 2 drainage basin. Excess nutrients can result in algal blooms, or even harmful algal blooms and subsequent dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption can lead to hypoxia. However, not all nutrients are equal; only one nutrient relative to other nutrients is the most limiting for algal biomass production and the other nutrients that are in excess cannot be used to produce a further increase in an algal bloom. Therefore, the strategy of nutrient pollution control is to remove the most limiting nutrient from the sewage effluent to minimize eutrophication impacts on the receiving waters. This, in turn, determines the type and level of sewage treatment. In the Pearl River, nitrogen (N) is very high and phosphorus (P) is relatively low, leading to a very high N:P ratio. The Pearl River flows into coastal waters in the South China Sea and heavily influences Hong Kong waters located to the east of the Pearl River estuary. When the Hong Kong government planned to upgrade the domestic sewage facility to biological treatment, this triggered the scientific question of which nutrient, N or P is the most limiting nutrient and the answer to this question became critical in making the management decision on the treatment facilities for removal of N or P, which bears a huge financial implication. In the past, because N is high in southern waters, it was thought that any addition of N would exceed the environmental assimilation capacity and result in algal blooms. Therefore, N has been typically considered for removal from sewage effluent. However, evidence revealed that P was the most limiting nutrient in the southern waters of Hong Kong and it actually limits phytoplankton biomass accumulation and potentially limits bacterial DO consumption. Hence, the removal of P has been suggested to receive priority over N removal, if there is a need for the future elevation of treatment levels. However, as this conclusion is

  16. Thatcher Bay, Washington, Nearshore Restoration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, Joel; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Grossman, Eric E.; Elliott, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The San Juan Archipelago, located at the confluence of the Puget Sound, the Straits of Juan de Fuca in Washington State, and the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, provides essential nearshore habitat for diverse salmonid, forage fish, and bird populations. With 408 miles of coastline, the San Juan Islands provide a significant portion of the available nearshore habitat for the greater Puget Sound and are an essential part of the regional efforts to restore Puget Sound (Puget Sound Shared Strategy 2005). The nearshore areas of the San Juan Islands provide a critical link between the terrestrial and marine environments. For this reason the focus on restoration and conservation of nearshore habitat in the San Juan Islands is of paramount importance. Wood-waste was a common by-product of historical lumber-milling operations. To date, relatively little attention has been given to the impact of historical lumber-milling operations in the San Juan Archipelago. Thatcher Bay, on Blakely Island, located near the east edge of the archipelago, is presented here as a case study on the restoration potential for a wood-waste contaminated nearshore area. Case study components include (1) a brief discussion of the history of milling operations. (2) an estimate of the location and amount of the current distribution of wood-waste at the site, (3) a preliminary examination of the impacts of wood-waste on benthic flora and fauna at the site, and (4) the presentation of several restoration alternatives for the site. The history of milling activity in Thatcher Bay began in 1879 with the construction of a mill in the southeastern part of the bay. Milling activity continued for more than 60 years, until the mill closed in 1942. Currently, the primary evidence of the historical milling operations is the presence of approximately 5,000 yd3 of wood-waste contaminated sediments. The distribution and thickness of residual wood-waste at the site was determined by using sediment

  17. President George Washington: A Timeless Model of Great Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    illustrated in this paper. There are also many examples of this leadership quality throughout history but few ever reach the level that Washington...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-01BB) Washington, DC...model of great leadership . N/A Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER LCDR MatthewS. Jones, SC, USN

  18. History of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Washington University in Saint Louis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    The Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Washington University evolved a century ago to address what many considered to be the last surgical frontier, diseases of the chest. In addition, as one of the first training programs in thoracic surgery, Washington University has been responsible for educating more thoracic surgeons than nearly any other program in the world. Beginning with Evarts A. Graham and continuing through to Ralph J. Damiano Jr., the leaders of the division have had a profound impact on the field of cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Science in the New Millennium: Where Is Washington Headed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Michael S.

    2000-04-01

    After more than five years of declining federal science budgets, Washington turned the corner in Fiscal Year 1998. In February, the President released his budget request for Fiscal Year 2001, with extraordinary increases for science. Politicians in both parties are now waxing eloquent about R&D. How much of it is real, and how much, simply political rhetoric? If the story has legs, how long will it survive? And how did the epiphany occur? We'll take a look behind the scenes at how Washington functions and use our scientific crystal ball to predict the future. Hold your bets until you get the inside line.

  20. How Washington State doctors battled it and won.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D M

    1988-03-01

    Mandatory medical assignment bills have been presented to the legislatures of 16 states since 1985, when a bill passed in Massachusetts tied acceptance of assignment to medical licensure, In November 1987, an initiative appeared on the Washington State voter's ballot asking that it be considered a consumer protection violation for physicians to charge more than Medicare's "reasonable" fee. This was the first time that the issue was presented to the registered voters of any state. This article details the way in which the Washington State Medical Association combatted the initiative and turned around an electorate that was 68% in favor, in August, to a final ballot of 63.9% opposed.

  1. Regio- and diastereo-controlled synthesis of bis(formylmethano)[60]fullerenes and their application to the formation of [60]fullerene pearl-necklace polyimines

    OpenAIRE

    Saigo, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    The tether-directed method was firstly applied to the biscyclopropanation of [60]fullerene via the addition?elimination reaction of bis(sulfonium ylide)s to give bis(formylmethano)[60]fullerenes with satisfactory regio- and stereoselectivity. The equatorial-bisadduct thus obtained was used for the polycondensation with an aromatic diamine to afford the corresponding pearl-necklace polyimine with satisfactorily high degree of polymerization.

  2. Retrieval of High-Resolution Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Pearl River Delta Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Li; Jingxue Yang; Yunpeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers an effective approach to estimate indicators of air quality on a large scale. It is critically significant for air quality monitoring in areas experiencing rapid urbanization and consequently severe air pollution, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. This paper starts with examining ground observations of particulate matter (PM) and the relationship between PM10 (particles smaller than 10 μm) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) by analyzing observations o...

  3. THE ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE URBANISTIC PROCESS IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA: The management system of the Urban Historic Conservation Area in the megalopolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haohao

    2010-01-01

    The thesis THE ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE URBANISTIC PROCESS IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA: The management system of the Urban Historic Conservation Area in the megalopolis is based on the background of urbanistic development in Southern China in the last 30 years. China experiences reform and open policy since the beginning of 1980, comprehensive urbanization in the 1990s and the great change of the dualistic mechanism after 2000. It is the greatest urbanization proces...

  4. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  5. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  6. 78 FR 21401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: Central Washington University has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian...

  7. Evaluation of the Washington state target zero teams project : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In late 2006, the Washington State Patrol (WSP) assembled : a full-time, high-visibility saturation patrol called the Night : Emphasis Enforcement Team (NEET). This pilot program, : based in Snohomish County and funded by the Washington : Traffic Saf...

  8. 75 FR 71139 - Land Acquisitions; Puyallup Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., lying Northerly of Primary State Highway No. 1. Except 62nd Avenue East. PARCEL B: (0420067016..., Township 20 North, Range 4 East of the W.M., in Pierce County, Washington, lying South of the South line of...

  9. 76 FR 377 - Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... 147358. Parcel II That portion of the following described land lying West of the Westerly line of..., Range 1 East of the Willamette Meridian, Clark County, Washington. Except any portion lying within NW...

  10. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  11. Hello Mr. President! Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    Hello Mr. President Rollenspiele zwischen Hollywood und Washington Am 8. November 2016 entscheidet sich, wer zum 58. Präsidenten der USA gewählt wird: Die ehemalige Außenministerin Hillary Clinton oder der republikanische Kandidat Donald Trump. In der heißen Phase des Wahlkampfs fällt besonders

  12. Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

  13. Ma'ii Washindoongoo Deeya [A Coyote Goes to Washington].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This children's reader in the Navajo language describes the experiences of a personified coyote as he leaves home to go on a business trip to Washington, D.C. It is designed for children in kindergarten through third grade in a bilingual education setting. (NCR)

  14. 78 FR 59414 - Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; King County, Washington AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed project to (1) manage congestion and...

  15. National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James; Goldhaber, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of teachers certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) in Washington State, which has one of the largest populations of National Board-Certified Teachers (NBCTs) in the nation. Based on value-added models in math and reading, we find that NBPTS-certified teachers are about 0.01-0.05…

  16. 76 FR 16323 - Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Specialist, or Gary D. Olson, Regional Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 946 Irish Potatoes Grown in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a...

  17. 78 FR 67027 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... vehicular traffic attending football games at Husky Stadium at the University of Washington, Seattle... football traffic. Evergreen Point Floating Bridge (State Route 520) provides three navigational openings... television scheduling, the time for the game is not currently available. The deviation allows the floating...

  18. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  19. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scabland region of eastern Washington is dominated by annual grasses and in some areas by Lupinus leucophyllus (velvet lupine). The purpose of these trials was to document the consumption of velvet lupine and relate the amount of lupine eaten by pregnant cows with the incidence of crooked calv...

  20. 1954 forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1954-01-01

    For the second successive fire season forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington was far below normal severity. The low danger is reflected in record low numbers of fires reported by forestry offices of both States and by the U. S. Forest Service for their respective protection areas. Although spring and fall fire weather was near normal, a rain-producing...