Sample records for events material rupture

  1. Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A.


    Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

  2. Within-Event and Between-Events Ground Motion Variability from Earthquake Rupture Scenarios (United States)

    Crempien, Jorge G. F.; Archuleta, Ralph J.


    Measurement of ground motion variability is essential to estimate seismic hazard. Over-estimation of variability can lead to extremely high annual hazard estimates of ground motion exceedance. We explore different parameters that affect the variability of ground motion such as the spatial correlations of kinematic rupture parameters on a finite fault and the corner frequency of the moment-rate spectra. To quantify the variability of ground motion, we simulate kinematic rupture scenarios on several vertical strike-slip faults and compute ground motion using the representation theorem. In particular, for the entire suite of rupture scenarios, we quantify the within-event and the between-events ground motion variability of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectra at several periods, at 40 stations—all approximately at an equal distance of 20 and 50 km from the fault. Both within-event and between-events ground motion variability increase when the slip correlation length on the fault increases. The probability density functions of ground motion tend to truncate at a finite value when the correlation length of slip decreases on the fault, therefore, we do not observe any long-tail distribution of peak ground acceleration when performing several rupture simulations for small correlation lengths. Finally, for a correlation length of 6 km, the within-event and between-events PGA log-normal standard deviations are 0.58 and 0.19, respectively, values slightly smaller than those reported by Boore et al. (Earthq Spectra, 30(3):1057-1085, 2014). The between-events standard deviation is consistently smaller than the within-event for all correlations lengths, a feature that agrees with recent ground motion prediction equations.

  3. An Updated Perspective of Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout in Power MOSFETs (United States)

    Titus, Jeffrey L.


    Studies over the past 25 years have shown that heavy ions can trigger catastrophic failure modes in power MOSFETs [e.g., single-event gate rupture (SEGR) and single-event burnout (SEB)]. In 1996, two papers were published in a special issue of the IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science [Johnson, Palau, Dachs, Galloway and Schrimpf, “A Review of the Techniques Used for Modeling Single-Event Effects in Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 546-560, April. 1996], [Titus and Wheatley, “Experimental Studies of Single-Event Gate Rupture and Burnout in Vertical Power MOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 533-545, Apr. 1996]. Those two papers continue to provide excellent information and references with regard to SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs. This paper provides updated references/information and provides an updated perspective of SEB and SEGR in vertical planar MOSFETs as well as provides references/information to other device types that exhibit SEB and SEGR effects.

  4. Rupture Complexities of Fluid Induced Microseismic Events at the Basel EGS Project (United States)

    Folesky, Jonas; Kummerow, Jörn; Shapiro, Serge A.; Häring, Markus; Asanuma, Hiroshi


    Microseismic data sets of excellent quality, such as the seismicity recorded in the Basel-1 enhanced geothermal system, Switzerland, in 2006-2007, provide the opportunity to analyse induced seismic events in great detail. It is important to understand in how far seismological insights on e.g. source and rupture processes are scale dependent and how they can be transferred to fluid induced micro-seismicity. We applied the empirical Green's function (EGF) method in order to reconstruct the relative source time functions of 195 suitable microseismic events from the Basel-1 reservoir. We found 93 solutions with a clear and consistent directivity pattern. The remaining events display either no measurable directivity, are unfavourably oriented or exhibit non consistent or complex relative source time functions. In this work we focus on selected events of M ˜ 1 which show possible rupture complexities. It is demonstrated that the EGF method allows to resolve complex rupture behaviour even if it is not directly identifiable in the seismograms. We find clear evidence of rupture directivity and multi-phase rupturing in the analysed relative source time functions. The time delays between consecutive subevents lies in the order of 10ms. Amplitudes of the relative source time functions of the subevents do not always show the same azimuthal dependence, indicating dissimilarity in the rupture directivity of the subevents. Our observations support the assumption that heterogeneity on fault surfaces persists down to small scale (few tens of meters).

  5. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel


    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  6. Earthquake and tsunami forecasts: relation of slow slip events to subsequent earthquake rupture. (United States)

    Dixon, Timothy H; Jiang, Yan; Malservisi, Rocco; McCaffrey, Robert; Voss, Nicholas; Protti, Marino; Gonzalez, Victor


    The 5 September 2012 M(w) 7.6 earthquake on the Costa Rica subduction plate boundary followed a 62-y interseismic period. High-precision GPS recorded numerous slow slip events (SSEs) in the decade leading up to the earthquake, both up-dip and down-dip of seismic rupture. Deeper SSEs were larger than shallower ones and, if characteristic of the interseismic period, release most locking down-dip of the earthquake, limiting down-dip rupture and earthquake magnitude. Shallower SSEs were smaller, accounting for some but not all interseismic locking. One SSE occurred several months before the earthquake, but changes in Mohr-Coulomb failure stress were probably too small to trigger the earthquake. Because many SSEs have occurred without subsequent rupture, their individual predictive value is limited, but taken together they released a significant amount of accumulated interseismic strain before the earthquake, effectively defining the area of subsequent seismic rupture (rupture did not occur where slow slip was common). Because earthquake magnitude depends on rupture area, this has important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. Specifically, if this behavior is representative of future earthquake cycles and other subduction zones, it implies that monitoring SSEs, including shallow up-dip events that lie offshore, could lead to accurate forecasts of earthquake magnitude and tsunami potential.

  7. Administration of eptifibatide during endovascular treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms reduces the rate of thromboembolic events. (United States)

    Sedat, Jacques; Chau, Yves; Gaudard, Jean; Suissa, Laurent; Lachaud, Sylvain; Lonjon, Michel


    Thromboembolic complications are the most frequent complications of endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The optimal protocol to prevent thromboembolic complications during coil embolization does not yet exist. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of eptifibatide for the prevention of thromboembolic complications during elective coil embolization of ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A consecutive series of 100 patients (group 1) with ruptured intracranial aneurysm were treated using endovascular coil embolization. At the beginning of the procedure, all patients received an intra-arterial bolus (0.2 mg/kg) of eptifibatide. The following data were collected: degree of aneurysmal occlusion after treatment, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications and other intraoperative adverse events. The results were compared with those from a control group (group 2) which were analyzed retrospectively. Group 2 consisted of 100 previous patients with ruptured aneurysm managed with coil embolization who had received heparin and/or aspirin at the beginning of the procedure. (1) Patient populations in groups 1 and 2 were considered statistically comparable, except that group 1 (eptifibatide) included more wide-necked aneurysms (p = 0.011). (2) There were less thromboembolic complications in group 1 (p = 0.011): seven intraoperative complications in group 1 versus 20 in group 2. (3) Intraoperative hemorrhagic complications were statistically comparable in both groups (p = 1). Eptifibatide was effective in lowering the intraoperative thromboembolic complication rate in ruptured aneurysms treated with coil embolization and did not increase the hemorrhagic risk.

  8. Modeling of single event gate rupture in power MOSFETs under heavy ion irradiation (United States)

    Useinov, R. G.; Zebrev, G. I.; Emelyanov, V. V.; Vatuev, A. S.


    Destructive single event gate rupture (SEGR) occurring in the gate oxides of power MOSFETs under impact of heavy ions is studied and modeled. SEGR cross section of power MOSFET with 70 nm oxide thickness as function of gate voltage was measured for four types of heavy ions. A predictive formula for the SEGR cross section is derived and validated. This formula can be used as a predictive instrument for computation of survival probability in a given spectrum of heavy ions in space environments.

  9. Materials damaging and rupture - Volumes 1-2. General remarks, metallic materials. Non-metallic materials and biomaterials, assemblies and industrial problems;Endommagement et rupture des materiaux - Volumes 1-2. Generalites, materiaux metalliques. Materiaux non metalliques et biomateriaux, assemblages et problemes industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavel, M.; Bompard, P.


    The rupture and damaging of materials and structures is almost always and unwanted events which may have catastrophic consequences. Even if the mechanical failure causes can often be analyzed using a thorough knowledge of materials behaviour, the forecasting and prevention of failures remain difficult. While the macroscopic mechanical behaviour is often the result of average effects at the structure or microstructure scale, the damage is very often the result of the combination of load peaks, of localization effects and of microstructure defects. This book, presented in two volumes, takes stock of the state-of-the-art of the knowledge gained in the understanding and modelling of rupture and damaging phenomena of materials and structure, mostly of metallic type. It gives an outline of the available knowledge for other classes of materials (ceramics, biomaterials, geo-materials..) and for different types of applications (aeronautics, nuclear industry). Finally, it examines the delicate problem, but very important in practice, of the behaviour of assemblies. Content: Vol.1 - physical mechanisms of materials damaging and rupture; rupture mechanics; cyclic plasticity and fatigue crack growth; fatigue crack propagation; environment-induced cracking; contacts and surfaces. Vol.2 - glasses and ceramics; natural environments: soils and rocks; mechanical behaviour of biological solid materials: the human bone; contribution of simulation to the understanding of rupture mechanisms; assemblies damaging and rupture; industrial cases (behaviour of PWR pressure vessel steels, and thermal and mechanical stresses in turbojet engines). (J.S.)

  10. Rupture Process of Small Repeating Events and Its Association with Recurrence Property (United States)

    Chen, I.; Chen, K. H.; Kim, A.


    Using small earthquakes as empirical Green's functions (eGf), we apply a finite-source inversion to demonstrate a link between slip heterogeneity and earthquake recurrence of two repeating sequences in eastern Taiwan. The M3.6-3.8 quasi-periodic repeating earthquakes that are characterized by 3-yr recurrence interval reveal overlapped slip concentrations. These obtained models show peak slip of 18.44-43.76 cm and peak stress drop of 53.32-124.96 MPa. Under the influence of nearby M6.9 event, the M4.3-4.8 repeating earthquakes that are separated only by 4-88 mins, reveal an aperiodic manner. Inferred slip behaviors perform not only a distinct rupture characteristic without overlap in the slip areas, but an inconsistent slip distribution compared with pre-M6.9 repeating earthquake. The variation of rupture behavior suggests the temporal change of loading rate caused by the nearby large earthquake may change the slip heterogeneity in a repeatedly ruptured asperity. We also found that the peak slip is not linear proportion to the moment magnitude, unlike average slip vs. moment magnitude relationship. We hypothesize that stronger strength for small events is needed, to produce higher peak slip. This is consistent with the interpretation for weak dependency of recurrence interval on seismic moment by Chen et al. (2007). To examine this hypothesis, we further study repeating earthquake sequences with a greater range of magnitude for slip inversion. Slip heterogeneity, as a result of heterogeneous stress accumulation on a fault, may rely on the stress condition in each subarea of the fault plane, whereas stress condition inside the asperity controls where the peak slip takes place. A collection of slip heterogeneity in different events therefore, will have potential application in monitoring the temporal evolution of stress state.

  11. Creep rupture of materials: insights from a fiber bundle model with relaxation. (United States)

    Jagla, E A


    I adapted a model recently introduced in the context of seismic phenomena to study creep rupture of materials. It consists of linear elastic fibers that interact in an equal load sharing scheme, complemented with a local viscoelastic relaxation mechanism. The model correctly describes the three stages of the creep process; namely, an initial Andrade regime of creep relaxation, an intermediate regime of rather constant creep rate, and a tertiary regime of accelerated creep toward final failure of the sample. In the tertiary regime, creep rate follows the experimentally observed creep rate over time-to-failure dependence. The time of minimum strain rate is systematically observed to be about 60%-65 % of the time to failure, in accordance with experimental observations. In addition, burst size statistics of breaking events display a -3/2 power law for events close to the time of failure and a steeper decay for the all-time distribution. Statistics of interevent times shows a tendency of the events to cluster temporarily. This behavior should be observable in acoustic emission experiments.

  12. Standard test methods for conducting creep, creep-rupture, and stress-rupture tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the amount of deformation as a function of time (creep test) and the measurement of the time for fracture to occur when sufficient force is present (rupture test) for materials when under constant tensile forces at constant temperature. It also includes the essential requirements for testing equipment. For information of assistance in determining the desirable number and duration of tests, reference should be made to the product specification. 1.2 These test methods list the information which should be included in reports of tests. The intention is to ensure that all useful and readily available information is transmitted to interested parties. Reports receive special attention for the following reasons: (1) results from different, recognized procedures vary significantly; therefore, identification of methods used is important; (2) later studies to establish important variables are often hampered by the lack of detailed information in published reports; (3) t...

  13. Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.; te Heesen, E.; Bruch, U.; Cook, R.; Diehl, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Jakobeit, W.; Penkalla, H.J.; Ullrich, G.


    Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 800/sup 0/C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored.

  14. Identification and classification of dynamic event tree scenarios via possibilistic clustering: application to a steam generator tube rupture event. (United States)

    Mercurio, D; Podofillini, L; Zio, E; Dang, V N


    This paper illustrates a method to identify and classify scenarios generated in a dynamic event tree (DET) analysis. Identification and classification are carried out by means of an evolutionary possibilistic fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm which takes into account not only the final system states but also the timing of the events and the process evolution. An application is considered with regards to the scenarios generated following a steam generator tube rupture in a nuclear power plant. The scenarios are generated by the accident dynamic simulator (ADS), coupled to a RELAP code that simulates the thermo-hydraulic behavior of the plant and to an operators' crew model, which simulates their cognitive and procedures-guided responses. A set of 60 scenarios has been generated by the ADS DET tool. The classification approach has grouped the 60 scenarios into 4 classes of dominant scenarios, one of which was not anticipated a priori but was "discovered" by the classifier. The proposed approach may be considered as a first effort towards the application of identification and classification approaches to scenarios post-processing for real-scale dynamic safety assessments.

  15. Modulation of a pulsatile release drug delivery system using different swellable/rupturable materials. (United States)

    El-Maradny, Hoda A


    Diclofenac sodium tablets consisting of core coated with two layers of swelling and rupturable coatings were prepared and evaluated as a pulsatile drug delivery system. Cores containing the drug were prepared by direct compression using microcrystalline cellulose and Ludipress as hydrophilic excipients with the ratio of 1:1. Cores were then coated sequentially with an inner swelling layer of different swellable materials; either Explotab, Croscarmellose sodium, or Starch RX 1500, and an outer rupturable layer of different levels of ethylcellulose. The effect of the nature of the swelling layer and the level of the rupturable coating on the lag time and the water uptake were investigated. Drug release rate studies were performed using USP paddle method. Results showed the dependence of the lag time and water uptake prior to tablet rupture on the nature of the swelling layer and the coating levels. Explotab showed a significant decrease in the lag time, followed by Croscarmellose sodium and finally by Starch RX 1500. Increasing the level of ethylcellulose coating retarded the diffusion of the release medium to the swelling layer and the rupture of the coat, thus prolonging the lag time.

  16. Dynamics of the rupture precursors for heterogeneous materials: application to vitreous polymers foams; Dynamique des precurseurs de la rupture des materiaux heterogenes: application aux mousses polymeres vitreuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanel, St


    New physical approaches concerning the damage mechanisms consist to consider the rupture phenomenon as the critical point of a phase transition. Rupture can then result for some materials by a percolation of microcracks. This multi-crack implies the choice of heterogeneous materials. Mechanical tests on solid polymer foams have been carried out until rupture and have been coupled to the follow-up of the acoustic activity. The energies distributions reveal power laws independently of the material density, of the load mode or of the behaviour laws. On the other hand, the agreement with a power law of time periods seems to require a quasi constant stress on the most part of the test. The trend of the cumulated energy in the case of creep experiments seems to present a power law on a narrow period of time. On the other hand, for tensile tests, no power law has been observed. (O.M.)

  17. Observations on Rupture Behaviour of Fluid Induced Events at the Basel EGS Based on Empirical Green's Function Analysis (United States)

    Folesky, J.; Kummerow, J.; Shapiro, S. A.; Asanuma, H.; Häring, M. O.


    The Emprirical Green's Function (EGF) method uses pairs of events of high wave form similarity and adjacent hypocenters to decompose the influences of source time function, ray path, instrument site, and instrument response. The seismogram of the smaller event is considered as the Green's Function which then can be deconvolved from the other seismogram. The result provides a reconstructed relative source time function (RSTF) of the larger event of that event pair. The comparison of the RSTFs at different stations of the observation systems produces information on the rupture process of the larger event based on the observation of the directivity effect and on changing RSTFs complexities.The Basel EGS dataset of 2006-2007 consists of about 2800 localized events of magnitudes between 0.0Basel experiment. Our results show that EGF analysis can provide valuable additional insights on the distribution of rupture properties within the reservoir. The results suggest a preferred rupture direction of large induced events that occur at the reservoir rim back towards the injection source.

  18. Complex rupture process of the March 19, 2013, Rudna mine (Poland) seismic event - local and regional view (United States)

    Rudzinski, Lukasz; Cesca, Simone; Lizurek, Grzegorz


    On March 19th, 2013 a strong shallow induced seismic event struck a mining panel in the room-and-pillar Rudna copper mine, SE Poland. The event caused important damages at the mining tunnel and trapped 19 miners, which were safely rescued few hour later. Despite mining induced seismicity is frequent at this mine, the March 19 event was unusual because of its larger magnitude, its occurrence far from the mining stopes, and because it was accompanied by a strong hazardous rockburst. The mining inspections following the event verified the occurrence of a rockfall with tunnel floor uplift, but also recognized the presence of a faulting structure at the hypocentral location. The availability of three monitoring networks, including local and regional data, short-period and broadband seismometers, as well as surface and in-mine installation, give an optimal set up to determine rupture parameters and compare the performance and results from different installations. We perform waveform and spectral based analysis to infer source properties, with a particular interest to the determination of the rupture processes, using different moment tensor inversion techniques. Our results are surprisingly different, ranging from a dominant thrust mechanism, resolved at closest distances, to a collapse-type rupture, resolved at regional distances. We proof that a complex rupture model is needed to explain all observations and justify these discrepancies. The final scenario indicates that the rupture nucleated as a weaker thrust mechanism, along a pre-existing weakened surface, and continued in a more energetic collapse event. The local surface LUMINEOS network has the potential to resolve both subevents, but not using a standard moment tensor decomposition. We propose here a new moment tensor decomposition and an alternative moment tensor fitting procedure, which can be used to analyze the moment tensor of collapse sources.

  19. Whip restraint for a steam pipe rupture event on a nuclear power plant / Alfred Cornelius Pieters


    Pieters, Alfred Cornelius


    One of the requirements of a safe nuclear power plant design is the postulation of the dynamic effects of a steam pipe rupture. The dynamic effects are the discharging fluid and pipe whip on structures, systems or components. A pipe rupture can be caused in the steam pipe system where a defect such as a crack exists. Multiple factors contribute to the initiation of pipe cracks during the plant’s life. Cracks may start microscopically small and over time, with the assistance...

  20. A Critique of a Phenomenological Fiber Breakage Model for Stress Rupture of Composite Materials (United States)

    Reeder, James R.


    Stress rupture is not a critical failure mode for most composite structures, but there are a few applications where it can be critical. One application where stress rupture can be a critical design issue is in Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV's), where the composite material is highly and uniformly loaded for long periods of time and where very high reliability is required. COPV's are normally required to be proof loaded before being put into service to insure strength, but it is feared that the proof load may cause damage that reduces the stress rupture reliability. Recently, a fiber breakage model was proposed specifically to estimate a reduced reliability due to proof loading. The fiber breakage model attempts to model physics believed to occur at the microscopic scale, but validation of the model has not occurred. In this paper, the fiber breakage model is re-derived while highlighting assumptions that were made during the derivation. Some of the assumptions are examined to assess their effect on the final predicted reliability.

  1. Single-Event Gate Rupture in Power MOSFETs: A New Radiation Hardness Assurance Approach (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie


    Almost every space mission uses vertical power metal-semiconductor-oxide field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in its power-supply circuitry. These devices can fail catastrophically due to single-event gate rupture (SEGR) when exposed to energetic heavy ions. To reduce SEGR failure risk, the off-state operating voltages of the devices are derated based upon radiation tests at heavy-ion accelerator facilities. Testing is very expensive. Even so, data from these tests provide only a limited guide to on-orbit performance. In this work, a device simulation-based method is developed to measure the response to strikes from heavy ions unavailable at accelerator facilities but posing potential risk on orbit. This work is the first to show that the present derating factor, which was established from non-radiation reliability concerns, is appropriate to reduce on-orbit SEGR failure risk when applied to data acquired from ions with appropriate penetration range. A second important outcome of this study is the demonstration of the capability and usefulness of this simulation technique for augmenting SEGR data from accelerator beam facilities. The mechanisms of SEGR are two-fold: the gate oxide is weakened by the passage of the ion through it, and the charge ionized along the ion track in the silicon transiently increases the oxide electric field. Most hardness assurance methodologies consider the latter mechanism only. This work demonstrates through experiment and simulation that the gate oxide response should not be neglected. In addition, the premise that the temporary weakening of the oxide due to the ion interaction with it, as opposed to due to the transient oxide field generated from within the silicon, is validated. Based upon these findings, a new approach to radiation hardness assurance for SEGR in power MOSFETs is defined to reduce SEGR risk in space flight projects. Finally, the potential impact of accumulated dose over the course of a space mission on SEGR

  2. Single Event Gate Rupture in 130-nm CMOS Transistor Arrays Subjected to X-Ray Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestri, M; Gerardin, Simone; Faccio, Federico; Paccagnella, Alessandro


    We present new experimental results on heavy ion-induced gate rupture on deep submicron CMOS transistor arrays. Through the use of dedicated test structures, composed by a large number of 130-nm MOSFETs connected in parallel, we show the response to heavy ion irradiation under high stress voltages of devices previously irradiated with X-rays. We found only a slight impact on gate rupture critical voltage at a LET of 32 MeV cm(2) mg(-1) for devices previously irradiated up to 3 Mrad(SiO2), and practically no change for 100 Mrad(SiO2) irradiation, dose of interest for the future super large hadron collider (SLHC).

  3. Unusual balloon rupture during direct stenting with a TaxusExpress stent in a venous graft complicated by vessel rupture: a device-related fatal event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Evald H


    distal anastomoses, had two significant stenoses. Percutaneous coronary intervention with distal protection, and direct stenting with a drug-eluting stent, was planned. A 3.00 x 16 mm TaxusExpress (Boston Scientific) was used. At an inflation pressure of 10 atm the stent balloon seemed to extend 20 mm...... proximally with a diameter of 4.5 mm, and the balloon ruptured. Angiography showed rupture of the vessel proximal to the implanted stent, and the patient developed severe hypotension. The rupture was treated with a covered stent and pericardiocentesis was performed with evacuation of 600 mL blood. However...

  4. Globe Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Honda


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  5. Estimating rupture distances without a rupture (United States)

    Thompson, Eric; Worden, Charles


    Most ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) require distances that are defined relative to a rupture model, such as the distance to the surface projection of the rupture (RJB) or the closest distance to the rupture plane (RRUP). There are a number of situations in which GMPEs are used where it is either necessary or advantageous to derive rupture distances from point-source distance metrics, such as hypocentral (RHYP) or epicentral (REPI) distance. For ShakeMap, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the shaking levels for events without rupture models, and before rupture models are available for events that eventually do have rupture models. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, it is often convenient to use point-source distances for gridded seismicity sources, particularly if a preferred orientation is unknown. This avoids the computationally cumbersome task of computing rupture-based distances for virtual rupture planes across all strikes and dips for each source. We derive average rupture distances conditioned on REPI, magnitude, and (optionally) back azimuth, for a variety of assumed seismological constraints. Additionally, we derive adjustment factors for GMPE standard deviations that reflect the added uncertainty in the ground motion estimation when point-source distances are used to estimate rupture distances.

  6. Live imaging analysis of human gastric epithelial spheroids reveals spontaneous rupture, rotation and fusion events. (United States)

    Sebrell, T Andrew; Sidar, Barkan; Bruns, Rachel; Wilkinson, Royce A; Wiedenheft, Blake; Taylor, Paul J; Perrino, Brian A; Samuelson, Linda C; Wilking, James N; Bimczok, Diane


    Three-dimensional cultures of primary epithelial cells including organoids, enteroids and epithelial spheroids have become increasingly popular for studies of gastrointestinal development, mucosal immunology and epithelial infection. However, little is known about the behavior of these complex cultures in their three-dimensional culture matrix. Therefore, we performed extended time-lapse imaging analysis (up to 4 days) of human gastric epithelial spheroids generated from adult tissue samples in order to visualize the dynamics of the spheroids in detail. Human gastric epithelial spheroids cultured in our laboratory grew to an average diameter of 443.9 ± 34.6 μm after 12 days, with the largest spheroids reaching diameters of >1000 μm. Live imaging analysis revealed that spheroid growth was associated with cyclic rupture of the epithelial shell at a frequency of 0.32 ± 0.1/day, which led to the release of luminal contents. Spheroid rupture usually resulted in an initial collapse, followed by spontaneous re-formation of the spheres. Moreover, spheroids frequently rotated around their axes within the Matrigel matrix, possibly propelled by basolateral pseudopodia-like formations of the epithelial cells. Interestingly, adjacent spheroids occasionally underwent luminal fusion, as visualized by injection of individual spheroids with FITC-Dextran (4 kDa). In summary, our analysis revealed unexpected dynamics in human gastric spheroids that challenge our current view of cultured epithelia as static entities and that may need to be considered when performing spheroid infection experiments.

  7. Creep rupture behavior of polypropylene suture material and its applications as a time-release mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusy, R.P.; Whitley, J.Q.


    The controlled failure of polypropylene (PP) sutures is studied via creep rupture tests. From plots of log time (tB) vs. stress (sigma), linear relationships are generated over the failure times of 1-1000 h. Results show that as a function of stress, the time dependence varies with irradiation dose (15, 20, 25, and 50 Mrad), irradiation atmosphere (air and vacuum), suture diameter (7-0, 6-0, 5-0, and 4-0), and test temperature (26 and 37 degrees C). For a given stress, the time to failure is least for the greatest dose in the presence of air and at the highest temperature. When suture loops are wrapped around a small wire sheave, however, failure occurs in the largest suture as much as two decades sooner than the smallest suture studied. Within the limitations stated herein, they are independent of test method, loop diameter, aging, and humidity. Consequently, after irradiation in vacuum and postirradiation heat treatment, the processed material may be stored at room temperature for at least 1 month. Such materials are advocated when the time release of a dental or medical device is required, for example, in the self-activating cleft palate appliance.

  8. Slip rate, magnitudes and ages of surface-rupturing events along the Main Frontal Thrust in Bhutan (Himalaya) (United States)

    Ritz, J.; Berthet, T.; Ferry, M. A.; Pelgay, P.; Cattin, R.; Drukpa, D.; Braucher, R.; Chophel, J.; Thinley, K.; Hetényi, G.


    The Himalayas absorb about 20 mm.yr-1 of the convergence between India and Eurasia plate. Morphotectonics studies East of Bhutan yielded a Holocene shortening rate of 23 × 6.2 mm/yr consistent with the 21 × 1.5 mm/yr estimated in Nepal. Most of this crustal shortening is accommodated along the Main Frontal Thrust by major earthquakes (M≥8) that occurred in the past 1000 years. Between 89°E and 92°E, the MFT runs along the southern border of the Kingdom of Bhutan where no reliable historical record of major earthquakes exists (one strong historical earthquake would have occurred in 1713 after a Tibetan eyewitness reports). However, recent paleoseismic investigations in Nepal and on both side of Bhutan border suggest that a great earthquake may have ruptured a 700 to 800 km long section of the MFT during a single event around AD 1100. In December 2012, we carried out a first morphotectonic and paleosismologic study within two sites (Sarpang, Gelephu) along the MFT in central Bhutan. We identified several sequences of abandoned fluvial terraces that have been uplifted along the fault. From a kinematic GPS survey, we estimated that the oldest terrace sequence (T2) has a cumulative offset of 53.6 × 2.3 m. A younger sequence (T1) shows offsets of 4.5 × 0.5 m on the lower terrace (T1a) and 7.9 × 0.5 m on the upper one (T1b). The uplift on T1b may cumulate the vertical components of the two last seismic events that would have produced each a vertical offset of several meters. These preliminary observations suggest that the latest seismic event as well as the penultimate event correspond to two major seismic events with magnitudes greater than M8. After 14C dating (charcoals in sands on top of T1 terraces sequence), these two last seismic events occurred after 1000 AD. The youngest event may correspond to the historical event reported in 1713 AD, while the penultimate event could correspond the great medieval earthquake observed in trenches East and West of Bhutan

  9. Investigation of the Semicoa 2N7616 and 2N7425 and the Microsemi 2N7480 for Single-Event Gate Rupture and Single-Event Burnout (United States)

    Scheick, Leif


    Single-event-effect test results for hi-rel total-dose-hardened power MOSFETs are presented in this report. The 2N7616 and the 2N7425 from Semicoa and the 2N7480 from International Rectifier were tested to NASA test condition standards and requirements. The 2N7480 performed well and the data agree with the manufacture's data. The 2N7616 and 2N7425 were entry parts from Semicoa using a new device architecture. Unfortunately, the device performed poorly and Semicoa is withdrawing power MOSFETs from it line due to these data. Vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are the most commonly used power transistor. MOSFETs are typically employed in power supplies and high current switching applications. Due to the inherent high electric fields in the device, power MOSFETs are sensitive to heavy ion irradiation and can fail catastrophically as a result of single-event gate rupture (SEGR) or single-event burnout (SEB). Manufacturers have designed radiation-hardened power MOSFETs for space applications. See [1] through [5] for more information. The objective of this effort was to investigate the SEGR and SEB responses of two power MOSFETs recently produced. These tests will serve as a limited verification of these parts. It is acknowledged that further testing on the respective parts may be needed for some mission profiles.

  10. Assessment on Event Classification of One Steam Generator Tube Rupture in EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident showed the vulnerability of coping strategy to beyond design natural disaster such as beyond design earthquake and tsunami. In Korea, the government and industry performed comprehensive safety inspection on all domestic nuclear power plants against beyond design basis external events and fifty action items have been issued. In addition to post- Fukushima action items, the stress tests for all domestic nuclear power plants are on the way to enhance the safety of domestic nuclear power plants through finding the vulnerabilities in intentional stress conditions initiated by beyond design natural disaster. Recently, the stress tests for WOLSONG Unit 1 and KORI Unit 1 have been performed and their assessment results have been reviewed by Korean regulatory body. The assessment of the coping capability of KORI Unit 1 has been performed under simultaneous the extended loss of AC power and loss of ultimate heat sink initiated by beyond design natural disaster. It is concluded that KORI Unit 1 has the capability, in the event of loss of safety functions by beyond design natural disaster, to sufficiently cool down the reactor core without fuel damage, to keep pressure boundaries of the reactor coolant system in transient condition and to control containment and temperature to maintain the integrity of the containment buildings. The several additional items for safety improvement has been drawn to enhance the coping capability for loss of safety functions under beyond design natural disaster in addition to post Fukushima action items.

  11. Re-Verification of the IRHN57133SE and IRHN57250SE for Single Event Gate Rupture and Single Event Burnout (United States)

    Scheick, Leif


    The vertical metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is a widely used power transistor onboard a spacecraft. The MOSFET is typically employed in power supplies and high current switching applications. Due to the inherent high electric fields in the device, power MOSFETs are sensitive to heavy ion irradiation and can fail catastrophically as a result of single event gate rupture (SEGR) or single event burnout (SEB). Manufacturers have designed radiation-hardened power MOSFETs for space applications. These radiation hardened devices are not immune to SEGR or SEB but, rather, can exhibit them at a much more damaging ion than their non-radiation hardened counterparts. See [1] through [5] for more information.This effort was to investigate the SEGR and SEB responses of two power MOSFETs from IR(the IRHN57133SE and the IRHN57250SE) that have recently been produced on a new fabrication line. These tests will serve as a limited verification of these parts, but it is acknowledged that further testing on the respective parts may be needed for some mission profiles.

  12. Does an inter-flaw length control the accuracy of rupture forecasting in geological materials? (United States)

    Vasseur, Jérémie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Main, Ian G.; Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Multi-scale failure of porous materials is an important phenomenon in nature and in material physics - from controlled laboratory tests to rockbursts, landslides, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. A key unsolved research question is how to accurately forecast the time of system-sized catastrophic failure, based on observations of precursory events such as acoustic emissions (AE) in laboratory samples, or, on a larger scale, small earthquakes. Until now, the length scale associated with precursory events has not been well quantified, resulting in forecasting tools that are often unreliable. Here we test the hypothesis that the accuracy of the forecast failure time depends on the inter-flaw distance in the starting material. We use new experimental datasets for the deformation of porous materials to infer the critical crack length at failure from a static damage mechanics model. The style of acceleration of AE rate prior to failure, and the accuracy of forecast failure time, both depend on whether the cracks can span the inter-flaw length or not. A smooth inverse power-law acceleration of AE rate to failure, and an accurate forecast, occurs when the cracks are sufficiently long to bridge pore spaces. When this is not the case, the predicted failure time is much less accurate and failure is preceded by an exponential AE rate trend. Finally, we provide a quantitative and pragmatic correction for the systematic error in the forecast failure time, valid for structurally isotropic porous materials, which could be tested against larger-scale natural failure events, with suitable scaling for the relevant inter-flaw distances.

  13. Relating tilt measurements recorded at Mponeng Gold Mine, South Africa to the rupture of an M 2.2 event

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Share, P


    Full Text Available the horizontal distance of 16 m in Figure 6). Indeed, the rupture plane, as determined by AE network, is, in fact, a slab rather than a plane, a slab with thickness 4 m. During modelling, the centre of this slab was taken as the plane of rupture, therefore...

  14. Earthquake statistics and plastic events in soft-glassy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, Roberto; Kumar, Pinaki; Toschi, Federico; Trampert, Jeannot


    We propose a new approach for generating synthetic earthquakes based on the physics of soft glasses. The continuum approach produces yield-stress materials based on Lattice–Boltzmann simulations. We show that if the material is stimulated below yield stress, plastic events occur, which have strong

  15. Challenge of material recycling at large public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio


    and generates more than 2000 tonnes of waste over eight days. In 2016, approximately 16% of the total waste generated was either recycled or sent to special treatment, the remaining (approximately 85%) ended up as residual waste and was sent to a waste-to-energy facility. While measures to promote material...... recycling at the festival have been implemented, our preliminary results suggest that there is currently large potential to recover additional materials for recycling and improve sustainability at large public events....

  16. Advanced modelling of complex material properties. A significant step towards predictive computation of cladding rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barre, F.; Marchand, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Monerie, Y.; Perales, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); IRSN (France). Lab. MIST


    The study of the behaviour of nuclear fuel in accidental situations is a major concern in the safety analysis of pressurized water reactors (PWR). In order to be able to provide both effective and relevant support in this analysis IRSN has, over several years, built up a vast R and D programme on fuel, based on two key cornerstones: 1. an advanced R and D, in order to understand more fully physical phenomena at small scales, 2. an applied R and D, in order to be able to establish physical basis for the elaboration of new safety criteria. This approach was extensively illustrated at the previous EUROSAFE-2009 forum in the paper by Francois Barre entitles ''Fuel behaviour under LOCA and RIA and its implication on current safety criteria''. The topic of this paper is to present the first cornerstone of this approach and to illustrate several of its main aspects. The general approach taken in this advanced R and D is based on two main themes: 1. the development of advanced modelling to predict the behaviour of materials in all situations, relying mainly on MIST (IRSN-CNRS-Universite de Montpellier joint research laboratory), on French (universities, CNRS) or international academic partners (Los Alamos, FNRS, MIT) and on industrial or semi-industrial partners (IFP, INRIA, etc); 2. the synthesis and enhancement of the knowledge acquired in nuclear safety support software (such as SCANAIR or DRACCAR). (orig.)

  17. Ruptured Spleen (United States)

    ... the left upper abdomen or the left lower chest, such as might happen during sporting mishaps, fistfights and car crashes. An injured spleen may rupture soon after the abdominal trauma or, in some cases, days or even weeks ...

  18. Comparison of adverse events and postoperative mobilization following knee extensor mechanism rupture repair: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. (United States)

    Serino, Joseph; Mohamadi, Amin; Orman, Sebastian; McCormick, Brian; Hanna, Philip; Weaver, Michael J; Harris, Mitchel B; Nazarian, Ara; von Keudell, Arvind


    Extensor mechanism rupture (EMR) of the knee is a rare but potentially debilitating injury that often occurs due to trauma. While a wide variety of surgical treatments have been reported, there is currently no consensus on the most successful treatment method. The timing of post-operative joint mobilization is also critical for successful recovery after EMR repair. Despite the traditional method of complete immobilization for 6 weeks, there is an increasing trend towards early post-operative knee mobilization. The purpose of this network meta-analysis was to compare adverse event rates and function outcomes between repair methods and between post-operative mobilization protocols. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central electronic databases were searched in August 2016 for observational studies involving repair of acute, traumatic EMRs. Data extraction included functional outcomes, adverse events, and additional surgeries. Cohort studies that were used in functional outcome analysis were assessed for risk of bias by the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Twenty-three studies (709 patients) were included for adverse event analysis. There were no significant differences in adverse event or additional surgery rates between EMR repair methods However, early mobilization produced significantly higher adverse event rates (p=0.02) and total event rates (pmobilization, but the difference in additional surgery rates was not significant (p=0.06). Six studies (85 patients) were included for functional outcome analysis. There were no significant differences in thigh girth atrophy or muscle strength compared to the contralateral leg between patients treated with transosseous drill holes and simple end-to-end sutures. We performed the first network meta-analysis to date comparing treatment of EMRs. Our results support the current body of knowledge that there is no single superior repair method. Although there is an increasing trend towards early or

  19. Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance Report on the Performance of Structures in Densely Urbanized Areas Affected by Surface Fault Rupture During the August 24, 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake, California, USA. (United States)

    Cohen-Waeber, J.; Lanzafame, R.; Bray, J.; Sitar, N.


    The August 24, 2014, M­w 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to have occurred in the San Francisco Bay Region, California, USA, since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The event epicenter occurred at the South end of the Napa Valley, California, principally rupturing northwest along parts of the active West Napa fault zone. Bound by two major fault zones to the East and West (Calaveras and Rogers Creek, respectively), the Napa Valley is filled with up to 170 m. of alluvial deposits and is considered to be moderately to very highly susceptible to liquefaction and has the potential for violent shaking. While damage due to strong ground shaking was significant, remarkably little damage due to liquefaction or landslide induced ground deformations was observed. This may be due to recent drought in the region. Instead, the South Napa earthquake is the first to produce significant surface rupture in this area since the Mw 7.9 1906 San Andreas event, and the first in Northern California to rupture through a densely urbanized environment. Clear expressions of surface fault rupture extended approximately 12 - 15 km northward from the epicenter and approximately 1-2 km southeast with a significant impact to infrastructure, including roads, lifelines and residential structures. The National Science Foundation funded Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association presents here its observations on the performance of structures affected by surface fault rupture, in a densely populated residential neighborhood located approximately 10 km north of the epicenter. Based on the detailed mapping of 27 residential structures, a preliminary assessment of the quantitative descriptions of damage shows certain characteristic interactions between surface fault rupture and the overlying infrastructure: 48% of concrete slabs cracked up to 8 cm wide, 19% of structures shifted up to 11 cm off of their foundation and 44% of foundations cracked up to 3 cm

  20. Short-lived Supershear Rupture (United States)

    Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.


    Fukuyama and Olsen (2002) computed the supershear rupture initiation, propagation and termination process due to a passage of high stress drop area (called asperity) using a boundary integral equation method. They found that supershear rupture continued to propagate after the passage through high stress drop area but it died after a certain propagation distance, which depends on the elastic energy released at the high stress drop area. Here, we could reproduce a similar phenomenon in the laboratory. We conducted large-scale biaxial friction experiments using a pair of meter-scaled metagabbro rock specimens (VP=6.9km/s, VS=3.6km/s) at the National Research institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We observed several stick slip rupture events that initiated close to an asperity and immediately became supershear ruptures. But after propagating certain distance they died out and co-existing subshear ruptures became prominent. If we look into details, during the supershear rupture, we could see a sequence of rupture acceleration, its short rest and re-acceleration. This feature reminds us of a sequential breakage of small high stress patches as predicted by Fukuyama and Madariaga (2000). These observations might be interpreted under a concept of energy balance where the energy transmission from strain energy released by the asperity to fracture energy consumed at the crack tip was not instantaneously balanced in space. This could be related to the fact that earthquake rupture velocity is rather smooth reported from the finite fault analysis of large earthquakes with seismic waveforms. References Fukuyama, E. and R. Madariaga (2000) Dynamic propagation and interaction of a rupture front on a planar fault, PAGEOPH, 257, 1959-1979. Fukuyama, E. and K.B. Olsen (2002) A condition for super-shear rupture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field, PAGEOPH, 159, 2047-2056.

  1. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as performed according to a strict study protocol in diagnosing rupture of silicone breast implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 64 women with 118 implants, who had...... participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... (intracapsular or extracapsular), possible rupture or intact implant was then obtained. Strict predetermined rupture criteria were applied as described in this report and findings at surgery were abstracted in a standardised manner and results compared. RESULTS: At MRI, 66 implants were diagnosed as ruptured...

  2. Earthquake statistics inferred from plastic events in soft-glassy materials


    Benzi, Roberto; Toschi, Federico; Trampert, Jeannot


    We propose a new approach for generating synthetic earthquake catalogues based on the physics of soft glasses. The continuum approach produces yield-stress materials based on Lattice-Boltzmann simulations. We show that, if the material is stimulated below yield stress, plastic events occur, which have strong similarities with seismic events. Based on a suitable definition of displacement in the continuum, we show that the plastic events obey a Gutenberg-Richter law with exponents similar to t...

  3. Source properties of dynamic rupture pulses with off-fault plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.


    Large dynamic stresses near earthquake rupture fronts may induce an inelastic response of the surrounding materials, leading to increased energy absorption that may affect dynamic rupture. We systematically investigate the effects of off-fault plastic energy dissipation in 2-D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations under velocity-and-state-dependent friction with severe weakening at high slip velocity. We find that plasticity does not alter the nature of the transitions between different rupture styles (decaying versus growing, pulse-like versus crack-like, and subshear versus supershear ruptures) but increases their required background stress and nucleation size. We systematically quantify the effect of amplitude and orientation of background shear stresses on the asymptotic properties of self-similar pulse-like ruptures: peak slip rate, rupture speed, healing front speed, slip gradient, and the relative contribution of plastic strain to seismic moment. Peak slip velocity and rupture speed remain bounded. From fracture mechanics arguments, we derive a nonlinear relation between their limiting values, appropriate also for crack-like and supershear ruptures. At low background stress, plasticity turns self-similar pulses into steady state pulses, for which plastic strain contributes significantly to the seismic moment. We find that the closeness to failure of the background stress state is an adequate predictor of rupture speed for relatively slow events. Our proposed relations between state of stress and earthquake source properties in the presence of off-fault plasticity may contribute to the improved interpretation of earthquake observations and to pseudodynamic source modeling for ground motion prediction.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)


    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  5. Development, analysis, and evaluation of a commercial software framework for the study of Extremely Low Probability of Rupture (xLPR) events at nuclear power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric M.; Mattie, Patrick D.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) participated in a Pilot Study to examine the process and requirements to create a software system to assess the extremely low probability of pipe rupture (xLPR) in nuclear power plants. This project was tasked to develop a prototype xLPR model leveraging existing fracture mechanics models and codes coupled with a commercial software framework to determine the framework, model, and architecture requirements appropriate for building a modular-based code. The xLPR pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed developmental process and framework for a probabilistic code to address degradation mechanisms in piping system safety assessments. The pilot study includes a demonstration problem to assess the probability of rupture of DM pressurizer surge nozzle welds degraded by primary water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The pilot study was designed to define and develop the framework and model; then construct a prototype software system based on the proposed model. The second phase of the project will be a longer term program and code development effort focusing on the generic, primary piping integrity issues (xLPR code). The results and recommendations presented in this report will be used to help the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) define the requirements for the longer term program.

  6. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. At laparotomy, an intrauterine gestation with normal tubes and ovaries with complete splenic rupture were found. She had total splenectomy. Highland Medical Research Journal Vol.

  7. A Benchmarking setup for Coupled Earthquake Cycle - Dynamic Rupture - Tsunami Simulations (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Uphoff, Carsten; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie; van Zelst, Iris


    We developed a simulation framework for coupled physics-based earthquake rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation on a simplified subduction zone system for the project "Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events" (ASCETE, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation). Here, we present a benchmarking setup that can be used for complex rupture models. The workflow begins with a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation along a planar, shallowly dipping subduction zone interface. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. The absolute stress field and material properties for a single slip event are used as initial conditions for a dynamic earthquake rupture model.The rupture simulation is performed with SeisSol, which uses an ADER discontinuous Galerkin discretization scheme with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. The seafloor displacements resulting from this rupture are transferred to the tsunami model with a simple coastal run-up profile. An adaptive mesh discretizing the shallow water equations with a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme subsequently allows for an accurate and efficient representation of the tsunami evolution and inundation at the coast. This workflow allows for evaluation of how the rupture behavior affects the hydrodynamic wave propagation and coastal inundation. We present coupled results for differing earthquake scenarios. Examples include megathrust only ruptures versus ruptures with splay fault branching off the megathrust near the surface. Coupling to the tsunami simulation component is performed either dynamically (time dependent) or statically, resulting in differing tsunami wave and inundation behavior. The simplified topographical setup allows for systematic parameter studies and reproducible physical studies.

  8. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Hua-ding


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】There is a dearth of case reports de-scribing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar ten-don ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the rup-tured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. Key words: Patella; Patellar ligament; Rupture; Ten-don injuries; Knee

  9. Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes (United States)

    Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe


    Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.

  10. Earthquake statistics inferred from plastic events in soft-glassy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, Roberto; Toschi, Federico; Trampert, Jeannot


    We propose a new approach for generating synthetic earthquake catalogues based on the physics of soft glasses. The continuum approach produces yield-stress materials based on Lattice-Boltzmann simulations. We show that, if the material is stimulated below yield stress, plastic events occur, which

  11. Urinary bladder rupture during voiding cystourethrography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Ok Lee


    Full Text Available Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux with urinary tract infection or congenital renal diseases in children. The procedure is relatively simple and cost-effective, and complications are very rare. The iatrogenic complication of VCUG range from discomfort, urinary tract infection to bacteremia, as well as bladder rupture. Bladder rupture is a rare complication of VCUG, and only a few cases were reported. Bladder rupture among healthy children during VCUG is an especially uncommon event. Bladder rupture associated with VCUG is usually more common in chronically unused bladders like chronic renal failure. Presented is a case of bladder rupture that occurred during a VCUG in a healthy 9-monthold infant, due to instilled action of dye by high pressure. This injury completely healed after 7 days of operation, and it was confirmed with a postoperative cystography. The patient’s bladder volume, underlying disease, velocity of the contrast media instilled, catheter size, and styles of instillation are important factors to prevent bladder rupture during VCUG. Management of bladder rupture should be individualized, but the majority of infants are treated with the operation. In conclusion, bladder rupture is a rare complication, however, delicate attention is needed in order to prevent more dire situations.

  12. [Spontaneous achilles tendon rupture in granulomatous vasculitis]. (United States)

    Benthien, Jan Philipp; Delling, G; Rüther, W


    A 66-year old patient sustained a non-traumatic rupture of her left achilles tendon. She suffered from Sjögren's syndrome which occurred in conjunction with a systemic vasculitis, and recurrent episcleritis. The combination of Sjögren's syndrome and systemic vasculitis is well known. Subsequently, she was treated with high-dose systemic steroids over a period of 2 years. In order to reduce the amount of steroids due to preexisting severe osteoporosis and thoracic vertebral fractures, her medication was changed to cyclophosphamide shortly before her injury. Intraoperatively, a granuloma was discovered at the site of the rupture. This granuloma had infiltrated most of the achilles tendon at this site and virtually replaced viable tendon tissue. Originally, the rupture was supposedly due to the high dose steroids. This theory had to be revised according to the intraoperative findings. Following excision of the granuloma and operative treatment of the achilles tendon rupture, the continuity of the tendon could be completely restored. A MRI scan 3 months after the procedure demonstrated a completely healed Achilles tendon. Spontaneous achilles tendon rupture due to a granuloma in patients with vasculitis seems to be a rare event. However, tendon ruptures in combination with systemic lupus erythematodes have been described. Mostly, these events are attributed to long term application of steroids. Spontaneous rupture in combination with high dose treatment of steroids seems to be an underestimated problem.

  13. Re-conceptualising political landscapes after the material turn: a typology of material events


    Duineveld, Martijn; Van Assche, Kristof; Beunen, R.


    Abstract This paper conceptualises and categorises the various relationships between materiality, discursive construction of landscapes and collective action. Building on both post-structuralist and non-representational geography, and incorporating insights from social systems theory and from evolutionary governance theory, we present a perspective on materiality as shaping landscapes, communities and cultures through different pathways. These pathways might involve the construction of landsc...

  14. Re-conceptualising political landscapes after the material turn: a typology of material events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, Martijn; Van Assche, Kristof; Beunen, R.


    Abstract This paper conceptualises and categorises the various relationships between materiality, discursive construction of landscapes and collective action. Building on both post-structuralist and non-representational geography, and incorporating insights from social systems theory and from

  15. Record breaking bursts during the compressive failure of porous materials


    Pál, Gergő; Raischel, Frank; Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Kun, Ferenc; Main, Ian G.


    An accurate understanding of the interplay between random and deterministic processes in generating extreme events is of critical importance in many fields, from forecasting extreme meteorological events to the catastrophic failure of materials and in the Earth. Here we investigate the statistics of record-breaking events in the time series of crackling noise generated by local rupture events during the compressive failure of porous materials. The events are generated by computer simulations ...

  16. Rupture directivity of moderate earthquakes in northern California (United States)

    Seekins, Linda C.; Boatwright, John


    We invert peak ground velocity and acceleration (PGV and PGA) to estimate rupture direction and rupture velocity for 47 moderate earthquakes (3.5≥M≥5.4) in northern California. We correct sets of PGAs and PGVs recorded at stations less than 55–125 km, depending on source depth, for site amplification and source–receiver distance, then fit the residual peak motions to the unilateral directivity function of Ben-Menahem (1961). We independently invert PGA and PGV. The rupture direction can be determined using as few as seven peak motions if the station distribution is sufficient. The rupture velocity is unstable, however, if there are no takeoff angles within 30° of the rupture direction. Rupture velocities are generally subsonic (0.5β–0.9β); for stability, we limit the rupture velocity at v=0.92β, the Rayleigh wave speed. For 73 of 94 inversions, the rupture direction clearly identifies one of the nodal planes as the fault plane. The 35 strike-slip earthquakes have rupture directions that range from nearly horizontal (6 events) to directly updip (5 events); the other 24 rupture partly along strike and partly updip. Two strike-slip earthquakes rupture updip in one inversion and downdip in the other. All but 1 of the 11 thrust earthquakes rupture predominantly updip. We compare the rupture directions for 10 M≥4.0 earthquakes to the relative location of the mainshock and the first two weeks of aftershocks. Spatial distributions of 8 of 10 aftershock sequences agree well with the rupture directivity calculated for the mainshock.

  17. Earthquake statistics inferred from plastic events in soft-glassy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Benzi, Roberto; Trampert, Jeannot


    We propose a new approach for generating synthetic earthquake catalogues based on the physics of soft glasses. The continuum approach produces yield-stress materials based on Lattice-Boltzmann simulations. We show that, if the material is stimulated below yield stress, plastic events occur, which have strong similarities with seismic events. Based on a suitable definition of displacement in the continuum, we show that the plastic events obey a Gutenberg-Richter law with exponents similar to those for real earthquakes. We further find that average acceleration, energy release, stress drop and recurrence times scale with the same exponent. The approach is fully self-consistent and all quantities can be calculated at all scales without the need of ad hoc friction or statistical laws. We therefore suggest that our approach may lead to new insight into understanding of the physics connecting the micro and macro scale of earthquakes.

  18. MRI in flexor tendon rupture after collagenase injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, Shruti [Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Wadhwa, Vibhor [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Amirlak, Bardia [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)


    Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture. (orig.)

  19. Premature rupture of membranes (United States)

    ... this page: // Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Most women will go into labor on ...

  20. Extreme Events in Nature and Society

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio; Kantz, Holger


    Significant, and usually unwelcome, surprises, such as floods, financial crisis, epileptic seizures, or material rupture, are the topics of Extreme Events in Nature and Society. The book, authored by foremost experts in these fields, reveals unifying and distinguishing features of extreme events, including problems of understanding and modelling their origin, spatial and temporal extension, and potential impact. The chapters converge towards the difficult problem of anticipation: forecasting the event and proposing measures to moderate or prevent it. Extreme Events in Nature and Society will interest not only specialists, but also the general reader eager to learn how the multifaceted field of extreme events can be viewed as a coherent whole.

  1. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin


    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  2. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik


    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  3. Animal models for plaque rupture: a biomechanical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Kim; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Daemen, Mat J.; Gijsen, Frank J. H.


    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the main cause of acute cardiovascular events. Animal models of plaque rupture are rare but essential for testing new imaging modalities to enable diagnosis of the patient at risk. Moreover, they enable the design of new treatment strategies to prevent plaque

  4. Induced seismicity provides insight into why earthquake ruptures stop

    KAUST Repository

    Galis, Martin


    Injection-induced earthquakes pose a serious seismic hazard but also offer an opportunity to gain insight into earthquake physics. Currently used models relating the maximum magnitude of injection-induced earthquakes to injection parameters do not incorporate rupture physics. We develop theoretical estimates, validated by simulations, of the size of ruptures induced by localized pore-pressure perturbations and propagating on prestressed faults. Our model accounts for ruptures growing beyond the perturbed area and distinguishes self-arrested from runaway ruptures. We develop a theoretical scaling relation between the largest magnitude of self-arrested earthquakes and the injected volume and find it consistent with observed maximum magnitudes of injection-induced earthquakes over a broad range of injected volumes, suggesting that, although runaway ruptures are possible, most injection-induced events so far have been self-arrested ruptures.

  5. Achilles Tendon Rupture (United States)

    ... Achilles tendon rupture. Obesity. Excess weight puts more strain on the tendon. Prevention To reduce your chance of developing Achilles tendon problems, follow these tips: Stretch and strengthen calf muscles. Stretch your calf until you feel a noticeable ...

  6. Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco


    Background: The Achilles tendon, the largest and strongest tendon in the human body, is nevertheless one of the tendons which most commonly undergoes a complete subcutaneous tear. Achilles tendon ruptures are especially common in middle aged men who occasionally participate in sport. Even though Achilles tendon ruptures are frequent, up to 25% of acute injuries are misdiagnosed, and present as chronic injuries. Methods: This is a review article about diagnosis and management of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Minimally invasive Achilles tendon reconstruction is discussed. Results: The optimal surgical procedure is still debated, however, less invasive peroneus brevis reconstruction technique and free hamstring autograft provide good functional results. Conclusion: The management of chronic ruptures is more demanding than acute tears, because of the retraction of the tendon ends, and the gap makes primary repair impossible. Wound complications and infections are frequent after open procedures. Minimally invasive treatments provide good functional results and lower complications rate. PMID:29081863

  7. Nuclear forensics techniques for attributing material used in a radiological dispersal device event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knepper, P. L. (Paula L.); Eberhardt, Ariane Sibylle,; Leibrecht, E. A. (Erika Arendt); Ross, J. L. (Jessica L.); Scott, M. R. (Mark R.); Epresi, K. (Kristen); Giannangeli, D. (Don); Charlton, W. S. (William S.)


    If a radiological dispersal device (RDD) is detonated in the U.S. or near U.S. interests overseas, it will be crucial that the actors involved in the event can be identified quickly. Law enforcement officials will need information concerning the material used in the device, specifically what type of material it was and from where it originated. This information will then be used to help identify the specific individuals who manufactured the device and perpetrated the event. Texas A&M University and Los Alamos National Laboratory are collaborating on the development of a technique for identifying the material used in a radiological dispersal device. This methodology is currently focused on radiological dispersal devices that make use of spent nuclear fuel as the source material. The methodology developed makes use of both a forward model and an inverse model to identify specific spent fuel characteristics using isotopic composition of RDD debris. The forward model is based on sophisticated reactor physics calculations for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic compositions as a function of fuel type (e.g., PWR, BWR, CANDU, RBMK, etc.), fuel burnup (in MWd/MTHM), fuel age (in years since permanent discharge from the reactor), and operating characteristics (e.g., operating power level, time at power, etc.). These reactor physics calculations are benchmarked to measured data to establish their accuracy in predicting isotopic compositions. The inverse model makes use of a Bayesian inverse method to identify the specific spent fuel assembly (or assemblies) used based on measurements of actinide and fission product isotopic ratios in the RDD debris. A description of both the forward and inverse models, accuracies of the technique, and the results to date are given.

  8. Rupture of mitral valve chordae in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Boissier, Florence; Achkouty, Guy; Bruneval, Patrick; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Riant, Elisabeth; Desnos, Michel; Hagège, Albert


    While occasional reports of mitral valve chordal rupture have been described in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the exact prevalence and characteristics of this event in a large medical cohort have not been reported. To assess the prevalence of mitral valve chordal rupture in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the clinical, echocardiographic, surgical and histological profiles of those patients. We searched for patients with mitral valve chordal rupture diagnosed by echocardiography among all electronic files of patients admitted to our centre for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy between 2000 and 2010. Among 580 patients admitted for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, six patients (1%, 5 men, age 68-71 years) presented with mitral valve chordal rupture, symptomatic in five cases, always involving the posterior mitral leaflet. In all cases, echocardiography before rupture showed mitral valve systolic anterior motion, with anterior (and not posterior) leaflet elongation compared with a random sample of patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (P=0.006) (and similar to that observed in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Significant resting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction was always present before rupture and disappeared after rupture in the five cases requiring mitral valve surgery for severe mitral regurgitation. Histological findings were consistent with extensive myxomatous degeneration in all cases. Mitral valve chordal rupture is: infrequent in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; occurs in aged patients with obstructive disease; involves, essentially, the posterior mitral leaflet; and causes, in general, severe mitral regurgitation requiring surgery. Myxomatous degeneration may be the substrate for rupture in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm (United States)

    Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge


    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.; Ebert, R. W.; Mccomas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Li, G. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35756 (United States); Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, C. W., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)


    We have surveyed ∼0.1–100 MeV nucleon{sup −1} O and Fe fluence spectra during 46 isolated, large gradual SEP events observed at ACE during solar cycles 23 and 24. Most SEP spectra are well represented by the four-parameter Band function with a normalization constant, low-energy spectral slope, high-energy spectral slope, and break energy. The O and Fe spectral slopes are similar and most spectra steepen above the break energy, probably due to common acceleration and transport processes affecting different ion species. SEP spectra above the break energies depend on the origin of the seed population; larger contributions of suprathermal flare material result in higher Fe/O ratios and flatter spectra at higher energies. SEP events with steeper O spectra at low energies and higher break energies are associated with slower coronal mass ejections (CMEs), while those associated with fast (>2000 km s{sup −1}) CMEs and ground level enhancements have harder or flatter spectra at low and high energies, and O break energies between ∼1 and 10 MeV nucleon{sup −1}. The latter events are enriched in {sup 3}He and higher-energy Fe, and have Fe spectra that rollover at significantly lower energies compared with O, probably because Fe ions with smaller Q/M ratios can escape from the distant shock more easily than O ions with larger Q/M ratios. We conclude that SEP spectral properties result from many complex and competing effects, namely Q/M-dependent scattering, shock properties, and the origin of the seed populations, all of which must be taken into account to develop a comprehensive picture of CME-driven shock acceleration of large gradual SEP events.

  11. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had had hysteroscopy and repeated curettage7, but it happened during labor and not before labor as in our case. Diagnosis of spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy occuring on a scarred uterus can be made by ultrasound scan in which case there can be protrusion of membranes at the site of the scar8. If possible ...

  12. Traumatic aortic ruptures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Hoornweg, L. L.


    Most patients with a traumatic aortic rupture (TAR) were involved in high velocity motor vehicle accidents. initial management of these patients should be according to the guidelines of the advanced trauma life support group (ATLS). Patients with a suspected TAR are preferably managed by controlled

  13. Ruptured Eardrum (Perforated Eardrum) (United States)

    ... your eardrum when the air pressure in your middle ear and the air pressure in the environment are out of balance. If the pressure is ... ruptured, the skin debris can pass into your middle ear and form a cyst. A ... a friendly environment for bacteria and contains proteins that can damage ...

  14. Rupture, waves and earthquakes (United States)

    UENISHI, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but “extraordinary” phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable. PMID:28077808

  15. Rupture, waves and earthquakes. (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji


    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  16. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 69-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension presented with 1 hour of severe low back pain that radiated to his abdomen. The patient was tachycardic and had an initial blood pressure of 70/40. He had a rigid and severely tender abdomen. The patient’s history of hypertension, abnormal vital signs, severity and location of his pain were suspicious for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Therefore, a computed tomography angiogram (CTA was ordered. Significant findings: CTA demonstrated a ruptured 7.4 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with a large left retroperitoneal hematoma. Discussion: True abdominal aortic aneurysm is defined as at least a 3cm dilatation of all three layers of the arterial wall of the abdominal aorta.1 An estimated 15,000 people die per year in the US of this condition.2 Risk factors for AAA include males older than 65, tobacco use, and hypertension.1,3,4 There are also congenital, mechanical, traumatic, inflammatory, and infectious causes of AAA.3 Rupture is often the first manifestation of the disease. The classic triad of abdominal pain, pulsatile mass, and hypotension is seen in only 50% of ruptured AAAs.5 Pain (abdominal, groin, or back is the most common symptom. The most common misdiagnoses of ruptured AAAs are renal colic, diverticulitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.6 Bedside ultrasonography is the fastest way to detect this condition and is nearly 100% sensitive.1 One study showed that bedside ultrasounds performed by emergency physicians had a sensitivity of .94 [95% CI = .86-1.0] and specificity of 1 [95% CI = .98-1.0] for detecting AAAs.7 CTA has excellent sensitivity (approximately 100% and yields the added benefit of facilitating surgical planning and management.1 Without surgical treatment, a ruptured AAA is almost uniformly fatal, and 50% of those who undergo surgery do not survive.1 Early resuscitation and coordination with vascular surgery should be

  17. Traumatic rupture of diaphragm. (United States)

    Shah, R; Sabanathan, S; Mearns, A J; Choudhury, A K


    Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains a diagnostic challenge, and associated injuries determine the outcome in those diagnosed early, whereas that of latent cases is dependent on the consequence of the diaphragmatic rupture: namely, the diaphragmatic hernia. To analyze the clinical and radiologic features and the therapeutic implications, we reviewed 980 patients reported in the English-language literature. This injury affects predominantly males (male:female = 4:1) in the third decade of life, and is often caused by blunt trauma (75%). There were 1,000 injuries, of which 685 (68.5%) were left-sided, 242 (24.2%) right-sided, 15 (1.5%) bilateral, and 9 (0.9%) pericardial ruptures; 49 cases were unclassified. Chest (43.9%) and splenic (37.6%) trauma were the most common associated injuries. The diagnosis was made preoperatively in 43.5% of cases, whereas in 41.3% it was made at exploration or at autopsy and on the remaining 14.6% of the cases the diagnosis was delayed. The mortality was 17% in those in whom acute diagnosis was made, and the majority of the morbidity in the group that underwent operation was due to pulmonary complications. Uniform diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion, careful scrutiny of the chest roentgenogram in patients with thoracoabdominal or polytrauma, and meticulous inspection of the diaphragm when operating for concurrent injuries. Repeated evaluation for days after injury is necessary to discern injury in patients not requiring laparotomy. Acute diaphragmatic injuries are best approached through the abdomen, as more than 89% of patients with this injury have an associated intraabdominal injury. Patients with diaphragmatic rupture presenting in the latent phase have adhesion between the herniated abdominal and intrathoracic organs, and thus the rupture is best approached via a thoracotomy.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Thrust Fault Rupture Mechanics (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe

    Thrust fault earthquakes are investigated in the laboratory by generating dynamic shear ruptures along pre-existing frictional faults in rectangular plates. A considerable body of evidence suggests that dip-slip earthquakes exhibit enhanced ground motions in the acute hanging wall wedge as an outcome of broken symmetry between hanging and foot wall plates with respect to the earth surface. To understand the physical behavior of thrust fault earthquakes, particularly ground motions near the earth surface, ruptures are nucleated in analog laboratory experiments and guided up-dip towards the simulated earth surface. The transient slip event and emitted radiation mimic a natural thrust earthquake. High-speed photography and laser velocimeters capture the rupture evolution, outputting a full-field view of photo-elastic fringe contours proportional to maximum shearing stresses as well as continuous ground motion velocity records at discrete points on the specimen. Earth surface-normal measurements validate selective enhancement of hanging wall ground motions for both sub-Rayleigh and super-shear rupture speeds. The earth surface breaks upon rupture tip arrival to the fault trace, generating prominent Rayleigh surface waves. A rupture wave is sensed in the hanging wall but is, however, absent from the foot wall plate: a direct consequence of proximity from fault to seismometer. Signatures in earth surface-normal records attenuate with distance from the fault trace. Super-shear earthquakes feature greater amplitudes of ground shaking profiles, as expected from the increased tectonic pressures required to induce super-shear transition. Paired stations measure fault parallel and fault normal ground motions at various depths, which yield slip and opening rates through direct subtraction of like components. Peak fault slip and opening rates associated with the rupture tip increase with proximity to the fault trace, a result of selective ground motion amplification in the

  19. A New Approach for Studying Bond Rupture/Closure of a Spiro Benzopyran Photochromic Material: Reactivity Descriptors Derived from Frontier Orbitals and DFT Computed Electrostatic Potential Energy Surface Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on computations technique within the framework of the TD-DFT theory for studying the relationship between structure-properties of reversible conversion of photochromic materials. Specifically, we report on 1′,3′-dihydro-8-methoxy-1′,3′,3′-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2′-(2H-indole] (SP and its isomers. TD-DFT calculated UV-Vis electronic spectra of the closed and open isomers of this photochromic material are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, this paper reports on the results of theoretical investigations of reactivity indices that may govern the conversion between spiropyrans and its isomers. In addition, the solvent and rigidity of the medium significantly control the thermal bleaching of the photogenerated colored isomers and hence the switch ability pattern of the photochromic material. The effect of molecular structure computed by DFT in gas-phase and solvents on Cspiro-O bond length has been shown to correlate with photochromic properties. For this compound, DFT optimized geometry could be used to predict photochromism. Furthermore, in an attempt to predict the driving force for MC → SP, this work explores, for the first time, profitable exploitation of the calculated and visualized mapped electrostatic potential energy surfaces (ESP map. Interestingly, it seems that the electrostatic potential forces over the molecular fragments govern spirobond rupture/closure reactions. Thermodynamically, all-trans-colored isomer (CTT is the most stable merocyanine-like form.

  20. Stochastic Earthquake Rupture Modeling Using Nonparametric Co-Regionalization (United States)

    Lee, Kyungbook; Song, Seok Goo


    Accurate predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions are essential in simulation-based seismic hazard assessment. Advanced simulation-based ground motion prediction methods have been proposed to complement the empirical approach, which suffers from the lack of observed ground motion data, especially in the near-source region for large events. It is important to quantify the variability of the earthquake rupture process for future events and to produce a number of rupture scenario models to capture the variability in simulation-based ground motion predictions. In this study, we improved the previously developed stochastic earthquake rupture modeling method by applying the nonparametric co-regionalization, which was proposed in geostatistics, to the correlation models estimated from dynamically derived earthquake rupture models. The nonparametric approach adopted in this study is computationally efficient and, therefore, enables us to simulate numerous rupture scenarios, including large events ( M > 7.0). It also gives us an opportunity to check the shape of true input correlation models in stochastic modeling after being deformed for permissibility. We expect that this type of modeling will improve our ability to simulate a wide range of rupture scenario models and thereby predict ground motions and perform seismic hazard assessment more accurately.

  1. Observations of the rupture development process from source time functions (United States)

    Renou, Julien; Vallée, Martin


    The mechanisms governing the seismic rupture expansion and leading to earthquakes of very different magnitudes are still under debate. In the cascade model, the rupture starts from a very small patch, which size is undetectable by seismological investigation. Then rupture grows in a self-similar way, implying that no clues about the earthquake magnitude can be found before rupture starts declining. However dependencies between early phases of the rupture process and final magnitude have also been proposed, which can be explained if an earthquake is more likely to be a big one when its start and early development occur in rupture-prone areas. Here, the analysis of the early phases of the seismic rupture is achieved from an observational point of view using the SCARDEC database, a global catalog containing more than 3000 Source Time Functions (STFs) of earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.7. This dataset is theoretically very suitable to investigate the initial phase, because STFs directly describe the seismic moment rate released over time, giving access to the rupture growth behavior. As several studies already showed that deep earthquakes tend to have a specific signature of short duration with respect to magnitude (implying a quicker rupture growth than superficial events), only shallow events (depths approach does not use any rupture time information, which is interesting as (1) the exact hypocentral time can be uncertain and (2) the real rupture expansion can be delayed compared to origin time. If any magnitude-dependent signal exists, the average or median value of the slope should vary with the magnitude of the events, despite the intrinsic variability of the STFs. The preliminary results from the SCARDEC dataset seem to only exhibit a weak dependence of the slope with magnitude, in the magnitude domain where the chosen moment rate value crosses most of the STFs onsets. In addition, our results point out that slope values gradually increase with the

  2. An experimental, theoretical and event-driven computational study of narrow vibrofluidised granular materials (United States)

    Thornton, Anthony; Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David; Luding, Stefan


    We review simulations, experiments and a theoretical treatment of vertically vibrated granular media. The systems considered are confined in narrow quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional (column) geometries, where the vertical extension of the container is much larger than one or both horizontal lengths. The additional geometric constraint present in the column setup frustrates the convection state that is normally observed in wider geometries. We start by showing that the Event Driven (ED) simulation method is able to accurately reproduce the previously experimentally determined phase-diagram for vibrofludised granular materials. We then review two papers that used ED simulations to study narrow quasi-one-dimensional systems revealing a new phenomenon: collective oscillations of the grains with a characteristic frequency that is much lower than the frequency of energy injection. Theoretical work was then undertaken that is able to accurately predict the frequency of such an oscillation and Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) experiments were undertaken to provide the first experimental evidence of this new phenomenon. Finally, we briefly discuss ongoing work to create an open-source version of this ED via its integration in the existing open-source package MercuryDPM (link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="">http://MercuryDPM.orglink>); which has many advanced features that are not found in other codes.

  3. [Achilles tendon rupture]. (United States)

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H


    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  4. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.


    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  5. Daughter bubble cascades produced by folding of ruptured thin films. (United States)

    Bird, James C; de Ruiter, Riëlle; Courbin, Laurent; Stone, Howard A


    Thin liquid films, such as soap bubbles, have been studied extensively for over a century because they are easily formed and mediate a wide range of transport processes in physics, chemistry and engineering. When a bubble on a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (referred to herein as an interfacial bubble) ruptures, the general expectation is that the bubble vanishes. More precisely, the ruptured thin film is expected to retract rapidly until it becomes part of the interface, an event that typically occurs within milliseconds. The assumption that ruptured bubbles vanish is central to theories on foam evolution and relevant to health and climate because bubble rupture is a source for aerosol droplets. Here we show that for a large range of fluid parameters, interfacial bubbles can create numerous small bubbles when they rupture, rather than vanishing. We demonstrate, both experimentally and numerically, that the curved film of the ruptured bubble can fold and entrap air as it retracts. The resulting toroidal geometry of the trapped air is unstable, leading to the creation of a ring of smaller bubbles. The higher pressure associated with the higher curvature of the smaller bubbles increases the absorption of gas into the liquid, and increases the efficiency of rupture-induced aerosol dispersal.

  6. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten


    were evaluated. Comparisons were also made for self-reported breast symptoms occurring during the study period and for changes in serum values of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and cardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. The majority of the women with implant rupture...... that implant rupture is a relatively harmless condition, which only rarely progresses and gives rise to notable symptoms. Even so, because of a small risk of silicone spread, the authors suggest that women with implant ruptures be followed clinically, if not operated on. Because implant ruptures often occur...

  7. Plaque rupture in humans and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Stephen M; Galis, Zorina S; Rosenfeld, Michael E


    Despite the many studies of murine atherosclerosis, we do not yet know the relevance of the natural history of this model to the final events precipitated by plaque disruption of human atherosclerotic lesions. The literature has become particularly confused because of the common use of terms...... such as "instability", "vulnerable", "rupture", or even "thrombosis" for features of plaques in murine model systems not yet shown to rupture spontaneously and in an animal surprisingly resistant to formation of thrombi at sites of atherosclerosis. We suggest that use of conclusory terms like "vulnerable" and "stable...... that various forms of data have implicated in plaque progression. For example, formation of the fibrous cap, protease activation, and cell death in the necrotic core can be well described and have all been modeled in well-defined experiments. The relevance of such well-defined, objective, descriptive...

  8. Ruptured renal artery aneurysm during pregnancy, a clinical dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammary Mohamed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rupture of a renal artery aneurysm (RAA during pregnancy is a rare event, with a high mortality rate for both mother and fetus. Increased blood flow and intra-abdominal pressure, and vascular changes secondary to increased steroid production are postulated as contributory to the increased risk of rupture during pregnancy. Case presentation We present here a case report of total avulsion of solitary kidney secondary to rupture of RAA in a pregnant patient with congenital absence of the contralateral kidney. The main indication for nephrectomy was severely damaged kidney. Diagnosis was made during operation and both mother and fetus were saved. There are no previous reports of an intact renal artery aneurysm diagnosed either antepartum or postpartum. Conclusion The possibility of a ruptured RAA should be considered in pregnant women with evidence of retroperitoneal hemorrhage. This case was unusual because it occurred in a solitary kidney, during the third trimester of pregnancy.

  9. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture. (United States)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten; Sletting, Susanne; Høier-Madsen, Mimi; Fryzek, Jon P; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kjøller, Kim; Wiik, Allan; Friis, Søren


    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untreated ruptures are associated with changes over time in magnetic resonance imaging findings, serologic markers, or self-reported breast symptoms. A baseline magnetic resonance imaging examination was performed in 1999 on 271 women who were randomly chosen from a larger cohort of women having cosmetic breast implants for a median period of 12 years (range, 3 to 25 years). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging examination was carried out in 2001, excluding women who underwent explantation in the period between the two magnetic resonance imaging examinations (n = 44). On the basis of these examinations, the authors identified 64 women who had at least one ruptured implant at the first magnetic resonance imaging examination and, for comparison, all women who had intact implants at both examinations (n = 98). Magnetic resonance images from the two examinations were compared and changes in rupture configuration were evaluated. Comparisons were also made for self-reported breast symptoms occurring during the study period and for changes in serum values of antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and cardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. The majority of the women with implant rupture had no visible magnetic resonance imaging changes of their ruptured implants. For 11 implants (11 percent) in 10 women, the authors observed progression of silicone seepage, either as a conversion from intracapsular into extracapsular rupture (n = 7), as progression of extra-capsular silicone (n = 3), or as increasing herniation of the silicone within the fibrous capsule (n = 1); however, in most cases, these changes were minor. Some changes could be ascribed to trauma, but


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina


    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a estratégia utilizada na modelagem numérica de um corpo-de-prova misto de madeira e concreto, com sistema de conexão metálico, sob carregamento. A modelagem do sistema foi efetuada a partir de um modelo tridimensional, que utiliza o software ANSYS, versão 10.0, que tem como base o Método dos Elementos Finitos, onde foram considerados diferentes modelos de ruptura para os materiais unidos, além de elementos de contato nas interfaces dos mesmos. Os elementos finitos, assim como os materiais utilizados, foram escolhidos em função de suas representatividades perante os comportamentos a serem simulados, para que, dessa forma, fosse possível a consideração de efeitos importantes como plasticidade e ortotropia para os materiais. Os resultados obtidos a partir da modelagem proposta foram comparados com os resultados experimentais de ensaios de cisalhamento, realizados em corpos-de-prova mistos com carregamento aplicado até a ruptura e o erro obtido, neste caso, foi de até 15%. A finalidade deste trabalho é servir de base para a modelagem de sistemas estruturais, presentes em diversas áreas da engenharia, dentre elas, mecânica e civil, onde são utilizados materiais com diferentes comportamentos estruturais. A modelagem proposta possibilita a análise global do modelo assim como a análise dos aspectos localizados de interesse como a concentração de tensões, efeito de difícil quantificação em uma análise experimental.This paper shows the strategy used in the numeric modeling of a composite specimen of wood and concrete, with metallic connection system, with applied cyclical load. The modeling of the system was made starting from a three-dimensional model, using the software ANSYS, version 10.0, that has as base the Method of the Finite Elements, in which different rupture models were considered for the materials, besides contact elements in the interfaces of the materials. The finite elements, as well as the

  11. Biceps Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Polvino


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 55-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of right arm pain. Five days prior to arrival, he attempted to lift himself up on his van and experienced what he described as a “rubber band snapping” in his right arm. He reported severe pain at the time that persisted but lessened in severity. Additionally, he reported increasing bruising over the proximal right arm. He had no history of prior right arm or shoulder injury. Significant findings: Physical exam was significant for ecchymosis and mild swelling of the right bicep. When the right arm was flexed at the elbow, a prominent mass was visible and palpable over the right bicep. Right upper extremity strength was 4/5 with flexion at the elbow. Discussion: The biceps brachii muscle is comprised of a long and short head, which share a common attachment at the bicipital tuberosity on the radius. The short head originates from the coracoid process of the scapula and the long head originates from the supraglenoid tubercle.1 Biceps tendon rupture has been found to occur at a rate of 0.53/100,000 over five years, and is three times more likely to occur in men than women.2 Risk factors for biceps tendon rupture include male sex, old age, increased body mass index, smoking, and pre-existing shoulder pathology.3,4 Diagnosis of biceps tendon rupture is typically a clinical diagnosis utilizing inspection and palpation as well as special testing such as the Speed’s and/or Yergason’s tests. Ultrasound may be used to aid in diagnosis; in full-thickness tears, ultrasound was found to have a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%. However, in partial thickness tears ultrasound has a sensitivity of 27% and a specificity of 100%.5 Often considered the gold standard in diagnosis, MRI has been found to have a sensitivity of only 67% and specificity of 98% in detecting complete tears6. Treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression

  12. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mallah


    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra.

  13. Rule and rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian


    Treating the ‘state’ as a finished product gets in the way of understanding it. The state is always in the making. This article, which acts as the Introduction to a special issue, argues that political authority is (re-)produced through the process of successfully defining and enforcing rights...... to community membership and rights of access to important resources. Claims to rights prompt the exercise of authority. Struggles over property and citizenship are therefore as much about the scope and constitution of political authority as they are about access to resources and membership of a political...... — is constitutive of state power. Thus this essay argues that various moments of rupture (following periods of conflict, of colonial domination, of socialist, liberal, or authoritarian regimes, et cetera) allow us to see that rights do not simply flow from authority but also constitute it. Authority and rights...

  14. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira


    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  15. Nature of events and alcohol-related content in marketing materials at a university freshers' fair: a summative content analysis. (United States)

    Fuller, A; Fleming, K M; Szatkowski, L; Bains, M


    The transition to university is a potentially influential time upon students' drinking behaviour. This study explored the nature of activities and alcohol-related content in marketing materials from student-led societies and local businesses provided to students, at a university freshers' fair in the UK. All marketing materials handed out at the fair were collected across the 5-day event in September 2015. Written and visual content was analysed using a summative qualitative content analysis. Most student-led societies promoted social events they were hosting (n = 530), most of which took place in a drinking venue or referred to drinking (n = 335). Only four explicitly alcohol-free events were promoted. Student-led societies also promoted activities relating to their interest, e.g. sports training (n = 519), a small proportion of which had references to drinking and drinking venues (n = 54). Three societies provided promotional handouts from local bars or nightclubs. Local bars, pubs and nightclubs promoted events they hosted (n = 81) as well as alcoholic drink promotions (n = 79) and alcohol branded advertising (n = 22), albeit infrequently for the latter. In the first week of university, students are exposed to alcohol-related events, promotions and advertising, which may act as an incentive to participate in drinking.

  16. Subpatch roughness in earthquake rupture investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zielke, O; Mai, P. M


    ...) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics...

  17. A 3000-year record of surface-rupturing earthquakes at Günalan: variable fault-rupture lengths along the 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment of the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey George Fraser


    Full Text Available The North Anatolian Fault is a ca. 1200-km-long, right-lateral, strike-slip fault that forms the northern boundary of the Anatolian plate. A damaging sequence of earthquakes ruptured almost the entire fault in the twentieth century. This study adds to the growing number of paleoseismic investigations of the 350-km-long 1939 Erzincan earthquake-rupture segment, which is towards the eastern end of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. Using three paleoseismic trenches located along ca. 2 km of the principal fault strand, this study determines the timing of five earthquakes prior to the 1939 earthquake. The first three of these earthquakes are correlated to historical earthquakes in A.D. 1668, 1254 and 499, and two further events were identified as occurring from 881-673 B.C. and from 1406-1291 B.C. (2v age ranges. By comparing the earthquake timing determined in this study to results from other paleoseismic investigations of the 1939 rupture segment, it becomes clear that this historical rupture segment does not always rupture in unison. This analysis indicates that the A.D. 499 earthquake was the last time the 1939 rupture segment ruptured in unison; partial ruptures of the 1939 rupture segment occur more frequently, and can also produce large magnitude earthquakes (MW >7.

  18. Contained rupture of mycotic aneurysm of the left circumflex coronary artery in a child. (United States)

    Joshi, Reena K; Jyoti, Aman; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aggarwal, Mridul; Joshi, Raja


    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is defined as dilatation of a coronary artery segment to a diameter of more than 1.5-fold normal size. Rupture of CAA is a catastrophic event and may result in sudden death or myocardial infarction. We report this unusual case of contained rupture of the left circumflex CAA. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  20. Unexpected traumatic rupture of left atrium mimicking aortic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah K Alameddine


    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA rupture is rare following blunt chest injury. We describe a case of blunt LA rupture that was treated surgically. This report is intended to alert practitioners for a need of a close multiple disciplinary collaborations among them for optimal management of patients with this type of trauma; because other non-cardiac injuries involving the head, abdomen, or extremities are considered covariates for in-hospital mortality. As in the present case, the patient eventually died from associated extrathoracic injuries. The diagnosis of LA rupture is by exclusion. However, the initial radiological reading may be misinterpreted, because this injury can easily be mistaking for an aortic rupture. The final reappraisal of the chest imaging studies should be interpreted by a skilled radiologist to avoid misdiagnosis. Subtle radiological features can help distinguish aortic thoracic injury as illustrated in this patient. These factors may be useful to the practicing surgeon in deciding surgical approach.

  1. Material Encounters and Media Events: What Kind of Mathematics Can a Body Do? (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth


    This paper contributes to research on the material dimensions of teaching and learning mathematics, arguing that perception is not sensory integration or synthesis of multi-modal information, but rather a speculative investment in specific material encounters. This approach entails sociopolitical consequences for how we work with dis/ability in…

  2. Ruptured thought: rupture as a critical attitude to nursing research. (United States)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten


    In this paper, we introduce the notion of ‘rupture’ from the French philosopher Michel Foucault, whose studies of discourse and governmentality have become prominent within nursing research during the last 25 years. We argue that a rupture perspective can be helpful for identifying and maintaining a critical potential within nursing research. The paper begins by introducing rupture as an inheritance from the French epistemological tradition. It then describes how rupture appears in Foucault's works, as both an overall philosophical approach and as an analytic tool in his historical studies. Two examples of analytical applications of rupture are elaborated. In the first example, rupture has inspired us to make an effort to seek alternatives to mainstream conceptions of the phenomenon under study. In the second example, inspired by Foucault's work on discontinuity, we construct a framework for historical epochs in nursing history. The paper concludes by discussing the potential of the notion of rupture as a response to the methodological concerns regarding the use of Foucault-inspired discourse analysis within nursing research. We agree with the critique of Cheek that the critical potential of discourse analysis is at risk of being undermined by research that tends to convert the approach into a fixed method.

  3. Systematic observations of the slip pulse properties of large earthquake ruptures (United States)

    Melgar, Diego; Hayes, Gavin


    In earthquake dynamics there are two end member models of rupture: propagating cracks and self-healing pulses. These arise due to different properties of faults and have implications for seismic hazard; rupture mode controls near-field strong ground motions. Past studies favor the pulse-like mode of rupture; however, due to a variety of limitations, it has proven difficult to systematically establish their kinematic properties. Here we synthesize observations from a database of >150 rupture models of earthquakes spanning M7–M9 processed in a uniform manner and show the magnitude scaling properties of these slip pulses indicates self-similarity. Further, we find that large and very large events are statistically distinguishable relatively early (at ~15 s) in the rupture process. This suggests that with dense regional geophysical networks strong ground motions from a large rupture can be identified before their onset across the source region.

  4. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report. (United States)

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti


    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct.

  5. Ruptured tubal molar pregnancy | Yakasai | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molar pregnancies in most instances develop within the uterine cavity, but may occur at any site. Ectopic molar pregnancy is a rare event. The objective of this study was to present a case of ruptured tubal molar gestation, discuss its clinical features and ways to improve diagnostic accuracy. A 35.year.old woman presented ...

  6. POP-ART: thermodynamically correct activated event sampling in complex materials (United States)

    Chubynsky, M. V.; Vocks, Henk; Mousseau, Normand; Barkema, G. T.


    Dynamics of complex systems with a rugged energy landscape can be represented as a sequence of rare activated events during which the system jumps between different potential energy minima. The activation-relaxation technique (ART) [1] is an efficient method of sampling such events; however, because of an unknown bias in selecting these events it cannot easily provide thermodynamical information. We present a modification of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART) [2]. POP-ART combines short molecular dynamics runs with ART-like activated moves, with an additional accept/reject step designed to satisfy detailed balance and thus reproduce correct thermodynamics. Both correctness and efficiency of the method have been tested using a variety of systems. We mention briefly some ways of extending the approach to obtain correct dynamics as well.[1] G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4358 (1996)[2] H. Vocks, M.V. Chubynsky, G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, J. Chem. Phys., accepted

  7. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra


    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a large Mw 7.8 ShakeOut scenario. We include the geometrical fault complexity and consider different 1D velocity–density profiles for the Landers simulations and a 3D heterogeneous Earth structure for the ShakeOut scenario. For the Landers earthquake, the computed waveforms are validated using strong‐motion recordings. We analyze the simulated ground‐motion data set in terms of distance and azimuth dependence of peak ground velocity (PGV). Our simulations reveal that intraevent ground‐motion variability Graphic is higher in close distances to the fault (<20  km) and decreases with increasing distance following a power law. This finding is in stark contrast to constant sigma‐values used in empirical ground‐motion prediction equations. The physical explanation of a large near‐field Graphic is the presence of strong directivity and rupture complexity. High values of Graphic occur in the rupture‐propagation direction, but small values occur in the direction perpendicular to it. We observe that the power‐law decay of Graphic is primarily controlled by slip heterogeneity. In addition, Graphic, as function of azimuth, is sensitive to variations in both rupture speed and slip heterogeneity. The azimuth dependence of the ground‐motion mean μln(PGV) is well described by a Cauchy–Lorentz function that provides a novel empirical quantification to model the spatial dependency of ground motion. Online Material: Figures of slip distributions, residuals to ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs), distance and azimuthal dependence, and directivity predictor of ground‐motion variability for different source models.

  8. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park


    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  9. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition (United States)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.


    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  10. Endoscopic Injection of a Ruptured Duodenal Varix with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Salgueiro


    Conclusions: The presented case supports endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a treatment option for ruptured duodenal varices that, despite being a rare event, when it occurs, is often fatal.

  11. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor X. Flores


    Full Text Available A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery.

  12. Energia total de ruptura: um teste biomecânico para avaliação de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não linear Total energy of rupture: a biomechanical test to evaluate non-linear viscoelastic biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chung Wu


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura para o estudo da resistência intrínseca de material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear representado neste trabalho por segmento íntegro de cólon descendente de rato. Métodos: Implementação do teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura e do Sistema de Aquisição e Análise de dados Biomecânicos - SABI 2.0. Para esse fim, foram utilizados conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos e como corpos de teste, 15 espécimes de cólon descendente de ratos. Resultados: O teste biomecânico Energia Total de Ruptura permitiu o cálculo da energia total acumulada necessária para promover a ruptura dos corpos de prova durante os ensaios mecânicos. Por meio da automatização e gerenciamento da aquisição e análise dos dados capturados foi possível a geração de gráficos e relatórios descritivos e estatísticos. Conclusão: Fundamentado em conceitos físico-mecânicos, computacionais e biomecânicos, o teste Energia Total de Ruptura pôde proporcionar análise matemática do comportamento dos segmentos de cólon descendente de ratos durante os ensaios, demonstrando ser um possível método de medição da resistência intrínseca desse material biológico com propriedade viscoelástica não-linear.Purpose: Presentation of the Total Energy of Rupture biomechanical test to evaluate the intrinsic resistance of the rat’s left colon which presents a non-linear viscoelastic property. Methods: Implementation of Total Energy of Rupture test (ETR and the Biomechanical Data Acquisition and Analysis System (SABI 2.0 based on physic-mechanical, computational and biomechanical concepts. Fifteen specimens of Wistar adults rat’s left colon where considered for experiments. Results: Using the TER biomechanical test it was possible calculate the accumulated total energy necessary to promote the specimens rupture during the mechanical trial. It was

  13. Repair of Chronic Achilles Ruptures Has a High Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism. (United States)

    Bullock, Mark J; DeCarbo, William T; Hofbauer, Mark H; Thun, Joshua D


    Despite the low incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in foot and ankle surgery, some authors report a high incidence of symptomatic DVT following Achilles tendon rupture. The purpose of this study was to identify DVT risk factors inherent to Achilles tendon repair to determine which patients may benefit from prophylaxis. One hundred and thirteen patient charts were reviewed following elective and nonelective Achilles tendon repair. For elective repair of insertional or noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy, parameters examined included lateral versus prone positioning and the presence versus absence of a flexor hallucis longus transfer. For nonelective repair, acute Achilles tendon ruptures were compared to chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. Of 113 Achilles tendon repairs, 3 venous thromboembolism (VTE) events (2.65%) occurred including 2 pulmonary emboli (1.77%). Seventeen of these repairs were chronic Achilles tendon ruptures, and all 3 VTE events (17.6%) occurred within this subgroup. Elevated body mass index was associated with VTE in patients with chronic Achilles ruptures although this did not reach significance ( P = .064). No VTE events were reported after repair of 28 acute tendon ruptures or after 68 elective repairs of tendinopathy. Two patients with misdiagnosed partial Achilles tendon tears were excluded because they experienced a VTE event 3 weeks and 5 weeks after injury, prior to surgery. In our retrospective review, chronic Achilles ruptures had a statistically significant higher incidence of VTE compared with acute Achilles ruptures ( P = .048) or elective repair ( P = .0069). Pharmaceutical anticoagulation may be considered for repair of chronic ruptures. Repair of acute ruptures and elective repair may not warrant routine prophylaxis due to a lower incidence of VTE. Prognostic, Level III: Case Control Study.

  14. Supplemental material: afterburner for generating light (anti-)nuclei with QCD-inspired event generators in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server


    This note complements the paper titled: ``Production of deuterons, tritons, $^{3}$He nuclei and their anti-nuclei in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~0.9, 2.76 and 7~TeV'' with additional material related to Monte Carlo simulations necessary to compare the results with lower energy experiments. It describes a coalescence-based afterburner for QCD-inspired event generators, which allows the generation of light nuclei, hyper-nuclei and their charge conjugates in proton--proton (pp) collisions at LHC energies. The event generators with the afterburner are able to reproduce the differential cross sections of light (anti-)nuclei ($A<4)$ with the same degree of agreement as those of protons and anti-protons at the same momentum per nucleon. They also explain the transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameters as the result of hard scattering effects.

  15. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event (United States)


    and has a great resistance to corrosion . When aluminum reacts with oxygen, a thin layer of oxide is created and provides corrosion protection .3...made of aluminum rather than steel is the vehicle hull because the same level of protection could be achieved at a lighter weight. A rectangular...the design of military vehicles. Since World War II, rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel has been the primary material used to protect main armor

  16. Sorbent materials for rapid remediation of wash water during radiological event relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolin, William C.; Kaminski, Michael


    Procedures for removing harmful radiation from interior and exterior surfaces of homes and businesses after a nuclear or radiological disaster may generate large volumes of radiologically contaminated waste water. Rather than releasing this waste water to potentially contaminate surrounding areas, it is preferable to treat it onsite. Retention barrels are a viable option because of their simplicity in preparation and availability of possible sorbent materials. This study investigated the use of aluminosilicate clay minerals as sorbent materials to retain 137Cs, 85Sr, and 152Eu. Vermiculite strongly retained 137Cs, though other radionuclides displayed diminished affinity for the surface. Montmorillonite exhibited increased affinity to sorb 85Sr and 152Eu in the presence of higher concentrations of 137Cs. To simulate flow within retention barrels, vermiculite was mixed with sand and used in small-scale column experiments. The GoldSim contaminate fate module was used to model breakthrough and assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as sorbent materials in retention barrels. The modeled radionuclide breakthrough profiles suggest that vermiculite-sand and montmorillonite-sand filled barrels could be used for treatment of contaminated water generated from field operations.

  17. Long-term results after repair of ruptured and non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Ilija B.


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated - mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70% has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture, and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months. Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122, and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126. There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups. RESULTS During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0,05a of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of

  18. Ground Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquake Ruptures of the Hayward Fault (United States)

    Aagaard, B.; Graves, R.; Larsen, S.; Ma, S.; Rodgers, A.; Brocher, T.; Graymer, R.; Harris, R.; Lienkaemper, J.; Ponce, D.; Schwartz, D.; Simpson, R.; Spudich, P.; Dreger, D.; Petersson, A.; Boatwright, J.


    We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for a suite of 35 magnitude 6.7--7.2 scenario earthquake ruptures involving the Hayward fault. The suite of scenarios encompasses variability in rupture length, hypocenter, distribution of slip, rupture speed, and rise time. The five rupture lengths include the Hayward fault and portions thereof, as well as combined rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults and the Hayward and Calaveras faults. For most rupture lengths, we consider three hypocenters, yielding north-to-south rupture, bilateral rupture, and south-to-north rupture. We also consider multiple random realizations of the slip distribution, accounting for creeping patches (Funning et al., 2007) either through simple assumptions about how creep reduces coseismic slip or a slip-predictable approach. The kinematic rupture models include local variations in rupture speed and use a ray-tracing algorithm to propagate the rupture front. Although we are not attempting to simulate the 1868 Hayward fault earthquake in detail, a few of the scenarios are designed to have source parameters that might be similar to this event. This collaborative effort involves four modeling groups, using different wave propagation codes and domains of various sizes and resolutions, computing long-period (T > 1--2 s) or broadband (T > 0.1 s) synthetic ground motions for overlapping subsets of the suite of scenarios. The simulations incorporate the 3-D geologic structure as described by the USGS 3-D Geologic Model (Jachens et al., 2006; Watt et al., 2007) and USGS Bay Area Velocity Model (Brocher et al., 2007). The simulations illustrate the dramatic increase in intensity of shaking for a magnitude 7.0 bilateral rupture of the entire Hayward fault compared with a magnitude 6.8 bilateral rupture of the southern two-thirds of the fault; the area subjected to shaking stronger than MMI VII increases from about 10% to more than 40% of the San Francisco Bay urban area. For a given

  19. Spontaneous splenic rupture in an active duty Marine upon return from Iraq: a case report. (United States)

    Rice, Jason P; Sutter, Christian M


    Atraumatic splenic rupture is a rare event that has been associated with several infectious disease processes. In the active duty military population, potential exposure to these pathogens is significant. Here we discuss the case of an active duty Marine with spontaneous splenic rupture upon return from a six-month deployment in Iraq. A previously healthy 30-year-old Caucasian male active duty Marine presented with abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea after deployment to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Based on clinical and radiographic evidence, a diagnosis of spontaneous splenic rupture was ultimately suspected. After exploratory laparotomy with confirmation of rupture, splenectomy was performed, and the patient made a full, uneventful recovery. Histopathologic examination revealed mild splenomegaly with a ruptured capsule of undetermined cause. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare event that may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage if not diagnosed and treated quickly. Although the cause of this patient's case was unknown, atraumatic splenic rupture has been associated with a variety of infectious diseases and demonstrates some risks the active duty military population may face while on deployment. Having an awareness of these pathogens and their role in splenic rupture, clinicians caring for military personnel must be prepared to recognize and treat this potentially fatal complication.

  20. Spontaneous splenic rupture in an active duty Marine upon return from Iraq: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutter Christian M


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atraumatic splenic rupture is a rare event that has been associated with several infectious disease processes. In the active duty military population, potential exposure to these pathogens is significant. Here we discuss the case of an active duty Marine with spontaneous splenic rupture upon return from a six-month deployment in Iraq. Case presentation A previously healthy 30-year-old Caucasian male active duty Marine presented with abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea after deployment to Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Based on clinical and radiographic evidence, a diagnosis of spontaneous splenic rupture was ultimately suspected. After exploratory laparotomy with confirmation of rupture, splenectomy was performed, and the patient made a full, uneventful recovery. Histopathologic examination revealed mild splenomegaly with a ruptured capsule of undetermined cause. Conclusion Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare event that may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage if not diagnosed and treated quickly. Although the cause of this patient's case was unknown, atraumatic splenic rupture has been associated with a variety of infectious diseases and demonstrates some risks the active duty military population may face while on deployment. Having an awareness of these pathogens and their role in splenic rupture, clinicians caring for military personnel must be prepared to recognize and treat this potentially fatal complication.

  1. Patterns of Therapeutic Alliance: Rupture-Repair Episodes in Prolonged Exposure for PTSD (United States)

    McLaughlin, AnnaMaria Aguirre; Keller, Stephanie M.; Feeny, Norah C.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Zoellner, Lori A.


    Objective To better understand the role of therapeutic alliance in PTSD treatment, we examined patterns of and shifts in alliance. First, we identified individuals with repaired ruptures, unrepaired ruptures, and no ruptures in alliance. Then, we explored group differences in these alliance events for clients with common clinical correlates (i.e., co-occurring depression and childhood abuse history) and whether or not the presence of these events influenced treatment outcome. Method At pre-treatment, clients (N = 116); 76.1% female; 66% Caucasian; age M = 36.7 years (SD = 11.3) completed measures assessing PTSD diagnosis and severity (PTSD Symptom Scale Interview and Self-Report), depression diagnosis and severity (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and Beck Depression Inventory), and trauma history. During ten weeks of prolonged exposure therapy, alliance (California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale) measures were completed. At post-treatment, PTSD and depression were re-assessed. Results Ruptures in alliance were quite common (46%). No significant differences emerged in the frequency of repaired ruptures, unrepaired ruptures, or no ruptures between those with and without co-occurring MDD, X2 (2, N = 82) = 2.69, p =. 26, or those with and without a history of childhood abuse, X2 (2, N = 81) = 0.57, p = .75. Unrepaired ruptures predicted worse treatment outcome (β = .45, p = .001). Conclusions The current study underscores the importance of attending to discontinuities in alliance throughout treatment. PMID:24188510

  2. Record breaking bursts in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa eDanku


    Full Text Available We investigate the statistics of record breaking events in the time series of cracklingbursts in a fiber bundle model of the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. In the model fibers break due to two mechanisms: slowly accumulating damage triggers bursts of immediate breakings analogousto acoustic emissions in experiments. The rupture process accelerates such that the size of breaking avalanches increases while the waiting time between consecutive events decreases towards failure.Record events are defined as bursts which have a larger size than all previous events in the time series.We analyze the statistics of records focusing on the limit of equal load sharing (ELS of the model and compare the results to the record statistics of sequences of independent identically distributed random variables. Computer simulations revealed that the number of records grows with the logarithm of the event number except for the close vicinity of macroscopic failure where an exponential dependence isevidenced. The two regimes can be attributed to the dominance of disorder with small burst sizesand to stress enhancements giving rise efficient triggering of extended bursts, respectively.Both the size of records and the increments between consecutive record eventsare characterized by power law distributions with a common exponent 1.33 significantly differentfrom the usual ELS burst size exponents of fiber bundles. The distribution of waiting times followsthe same behavior, however, with two distinct exponents for low and high loads. Studying the evolution of records we identify a load dependent characteristic scale of the systemwhich separates slow down and acceleration of record breaking as failure is approached.

  3. Record breaking bursts in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture (United States)

    Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc


    We investigate the statistics of record breaking events in the time series of cracklingbursts in a fiber bundle model of the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. In the model fibers break due to two mechanisms: slowly accumulating damage triggers bursts of immediate breakings analogousto acoustic emissions in experiments. The rupture process accelerates such that the size of breaking avalanches increases while the waiting time between consecutive events decreases towards failure.Record events are defined as bursts which have a larger size than all previous events in the time series.We analyze the statistics of records focusing on the limit of equal load sharing (ELS) of the model and compare the results to the record statistics of sequences of independent identically distributed random variables. Computer simulations revealed that the number of records grows with the logarithm of the event number except for the close vicinity of macroscopic failure where an exponential dependence isevidenced. The two regimes can be attributed to the dominance of disorder with small burst sizesand to stress enhancements giving rise efficient triggering of extended bursts, respectively.Both the size of records and the increments between consecutive record eventsare characterized by power law distributions with a common exponent 1.33 significantly differentfrom the usual ELS burst size exponents of fiber bundles. The distribution of waiting times followsthe same behavior, however, with two distinct exponents for low and high loads. Studying the evolution of records we identify a load dependent characteristic scale of the systemwhich separates slow down and acceleration of record breaking as failure is approached.

  4. Ruptured Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha BS


    Full Text Available A pregnancy with implantation on the scar of a past cesarean section is uncommon. However such pregnancies are on the rise due to the increasing number of lower segment cesarean section. One of the complications of such a pregnancy is uterine rupture in early pregnancy which can be life threatening to the patient. The following is a report of a patient who presented at 10 weeks of gestational age with features of hypovolemic shock and lower position of the gestational sac in relation to the uterus with normal fetal heart rate. The diagnosis of ruptured cesarean scar pregnancy was made only after laparotomy.

  5. Case Series of Ruptured Jamaican Berry Aneurysms Four Decades ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective From our personal experiences, it is our wish to examine the incidence of ruptured intracranial aneurysms about four decades ago in Jamaica, the West Indies, with regards to postoperative deterioration of neurological/psychological functions. Materials and Method The author, while working in Jamaica, the West ...

  6. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin [Ulsan Medical College, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 {+-} 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  7. Mitigation measures for soil embankments against fault rupture using geosynthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos


    In the current study the ability of geosynthetics to reduce the permanent deformations developed due to a fault rupture propagation in a soil embankment is investigated. For this purpose parametric numerical analyses were performed and the effect of the material properties of the geosynthetics...... due to an abrupt fault rupture......., the number of the reinforcements, the height of the soil layer and the applied fault displacement was examined. The results which were obtained from this investigation indicate that the proposed configurations of reinforced soil can be efficiently used in order to reduce the permanent deformations developed...

  8. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.


    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Small and large earthquakes: evidence for a different rupture beginning (United States)

    Festa, G.; Colombelli, S.; Zollo, A.; Picozzi, M.


    The process of earthquake rupture nucleation and propagation has been investigated through laboratory experiments and theoretical modelling, but a limited number of observations exist at the scale of earthquake fault zones. Distinct models have been proposed, and whether the magnitude can be predicted while the rupture is ongoing represents an unsolved question. The ability to correctly distinguish a small shock from a large event through the analysis of the first P-wave observation is crucial for risk mitigation actions triggered by earthquake early warning systems. Here we show that the evolution of P-wave peak displacement with time is informative regarding the early stage of the rupture process and can be used as a proxy for the final size of the rupture. In the present study, we measure the peak displacement amplitude of filtered P-wave signals over a progressively expanding P-wave time window, starting from the P-wave onset time, and expanding the time window until the expected arrival of the S-waves. We use a large, high-quality dataset of 43 moderate-to-strong Japanese events, in the magnitude range between 4 and 9. We analyzed more than 7000 three-component waveforms recorded at 1,208 stations, spanning a wide distance range (0-500 km). We study the relationship between the time evolution of the peak displacement and the earthquake magnitude itself to investigate a possible different scaling for small and large events. For the analyzed earthquake set, we found that the initial evolution of peak displacement is different between small and large earthquakes. In particular, we show a rapid initial increase of the peak displacement for small events and a slower growth for larger ones. The figure shows the average values of P-wave peak displacement for some representative events while the insert box shows the expected initial slope of the curves for different magnitudes. This result suggests that the evolution of P-wave peak displacement holds information

  10. Case Series Of Ruptured Jamaican Berry Aneurysms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was predominant. There were no cerebro-vascular spasms postoperatively. Greek -- -- ANEURYSMA (Ana= up or across, eurys = wide or broad). Key Words: Subarachnoid Haemorrhage, Cerebro-Vascular Spasms. rupture spontaneously into the subarachnoid space, causing subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rupture could.

  11. Steam generator tube rupture simulation using extended finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail:; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken


    Highlights: • Extended finite element method used for modeling the steam generator tube rupture. • Crack propagation is modeled in an arbitrary solution dependent path. • The FE model is used for estimating the rupture pressure of steam generator tubes. • Crack coalescence modeling is also demonstrated. • The method can be used for crack modeling of tubes under severe accident condition. - Abstract: A steam generator (SG) is an important component of any pressurized water reactor. Steam generator tubes represent a primary pressure boundary whose integrity is vital to the safe operation of the reactor. SG tubes may rupture due to propagation of a crack created by mechanisms such as stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, etc. It is thus important to estimate the rupture pressures of cracked tubes for structural integrity evaluation of SGs. The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the use of extended finite element method capability of commercially available ABAQUS software, to model SG tubes with preexisting flaws and to estimate their rupture pressures. For the purpose, elastic–plastic finite element models were developed for different SG tubes made from Alloy 600 material. The simulation results were compared with experimental results available from the steam generator tube integrity program (SGTIP) sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A reasonable correlation was found between extended finite element model results and experimental results.

  12. Rupture of spleen post colonoscopy. (United States)

    Younes, Nidal A; Al-Ardah, Mahmoud I; Daradkeh, Salam S


    We review an interesting case of elective colonoscopy for rectal bleeding in a 68-year-old woman complicated by splenic rupture. She was managed by aggressive fluid and blood resuscitation followed by splenectomy. She had a smooth recovery and was discharged home 4 days after admission. The extreme rarity and interesting clinical course of the patient are discussed.

  13. Sonographic Findings of Ruptured Endometrioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Il; Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Hee Seun; Jeon, Hae Jeong [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyung Ah [School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the characteristic sonographic findings of ruptured endometrioma in comparison with unruptured endometrioma. Fifty nine cases of pathologically proven endometrioma were categorized as the ruptured endometrioma group and the unruptured endometrioma group on the basis of the operation records. The sonographic findings such as locularity, the internal echotexture, the size and the wall thickness of the cyst and the presence of a fluid-fluid level, fibrin strands, a retracting clot and fluid in the pelvic cavity were retrospectively evaluated using logistic regression analysis. On univariate analysis, the sonographic finding of a thin wall (odds ratio, 4.1: 95% confidence interval: 1.2-13.8) and a fluid-fluid level (odds ratio, 9.0: 95% confidence interval: 2.4-33.6) were significantly different between the ruptured endometrioma group and the unruptured endometrioma group. Logistic regression analysis showed that a thin wall (odds ratio, 7.5: 95% confidence interval: 1.6-34.4) and a fluid-fluid level (odds ratio, 14.7: 95% confidence interval: 3.1-70.2) were both independent variables significantly associated with unruptured endometrioma. The characteristic sonographic findings of ruptured endometrioma are a thin cystic wall and a fluid-fluid level in the cyst, as compared with those of unruptured endometrioma

  14. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  15. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian


    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  16. ACL Rupture in Collegiate Wrestler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay A. Palmer


    Full Text Available Objective: To educate others on unique Anterior Cruciate Ligament tears and percentage of usage of the ACL in normal daily function. Background: Patient is an eighteen year old male participating in wrestling and football at the time of the injury. Patient now only participates in wrestling. No previous knee or chronic injuries were reported prior to this injury. Patient was playing football during the time of injury. The patient stated that he planted his foot down and was tackled at the same time when the injury occurred. The patient felt his knee twist and buckle. Patient complained of clicking inside the knee and had minimal swelling. He also complained of it being difficult to bear weight at the time. The patient did not seek further treatment until two months after the injury occurred when he received an MRI. His MRI showed a positive finding for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament rupture. His previous Athletic Trainer could not find a positive diagnosis for the patient prior to the MRI. Differential Diagnosis: Possible meniscal or ACL injury. Treatment: Doctors officially diagnosed the injury as a complete rupture of the ACL. The patient did not receive surgery immediately. Doctors have stated that he only uses about 50% of his ACL on a daily basis compared to a normal person who uses about 95% of their ACL daily. Because of this, the patient played on his rupture for seven months before receiving surgery. He played a whole season of high school football and a whole season of wrestling his senior year with the ACL ruptured. The patient only used a brace for better comfort during the seven months. The patient then received reconstructive surgery to repair the rupture. A hamstring tendon graft was used to repair the ruptured ACL. Because a tendon was taken from the hamstring, patient experienced a tight ACL and hamstring of the left leg post-surgery. The patient participated in Physical Therapy for five months to strengthen and stretch the new

  17. CT Imaging Findings of Ruptured Ovarian Endometriotic Cysts: Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis with Ruptured Ovarian Functional Cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with surgically proven ruptured endometriotic cysts, as compared with those abnormal CT findings of ruptured ovarian functional cysts. This study included 13 retrospectively identified patients with surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian endometriotic cysts and who had also undergone preoperative CT scanning during the previous seven years. As a comparative group, 25 cases of surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian functional cysts were included. We assessed the morphologic features of the cysts and the ancillary findings based on CT. For the endometriotic cysts, the mean maximum cyst diameter was significantly larger than that of the functional cysts (70.1 mm versus 36.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The endometriotic cysts frequently had a multilocular shape and a thicker cyst wall, as compared to that of functional cysts, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the ancillary findings, endometriotic cysts showed a significantly higher prevalence of loculated ascites, ascites confined to the pelvic cavity without extension to the upper abdomen, and peritoneal strandings and infiltrations (p < 0.05). Although 11 of the 25 cases of functional cysts showed active extravasation of contrast material at the ovarian bleeding site, only one of 13 cases of endometriotic cysts showed active extravasation. The diagnosis of ruptured endometriotic cyst should be suspected for a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of multilocular or bilateral ovarian cysts with a thick wall and loculated ascites confined to the pelvic cavity with pelvic fat infiltrations

  18. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination. (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva


    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of Bladder in Puerperium without Uterine Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Panda


    Full Text Available Objective: we report a case of intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture I week following normal delivery ina primigravida, who presented with huge urinary ascites, anuria and renal failure. Abdominalparacentesis and exploratory laparotomy was done and a diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupturewas made. The rent was repaired in layers. This may be preventable if adequate precaution in the formof evacuating the bladder before the patient goes into second stage of labor is undertaken.

  20. Rupture propagation speed during earthquake faulting reproduced by large-scale biaxial friction experiments (United States)

    Mizoguchi, K.; Fukuyama, E.; Yamashita, F.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.


    Earthquakes are generated by unstable frictional slip along pre-existing faults. Both laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have shown that the rupture process involves an initial quasi-static phase, a subsequent accelerating phase and a main dynamic rupture phase. During the main phase, the rupture front propagates at either subshear or supershear velocity, which affects the seismic wave radiation pattern. An examination on what controls the speed is crucial for improvement of earthquake hazard mitigation. Thus We conducted stick-slip experiments on meter-scale Indian gabbro rocks to observe the rupture process of the unstable periodic slip events and to measure the rupture speed along the fault. The simulated fault plane is 1.5m in length and 0.1m in width and ground by #200-300. The fault is applied at a constant normal stress of 6.7MPa and sheared parallel to the longitudinal direction of the fault at a slip rate of 0.1mm/s and up to a displacement of 40cm. The long, narrow fault geometry leads to in-plane shear rupture (mode II). in which the rupture front propagates in the direction of slip, which mimics large strike-slip earthquake faulting. Compressional-(Vp) and shear-(Vs) wave velocities of the rock sample are calculated to be 6.92km/s and 3.62km/s, respectively, based on the elastic properties (Young's modulus, 103GPa; Poisson's ratio, 0.331; Shear modulus, 38GPa). 32 biaxial strain gauges for shear strain and 16 single-axis strain gauges for normal strain were attached along the longitudinal direction of the fault at intervals of 5cm and 10cm, respectively. The local strain data were recorded at a sampling rate of 1MHz within 16 bit resolution. Load calls attached outside the fault plane measured the whole normal and shear forces applied on the fault plane, which was recorded by the same recording system. We have confirmed that the rupture process of unstable slip events consistsing of 1) an initial quasi-static phase where the slipped area

  1. 3D dynamic rupture simulation and local tomography studies following the 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, Roby

    temporary station deployments. We only considered events that had at least 6 P and 6 S arrivals, and an azimuthal gap less then 180 degrees, to simultaneously invert for hypocenters and 3D velocity structure in southern Haiti. We used the program VELEST to define a minimum 1D velocity model, which was then used as a starting model in the computer algorithm SIMULPS14 to produce the 3D tomography. Our results show a pronounced low velocity zone across the Logne fault, which is consistent with the sedimentary basin location from the geologic map. We also observe a southeast low velocity zone, which is consistent with a predefined structure in the morphology. Low velocity structure usually correlates with broad zones of deformation, such as the presence of cracks or faults, or from the presence of fluid in the crust. This work provides information that can be used in future studies focusing on how changes in material properties can affect rupture propagation, which is useful to assess the seismic hazard that Haiti and other regions are facing.

  2. On the detection of single bond ruptures in dynamic force spectroscopy by AFM. (United States)

    Karácsony, Orsolya; Akhremitchev, Boris B


    Force spectroscopy is a novel tool in physical chemistry and biophysics. This methodology is aimed at providing kinetic parameters of dissociation at a single-molecule level by rupturing molecular bonds subjected to different loading rates. One persistent problem in the implementation of this methodology is a question about the single-bond nature of the rupture events detected in experiments based on atomic force microscopy. Here we address this question by considering the probability that the nearly simultaneous rupture of two molecular bonds might appear as a single bond rupture in the experimental data, complicating the data analysis and contributing to systematic errors in the extracted kinetic parameters. An approximate analytical model predicts that such events might be common in experiments employing soft cantilever force sensors and short tethers to immobilize the interacting molecules. These findings are confirmed by a more elaborate numerical model providing valuable guidelines on performing single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Shallow megathrust earthquake ruptures betrayed by their outer-trench aftershocks signature (United States)

    Sladen, Anthony; Trevisan, Jenny


    For some megathrust earthquakes, the rupture extends to the solid Earth's surface, at the ocean floor. This unexpected behaviour holds strong implications for the tsunami potential of subduction zones and for the physical conditions governing earthquakes, but such ruptures occur in underwater areas which are hard to observe, even with current instrumentation and imaging techniques. Here, we evidence that aftershocks occurring ocean-ward from the trench are conditioned by near-surface rupture of the megathrust fault. Comparison to well constrained earthquake slip models further reveals that for each event the number of aftershocks is proportional to the amount of shallow slip, a link likely related to static stress transfer. Hence, the spatial distribution of these specific aftershock sequences could provide independent constrains on the coseismic shallow slip of future events. It also offers the prospect to be able to reassess the rupture of many large subduction earthquakes back to the beginning of the instrumental era.

  4. [Ruptured cerebral artery blister aneurysm]. (United States)

    Vega Valdés, Pedro; Murias Quintana, Eduardo; Meilán Martínez, Angela; Gutiérrez Morales, Julio; Lopez Garcia, Antonio


    We report the case of a young patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to a ruptured blister-like aneurysm. Since this kind of aneurysms have fragile walls without a well-defined neck, their treatment is difficult. We initially planned the deployment of a flow-diverter stent, but an angiogram obtained after 10 days revealed a morphological change of the aneurysm. Therefore, we finally deployed a conventional stent and introduced 2 micro coils into the point of rupture, obtaining a good morphological result without rebleeding. Follow-up at 1 and 6 months did not observe regrowth of the aneurysm. We offer a brief introduction and discussion of this pathology and its treatment. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous rupture of the ureter (United States)

    Eken, Alper; Akbas, Tugana; Arpaci, Taner


    Spontaneous rupture of the ureter is a very rare condition and usually results from ureteral obstruction by a calculus. Only theoretical mecha­nisms have been proposed and no possible explanation has yet been reported in the literature. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the most informative study with high sensitivity. Treatment should be individualised, and depends on the state of the patient. Minimally invasive endourological procedures with double-J catheter placement and percutaneous drainage offer excellent results. Conservative management with analgesics and antibiotic coverage may be an alternative to surgery. Herein, we present a case of spontaneous rupture of the proximal ureter with no evidence of an underlying pathological condition. PMID:25715862

  6. Size dependent rupture growth at the scale of real earthquake (United States)

    Colombelli, Simona; Festa, Gaetano; Zollo, Aldo


    When an earthquake starts, the rupture process may evolve in a variety of ways, resulting in the occurrence of different magnitude earthquakes, with variable areal extent and slip, and this may produce an unpredictable damage distribution around the fault zone. The cause of the observed diversity of the rupture process evolution is unknown. There are studies supporting the idea that all earthquakes arise in the same way, while the mechanical conditions of the fault zone may determine the propagation and generation of small or large earthquakes. Other studies show that small and large earthquakes are different from the initial stage of the rupture beginning. Among them, Colombelli et al. (2014) observed that the initial slope of the P-wave peak displacement could be a discriminant for the final earthquake size, so that small and large ruptures show a different behavior in their initial stage. In this work we perform a detailed analysis of the time evolution of the P-wave peak amplitude for a set of few, co-located events, during the 2008, Iwate-Miyagi (Japan) earthquake sequence. The events have magnitude between 3.2 and 7.2 and their epicentral coordinates vary in a narrow range, with a maximum distance among the epicenters of about 15 km. After applying a refined technique for data processing, we measured the initial Peak Displacement (Pd) as the absolute value of the vertical component of displacement records, starting from the P-wave arrival time and progressively expanding the time window. For each event, we corrected the observed Pd values at different stations for the distance effect and computed the average logarithm of Pd as a function of time. The overall shape of the Pd curves (in log-lin scale) is consistent with what has been previously observed for a larger dataset by Colombelli et al. (2014). The initial amplitude begins with small values and then increases with time, until a plateau level is reached. However, we observed essential differences in the

  7. Modeling of creep rupture strength and stress reduction factors for welded 9% Cr steel

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    Holmstroem, S.; Auerkari, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology Espoo (Finland)


    Preferred models for creep rupture strength prediction have been evaluated for the parent and cross- weld steel E911, intended for use in headers and steam lines of power plants up to about 600 deg C. The assessment of the rupture data was performed in accordance with the Guidelines of the ECCC (European Creep Collaborative Committee), using the procedure and models of the standard PD6605. Rupture strength was predicted to a maximum extrapolation time of 160 000 h for the parent material and 50 000 h for the welds. The estimated stress reduction factor (SRF) for welded E911 at 600 deg C was about 80% for a rupture life of 21000 h, and about 70% for a rupture life of 50 000 h. However, the predicted decrease in SRF for longer time and higher temperatures may be exaggerated due to limited long-term cross-weld data. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures With Large Defects. (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamal; Jones, Kennis; Raikin, Steven M


    Background When Achilles tendon ruptures become chronic, a defect often forms at the rupture site. There is scant literature regarding the treatment of chronic Achilles ruptures with defects of 6 cm or larger. We examined outcomes from combining a turndown of the proximal, central Achilles with a flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to treat this condition. Materials Between September 2002 and December 2013, 32 patients presented with a chronic Achilles rupture and a defect of 6 cm or more. Twenty patients were male and 12 were female. Patient age was between 20 and 74 years, with a mean of 53.3 years. Eighteen and 14 patients had their right and left Achilles tendon affected, respectively. The number of days between injury and surgery ranged from 30 to 315 days, with a mean of 102 days. Reconstruction of the Achilles involved a turndown of the proximal, central tendon and FHL augmentation. Final patient follow-up ranged from 18 to 150 months, with a mean of 62.3 months. At surgery, the gap between the ruptured ends of the Achilles ranged from 6 to 12 cm, with a mean gap of 7.5 cm. Full healing was achieved in all 32 patients (100%) by 5 months postoperatively. Mean Foot and Ankle Ability Measures scores increased from 36.3% to 90.2% between initial and latest follow-up (P Achilles ruptures with large defects are scant within the orthopaedic literature. Our method of Achilles reconstruction results in a high rate of improved function and pain relief. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Achilles tendon rupture in badminton. (United States)

    Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M


    The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439

  10. Dynamic Rupture Model of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes


    The M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 caused violent shaking and generated a tsunami wave that was up to 50 m high along the northern coast of Sumatra. While various finite-source models have been proposed, here we present a physically realistic dynamic rupture model of the megathrust earthquake. To accomplish this, we use SeisSol, a highly parallelized software package that runs on modern supercomputers. Numerically, it follows an ADER-DG scheme to solve the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. SeisSol accommodates unstructured tetrahedral meshes that decrease computational expense by allowing for a high-resolution mesh where required, including along the non-planar subducting fault and to capture the bathymetry, as well as a lower resolution mesh in other regions. In the SeisSol model, the slip interface follows the geometry of Slab1.0 to the south and aftershock locations to the north. 4 km resolution bathymetry from GEBCO is incorporated at the ocean floor. Material properties are taken from Crust1.0 and are laterally homogeneous, but vertically varying. The model results are constrained by the overall characteristics of the rupture, including the magnitude, propagation speed, and extent along strike, as well as surface displacements recorded with GPS satellites. We aim to resolve the influence of source dynamics on ground displacement and the potential impacts on tsunami generation in the framework of the ASCETE project ("Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events",

  11. Hydatid hepatic cysts rupture into the biliary tract, the peritoneal cavity, the thoracic cavity and the hepatic subcapsular space: specific computed tomography findings. (United States)

    Antonopoulos, P; Tavernaraki, K; Charalampopoulos, G; Constantinidis, F; Petroulakis, A; Drossos, Ch


    This study attempts to demonstrate the role of computed tomography in the diagnosis of hepatic hydatid cyst rupture based on specific imaging findings and to propose combinations of the imaging findings diagnostic for specific types of rupture. Eleven patients were studied with computed tomography of the abdomen, with 4-8 mm slice thickness, after the oral administration of contrast material and intravenous contrast material in 6 cases. Based on a combination of imaging findings the types of hepatic hydatid cyst rupture were: intrabiliary rupture in 7 patients, intraperitoneal rupture in 1 patient, intrathoracic rupture in 1 patient, hepatic subcapsular rupture in 2 patients. Structural deformity of the cyst was present in all cases, combined with: dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (intrabiliary rupture); intraperitoneal fluid collections with diffuse haziness and stranding of the mesenteric fat (intraperitoneal rupture); an inhomogeneous lesion in the thorax with ipsilateral pleural effusion (intrathoracic rupture); a hydatid cyst located peripherally, with discontinuity of its adjacent to the hepatic capsule wall and subcapsular fluid collection (subcapsular rupture). The imaging findings were surgically and pathologically confirmed. Using combinations of specific imaging findings we correctly diagnosed the type of hepatic hydatid cyst rupture in all cases.

  12. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  13. Surgical Treatment of Patients with Tracheal Rupture Following Endotracheal Intubation

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    Gönül Sağıroğlu


    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to present clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients who had tracheal rupture following intubation due to surgical interventions.Material and Methods: Five patients (M/F, 1/4; Mean age, 53.8±10.9 years who were diagnosed as having tracheal rupture during or soon after surgery were included in the study and evaluated retrospectively. History, clinical features, patient characteristics, and localizations of rupture, diagnostic modalities, and treatment outcomes were reported.Results: Two of the patients were intubated with a single-lumen tube, whereas 3 patients were intubated by using a double-lumen tube. The most common symptom that led to diagnosis was subcutaneous emphysema. One patient was diagnosed during stump control before the occurrence of symptoms. It is considered that using a stylet during intubation might be a risk factor, as four of our patients were intubated with the help of a stylet. Only one patient had a difficult intubation. Conclusion: Close postoperative monitorization of patients intubated due to surgical interventions, may enable us to determine tracheal ruptute cases in the early period before symptoms occur. The most common symptom was subcutaneous emphysema in the present case series. Thus, it is considered as the most effective warning symptom. In the light of the above findings, it is suggested that difficult intubation may not add to the risk of tracheal rupture.

  14. [Left ventricle free wall rupture - a 10-year experience]. (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui; Gallego, J; Mendes, M; Serpa, C; Mendes, S; Roque, J; Guerra, N; Lemos, A; Pereira, Ricardo; Nobre, Angelo; Cravino, João


    The left ventricle free wall rupture is one of the most serious and lethal complications associated to myocardial infarction.The most common treatment in our days consists in direct closure of the rupture with pericardium or synthetic material, applied with the help of histoacryl glue, without extracorporeal circulation.Between January 2000 and September 2010, 35 consecutive patients underwent operation for left ventricle free wall rupture at our hospital.The mean age was 69,5 years and most of the patients were male ( 65,7 % ). 2,9 days was the mean time for rupture after infarction and the anterior and lateral wall were most frequently involved. 94,7 % of the patients were in shock. Surgery was performed without extracorporeal circulation using a patch of pericardium and/or Dacron Sauvage, with histoacryl glue in 85,7 % of cases.Mean time of ICU stay was 7,9 days, in-hospital global mortality 28,6 %. At 2,5 years follow-up, 86 % of the patients were alive.Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated to surgery, the procedure is now safer, simpler and quick allowing the treatment of a situation that conducted to a most certain death without management.

  15. Rupture of intracranial aneurysm and full moon


    Ottomann, Christian


    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the incidence of intracranial aneurysm rupture increases at the time of a full moon period. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis SETTING: Time of rupture and neurosurgical treatment at a university hospital in the capital city of Germany. SETTING: 486 consecutive patients, irrespective of age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of patients who attended an rupture of an intracranial aneurysm and surgical treatment during 1990 to 1998. Th...

  16. The SCEC/USGS dynamic earthquake rupture code verification exercise (United States)

    Harris, R.A.; Barall, M.; Archuleta, R.; Dunham, E.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Bhat, H.; Cruz-Atienza, Victor M.; Dalguer, L.; Dawson, P.; Day, S.; Duan, B.; Ely, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Lapusta, N.; Liu, Yajing; Ma, S.; Oglesby, D.; Olsen, K.; Pitarka, A.; Song, S.; Templeton, E.


    Numerical simulations of earthquake rupture dynamics are now common, yet it has been difficult to test the validity of these simulations because there have been few field observations and no analytic solutions with which to compare the results. This paper describes the Southern California Earthquake Center/U.S. Geological Survey (SCEC/USGS) Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, where codes that simulate spontaneous rupture dynamics in three dimensions are evaluated and the results produced by these codes are compared using Web-based tools. This is the first time that a broad and rigorous examination of numerous spontaneous rupture codes has been performed—a significant advance in this science. The automated process developed to attain this achievement provides for a future where testing of codes is easily accomplished.Scientists who use computer simulations to understand earthquakes utilize a range of techniques. Most of these assume that earthquakes are caused by slip at depth on faults in the Earth, but hereafter the strategies vary. Among the methods used in earthquake mechanics studies are kinematic approaches and dynamic approaches.The kinematic approach uses a computer code that prescribes the spatial and temporal evolution of slip on the causative fault (or faults). These types of simulations are very helpful, especially since they can be used in seismic data inversions to relate the ground motions recorded in the field to slip on the fault(s) at depth. However, these kinematic solutions generally provide no insight into the physics driving the fault slip or information about why the involved fault(s) slipped that much (or that little). In other words, these kinematic solutions may lack information about the physical dynamics of earthquake rupture that will be most helpful in forecasting future events.To help address this issue, some researchers use computer codes to numerically simulate earthquakes and construct dynamic, spontaneous

  17. Simulation of Cerebral Aneurysm Growth and Prediction of Evolving Rupture Risk

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    Martin Kroon


    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysms are local expansions of blood vessel walls in the brain blood system. The rupture of an aneurysm is a very severe event associated with a high rate of mortality. When cerebral aneurysms are detected, clinicians need to decide if operation is required. The risk of aneurysm rupture is then compared to the risks associated with the medical intervention. In the present paper, a probabilistic framework for a mechanically based rupture risk assessment of cerebral aneurysms is proposed. The method is based on the assumption that the strength of aneurysmal tissues can be described by a statistical distribution. A structural analysis of the aneurysm in question is performed, and the maximum stress experienced by the aneurysm is compared to the strength distribution. The proposed model was compared with clinical results for ruptured aneurysms in terms of rupture density and accumulated rupture risk as a function of aneurysm size. The model was able to reproduce the clinical results well. The proposed framework may potentially be used under in vivo conditions to predict the risk of rupture for diagnosed aneurysms.

  18. Surface Rupture and Geotechnical Features of The July 2, 2013 Tanah Gayo Earthquake

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    Mudrik Rahmawan Daryono


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.95-105An assessment of surface rupture and collateral ground failures can help to evaluate the impact of future earthquakes. This paper presents the results of a field survey conducted to map the surface rupture and geotechnical phenomena associated with the ground shaking during the July 2, 2013 earthquakes in Tanah Gayo Highland. The objectives of this survey are to document and to characterize the surface ruptures as well as to identify types of earthquake-induced ground failures. Results of the survey identified four best sites of possible surface rupture. Two locations are obvious surface ruptures that can be traced on primary topographic feature of the active fault segment from the north to the south, crossing Pantan Terong Hill. The fault segment has a total mapped length of 19 km, with WNW trending zone and a dextral rupture offset. The ground shaking also resulted in landslides and liquefaction in areas underlain by very fine-grained tuffaceous sands. Based on the field survey, it can be concluded that the newly defined active fault segment, the Pantan Terong segment, is likely the segment that ruptured at the July 2, 2013 Tanah Gayo earthquake. Due to the soil types and unstable rocky slopes in the hilly Central Aceh region, large-scale landslides are primary risks during an earthquake event in this region.

  19. Ruptured Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy


    Sujatha BS; Sunanda Bharatnur; Samarth Virmani; Shripad Hebbar; Arijit Bishnu


    A pregnancy with implantation on the scar of a past cesarean section is uncommon. However such pregnancies are on the rise due to the increasing number of lower segment cesarean section. One of the complications of such a pregnancy is uterine rupture in early pregnancy which can be life threatening to the patient. The following is a report of a patient who presented at 10 weeks of gestational age with features of hypovolemic shock and lower position of the gestational sac in relation to the u...

  20. Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity (United States)

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro


    We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database ( We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip

  1. Management of Hepatic Rupture Diagnosed after an Emergency Cesarean Section

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    Gianluca Raffaello Damiani


    Full Text Available A careful management of hepatic capsular rupture, with massive hemoperitoneum which occurred 14 hours after an emergency cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation, is meticulously reported. The grade of hepatic involvement varies from minor capsular laceration to extensive parenchymal rupture. Our management involved a combination of surgical interventions and aggressive supportive care. The patient was discharged after 53 days and 4 laparotomies and an unsuccessful attempt of superselective artery embolization. Ultrasound after 40 days from the last surgery showed uniform hepatic parenchyma free of focal lesions. Due to the rarity and the unpredictability nature of this devastating event we believe necessary to report our experience, reinforcing the importance of the postsurgery management.

  2. A ruptured uterus in a pregnant woman not in labor

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    Damien Punguyire


    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality constitutes one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. While significant progress has been made, system issues and professional training continue to affect maternal survival, especially when unusual, but deadly, complications arise. This rare case of survival after the rupture of an unscarred uterus in a grand multiparous woman from a remote village in Ghana illustrates how systemic transportation issues and limited access to advanced medical care put women with obstetric complications at risk. The usual clinical presentation of ruptured uteri and methods to prevent this catastrophic event are discussed. This case illustrates the systemic transportation issue that often limits access to prenatal and emergency care throughout much of the developing world and demonstrates how advanced training for emergency nurses and the use of ultrasound diagnosis can expedite difficult diagnoses and lead to maternal survival, even in the most adverse circumstances

  3. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha


    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  4. Non-bleeding Spontaneous Rupture of Hepatocellular Carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon and most ruptured HCC present with hemoperitoneum and hemorrhagic shock. Management of ruptured HCC is different than non.ruptured one. Short. and long.term mortality increases following rupture of HCC with increasing chances of tumor dissemination.

  5. Optimal management program for asbestos containing building materials to be available in the event of a disaster. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chan; Hong, Won-Hwa


    The safe management and disposal of asbestos is a matter of considerable importance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to quantify the issue of waste management following a disaster. Nevertheless, there have been few (if any) studies concerning asbestos waste, covering the amount generated, the cost of disposal, and the degree of hazard incurred. Thus, the current study focuses on developing a program for the management of Asbestos Containing Building Materials (ACBMs), which form the source of asbestos waste in the event of a disaster. The study will also discuss a case study undertaken in a specific region in Korea in terms of: (1) the location of ACBM-containing buildings; (2) types and quantities of ACBMs; (3) the cost of ACBM disposal; (4) the amount of asbestos fiber present during normal times and during post-disaster periods; (5) the required order in which ACBM-containing buildings should be dismantled; and (6) additional greenhouse gases generated during ACBM removal. The case study will focus on a specific building, with an area of 35.34m 2 , and will analyze information concerning the abovementioned points. In addition, the case study will focus on a selected area (108 buildings) and the administrative district (21,063 buildings). The significance of the program can be established by the fact that it visibly transmits information concerning ACBM management. It is a highly promising program, with a widespread application for the safe management and optimal disposal of asbestos in terms of technology, policy, and methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A method for determining atmospheric emissions from ruptured gas gathering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Kenny, J. [ATECH Application Technology Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper described the development of a gas pipeline release-rate model that accounts for the effects of emergency shut down (ESD) valve activation and closure time. In order to assess the level of risk associated with operating a sour gas pipeline, it is necessary to know the atmospheric release-rate in the event of a rupture. Contrary to common belief that an ESD valve closes at the exact instant of a rupture, in most cases of small ruptures the valve activates only after a considerable amount of time has lapsed. This new pipeline depressurization model takes this into consideration and can accurately determine the cumulative emission volume and can therefore accurately assess the potential risk. The model also provides a means to determine the minimum size rupture that would be required to activate the ESD valves. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

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    Valle Joaquín


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen.

  8. Pathomechanics of closed rupture of the flexor tendon pulleys in rock climbers. (United States)

    Marco, R A; Sharkey, N A; Smith, T S; Zissimos, A G


    We performed a study on twenty-one cadaveric fingers (seven non-paired forearms) to determine the pathomechanics of closed traumatic rupture of the flexor tendon pulleys in rock climbers. The ages of the individuals at the time of death ranged from sixty-one to eighty-four years (mean, seventy-four years). The forearm was placed in a custom-made loading apparatus, and individual fingers were tested separately under simulated in vivo loading conditions. The flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons of each digit were attached to computer-controlled linear stepper motors that were equipped with force transducers, and the force in the tendons was simultaneously increased until avulsion of the tendons or osseous failure occurred. The force in the tendons, the excursion of the tendons, and the force at the fingertip were measured. Damage to the pulleys and bowstringing of the tendons were visualized with a fiberoptic camera. Two fingers fractured before complete rupture of the pulleys. Seventeen of the remaining nineteen fingers sustained an isolated rupture of either the A2 or the A4 pulley as the initial failure event; the A4 pulley ruptured first in fourteen digits (p pulleys ruptured simultaneously in one finger, and the A2, A3, and A4 pulleys ruptured simultaneously in another. Subtle bowstringing of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon occurred only after two consecutive pulleys had ruptured (either the A2 and A3 pulleys or the A3 and A4 pulleys). Rupture of all three pulleys was required to produce obvious bowstringing. Isolated rupture of the A2 or A4 pulley did not result in detectable bowstringing of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The A1 pulley always remained intact.

  9. Treatment alternative for irreparable rotator cuff ruptures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The treatment of massive irreparable rotator cuff rupture has still no consensus among shoulder surgeons. It is assumed that symptomatic rotator cuff tendon rupture is accepted as irreparable if retraction amount of tendon is Patte stage 3 on MRI; degree of fatty atrophy is Goutallier stage 3 or 4; narrowing of ...

  10. Ruptured intracranial dermoids: magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar D


    Full Text Available Rupture of intracranial dermoids tumour is rare and carries with it the risk of significant morbidity as well as fatality. Three cases that presented with varying symptoms ranging from headache to chiasmatic compression and suspected to have rupture of dermoid tumour are described. The importance of MR imaging in their diagnosis is discussed.

  11. Migraine before rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Gurary, Natalia M; Sakovich, Vladimir P


    Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA.......Rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) causes thunderclap headache but it remains unclear whether headache in general and migraine in particular are more prevalent in patients with unruptured SIA....

  12. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  13. Ruptured Retina Artery Macroaneurysm Presenting with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 74-year-old hypertensive presented with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage. Examination showed a ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm. Control of systemic hypertension was associated with resolution. Risk factors and management are discussed. Ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm should be considered in ...

  14. Endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms. Methods: 11 consecutive patients (7 women, 4 men, mean age of 49.2 years) with ruptured distal PICA aneurysms were studied retrospectively. All had onset of acute ...

  15. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  16. Dynamic Rupture Models Suggest High Fluid Pressures and Low Differential Stresses for the M 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (United States)

    Madden, Elizabeth; van Zelst, Iris; Ulrich, Thomas; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes


    A major challenge in understanding the physics of megathrust earthquakes is constraining the initial stress field. The close relationship between initial stress and friction and any variations in fault geometry make unique determination of these parameters difficult. In addition, evidence for low effective stresses (e.g. Hardebeck, 2015; Husen and Kissling, 2001) seem incompatible with the occurrence of large megathrust events. Here, we present a series of 3D dynamic ruptures along the plate interface that hosted the 2004 M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, which solves for dynamic fault rupture and seismic wave propagation. Use of an unstructured tetrahedral mesh allows for a realistic representation of both the non-planar slab interface and the bathymetry. First, we compare earthquake models under conditions of high versus low fluid pressure. The model with a low fluid pressure (hydrostatic) produces rupture velocities and slip magnitudes that are much too high. The model with a high fluid pressure (near lithostatic) produces the observed average 2.5 km/s rupture speed and slip magnitudes that match the observed GPS surface displacements. This suggests that earthquakes along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone operate under the conditions of low effective principal and differential stresses that result from high fluid pressures. For a third model, we use conditions from a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation at the latitude of the 2004 earthquake's hypocenter. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. We use the stress and material properties at the time of nucleation for a single earthquake as initial conditions for the dynamic rupture model. In order to produce a reasonable earthquake, fluid pressure must exceed lithostatic near the hypocenter. Because the effective principal

  17. Stabilizing role of platelet P2Y(12 receptors in shear-dependent thrombus formation on ruptured plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Nergiz-Unal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most models of experimental thrombosis, healthy blood vessels are damaged. This results in the formation of a platelet thrombus that is stabilized by ADP signaling via P2Y(12 receptors. However, such models do not predict involvement of P2Y(12 in the clinically relevant situation of thrombosis upon rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. We investigated the role of P2Y(12 in thrombus formation on (collagen-containing atherosclerotic plaques in vitro and in vivo, by using a novel mouse model of atherothrombosis. METHODOLOGY: Plaques in the carotid arteries from Apoe(-/- mice were acutely ruptured by ultrasound treatment, and the thrombotic process was monitored via intravital fluorescence microscopy. Thrombus formation in vitro was assessed in mouse and human blood perfused over collagen or plaque material under variable conditions of shear rate and coagulation. Effects of two reversible P2Y(12 blockers, ticagrelor (AZD6140 and cangrelor (AR-C69931MX, were investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Acute plaque rupture by ultrasound treatment provoked rapid formation of non-occlusive thrombi, which were smaller in size and unstable in the presence of P2Y(12 blockers. In vitro, when mouse or human blood was perfused over collagen or atherosclerotic plaque material, blockage or deficiency of P2Y(12 reduced the thrombi and increased embolization events. These P2Y(12 effects were present at shear rates >500 s(-1, and they persisted in the presence of coagulation. P2Y(12-dependent thrombus stabilization was accompanied by increased fibrin(ogen binding. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Platelet P2Y(12 receptors play a crucial role in the stabilization of thrombi formed on atherosclerotic plaques. This P2Y(12 function is restricted to high shear flow conditions, and is preserved in the presence of coagulation.

  18. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report. (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann


    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The changing specter of uterine rupture. (United States)

    Porreco, Richard P; Clark, Steven L; Belfort, Michael A; Dildy, Gary A; Meyers, Janet A


    The objective of the study was to review all patient records discharged with codes for uterine rupture in 2006 in Hospital Corporation of America hospitals. All patient charts were distributed to a committee of perinatologists and general obstetricians. Case report forms were analyzed for variables of interest to determine validity of coding and quality of care. Of 69 cases identified, only 41 were true ruptures. Twenty patients had previous cesareans, and in 9 of these patients, concurrent use of oxytocics was documented. Among the 21 patients without previous cesareans, 7 had previous uterine surgery, and oxytocics were documented in 12 of the remaining 14 patients. Standard of care violations were identified in 10 of 41 true rupture cases. Epidemiological data on uterine rupture based on hospital discharge codes without concurrent chart review may be invalid. Patients with previous cesareans represent only half of true uterine ruptures in contemporary practice.

  20. New early warning system for gravity-driven ruptures based on codetection of acoustic signal (United States)

    Faillettaz, J.


    Gravity-driven rupture phenomena in natural media - e.g. landslide, rockfalls, snow or ice avalanches - represent an important class of natural hazards in mountainous regions. To protect the population against such events, a timely evacuation often constitutes the only effective way to secure the potentially endangered area. However, reliable prediction of imminence of such failure events remains challenging due to the nonlinear and complex nature of geological material failure hampered by inherent heterogeneity, unknown initial mechanical state, and complex load application (rainfall, temperature, etc.). Here, a simple method for real-time early warning that considers both the heterogeneity of natural media and characteristics of acoustic emissions attenuation is proposed. This new method capitalizes on codetection of elastic waves emanating from microcracks by multiple and spatially separated sensors. Event-codetection is considered as surrogate for large event size with more frequent codetected events (i.e., detected concurrently on more than one sensor) marking imminence of catastrophic failure. Simple numerical model based on a Fiber Bundle Model considering signal attenuation and hypothetical arrays of sensors confirms the early warning potential of codetection principles. Results suggest that although statistical properties of attenuated signal amplitude could lead to misleading results, monitoring the emergence of large events announcing impeding failure is possible even with attenuated signals depending on sensor network geometry and detection threshold. Preliminary application of the proposed method to acoustic emissions during failure of snow samples has confirmed the potential use of codetection as indicator for imminent failure at lab scale. The applicability of such simple and cheap early warning system is now investigated at a larger scale (hillslope). First results of such a pilot field experiment are presented and analysed.

  1. A large ruptured mediastinal cystic teratoma. (United States)

    Machuca, Jenny S; Tejwani, Dimple; Niazi, Masooma; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda


    A 51-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of intermittent cough and precordial chest pain associated with shortness of breath. Initial chest-x-ray revealed a large well-circumscribed mass in the left perihilar region and consolidation of left lower lobe. Computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a large irregular fluid-filled mass occupying the left hemithorax, causing a mediastinal shift to the right, and a left pleural effusion. A pigtail was inserted; pleural fluid was exudative without evidence of malignant cells. Left thoracotomy revealed an anterior mediastinal mass of 20 cm in diameter adherent to the pericardium, pleura, and lung. Pathologic examination showed a variety of cell lines consisting of respiratory mucosa, mucous glands, cartilage, smooth muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreatic tissue, results consistent with a mature teratoma. Mature cystic teratomas are usually benign in nature and represent 60% to 70% of mediastinal germ cell tumors; they are found most commonly in young adults. The anterior mediastinum is the most common site for these types of tumors. Rupture of a mediastinal cystic teratoma is a rare event and can be a life-threatening condition. The treatment is mainly surgical, with an excellent prognosis such as in our patient.

  2. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlazim [Physics Department, Faculty Mathematics and Sciences of Surabaya State University (UNESA) Jl. Ketintang, Surabaya 60231 (Indonesia)


    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth < 70 km and magnitude > 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T{sub dur}. T{sub dur} can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus ({mu}) while T{sub dur} may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or {mu}. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/{mu}, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T{sub dur} is proportional L and greater Mo/{mu}. Because Mo/{mu} is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant

  3. Rupture of vesicourethral anastomosis following radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dall'oglio


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rupture of vesicourethral anastomosis following radical retropubic prostatectomy is a complication that requires immediate management. We evaluated the morbidity of this rare complication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 5 cases of disruption of vesicourethral anastomosis during post-operative period in a consecutive series of 1,600 radical retropubic prostatectomies, performed by a single surgeon. RESULTS: It occurred in a ratio of 1:320 prostatectomies (0,3%. Management was conservative in all the cases with an average catheter permanence time of 28 days, being its removal preceded by cystography. Two cases were secondary to bleeding, 1 followed the change of vesical catheter and 2 by unknown causes after removing the Foley catheter. Only one patient evolved with urethral stenosis, in the period ranging from 6 to 120 months. CONCLUSION: Rupture of vesicourethral anastomosis is not related to the surgeon's experience, and conservative treatment has shown to be effective.

  4. [Secondary peritonitis due to rupture of pyometra in cervical cancer]. (United States)

    Zeferino Toquero, Moisé; Bañuelos Flores, Joel


    Only 8 cases of spontaneous uterine rupture in untreated cervical cancer have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 52-year-old female, who was admitted to the emergency room due to hypovolemic shock and signs of peritonitis. A 6x4x4 cm cervical tumor was detected at physical exam. At laparotomy 2000 mL of purulent material were found and a 1-cm perforation in the posterior portion of the uterine segment was identified. A subtotal hysterectomy was performed. The patient received antibiotic and support at Intensive Care Unit. Finally, the patient presented ascendant flaccid paralysis and died due to bronchoaspiration. Spontaneous pyometra rupture in untreated cervical cancer is a rare condition and must be considered in postmenopausal women with cervical tumors and peritonitis signs.

  5. Compression and rupture cycles as tools for compressibility characterization application to apatitic calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, C. [S.P.C.T.S., Faculte des Sciences, Limoges (France); G.E.F., Faculte de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Viana, M.; Chulia, D. [G.E.F., Faculte de Pharmacie, Limoges (France); Champion, E.; Bernache-Assollant, D. [S.P.C.T.S., Faculte des Sciences, Limoges (France)


    Measurement of the cycles of compression and rupture helps to understand the phenomena occurring during compaction. Different parameters are deduced from the cycles, such as the packing of the material and energies used during compression. The ratio between the energy of rupture and the energy of compaction defines the efficacy of compaction of the materials. This technique is applied to ceramic materials using apatitic calcium phosphates with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 (apatitic tricalcium phosphate and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate) and 1.667 (stoichiometric hydroxyapatite). The methodology uses a uniaxial instrumented press to plot the cycles of compaction and rupture. The results point out the good compaction and cohesion properties of apatitic tricalcium phosphate, compared to the other apatitic materials. (orig.)

  6. Bond rupture between colloidal particles with a depletion interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, Kathryn A.; Furst, Eric M., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)


    The force required to break the bonds of a depletion gel is measured by dynamically loading pairs of colloidal particles suspended in a solution of a nonadsorbing polymer. Sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids that are 2.7 μm diameter are brought into contact in a solvent mixture of cyclohexane-cyclohexyl bromide and polystyrene polymer depletant. The particle pairs are subject to a tensile load at a constant loading rate over many approach-retraction cycles. The stochastic nature of the thermal rupture events results in a distribution of bond rupture forces with an average magnitude and variance that increases with increasing depletant concentration. The measured force distribution is described by the flux of particle pairs sampling the energy barrier of the bond interaction potential based on the Asakura–Oosawa depletion model. A transition state model demonstrates the significance of lubrication hydrodynamic interactions and the effect of the applied loading rate on the rupture force of bonds in a depletion gel.

  7. Characteristics of patients with spontaneous splenic rupture. (United States)

    Kocael, Pinar Cigdem; Simsek, Osman; Bilgin, Ismail Ahmet; Tutar, Onur; Saribeyoglu, Kaya; Pekmezci, Salih; Goksoy, Ertugrul


    In the present study, we aim to share our clinical experience in patients with spontaneous splenic rupture. Splenic rupture without trauma is known as spontaneous splenic rupture. The major problems in the management of spontaneous splenic rupture are missed or delayed diagnosis due to the lack of trauma in most cases. The records of all patients, who were admitted to Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2000 to March 2013. Twelve patients were admitted to the emergency department and they were diagnosed with spontaneous splenic rupture. The mean age was 47.6 years. All patients had complaints of abdominal pain. The mean hematocrit value was 22%. Radiologic assessment revealed hemoperitoneum and/or subcapsular hematoma in 8 patients while splenic abscess was diagnosed in 2 patients. Eleven patients underwent splenectomy whereas one was managed conservatively. The most common cause of spontaneous splenic rupture was determined to be use of anticoagulants. Etiology was considered to be idiopathic in 1 patient. Two patients died in the postoperative period. Although rare, spontaneous splenic rupture must be suspected in emergency patients who have used especially anticoagulants and antiaggregants and who have had no recent history of trauma. One of the important causes of mortality is missed or delayed diagnosis.

  8. Depth-dependent rupture mode along the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Acero, Wilson; Ponce, Gabriela; Vásconez, Freddy; Arrais, Santiago; Ruiz, Mario; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pedraza García, Patricia; Dionicio, Viviana; Chamorro, Orlando; Maeda, Yuta; Nakano, Masaru


    A large earthquake (Mw 7.7) occurred on 16 April 2016 within the source region of the 1906 earthquake in the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone. The 1906 event has been interpreted as a megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the source regions of smaller earthquakes in 1942, 1958, and 1979 in this subduction. Our seismic analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks correlated with patches of high interplate coupling strength and was similar to those of the 1942 earthquake and its aftershocks, suggesting that the 2016 and 1942 earthquakes ruptured the same asperity. Our analysis of tsunami waveforms of the 1906 event indicated Mw around 8.4 and showed that large slip occurred near the trench off the source regions of the above three historical and the 2016 earthquakes, suggesting that a depth-dependent complex rupture mode exists along this subduction zone.

  9. Complete semimembranosus rupture following therapeutic stretching after a traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Chua, S G Karen; Kong, K H


    Acute hamstring rupture is an uncommon event often occurring during high impact sports. Such events have not been previously reported during neurological rehabilitation. This case report describes a 30 year-old Chinese male presenting in a minimally responsive state 5 years after a severe traumatic brain injury. He was tetraplegic and bed-bound with spasticity involving all four limbs and flexion contracture of the right knee. During an episode of inpatient rehabilitation, he developed acute swelling and bruising of the posterior proximal thigh region associated with fever, tachycardia and diaphoresis. MRI showed a large soft tissue rim-enhancing mass in the right proximal hamstring muscle. During surgical exploration, complete rupture of the right semi-membranosus muscle was found without evidence of pus. The possible causative factors of hamstring rupture in this subject and a brief literature review are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such reported case.

  10. Survival after Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture in an Elderly Woman with Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated Only Medically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Roa-Castro


    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare and may occur as a result of transmural myocardial infarction. The course of rupture after acute myocardial infarction varies from a catastrophic event, with an acute tear leading to immediate death (acute rupture, or slow and incomplete tear leading to a late rupture (subacute rupture. Incomplete rupture may occur when the thrombus and haematoma together with the pericardium seal the rupture of the left ventricle and may develop into a pseudoaneurysm. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in this condition. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is the first-choice method for most patients with suspected left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP and suggests left ventricular rupture in 85% to 90% of patients. We report the case of an 87-year-old woman presenting with symptoms and findings of myocardial infarction and left ventricular free wall rupture with a pseudoaneurysm formation diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed on CT, MRI, and NM. She received only intense medical treatment, because she refused surgery with a favorable outcome. After 24-month followup, she is in NYHA functional class II. The survival of this patient is due to the contained pseudoaneurysm by dense pericardial adhesions, related to her previous coronary bypass surgery.

  11. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila


    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  12. Single Event Effect Hardware Trojans with Remote Activation (United States)


    BJT , N-channel Power MOSFET Single Event Gate Rupture SEGR Rupture of gate dielectric due to high electrical field conditions Power MOSFETs, Non...device sizing, or a different transistor threshold voltage (Vt). Once triggered by an SEE the Trojan enable signal would be connected to a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida


    the surveyed persons agreed to disclosure of the event to a patient but this was the case in less than half of the occasions.Conclusions. The small number of reports of sentinel events, late or incomplete reporting of conducted analyses of root causes and plans for future prevention of these events and survey data showed the state of culture in the majority of hospitals. Fear of reporting and therefore, hiding of errors or ascribing errors to the »usual« complications of a disease or procedures, the reaction of leadership to quickly find a culprit for the event, disregarding a serious approach to analyze the event and taking measures for their future prevention leads to the culture of silence. Root cause analysis of the events showed that the reason frequently lies in systems and processes and not in individuals. Health care will never be without risks for patients. However, with an open approach without the blaming and shaming of individuals, implementation of reporting the events in hospitals and other health care facilities with clear goals of patient safety, standardization of equipment, materials, and processes and education on patient safety many sentinel events and medical errors could and should be prevented.

  14. Rupture of a highly stretchable acrylic dielectric elastomer (United States)

    Pharr, George; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Suo, Zhigang


    Dielectric elastomers have found widespread application as energy harvesters, actuators, and sensors. In practice these elastomers are subject to large tensile stretches, which potentially can lead to mechanical fracture. In this study, we have examined fracture properties of the commercial acrylic elastomer VHB 4905. We have found that inserting a pre-cut into the material drastically reduces the stretch at rupture from λrup = 9.43±1.05 for pristine samples down to only λrup = 3.63±0.45 for the samples with a pre-cut. Furthermore, using ``pure-shear'' test specimens with a pre-crack, we have measured the fracture energy and stretch at rupture as a function of the sample geometry. The stretch at rupture was found to decrease with sample height, which agrees with an analytical prediction. Additionally, we have measured the fracture energy as a function of stretch-rate. The apparent fracture energy was found to increase with stretch-rate from γ 1500 J/m^2 to γ 5000 J/m^2 for the investigated rates of deformation. This phenomenon is due to viscoelastic properties of VHB 4905, which result in an apparent stiffening for sufficiently large stretch-rates.

  15. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture


    Wei Yee Leong; Daniel Gheorghiu; Janardhan Rao


    Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body bui...

  16. Boosting the trench: Paleoseimic Record of Three Holocene Earthquakes Rupturing the Issyk-Ata Fault near Bishkek, North Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Patyniak, Magda; Landgraf, Angela; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Strecker, Manfred; Korup, Oliver; Arrowsmith, Ramon


    The evaluation of thrust paleoearthquakes and associated fault scarps is often hampered by the size of their cumulative fault scarps and interaction with sedimentary processes during interseismic periods. This is especially true if these events occur in areas undergoing low strain accumulation with long recurrence intervals. Furthermore, the earthquakes might occur in environments that provide limited datable material, rendering an event chronology difficult to develop. Here we present a paleoseismological study from one site (Belek) along the Issyk-Ata fault, a major range-bounding fault that constitutes the northern edge of the Central Tien Shan. The historic and paleoseismic record of this fault is limited, although it defines the southern boundary of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. The only historically known earthquake ruptured along the Issyk-Ata fault in 1885 AD (M6.9). We use a range of tools, including photogrammetry, differential GPS, and 3D visualization and modeling, combined with different chronometers (IRSL, Radiocarbon) to boost the production of an event chronology from the trench stratigraphy and fault geometry. Our age control from both trench walls shows consistent age data in stratigraphic order irrespective of the chronometer. We were able to distinguish three different surface rupturing paleoearthquakes that affected the area at 8.9 ± 0.3 cal kyr BP; 4.7 ± 2.0 cal kyr BP; and 700 ± 80 cal yr BP, and interpret an extended episode of loess accumulation against the scarp between the oldest identified and penultimate events. Associated paleomagnitudes for the last two earthquakes range between M6.7 - M7.4 with a cumulative slip rate of 0.7 ± 0.2 mm/a. We did not find evidence for the 1885 AD event at Belek. Combined our results underline two major points: first, the historic and paleoseismic catalogue is incomplete; second, single ruptures do not necessarily involve the entire extend of the Issyk-Ata fault but point to segmented rupture behavior

  17. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

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    Duilio Divisi


    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  18. Ruptured Hydatid Cyst with an Unusual Presentation

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    Deepak Puri


    Full Text Available Ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst may sometimes cause complications like empyema, bronchopleural fistula, and collapsed lung. These complications may mislead the diagnosis and treatment if prior evidence of cyst has not been documented before rupture. We present a case of a young male who presented with complete collapse of left lung with pyopneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula which was misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. He was referred to us from peripheral hospital for pneumonectomy when his condition did not improve after six months of antitubercular chemotherapy and intercostals drainage. On investigation, CT scan revealed significant pleural thickening and massive pneumothorax restricting lung expansion. Decortication of thickened parietal and visceral pleura revealed a ruptured hydatid endocyst, and repair of leaking bronchial openings in floor of probable site of rupture in left upper lobe helped in the complete expansion of the collapsed lung followed by uneventful recovery.

  19. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures. (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V


    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.



    Vijayalakshmi; Divya


    Uterine rupture stands as a single obstetric accident during pregnancy and child birth, and one of the leading causes for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although there is decline in different studies, it is a potentially catastrophic event in which the integrity of myometrial wall is breeched . ( 1) Survivors are often e...

  1. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance (United States)

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.


    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  2. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per


    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  3. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

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    Peep Talving


    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  4. The Inclusion of Arbitrary Load Histories in the Strength Decay Model for Stress Rupture (United States)

    Reeder, James R.


    Stress rupture is a failure mechanism where failures can occur after a period of time, even though the material has seen no increase in load. Carbon/epoxy composite materials have demonstrated the stress rupture failure mechanism. In a previous work, a model was proposed for stress rupture of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures based on strength degradation. However, the original model was limited to constant load periods (holds) at constant load. The model was expanded in this paper to address arbitrary loading histories and specifically the inclusions of ramp loadings up to holds and back down. The broadening of the model allows for failures on loading to be treated as any other failure that may occur during testing instead of having to be treated as a special case. The inclusion of ramps can also influence the length of the "safe period" following proof loading that was previously predicted by the model. No stress rupture failures are predicted in a safe period because time is required for strength to decay from above the proof level to the lower level of loading. Although the model can predict failures during the ramp periods, no closed-form solution for the failure times could be derived. Therefore, two suggested solution techniques were proposed. Finally, the model was used to design an experiment that could detect the difference between the strength decay model and a commonly used model for stress rupture. Although these types of models are necessary to help guide experiments for stress rupture, only experimental evidence will determine how well the model may predict actual material response. If the model can be shown to be accurate, current proof loading requirements may result in predicted safe periods as long as 10(13) years. COPVs design requirements for stress rupture may then be relaxed, allowing more efficient designs, while still maintaining an acceptable level of safety.

  5. Yield Stress Effects on Mucus Plug Rupture (United States)

    Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, John C.; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James B.


    Mucus plugs can obstruct airways, resulting in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Yield stress, one of the significant rheological properties of mucus, plays a significant role in plug rupture. We use carbopol 940 gels as mucus simulants to study dynamics of mucus plug rupture in experiments. Yield stress increases with gel concentration increasing (0.1% ~0.3%). The yield stress of the 0.2% gel is about 530 dyn/cm2, which can simulate normal mucus. A 2D PDMS channel is used to simulate a collapsed airway of the 12th generation in a human lung. Plug rupture is driven by a pressure drop of 1.6 ×104 ~ 2.0 ×104 dyn/cm2. Initial plug length varies from half to two times the half channel width. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during rupture, from which wall shear stress is derived. Plug shortening velocity increases with the pressure drop, but decreases with yield stress or the initial plug length. Wall shear stress increases with yield stress, which indicates more potential damage may occur to epithelial cells when pathologic mucus has a high yield stress. Near the rupture moment, a wall shear stress peak appears at the front of the film deposited by the plug during rupture. This work is supported by NIH: HL84370 and HL85156.

  6. Rupture process of the 2015 Mw7.9 Nepal earthquake from the joint inversion (United States)

    Hao, J.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Yao, Z.


    The 25 April 2015 earthquake (Mw7.9) struck Nepal near the middle segment of Himalaya. Large earthquakes occurred around this region frequently in history. The rupture process could help us to investigate the characters of the disaster earthquakes. For this event many kinds of observation data could be used to constrain the rupture process. Data of some 1Hz GPS stations of the China Crustal Movement Observation Network were processed by the software GAMIT and we obtained the waveforms of this earthquake. The waveforms of several 5Hz GPS stations near the epicenter were provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ( The ALOS-2 satellite, operated by the Japanese Space Agency, collected a useful of L-band InSAR data and Lindsey et al. determined the coseismic displacement of the line-of-sight ( We resampled the coseismic displacement of Lindsey et al. to constrain the rupture process. In addition teleseismic broadband body waves, long period surface waves, waveforms of one regional broadband station and one local strong motion station were combined in the joint inversion. The epicenter of United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the mechanism of Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) were applied. The Mw 7.9 earthquake ruptured a thrust fault orienting 293o and dipping 7o to the NE, locating near the middle segment of Himalaya. This earthquake was a unilateral event and the rupture of asperity mainly propagates to the southeast, spanning a depth range from 8 km to 18 km. The inverted slip distribution is dominated by a rectangle shape slip patch with the length of ~120km. The weighted rupture velocity is about 2.1 km/s and the total seismic moment is about 8.6x1020 Nm. The imaged fault slip correlates well with the aftershock distribution.

  7. Earthquake Triggering Inferred from Rupture Histories, DInSAR Ground Deformation and Stress-Transfer Modelling: The Case of Central Italy During August 2016-January 2017 (United States)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Ganas, A.; Agalos, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Triantafyllou, I.; Kontoes, Ch.; Papoutsis, I.; Diakogianni, G.


    On August 24, October 26 and 30, 2016, Central Apennines (Italy) were hit by three shallow, normal faulting very strong earthquakes rupturing in an NW-SE striking zone. Event 3 (Norcia) occurred between event 1 (Amatrice) at the SE and event 2 (Visso) at the NW of the entire rupture zone. The rupture histories of the three events, as revealed by teleseismic P-wave inversion, showed that all were characterized by bilateral rupture process with stronger rupture directivity towards NW for events 1 and 3 and towards SSE for event 2. Maximum seismic slip of 1.2, 0.8, and 1.4 m in the hypocenter and magnitude of M w 6.2, 6.1, and 6.5 were calculated for the three events, respectively. DInSaR measurements based on Sentinel-1 and 2 satellite images showed ground deformation directivity from events 1 and 2 towards event 3, which is consistent with the rupture process directivity. For events 1, 2, and 3, the maximum ground subsidence was found equal to 0.2, 0.15, and 0.35 m. Based on rupture directivity and ground deformation pattern, we put forward the hypothesis that the area of the second event was stress loaded by the first one and that both the first and second earthquake events caused stress loading in the area, where the third event ruptured. Coulomb stress-transfer modelling yields strong evidence in favor of our hypothesis. The stress in the fault plane of event 2 was increased by 0.19 bars due to loading from event 1. Event 3 fault plane was loaded by an amount of 2 bars, due to the combined stress transfer from the two previous events, despite its proximity to the negative/positive lobe boundary. The three events produced combined stress loading of more than +0.5 bar along the Apennines to the NW and SE of the entire rupture zone. In the SE stress lobe, a series of strong earthquakes of M w 5.3, 5.6, and 5.7 occurred on January 18, 2017, but likely, seismic potential remains in the area. We consider that in the NW and more extensive stress lobe, the seismic


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    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  9. A case of spontaneous gastric rupture in a 5 years girl

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    D. Salerno


    Full Text Available We describe a case of spontaneous gastric rupture in a child of 5 years old. The patient reached us in a serious condition; the anamnesis was negative for traumatic events or gastrointestinal disorders. An abdominal X-ray and CT scan revealed free air and fluid in the abdominal cavity, leading to the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal perforation. Submitted to urgent surgery, a rupture of the posterior wall of the stomach was found that was treated with gastrectomy “à la demande”. The surgery follow-up was regular. Morphological and immunohistochemical study showed some muscular abnormalities of the muscular gastric wall.

  10. Double valve replacement for acute spontaneous left chordal rupture secondary to chronic aortic incompetence

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    McLenachan Jim


    Full Text Available Abstract A 54 years old male with undiagnosed chronic calcific degenerative aortic valve incompetence presented with acute left anterior chordae tendinae rupture resulting in severe left heart failure and cardiogenic shock. He was successfully treated with emergency double valve replacement using mechanical valves. The pathogenesis of acute rupture of the anterior chordae tendinae, without any evidence of infective endocarditis or ischemic heart disease seems to have been attrition of the subvalvular mitral apparatus by the chronic regurgitant jet of aortic incompetence with chronic volume overload. We review the literature with specific focus on the occurrence of this unusual event.

  11. Materialism. (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew


    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

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    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  13. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm


    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon


    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair.

  14. Bilateraly Diaphragmatic Traumatic Rupture with Delayed and Liver Herniation of Right Diaphragmatic Rupture


    Hatice Öztürkmen Akay; Refik Ülkü


    Bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture is a rare pathology. The incidence isregarded 0.8-5%. Here we reported a bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture withdelayed right diyafragmatic liver herniation. We review the literature andwe mentioned the important radiologic findings of the patology withultrasonoghraphy, Computed tomography, and magnetic resonanceimaging.

  15. Bilateraly Diaphragmatic Traumatic Rupture with Delayed and Liver Herniation of Right Diaphragmatic Rupture

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    Hatice Öztürkmen Akay


    Full Text Available Bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture is a rare pathology. The incidence isregarded 0.8-5%. Here we reported a bilateraly diyafragmatic rupture withdelayed right diyafragmatic liver herniation. We review the literature andwe mentioned the important radiologic findings of the patology withultrasonoghraphy, Computed tomography, and magnetic resonanceimaging.

  16. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture. (United States)

    Leong, Wei Yee; Gheorghiu, Daniel; Rao, Janardhan


    There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient.

  17. HydroCoil embolization of a ruptured infectious aneurysm in a pediatric patient: case report and review of the literature. (United States)

    Eddleman, Christopher; Nikas, Dimitrios; Shaibani, Ali; Khan, Pervez; Dipatri, Arthur J; Tomita, Tadanori


    Intracranial infectious aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. Although surgery has been the traditional treatment of ruptured pediatric infectious aneurysms, endovascular coil embolization has become an attractive alternative due to its low rate of morbidity and mortality. A 9-year-old boy with a significant medical history of aortic valve replacement, antibiotic-treated infective endocarditis, and multiple embolic cerebral infarcts presented with a high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage due to the rupture of a large infectious proximal posterior circulation aneurysm. Computed tomography and cerebral angiogram demonstrated a right crural/ambient cistern hematoma and an associated infectious aneurysm of the right proximal posterior cerebral artery. The ruptured infectious aneurysm was coil-embolized with hydrogel-coated platinum coils without sacrifice of the distal parent artery. The aneurysm was completely occluded, and the patient regained all neurological function. Ruptured infectious aneurysms in the pediatric population occur despite aggressive medical therapy. Patients with infective endocarditis and embolic infarcts should be followed closely due to the risk of major hemorrhagic events, including aneurysm rupture. Hybrid coil embolization of ruptured infectious aneurysms with preservation of the distal parent artery is exceedingly rare and effective in the management of ruptured infectious aneurysms in the pediatric population.

  18. Rupture characteristics of the 2016 Meinong earthquake revealed by the back projection and directivity analysis of teleseismic broadband waveforms (United States)

    Jian, Pei-Ru; Hung, Shu-Huei; Meng, Lingsen; Sun, Daoyuan


    The 2016 Mw 6.4 Meinong earthquake struck a previously unrecognized fault zone in midcrust beneath south Taiwan and inflicted heavy causalities in the populated Tainan City about 30 km northwest of the epicenter. Because of its relatively short rupture duration and P wave trains contaminated by large-amplitude depth phases and reverberations generated in the source region, accurate characterization of the rupture process and source properties for such a shallow strong earthquake remains challenging. Here we present a first high-resolution MUltiple SIgnal Classification back projection source image by using both P and depth-phase sP waves recorded at two large and dense arrays to understand the source behavior and consequent hazards of this peculiar catastrophic event. The results further corroborated by the directivity analysis indicate a unilateral rupture propagating northwestward and slightly downward on the shallow NE-dipping fault plane. The source radiation process is primarily characterized by one single peak, 7 s duration, with a total rupture length of 17 km and average rupture speed of 2.4 km/s. The rupture terminated immediately east of the prominent off-fault aftershock cluster about 20 km northwest of the hypocenter. Synergistic amplification of ground shaking by the directivity and strong excitation of sP and reverberations mainly caused the destruction concentrated in the area further to the northwest away from the rupture zone.

  19. Identification of earthquakes that generate tsunamis in Java and Nusa Tenggara using rupture duration analysis

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    Pribadi, S., E-mail: [Tsunami Warning Information Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No. 2, Jakarta13920 and Graduate Student of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of T (Indonesia); Puspito, N. T.; Yudistira, T.; Afnimar,; Ibrahim, G. [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Laksono, B. I. [Database Maintenance Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No.2, Jakarta 13920 (Indonesia); Adnan, Z. [Database Maintenance Division, Indonesian Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), Jalan Angkasa I No. 2, Jakarta 13920 and Graduate Student of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technol (Indonesia)


    Java and Nusa Tenggara are the tectonically active of Sunda arc. This study discuss the rupture duration as a manifestation of the power of earthquake-generated tsunami. We use the teleseismic (30° - 90°) body waves with high-frequency energy Seismometer is from IRIS network as amount 206 broadband units. We applied the Butterworth high bandpass (1 - 2 Hz) filtered. The arrival and travel times started from wave phase of P - PP which based on Jeffrey Bullens table with TauP program. The results are that the June 2, 1994 Banyuwangi and the July 17, 2006 Pangandaran earthquakes identified as tsunami earthquakes with long rupture duration (To > 100 second), medium magnitude (7.6 < Mw < 7.9) and located near the trench. The others are 4 tsunamigenic earthquakes and 3 inland earthquakes with short rupture duration start from To > 50 second which depend on its magnitude. Those events are located far from the trench.

  20. Successful medical management of a neonate with spontaneous splenic rupture and severe hemophilia A. (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif M; Rossoff, Jenna; Yallapragada, Sushmita; Liem, Robert I; Sharathkumar, Anjali A


    Splenic rupture in neonates is a rare event, usually occurring in the setting of underlying predisposing conditions. Here, we present the case of a term neonate who presented with worsening anemia in the setting of known hemolytic disease during the newborn period and was later found to have a spontaneous splenic rupture. He was subsequently diagnosed with severe hemophilia A, and was managed medically with recombinant factor VIII replacement therapy without any surgical intervention. This is the first reported case of a neonate who had spontaneous splenic rupture and severe hemophilia A, and underwent successful medical treatment without any surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of the residual stresses on crack initiation in brittle materials and structures; Prise en compte des contraintes residuelles dans un critere d'amorcage en rupture fragile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, C


    Many material assemblies subjected to thermo-mechanical loadings develop thermal residual stresses which modify crack onset conditions. Besides if one of the components has a plastic behaviour, plastic residual deformations may also have a contribution. One of the issues in brittle fracture mechanics is to predict crack onset without any pre-existing defect. Leguillon proposed an onset criterion based on both a Griffth-like energetic condition and a maximum stress criterion. The analysis uses matched asymptotics and the theory of singularity. The good fit between the model and experimental measurements led on homogeneous isotropic materials under pure mechanical loading incited us to take into account residual stresses in the criterion. The comparison between the modified criterion and the experimental measurements carried out on an aluminum/epoxy assembly proves to be satisfying concerning the prediction of failure of the interface between the two components. Besides, it allows, through inversion, identifying the fracture properties of this interface. The modified criterion is also applied to the delamination of the tile/structure interface in the plasma facing components of the Tore Supra tokamak. Indeed thermal and plastic residual stresses appear in the metallic part of these coating tiles. (author)

  2. An unusual presentation of non pathological delayed splenic rupture: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, Suhail Aslam


    The diagnosis of Delayed Splenic Rupture poses a major challenge to even the most astute clinician, as it can mimic other medical emergencies. We present a case of an unusual presentation of delayed splenic rupture in a 23-year-old Caucasian man, who presented to the emergency department with a 2 day history of left upper quadrant pain. He initially denied any history of trauma. There were no signs of generalized peritonisim on examination but his haemoglobin level was low (8.9 gm\\/dl) for which there was no obvious cause identified. He was resuscitated and a computed tomography of the abdomen was performed. This revealed complete rupture of the splenic capsule with haemorrhagic fluid in the abdomen. With the computed tomography abdomen findings and further questioning of the patient, the only potential precipitating event that he could remember was a minor kick to the left upper quadrant more than 2 weeks ago while playing football. An urgent splenectomy was performed and histology confirmed complete rupture of the splenic capsule with a large adherent haematoma to the capsule. This case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing delayed splenic rupture especially when accurate history is not available. A high index of suspicion is essential as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. Early diagnosis in suspected cases can be achieved by performing computed tomography of the abdomen.

  3. Traumatic rupture of a solitary splenic hydatid cyst: A case report

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    Moustafa Lakis


    Full Text Available Summary: The rupture of an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in the spleen due to trauma is a rare event. In this case report we describe the case of a 39-year-old Lebanese male victim of a motor vehicle accident with a ruptured solitary splenic hydatid cyst discovered by CT scan and excised during exploratory laparotomy.Echinococcosis or hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by the Echinococcus genus of tapeworm. The eggs of E. granulosus, a species of Echinococcus, are fecal-orally transmitted to human hosts, most often from dog feces, and manifest as cystic lesions termed hydatid. E. granulosus most commonly affects the liver (75%, lungs (15%, and rarely the spleen (2–5% [1,2]. E. granulosus is particularly endemic to cattle rearing areas of the Middle East. Infected patients most commonly present with vague abdominal pain, as a result of mass effect or spontaneous rupture of the cyst. Nevertheless, patient presentation may be due to traumatic rupture of a hydatid cyst; however, this is very rare. Herein we report a case of traumatic rupture of a solitary splenic hydatid cyst in a 39-year-old male following a motor vehicle crash, managed following the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS protocol. Keywords: Echinococcus, Hydatid, Trauma, Splenectomy, Cysts, Surgery

  4. A case report of delayed diagnosis of uterine rupture following vaginal delivery

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    Vanessa Falé Rosado


    Full Text Available Introduction: A uterine rupture is still a rare event but its incidence appears to be increasing, even in the unscarred uterus. In our case, the uterine rupture presented itself in an unscarred uterus and after a vaginal delivery. Case report: A 36 years old women with three previous normal deliveries, comes to our hospital for assistance at 32 weeks with a poor pregnancy surveillance. After diagnosing Gestational Diabetes, she is admitted for therapeutic adjustment. She is discharged after achieving metabolic control but comes back a few days later with a stillbirth, born by vaginal delivery. Six days later she presents with: fever and pain; anemia leukocytosis and a heterogeneous image on ultrasound. However, was decided to start intravenous antibiotics before choosing for surgery. Her condition worsens and an exploratory laparotomy is done: a posterior uterine wall rupture that required a hysterectomy. Conclusion: Risk factors for uterine rupture were present (maternal age over 35, higher parity, fetal macrosomia but the absence of any symptom, the normal examination after delivery, and mostly, an unscarred uterus, resulted in a delay in the diagnosis of more than one week, leading to catastrophic consequences: hysterectomy. This case reminds us that uterine rupture happens not only in case of previous uterine surgery, and these cases seem to be increasing because of the increase in other risk factors: advanced maternal age and diabetes with resulting fetal macrosomia.

  5. Rupture Process of the 2014 ML5.5 Orkney Earthquake, South Africa (United States)

    Okubo, M.; Cichowicz, A.; Birch, D.; Ogasawara, H.; Murakami, O.; Horiuchi, S.


    An earthquake occurred at 10:22:33 UT on 5 August, with the epicenter near Orkney town near gold mines in the Klerksdorp district in the North West province of South Africa. The Council for Geoscience (CGS) in South Africa reported that the magnitude and depth was ML5.5 and 4.7 km. In this study, we analyzed the main shock waveforms and aftershock distribution to understand the rupture process of this earthquake. At the time of the 2014 Orkney earthquake, 17 strong motion surface stations were in operation and continuous acceleration seismograms were obtained. We picked P and S wave arrival times of the main shock and found two sets of phases in those seismograms. One belongs to a smaller event that occurred at a depth of 4.1 km (5.6 km below ground surface; BGS) with a magnitude less than 3. The other larger event started 0.3 seconds later with a larger magnitude slightly (1 km) north of the first one and at a depth of 4.2 km depth (5.7 km BGS). It seemed appears that the initial rupture was leading led to a main rupture. Next, we applied hypoDD to P and S wave arrival times of the aftershocks, as well as to the initial and main ruptures of the main shock. We found vacant space in the deep parts of the aftershock distribution. This seems to correspond to the initial and main rupture hypocenters. Differences with S-wave arrival time and ideal travel time have information of strong rupture spatial distribution.

  6. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling; Generation d'accelerogrammes synthetiques large-bande par modelisation cinematique de la rupture sismique

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    Ruiz Paredes, J.A


    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k{sup -2} source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w{sup 2} model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C{sub d}. To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C{sub d}, as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M{sub w} 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  7. Rupture of pectoralis major muscle: review article

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    Guity MR


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rupture of pectoralis major muscle is a very rare and often athletic injury. These days in our country this injury occurs more frequently. This could be due to increase in professional participation of amateur people in different types of sport, like body building and weight-lifting (especially bench-pressing without adequate preparation, training and taking necessary precautions. In this article, we have tried to review several aspects of complex anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, epidemiology, mechanism, clinical presentations, imaging modalities, surgical indications and techniques of its rupture. Complex and especial anatomy of pectoralis major muscle, in its humeral insertion particularly, have a major role of its vulnerability to sudden and eccentric contraction as the main mechanism of rupture. Also, restoration of this complex anatomy seems to be important during surgical repair to have normal function of the muscle again.

  8. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

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    Feridoun Sabzi


    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  9. Fan-head shear rupture mechanism as a source of off-fault tensile cracking (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris


    This presentation discusses the role of a recently identified fan-head shear rupture mechanism [1] in the creation of off-fault tensile cracks observed in earthquake laboratory experiments conducted on brittle photoelastic specimens [2,3]. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength) and self-sustaining tensile stress intensification along one side of the interface. The variation of tensile stress within the fan-head zone is like this: it increases with distance from the fracture tip up to a maximum value and then decreases. For the initial formation of the fan-head high local stresses corresponding to the fracture strength should be applied in a small area, however after completions of the fan-head it can propagate dynamically through the material at low shear stresses (even below the frictional strength). The fan-mechanism allows explaining all unique features associated with the off-fault cracking process observed in photoelastic experiments [2,3]. In these experiments spontaneous shear ruptures were nucleated in a bonded, precut, inclined and pre-stressed interface by producing a local pressure pulse in a small area. Isochromatic fringe patterns around a shear rupture propagating along bonded interface indicate the following features of the off-fault tensile crack development: tensile cracks nucleate and grow periodically along one side of the interface at a roughly constant angle (about 80 degrees) relative to the shear rupture interface; the tensile crack nucleation takes place some distance behind the rupture tip; with distance from the point of nucleation tensile cracks grow up to a certain length within the rupture head zone

  10. Influence of composition on precipitation behavior and stress rupture properties in INCONEL RTM740 series superalloys (United States)

    Casias, Andrea M.

    Increasing demands for energy efficiency and reduction in CO2 emissions have led to the development of advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) boilers. These boilers operate at temperatures of 760 °C and pressures of 35 MPa, providing efficiencies close to 50 pct. However, austenitic stainless steels typically used in boiler applications do not have sufficient creep or oxidation resistance. For this reason, nickel (Ni)-based superalloys, such as IN740, have been identified as potential materials for AUSC boiler tube components. However, IN740 is susceptible to heat-affected-zone liquation cracking in the base metal of heavy section weldments. To improve weldability, IN740H was developed. However, IN740H has lower stress rupture ductility compared to IN740. For this reason, two IN740H modifications have been produced by lowering carbon content and increasing boron content. In this study, IN740, IN740H, and the two modified IN740H alloys (modified 1 and 2) were produced with equiaxed grain sizes of 90 ìm (alloys IN740, IN740H, and IN740H modified 1 alloys) and 112 µm (IN740H modified 2 alloy). An aging study was performed at 800 °C on all alloys for 1, 3, 10, and 30 hours to assess precipitation behavior. Stress rupture tests were performed at 760 °C with the goal of attaining stress levels that would yield rupture at 1000 hours. The percent reduction in area was measured after failure as a measure of creep ductility. Light optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction to examine precipitation behavior of annealed, aged, and stress rupture tested samples. The amount and type of precipitation that occurred during aging prior to stress rupture testing or in-situ during stress rupture testing influenced damage development, stress rupture life, and ductility. In terms of stress rupture life, IN740H modified 2 performed the best followed by IN740H modified 1 and IN740, which performed similarly, and IN740

  11. A Late Presentation of Spontaneous Bladder Rupture During Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahzadi


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is usually due to bladder diseases. Bladder rupture during labor or postpartum is extremely rare. Acute abdomen is the usual presentation of spontaneous bladder rupture. Patients may complain of suprapubic pain, anuria and hematuria. Some patients with intraperitoneal bladder rupture may have no abdominal pain and can pass urine without any symptoms so the diagnosis of intraperitoneal rupture may be difficult in these situations. We report a nulliparous woman with abdominal pain and distension about 20 days after normal vaginal delivery. There was intraperitoneal rupture of bladder in dome of bladder which was sealed by jejunum.

  12. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)


    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  13. Creep-Rupture Data Analysis - Engineering Application of Regression Techniques. Ph.D. Thesis - North Carolina State Univ. (United States)

    Rummler, D. R.


    The results are presented of investigations to apply regression techniques to the development of methodology for creep-rupture data analysis. Regression analysis techniques are applied to the explicit description of the creep behavior of materials for space shuttle thermal protection systems. A regression analysis technique is compared with five parametric methods for analyzing three simulated and twenty real data sets, and a computer program for the evaluation of creep-rupture data is presented.

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Results from COPV Accelerated Stress Rupture Testing, NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) (United States)

    Saulsberry Regor


    Develop and demonstrate NDE techniques for real-time characterization of CPVs and, where possible, identification of NDE capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation and/or making vessel life predictions (structural health monitoring or periodic inspection modes). Secondary: Provide the COPV user and materials community with quality carbon/epoxy (C/Ep) COPV stress rupture progression rate data. Aid in modeling, manufacturing, and application of COPVs for NASA spacecraft.

  15. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles. (United States)

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua


    Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 2-60). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of -3 to -4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5 mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for an early surgical

  16. Prognosis and therapy for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma: Problems with staging and treatment strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Atsushi, E-mail: [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan); Kawamura, Tomoe; Aibiki, Toshihiko; Okudaira, Tomonari; Toshimori, Akiko; Yamago, Hiroka; Nakahara, Hiromasa; Suga, Yoshifumi; Azemoto, Nobuaki; Miyata, Hideki; Miyamoto, Yasunao; Ninomiya, Tomoyuki [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan); Murakami, Tadashi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiology, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Kawasaki, Hideki [Department of Surgery, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan); Hirooka, Masashi; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Michitaka, Kojiro [Gastroenterology Center, Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital, Kasuga-cho 83, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-0024 (Japan)


    Highlights: •Although a patient with a ruptured HCC is generally considered to have a poor prognosis and treated as T4 in the 7th edition of the AJCC/UICC, some ruptured cases show a good clinical course. •There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which is classified as T4 in TNM stage of UICC 7th. •This article describes that better prognosis can be expected with curative treatment in patients with a ruptured HCC, especially those with a single tumor, and without decompensated liver cirrhosis and PVTT/extrahepatic metastasis. T4 classification should not include all types of ruptured HCC. -- Abstract: Background: There are no clear criteria established for treating a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To elucidate the clinical features of affected patients, we examined prognosis and therapy choices. Materials/methods: We enrolled 67 patients treated for a ruptured HCC (HCV 44, HBV 5, HBV + HCV 1, alcohol 2, others 15; naïve HCC 34, recurrent 33) from 2000 to 2013, and investigated their clinical background and prognosis. Results: Median survival time (MST) for all cases was 4 months. For patients who survived for more than 1 year after rupture, the percentages of Child-Pugh C and positive for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT)/extrahepatic metastasis were less than for those who died within 1 year. Child-Pugh classification (A:B:C = 14:15:5 vs. 4:9:20, P < 0.001) was better, while the percentage of patients with multiple tumors was lower [19/34 (55.9%) vs. 29/33 (87.9%), respectively; P < 0.001] in the naïve group. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were better in the naïve as compared to the recurrent group (60.6% and 33.3% vs. 12.6% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.01). MST according to modified TNM stage (UICC 7th) calculated after exclusion of T4 factor of rupture, stage I was better than others (22.7 vs. (II) 2.2, (III) 1.2, and (IV) 0.7 months) (P = 0.010). Conclusion: In patients with a ruptured

  17. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong


    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  18. Unexpected ruptured aneurysm during posterior fossa surgery. (United States)

    Chenin, L; Capel, C; N'Da, H; Lefranc, M; Peltier, J


    Surgery is the recommended treatment for unique significant cerebellar metastasis, particularly in cases of hydrocephalus. Complications of posterior fossa surgery are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a unique case of unexpected peroperative rupture of a cerebellar superior artery aneurysm during posterior fossa surgery. During posterior cranial fossa surgery, severe arterial bleeding occurred in front of the medulla oblongata. Immediate postoperative computed tomographic (CT) angiography revealed a fusiform aneurysm from a distal branch of the left superior cerebellar artery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported operative case of unexpected infratentorial ruptured aneurysm during posterior fossa surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria (United States)

    Alajoulin, Omar A.; Alsbou, Mohammed S.; Ja’afreh, Somayya O.; Kalbouneh, Heba M.


    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations. PMID:26620992


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Macheret


    The objective of this calculation is to compare several creep rupture correlations for use in calculating creep strain accrued by the Zircaloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel when it has been emplaced in the repository. These correlations are used to calculate creep strain values that are then compared to a large set of experimentally measured creep strain data, taken from four different research articles, making it possible to determine the best fitting correlation. The scope of the calculation extends to six different creep rupture correlations.

  1. [Partial uterine rupture--case report]. (United States)

    Sikora, Wacław; Michalak, Zenon; Sikora-Szcześniak, Dobrosława


    We have presented a case of partial rupture of the uterus along the left margin with both lamina of the broad uterine ligament torn off and tear of the left ovarian proper ligament in a 32-year-old patient in 36 weeks gestation. The patient, with no history of either surgery on the uterine muscles or incidents of abdominal trauma, presented with no contractions. She was qualified for an emergency laparotomy, underwent Caesarean section and the rupture of the uterine muscle was sutured. 14 days after surgery the mother and her baby were discharged from hospital in overall good condition.

  2. Nitrous oxide use and endotracheal tube rupture. (United States)

    Mosby, E L; Schelkun, P M; Vincent, S K


    Nitrous oxide is an important and widely used anesthetic agent. However, during lengthy surgical procedures, significant amounts of nitrous oxide diffuse into the endotracheal tube cuff, causing sequelae that may include increased cuff pressures, tracheal trauma, increased postoperative discomfort, and cuff rupture. In this paper, two cases are presented in which the endotracheal tube cuff used to deliver this anesthetic agent ruptured after more than four hours of surgery. Two simple means of limiting the diffusion of nitrous oxide into the cuff and thus preventing this occurrence are described.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kezunović


    Full Text Available One of the most important goals of the treatment of sports injuries is athletes’ early return to normal sporting activities. Time when the athletes will return to normal sporting activities, after Achilles tendon acute rupture, depends on the level of sports involvement. Average time of return to sport is usually between 5-6 months after rupture. Patients, who are treated using postoperative functional cast, can expect an average return to their sport a month earlier than those who after surgery used solid cast immobilization. The most important signs that indicate possible slow rehabilitation process are the pain and swelling after activity and late recovery of the tissue.

  4. Probing the material in front of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter with energy flow from sqrt(s)=7 TeV minimum bias events

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration


    In early April 2010, ATLAS collected several million of minimum bias events at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. Counting the number of energy deposits above 5 times the measured electronic noise in all electromagnetic calorimeter cells allows a channel by channel check of the response to physics. A readout cabling inversion and a high voltage cable swap, affecting 0.4% of the total number of cells in the region |eta|<2.5, were identified and corrected. The method is also sensitive to the total amount of material in front of the calorimeter, complementing other analyses which are only sensitive to the tracker material. The amount of material of the inner detector services running at constant phi in front of the barrel calorimeter, representing ~0.2 X0, is found in good agreement between data and simulations. Up to 1 X0 lack of material in the ATLAS description has been observed in the localised regions close to the rails supporting the inner detector, which can be fed into new Monte Carlo geometry.

  5. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: The Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during a large earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a smaller fault sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g., 2002 M7.9 Denali USA and 2010 M7.1 Darfield New Zealand earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial fault and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of more moderate magnitude. This was the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a finite element model to simulate propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence, in particular, the ground displacement. The two slip patches inferred from finite fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure.

  6. Uterine rupture: A seven year review at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Sinha


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the obstetric risk factors, incidence, and causes of uterine rupture, management modalities, and the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in one of the largest tertiary level women care hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A 7-year retrospective analysis of 47 cases of uterine rupture was done. The charts of these patients were analyzed and the data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, operative findings, maternal and fetal outcomes, and postoperative complications was studied. Results: The incidence of rupture was one in 1,633 deliveries (0.061%. The vast majority of patients had prior low transverse cesarean section (84.8%. The clinical presentation of the patients with rupture of the unscarred uterus was more dramatic with extensive tears compared to rupture with scarred uterus. The estimated blood loss ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 cc. Hemoperitoneum was identified in 95.7% of the patient and 83% of the patient underwent repair of rent with or without simultaneous tubal ligation. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in five cases. There were no maternal deaths in our series. However, there were 32 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and five cases of stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Four major easily identifiable risk factors including history of prior cesarean section, grand multiparity, obstructed labor, and fetal malpresentations constitute 90% of cases of uterine rupture. Identification of these high risk women, prompt diagnosis, immediate transfer, and optimal management needs to be overemphasized to avoid adverse fetomaternal complications.

  7. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture reconstructed using hamstring tendon autograft. (United States)

    Ellison, Philip; Mason, Lyndon William; Molloy, Andrew


    Chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon (delayed diagnosis of more than 4 weeks) can result in retraction of the tendon and inadequate healing. Direct repair may not be possible and augmentation methods are challenging when the defect exceeds 5-6 cm, especially if the distal stump is grossly tendinopathic. We describe our method of Achilles tendon reconstruction with ipsilateral semitendinosis autograft and interference screw fixation in a patient with chronic rupture, a 9 cm defect and gross distal tendinopathy. Patient reported outcome measures consistently demonstrated improved health status at 12 months post surgery: MOXFQ-Index 38-25, EQ5D-5L 18-9, EQ VAS 70-90 and VISA-A 1-64. The patient was back to full daily function, could single leg heel raise and was gradually returning to sport. No complications or adverse events were recorded. Reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon with large defects and gross tendinopathy using an ipsilateral semitendinosis autograft and interference screw fixation can achieve satisfactory improvements in patient reported outcomes up to 1 year post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual-Energy CT for Evaluation of Intra- and Extracapsular Silicone Implant Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Glazebrook


    Full Text Available Silicone implants are commonly used for both breast augmentation and breast reconstruction. With aging of the implant, the silicone envelope may become weak or may rupture. The technique of choice for evaluation of implant integrity is breast MRI; however this may be contraindicated in some patients or the cost may be prohibitive. Dual-energy CT allows determination of density and atomic number of tissue and can provide material composition information. We present a case of extracapsular implant rupture with MRI and dual-energy CT imaging and surgical correlation.

  9. Dynamic Rupture Modelling of the 1999 Düzce, Turkey Earthquake (United States)

    Tanırcan, Gülüm; Dalguer, Luis; Bekler, Feyza Nur; Meral Özel, Nurcan


    The dynamic rupture process and near-source ground motion of the 1999 Mw 7.1 Düzce Earthquake are simulated. The fault rupture is governed by the slip-weakening friction model coupled to a three-dimensional viscoelastic wave equation. The problem is solved numerically by a 3-D dynamic rupture code that uses a generalized finite difference method. Initial parameterization of stress drop (Δ τ) and strength excess (Se) for dynamic rupture calculations is obtained from the slip velocity distribution of a kinematic waveform inversion (KI) model by solving the elastodynamic equation with the kinematic slip as a boundary condition. Using the kinematic slip distribution and observed ground motion as constraints, a trial and error procedure was followed to define the stress parameterization. Preferred model describes the source in terms of stress with three asperities (located, respectively, at the deep, middle and shallow) and strong barriers between asperities. Se is as high as 19 Mpa at barriers between the three asperities and Δ τ is maximum about 40 Mpa at the deepest asperity. This heterogeneity in stress distribution produces abrupt jumps in rupture velocity, exhibiting locally apparent rupture speed exceeding the P wave velocity at the borders between barriers and asperities, due to sharp changes of fault strength and stress drop at those areas. Overall, consistent with other studies, the rupture propagation is dominated by supershear speed toward the eastern asperities and at shallow surface. Simulated surface rupture at the eastern fault is consistent with other studies; nevertheless, the western shallower parts did not rupture during the simulation, suggesting that those regions may have already broken during the 1999 Kocaeli event, which occurred three months earlier. Ground motion simulation catches the major characteristics of the observed waveforms. Distribution of simulated peak ground velocity (PGV) in low frequency (0.1-0.5 Hz.) inside the study area

  10. Large scale dynamic rupture scenario of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake (United States)

    Ulrich, Thomas; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice A.


    The Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is one of the strongest and most devastating earthquakes in recent history. Most of the damage and the ~230,000 fatalities were caused by the tsunami generated by the Mw 9.1-9.3 event. Various finite-source models of the earthquake have been proposed, but poor near-field observational coverage has led to distinct differences in source characterization. Even the fault dip angle and depth extent are subject to debate. We present a physically realistic dynamic rupture scenario of the earthquake using state-of-the-art numerical methods and seismotectonic data. Due to the lack of near-field observations, our setup is constrained by the overall characteristics of the rupture, including the magnitude, propagation speed, and extent along strike. In addition, we incorporate the detailed geometry of the subducting fault using Slab1.0 to the south and aftershock locations to the north, combined with high-resolution topography and bathymetry data.The possibility of inhomogeneous background stress, resulting from the curved shape of the slab along strike and the large fault dimensions, is discussed. The possible activation of thrust faults splaying off the megathrust in the vicinity of the hypocenter is also investigated. Dynamic simulation of this 1300 to 1500 km rupture is a computational and geophysical challenge. In addition to capturing the large-scale rupture, the simulation must resolve the process zone at the rupture tip, whose characteristic length is comparable to smaller earthquakes and which shrinks with propagation distance. Thus, the fault must be finely discretised. Moreover, previously published inversions agree on a rupture duration of ~8 to 10 minutes, suggesting an overall slow rupture speed. Hence, both long temporal scales and large spatial dimensions must be captured. We use SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-DG scheme solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high

  11. Open splenectomy for Varicella zoster induced spontaneous splenic rupture

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    Mark Christopher Sykes


    Conclusion: Atraumatic splenic rupture should be considered as an important differential in those presenting with abdominal pain and peritonism without a history of preceding trauma. Haematological and infectious diagnoses should be sought to identify causation for the splenic rupture.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rupture of tendon calcaneum is a common problem.There are proponents of both conservative and operative methods.Inadequate strength and re ruptures are frequent. To address both the problems we have chosen Lindholm technique and doing it for last 20 yrs with very good results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to August 2013, 112 consecutive patients were treated by this method, 85 cases were fresh ruptures, 23 were neglected ruptures and four cases were re rupture after operation done elsewhere. Torn tendo calcaneum was repaired by Kessler suture, it was then augmented with two 8cm by 1cm turn down flap of gastrosoleus apponeurosis. Skin suture was done with utmost care. BK pop cast was done in equinus position of ankle for four weeks, followed by gradual weight bearing with heel raised shoe for six months. RESULTS: All patients went back to their pre injury activity level. In four patients there were superficial skin infection which healed without skin necrosis. One patient needed rotation flap. Evaluation was done by modified Rupp score. It was found to be excellent in 47% cases good in 43% cases and fair in 8% cases. CONCLUSION: Lindholm technique was originally described for neglected cases, we used it in all cases to avoid any complication in fresh cases and found it universally successful.

  13. Rupture Properties of Blood Vessel Walls Measured by Pressure-Imposed Test (United States)

    Ohashi, Toshiro; Sugita, Syukei; Matsumoto, Takeo; Kumagai, Kiichiro; Akimoto, Hiroji; Tabayashi, Koichi; Sato, Masaaki

    It is expected to be clinically useful to know the mechanical properties of human aortic aneurysms in assessing the potential for aneurysm rupture. For this purpose, a newly designed experimental setup was fabricated to measure the rupture properties of blood vessel walls. A square specimen of porcine thoracic aortas is inflated by air pressure at a rate of 10mmHg/s (≈1.3MPa/s) until rupture occurs. Mean breaking stress was 1.8±0.4 MPa (mean±SD) for the specimens proximal to the heart and 2.3±0.8MPa for the distal specimens, which are not significantly different to those values obtained longitudinally from conventional tensile tests. Moreover, the local breaking stretch ratio in the longitudinal direction was significantly higher at the ruptured site (2.7±0.5) than at the unruptured site (2.2±0.4). This testing system for studying the rupture properties of aortic walls is expected to be applicable to aortic aneurysms. Experimental verification of the present technique for the homogeneous, isotropic material is also presented.

  14. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 26, 2015 ... A retrospective review consisting of. 1449 patients reported the incidence around 0.067%.[3]. Here, we presented a case of isolated gallbladder rupture following a blunt abdominal injury. Case Report. A 39‑year‑old man with history of cholelithiasis, alcoholism‑related liver cirrhosis, and chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Post Operative Miscarriage Following Ruptured Appendix in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraoperative findings were purulent peritoneal exudates, ruptured appendix with flakes of necrotic tissues and fecolith. She subsequently had post operative miscarriage 48hours after the surgery which was completed by manual vacuum aspiration. She did remarkably well and was discharged on the 7th post operative ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Koryshkov


    Full Text Available From 1998 to 2010 32 patients (14 men, 18 women, aged 15-65 years, underwent surgical treatment for old Achilles tendon rupture. In all cases correct diagnosis was made not earlier than 1 month after injury. The importance of clinical Thompson test and sonographic examination for diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is underlined. For the restoration of Achilles tendon V-Y plasty was used. Surgery was performed in a period of 1 to 13 months in patients with subcutaneous Achilles tendon ruptures. Follow-up results of patients in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean follow-up 1 year 7 months. Date of observation in the postoperative period ranged from 6 months to 19 years. Marginal necrosis wound occurred in 3 (10% patients, re-rupture of the Achilles tendon to tendon suture zone - in one patient, even in one patient on day 14 became infected. Violations of the foot innervation were no detected.

  17. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  18. Treatment Alternative for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Ruptures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 3, 2016 ... tendon to repair has decreased and patient has severe pain. Biodegradable balloon is one of the newest methods for the treatment of irreparable massive rotator cuff ruptures. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess shoulder function in the patients who underwent biodegradable balloon procedure ...

  19. Case report: Traumatic unilateral testicular rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha J.G. Bauer


    Conclusion: Emergency assessment and diagnosis as well as scrotal exploration are important components of the management of acute testicular rupture. Analysis of the literature proves that timely surgical intervention is crucial; early intervention results in higher rates of preservation and avoids the need for an orchidectomy.

  20. Medial ankle pain after lateral ligament rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. N.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Marti, R. K.


    After a severe ankle sprain the incidence of residual complaints, particularly on the medial side of the joint, is high. We studied a consecutive series of 30 patients who had operative repair of acute ruptures of lateral ligaments. During operation, arthroscopy revealed a fresh injury to the

  1. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture: local or systemic process?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgens, Esther; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Faber, Birgit C.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Eurlings, Petra M.; Bijnens, Ann-Pascale; Cleutjens, Kitty B.; Heeneman, Sylvia; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.


    It is generally established that the unstable plaque is the major cause of acute clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis. Unfortunately, terms indicating lesions prone to plaque instability, such as "vulnerable plaque," and the different phenotypes of unstable plaques, such as plaque rupture, plaque

  2. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP


    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was

  3. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P


    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  4. Delayed primary realignment of posterior urethral rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral concussion. Rib fractures. Haemothorax. C/avicuIar fracture. Radial bone fracture. Knee fracture. Ankle fracture. ' Scrotal rupture. Scrotal haematoma. Perineal perforation ture. The age ranged between 17 and 55 years with the mean age of 31.58 years. The source of injury was usually violent and the mode.

  5. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal cases. Standard methods of diagnosis are limited by high false positives and negatives. This study compared the accuracy of a biomarker placental alpha microglobulin‑1 ...

  6. Surface rupture and vertical deformation associated with 20 May 2016 M6 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Clark, Dan; King, Tamarah; Quigley, Mark


    Surface-rupturing earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) occur infrequently, though when they occur in heavily populated regions the damage and loss of life can be severe (e.g., 2001 Bhuj earthquake). Quantifying the surface-rupture characteristics of these low-probability events is therefore important, both to improve understanding of the on- and off-fault deformation field near the rupture trace and to provide additional constraints on earthquake magnitude to rupture length and displacement, which are critical inputs for seismic hazard calculations. This investigation focuses on the 24 August 2016 M6.0 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia. We use 0.3-0.5 m high-resolution optical Worldview satellite imagery to map the trace of the surface rupture associated with the earthquake. From our mapping, we are able to trace the rupture over a length of 20 km, trending NW, and exhibiting apparent north-side-up motion. To quantify the magnitude of vertical surface deformation, we use stereo Worldview images processed using NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline software to generate pre- and post-earthquake digital terrain models with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2 m. The surface scarp is apparent in much of the post-event digital terrain model. Initial efforts to difference the pre- and post-event digital terrain models yield noisy results, though we detect vertical deformation of 0.2 to 0.6 m over length scales of 100 m to 1 km from the mapped trace of the rupture. Ongoing efforts to remove ramps and perform spatial smoothing will improve our understanding of the extent and pattern of vertical deformation. Additionally, we will compare our results with InSAR and field measurements obtained following the earthquake.

  7. Achilles tendon rupture as a result of oral steroid therapy. (United States)

    Hersh, Bryan L; Heath, Nicholas S


    Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture associated with long-term oral steroid use is not uncommon, particularly in older patients who use these drugs daily to treat systemic diseases. Rupture often results in a large defect, which complicates surgical repair. The authors review Achilles tendon rupture associated with systemic and local steroid use and present a case of rupture due to chronic oral steroid use in a patient with Addison's disease.

  8. A case of splenic torsion and rupture presenting as ruptured ectopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdatta Lahiri


    Full Text Available Splenic torsion with rupture of spleen is an extremely rare phenomenon. The clinical picture mimics several common conditions which are causes of acute abdomen and so it is seldom detected pre-operatively. An 18 year old female patient was admitted with an acute abdomen and shock. The provisional diagnosis was of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Peri-operatively we found a spontaneous rupture of the spleen following torsion along with early intrauterine pregnancy. Splenectomy was carried out and patient recovered well. Our report confirms that this rare entity can present as an acute abdomen which is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively and can masquerade as ruptured ectopic pregnancy in women of childbearing age group.

  9. Case Report: Rupture of the Pregnant Uterus in an Unbooked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uterine rupture is a life threatening complication in pregnancy in developing countries. While multiparity is a commonly associated factor, primigravida are said to be immune to uterine rupture. We present a case of uterine rupture in an unbooked primigravida who had massive bolus doses of intravenous oxytocin in the ...

  10. Delivery of placenta before baby in ruptured uterus | Ameh | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual case of ruptured uterus characterized by spontaneous delivery of the placenta while the foetus is retained in the abdomen is presented. The management and prevention of ruptured uterus in Sub- Saharan Africa is discussed. Key Words: Delivery of placenta, ruptured uterus. Annals of African Medicine Vol.3(3) ...

  11. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T


    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  12. An analysis of uterine rupture at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 31, 2011 ... Objective: Uterine rupture is a preventable condition which has persistently remained in our environment. The aim of this study therefore is to ascertain the incidence of uterine rupture, examine the predisposing factors and maternal and fetal outcome of patients managed of uterine rupture in a tertiary ...

  13. Radionuclide diagnosis of splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezina, W.C.; Nicholson, R.L.; Cohen, P.; Chamberlain, M.J.


    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but serious complication of infectious mononucleosis. Although radionuclide spleen imaging is a well accepted method for diagnosis of traumatic rupture, interpretation can be difficult in the setting of mononucleosis, as tears may be ill-defined and diagnosis hampered by inhomogeneous splenic uptake. Four proven cases of spontaneous rupture are presented, three of which illustrate these diagnostic problems.

  14. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.


    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  15. Review Paper: Myocardial Rupture After Acute Myocardial Infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myocardial rupture complications after acute myocardial infarction are infrequent but lethal. They mainly involve rupture of the ventricular free wall, ventricular septum, papillary muscle, or combined. We compare features of different kinds of myocardial ruptures after acute myocardial infarction by reviewing the clinical ...

  16. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma | Gali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gallbladder is a relatively well‑protected organ; consequently its rupture following blunt abdominal injury is rare and usually associated with other visceral injuries. Isolated gallbladder rupture is extremely rare. We report a healthy Nigerian adult male who sustained isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal ...

  17. Case series of ruptured Jamaican berry aneurysms four decades ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MON Ibe


    Full Text Available Objective From our personal experiences, it is our wish to examine the incidence of ruptured intracranial aneurysms about four decades ago in Jamaica, the West Indies, with regards to postoperative deterioration of neurological/psychological functions. Materials and Method The author, while working in Jamaica, the West Indies, from 1975 to 1977 (3 years, operated on 6 cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysms of 5 females and 1 male. The source of these data is from the author′s surgery records. Result There were 4 aneurysms from the posterior communicating artery, and 1 each from the anterior communicating artery, and the middle cerebral artery. Their ages ranged from 31 to 64 years. They presented with diverse neurological disturbances. Their aneurysms, which were diagnosed through contrast carotid angiography, were all clipped through fronto-lateral craniotomy under general anaesthesia. The procedures were well tolerated by the patients. There were no complications and no gross additional neurological deficits postoperatively. The wounds had healed by primary intention. The patients were discharged home 12 days postoperatively, the stitches having been removed 2 days earlier. Follow-up checks started about 7 days after discharge. The neurological deficits had cleared about 3 months later. Conclusion Having bled, the aneurysms exposed themselves by causing sudden severe headaches, and various neurological problems, depending on their locations. We found more females than males. The posterior communicating artery aneurysm was predominant. There were no cerebro-vascular spasms postoperatively. Greek ANEURYSMA (Ana= up or across, eurys - wide or broad

  18. Late Holocene spatial patterns of coseismic land level changes and earthquake rupture areas, south-central Alaska (United States)

    Shennan, I.; Barlow, N.; Watcham, E.


    Previous investigations of multiple late Holocene earthquake events in Cook Inlet suggest different spatial patterns of co-seismic subsidence for the 1964, ~900 BP and ~1500 BP great earthquakes . One hypothesis to explain these differences is that they record variations in the location, extent or depth of the rupture zone. Testing this hypothesis is important if we are to reduce uncertainties regarding the nature of future earthquake hazard in south central Alaska and improve our understanding of the nature of past earthquake ruptures in this region. Here we study sites beyond Cook Inlet to address the issue of spatial variability; Copper River Delta and Cape Suckling record coseismic uplift, Middle Bay and Anton Larson Bay, Kodiak Island, record coseismic subsidence. The 1964 rupture involved two segments (Kodiak and Prince William Sound) of the Aleutian Megathrust. We aim to quantify coseismic deformation for three Late Holocene earthquakes: ~500BP, a single segment rupture of the Kodiak segment; and ~900 and ~1500BP earthquakes that we consider involved simultaneous rupturing of three segments. These are the Kodiak and Prince William Sound segments and the adjacent segment extending to the Pamplona - Malaspina thrust front in the east. In this scenario, the Yakataga seismic gap ruptures in conjunction with the Aleutian megathrust.

  19. Uterine Rupture: Still a Harsh Reality! (United States)

    Singh, Abha; Shrivastava, Chandrashekhar


    To determine the, incidence, etiology, management, maternal, and fetal outcome and to evaluate trends in our area and recommend preventable measures. This prospective study is done between Jan 2012 and Aug 2013 in Pt. J.N.M. Medical College Raipur. All the women who had ruptured uterus were included. Relevant history was taken, women were assessed, adequate intervention done, and were followed up till 6 months after discharge. A total number of deliveries were 11,323. Out of 11,323 deliveries, 9,844 women were without prior LSCS, 1,479 women were with prior LSCS. A total of 40 cases of rupture uterus were there 25 in women with prior LSCS and 15 in women without LSCS. Thus, incidence among women with prior LSCS was 1.69 % and for women without LSCS was 0.152 %. Overall incidence of uterine rupture was 0.35 %. Major risk factors found were unbooked status (92.5 %), injudicious use of oxytocin (52.5 %), and unjustified VBAC trial (44 %). Bladder injury was found in 20 %. Extension to cervix was found commonly in uterus with no previous section (46.66 %). Blood transfusion was required in 92.5 %. Perinatal mortality was 85%. Only one maternal death was there (2.5%). Developed countries have incidence of uterine rupture 0.000 % in women without LSCS and 1 % in women with prior LSCS[1]. Thus, by directly comparing, our study of 20 month revealed that women stand 1,500 times higher risk for rupture even without previous cesarean section and 1.7 times in women with previous section in comparison to the developed countries. The overall burden of women with previous section being admitted for delivery is 12.28 %. 62.50 % women who had rupture uterus were those with previous section. Thus, careful selection of these women for trial of labor and a compulsory institutional delivery is recommended. We recommend use of oxytocin in titrated dose which clearly indicated by an obstetrician only, and it should be a prescription drug strictly.

  20. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y


    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  1. Roles of hypertension in the rupture of intracranial aneurysms. (United States)

    Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Kitazato, Keiko T; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki


    Systemic hypertension has long been considered a risk factor of aneurysmal rupture. However, a causal link between systemic hypertension and the development of aneurysmal rupture has not been established. In this study, using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm rupture, we examined the roles of systemic hypertension in the development of aneurysmal rupture. Aneurysms were induced by a combination of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt and a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid in mice. Antihypertensive treatment was started 6 days after aneurysm induction. Aneurysmal rupture was detected by neurological symptoms and confirmed by the presence of intracranial aneurysm with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hydralazine (direct vasodilator) or discontinuation of DOCA-salt treatment was used to assess the roles of systemic hypertension. Captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist) was used to assess the roles of the local renin-angiotensin system in the vascular wall. Normalization of blood pressure by hydralazine significantly reduced the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and the rupture rate. There was a dose-dependent relationship between reduction of blood pressure and prevention of aneurysmal rupture. Captopril and losartan were able to reduce rupture rate without affecting systemic hypertension induced by DOCA-salt treatment. Normalization of blood pressure after aneurysm formation prevented aneurysmal rupture in mice. In addition, we found that the inhibition of the local renin-angiotensin system independent from the reduction of blood pressure can prevent aneurysmal rupture.

  2. Detection of Preoperative Wilms Tumor Rupture with CT: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group (United States)

    Naranjo, Arlene; Hoffer, Fredric; Mullen, Elizabeth; Geller, James; Gratias, Eric J.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Rosen, Nancy; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S.


    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the presence or absence of preoperative Wilms tumor rupture. Materials and Methods: The cohort was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children’s Oncology Group. The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained before enrollment. The diagnosis of Wilms tumor rupture was established by central review of notes from surgery and/or pathologic examination. Seventy Wilms tumor cases with rupture were matched to 70 Wilms tumor controls without rupture according to age and tumor weight (within 6 months and 50 g, respectively). CT scans were independently reviewed by two radiologists, and the following CT findings were assessed: poorly circumscribed mass, perinephric fat stranding, peritumoral fat planes obscured, retroperitoneal fluid (subcapsular vs extracapsular), ascites beyond the cul-de-sac, peritoneal implants, ipsilateral pleural effusion, and intratumoral hemorrhage. All fluids were classified as hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic by using a cutoff of 30 HU. The relationship between CT findings and rupture was assessed with logistic regression models. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detecting Wilms tumor rupture were 54% (36 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 1 and 70% (47 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 2. Interobserver agreement was substantial (ĸ = 0.76). All imaging signs tested, except peritoneal implants, intratumoral hemorrhage, and subcapsular fluid, showed a significant association with rupture (P ≤ .02). The attenuation of ascitic fluid did not have a significant correlation with rupture (P = .9990). Ascites beyond the cul-de-sac was the single best indicator of rupture for both reviewers, followed by perinephric fat stranding and retroperitoneal fluid for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively (P

  3. Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation in the Friesian horse: histomorphologic characterization. (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Saey, V; Delesalle, C; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; de Bruijn, M; Back, W; van Weeren, P R; van Loon, G; Chiers, K


    Aortic rupture in horses is a rare condition. Although it is relatively common in the Friesian breed, only limited histopathologic information is available. Twenty Friesian horses (1-10 years old) were diagnosed with aortic rupture by postmortem examination. Ruptured aortic walls were analyzed with histology and immunohistochemistry. Based on the histologic and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were divided into 3 groups: acute (n = 4, 20%), subacute (n = 8, 40%), and chronic (n = 8, 40%). Features common to samples from horses in all groups included accumulation of mucoid material; disorganization and fragmentation of the elastic laminae; aortic medial smooth muscle hypertrophy; and medial necrosis of varying degrees, ranging from mild and patchy in the acute cases to severe midzonal necrosis in the chronic cases. Inflammation, most likely secondary to medial necrosis, varied from predominantly neutrophilic infiltrates in the media and periadventitial tissue in the acute group to the presence of mainly hemosiderophages in the periadventitial tissue in the chronic group. Medial fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology was seen in the subacute group and, more commonly, in the chronic group. Only minimal changes were seen in the aortic vasa vasorum. Smooth muscle hypertrophy and accumulation of mucoid material were not related to the age of the lesions. The findings of this study suggest that a connective tissue disorder affecting elastin or collagen in the aortic media is potentially the underlying cause of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Gravid med spontan ruptur af arteria uterina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte


    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo-dynami......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women.......Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shergill Harbhajan K, Grover Suparna, Chhabra Ajay


    Full Text Available It is a rare occurrence for the rudimentary horn of uterus to harbour a pregnancy and the usual outcome is devastating leading to a spontaneous rupture in second trimester with the patient presenting in shock with massive intra-peritoneal haemorrhage and if appropriate management is not instituted in time it may lead to high rate of mortality. We report an unusual case of rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy who presented as a chronic ectopic with an adnexal mass and surprisingly with no sign of shock. Diagnosis is often difficult in such a situation which puts the treating gynaecologist in dilemma. High clinical suspicion supplemented with radiological findings helped clinch the diagnosis and laparotomy was performed followed by resection of the rudimentary horn to prevent future complications.

  6. Achilles tendon rupture; assessment of nonoperative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner


    to be clarified, particularly the role of weight-bearing during early rehabilitation. Also, there is a need for a clinically applicable and accurate measurement to detect patients in risk of developing Achilles tendon elongation. PURPOSE: The aim of this PhD thesis was to evaluate non-operative treatment of acute......BACKGROUND: Acute Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent and potentially disabling injury. Over the past decade a change in treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture away from operative towards non-operative treatment has taken place. However, the optimal non-operative treatment protocol remains.......3 mm), inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.97, SEM 3.3 mm and MDC 9.3 mm) and validity (measurement error 2%). CONCLUSION: Treatment algorithms across Scandinavia showed considerable variation, though operative treatment and controlled early weight-bearing was the preferred treatment in Denmark, Norway...

  7. Ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle and it’s tendon: review of the literature and our experience in the treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kavalersky


    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are considered a rare type of injury, but there is a tendency for a greater frequency of occurrence in such cases, which is associated with an increased interest in sport and fitness among the population. Despite the seeming simplicity of diagnosis, many complete ruptures remain unrecognized and many patients do not seek medical help or being treated for bruises, sprains and partial damage, although in fact there a complete ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle or it’s tendon. Currently there is no consensus on diagnostic tactics, surgical approach, the optimal method of fixation, indications for use of plastic material; disputable tactics of chronic ruptures and rehabilitation program in the treatment of tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle.

  8. Fault-based Earthquake Rupture Forecasts for Western Gulf of Corinth, Greece (United States)

    Ganas, A.; Parsons, T.; Segkou, M.


    The western Gulf of Corinth has not experienced a strong earthquake since 1995 (the Ms=6.2 event of Aigion on 15 June 1995; Bernard et al., 1997), although the Gulf is extending fast (over 12 mm/yr of N-S extension from continuous GPS data spanning a period of 9+ years) and its seismic history since 1769 exhibits twelve (12) shallow events with M>6.0. We undertook an analysis of rupture forecasts along the active faults in this area of central Greece, using most updated datasets (active fault maps, fault geometry, fault slip rates, trenching data on past earthquakes, historical and instrumental seismicity, strain) and models for earthquake budget extrapolated from observed seismicity, magnitude-frequency distributions and calculated earthquake rates vs. magnitude for individual faults. We present a unified rupture forecast model that comprises a time-independent (Poisson-process) earthquake rate model, and a time-dependent earthquake-probability model, based on recent earthquake rates and stress-renewal statistics conditioned on the date of last event. The resulting rupture rate maps may be used to update building codes and promote mitigation efforts.

  9. Thompson Test in Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Albertson


    Full Text Available HPI: A 26-year old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing the acute onset of left ankle pain while playing basketball. Upon jumping, he felt a “pop” in his left posterior ankle, followed by pain and difficulty ambulating. His exam was notable for a defect at the left Achilles tendon on palpation. The practitioner performed a Thompson test, which was positive (abnormal on the left. Significant Findings: The left Achilles tendon had a defect on palpation, while the right Achilles tendon was intact. When squeezing the right (unaffected calf, the ankle spontaneously plantar flexed, indicating a negative (normal Thompson test. Upon squeeze of the left (affected calf, the ankle did not plantar flex, signifying a positive (abnormal Thompson test. The diagnosis of left Achilles tendon rupture was confirmed intraoperatively one week later. Discussion: The Achilles tendon (also: calcaneal tendon or heel cord is derived from the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as the soleus muscle. Rupture of the Achilles tendon most commonly occurs in the distal tendon, approximately 2-6 cm from its attachment to the calcaneal tuberosity, in an area of hypovascularity known as the “watershed” or “critical” zone.1-3 The Thompson test (also: Simmonds-Thompson test, described by Simmonds in 1957 and Thompson in 1962, is done while the patient is in the prone position, with feet hanging over the end of a table/gurney, or with the patient kneeling on a stool or chair.4-5 Squeezing the calf of an unaffected limb will cause the ankle to plantar flex, but squeezing the calf of a limb with an Achilles tendon rupture will cause no motion. The sensitivity of the Thompson’s test for the diagnosis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture is 96-100% and the specificity is 93-100%, but data is limited.6-8

  10. Closed traumatic rupture of finger flexor pulleys. (United States)

    Bowers, W H; Kuzma, G R; Bynum, D K


    Nine patients are described with closed traumatic rupture of the digital flexor pulley system. All presented with significant flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint and bow-stringing of the flexor tendons. In seven patients, the pathology was verified at surgery and pulley reconstruction provided a good result. The diagnoses in the other patients, treated conservatively, were verified by tenogram and magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  12. [Elective cerebral arteriovenous malformation treatment with onyx after coil embolization of ruptured, flow-realeted aneurysm of the posterior circulation]. (United States)

    Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Falkowski, Aleksander; Rać, Monika; Sagan, Leszek; Kojder, Ireneusz


    Intracranial arteriovenous posterior circulation malformation was planned to embolize by onyx injection after acute coil embolization of ruptured flow-realeted aneurysm of posterior cerebral artery. Control angiography revealed completely embolized malformation with normal vessel patency at the end of procedure. There were no adverse events related to this procedure and no neurologic deficit at the discharge.

  13. Endovascular treatment for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng LI


    Full Text Available Objective The present study aims to prove the effectiveness and safety of endovascular interventional therapy for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm.Methods The imaging data,methods of endovascular treatment,and clinical results of 12 patients suffering from ruptured basilar apex aneurysms from January 2001 to December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.The 12 patients were composed of 5 males and 7 females,and their ages ranged from 21 years to 58 years.Results Nine patients suffered from narrow-necked aneurysms,which were directly embolized,and the other three suffered from wide-necked aneurysms,which were embolized using a microstent.Eight aneurysms were completely embolized,and the other four were partly embolized.No rebleeding occurred within the follow-up period of 12 months to 36 months,and all patients recovered well without neurological defects.Conclusions Therefore,endovascular treatment for ruptured basilar apex aneurysm is a semi-invasive,safe,and effective method.

  14. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Čatić


    Full Text Available Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital, usually nonmalignant lesions with an incidence of 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. They tend to occur in the midline sellar, parasellar, or frontonasal regions. Although theirnature is benign, dermoid cysts have a high morbidity and mortality risk, especially when rupture occurs. A 40 year old woman presented with head injury after she experienced sudden loss of consciousness. She hada history of headache, loss of consciousness; her past medical history was not remarkable. The patient had no complaints of nausea, vomiting, or seizures. Vital signs were stable, neurologic defi cit was not identifi ed.Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed right temporobasal zone with fat droplets within right fi ssure Sylvii and interhemispheric fi ssure indicating a rupture of a dermoid cyst. Craniotomy and cyst resection were done, and diagnosis was confirmed with pathological examination following surgery. After surgery the patient did not recover. Cerebral ischemia from chemical meningitis was fatal forour patient. Headache as a symptom has many causes. It is rarely due to chemical meningitis arising from a ruptured dermoid cyst. This case report illustrated the importance of investigating a cause of the headache,CT and MRI being diagnostic methods. In this way, mortality as well as morbidity from complications such as chemical arachnoiditis can be significantly reduced if imaging is done early in these patients.

  15. Triceps tendon rupture: repair and rehabilitation. (United States)

    Kocialkowski, Cezary; Carter, Rebecca; Peach, Chris


    Triceps tendon ruptures are rare injuries and are frequently missed on initial presentation to the emergency department. In cases of complete rupture, surgical repair is recommended but no guidelines exist on the optimum reconstructive technique or rehabilitation. We present a surgical technique and rehabilitation programme for the management of these injuries. A midline posterior incision is performed, the ruptured triceps tendon is identified and mobilized, and the tendon footprint is prepared. The tendon is then repaired using bone suture anchors, with a parachute technique, and held in 40° of flexion. The rehabilitation programme is divided into five phases, over a period of 12 weeks. Range of movement is gradually increased in a brace for the first 6 weeks. Rehabilitation is gradually increase in intensity, progressing from isometric extension exercises to weight-resisted exercises, and finally plyometrics and throwing exercises. Our surgical technique provides a solid tendon repair without the need for further metalwork removal. The graduated rehabilitation programme also helps to protect the integrity of the repair at the same time as enabling patients to gradually increase the strength of the triceps tendon and ultimately return to sport activities.

  16. [Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta]. (United States)

    Glock, Y; Roux, D; Soula, P; Cerene, A; Fournial, G


    This is a retrospective analysis of 50 postraumatic aortic rupture (1968-1996, 39 males, mean age: 34.5). Group A is composed of 35 patients with an acute aortic rupture and a prompt diagnosis. Group B includes 13 patients with a chronic rupture. All patients from group A had a severe politraumatism with abdominal, cranial, extremities or hip fractures. Mediastinal thickening with or without hemothorax indicated an angiography or a transesophageal echocardiography lately. In group A, 36 patients have been operated on urgently (12-24 hours); cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 20 patients; an aorto-aortical bypass was done in 27 cases and a direct suture in the remaining 9. In group B, cardiopulmonary bypass was performed on 9 patients; a aorto-aortical bypass was done in 11 cases and a direct suture in 2. Overall hospital mortality was 16%; 19% in group A and 7.6% in group B. Ischemic paraplejia appeared in 5 patients (10%), all from group A. No false aneurysm developed after 4.5 years of follow-up (3-135 months) in the 38 survivors. The usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography, the importance of medular protection and the utility of several interventionist radiologic techniques are discussed.

  17. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa.

  18. The Achilles tendon total rupture score: a study of responsiveness, internal consistency and convergent validity on patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Rebecca S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was developed by a research group in 2007 in response to the need for a patient reported outcome measure for this patient population. Beyond this original development paper, no further validation studies have been published. Consequently the purpose of this study was to evaluate internal consistency, convergent validity and responsiveness of this newly developed patient reported outcome measure within patients who have sustained an isolated acute Achilles tendon rupture. Methods Sixty-four eligible patients with an acute rupture of their Achilles tendon completed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score alongside two further patient reported outcome measures (Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D. These were completed at baseline, six weeks, three months, six months and nine months post injury. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score was evaluated for internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha, convergent validity, through correlation analysis and responsiveness, by analysing floor and ceiling effects and calculating its relative efficiency in comparison to the Disability Rating Index and EQ 5D scores. Results The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha > 0.8 and correlated significantly (p Conclusions A universally accepted outcome measure is imperative to allow comparisons to be made across practice. This is the first study to evaluate aspects of validity of this newly developed outcome measure, outside of the developing centre. The ATRS demonstrated high internal consistency and responsiveness, with limited convergent validity. This research provides further support for the use of this outcome measure, however further research is required to advocate its universal use in patients with acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Such areas include inter-rater reliability and research to determine the minimally clinically important difference

  19. Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment by example (United States)

    Mueller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming


    We investigated the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by the resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with collocated sources of variable slip on the Hikurangi subduction interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay and Poverty Bay in New Zealand and investigated the tsunami effects on the cities of Napier and Gisborne. Rupture complexity was found to have a first-order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for local tsunami sources. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface in tsunami models can underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an Mw 8.7 to Mw 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area that could potentially be inundated by equivalent nonuniform slip events of Mw 8.4. Deaggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose two predictors for inundation severity based on the offshore tsunami wavefield using the linear wave equations in an attempt to keep costly simulations of full inundation to a minimum.

  20. A study of rupture characteristics of the 40 s subevent of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pacor


    Full Text Available The Irpinia project, as carried out by ISMES under a commission from ENEL, had as objectives the developement of a general methodology to simulate broad-band seismic ground motion at near-source and regional distances, and the application of this methodology to the 1980 Irpinia earthquake. Within this general framework, one goal was the comparison of four previously published models for this earthquake in order to arrive at a plausible description of the source process. The comparative study was cast as an inverse problem: that of inferring the spatial extent and temporal behaviour of the rupture process, from geodetic measurements of surface deformation and near-source recordings of ground velocity. This study was complicated by the fact th the Irpinia earthquake was a complex event, involving at least three distinct rupture episodes in a time span of 40 s. However, this same complexity offers the opportunity of illustrating the use of inversion methodologies to 1 infer the spatial slip distribution on a multiple fault system; 2 address the problem of determining the accuracy of the inferred slip models, and 3 use information describing the static characteristics of an earthquakes as an aid in understanding the kinematics of the rupture. This last point is illustrated for the 40 s subevent through the results of a forward modeling study of high-frequency acceleration waveforms using a rupture model based on the inversion results.

  1. Efficient waveform inversion for average earthquake rupture in three-dimensional structures (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Che; Zhao, Li; Ma, Kuo-Fong


    Advances in observational, theoretical and computational technologies have made it possible for automatic, real-time solutions of the focal mechanisms of earthquake point sources. However, for earthquakes of moderate and greater magnitudes, the complexity of the source kinematic processes often requires additional characteristics on the source rupture in order to make seismotectonic inferences and to explain the observed directivity effects of the radiation of seismic energy. We develop an efficient and effective approach to determining the average finite-rupture models of moderate earthquakes by fitting synthetic and recorded broadband waveforms. A Green's tensor database is established using 3-D structural model with surface topography to enable rapid evaluations of accurate synthetic seismograms needed for source parameter inversions without the need for high-performance computing. We take a two-step strategy: In the first step, a point-source model is determined by a grid search for the best fault-plane solution. Then, taking the two nodal planes in the point-source model as candidates of the actual fault plane, a second grid search is carried out over a suite of simplified finite-rupture models to determine the optimal direction and speed of the integrated rupture of the finite source. We applied our method to four moderate events (MW ≈ 6) in southeastern Taiwan. Results show that our technique provides an effective choice in semi-automatic, near real-time determinations of finite-source parameters for earthquake hazard assessment and mitigation purposes.

  2. Assessment of Creep Deformation, Damage, and Rupture Life of 304HCu Austenitic Stainless Steel Under Multiaxial State of Stress (United States)

    Sahoo, K. C.; Goyal, Sunil; Parameswaran, P.; Ravi, S.; Laha, K.


    The role of the multiaxial state of stress on creep deformation and rupture behavior of 304HCu austenitic stainless steel was assessed by performing creep rupture tests on both smooth and notched specimens of the steel. The multiaxial state of stress was introduced by incorporating circumferential U-notches of different root radii ranging from 0.25 to 5.00 mm on the smooth specimens of the steel. Creep tests were carried out at 973 K over the stress range of 140 to 220 MPa. In the presence of notch, the creep rupture strength of the steel was found to increase with the associated decrease in rupture ductility. Over the investigated stress range and notch sharpness, the strengthening was found to increase drastically with notch sharpness and tended toward saturation. The fractographic studies revealed the mixed mode of failure consisting of transgranular dimples and intergranular creep cavitation for shallow notches, whereas the failure was predominantly intergranular for relatively sharper notches. Detailed finite element analysis of stress distribution across the notch throat plane on creep exposure was carried out to assess the creep failure of the material in the presence of notch. The reduction in von-Mises stress across the notch throat plane, which was greater for sharper notches, increased the creep rupture strength of the material. The variation in fracture behavior of the material in the presence of notch was elucidated based on the von-Mises, maximum principal, and hydrostatic stresses. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of creep strain distribution across the notch revealed localized creep straining at the notch root for sharper notches. A master curve for predicting creep rupture life under the multiaxial state of stress was generated considering the representative stress having contributions from both the von-Mises and principal stress components of the stress field in the notch throat plane. Rupture ductility was also predicted based on the

  3. Management of diaphragmatic rupture from blunt trauma. (United States)

    Tan, K K; Yan, Z Y; Vijayan, A; Chiu, M T


    Diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture is difficult, and delays could result in a catastrophic outcome. We reviewed our institution's management of patients with diaphragmatic rupture after blunt trauma. All patients in this study were treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, from March 2002 to October 2008. Patients with penetrating injuries were excluded. The parameters included age, mechanism of injury, haemodynamic status at admission, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), imaging studies, location of diaphragmatic injuries, associated injuries and outcome. 14 patients with a median age of 38 years formed the study group. Vehicular-related incidents accounted for 71.4 percent of the injuries. The median GCS score on admission was 14 (range 3-15), while the median systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 94 (range 50-164) mmHg and 110 (range 76-140) beats per minute, respectively. The median ISS was 41 (range 14-66). All had chest radiographs performed in the emergency department, six (42.9 percent) had computed tomography performed before surgery, while the remaining eight (57.1 percent) were sent straight to the operating theatre from the emergency department. There were five (35.7 percent) right-sided and nine (64.3 percent) left-sided diaphragmatic ruptures. The mortality rate was 35.7 percent. Some of the associated injuries included eight (57.1 percent) splenic lacerations, five (35.7 percent) haemothorax and lung injuries, four (28.6 percent) bone fractures and three (21.4 percent) liver lacerations. 12 (85.7 percent) patients underwent repair of the diaphragmatic rupture using interrupted polypropylene suture, while the remaining two (14.3 percent) were too haemodynamically unstable to undergo definitive treatment. Advanced age, haemodynamic instability and raised ISS were associated with mortality. An accurate diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in trauma patients is difficult, and a thorough examination of both the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nili AA. Shams Ansari


    Full Text Available Premature rupture of membranes (PROM is one of the most common complications of pregnancy that has a major impact on neonatal outcomes. With respect to racial, nutritional and cultural differences between developed and developing countries, this study was conducted to detect the prevalence of neonatal complications following PROM and the role of the duration of rupture of membranes in producing morbidities and mortalities in these neonates in our hospital. Among 2357 pregnant women, we found 163 (6.91% cases of premature rupture of the fetal membranes in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital during April 2001 to April 2002. Route of delivery was cesarean section in 65.6% of women. Urinary tract infection occured in 1.8%, maternal leukocytosis and fever in 20.2% and 5.5%, chorioamnionitis in 6.1%, fetal tachycardia in 1.2% and olygohydramnios in 4.9%. Gestational age in 138 (86% of neonates was less than 37 completed weeks. Thirty five infants (21.47% had respiratory distress syndrome and 33 (20.245% had clinical sepsis. Pneumonia in 6 (3.7% and skeletal deformity in 7 (4.294% were seen. Rupture of membrane of more than 24 hours duration occurred in 71 (43.6% of the patients. Comparison of morbidities between two groups of neonates and their mothers according to the duration of PROM (less and more than 24 hours showed significant differences in NICU admission, olygohydramnios, maternal fever, leukocytosis and chorioamnionitis rates (p24 hr of PROM with an odds ratio of 2.68 and 2.73, respectively. Positive blood and eye cultures were detected in 16 cases during 72 hours of age. Staphylococcus species, klebsiella, E.coli and streptococcus were the predominant organisms among positive blood cultures. Mortality was seen in 18 (11% of neonates because of respiratory failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septic shock, and a single case of congenital toxoplasmosis. In this study, the prevalence of prematurity, sepsis and prolonged rupture of membrane

  5. Rupture Velocities of Intermediate- and Deep-Focus Earthquakes (United States)

    Warren, L. M.


    The rupture velocities of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes --- how they vary between subduction zones, how they vary with depth, and what their maximum values are --- may help constrain the mechanism(s) of the earthquakes. As part of a global study of intermediate- and deep-focus earthquakes, I have used rupture directivity to estimate the rupture vector (speed and orientation) for 422 earthquakes >70 km depth with MW ≥5.7 since 1990. I estimate the rupture velocity relative to the local P-wave velocity (vr/α). Since the same method is used for all earthquakes, the results can be readily compared across study areas. The study areas --- Middle America, South America, Tonga-Kermadec, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, and Japan-Kurils-Kamchatka --- include some of the warmest and coldest subduction zones: subducting plate ages range from 9-150 Myr and descent rates range from 1-13 cm/yr. Across all subduction zones and depth ranges, for the 193 earthquakes with observable directivity and well-constrained rupture vectors, most earthquakes rupture on the more horizontal of the two possible nodal planes. However, the rupture vectors appear to be randomly-oriented relative to the slip vector, so the earthquakes span the continuum from Mode II (i.e., parallel slip and rupture vectors) to Mode III rupture (i.e., perpendicular slip and rupture vectors). For this earthquake population, the mean rupture velocity is 0.43 vr/α ± 0.14 vr/α. The mean earthquake rupture velocities are similar between all subduction zones. Since the local seismic wavespeed is faster in colder subduction zones, absolute rupture velocities are faster in colder subduction zones. Overall, the fastest rupture velocities exceed the local S-wave speed. The supershear ruptures are associated with earthquakes closer to Mode II than Mode III faulting. This is consistent with theoretical calculations, which limit the rupture velocity to the S-wave speed for Mode III rupture but the P-wave speed for Mode II

  6. "Live cadavers" for training in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture. (United States)

    Aboud, Emad; Aboud, Ghaith; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Aboud, Talal; Rammos, Stylianos; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Hsu, Sanford P C; Koga, Sebastian; Arthur, Adam; Krisht, Ali


    Intraoperative rupture occurs in approximately 9.2% of all cranial aneurysm surgeries. This event is not merely a surgical complication, it is also a real surgical crisis that requires swift and decisive action. Neurosurgical residents may have little exposure to this event, but they may face it in their practice. Laboratory training would be invaluable for developing competency in addressing this crisis. In this study, the authors present the "live cadaver" model, which allows repetitive training under lifelike conditions for residents and other trainees to practice managing this crisis. The authors have used the live cadaver model in 13 training courses from 2009 to 2014 to train residents and neurosurgeons in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture. Twenty-three cadaveric head specimens harboring 57 artificial and 2 real aneurysms were used in these courses. Specimens were specially prepared for this technique and connected to a pump that sent artificial blood into the vessels. This setting created a lifelike situation in the cadaver that simulates live surgery in terms of bleeding, pulsation, and softness of tissue. A total of 203 neurosurgical residents and 89 neurosurgeons and faculty members have practiced and experienced the live cadaver model. Clipping of the aneurysm and management of an intraoperative rupture was first demonstrated by an instructor. Then, trainees worked for 20- to 30-minute sessions each, during which they practiced clipping and reconstruction techniques and managed intraoperative ruptures. Ninety-one of the participants (27 faculty members and 64 participants) completed a questionnaire to rate their personal experience with the model. Most either agreed or strongly agreed that the model was a valid simulation of the conditions of live surgery on cerebral aneurysms and represents a realistic simulation of aneurysmal clipping and intraoperative rupture. Actual performance improvement with this model will require detailed

  7. Uniform California earthquake rupture forecast, version 2 (UCERF 2) (United States)

    Field, E.H.; Dawson, T.E.; Felzer, K.R.; Frankel, A.D.; Gupta, V.; Jordan, T.H.; Parsons, T.; Petersen, M.D.; Stein, R.S.; Weldon, R.J.; Wills, C.J.


    The 2007 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP, 2007) presents the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2 (UCERF 2). This model comprises a time-independent (Poisson-process) earthquake rate model, developed jointly with the National Seismic Hazard Mapping Program and a time-dependent earthquake-probability model, based on recent earthquake rates and stress-renewal statistics conditioned on the date of last event. The models were developed from updated statewide earthquake catalogs and fault deformation databases using a uniform methodology across all regions and implemented in the modular, extensible Open Seismic Hazard Analysis framework. The rate model satisfies integrating measures of deformation across the plate-boundary zone and is consistent with historical seismicity data. An overprediction of earthquake rates found at intermediate magnitudes (6.5 ??? M ???7.0) in previous models has been reduced to within the 95% confidence bounds of the historical earthquake catalog. A logic tree with 480 branches represents the epistemic uncertainties of the full time-dependent model. The mean UCERF 2 time-dependent probability of one or more M ???6.7 earthquakes in the California region during the next 30 yr is 99.7%; this probability decreases to 46% for M ???7.5 and to 4.5% for M ???8.0. These probabilities do not include the Cascadia subduction zone, largely north of California, for which the estimated 30 yr, M ???8.0 time-dependent probability is 10%. The M ???6.7 probabilities on major strike-slip faults are consistent with the WGCEP (2003) study in the San Francisco Bay Area and the WGCEP (1995) study in southern California, except for significantly lower estimates along the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, owing to provisions for larger multisegment ruptures. Important model limitations are discussed.

  8. Mechanisms for Ductile Rupture - FY16 ESC Progress Report

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    Boyce, Brad L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carroll, Jay D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Noell, Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bufford, Daniel Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Ductile rupture in metals is generally a multi-step process of void nucleation, growth, and coalescence. Particle decohesion and particle fracture are generally invoked as the primary microstructural mechanisms for room-temperature void nucleation. However, because high-purity materials also fail by void nucleation and coalescence, other microstructural features must also act as sites for void nucleation. Early studies of void initiation in high-purity materials, which included post-mortem fracture surface characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) and in-situ HVEM observations of fracture, established the presence of dislocation cell walls as void initiation sites in high-purity materials. Direct experimental evidence for this contention was obtained during in-situ HVEM tensile tests of Be single crystals. Voids between 0.2 and 1 μm long appeared suddenly along dislocation cell walls during tensile straining. However, subsequent attempts to replicate these results in other materials, particularly α -Fe single crystals, were unsuccessful because of the small size of the dislocation cells, and these remain the only published in-situ HVEM observations of void nucleation at dislocation cell walls in the absence of a growing macrocrack. Despite this challenge, other approaches to studying void nucleation in high-purity metals also indicate that dislocation cell walls are nucleation sites for voids.

  9. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boncio


    Full Text Available The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike–slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding. For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ∼ 2150 m on the footwall and  ∼  3100 m on the hanging wall. Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( >   ∼  50 % at distances  <   ∼  250 m. The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M or flexural-slip (F-S fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength, are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to

  10. The Energy Budget of Earthquake Rupture: a View From Spontaneous Rupture Modeling and Finite-Source Models (United States)

    Mai, P.; Guatteri, M.


    It is a common and frustrating experience of many dynamic modelers to initiate spontaneous rupture calculations that subsequently abort before rupturing to the desired earthquake size [Nielsen and Olsen, 2000; Oglesby and Day, 2002]. Source parameters in such dynamic source models are strongly correlated, but stress drop is the main factor affecting the distribution of the other dynamic rupture parameters. Additionally, the position of the hypocenter exerts a strong influence on the dynamic properties of the earthquake, and certain hypocenter positions are not plausible as those would not lead to spontaneous rupture propagation. To further investigate this last statement, we analyze the energy budget during earthquake rupture using spontaneous dynamic rupture calculations and finite-source rupture models. In describing the energy budget during earthquake rupture, we follow Favreau and Archuleta [2003]. Each point on the fault contributes to the radiated seismic energy Ers = Eel - Efr - Erx, where Eel denotes the elasto-static energy and Efr the fracture energy. In this study we neglect for simplicity the relaxation work Erx spent during the stopping of the earthquake. A rupture can be characterized by locally negative seismic energy density values, but its integral over the fault plane must be positive. The fundamental condition for rupture growth is therefore that the integral of Ers on the rupture area remains always positive during rupture propagation. Based on a simple energy budget calculation, we focus on identifying those target slip/stress distribution in dynamic rupture modeling that for a given hypocenter location fail to rupture spontaneously. Additionally, we study the energy budget of finite-source rupture models by analyzing the integrated seismic energy for the inferred slip maps using also hypocenter positions other than the network location. These results indicate how rupture was promoted for the true hypocenter while randomized hypocenters may not

  11. Intra-arterial tirofiban infusion for thromboembolic complication during coil embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Dae, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 425 Sindaebang-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Young, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Hwa, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Seung, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Eun, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Keun Hwa, E-mail: [Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)


    Introduction: Intra-arterial (IA) thrombolytic intervention for acute thrombosis has been challenged due to the risk of bleeding during the endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms. We present the results of IA tirofiban infusion for thromboembolic complications during coil embolization in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Thromboembolic events requiring thrombolytic intervention occurred in 39 (10.5%) cases during coil embolization of 372 consecutive ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Maximal aneurysm diameters of 39 patients (mean age, 54.7 ± 13.2 years; 23 female, 16 male) ranged from 2.1 to 13.1 mm (mean, 6.6 ± 3.0 mm). The anterior communicating artery was the most common site (n = 13), followed by the middle cerebral artery (n = 9) and the posterior communicating artery (n = 7). In this series, we used intracranial stents in 10 patients during the procedure. Superselective IA tirofiban infusion through a microcatheter was performed to resolve thrombi and emboli. We assessed the efficacy and safety of IA tirofiban infusion in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Results: Intraarterially administered tirofiban doses ranged from 0.25 to 1.25 mg (mean, 0.71 ± 0.26 mg). Effective thrombolysis or recanalization was achieved in 34 patients (87.2%), and three patients (7.7%) suffered distal migration of clots with partial recanalization. The rest (5.1%) had no recanalization. Nonconsequent intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in two patients (5.1%) after the procedure. Thromboemboli-related cerebral infarction developed in eight patients, and only two patients remained infarction related disabilities. Conclusion: IA tirofiban infusion seems to be efficacious and safe for thrombolysis during coil embolization in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

  12. Effects of rupture complexity on local tsunami inundation: Implications for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (United States)

    Müller, Christof; Power, William; Fraser, Stuart; Wang, Xiaoming


    We investigate the influence of earthquake source complexity on the extent of inundation caused by a resulting tsunami. We simulated 100 scenarios with sources on the Hikurangi subduction-interface in the vicinity of Hawke's Bay/Napier and Poverty Bay/Gisborne (New Zealand). For both target areas rupture complexity was found to have a first order effect on flow depth and inundation extent for the local tsunami sources investigated. The position of individual asperities in the slip distribution on the rupture interface control to some extent how severe inundation will be. However, predicting inundation extent in detail from investigating the distribution of slip on the rupture interface proves difficult. The distribution of inundation extent for one earthquake of given magnitude but different realisations of slip distribution is skewed. The extent of inundation predicted by a uniform distribution of slip on the rupture interface is roughly represented by the median of this distribution. Assuming uniform slip on the rupture interface therefore will underestimate the potential impact and extent of inundation. For example, simulation of an MW 8.7 to MW 8.8 earthquake with uniform slip reproduced the area potentially affected by inundation of an equivalent non-uniform slip event of MW 8.4 for Napier. The extent of inundation does not follow a simple monotonic relationship to the magnitude of the earthquake. Therefore de-aggregation, to establish the contribution of different sources with different slip distributions to the probabilistic hazard, cannot be performed based on magnitude considerations alone. We propose to use parameters of the tsunami wave field measured offshore as predictors for inundation severity to perform de-aggregation based on simulations with the linear wave equations.

  13. Effect of Brittle off-fault Damage on Earthquake Rupture Dynamics (United States)

    Thomas, Marion Y.; Bhat, Harsha S.; Klinger, Yann


    In the shallow brittle crust, following earthquake ruptures, geophysical observations show a dramatic drop of seismic wave speeds in the shallow off-fault medium. Seismic ruptures generate, or reactivate, damage around faults that alter the constitutive response of the surrounding medium, which in turn modifies the earthquake itself, the seismic radiation and the near-fault ground motion. This numerical study aims to assess the interplay between earthquake ruptures and dynamically evolving off-fault medium and to underline the damage-related features pertinent to interpret geophysical observations. We present a micro-mechanics based constitutive model that account for dynamic evolution of elastic moduli at high-strain rates. We consider 2-D inplane models, with a 1-D right lateral fault featuring slip-weakening friction law. We demonstrate that the response of the damaged elastic solid is different in the compressional and tensional quadrant. We observe that dynamic damage induces a reduction in elastic moduli and produces slip rate oscillations which result in high frequency content in the radiated ground motion, consistent with strong motion records. We underline the importance of incorporating off-fault medium history in earthquake rupture processes. We find that dynamic damage generation is sensitive to material contrast and that it introduces an additional asymmetry beyond that of a bimaterial fault, in agreement with experimental studies.

  14. Postoperative MR imaging and ultrasonography of surgically repaired Achilles tendon ruptures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karjalainen, P.T. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Ahovuo, J. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Pihlajamaeki, H.K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Traumatology; Soila, K. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Aronen, H.J. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology


    Purpose: To evaluate and compare MR and US findings in an unselected group of patients with 1-3 year-old surgically repaired complete ruptures of the Achilles tendon. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture underwent clinical, MR and US examinations. The average time interval from rupture to postoperative imaging was 18 months. Results: The cross-sectional area of a postoperative tendon was 4.2 times that of the unaffected side. The shape of the operated tendon was more rounded than the unaffected side and it had irregular margins both in MR imaging and in US examination. In 4 of 13 cases an intratendinous area of intermediate to high signal intensity on proton density- and T2-weighted images was seen on MR. The size of this area varied from 4 to 18% of the cross-sectional tendon area. Two patients with the largest intratendinous area had poor clinical outcome. On US the tendon had mixed echogenicity in all cases and the tendon bands were thinner and shorter than normal. Comparison of dimension between MR and US revealed that in a.p. dimension the correlation was good (r=0.87, p=0.001), but in transversal width there was no significant correlation (r=0.58, p=0.06). Conclusion: The increased size and round irregular area of the operated Achilles tendon rupture was well detected by both MR and US, but intratendinous lesions were seen only by MR. (orig.).

  15. [Tricuspidal valve rupture after blunt chest trauma]. (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Wośko, Jarosław; Zadora, Przemysław; Tomaszewski, Adrzej; Jurko, Cezary


    Blunt chest trauma is frequently associated with cardiac contusion and structural damage, most cases only being recognized after death. We report a case of multiple organ trauma, where cardiac failure, caused by tricuspid valve rupture, was markedly delayed. A 21 yr old man was admitted to hospital after a car accident. He was suffering from cerebral contusion and oedema, pulmonary contusion, and a left pneumothorax. He also had multiple fractures of the facial bones, orbit, L4 vertebra and left tibia. He was tracheotomised, and a subdural sensor was inserted for continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure. He was sedated and ventilated for two weeks. On the 12th day, his jaw was reconstructed, and immediately after surgery, mild signs of cardiac failure were observed, which were attributed to cardiac contusion. Two weeks after admission, the patient was weaned from the ventilator, and three days later, his facial bones were reconstructed. Four days later, the signs of cardiac failure reappeared. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed rupture of a head of papillary muscle, with 4th degree tricuspid insufficiency and enlargement of the right ventricle. The ruptured muscle was reconstructed under extracorporeal circulation, and the patient made a satisfactory recovery. Acute tricuspid valve insufficiency, albeit rare, may occur in patients with blunt chest trauma. Sedation and lack of physical activity may delay the definite diagnosis, especially when only transthoracic echocardiography is used. Cardiac arrhythmias, diastolic murmur, or signs of congestive cardiac failure in a chest trauma patient may all suggest some structural damage; therefore, transoesophageal echocardiography should be performed as early as possible in such situations.

  16. Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes (United States)

    Donovan, J. R.; Jordan, T. H.


    Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity strongly influences ground motions. We cast this forecasting problem in terms of the conditional hypocenter distribution (CHD), defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of fault slip (moment release). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution for which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. We have compiled samples of CHDs from a global distribution of large earthquakes using three estimation methods: (a) location of hypocenters within the slip distribution from finite-fault inversions, (b) location of hypocenters within early aftershock distributions, and (c) direct inversion for the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. The data from method (a) are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD suggested by McGuire et al. (2002) using method (c). Instead, the data indicate a 'centroid-biased' CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD; i.e., the directivities inferred from finite-fault models appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by the uniform CHD. One source of this discrepancy may be centroid bias in the second-order moments owing to poor localization of the slip in finite-fault inversions. We compare these observational results with CHDs computed from a large set of theoretical ruptures in the Southern California fault system produced by the Rate-State Quake simulator (RSQSim) of Dieterich and Richards-Dinger (2010) and discuss the implications for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities.

  17. Misdiagnosed Uterine Rupture of an Advanced Cornual Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Linus Hastrup Sant


    Full Text Available Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability.

  18. Intraoperative endobronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cyst: An airway catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Gupta


    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst disease of lungs may not be symptomatic. It may present as spontaneous rupture in pleura or a bronchus. During spontaneous breathing, cyst content of endobronchially ruptured pulmonary hydatid cyst is mostly evacuated by coughing. However, during positive pressure ventilation such extruded fragments may lodge into smaller airway leading to an airway catastrophe. We present such accidental endobronchial rupture of pulmonary hydatid cyst during surgery, its prompt detection, and management by rigid bronchoscopy.

  19. Misdiagnosed uterine rupture of an advanced cornual pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Christian Linus Hastrup; Andersen, Poul Erik


    Cornual pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with potential severe consequences if uterine rupture occurs with following massive intraabdominal bleeding. We report a case of a misdiagnosed ruptured cornual pregnancy occurring at 21 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound examination...... and computer tomography revealed no sign of abnormal pregnancy. The correct diagnosis was first made at emergency laparotomy. Uterine rupture should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and haemodynamic instability....

  20. Postinfarction heart rupture of posterior wall repaired by covering patch. (United States)

    Kimura, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masashi; Okamura, Homare; Adachi, Hideo; Ino, Takashi


    A 46-year-old man underwent emergency surgery for heart rupture after acute infarction of the posterior wall. Echocardiography revealed limited myocardial thinning, so rather than sutureless repair, a covering patch was used in view of the risk of recurrent rupture. Postoperative echocardiography showed the myocardial thinning had progressed to a wide defect, and computed tomography demonstrated that the covering patch had prevented a repeat rupture.

  1. Uterine Rupture and Fetal Maceration in an Indian Mongrel Bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Bodh


    Full Text Available Uterine rupture and fetal maceration in an 11 year old mongrel bitch was diagnosed via lateral abdominal radiography and ventral midline laparotomy. The treatment of choice in cases of uterine rupture and fetal maceration is bilateral ovariohysterectomy along with plenty of intravenous fluid therapy and broad spectrum antibiotics. Incidences of uterine rupture and fetal maceration can be prevented by timely recognition of early signs of obstetrical-related complications and use of proper obstetrical techniques.

  2. Spontaneous rupture of infantile umbilical hernia: report of three cases. (United States)

    Ahmed, A; Ahmed, M; Nmadu, P T


    Three Nigerian infants with spontaneous rupture of an umbilical hernia are described. In two, hernias developed in the neonatal period following umbilical sepsis. Rupture occurred at the ages of 2 and 3 months, respectively, and was probably precipitated by raised intra-abdominal pressure resulting from excessive crying. The third child had a large, ulcerated umbilical hernia which ruptured at 10 months and was precipitated by damage to the overlying skin. The children were treated successfully.

  3. Rupture of the left atrial roof due to blunt trauma. (United States)

    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung


    Cardiac rupture after blunt trauma is rare and associated with high mortality. The anatomic pattern of blunt cardiac rupture has been demonstrated with the right cardiac chambers more frequently affected than the left. Furthermore, left atrial injury is usually restricted to the atrial appendage and the pulmonary vein-atrial junction. Herein, we report the first case of a 61-year old man with a rupture of the left atrial roof after blunt trauma with minimal thoracic injury.

  4. Rupture of the left atrial roof due to blunt trauma


    Ryu, Dae Woong; Lee, Sam Youn; Lee, Mi Kyung


    Cardiac rupture after blunt trauma is rare and associated with high mortality. The anatomic pattern of blunt cardiac rupture has been demonstrated with the right cardiac chambers more frequently affected than the left. Furthermore, left atrial injury is usually restricted to the atrial appendage and the pulmonary vein–atrial junction. Herein, we report the first case of a 61-year old man with a rupture of the left atrial roof after blunt trauma with minimal thoracic injury.

  5. Analysis code for medium and small rupture accidents in ATR. LOTRAC/HEATUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic and fuel temperature transient changes in the events which are classified in medium and small rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss that is the safety evaluation event of the ATR, the analysis code for synthetic thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of medium and small ruptures LOTRAC and the detailed analysis code for fuel temperature HEATUP are used, respectively. By using the LOTAC, the thermo-hydraulic behavior of reactor cooling facility and the temperature behavior of fuel at the time of blow-down are analyzed, and also the characteristics of changing reactor thermal output is analyzed, considering the functioning characteristics of emergency core cooling system. Based on the data of thermo-hydraulic behavior obtained by the LOTRAC, the time of beginning the turn-around of fuel cladding tube temperature obtained by the data of ECCS pouring characteristics, the heat transfer rate after the turn-around and so on, the detailed temperature change of fuel elements is analyzed by the HEATUP, and the highest temperature and the amount of oxidation of fuel cladding tubes are determined. The LOTRAC code, the HEATUP code, various analysis models, and rupture simulation experiment are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Analysis code for large rupture accidents in ATR. SENHOR/FLOOD/HEATUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the evaluation of thermo-hydraulic transient change, the behavior of core reflooding and the transient change of fuel temperature in the events which are classified in large rupture accidents of reactor coolant loss, that is the safety evaluation event of the ATR, the analysis codes for thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of large rupture SENHOR, for core reflooding characteristics FLOOD and for fuel temperature HEATUP are used, respectively. The analysis code system for loss of coolant accident comprises the analysis code for thermo-hydraulic transient change at the time of medium and small ruptures LOTRAC in addition to the above three codes. Based on the changes with time lapse of reactor thermal output and steam drum pressure obtained by the SENHOR, average reflooding rate is analyzed by the FLOOD, and the time of starting the turnaround of fuel cladding tube temperature and the heat transfer rate after the turnaround are determined. Based on these data, the detailed temperature change of fuel elements is analyzed by the HEATUP, and the highest temperature and the amount of oxidation of fuel cladding tubes are determined. The SENHOR code, the FLOOD code and the HEATUP code and various models for these codes are explained. The example of evaluation and the sensitivity analysis of the ATR plant are reported in the Appendix. (K.I.)

  7. Bladder rupture causing pseudo acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili


    Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif L'analyse des aspects diagnostique, thérapeutique et évolutif de la rupture traumatique du corps caverneux (RTCC) à travers l'étude d'une série de 42 cas et d'une revue de la littérature. Patients et Méthodes L'âge moyen des patients est de 32 ans, le mécanisme le plus fréquent est la manipulation forcée de la ...

  9. Study on the safety during transport of radioactive materials. Pt. 4. Events during transport. Final report work package 6; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 4. Ereignisse bei der Befoerderung. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie


    This report presents the results from a data collection and an evaluation of the safety significance of events in the transportation of radioactive material by all modes on public routes in Germany. Systems for reporting and evaluation of the safety significance of events encountered in the transport of radioactive material are a central element in monitoring and judging the adequacy and effectiveness of the transport regulations and their underlying safety philosophy, this allows for revision by experience feedback (lessons learned). The nationwide survey performed covering the period from the mid 1990s through 2013 identified and analysed a total of 670 transport events varying in type and severity. The vast majority of recorded transport events relate to minor deviations from the provisions of the transport regulations (e.g. improper markings and error in transport documents) or inappropriate practices and operational procedures resulting in material damage of packages and equipment such as handling incidents. Severe traffic accidents and fires represented only a small fraction (ca. 3 percent) of the recorded transport events. Four transport events were identified in the reporting period to have given rise to environmental radioactive releases. Three transport events have reportedly resulted in minor radiation exposures to the transport personnel; in one case an exposure in excess of the statutory annual dose limit for the public seems possible. Based on the EVTRAM scale, with seven significance levels, the broad majority of transport events has been classified as ''non-incidents'' (Level 0) and ''events without affecting the safety functions of the package'' (Level 1). On the INES scale most transport events would be classified as events with ''no safety significance'' (Below Scale/Level 0). The survey results show no serious deficiencies in the transport of radioactive material, supporting the

  10. Diaphragm rupture in a liver transplant patient under chronic immunosuppressive therapy with sirolimus: rare complication after liver transplantation. (United States)

    Rossetto, Anna; Baccarani, Umberto; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Bresadola, Vittorio; Terrosu, Giovanni


    A diaphragm rupture is a very rare event. A variety of conditions such as coughing, delivery, and vigorous exercise causing a sudden increase of the intra-abdominal pressure can result in diaphragm rupture [1]. The diagnosis can be difficult because of non-specific symptoms and no history of blunt or penetrating trauma. Due to anatomical reasons, diaphragmatic lesions in the left side are more common than those in the right side. Chronic immunosuppressive therapy in transplanted patients, especially with antiproliferative drugs such as mTOR inhibitor, has been considered as a risk factor for the development of incisional hernia [2, 3]. We present the case of diaphragm rupture in a liver transplant patient under chronic immunosuppressive therapy with sirolimus.

  11. Evaluation of long-term creep rupture strength of tungsten-strengthened advanced 9-12%Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuyama, F.; Komai, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan). Res. and Dev. Center


    Evaluation and reliability assessment of the long-term creep rupture strength of recently developed tungsten strengthened advanced steels such as P92 and P122 are very important in terms of the use of these steels in actual power boilers. This paper reports the results of standard creep rupture tests reaching a maximum of 50000 hours, which have been carried out for various material conditions including as-manufactured, fully-processed, over-aged and induction-bent pipes and forgings. Creep strain tests up to 2000 hours have also been conducted for as-manufactured materials in order to study creep strain behavior and creep life. Based on the data obtained, 10{sup 5}h creep rupture strength was predicted, and the relationship was investigated between (a) the long-term creep rupture strength extrapolated from short-term creep test results using the parametric and iso-stress methods, and (b) actually measured long-term strength. Creep life prediction from the creep strain and rupture time relationship was also carried out, and the accuracy of life prediction is demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture: case report and literature review. (United States)

    Ghidirim, Gh; Mishin, I; Condratsky, E; Zastavnitsky, Gh


    Spontaneous diaphragm rupture is extremely rare. Usually a diaphragm rupture is trauma induced. We describe a case of an 18-year old patient admitted 2 hours after onset, presenting severe epigastric and left sided chest pain without any trauma history. Upright chest x-ray revealed displaced stomach and colon into the left pleural cavity with a collapsed left lung. Surgery for a left-sided diaphragm rupture with stomach, spleen and colon splenic flexure herniation was undertaken. We present a brief review regarding the aetiology, diagnostic and treatment policy of spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. Celsius.

  13. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia. (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung


    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  14. Achilles Tendon Rupture: Avoiding Tendon Lengthening during Surgical Repair and Rehabilitation (United States)

    Maquirriain, Javier


    Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others. PMID:21966048

  15. Delayed rupture of common carotid artery following rugby tackle injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Saleh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common Carotid Artery (CCA is an uncommon site of injury following a blunt trauma, its presentation with spontaneous delayed rupture is even more uncommon and a rugby tackle leading to CCA injury is a rare event. What makes this case unique and very rare is combination of all of the above. Case presentation Mr H. presented to the Emergency Department with an expanding neck haematoma and shortness of breath. He was promptly intubated and had contrast CT angiography of neck vessels which localized the bleeding spot on posteromedial aspect of his Right CCA. He underwent emergency surgery with repair of the defect and made an uneventful recovery post operatively. Conclusion Delayed post traumatic rupture of the CCA is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which can be caused by unusual blunt injury mechanism. A high index of suspicion and low threshold for investigating carotid injuries in the setting of blunt trauma is likely to be beneficial.

  16. Slip-pulse rupture behavior on a 2 m granite fault (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.


    We describe observations of dynamic rupture events that spontaneously arise on meter-scale laboratory earthquake experiments. While low-frequency slip of the granite sample occurs in a relatively uniform and crack-like manner, instruments capable of detecting high-frequency motions show that some parts of the fault slip abruptly (velocity > 100 mm s-1, acceleration > 20 km s-2) while the majority of the fault slips more slowly. Abruptly slipping regions propagate along the fault at nearly the shear wave speed. We propose that the dramatic reduction in frictional strength implied by this pulse-like rupture behavior has a common mechanism to the weakening reported in high-velocity friction experiments performed on rotary machines. The slip pulses can also be identified as migrating sources of high-frequency seismic waves. As observations from large earthquakes show similar propagating high-frequency sources, the pulses described here may have relevance to the mechanics of larger earthquakes.

  17. Slip-pulse rupture behavior on a 2 meter granite fault (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.


    We describe observations of dynamic rupture events that spontaneously arise on meter-scale laboratory earthquake experiments. While low-frequency slip of the granite sample occurs in a relatively uniform and crack-like manner, instruments capable of detecting high frequency motions show that some parts of the fault slip abruptly (velocity >100 mm∙s-1, acceleration >20 km∙s-2) while the majority of the fault slips more slowly. Abruptly slipping regions propagate along the fault at nearly the shear wave speed. We propose that the dramatic reduction in frictional strength implied by this pulse-like rupture behavior has a common mechanism to the weakening reported in high velocity friction experiments performed on rotary machines. The slip pulses can also be identified as migrating sources of high frequency seismic waves. As observations from large earthquakes show similar propagating high frequency sources, the pulses described here may have relevance to the mechanics of larger earthquakes.

  18. Sources of shaking and flooding during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake: a mixture of rupture styles (United States)

    Wei, Shengji; Graves, Robert; Helmberger, Don; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Jiang, Junle


    Modeling strong ground motions from great subduction zone earthquakes is one of the great challenges of computational seismology. To separate the rupture characteristics from complexities caused by 3D sub-surface geology requires an extraordinary data set such as provided by the recent Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Here we combine deterministic inversion and dynamically guided forward simulation methods to model over one thousand high-rate GPS and strong motion observations from 0 to 0.25 Hz across the entire Honshu Island. Our results display distinct styles of rupture with a deeper generic interplate event (~Mw8.5) transitioning to a shallow tsunamigenic earthquake (~Mw9.0) at about 25 km depth in a process driven by a strong dynamic weakening mechanism, possibly thermal pressurization. This source model predicts many important features of the broad set of seismic, geodetic and seafloor observations providing a major advance in our understanding of such great natural hazards.

  19. Spontaneous Uterine Vessels Rupture in a Pregnant Woman: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction Hemorrhagic disease during pregnancy is a major cause of hospital admission and maternal mortality in the world. The most leading causes of maternal hemorrhage during pregnancy are abnormal placentation, ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy, and preeclampsia. There are a few case reports of spontaneous rupture of uterine vessels in the literature. The diagnosis of this event, which is hazardous to the pregnant women is difficult due to its rarity. Case Presentation Our patient was a 32-year-old primigravid woman presented with abdominal and flank pain. Her gestational age was 30 weeks. During admission in Aria Hospital, she had a significant hemoglobin level drop and developed signs of acute abdomen. Conclusions Laparotomy was performed and fundal uterine vessels rupture was seen and ligated. A 30-week-male fetus was born by cesarean section. Now the fetus is alive with no medical problem.

  20. Renal pelvis spontaneous rupture secondary to ureteral lithiasis. Case report and bibliographic review. (United States)

    Díaz, Erick Sierra; Buenrostro, Fabián García


    To report a case seen at the Urology Department and comment on the literature. We present the case of 46 year-old male who presented left flank pain. Intravenous pyelography was performed. The study showed evidence of contrast extravasation at the level of the left renal pelvis and a 7 mm stone located on the left ureterovesical junction. A literature search was performed using Promedicum, Pub Med and Ovid. The search words were: rupture, renal pelvis, lithiasis and spontaneous combined by boolean operators. The management was successful using endourology procedures and a double pigtail catheter for a two week period. Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis (SRRP) is an infrequent pathological event. Most of the cases are related to obstructive uropathy, infection and diagnostic procedures. Intravenous pyelography is a useful tool although intravenous contrast CT scan has higher sensibility. The treatment depends on patient state but most cases can be managed with minimally invasive procedures and double pigtail catheter placement.

  1. Numerical earthquake model of the 31 October 2013 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake: Source rupture process and seismic wave propagation (United States)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Yeh, Te-Yang; Lin, Tzu-Chi


    We build a numerical earthquake model, including numerical source and wave propagation models, to understand the rupture process and the ground motion time history of the 2013 ML 6.4 Ruisui earthquake in Taiwan. This moderately large event was located in the Longitudinal Valley, a suture zone of the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasia Plate. A joint source inversion analysis by using teleseismic body wave, GPS coseismic displacement and near field ground motion data was performed first. The inversion results derived from a western dipping fault plane indicate that the slip occurred in depths between 10 and 20 km. The rupture propagated from south to north and two asperities were resolved. The largest one was located approximately 15 km north of the epicenter with a maximum slip about 1 m. A 3D seismic wave propagation simulation based on the spectral-element method was then carried out by using the inverted source model. A strong rupture directivity effect in the northern area of the Longitudinal Valley was found, which was due to the northward rupture process. Forward synthetic waveforms could explain most of the near-field ground motion data for frequencies between 0.05 and 0.2 Hz. This numerical earthquake model not only helps us confirm the detailed rupture processes on the Central Range Fault but also gives contribution to regional seismic hazard mitigation for future large earthquakes.





    Diaphragmatic rupture is a tear of diaphragm. It results from blu nt or penetrating inj ury to trunk 1 . It occurs in 5% of cases of severe blunt trauma to trunk 2 . Mortality from traumatic rupture diaphragm is 14 - 5 0 % 3 . This increases to 77% when associated with shock & head injury 3 . Associated injury makes the outcome w orst. Here is a case with spleen tear associated with traumatic rupture of diaphragm . ...

  3. Physical therapy in the conservative treatment for anterior cruciate ligament rupture followed by contralateral rupture: case report


    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Arruda, Gilvan de Oliveira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual


    Although the surgical reconstruction be the obvious indication for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesion, there is no consensus on whether the results of surgery are superior to those obtained with nonsurgical management. The objective of this report was to describe a case of nonsurgical treatment for ACL rupture followed by a contralateral rupture. A 28-year-old female practitioner of muay-thai and handball suffered a non-contact ACL rupture in the left knee, and three months after the...

  4. Surface Rupture Characteristics and Rupture Mechanics of the Yushu Earthquake (Ms7.1), 14/04/2010 (United States)

    Pan, J.; Li, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, N.; Wu, F.; Guo, R.; Zhang, W.


    On April 14th 2010, a disastrous earthquake (Ms 7.1) struck Yushu County, Qinghai Province, China, killing thousands of people. This earthquake occurred as a result of sinistral strike-slip faulting on the western segment of the Xianshuihe Fault zone in eastern Tibetan Plateau. Our group conducted scientific investigation in the field on co-seismic surface rupture and active tectonics in the epicenter area immediately after the earthquake. Here, we introduce our preliminary results on the surface ruptures and rupture mechanics of the Yushu Earthquake. The surface rupture zone of Yushu earthquake, which is about 49 km-long, consists of 3 discontinuous left stepping rupture segments, which are 19 km, 22 km, and about 8 km, respectively, from west to east. Each segment consists of a series of right stepping en-echelon branch ruptures. The branch ruptures consist of interphase push-up and tension fissures or simply en-echelon tension fissures. The co-seismic displacements had been surveyed with a total station in detail on landmarks such as rivers, gullies, roads, farmlands, wire poles, and fences. The maximum offset measured is 2.3m, located near the Guoyangyansongduo Village. There are 3 offset peaks along the rupture zone corresponding to the 3 segments of the surface rupture zone. The maximum offsets in the west, central, and east segment rupture zones are 1.4m, 2.3m, and 1.6m respectively. The surface rupture zone of Yushu earthquake strikes in a 310°NW direction. The fault plane dips to the northeast and the dip angle is about 81°. The rupture zone is developed in transtension setting. Tension normal fault developed during the sinistral strike-slip process of the fault. The valley west of Yushu City and the Longbao Lake are both pull-apart basins formed during the transtension activity of the fault.

  5. Rupture dynamics and ground motions from earthquakes in 2-D heterogeneous media

    KAUST Repository

    Bydlon, Samuel A.


    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. We perform 2-D simulations of earthquakes on rough faults in media with random heterogeneities (with von Karman distribution) to study the effects of geometric and material heterogeneity on the rupture process and resulting high-frequency ground motions in the near-fault region (out to ∼20km). Variations in slip and rupture velocity can arise from material heterogeneity alone but are dominantly controlled by fault roughness. Scattering effects become appreciable beyond ∼3km from the fault. Near-fault scattering extends the duration of incoherent, high-frequency ground motions and, at least in our 2-D simulations, elevates root-mean-square accelerations (i.e., Arias intensity) with negligible reduction in peak velocities. We also demonstrate that near-fault scattering typically occurs in the power law tail of the power spectral density function, quantified by the Hurst exponent and another parameter combining standard deviation and correlation length. Key Points Fault roughness, not material heterogeneity, dominates rupture process Introduce parameter that can be used to quantify near-fault scattering Scattering affects the duration and amplitude of high-frequency ground motions

  6. Tendon rupture associated with excessive smartphone gaming. (United States)

    Gilman, Luke; Cage, Dori N; Horn, Adam; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P


    Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with injuries. A 29-year-old, right hand-dominant man presented with chronic left thumb pain and loss of active motion from playing a Match-3 puzzle video game on his smartphone all day for 6 to 8 weeks. On physical examination, the left extensor pollicis longus tendon was not palpable, and no tendon motion was noted with wrist tenodesis. The thumb metacarpophalangeal range of motion was 10° to 80°, and thumb interphalangeal range of motion was 30° to 70°. The clinical diagnosis was rupture of the left extensor pollicis longus tendon. The patient subsequently underwent an extensor indicis proprius (1 of 2 tendons that extend the index finger) to extensor pollicis longus tendon transfer. During surgery, rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon was seen between the metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints. The potential for video games to reduce pain perception raises clinical and social considerations about excessive use, abuse, and addiction. Future research should consider whether pain reduction is a reason some individuals play video games excessively, manifest addiction, or sustain injuries associated with video gaming.

  7. Creep rupture strength of microalloyed steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foldyna, V.; Kubon, Z.; Schellong, T.


    The superior creep resistance of the microalloyed steels compared to the carbon steels originates in the presence of very fine particles of minor phases based on vanadium or niobium. These steels are delivered either after controlled rolling or in the normalized state. The creep strength of these microalloyed steels reaches nearly that of low alloy 0.15C-0.3Mo steel type. The best creep properties are detected in steels after controlled rolling, while after normalizing creep rupture strength slightly decreases, especially in heats alloyed with niobium. This is the result of the microstructure of the steel when in steel with niobium originally fine particles of niobium carbonitride coarsen during normalizing with corresponding changes in their interparticle spacing. When compared the creep rupture strength attained experimentally with the data stated in the standard CSN 41 2025, it is clear that the data stated in the standard corresponds the creep properties of this steel after normalizing but do not take into account creep properties attained after controlled rolling (normalizing forming). (orig.)

  8. Management of extensor mechanism rupture after TKA. (United States)

    Rosenberg, A G


    Disruption of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty may occur by tubercle avulsion, patellar or quadriceps tendon rupture, or patella fracture, and whether occurring intra-operatively or post-operatively can be difficult to manage and is associated with a significant rate of failure and associated complications. This surgery is frequently performed in compromised tissues, and repairs must frequently be protected with cerclage wiring and/or augmentation with local tendon (semi-tendinosis, gracilis) which may also be used to treat soft-tissue loss in the face of chronic disruption. Quadriceps rupture may be treated with conservative therapy if the patient retains active extension. Component loosening or loss of active extension of 20° or greater are clear indications for surgical treatment of patellar fracture. Acute patellar tendon disruption may be treated by primary repair. Chronic extensor failure is often complicated by tissue loss and retraction can be treated with medial gastrocnemius flaps, achilles tendon allografts, and complete extensor mechanism allografts. Attention to fixing the graft in full extension is mandatory to prevent severe extensor lag as the graft stretches out over time.

  9. Ruptures of the distal biceps tendon. (United States)

    Ward, James P; Shreve, Mark C; Youm, Thomas; Strauss, Eric J


    Distal biceps ruptures occur most commonly in middle-aged males and result from eccentric contraction of the biceps tendon. The injury typically presents with pain and a tearing sensation in the antecubital fossa with resultant weakness in flexion and supination strength. Physical exam maneuvers and diagnostic imaging aid in determining the diagnosis. Nonoperative management is reserved for elderly, low demand patients, while operative intervention is generally pursued for younger patients and can consist of nonanatomic repair to the brachialis or anatomic repair to the radial tuberosity. Anatomic repair through a one-incision or two-incision approach is commonplace, while the nonanatomic repairs are rarely performed. No clear advantage exists in operative management with a one-incision versus two-incision techniques. Chronic ruptures present a more difficult situation, and allograft augmentation is often necessary. Common complications after repair include transient nerve palsy, which often resolves, and heterotopic ossification. Despite these possible complications, most studies suggest that better patient outcomes are obtained with operative, anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon.

  10. Triceps Tendon Ruptures: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Fares, Austin; Rubin, Sydney; Orr, Justin; Friedman, Darren; Kilcoyne, Kelly


    Triceps tendon ruptures (TTR) are an uncommon injury. The aim of this systematic review was to classify diagnostic signs, report outcomes and rerupture rates, and identify potential predisposing risk factors in all reported cases of surgical treated TTR. A literature search collecting surgical treated cases of TTR was performed, identifying 175 articles, 40 of which met inclusion criteria, accounting for 262 patients. Data were pooled and analyzed focusing on medical comorbidities, presence of a fleck fracture on the preoperative lateral elbow x-ray film (Dunn-Kusnezov Sign [DKS]), outcomes, and rerupture rates. The average age of injury was 45.6 years. The average time from injury to day of surgery was 24 days while 10 patients had a delay in diagnosis of more than 1 month. Renal disease (10%) and anabolic steroid use (7%) were the 2 most common medical comorbidities. The DKS was present in 61% to 88% of cases on the lateral x-ray film. Postoperatively, 89% of patients returned to preinjury level of activity, and there was a 6% rerupture rate at an average follow-up of 34.6 months. The vast majority (81%) of the patients in this review underwent repair via suture fixation. TTR is an uncommon injury. Risks factors for rupture include renal disease and anabolic steroid use. Lateral elbow radiographs should be scrutinized for the DKS in patients with extension weakness. Outcomes are excellent following repair, and rates of rerupture are low.

  11. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses. (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C


    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Uterine Rupture due to Traumatic Assisted Fundal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chuan Wei


    Conclusion: Assisted fundal pressure during painful delivery can be traumatic and results in uterine rupture. In this article, we suggest that uterine rupture should be considered whenever a pregnant woman experiences a sudden onset of abdominal pain during the course of assisted uterine fundal pressure.

  13. Associations in ruptured ectopic pregnancy in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated other known factors associated with ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Retrospective analysis of the medical records of women who were operated on for ruptured ectopic pregnancy at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi from 1991 to 2003 was carried out. No patient was excluded and all ...

  14. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm | Jamabo | Sahel Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those treated for traumatic rupture of the diaphragm were selected and analyzed for age, gender, cause of injury, associated injuries sustained and mode of treatment. ... There were associated injuries in all cases and they involved the spleen, rib fractures, liver and lungs. ... Keywords: blunt trauma, diaphragmatic rupture

  15. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Eskişehir fault zone; 1956 Eskişehir earthquake; morphotectonics; surface rupture; NW Anatolia. Abstract. Surface rupture and source fault of the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake have been a matter of debate that potentially contributes towards the understanding of the active deformation and seismic risk ...

  16. Urinary Bladder Rupture In An Elderly Man From Abdominal Massage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bladder rupture is a serious urological injury. Because symptoms are often atypical among elderly patients, this condition is often undetected especially when there is little or no trauma. Aims and Objective: We report a rare case of bladder rupture, secondary to abdominal massage. Patient and Method: A case ...

  17. Rupture uterus-eight year retrospective analysis. of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture uterus-eight year retrospective analysis. of causes an :11anagement outcome in Adigrat. Hospital, Tigray egion, Ethiopia. Amanael Gessessewl, Menpiste M Melese2. D. Abstract. Background: Ruptured uterus is a common cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Further studies may help in the ...

  18. Splenic rupture and intracranial haemorrhage in a haemophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of haemophilia A, who was diagnosed with splenic rupture and bilateral subdural haematomas and underwent splenectomy, albeit with post-operative complications, in light of haemodynamic instability and high ongoing transfusion requirements. Key words: Hemophilia, intracranial hemorrhage, neonate, splenic rupture ...

  19. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi


    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  20. Idiopathic Gastric Rupture in a Child: Critical Situation | Ourfali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idiopathic gastric rupture is extremely rare condition in children. We report herein a 4-years-old girl with Idiopathic GR who presented with shock. Resuscitation and early surgical intervention led to saving the child's life. Index Word: Gastric rupture, Pneumoperitoneum, Abdominal distension, Resuscitation.

  1. Antibiotics after preterm premature rupture of the membranes. (United States)

    Singh, Katherine; Mercer, Brian


    Preterm premature rupture of the membranes remains a common cause of preterm deliveries and neonatal morbidities. The goal of this study is to review the evidence with regard to the antibiotic treatment after preterm premature rupture of the membranes, long-term outcomes related to antibiotic treatment, and possible complications with treatment. Future research goals are also discussed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    RUPTURE OF SINUS OF VALSALVA ANEURYSM: CASE REPORT. A. G. B. AMOAH, K. FRIMPONG-BOATENG and H. BADDOO. SUMMARY. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are uncommon. Aortic sinus aneurysm may be complicated by endocarditis or rupture. A 26 year old native Ghanaian presented with dyspnoea, raised.

  3. Emergency endovascular coiling of a ruptured giant splenic artery aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernheden, Erika; Brenøe, Anne Sofie; Shahidi, Saeid


    Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are the third most common abdominal aneurysm. Endovascular treatment of SAAs is preferred, and coiling is the most commonly used technique. Ruptured giant (>5 cm) SAAs are usually treated with open surgery including splenectomy. We present a rare case of a ruptured...

  4. Intrapartum Rupture of the Uterus Diagnosed by Ultrasound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spontaneous uterine rupture is a life threatening obstetrical emergency encountered infrequently in the emergency department. Its diagnosis is often missed or delayed, leading to maternal and fetal mortality. Method: We present a case of ruptured uterus diagnosed by ultrasound in a 33-year-old gravid female ...

  5. Closed rupture of the thumb flexor tendon pulleys. (United States)

    Wilson, S M; Roulot, E; Le Viet, D


    Closed flexor tendon pulley ruptures are relatively rare injuries. All previously reported cases have been in the long finger pulleys. To our knowledge, there has not been a case of closed thumb flexor tendon pulley rupture reported in the literature. This paper presents two cases of this pathology and discusses appropriate treatment of it.

  6. Postinfarction left ventricular free wall rupture repaired successfully. (United States)

    Tireli, Emin; Kalko, Yusuf; Kafali, Eylül; Basaran, Murat


    Left ventricular free wall rupture is a well-recognized complication of myocardial infarction and a frequent cause of death. A 49-year-old man was successfully treated for a left ventricular free wall rupture that occurred on the third day after an anterior myocardial infarction. Concomitant myocardial revascularization was performed.

  7. Spontaneous calyceal rupture caused by a ureteral calculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the urinary collecting system with perirenal and retroperitoneal extravasation of the urine is an unusual condition that is typically caused by ureteral-obstructing calculi. We report a case of calyceal rupture with urinoma formation, due to a stone in the distal ureter. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed ...

  8. Use of ICD-10 codes to monitor uterine rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L A; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Hvidman, Lone


    OBJECTIVES: Uterine rupture is a rare but severe complication in pregnancies after a previous cesarean section. In Denmark, the monitoring of uterine rupture is based on reporting of relevant diagnostic codes to the Danish Medical Birth Registry (MBR). The aim of our study was to examine the vali...

  9. Spontaneous rupture of an incisional hernia | Eke | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She tested positive for HIV infection. The rupture was repaired under antibodies cover. She made an uneventful recovery but has since been lost to follow up. Lesson: The risk of spontaneous rupture is an indication for the elective repair of incisional hernias. Highland Medical Research Journal Vol. 4(1) 2006: 86-88 ...

  10. Posterior uterine rupture secondary to use of herbs leading to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uterine rupture is a potentially avoidable complication resulting in poor perinatal and maternal outcomes. This case had a number of unusual features including delivery of a healthy live baby; spontaneous posterior uterine rupture in a primigravida (and unscarred uterus); and delayed presentation with signs of peritonitis ...

  11. Spontaneous Pre-Labour Rupture of Membranes at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pre-labour rupture of membranes (SPROM) at term is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, particularly because it is associated with a latency period from membrane rupture to delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ...

  12. Ruptured uterus in Azare, north eastern Nigeria | Dattijo | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:-Ruptured uterus is an obstetric emergency and results in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The objective of the review is to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, maternal and foetal outcome in cases of ruptured uterus. Methods:- A 4-year retrospective review of ...

  13. Spontaneous rupture: An uncommon complication of ventral hernia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Literature is scarce about spontaneous rupture of hernia because spontaneous rupture of here is uncommon (1). Reported cases are complications of incisional hernias, recurrent inguinal hernia, and umbilical hernias. It is potentially life threatening (1) because the ensuing entrapment and tension on ...

  14. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: a hint for structural control on the rupture process? (United States)

    Fabrizio, R.; Trasatti, E.; Lorito, S.; Piromallo, C.; Ito, Y.; Piatanesi, A.; Zhao, D.; Lanucara, P.; Hirata, K.; Cocco, M.


    The Great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, due to the exceptional amount of data and the unexpected rupture features characterizing this event, represents a great opportunity for the scientific community to better understand the physical processes underlying the genesis of mega-thrust earthquakes and try to provide future guidelines useful for mitigate the tsunami risk. Actually, this event has been extensively studied by using an unprecedented collection of high-quality geophysical data. In particular, different source models have been published by modeling seismological, geodetic and tsunami data with a resulting general agreement about the main features of the rupture process (a patch of nearly 50 meters of slip located around and up-dip from the hypocenter), while the slip pattern at shallow depths near the trench exhibits some variability among these models, likely due to the different resolving power of distinct data sets and to the adopted fault geometry. However, these features, particularly the very concentrated rupture area (with respect to the magnitude 9) and the very high slip in a zone typically considered aseismic, due to their unexpected nature are still under investigation. Here we use a 3-D structural model to account for the effects of both the geometrical variations of the plate interface and the elastic contrasts between the subducting plate and the continental lithosphere, within a 3-D Finite Element (FE) model of the Tohoku-oki area. We infer the slip distribution of the 2011 earthquake by performing a joint inversion of geodetic (GPS and seafloor observations) and tsunami (ocean bottom pressure sensors, DART and GPS buoys) data. We find a pattern of slip mainly extending up-dip from the hypocenter and reaching the trench, with maximum slip of about 52 meters. We observe that the resulting rupture image of the Tohoku event exhibits a striking correlation with the distribution of lateral heterogeneities in seismic wave velocities around the plate

  15. Thickness and multi-axial stress creep rupture criteria of the Type IV component of a ferritic steel weld


    Hayhurst, R James; Vakili-Tahami, Farid; Mustata, Radu; Hayhurst, David


    The paper summarises previously derived constitutive parameters for the temperatures 575, 590, 600, 620 and 640oC. Values of the multi-axial stress rupture parameter are reviewed and recorded. This constitutive parameter set is used to determine the thickness of the Type IV material zone to be 0.7mm. Next, values of Type IV multi-axial stress rupture parameter are determined for a wide range of butt-welded pipe and crosswelded uni-axial specimens, and an interpolation equation has been derive...

  16. Surface Ruptures and Building Damage of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake Mapped by Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Correlation (United States)

    Fielding, Eric J.; Talebian, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Nazari, H.; Jackson, J. A.; Ghorashi, M.; Walker, R.


    We use the interferometric correlation from Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to map the details of the surface ruptures related to the 26 December 2003 earthquake that devastated Bam, Iran. The main strike-slip fault rupture south of the city of Bam has a series of four segments with left steps shown by a narrow line of low correlation in the coseismic interferogram. This also has a clear expression in the field because of the net extension across the fault. Just south of the city limits, the surface strain becomes distributed over a width of about 500 m, probably because of a thicker layer of soft sedimentary material.

  17. Hemothorax caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma in the pleural cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hin Hee; Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Jin Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)


    Hemothorax resulting from ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare and is generally caused by ruptured intrathoracic metastatic lesions. However, we report a rare case of hemothorax resulting from intrathoracic rupture of primary HCC.

  18. Rupture mechanics of metallic alloys for hydrogen transport; Mecanique de la rupture des alliages metalliques pour le transport de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, I.; Briottet, L.; Lemoine, P. [CEA Grenoble (DRT/LITEN/DTH/LEV), 38 (France); Andrieu, E.; Blanc, C. [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche et d' Ingenierie des Materiaux (ENSIACET/CIRIMAT), 31 - Toulouse (France)


    With the aim to establish a cheap hydrogen distribution system, the transport by pipelines is a solution particularly interesting. Among the high limit of elasticity steels, the X80 has been chosen for hydrogen transport. Its chemical composition and microstructure are given. Important microstructural changes have been revealed in the sheet thickness: the microstructure is thinner and richer in perlite in surface than in bulk. In parallel to this microstructural evolution, a microhardness gradient has been observed: the material microhardness is stronger in surface than in bulk of the sheet. The use of this material for hydrogen transport requires to study its resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. The main aim of this work is to develop an easy rupture mechanics test allowing to qualify the studied material in a gaseous hydrogen environment, to determine the sensitivity of the studied material to the hydrogen embrittlement and to better understand the mechanisms of the hydrogen embrittlement for ferritic materials. Two experimental tests have been used for: the first one is a traction machine coupled to an autoclave; the second one allows to carry out disk rupture tests. The toughness of the material in a gaseous hydrogen environment has thus been determined. The resistance of the material to hydrogen embrittlement has been characterized and by simulation, it has been possible to identify the areas with a strong concentration in hydrogen. The second aim of this work is to study the influence of the steel microstructure on the hydrogen position in the material and on the resistance of the material to the hydrogen embrittlement. The preferential trapping sites on the material not mechanically loaded have at first been identified, as well as the hydrogen position on the different phases and at the ferrite/cementite interface. The interaction between the mechanical loads, the position and the trapping of the hydrogen have been studied then. At last, has been

  19. Use of fluroquinolone and risk of Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Jacob; Obel, Niels; Hallas, Jesper


    OBJECTIVE: Several case-control studies have reported that the use of fluoroquinolone increases the risk of rupture of the Achilles tendon. Our aim was to estimate this risk by means of a population-based cohort approach. SETTING: Data on Achilles tendon ruptures and fluoroquinolone use were...... retrieved from three population-based databases that include information on residents of Funen County (population: 470,000) in primary and secondary care during the period 1991-1999. A study cohort of all 28,262 first-time users of fluoroquinolone and all incident cases of Achilles tendon ruptures were...... identified. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of Achilles tendon ruptures among users and non-users of fluoroquinolones and the standardised incidence rate ratio associating fluoroquinolon use with Achilles tendon rupture were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Between 1991 and 2002 the incidence...

  20. Spontaneous rupture of multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen Ö


    Full Text Available Özkan Özen, Alptekin Tosun, Çiğdem Akgül Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey Abstract: Hemoperitoneum due to nontraumatic liver rupture is rare. The most common cause of nontraumatic rupture of the liver is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The other causes of nontraumatic liver ruptures are peliosis hepatis, polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, preeclampsia, metastatic carcinoma, and other primary liver tumors. In this report, we present the computed tomography findings of spontaneous liver rupture in a 52-year-old male patient due to multifocal HCC, with the diagnosis proven by surgical specimen. Keywords: computed tomography, hemoperitoneum, liver, nontraumatic liver rupture

  1. Combined approach for spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Rossetto, Anna; Adani, Gian Luigi; Risaliti, Andrea; Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario; Terrosu, Giovanni


    Ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare, emergency occurrence in western countries with high mortality risk. A number of hypotheses have been formulated in order to explain the precise mechanism that leads to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rupture: sub-capsular location, dimensions, portal hypertension, tumour necrosis, local increase of venous pressure due to the outflow reduction caused by neoplastic invasion, and the presence of a previous vascular injury which might predispose to HCC rupture. There is still a debate in the literature concerning the best approach in cases of HCC rupture. Surgery is the first option for treatment of acute abdominal bleeding. However the advent of endovascular treatments widens the range of possible therapies for acute bleeding control and subsequent ablation purposes. We report a case of hemoperitoneum from spontaneous rupture of undiagnosed HCC, that was treated successfully by emergency surgical resection followed by transarterial chemo-embolization for local recurrence.

  2. Paleoearthquakes on the Anninghe and Zemuhe fault along the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and implications for fault rupture behavior at fault bends on strike-slip faults (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Ran, Yongkang; Chen, Lichun; Li, Yanbao


    Fault bends can serve as fault segment boundaries and are used in seismic hazard assessment. Recent studies addressing whether rupture propagation would be arrested at such structural complexities have commonly focused on computational modeling. However, multi-cycle paleoseismic rupture observations through fault bends have seldom been reported. In this study, we used trenching and radiocarbon dating to reveal paleoseismic rupture histories on the southern segment of the Anninghe fault (ANHF) along the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau to explore multi-cycle surface rupture behavior at an extensional fault bend (with an angle of about 30°) at Xichang between the ANHF and Zemuhe fault (ZMHF). Specifically, nine trenches were opened in a fault depression at Maoheshan site and five paleoseismic events were identified. These have been named E1 through E5 respectively corresponding to events at 1400-935 BCE, 420-875 CE, 830-1360 CE, 1295-1715 CE, and 1790 CE-Present. After comparison with the historical records of earthquakes around Xichang and previous paleoseismic results, we suggest that the five seismic events are constrained at: 1365 BCE-935 BCE, 814 CE, 950 CE- 1145 CE, 1536 CE and 1850 CE, respectively. The average recurrence interval of earthquakes along the southern segment of the ANHF is about 700-800 yr. Furthermore, the evidence indicates that surface-faulting events along the southern segment of the ANHF appear to be unevenly spaced in time. Moreover, based on comparisons of seismic events along the ANHF and ZMHF, we find that two fault segments simultaneous ruptured during the 814 CE and 1850 CE earthquakes, event E3 and the 1536 CE earthquake ruptured the ANHF but not rupture the ZMHF. We suggest that the Xichang fault bend is not a persistent fault boundary, indicating that extensional fault bends with an angle of about 30° may not effectively terminate seismic ruptures on strike-slip faults.

  3. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    Earthquakes ruptures sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where rupture occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also ruptured a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the main plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not rupture during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne rupture with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the rupture zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the rupture propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies

  4. Essentials of anterior cruciate ligament rupture management. (United States)

    Klinge, Stephen A; Sawyer, Gregory A; Hulstyn, Michael J


    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common knee injury and an understanding of current medical knowledge regarding its management is essential. Accurate and prompt diagnosis requires an awareness of injury mechanisms and risk factors, common symptoms and physical/radiologic findings. Early mobilization and physical therapy improves outcomes regardless of treatment modality. Many older patients regain sufficient stability and function after non-operative rehabilitation. Early ACL reconstruction is appropriate for younger patients and those who engage in activities requiring frequent pivoting and rapid direction changes. ACL surgery involves reconstruction of the torn ligament tissue with various replacement graft options, each with advantages and disadvantages. The guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced therapist is required throughout an intensive and prolonged rehabilitation course. Generally excellent outcomes and low complication rates are expected, but treatment does not prevent late osteoarthritis.

  5. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy associated with tubal schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sahu


    Full Text Available Endemic in major parts of Africa and Middle East, Schistosoma haematobium is a common cause of recurrent urogenital infections and obstetric complications such as spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and low birth weight babies. The involvement of fallopian tubes is not rare in endemic areas and may predispose to ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Indian subcontinent is a very lowrisk region for schistosoma infection. Tubal schistosomiasis is not exceptional in endemic zones, but is rarely found in India. The species most often isolated is S. haematobium. Contamination occurs via vascular anastomoses between the bladder and the genital organs. We report a case of tubal schistosomiasis presenting as ruptured ectopic pregnancy discovered on a surgical specimen after salpingectomy.

  6. Imaging of diaphragmatic rupture after trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, S. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Kantarci, M. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Okur, A. [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)


    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm usually results from blunt or penetrating injuries, or iatrogenic causes. Most cases are initially overlooked in the acute phase because they present with variable clinical and radiological signs. An overlooked diaphragmatic injury presents as a hernia many years later with potentially serious complications, therefore selection of the most appropriate radiological technique and accurate diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (DH) on the first admission is important. Although the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries is problematic, various investigations may be used for diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of 19 traumatic DH cases with various imaging techniques. The patients were acute trauma cases or cases with prior trauma or thoraco-abdominal surgery with clinical suspicion of DH. An evaluation of the imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of DH is presented.

  7. Numerical simulation of earthquake rupture sequences on the Manila thrust fault: Effects of seamount subduction (United States)

    Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Ning, J.; He, C.; Zhang, L.


    The Manila subduction zone is located at the convergent boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Sunda/Eurasian Plate from offshore Taiwan to northern Luzon of Philippines, where only infrequent M7 earthquakes were observed in modern seismological instrumentation history. The lack of great events (M8+) indicates the subduction fault is either aseismically slipping or is accumulating strain energy toward rapid release in a great earthquake. Here we conduct numerical simulations of earthquake rupture sequences in the framework of rate-state-friction along the 15-19.5ºN segment of the 3D plate boundary with subducted seamounts. Rate-state frictional properties are constrained by laboratory friction experiments conducted on IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea (SCS), drilling samples from the basaltic basement rock under 100ºC - 600ºC, effective normal stress of 50 MPa and pore pressure of 100 MPa. During the modeled 2000-year period, the maximum magnitude of earthquakes is Mw7. Each sequence repeats every ~200 years and is consisted of three sub-events, event 1 (Mw7) that can overcome the barrier, where dip angle changes most rapidly along the strike, to rupture the entire fault. Events 2 (Mw 6.4) and 3 (Mw 5.7) are of smaller magnitudes and result in north-south segmented rupture pattern. We further quantify the potential of earthquake nucleation by the S-ratio (lower S ratio means the initial stress is closer to peak strength, hence more likely to nucleate an earthquake). The subducted seamount shows higher S-ratios than its surroundings mostly, implying an unlikely nucleate area. Our results are qualitatively similar to 2D subduction earthquake modeling by Herrendörfer et al. (2015, 2-3 events per supercycle and median long-term S is 0.5-1). Finally, we plan to use our coseismic rupture model results as inputs for a tsunami propagation model in SCS. Compared to the kinematic seafloor deformation input, our physics-based earthquake source model and its

  8. Management and Outcome of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Caused by Plaque Rupture Versus Plaque Erosion: An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study. (United States)

    Hu, Sining; Zhu, Yinchun; Zhang, Yingying; Dai, Jiannan; Li, Lulu; Dauerman, Harold; Soeda, Tsunenari; Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hang; Wang, Chao; Zhe, Chunyang; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Gonghui; Zhang, Shaosong; Jia, Haibo; Yu, Bo; Jang, Ik-Kyung


    Plaque rupture and erosion are the 2 most common mechanisms for acute coronary syndromes. However, the outcome of these 2 distinct pathologies in patients with acute coronary syndromes has never been studied. We retrospectively studied 141 patients with acute coronary syndromes who underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the culprit lesion prior to stenting from the Massachusetts General Hospital OCT Registry. Management (stent versus no stent), poststent OCT findings, and outcomes were compared. Among the 141 culprit lesions, rupture was found in 79 (56%) patients and erosion in 62 (44%). Stent implantation was performed in 77 (97.5%) patients with rupture versus 49 (79.0%) in those with erosion ( P erosion group. Plaque rupture was associated with a higher incidence of no reflow or slow flow and distal embolization. Although cardiac event rates were comparable between the two groups at the 1-year follow-up, none of the erosion patients who were treated conservatively without stenting had adverse cardiac events. Unfavorable poststent OCT findings were more frequent in rupture patients compared with erosion patients. A subset of erosion patients who were treated conservatively without stenting remained free of adverse cardiac events for up to 1 year. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Recanalization and rupture after intracranial aneurysm treatment. (United States)

    Costa, Emmanuel; Vaz, Geraldo R; Finet, Patrice; Goffette, Pierre; Docquier, Marie A; Raftopoulos, Christian


    Treatment of intra cranial aneurysm (ICA) can sometimes required several procedures. The aim of this study is to analyze the risk of recanalization and rupture recurrence after ICA treatment by endovascular coiling (EVC) or surgical clipping (SC) on a very long follow-up. Clinical data of 373 consecutive patients treated in our group between January 1996 and December 2006 as well by EVC as by SC for ruptured (RIA) or unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), were reviewed. Patients were followed up at least to August 2009. First radiologic follow-up done six months after EVC and between three and five years after SC (median time: 5 years)). All patients underwent a clinical follow-up after treatment, at least by telephonic communication (median time: 6 years). Out of 197 patients with 198 RIAs, 82 (42 %) patients underwent an endovascular treatment and 115 (58%) were allocated to surgical treatment. From a total of 176 patients with 229 UIAs, 66 (37.5%) patients were treated by 74 EVC; and 110 (62.5%) patients were treated with 124 surgical procedures. Fifteen recanalizations of coiled RIAs were detected and only one in the surgical group (27% vs. 2%; p= 0.0008). Of the 15 recanalizations in the EVC group, 6 (40%) were initially completely occluded. We observed two rebleedings, one in each group (1.4% for EVC; 1% for SC; p=0.8). Our findings during the longest reported follow-up confirm a greater risk of recanalization for RIA treated by EVC without so far a significant difference in the rerupture risk.

  10. Shakedown Tests for Refurbished and Upgraded Frames and Initiation of Alloy 709 Creep Rupture Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moser, Jeremy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Charles S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report describes the shakedown tests conducted on the upgraded frames, and initiation of creep rupture tests on refurbished frames. SS316H, a reference material for Alloy 709, was used in shakedown tests, and the tests were conducted at 816 degree C under three stress levels to accumulate 1% creep strain. 1/4” gage diameter specimen design was used. The creep rupture tests on Alloy 709 were initiated at 600 degree C under 330 MPa to target 1,500 h rupture time. 12 specimens with 3/8” gage diameter were prepared from the materials with 6 heat treatment conditions, 2 from each. The required mechanical load under 330MPa was calculated to be 5,286 lb for the 3/8” gage diameter specimen. Among the ART frames, 7 frames are equipped with 10,000 lb load cell including #5 to 8 and #88 to 90, and can be used. 7 tests were thus started in this stage of project, and remaining 5 will be continued whenever any of the 7 tests is completed.

  11. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail:; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail:; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail:; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)


    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  12. Soft, Brown Rupture: Clinical Signs and Symptoms Associated with Ruptured PIP Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Godwin, FRCS


    Conclusions: Preoperative signs can be predictive of PIP implant failure. Brown-stained implants are more prone to rupture. The presence of iodine in the gel suggests unacceptable permeability of the shell early in the implant’s life span. A noninvasive screening test to detect brown implants in situ could help identify implants at risk of failure in those who elect to keep their implants.

  13. A Case of Ruptured Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst of the Liver and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Bulut


    Full Text Available Background. Hydatid cyst is an endemic disease frequently localized to the liver. It is frequently observed in Southeast Europe, Middle East, and Turkey. Although the cyst rupture can occur spontaneously, it can also occur upon albendazole treatment. Its surgical treatment includes cystotomy, capitonnage, and wedge resection. Material-Method. A 56-year-old male immigrant was admitted with fever, pain, and cough. Albendazole treatment was initiated and elective surgery was planned. Upon his admission to emergency service, he was diagnosed with pneumonia, and a spontaneous cyst rupture was detected. Result. Thoracotomy and cystotomy were performed. Bile leakage aspiration and lung wedge resection were also performed. Conclusion. Different surgical methods are used in the treatment of hydatid cysts depending on the localization and complications. Follow-up with antihelminthic drugs such as albendazole and mebendazole is recommended in medical treatment.

  14. Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm with an Off-the-shelf Endoprosthesis. (United States)

    Wolosker, Nelson; Fioranelli, Alexandre; Ferreira, Marcelo; Tachibana, Adriano; Lembrança, Lucas; Oliveira, Carlos


    Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm type 3 (TAAA3) is a challenging disease to vascular surgeons. In these cases, the best treatment methodology is conventional surgery, which portends a mortality rate ranging from 8% to 25%. Endovascular treatment has been shown to be a good alternative, with encouraging results. In 2012, a new alternative for endovascular treatment of TAAA3 was presented: Cook T-Branch endoprosthesis (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana). We present the first successful case of endovascular treatment of a ruptured TAAA3 with this stent. A 68-year-old was admitted to the emergency department with epigastric pain, radiating to the back without improvement with opioids. Physical examination revealed an epigastric pulsatile mass without evidence of peritonitis or blows. The patient was known to have a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. A computed tomography angiography showed growth of the abdominal aneurysm, accompanied with signs of rupture (fat blurring in the posterior region of TAAA3). The patient was submitted to endovascular repair of a ruptured TAAA3 in a hybrid operating room using a 34 × 18 × 202 mm T-Branch graft. It was an uneventful 330-min procedure under general anesthesia. Immediate postoperative period had no cardiovascular events. Evolution showed excellent distal perfusion and complete pain relief. Until now, the only endovascular alternative for ruptured aortic aneurysm was the parallel prosthesis technique. The development of an off-the-shelf T-Branch prosthesis (Cook Medical) has solved this problem in many cases, enabling immediate treatment of this type of aneurysm in approximately 83% of patients. The fact that the thoracic aorta would be excluded lead the patient to a high risk of spinal cord ischemia. We therefore decided to make a cerebrospinal fluid drainage. There is no consensus regarding the best devices to be used as branches. In this case, we chose to use the previously described covered stents, according to its

  15. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.


    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  16. Penile fracture: A rare case of simultaneous rupture of the one corpus cavernosum and complete urethral rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nale Đorđe


    Full Text Available Introduction. Penile fracture is a traumatic rupture of tunica albuginea and the tumescent corpora cavernosa due to the nonphysiological bending of the penile shaft, presenting with or without rupture of corpus spongiosum and urethra. The incidence of concomitant injury of the urethra is 0-38%. Complete urethral rupture is rare, but it is almost always associated with bilateral corporeal injury. Case report. We presented a patient with complete urethral rupture, and rupture of the right cavernous body. According to the available literature, this case is extremely rare. Conclusion. Fracture of the penis is relatively uncommon and is considered a urologic emergency. Prompt surgical exploration and repair can preserve erectile and voiding function.

  17. Forearc structure from legacy multichannel seismic data linked to mechanical variability and rupture segmentation on the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone (United States)

    Roland, E. C.; von Huene, R.; Miller, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Kirby, S. H.


    The historical earthquake record, geodetic observations, and modern interseismic seismicity patterns indicate along-strike variability in the mechanical behavior of the subduction zone extending from the central Alaska peninsula west to the eastern Aleutian Islands. This region spans the rupture areas of several historical megathrust earthquakes, including the 1938 M8.3 Semidi Islands event, the 1946 M8.5 earthquake near Unimak Pass, and the 1957 M8.6 Andreanof Islands earthquake. Each of these events produced tsunamis that affected Alaska and/or far-field coastal regions in Hawaii and the mainland U.S. The '38 and '46 rupture areas are separated by a segment of the subduction zone in the vicinity of the Shumagin Islands where, based on plate velocities from GPS, plate coupling decreases from nearly fully locked in the east, to very low coupling in the western Shumagins, indicating an important change in seismic style along-strike. Changes in the degree of interseismic coupling are often attributed to variability in the mechanical strength of the thrust interface, influenced by heterogeneity in the material properties and subducted topographic relief. Furthermore, the expression of forearc structural features along the margin may indicate the width and up-dip limit of the locked zone. We explore structural characteristics of the shallow portion of the subduction system related to variations in the mechanical properties of the megathrust and interseismic coupling using legacy multichannel seismic (MCS) data from several segments along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Critical images were reprocessed with modern seismic processing systems. We characterize structural features of the downgoing plate and forearc, including the variation in thickness and character of subducted sediment, the geometry of the upper plate wedge, the distribution of imbricate thrust faults, the transition from outer prism to margin rock framework and extensional faulting. These

  18. Revascularisation pattern of ruptured flexor tendon grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A histological study. (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Martínez, R; Calvo, R; Scheu, M; Gallegos, M; Vaisman, A; Martínez, C; González, A

    For successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, revascularisation and histological maturation are necessary, as their failure can cause graft rupture. The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the histological maturation of early failed plasty (less than 12 months after surgery) and late failed plasty (more than 12 months after surgery) in patients with re-rupture after ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons. A descriptive observational study was conducted on a consecutive series of 20 patients whose ACL reconstruction had failed. Graft biopsy samples were obtained during the revision surgery from the proximal, medial, and distal graft remnants. The samples were evaluated by light microscopy, and the vascularity and maturation of the samples were established by histological scoring. The most common aetiology of reconstruction failure (86.6%) was a specific event with non-contact mechanism. The patients with re-rupture of their ACL plasty less than 12 months after surgery had substance vessels that were less deep. The distal segment of the graft in those patients showed a delay in histological maturation with fewer collagen fibres. In patients whose ACL grafts failed less than 12 months after surgery, a lower distribution of blood vessels and collagen fibres was found that were less ordered in the distal graft. These results indicate a delay in maturation, which leads to a higher risk of graft failure. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of giant hepatic hemangioma: a rare source of hemoperitoneum. Case report. (United States)

    Santos Rodrigues, A L; Silva Santana, A C; Carvalho Araújo, K; Crociati Meguins, L; Felgueiras Rolo, D; Pereira Ferreira, M


    Hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hemangioma is a rare and serious clinical event with a high mortality rate. 25-year-old woman under hormonal treatment for pregnancy with abdominal pain with distension followed by vomits, palpable epigastric mass and paleness of the skin and mucosas. Computed tomography of the abdomen without oral and venous contrast showed a heterogeneous and capsulated tumor of the liver. Exploratory laparotomy was carried out that revealed a large tumor occupying the gastro-hepatic site with partial rupture of the tumor's capsule with bleeding. Because of the close relationship between the tumor and the retro-hepatic inferior vena cava, the partial resection of the tumor was realized. The patient had a good post-operative evolution. The study of the tumor revealed hepatic hemangioma. Hepatic Hemangiomas may evolve to spontaneous rupture leading to hemorrhagic acute abdomen. Surgery is mandatory and the resection of the Hemangioma will depend on the clinical condition of the patient and on the relationship of the tumor with the vascular structures of the liver. Partial resection is a safe choice that saves lives in urgency situations, as the one described herein.

  20. Separated rupture and retraction of a bi-layer free film (United States)

    Stewart, Peter; Feng, Jie; Griffiths, Ian


    We investigate the dynamics of a rising air bubble in an aqueous phase coated with a layer of oil. Recent experiments have shown that bubble rupture at the compound air/oil/aqueous interface can effectively disperse submicrometre oil droplets into the aqueous phase, suggesting a possible mechanism for clean-up of oil spillages on the surface of the ocean. Using a theoretical model we consider the stability of the long liquid free film formed as the bubble reaches the free surface, composed of two immiscible layers of differing viscosities, where each layer experiences a van der Waals force between its interfaces. For an excess of surfactant on one gas-liquid interface we show that the instability manifests as distinct rupture events, with the oil layer rupturing first and retracting over the in-tact water layer beneath, consistent with the experimental observations. We use our model to examine the dynamics of oil retraction, showing that it follows a power-law for short times, and examine the influence of retraction on the stability of the water layer.

  1. Near Real-time Waveform Inversion for Finite-source Rupture in 3D Structure (United States)

    Hsieh, M. C.; Zhao, L.; Ji, C.; Ma, K. F.


    Advances in observational and computational technologies in the past two decades have made it possible for automatic, real-time solutions of the focal mechanisms of earthquake point sources. However, seismic wave radiations from moderate and large earthquakes often exhibit complex directivity behavior that can only be explained by rupture processes that are finite in both space and time. We develop an efficient and effective approach to determining the finite-rupture models of moderate and large earthquakes by fitting synthetic and recorded broadband waveforms. A Green tensor database is established which enables rapid calculations of accurate synthetic seismograms in three-dimensional structural models with realistic surface topography without the need for high-performance computing. A three-step process is used in solving for a finite-source model: A point-source focal mechanism is determined in the first step. Then, the two nodal planes in the point-source solution are used as trial candidates to solve for an average finite-rupture model and identify the actual fault plane. In the final step, a finite-fault slip distribution inversion is carried out based on the identified fault plane. Applications to moderate events (MW≈6) in Taiwan show that our source inversion technique is effective for semi-automatic, near real-time determinations of finite-source parameters for seismic hazard mitigation purposes.

  2. [Clinical study on 67 cases with uterine rupture]. (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Bai; Zhengping, Wang; Xiaofu, Yang


    To investigate the incidence, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of uterus rupture. From January 1999 to May 2013, clinical data of 67 cases with uterine rupture in Woman's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University were studied retrospectively. A total of 67 cases of uterine rupture with 21(+2)-39(+2) gestational weeks out of 128 599 deliveries were recorded giving an incidence of uterine rupture was 0.052 1% (67/128 599) . Cesarean scar rupture were found in 59 cases (88%, 59/67) and noncesarean scar rupture were found in 8 cases (12%, 8/67). The causes of uterine rupture include 60 cases of scar uterus (59 cesarean scar cases and 1 myomyectomy scar case), 2 cases of assisted delivery operation trauma, 2 cases of malformed uterus, 3 cases of unknown causes (all with artificial abortion history).Non obstructive dystocia and improper oxytocin use were found to be related with uterine rupture.Fifty-two cases of cesarean scar spontaneous incomplete rupture were found and repaired during repeated cesarean delivery without maternal and fetal complications. The remaining 15 cases need emergency rescue operation for fetal distress or dead fetus, severe acute abdomen, prepartum or postpartum vaginal bleeding even maternal hypovolemia; 6/15 uterine rupture cases were diagnosed with the history, clinical symptoms and signs, 3/15 cases with ultrasonic found dead fetus in the peritoneal cavity before exploratory laparotomy and 6 cases were diagnosed just during laparotomy.Hysterectomy was done in 10/15 cases and uterine repair in 5/15 cases; there was no maternal death and 12 perinatal fetal death (5 cases of mid-late pregnancy termination for deformed fetus) of the 15 uterine rupture cases.One case with hysterectomy was complicated with stress pancreatitis and dysfunction of liver and kidney and discharged 20 days after operation, the remaining 14 cases were discharged 5-7 days postpartum.One case with repaired malformed uterus got pregnancy 4 years later and

  3. Daily diurnal variation in admissions for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Shane


    BACKGROUND: Many vascular events, such as myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident, demonstrate a circadian pattern of presentation. Blood pressure is intimately related to these pathologies and is the one physiological variable consistently associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. It also demonstrates a diurnal variation. The purpose of this study was to determine if rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) exhibits a diurnal variation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort-based study was performed to determine the timing of presentation of RAAA to the vascular unit of Cork University Hospital over a 15-year period. Time of admission, symptom onset, and co-morbidities such as hypertension were noted. Fournier\\'s analysis and chi-squared analysis were performed. To ameliorate possible confounding factors, patients admitted with perforated peptic ulcers were examined in the same manner. RESULTS: A total of 148 cases of RAAA were identified, with a male preponderance (71.7% [124] male versus 29.3% [44] female patients) and a mean age of 74.4 +\\/- 7.2 years at presentation. 70.9% (105) were known to have hypertension, 52.2% (77) were current smokers, and 46.8% (69) were being treated for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD). Time of symptom onset was recorded in 88.5% (131) of patients. There was a marked early morning peak in RAAA admissions, with the highest number of RAAA being admitted between 08.00 and 09.59. A second, smaller peak was observed at 14.00-15.59. These findings were suggestive of diurnal variation. [chi(2) =16.75, p < 0.003]. Some 40% (59) of patients were admitted between 00.00 and 06.00, an incidence significantly higher than for other time periods (06.00-12.00, 12.00-18.00, and 18.00-24.00) [chi(2) = 18.72; df = 3; p < 0.0003]. A significantly higher number of patients admitted between 00.00 and 06.00 were known hypertensives (chi(2) = 7.94; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest a distinct

  4. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA


    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  5. Simulating Earthquake Rupture and Off-Fault Fracture Response: Application to the Safety Assessment of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Falth, B.


    To assess the long-term safety of a deep repository of spent nuclear fuel, upper bound estimates of seismically induced secondary fracture shear displacements are needed. For this purpose, we analyze a model including an earthquake fault, which is surrounded by a number of smaller discontinuities representing fractures on which secondary displacements may be induced. Initial stresses are applied and a rupture is initiated at a predefined hypocenter and propagated at a specified rupture speed. During rupture we monitor shear displacements taking place on the nearby fracture planes in response to static as well as dynamic effects. As a numerical tool, we use the 3Dimensional Distinct Element Code (3DEC) because it has the capability to handle numerous discontinuities with different orientations and at different locations simultaneously. In tests performed to benchmark the capability of our method to generate and propagate seismic waves, 3DEC generates results in good agreement with results from both Stokes solution and the Compsyn code package. In a preliminary application of our method to the nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, southern Sweden, we assume end-glacial stress conditions and rupture on a shallow, gently dipping, highly prestressed fault with low residual strength. The rupture generates nearly complete stress drop and an M-w 5.6 event on the 12 km(2) rupture area. Of the 1584 secondary fractures (150 m radius), with a wide range of orientations and locations relative to the fault, a majority move less than 5 mm. The maximum shear displacement is some tens of millimeters at 200 m fault-fracture distance.

  6. Rupture Propagation of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, Earthquake Affected by Poroelastic Stress Changes (United States)

    He, J.; Wang, W.; Xiao, J.


    The 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan, earthquake occurred on the curved Hoshab fault. This fault connects with the north-south trending Chaman strike-slip fault to northeast, and with the west-east trending Makran thrust fault system to southwest. Teleseismic waveform inversion, incorporated with coseismic ground surface deformation data, show that the rupture of this earthquake nucleated around northeast segment of the fault, and then propagated southwestward along the northwest dipping Hoshab fault about 200 km, with the maximum coseismic displacement, featured mainly by purely left-lateral strike-slip motion, about 10 meters. In context of the India-Asia collision frame, associating with the fault geometry around this region, the rupture propagation of this earthquake seems to not follow an optimal path along the fault segment, because after nucleation of this event the Hoshab fault on the southwest of hypocenter of this earthquake is clamped by elastic stress change. Here, we build a three-dimensional finite-element model to explore the evolution of both stress and pore-pressure during the rupturing process of this earthquake. In the model, the crustal deformation is treated as undrained poroelastic media as described by Biot's theory, and the instantaneous rupture process is specified with split-node technique. By testing a reasonable range of parameters, including the coefficient of friction, the undrained Poisson's ratio, the permeability of the fault zone and the bulk crust, numerical results have shown that after the nucleation of rupture of this earthquake around the northeast of the Hoshab fault, the positive change of normal stress (clamping the fault) on the fault plane is greatly reduced by the instantaneous increase of pore pressure (unclamping the fault). This process could result in the change of Coulomb failure stress resolved on the Hoshab fault to be hastened, explaining the possible mechanism for southwestward propagation of rupture of the Mw7

  7. Pectoralis major ruptures in professional American football players. (United States)

    Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C


    Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.

  8. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole. (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost


    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo


    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  10. Successful treatment of a spontaneous rupture of the left external iliac vein in a man. (United States)

    Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Jean-Baptiste, Elixine; Haudebourg, Pierre; Declemy, Serge; Mousnier, Aurdlien; Hassen-Khodja, Rida


    Spontaneous rupture of the external iliac vein associated with a May-Thurner syndrome is infrequent, particularly in men. We report a case of previously healthy 73-year-old man with a left iliac vein thrombosis, who presented a large lower left abdominal hematoma of sudden-unset. Emergent laparotomy revealed a 3-cm longitudinal tear in the left external iliac vein, which was repaired primarily. Patient's recovery was uneventful. Possible etiological factors have been identified as venous hypertension due to iliac vein thrombosis associated with Cockett syndrome, as well as inflammatory venous wall. Some other estrogenic factors could explain female preponderance of the event.

  11. The frictional properties of faults at shallow depths: implications for rupture propagation. (United States)

    De Paola, Nicola; Bullock, Rachael; Unwin, Rachel; Murray, Rosanne; Stillings, Mark; Holdsworth, Robert


    Most synoptic models of faults assume the presence of a shallow stable, velocity-strengthening aseismic region due to the presence of incohesive gouges, poorly lithified continental sediments (continental faults) and phyllosilicate-rich rocks (accretionary prisms at subduction zones). The near-surface portions of faults are therefore viewed as effective energy sinks with the potential to arrest/slow down the propagation of earthquakes, preventing them from reaching the surface. However, recent events, such as the 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquakes, have demonstrated that moderate/large co-seismic ruptures can propagate to the surface causing vast damage and destructive tsunamis. In order to better understand rupture propagation at shallow depths, we investigated the frictional properties of a range of bedrock lithologies, typical of the oceanic (gabbros) and continental crusts (granite, limestone), together with phyllosilicate-bearing lithologies typical of subduction zones and continental sedimentary deposits. Laboratory experiments have been performed in a low to high velocity rotary shear apparatus, on granular materials with grainsize up to 200 μm, under dry, water- and brine-saturated conditions, at slip rates ranging from 10 μm/s up to 1 m/s, with normal loads up to 18 MPa and displacements up to 1 m. Velocity step experiments performed at sub-seismic slip rates (10-100 μm/s) on dry, water- and brine-saturated granite and calcite rocks show that velocity strengthening behaviour evolves to velocity-neutral/-weakening behaviour due to slip localization attained after critical displacements of a few tens to hundreds of mm. The critical displacement value is inversely proportional to the applied normal load. Dry, water- and brine-saturated gabbros show velocity-weakening behaviour and slip localization regardless of the displacement attained and applied normal load. Dry, water- and brine-saturated phyllosilicate-rich gouges show

  12. Gastric Rupture and Necrosis in Prader-Willi Syndrome (United States)

    Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Butler, Merlin G.; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Cassidy, Suzanne B.; Scheimann, Ann


    Hyperphagia and obesity are common features in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Demographic and cause of death data from individuals with PWS were obtained through a national support organization. Four reports of unexpected mortality due to gastric rupture and necrosis were found in 152 reported deaths, accounting for 3% of the causes of mortality. Four additional individuals were suspected to have gastric rupture. Vomiting and abdominal pain, although rare in PWS, were frequent findings in this cohort. The physician should consider an emergent evaluation for gastric rupture and necrosis in individuals with PWS who present with vomiting and abdominal pain. PMID:17667731

  13. Blunt traumatic rupture of the diaphragm: sonographic diagnosis. (United States)

    Kim, H H; Shin, Y R; Kim, K J; Hwang, S S; Ha, H K; Byun, J Y; Choi, K H; Shinn, K S


    Ultrasonographic features of seven patients with diaphragmatic rupture due to blunt trauma were analyzed. The ruptures occurred at the left hemidiaphragm in four patients and at the right in three. Direct ultrasonographic findings were as follows: disrupted diaphragm in four patients; nonvisualized diaphragm in three patients; floating diaphragm in two patients; and herniation of the liver or bowel loops through the diaphragmatic defect in three patients. Indirect sonographic findings included pleural effusion or subphrenic fluid collection in five patients and splenic laceration in one. Although the number of patients was limited, ultrasonography was very useful for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture.

  14. Creep rupture behavior of welded Grade 91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Triratna [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Basirat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Alsagabi, Sultan; Sittiho, Anumat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Charit, Indrajit, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Potirniche, Gabriel P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)


    Creep rupture behavior of fusion welded Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600 – 700 °C and at stresses of 50–200 MPa. The creep data were analyzed in terms of the Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. The creep damage tolerance factor was used to identify the origin of creep damage. The creep damage was identified as the void growth in combination with microstructural degradation. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy and deformed microstructure examined by transmission electron microscopy, to further elucidate the rupture mechanisms.

  15. Laparoscopic splenectomy for spontaneous rupture of the spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky M Thapar


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic splenectomy is a gold standard for management of planned benign splenic pathologies. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen (SRS leading to acute abdomen occurs in only 1% of all splenic ruptures. Laparoscopic splenectomy in traumatic and atraumatic rupture due to intra-splenic pathology is reported. We present the first reported case of laparoscopic splenectomy in a 23-year-old male who presented with hemoperitoneum due to idiopathic or SRS. The procedure was safely accomplished with slight modified technique and minimum usage of advanced gadgets.

  16. Adductor longus tendon rupture mistaken for incarcerated inguinal hernia. (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R J; Plaisier, Peter W; Jakma, Tijs S C


    An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a common diagnosis, since the risk of an inguinal hernia incarcerating or strangulating is around 0.3-3%. An acute rupture of the adductor longus tendon is rarely seen and mostly affects (semi-) professional sportsmen. We present a case of a patient with an assumed incarcerated inguinal hernia which turned out to be a proximal adductor longus tendon rupture. If patients without a history of inguinal hernia present themselves with acute groin pain after suddenly exorotating the upper leg, a rupture of the adductor longus tendon should be considered. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment can be performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distal rupture of the adductor longus in a skier. (United States)

    Greditzer, Harry G; Nawabi, Danyal; Li, Angela Eh; Jawetz, Shari T

    Acute adductor longus ruptures occur infrequently and have been rarely described in the literature. Schlegel et al. reviewed a series of adductor longus tendon ruptures and found that all ruptured proximally. A 42-year-old man with right hip pain 3 weeks following a skiing injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which demonstrated a distal adductor longus avulsion. The diagnosis of acute adductor longus injury can be difficult on physical examination alone, but MRI can accurately depict the site of injury. Surgery may be indicated for a proximal avulsion, but a distal injury may heal with nonoperative treatment, as in our case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency endovascular coiling of a ruptured giant splenic artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Wernheden, MD


    Full Text Available Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs are the third most common abdominal aneurysm. Endovascular treatment of SAAs is preferred, and coiling is the most commonly used technique. Ruptured giant (>5 cm SAAs are usually treated with open surgery including splenectomy. We present a rare case of a ruptured 15-cm giant SAA in an 84-year-old woman treated successfully with emergency endovascular coiling. To our knowledge, this is one of the few reports of emergency endovascular treatment for ruptured giant SAA.

  19. Left atrial rupture due to blunt thoracic trauma. (United States)

    Akar, İlker; İnce, İlker; Aslan, Cemal; Çeber, Mehmet; Kaya, İlker


    Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is rare and associated with high mortality. The most popular theory of cardiac rupture after blunt thoracic trauma is rapid deceleration with disruption of the atria from their connections to the vena cava and pulmonary veins. In cases with both massive hemothorax and hemopericardium, injury can usually originate from the heart and/or major vessels. Surgical approach through the median sternotomy can provide convenience to repair the defect. In this article, successful treatment with median sternotomy of a 33-year-old male case with a rupture of the left atrium after blunt thoracic trauma was reported.

  20. New constraints on the rupture process of the 1999 August 17 Izmit earthquake deduced from estimates of stress glut rate moments (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Bouin, M.-P.; Bukchin, B.; Mostinskiy, A.; Patau, G.


    This paper illustrates the use of integral estimates given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 for constraining the rupture scenario of a large earthquake in the particular case of the 1999 Izmit mainshock. We determine the integral estimates of the geometry, source duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut rate moments of total degree 2 by inverting long-period surface wave (LPSW) amplitude spectra. Kinematic and static models of the Izmit earthquake published in the literature are quite different from one another. In order to extract the characteristic features of this event, we calculate the same integral estimates directly from those models and compare them with those deduced from our inversion. While the equivalent rupture zone and the eastward directivity are consistent among all models, the LPSW solution displays a strong unilateral character of the rupture associated with a short rupture duration that is not compatible with the solutions deduced from the published models. With the aim of understand this discrepancy, we use simple equivalent kinematic models to reproduce the integral estimates of the considered rupture processes (including ours) by adjusting a few free parameters controlling the western and eastern parts of the rupture. We show that the joint analysis of the LPSW solution and source tomographies allows us to elucidate the scattering of source processes published for this earthquake and to discriminate between the models. Our results strongly suggest that (1) there was significant moment released on the eastern segment of the activated fault system during the Izmit earthquake; (2) the apparent rupture velocity decreases on this segment.

  1. Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes. (United States)

    Kenyon, Sara; Boulvain, Michel; Neilson, James P


    Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection. To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of administering antibiotics to women with PROM before 37 weeks, on maternal infectious morbidity, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer-term childhood development. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic administration with placebo that reported clinically relevant outcomes were included as were trials of different antibiotics. Trials in which no placebo was used were included for the outcome of perinatal death alone. We extracted data from each report without blinding of either the results or the treatments that women received. We sought unpublished data from a number of authors. We included 22 trials, involving 6872 women and babies.The use of antibiotics following PROM is associated with statistically significant reductions in chorioamnionitis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.96, and a reduction in the numbers of babies born within 48 hours (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87) and seven days of randomisation (average RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.89). The following markers of neonatal morbidity were reduced: neonatal infection (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.85), use of surfactant (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), oxygen therapy (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96), and abnormal cerebral ultrasound scan prior to discharge from hospital (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.98). Co-amoxiclav was associated with an increased risk of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (RR 4.72, 95% CI 1.57 to 14.23).One study evaluated the children's health at seven years of age (ORACLE Children Study) and found

  2. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can......The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  3. Complex rupture process of the Mw 7.8, 2016, Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand, and its aftershock sequence (United States)

    Cesca, S.; Zhang, Y.; Mouslopoulou, V.; Wang, R.; Saul, J.; Savage, M.; Heimann, S.; Kufner, S.-K.; Oncken, O.; Dahm, T.


    The M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake that struck the northeastern South Island, New Zealand, on November 14, 2016 (local time), is one of the largest ever instrumentally recorded earthquakes in New Zealand. It occurred at the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction margin, where the subducting Pacific Plate transitions into the dextral Alpine transform fault. The earthquake produced significant distributed uplift along the north-eastern part of the South Island, reaching a peak amplitude of ∼8 m, which was accompanied by large (≥10 m) horizontal coseismic displacements at the ground surface along discrete active faults. The seismic waveforms' expression of the main shock indicate a complex rupture process. Early automated centroid moment tensor solutions indicated a strong non-double-couple term, which supports a complex rupture involving multiple faults. The hypocentral distribution of aftershocks, which appears diffuse over a broad region, clusters spatially along lineaments with different orientations. A key question of global interest is to shed light on the mechanism with which such a complex rupture occurred, and whether the underlying plate-interface was involved in the rupture. The consequences for seismic hazard of such a distributed, shallow faulting is important to be assessed. We perform a broad seismological analysis, combining regional and teleseismic seismograms, GPS and InSAR, to determine the rupture process of the main shock and moment tensors of 118 aftershocks down to Mw 4.2. The joint interpretation of the main rupture and aftershock sequence allow reconstruction of the geometry, and suggests sequential activation and slip distribution on at least three major active fault domains. We find that the rupture nucleated as a weak strike-slip event along the Humps Fault, which progressively propagated northward onto a shallow reverse fault, where most of the seismic moment was released, before it triggered slip on a second set of strike

  4. Creep Rupture Life Prediction Based on Analysis of Large Creep Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Wenming


    Full Text Available A creep rupture life prediction method for high temperature component was proposed. The method was based on a true stress-strain elastoplastic creep constitutive model and the large deformation finite element analysis method. This method firstly used the high-temperature tensile stress-strain curve expressed by true stress and strain and the creep curve to build materials' elastoplastic and creep constitutive model respectively, then used the large deformation finite element method to calculate the deformation response of high temperature component under a given load curve, finally the creep rupture life was determined according to the change trend of the responsive curve.The method was verified by durable test of TC11 titanium alloy notched specimens under 500 ℃, and was compared with the three creep rupture life prediction methods based on the small deformation analysis. Results show that the proposed method can accurately predict the high temperature creep response and long-term life of TC11 notched specimens, and the accuracy is better than that of the methods based on the average effective stress of notch ligament, the bone point stress and the fracture strain of the key point, which are all based on small deformation finite element analysis.

  5. Medical image of the week: stomach rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 61-year-old man was transferred from another hospital for further care. He had a history of oxygen-dependent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in addition to congestive heart failure, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. He had been seen earlier in the day at his primary care physician’s office for a routine visit. Although he was asymptomatic, emergency medical services (EMS were called because of significant hypoxemia detected by pulse oximetry. EMS noted that the patient said he “feels OK”. However, a decision was made to intubate the patient. Multiple failed intubation attempts failed and he suffered a cardiopulmonary arrest. He was successfully resuscitated and underwent a cricotracheotomy with an uncuffed endotracheal tube. When transferred his mouth was taped shut and his nose clamped. His abdomen was markedly distended and tympanic (Figure 1. A supine chest x-ray showed air under the diaphragm. Abdominal exploration showed a ruptured stomach which was repaired. He made an …

  6. Sex Differences in Outcome After an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Brorsson, Annelie; Olsson, Nicklas; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina


    Background: Tendon healing differs between the sexes. Comparisons in outcome between the sexes after an Achilles tendon rupture are often not possible because of the small cohort (<20%) of women. Purpose...

  7. A rare knee extensor mechanism injury: Vastus intermedius tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Cetinkaya


    Conclusion: We report the first case of isolated rupture of the vastus intermedius tendon in the literature and we claim that disorder may be succesfully treated with conservative treatment and adequate physiotheraphy.

  8. Multiple Tophaceous Gout of Hand with Extensor Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Tobimatsu


    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with painless subcutaneous masses bilaterally on his hands and loss of motion or contracture of the fingers. Initially, drug therapy to reduce the serum uric acid was administered and was expected to reduce the tophi. However, during observation at the clinic, spontaneous rupture of an extensor tendon occurred, and surgical repair of the tendon and resection of the masses were performed. Surgical exploration of the right hand showed hypertrophic white-colored crystal deposits that both surrounded and invaded the extensor digitorum communis of the index finger, which was ruptured. Histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated findings consistent with gouty tophi. Tophaceous gout can induce a rupture of tendons during clinical observation, and surgical resection of the tophi might be needed to prevent ruptures.

  9. Non-operative treatment of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. (United States)

    Dalsgaard Jensen, Trine; Penninga, Luit


    Ruptured ectopic pregnancy often causes abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and internal haemorrhage; it is a very serious condition and can be life-threatening. Patients with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy are normally treated by surgical intervention. We describe a case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Urine human chorionic gonadotropin was positive and on examination she had localised tenderness of the abdomen. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed a ruptured tubal pregnancy along with blood in the abdomen. The patient was closely monitored and treated conservatively, with a successful outcome. She recovered uneventfully. Our case shows that non-operative treatment of a ruptured ectopic pregnancy may be a possible non-invasive treatment option in highly selected patients. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Staged Management of a Ruptured Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Young Kwon


    Full Text Available The rupture of an internal mammary artery (IMA aneurysm in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1 is a rare but life-threatening complication requiring emergency management. A 50-year-old man with NF-1 was transferred to the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital, where an IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were diagnosed and drained. The IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were successfully repaired by staged management combining endovascular treatment and subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. The patient required cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, the staged management of coil embolization, and a subsequent VATS procedure. This staged approach may be an effective therapeutic strategy in cases of IMA aneurysmal rupture.

  11. Radiologic analysis of the medical collateral ligament rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chung Che; Lee, Chang Jun; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The medical collateral ligament rupture is the most common injury involving the knee joint ligaments. The ruptured medical collateral ligaments of 73 cases with clinical and surgical confirmations were radiologically analyzed. The results were obtained as follows: 1. The most risky age for tearing of the medical collateral ligament was third to fifth decades (50 cases of male and 23 of females). 2. The most common cause of the medical collateral ligament rupture was traffic accident (82.2%). 3. The mean distance of medial knee joint space was 7.9 {+-} 2.0 mm on the normal side and 13.7 {+-} 4.2 mm on the affected side. 4. The mean degree of knee joint space was 10.1 {+-} 2.5 on the normal side and 14.7 {+-} 3.8 on the affected side. 5. The fibula was the bone fractured most frequently in association with the medial collateral ligament rupture (30.6%)

  12. Three cases of spontaneous lumbar artery rupture in hemodialysis patients. (United States)

    Hwang, Na Kyoung; Rhee, Harin; Kim, Il Young; Seong, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Chang Won; Song, Sang Heon


    We encountered three cases of retroperitoneal hematoma caused by spontaneous lumbar artery rupture, a rare vascular complication. At the time of retroperitoneal hematoma, two patients were on anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy. One patient was not taking any anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents but was receiving hemodialysis treatment with heparin. Lumbar artery rupture was successfully controlled by transcatheter arterial embolization in all patients, but one patient developed multiple organ failure and died. We suggest that spontaneous lumbar artery rupture may occur in patients being treated with maintenance hemodialysis or anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, clinicians should suspect lumbar artery rupture in patients with unstable vital signs and rapid onset of anemia because early diagnosis and appropriate intervention are necessary to decrease the risks of morbidity and mortality. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data. (United States)

    Romano, F; Trasatti, E; Lorito, S; Piromallo, C; Piatanesi, A; Ito, Y; Zhao, D; Hirata, K; Lanucara, P; Cocco, M


    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively.

  14. Comparison of Crp and Ferritin Levels in Preterm Labor and Premature Membrane Ruptured Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Cekmez


    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ruptur of membranes (PROM means the rupture of membranes at least one hour before the active labor begins.It is named as preterm premature rupture of membranes( PretermPROM if the rupture occurs before the 37th weeks of gestation.Although the etiologies,complications and results of the PROM and PretermPROM are similar,it has been showed that the major reason for the PretermPROM is infection in choriodesidual unit. Material and Method: It is important to identify the maternal infection for protection against the negative outcomes of prematurity and preterm labor.To obtain the probable maternal infection we can use serum markers of inflamation like leucocyte count,C-reactive protein,ALP,beta-2 microglobulin,alfa-2 macroglobulin. Results: We observed the serum levels of CRP and ferritin in PROM and PretermPROM diagnosed patients.The aim of this trial was to asses the differences of serum CRP and fibrinogen consantrations in selected PROM and PretermPROM diagnosed cases to emphasize the importance of subclinical infection in these diseases. Discussion: According to the results of our trial we found that CRP levels were in normal range in control group but significantly higher in group with PROM and Preterm PROM.In groups with PROM and Preterm PROM avarege value of ferritin was significantly higher than control group.Present results supports that serum ferritin and CRP levels are useful for follow-up possible infections in pregnant women with PROM and Preterm PROM.

  15. Role and Effectiveness of Percutaneous Arterial Embolization in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Ruptured Splanchnic Artery Pseudoaneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony, E-mail: [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Eveno, Clarisse, E-mail: [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dautry, Raphael, E-mail:; Guerrache, Youcef, E-mail: [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Camus, Marine, E-mail: [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Boudiaf, Mourad, E-mail: [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France); Gayat, Etienne, E-mail: [Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dref, Olivier Le, E-mail:; Sirol, Marc, E-mail:; Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: [Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging (France)


    PurposeTo assess the role and effectiveness of percutaneous arterial embolization (TAE) in patients with hemodynamic instability due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured splanchnic artery pseudoaneurysms (SAPA).Materials and MethodsSeventeen patients (11 men, 6 women; mean age, 53 years) with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) due to hypovolemic shock secondary to ruptured SAPA were treated by TAE. Clinical files, multidetector row computed tomography angiography, and angiographic examinations along with procedure details were reviewed.ResultsSeventeen SAPAs were present, predominantly located on gastroduodenal or pancreatic arteries (9/17; 53 %). Angiography showed extravasation of contrast medium from SAPA in 15/17 patients (88 %). Technical success rate of TAE was 100 %. TAE was performed using metallic coils in all patients (100 %), in association with gelatin sponge in 5/17 patients (29 %). TAE allowed controlling the bleeding and returning to normal hemodynamic status in 16/17 patients (94 %). In 1/17 patient (6 %), surgery was needed to definitively control the bleeding. The mortality and morbidity rate of TAE at 30 days were 0 and 12 %, respectively. Morbidity consisted in coil migration in 1/17 patient (6 %) and transient serum liver enzyme elevation in 1/17 patient (6 %).ConclusionTAE is an effective and safe treatment option for ruptured SAPA in hemodynamically unstable patients, with a success rate of 94 %. Our results suggest that TAE should be the favored option in patients with hemodynamic instability due to ruptured SAPA.

  16. Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in human blood as markers for ruptured silicone gel-filled breast implants. (United States)

    Rosendahl, Pia; Hippler, Joerg; Schmitz, Oliver J; Hoffmann, Oliver; Rusch, Peter


    The replacement of medical-grade silicone with industrial-grade silicone material in some silicone gel-filled breast implants (SBI) manufactured by Poly Implant Prothèse and Rofil Medical Nederland B.V., reported in 2010, which resulted in a higher rupture tendency of these SBI, demonstrates the need for non-invasive, sensitive monitoring and screening methods. Therefore a sensitive method based on large volume injection-gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS) was developed to determine octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclo-hexasiloxane (D6) in blood samples from women with intact (n = 13) and ruptured SBI (n = 11). With dichloromethane extraction, sample cooling during preparation, and analysis extraction efficiencies up to 100 % and limits of detection of 0.03-0.05 ng D4-D6/g blood were achieved. Blood samples from women with SBI were investigated. In contrast to women with intact SBI, in blood from women with ruptured SBI higher D4 and D6 concentrations up to 0.57 ng D4/g blood and 0.16 ng D6/g blood were detected. With concentrations above 0.18 D4 ng/blood and 0.10 ng D6/g blood as significant criteria for ruptured SBI, this developed analytical preoperative diagnostic method shows a significant increase of the recognition rate. Finally a higher precision (error rate 17%) than the commonly used clinical diagnostic method, mamma sonography (error rate 46%), was achieved.

  17. Events diary (United States)


    From 18 January until 28 March the 2000 IEE Faraday Lecture will be touring venues in the UK, aiming to inspire and encourage students to choose a career in science and engineering. The lecture tour is being supported by communications and IT company, Marconi, and it is being presented by University College London. Interactive experiments for the audience of 14 - 16 year-olds will combine with a multimedia presentation on the theme `Time and Place in the Communications Age', exploring our ability to make precise measurements of time, place and space and how these impact on our personal and business lives. Among the curious facts from the lecture is the discovery that Cornwall rises and falls by 20 cm every time the tide moves in and out. The whole of the UK rises and falls by 50 cm every time the Moon goes by and the UK is actually 20 m shorter than was thought ten years ago, before the Global Positioning Satellite system was in operation. Attendance at the lectures is free and schools interested in booking tickets should visit the Faraday website at . Further details of the tour are available from the Faraday Lecture Office, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2AY (tel: 01438 313311, fax: 01438 742856, e-mail: ). Among the `Strands' on the programme at the 2000 Edinburgh international science festival on 2 - 18 April are: visions of the future; time; the natural world; new materials; science book festival; science film festival. Festival programmes should be available soon from the festival office at 8 Lochend Road, Edinburgh EH6 8BR (tel: 0131 530 2001, fax: 0131 530 2002, e-mail: ). BA2000 will be one of the key features of the `creating SPARKS' festival where the sciences meet the arts in London during 6 - 30 September. Centred on South Kensington, and led by the British Association, creating SPARKS will be staged at such famous institutions

  18. Case Report - Rupture diaphragmatique droite avec passage total et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report - Rupture diaphragmatique droite avec passage total et isolé du foie en intrathoracique. M Turki, MH Barhoumi, H Hajji, H Chemchik, B M'barek. Abstract. La rupture traumatique de la coupole diaphragmatique droite avec hernie du foie dans le thorax est une lésion rare. Elle est souvent intégrée dans le cadre ...

  19. Tsunami generation by ocean floor rupture front propagation: Hamiltonian description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pavlov


    Full Text Available The Hamiltonian method is applied to the problem of tsunami generation caused by a propagating rupture front and deformation of the ocean floor. The method establishes an alternative framework for analyzing the tsunami generation process and produces analytical expressions for the power and directivity of tsunami radiation (in the far-field for two illustrative cases, with constant and gradually varying speeds of rupture front propagation.

  20. Acute partial rupture of the common extensor tendon


    Kachrimanis, G.; Papadopoulou, O.


    Rupture of the common extensor tendon is the most common acute tendon injury of the elbow. The authors describe a case of a patient with a clinical history of tendinopathy caused by functional overload of the common extensor tendon, treated also with infiltrations of steroids, and subsequent partial rupture of the tendon during sport activity. The diagnosis was made clinically and at ultrasound (US) examination; US follow-up after some time showed the healing of the lesion. This case confirms...

  1. Neonatal outcome in pregnancies that presented premature rupture of membranes


    Marcela Lima Silveira; Náira de Oliveira Caminha; Rosiléa Alves de Sousa; Sarah Maria Fraxe Pessoa; Eloah de Paula Pessoa Gurgel; Dylmara Maria Prudêncio Cavalcante


    This study aimed to describe the neonatal outcomes of infants whose mothers had premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. This is a retrospective, descriptive, quantitative study performed in a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, with 166 neonates of mothers with premature rupture of membranes, in 2010. Data were collected through research in medical records using a pre-structured form. There was a predominance of newborns at term with good birth weight and adequate vitality. Sta...

  2. Successful treatment of annular rupture during transcatheter aortic valve implantation. (United States)

    Unic, Daniel; Sutlic, Zeljko; Starcevic, Boris; Bradic, Nikola; Baric, Davor; Rudez, Igor


    Annular rupture presents a rare but potentially fatal complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Although it can be subtle and subclinical in presentation, most severe forms present with hemodynamic instability and represent true emergencies requiring a more invasive treatment, even conventional surgery. We present a case of successful treatment of annular rupture by left ventricular outflow tract patch and surgical aortic valve replacement.

  3. Spontaneous Rupture of Umbilical Hernia in Pregnancy: A Case Report


    Yahaya Ukwenya; Garba Stephen; Adamu Ahmed


     A 28 year old woman presented with a spontaneous rupture of an umbilical hernia in her seventh month of pregnancy. She had four previous unsupervised normal deliveries. There was no history of trauma or application of herbal medicine on the hernia. The hernia sac ruptured at the inferior surface where it was attached to the ulcerated and damaged overlying skin. There was a gangrenous eviscerated small bowel. The patient was resuscitated and the gangrenous small bowel was resected and end to ...

  4. Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tjun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they rupture. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented with hypovolemic shock while being treated in the hospital after undergoing total knee replacement. Endovascular embolization was successfully employed to treat this patient, with early hospital discharge. Conclusion Prompt diagnosis and endovascular management of ruptured visceral aneuryms can decrease the associated mortality and morbidity.

  5. Retrospective Review of Pectoralis Major Ruptures in Rodeo Steer Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. F. Lau


    Full Text Available Background. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature as occupational injuries, accidental injuries, and sporting activities. Few cases have been reported with respect to rodeo activities. Purpose. To describe a series of PM tendon ruptures in professional steer wrestlers. Study Design. Case series, level of evidence, 4. Methods. A retrospective analysis of PM ruptures in a steer wrestling cohort was performed. Injury data between 1992 and 2008 were reviewed using medical records from the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center. Results. Nine cases of pectoralis major ruptures in professional steer wrestlers were identified. Injuries occurred during the throwing phase of the steer or while breaking a fall. All athletes reported unexpected or abnormal behavior of the steer that contributed to the mechanism of injury. Seven cases were surgically repaired, while two cases opted for nonsurgical intervention. Eight cases reported successful return to competition following the injury. Conclusion. Steer wrestlers represent a unique cohort of PM rupture case studies. Steer wrestling is a demanding sport that involves throwing maneuvers that may predispose the muscle to rupture. All cases demonstrated good functional outcomes regardless of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  6. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Ruptured due to Acute Intracystic Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunishige Okamura


    Full Text Available Rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst is one of the rare complications and usually results in high mortality. The present case was a rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst that could be treated by surgical intervention. A 74-year-old man developed abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, and he was diagnosed with cholecystitis and pneumonia. Three days later, acute pancreatitis occurred and computed tomography (CT showed slight hemorrhage in the cyst of the pancreatic tail. After another 10 days, CT showed pancreatic cyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed leakage of contrast agent from pancreatic tail cyst to enclosed abdominal cavity. His left hypochondrial pain was increasing, and CT showed rupture of the cyst of the pancreatic tail into the peritoneal cavity was increased in 10 days. CT showed also two left renal tumors. Therefore we performed distal pancreatectomy with concomitant resection of transverse colon and left kidney. We histopathologically diagnosed pancreatic pseudocyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage and renal cell carcinoma. Despite postoperative paralytic ileus and fluid collection at pancreatic stump, they improved by conservative management and he could be discharged on postoperative day 29. He has achieved relapse-free survival for 6 months postoperatively. The mortality of pancreatic pseudocyst rupture is very high if some effective medical interventions cannot be performed. It should be necessary to plan appropriate treatment strategy depending on each patient.

  7. Location of Ruptured Bullae in Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseok Choi


    Full Text Available Background: The surgical treatment of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP can be complicated by fragile lung parenchyma. The preoperative prediction of air leakage could help prevent intraoperative lung in-jury during manipulation of the lung. Common sites of bulla development and ruptured bullae were inves-tigated based on computed tomography (CT and intraoperative findings. Methods: The study enrolled 208 patients with SSP who underwent air leak control through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS. We retrospectively reviewed the sites of bulla development on preoperative CT and the rupture sites during VATS. Results: Of the 135 cases of right-sided SSP, the most common rupture site was the apical segment (31.9%, followed by the azygoesophageal recess (27.4%. Of the 75 cases on the left side, the most com-mon rupture site was the apical segment (24.0%, followed by the anterior basal segment (17.3%. Conclusion: The azygoesophageal recess and parenchyma along the cardiac border were common sites of bul-la development and rupture. Studies of respiratory lung motion to measure the pleural pressure at the lung surface could help to determine the relationship between cardiogenic and diaphragmatic movement and bulla formation or rupture.

  8. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  9. New insights into the rupture history of the Hope fault, New Zealand (United States)

    Khajavi, N.; Langridge, R. M.; Quigley, M.


    The ENE-striking Hope fault traverses the northern part of the South Island, New Zealand and is the fastest-slipping and southernmost fault of the strike-slip Marlborough Fault System (MFS). The Hope fault is a well-segmented, short recurrence interval fault that has only recorded one large rupture event in the last 170 yr. This event occurred in 1888 on the Hope River segment of the fault. In this study we have focused on the eastern end of the Hurunui segment of the fault (close to the western end of the Hope River segment) in an area where it is uncertain whether the 1888 rupture extended to. We used a 1-m lidar DEM that covered 29 km of the 42 km long Hurunui segment to map the fault in detail. Where the two segments overlap we have extended the mapping to the east by developing a 5-m DEM using SOCET GXP software and the newest aerial images. Many geomorphic surfaces and fault traces have been mapped along the combined swath of 34 km. In the east a c. 850 m wide right stepover in the fault associated with a 30 degree fault bend was discovered. We surmise that this bend and stepover could be important in terms of rupture termination, e.g. in 1888. To investigate this hypothesis, we excavated a trench on an abandoned channel crossing the fault scarp at c.3 km west of the fault bend, where a swamp was formed behind the scarp. At this site, the fault has cut a Holocene alluvial fan and a late Holocene rockfall on the fan surface and displaced the edge of that rockfall by 2.6±0.3 m. Stratigraphic and structural evidence in the trench reveal that four to five events occurred in last 1600 yr, making potentially the longest record of paleoearthquakes along any part of the Hope fault. An unconformity that separates two differently deformed sequences near the base of the trench displays evidence for the oldest event. Radiocarbon dates that bracket this unconformity suggest that this event occurred around 390-536 AD. The most recent and penultimate events were

  10. Long-term functional outcome of bilateral spontaneous and simultaneous Achilles tendon ruptures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, Prasad


    Bilateral simultaneous ruptures are rare comprising less than 1% of all Achilles tendon ruptures. Risk factors for bilateral ruptures include chronic diseases and medications such as corticosteroids and fluoroquinolones. There is little in the literature on the long-term functional outcome of bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures. This article present a series of 3 cases of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral Achilles tendon ruptures with a minimum of 5-year follow up suggesting a good functional outcome.

  11. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (United States)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  12. Interaction of Rupture Zones of Adjacent Anchor Plates in an Analogical Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abbad


    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study which required the design and implementation of a model containing plastic granules powder to simulate a natural environment, is presented. The latter is subjected to the removal of "anchor plates." For each test, several digital photographs are taken to materialize different deformed configurations during the pullout process. These photos processed in couples by the 7D software (image correlation giving the evolution of the displacement field and plane strain analogical environment. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of the interference of rupture zones of neighboring anchors by reducing the axis between plates.

  13. [A ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery due to Salmonella typhimurium]. (United States)

    Calvo Cascallo, J; Mundi Salvadó, N; Cardona Fontanet, M


    Mycotic aneurysms of the femoral artery is rare. We report a new case with a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery by "Salmonella typhimurium". The surgical operation was performed as surgical emergence for ruptured aneurysm. We did not know the aneurysm infection origin. The treatment of lesions was resection and femoro-femoral bypass with PTFE. The microbiological examination discovered infection material. A posterior bypass infection required a exeresis bypass and new revascularization with iliofemoral saphenous vein bypass by obturator foramen, and antibiotic treatment prolonged.

  14. Sibling earthquakes generated within a persistent rupture barrier on the Sunda megathrust under Simeulue Island (United States)

    Morgan, Paul M.; Feng, Lujia; Meltzner, Aron J.; Lindsey, Eric O.; Tsang, Louisa L. H.; Hill, Emma M.


    A section of the Sunda megathrust underneath Simeulue is known to persistently halt rupture propagation of great earthquakes, including those in 2004 (Mw 9.2) and 2005 (Mw 8.6). Yet the same section generated large earthquakes in 2002 (Mw 7.3) and 2008 (Mw 7.4). To date, few studies have investigated the 2002 and 2008 events, and none have satisfactorily located or explained them. Using near-field InSAR, GPS, and coral geodetic data, we find that the slip distributions of the two events are not identical but do show a close resemblance and largely overlap. We thus consider these earthquakes "siblings" that were generated by an anomalous "parent" feature of the megathrust. We suggest that this parent feature is a locked asperity surrounded by the otherwise partially creeping Simeulue section, perhaps structurally controlled by a broad morphological high on the megathrust.

  15. A 3000-year record of ground-rupturing earthquakes along the central North Anatolian fault near Lake Ladik, Turkey (United States)

    Fraser, J.; Pigati, J.S.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Vanneste, K.; Avsar, U.; Altinok, S.


    The North Anatolian fault (NAF) is a ???1500 km long, arcuate, dextral strike-slip fault zone in northern Turkey that extends from the Karliova triple junction to the Aegean Sea. East of Bolu, the fault zone exhibits evidence of a sequence of large (Mw >7) earthquakes that occurred during the twentieth century that displayed a migrating earthquake sequence from east to west. Prolonged human occupation in this region provides an extensive, but not exhaustive, historical record of large earthquakes prior to the twentieth century that covers much of the last 2000 yr. In this study, we extend our knowledge of rupture events in the region by evaluating the stratigraphy and chronology of sediments exposed in a paleoseismic trench across a splay of the NAF at Destek, ???6:5 km east of Lake Ladik (40.868?? N, 36.121?? E). The trenched fault strand forms an uphill-facing scarp and associated sediment trap below a small catchment area. The trench exposed a narrow fault zone that has juxtaposed a sequence of weakly defined paleosols interbedded with colluvium against highly fractured bedrock. We mapped magnetic susceptibility variations on the trench walls and found evidence for multiple visually unrecognized colluvial wedges. This technique was also used to constrain a predominantly dip-slip style of displacement on this fault splay. Sediments exposed in the trench were dated using both charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells to constrain the timing of the earthquake events. While the gastropod shells consistently yielded 14 C ages that were too old (by ???900 yr), we obtained highly reliable 14 C ages from the charcoal by dating multiple components of the sample material. Our radiocarbon chronology constrains the timing of seven large earthquakes over the past 3000 yr prior to the 1943 Tosya earthquake, including event ages of (2?? error): A.D. 1437-1788, A.D. 1034-1321, A.D. 549-719, A.D. 17-585 (1-3 events), 35 B.C.-A.D. 28, 700-392 B.C., 912-596 B.C. Our results

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture: An Analysis Of 80 Cases. (United States)

    Ashfaq, Sana; Sultan, Sadia; Aziz, Safia; Irfan, Marium Mohammed; Hasan, Miray; Siddique, Afshan


    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a major problem in obstetrics as there is evidence of increasing incidence throughout the world. It is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In Pakistan, the care seeking behaviour among female is limited that makes female vulnerable to die due to complication of ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy in Pakistani patients. In this crosssectional study data pertaining to age, gestational age, parity and duration of presenting symptoms were collected and analysed. 80 patients were diagnosed to have ectopic pregnancy. The frequency of tubal rupture was 91.25%. It is encountered significantly more often in women with age of 26 years. More tubal rupture is found in patient with low parity, in which the frequency of tubal rupture is up to 100% and decrease up to 78.6% with increasing parity up to four. Furthermore, it is noted that increase in gestational age from 8 weeks to 10 weeks caused an increase in frequency of tubal rupture from 80 to 100% respectively. It is also noted that earlier the patient presents the lesser is the frequency of tubal rupture, as compared to late presentation beyond 3-4 days which make frequency up to 95%. Tubal rupture is still common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, and is still a major challenge in gynaecological practice. Creating awareness amongst midwives and GPs regarding early diagnosis can contribute to decrease the mortality, morbidity and fertility loss related to EP.

  17. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  18. Acute Associations between Outdoor Temperature and Premature Rupture of Membranes. (United States)

    Ha, Sandie; Liu, Danping; Zhu, Yeyi; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline


    Extreme ambient temperatures have been linked to preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes is a common precursor to preterm birth but is rarely studied in relation to temperature. We linked 15 381 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes from a nationwide US obstetrics cohort (2002-2008) to local temperature. Case-crossover analyses compared daily temperature during the week preceding delivery and the day of delivery to two control periods, before and after the case period. Conditional logistic regression models calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of preterm and term premature rupture of membranes for a 1˚C increase in temperature during the warm (May-September) and cold (October-April) season separately after adjusting for humidity, barometric pressure, ozone and particulate matter. During the warm season, 1˚C increase during the week before delivery was associated with a 5% (95% CI: 3-6%) increased preterm premature rupture of membranes risk, and a 4% (95% CI: 3-5%) increased term premature rupture of membranes risk. During the cold season, 1˚C increase was associated with a 2% decreased risk for both preterm (95% CI: 1-3%) and term premature rupture of membranes (95% CI: 1-3%). The day-specific associations for the week before delivery were similar, but somewhat stronger for days closer to delivery. Relatively small ambient temperature changes were associated with the risk of both preterm and term premature of membranes. Given the adverse consequences of premature rupture of membranes and concerns over global climate change, these findings merit further investigation.

  19. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  20. Using New Constraints on Stress and Strength in Dynamic Rupture Models of the M 9.1-9.3 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake (United States)

    Madden, E. H.; van Zelst, I.; Ulrich, T.; van Dinther, Y.; Gabriel, A. A.


    The influence of the initial stress, friction and fault geometry on earthquake rupture propagation has been shown in numerous studies. However, getting these conditions right for specific earthquakes remains a challenge. In addition, the close relationships between fault geometry, strength and tractions makes their unique determination difficult. Here, we present a series of 3D dynamic ruptures along the plate interface that hosted the 2004 M 9.1-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. First, we constrain initial absolute stresses, dynamic strength and rock composition using a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical (STM) model simulating the long-term earthquake cycle at the latitude of the earthquake's hypocenter. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously in the STM model at different locations along the subduction zone interface. Thus, the STM model produces a range of initial conditions that are used to model several dynamic rupture events along the megathrust. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the dynamic fault rupture and wave propagation problems with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of an unstructured tetrahedral mesh allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar slab interface and bathymetry. The results emphasize the influence of stress and strength on rupture extent and propagation speed. Second, we fix the input parameters as those that best re-produce the earthquake's hypocentral location, magnitude, speed, and rupture extent along strike, but incorporate more complex fault geometry. The 30 m tsunami wave height reported near northern Sumatra suggests slip on landward and possibly also seaward dipping splay faults near the epicenter. This is supported by forethrust and backthrust imaging and mapping from deep seismic reflection surveys, bathymetric data and relocated seismicity. Rupture propagation and final surface displacements

  1. The first since 1960: A large event in the Valdivia segment of the Chilean Subduction Zone, the 2016 M7.6 Melinka earthquake (United States)

    Melgar, Diego; Riquelme, Sebastian; Xu, Xiaohua; Baez, Juan Carlos; Geng, Jianghui; Moreno, Marcos


    We present results for joint kinematic inversion of high-rate GPS, strong motion and InSAR data for the 2016 M7.6 Melinka earthquake. We show that the source is a compact 35 s long rupture with 5.0 ± 0.15 m of peak slip. We find the Melinka earthquake occurs inside the slip region for the 1960 M9.5 Valdivia earthquake and within the highly locked portion of the megathrust inferred from inter-seismic velocity analysis. We show that there is very modest post-seismic deformation at a nearby GPS site QLLN and argue that this indicates the Melinka earthquake ruptures within the intermediate portion of the megathrust and is an isolated asperity surrounded by locked velocity weakening material. Further we find that the peak slip observed during this earthquake is larger than what has been accumulated in the intervening 57 years since the 1960 rupture and conclude that, at least in the area of the Melinka earthquake, this is indicates that the 1960 Valdivia event might not have used all the slip deficit available on the megathrust.

  2. A hardness-based creep rupture model for new and service aged P91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.J.; Fenton, S.T. [E.ON UK plc, Power Technology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    The use of creep rupture data in remanent life assessment is complicated by performance differences between different casts and between new and service degraded materials. Direct tests on suspect components are not always feasible. This paper describes a novel approach which enables the component - specific remanent life to be estimated, and requires only a measurement of hardness at room temperature to characterise the component material. The basic principles are to normalise the creep test stress by reference to the material flow stress at the test temperature, and to use cast-specific hardness data to estimate the cast-specific flow stress. Statistical analysis shows that rupture data on a range of new P91 materials of varying hardness >200 HV then fall naturally into two regimes. The data at a high ratio of test stress to flow stress can be fitted to a 'high n' line (high Norton exponent), while data at a lower stress ratio fit a 'low n' line. This analysis shows substantially reduced scatter compared with conventional methods. An empirical refinement, allowing the hardness exponent to vary from unity, further reduces scatter and eliminates bias. The model derived for new P91 materials is then applied to ex-service materials of hardnesses from above 200 ITV down to 154 HV. In general, the fit is almost as good as that to the original new material data set. The model thus provides a reasonably accurate and far less onerous alternative to direct component testing in remanent life assessment. (orig.)

  3. Rupture process of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Ecuador earthquake from joint inversion of InSAR data and teleseismic P waveforms (United States)

    Yi, Lei; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Guoyan


    The 2016 Ecuador earthquake ruptured the Ecuador-Colombia subduction interface where several historic megathrust earthquakes had occurred. In order to determine a detailed rupture model, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images and teleseismic data sets were objectively weighted by using a modified Akaika's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) method to jointly invert for the rupture process of the earthquake. In modeling the rupture process, a constrained waveform length method, unlike the traditional subjective selected waveform length method, was used since the lengths of inverted waveforms were strictly constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time (the slip duration time). The optimal rupture velocity and rise time of the earthquake were estimated from grid search, which were determined to be 2.0 km/s and 20 s, respectively. The inverted model shows that the event is dominated by thrust movement and the released moment is 5.75 × 1020 Nm (Mw 7.77). The slip distribution extends southward along the Ecuador coast line in an elongated stripe at a depth between 10 and 25 km. The slip model is composed of two asperities and slipped over 4 m. The source time function is approximate 80 s that separated into two segments corresponding to the two asperities. The small magnitude of the slip occurred in the updip section of the fault plane resulted in small tsunami waves that were verified by observations near the coast. We suggest a possible situation that the rupture zone of the 2016 earthquake is likely not overlapped with that of the 1942 earthquake.

  4. Rupture history of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy main shocks from the inversion of GPS, DInSAR and near field strong motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Courboulex


    Full Text Available We investigate the rupture history of the three largest magnitude earthquakes of the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence by inverting GPS, DInSAR and near-source strong motion waveforms. We use the frequency domain inversion procedure proposed by Cotton and Campillo (1995 and calculate the Green s functions for a layered halfspace using the discrete wavenumber and reflectivity methods. We first invert GPS measurements and DInSAR interferograms to image the coseismic slip distribution on the fault planes in a layered half space for the two earthquakes that occurred on September 26, 1997 at 00:33 UTC (Mw = 5.7 and 09:40 UTC (Mw = 6.0 near Colfiorito. We also invert DInSAR interferograms to infer the slip distribution during the subsequent earthquake that occurred on October 14, 1997 at 15:23 UTC (Mw = 5.6 in the SE section of the seismogenic zone near Sellano. We also explore the set of acceptable solutions using a genetic algorithm to have information on the available resolution of geodetic data. The slip models obtained by geodetic data inversion are used to perform a forward modeling of strong motion waveforms for all three events. We adopt a constant rupture velocity of 2.6 km/s and a constant rise time of 1 s. Our results show that these rupture models provide an acceptable fit to recorded waveforms. Finally, we invert the recorded ground displacements, collected during the September 26th 09:40 main shock and the October 14th Sellano earthquake, to constrain the rupture history. We use the geodetic slip distribution as starting model for the iterative inversion procedure. The retrieved rupture models are consistent with those inferred from geodetic data and yield a good fit to recorded seismograms. These rupture models are characterized by a heterogeneous slip distribution and an evident rupture directivity in agreement with previous observations.

  5. Creep and time to rupture of a 16/16 Cr Ni Steel; Comportamiento a la fluencia lenta de la aleacion X 8 Cr Ni Mo Nb 1616 con distintos tratamientos termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano, R.; Garcia, R.; Bohm, H.; Schirra, M.


    The influence of different thermal-mechanical treatments on the creep and time to rupture of a 16/16 Cr.Ni steel is studied. The solution treated material after annealing at 700-800 degree centigree did not affect time to rupture. At the contrary a 12% cold-working and annealing at 800 degree centigree improve the time to rupture. This treatment is preserved up to 700 degree centigree 10{sup 4} hours. The ductility is not strongly affected. A metallographic study of the fracture was carried out. (Author) 23 refs.

  6. An unusual case of intrarenal coiled and ruptured guidewire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Manassero


    Full Text Available Objective. To the best of our knowledge there are only 3 reports of fractured guidewires inside the pelvicalyceal system, successfully removed with endourology techniques, and this is the first one presenting a tightly coiled intraparenchymal section. Material and methods: A 59-year-old woman was hospitalized for surgical treatment of a right kidney of reduced size. Past history revealed pyelolithotomy for a staghorn stone 14 months earlier at another Institution with subsequent ureteral obstruction, one failed attempt at ureteral double-J catheter insertion and one failed attempt at percutaneous nephrostomy placement 5 months postoperatively. Another nephrostomy was placed, but left indwelling briefly. CT scan demonstrated a small-size kidney with residual stone fragments and presence of a “device” in the lower pole. The tapered distal extremity of an hydrophilic guidewire, with a tightly coiled central section wedged in the renal tissue was found inside the nephrectomy specimen. Results: While the Radiologist who read the CT scan hypothesized that the “device” was a fragment of double-J ureteral stent or nephrostomy catheter, it consisted of the hydrophilic extremity of a guidewire, broken during a previous attempt at nephostomy placement. Perirenal fibrosis and inappropriate angle between the needle and the lower calyx are the likely causes of guidewire coiling during its advancement and subsequent rupture during withdrawal. Conclusions. Urologists must be aware that, although percutaneous nephrostomy has a very high technical success rate, unusual complications like guidewire fracture may occur, and that modern imaging techniques can provide an accurate picture of this condition.

  7. Direct visualization of microalgae rupture by ultrasound-driven bubbles (United States)

    Pommella, Angelo; Harun, Irina; Pouliopoulos, Antonis; Choi, James J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Garbin, Valeria


    Cell rupture induced by ultrasound is central to applications in biotechnology. For instance, cell disruption is required in the production of biofuels from microalgae (unicellular species of algae). Ultrasound-induced cavitation, bubble collapse and jetting are exploited to induce sufficiently large viscous stresses to cause rupture of the cell membranes. It has recently been shown that seeding the flow with bubbles that act as cavitation nuclei significantly reduces the energy cost for cell processing. However, a fundamental understanding of the conditions for rupture of microalgae in the complex flow fields generated by ultrasound-driven bubbles is currently lacking. We perform high-speed video microscopy to visualize the miscroscale details of the interaction of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , microalgae of about 10 μm in size, with ultrasound-driven microbubbles of 2-200 μm in diameter. We investigate the efficiency of cell rupture depending on ultrasound frequency and pressure amplitude (from 10 kPa up to 1 MPa), and the resulting bubble dynamics regimes. In particular we compare the efficiency of membrane rupture in the acoustic microstreaming flow induced by linear oscillations, with the case of violent bubble collapse and jetting. V.G. acknowledges partial support from the European Commission (FP7-PEOPLE-2013-CIG), Grant No. 618333.

  8. Spontaneous splenic rupture in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charakidis Michail


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report the case of a patient with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia complicated by spontaneous splenic rupture. Case presentation A 49-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our emergency department by her general practitioner following a three-week history of malaise, night sweats, six kilograms of weight loss, intermittent nausea and vomiting, progressive upper abdominal pain and easy bruising. On the fourth day following her admission, she had a rapid clinical deterioration, with subsequent radiological investigations revealing a splenic rupture. Her morphology, biochemistry, flow cytometry and histology were strongly suggestive of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Conclusions Spontaneous splenic rupture is not an expected complication of low-grade lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only reported case of early spontaneous splenic rupture due to Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Our case highlights that despite the typical disease course of low-grade hematological malignancies, signs and symptoms of imminent splenic rupture should be considered when formulating a clinical assessment.

  9. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro [Nagoya Red Cross Hospital (Japan)


    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  10. An Unreported Uterine Rupture in an Unscarred Uterus after Induction of Labour with 25 μg Misoprostol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Eva; Clausen, Jette Aaroe


    Uterine rupture without a former history of cesarean delivery or uterine scarring is an exceedingly rare complication in pregnancy and labor. Misoprostol is widely used to induce labor but there is a lack of knowledge about serious adverse effects. It is especially challenging to collect reports...... on side effects because misoprostol is not a registered drug. We report a case of a woman induced by one dose 25 μg misoprostol vaginally. Her pregnancy was uncomplicated and she had an unscarred uterus. Her labor progressed rapidly and she experienced hyperstimulation, meconium stained amniotic fluid......, uterine rupture, and excessive blood loss of approximately 14 l. The child survived but is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The case was never reported as an adverse event. This case questions the safety of misoprostol even in low dosage. It also underlines the need to report side effects to national...

  11. An Unreported Uterine Rupture in an Unscarred Uterus After Induced Labor With 25 μg Misoprostol Vaginally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rydahl


    Full Text Available Uterine rupture without a former history of cesarean delivery or uterine scarring is an exceedingly rare complication in pregnancy and labor. Misoprostol is widely used to induce labor but there is a lack of knowledge about serious adverse effects. It is especially challenging to collect reports on side effects because misoprostol is not a registered drug. We report a case of a woman induced by one dose 25 μg misoprostol vaginally. Her pregnancy was uncomplicated and she had an unscarred uterus. Her labor progressed rapidly and she experienced hyperstimulation, meconium stained amniotic fluid, uterine rupture, and excessive blood loss of approximately 14 l. The child survived but is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The case was never reported as an adverse event. This case questions the safety of misoprostol even in low dosage. It also underlines the need to report side effects to national reporting systems.

  12. Print Centre Event 2


    Hadbavny, Michelle


    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  13. Print Centre Event 3


    Hadbavny, Michelle


    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  14. Quantifying variability in earthquake rupture models using multidimensional scaling: application to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Razafindrakoto, Hoby


    Finite-fault earthquake source inversion is an ill-posed inverse problem leading to non-unique solutions. In addition, various fault parametrizations and input data may have been used by different researchers for the same earthquake. Such variability leads to large intra-event variability in the inferred rupture models. One way to understand this problem is to develop robust metrics to quantify model variability. We propose a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) approach to compare rupture models quantitatively. We consider normalized squared and grey-scale metrics that reflect the variability in the location, intensity and geometry of the source parameters. We test the approach on two-dimensional random fields generated using a von Kármán autocorrelation function and varying its spectral parameters. The spread of points in the MDS solution indicates different levels of model variability. We observe that the normalized squared metric is insensitive to variability of spectral parameters, whereas the grey-scale metric is sensitive to small-scale changes in geometry. From this benchmark, we formulate a similarity scale to rank the rupture models. As case studies, we examine inverted models from the Source Inversion Validation (SIV) exercise and published models of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake, allowing us to test our approach for a case with a known reference model and one with an unknown true solution. The normalized squared and grey-scale metrics are respectively sensitive to the overall intensity and the extension of the three classes of slip (very large, large, and low). Additionally, we observe that a three-dimensional MDS configuration is preferable for models with large variability. We also find that the models for the Tohoku earthquake derived from tsunami data and their corresponding predictions cluster with a systematic deviation from other models. We demonstrate the stability of the MDS point-cloud using a number of realizations and jackknife tests, for

  15. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin


    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.

  16. "Ruptured" malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditsatham C


    Full Text Available Chagkrit Ditsatham, Areewan Somwangprasert, Kirati Watcharachan, Phanchaporn WongmaneerungDivision of Head, Neck and Breast, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandAbstract: Phyllodes tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare disease and is usually seen in middle-aged patients. Ruptured phyllodes tumor is a very rare condition. Our study reports patient presentation, diagnosis method, and treatment of an unusual case. A 58-year-old premenopausal female was diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor and presented with a rapidly growing mass for 2 months that ruptured 1 month later. She underwent simple mastectomy at the left side of her breast and received adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was found 4 months after operation.Keywords: ruptured, malignant, phyllodes tumor, breast 

  17. The Risk of Rh Isoimmunization in Ruptured Tubal Pregnancy (United States)

    Katz, J.; Marcus, R. G.


    In 9 (24%) out of 38 African women who had suffered a ruptured tubal pregnancy significant numbers of fetal erythrocytes (5 or more per 150,000 maternal cells) were found in the maternal circulation. This is a higher incidence than occurs after abortion and indicates that rupture of a tubal pregnancy is a potential source of Rh isoimmunization. The finding of fetal cells in the peritoneal cavity suggests that this is the main source of the fetal blood found in the maternal circulation. At operation on Rh-negative patients with ruptured tubal pregnancies, therefore, complete removal of the peritoneal blood should be attempted and the blood recovered should never be transfused into the patient, who should always receive prophylactic Rh immunoglobulin. PMID:4631183

  18. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture]. (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J


    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  19. A Case of Ruptured Splenic Artery Aneurysm in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Corey


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm is rare complication of pregnancy that is associated with a significant maternal and fetal mortality. Case. A multiparous female presented in the third trimester with hypotension, tachycardia, and altered mental status. A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was discovered at the time of laparotomy and cesarean delivery. The patient made a full recovery following resection of the aneurysm. The neonate survived but suffered severe neurologic impairment. Conclusion. The diagnosis of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm should be considered in a pregnant woman presenting with signs of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Early intervention by a multidisciplinary surgical team is key to preserving the life of the mother and fetus.

  20. Validity and Reliability of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob


    The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present...... study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately...... strong correlations with the physical subscores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (r = .70 to .75; p Achilles questionnaire (r = .71; p

  1. Nonoperative dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Bloch Lauridsen, Hanne


    BACKGROUND: Dynamic rehabilitation has been suggested to be an important part of nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture that results in functional outcome and rerupture rates comparable with those of operative treatment. However, the optimal role of weight-bearing during early...... rehabilitation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare immediate weight-bearing with non-weight-bearing in a nonoperative dynamic treatment protocol for Achilles tendon rupture. METHODS: The study was conducted as a blinded, randomized, controlled, parallel superiority trial. Patients eighteen...... to sixty years of age were eligible for inclusion. Both groups were treated nonoperatively with controlled early motion. The intervention group was allowed full weight-bearing from day one, and the control group was non-weight-bearing for six weeks. The primary outcome was the Achilles tendon Total Rupture...

  2. Assessing magnitude probability distribution through physics-based rupture scenarios (United States)

    Hok, Sébastien; Durand, Virginie; Bernard, Pascal; Scotti, Oona


    When faced with complex network of faults in a seismic hazard assessment study, the first question raised is to what extent the fault network is connected and what is the probability that an earthquake ruptures simultaneously a series of neighboring segments. Physics-based dynamic rupture models can provide useful insight as to which rupture scenario is most probable, provided that an exhaustive exploration of the variability of the input parameters necessary for the dynamic rupture modeling is accounted for. Given the random nature of some parameters (e.g. hypocenter location) and the limitation of our knowledge, we used a logic-tree approach in order to build the different scenarios and to be able to associate them with a probability. The methodology is applied to the three main faults located along the southern coast of the West Corinth rift. Our logic tree takes into account different hypothesis for: fault geometry, location of hypocenter, seismic cycle position, and fracture energy on the fault plane. The variability of these parameters is discussed, and the different values tested are weighted accordingly. 64 scenarios resulting from 64 parameter combinations were included. Sensitivity studies were done to illustrate which parameters control the variability of the results. Given the weight of the input parameters, we evaluated the probability to obtain a full network break to be 15 %, while single segment rupture represents 50 % of the scenarios. These rupture scenario probability distribution along the three faults of the West Corinth rift fault network can then be used as input to a seismic hazard calculation.

  3. Validation of statistical models for creep rupture by parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: [65, Fisher Ave., Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)


    Statistical analysis is an efficient method for the optimisation of any candidate mathematical model of creep rupture data, and for the comparative ranking of competing models. However, when a series of candidate models has been examined and the best of the series has been identified, there is no statistical criterion to determine whether a yet more accurate model might be devised. Hence there remains some uncertainty that the best of any series examined is sufficiently accurate to be considered reliable as a basis for extrapolation. This paper proposes that models should be validated primarily by parametric graphical comparison to rupture data and rupture gradient data. It proposes that no mathematical model should be considered reliable for extrapolation unless the visible divergence between model and data is so small as to leave no apparent scope for further reduction. This study is based on the data for a 12% Cr alloy steel used in BS PD6605:1998 to exemplify its recommended statistical analysis procedure. The models considered in this paper include a) a relatively simple model, b) the PD6605 recommended model and c) a more accurate model of somewhat greater complexity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper discusses the validation of creep rupture models derived from statistical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It demonstrates that models can be satisfactorily validated by a visual-graphic comparison of models to data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method proposed utilises test data both as conventional rupture stress and as rupture stress gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach is shown to be more reliable than a well-established and widely used method (BS PD6605).

  4. Bilateral Achilles tendon rupture: a report on two cases. (United States)

    Orava, S; Hurme, M; Leppilahti, J


    Two cases of traumatic bilateral Achilles tendon rupture are reported. One of the patients was a healthy middle-aged man, who had been an active national-level gymnast 20 years earlier. He had not suffered any complaints of Achilles tendons before. The ruptures occurred when, after a sauna, he showed his guests a vault forwards, which he had been able to perform easily. This time the landing took place on the toes, causing a high peak stretch to the calf muscles and Achilles tendons. The total rupture of both Achilles tendons was treated surgically, with an excellent result 2 days after the trauma. End-to-end suturation and a fascial flap plasty were made on both sides. No macroscopic degeneration could be detected on the rupture sites. He was allowed to walk freely 6 weeks after the surgery. The second case was a 54-year-old woman, who had suffered from Achilles tendinitis and peritendinitis for 2 years. Both tendons had been surgically treated, and severe adhesions and local degenerative changes had been found. The tendon rupture occurred when she injured her left ankle while getting out of the car. Two days later she fell at home, because of the weakness of the left side, and consequently the right Achilles tendon was injured. She was treated conservatively for 10 days, before the surgery was performed. Both tendons were ruptured and an extensive degeneration of the area was observed. The right side suffered from a rerupture, which was again treated surgically. After surgery the recovery was slow, but the final result 3 years later was moderate. Neither of the patients had any systemic diseases.

  5. Probabilistic Tsunami-Source Estimation with Parsimonious Rupture Kinematics (United States)

    Dettmer, J.; Cummins, P. R.; Hossen, M. J.


    This work develops a self-parametrized Bayesian inversion to infer the spatiotemporal evolution of tsunami sources (the initial sea-surface displacement) due to megathrust earthquakes. The approach provides uncertainty estimates about the spatial and temporal evolution of rupture and does not depend on assumptions about the megathrust fault or seafloor deformation. In particular, we study the effect of spatial and temporal parametrization complexity of the source with trans-dimensional parametrizations. The inversion is based on a trans-dimensional self-parametrization of the sea surface in both space and time and accounts for model-selection ambiguity associated with the spatiotemporal discretization. The spatial displacement pattern is parametrized by Voronoi nodes that include parameters for latitude, longitude, displacement magnitude, and rupture velocity. Hence, the sea surface is parametrized by a self-adapting irregular grid which matches the local resolving power of the data and provides parsimonious solutions for complex source characteristics. Rupture onset is causally constrained by solving the Eikonal equation on the rupture velocity field. The source-time function of the rupture at each subfault is parametrized as a parsimonious triangle sequence, such that scaling parameters for triangles are only included when required by the data. Regularization is not required, rather Bayesian sampling is applied to quantify the posterior probability for the spatiotemporal model. Predictions are based on Greens-function libraries computed by the tsunami propagation model JAGURS for cases that include linear dispersion effects. The method is examined with both simulated and observed tsunami-waveform data recorded on high-quality sensors (ocean-bottom pressure sensors, GPS gauges, and DART buoys). The observed waveforms are from the great 2011 Tohoku (Japan) earthquake and appear sensitive to rupture velocity but resolution of the source-time function is limited.

  6. High-Speed Observations of Dynamic Fracture Propagation in Solids and Their Implications in Earthquake Rupture Dynamics (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji


    This contribution outlines our experimental observations of seismicity-related fast fracture (rupture) propagation in solids utilising high-speed analog and digital photography (maximum frame rate 1,000,000 frames per second) over the last two decades. Dynamic fracture may be triggered or initiated in the monolithic or layered seismic models by detonation of micro explosives, a projectile launched by a gun, laser pulses and electric discharge impulses, etc. First, we have investigated strike-slip rupture along planes of weakness in transparent photoelastic (birefringent) materials at a laboratory scale and shown (at that time) extraordinarily fast rupture propagation in a bi-material system and its possible effect on the generation of large strong motion in the limited narrow areas in the Kobe region on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake (Uenishi Ph.D. thesis 1997, Uenishi et al. BSSA 1999). In this series of experiments, we have also modelled shallow dip-slip earthquakes and indicated a possible origin of the asymmetric ground motion in the hanging and foot-walls. In the photoelastic photographs, we have found the unique dynamic wave interaction and generation of specific shear and interface waves numerically predicted by Uenishi and Madariaga (Eos 2005), and considered as a case study the seismic motion associated with the 2014 Nagano-ken Hokubu (Kamishiro Fault), Japan, dip-slip earthquake (Uenishi EFA 2015). Second, we have experimentally shown that even in a monolithic material, rupture speed may exceed the local shear wave speed if we employ hyperelasically behaving materials like natural rubber (balloons) (Uenishi Eos 2006, Uenishi ICF 2009, Uenishi Trans. JSME A 2012) but fracture in typical monolithic thin fluid films (e.g. soap bubbles, which may be treated as a solid material) propagates at an ordinary subsonic (sub-Rayleigh) speed (Uenishi et al. SSJ 2006). More recent investigation handling three-dimensional rupture propagation

  7. [Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons after treatment with ciprofloxacin]. (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Amir Pasha; Ryge, Camilla


    We report a case of spontaneous non-traumatic bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendons following ciprofloxacin treatment. A 54-year-old man presented with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture on the left side, tendinitis and partial tear on the right side following few days of treatment with ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily and long-term treatment with prednisolon 10 mg once daily. This rare side effect caused by concurrent treatment with steroids and ciprofloxacin should be kept in mind. Any signs of tendinitis following this treatment should arouse the physicians' suspicion towards ciprofloxacin.

  8. Spontaneous rupture of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yeong; Lee, In Jae; Min, Soo Kee [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a rare neoplasm with tendencies of local invasion and metastasis. Usually, it is detected incidentally or by its symptoms caused by mass effect. Rupture of the tumor is extremely rare. In this study, we report a case of a ruptured thymic NEC that was combined with a potentially fatal hemorrhage. This lesion was manifested as a progressive bulging of the right cardiac border on serial chest radiographs, and on CT as a large anterior mediastinal mass with heterogeneous enhancement, internal necrosis, and hematoma.

  9. [Ocular rupture associated with lens dislocation to the subconjunctival space]. (United States)

    Santos-Bueso, E; Sáenz-Francés, F; Díaz-Valle, D; Troyano, J; López-Abad, C; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J


    We present the case of a patient who suffered from rupture of her left eye due to moderate blunt trauma. The lens, which was dislocated to the nasal and superior subconjunctival space, was extracted and the wound explored and repaired; when the process had stabilized secondary vitrectomy and suture of an IOL to the sulcus were performed, achieving a final visual acuity of 0.3. Eye trauma is common and eye rupture may occur in those patients who have undergone ocular surgery or suffer from a debilitating condition of the eye. None of these predisposing factors existed in our case. Despite the seriousness of the problem, appropriate treatment achieved good visual function.

  10. Splenic rupture after screening colonoscopy: case report and literature review. (United States)

    DuCoin, Christopher; Acholonu, Emeka; Ukleja, Andrew; Cellini, Florencia; Court, Ismael; Dabage, Nemer; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul J


    Splenic rupture is a rare complication after colonoscopy, and to date there are only 46 reported cases in the English-language literature. Presented is a case report of splenic rupture after screening colonoscopy that resulted in laparotomy and splenectomy within 24 hours of the original procedure. The article covers the hypothesized mechanisms of injury, various precautions to take during colonoscopy, suggested diagnostic algorithm, determining factors in treatment, and vaccine regimen. The article concludes by stating that as the number of colonoscopies increase, so will the prevalence of associated complications, and that physicians are encouraged to understand this paradigm shift.

  11. The Danish anal sphincter rupture questionnaire: Validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Ottesen, Marianne


    Objective. To revise, validate and test for reliability an anal sphincter rupture questionnaire in relation to construct, content and face validity. Setting and background. Since 1996 women with anal sphincter rupture (ASR) at one of the public university hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark have been...... offered pelvic floor muscle examination and instruction by a specialist physiotherapist. In relation to that, a non-validated questionnaire about anal and urinary incontinence was to be answered six months after childbirth. Method. The original questionnaire was revised and a pilot test was performed...

  12. Left ventricular rupture postmitral valve replacement: Surviving a catastrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi


    Full Text Available One of the dreaded mechanical complications of mitral valve replacement (MVR is rupture of the left ventricle (LV. This report describes the early diagnosis and successful repair of rupture of posterior wall of LV in an elderly patient who underwent MVR. We have discussed the risk factors and perioperative issues implicated in such complication. The anesthesiologist as an intra-operative echocardiographer can aid in identifying the patient at risk. Though important surgical steps are necessary to prevent the complication; nonetheless, the anesthesiologist needs to take key measures in the perioperative period.

  13. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T


    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  14. Controls on Earthquake Rupture and Triggering Mechanisms in Subduction Zones (United States)


    volcanic regions where aftershock sequences are often subdued due to high geothermal gradients (Kisslinger and Jones,1991; Ben-Zion and Lyakhovsky, 2006...2003 Colima Mexico earthquake………………………………….25 3.2 The 2006 Java earthquake……………………………………………...26 3.3 The 1995 Chile earthquake...large ruptures tend to stop in regions with positive gravity gradients by estimating a characteristic rupture length and directivity for each

  15. Gender Differences in Outcome After an Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture


    Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Nilsson-Helander, Katarin; Olsson, Nicklas; Brorsson, Annelie; Eriksson, Bengt I; Karlsson, Jon


    Objectives: There is an indication in the literature that there is a difference in tendon healing between genders. However comparisons in outcome are often not possible due to the small sample size of women with an acute Achilles tendon rupture. In most studies on patients with Achilles tendon rupture the women only account for less then 20% of the patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there are any differences in outcome between genders when combining the data from two lar...

  16. Size-Dependent Rupture Strain of Elastically Stretchable Metal Conductors (United States)

    Graudejus, O.; Jia, Z.; Li, T.; Wagner, S.


    Experiments show that the rupture strain of gold conductors on elastomers decreases as the conductors are made long and narrow. Rupture is caused by the irreversible coalescence of microcracks into one long crack. A mechanics model identifies a critical crack length ℓcr, above which the long crack propagates across the entire conductor width. ℓcr depends on the fracture toughness of the gold film and the width of the conductor. The model provides guidance for the design of highly stretchable conductors. PMID:22773917

  17. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte


    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  18. Hemoperitoneum Secondary to Spontaneous Rupture of a Retroperitoneal Varix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick D. Eichele


    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured retroperitoneal varix is an exceedingly rare condition and a poor prognostic sign with catastrophic and life-threatening complication of portal hypertension. We present a unique case of a 56-year-old female with cirrhosis secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented with acute abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock prior to a cardiac arrest following a ruptured retroperitoneal varix without prior esophageal varices and a newly identified intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinical presentation with abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock is consistently reported in the relevant literature. Early recognition affords appropriate management and urgent surgical intervention leading to survival.

  19. Association between Enlarged Axillary Lymph Nodes and Silicone Breast Implant Ruptures seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (United States)

    Klang, Eyal; Amitai, Michal M; Raskin, Stephen; Rozendorn, Noa; Keddel, Nicholas; Pickovsky, Jana; Sklair-Levy, Miri


    Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures. To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011-May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated. Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.

  20. timber joists subjected to creep-rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the probabilistic analysis in this study. Based the data on material properties and loading defining the performance function of a given mode of failure, suitable distribution laws (normal, lognormal, uniform, Weibull,. Gumbel) are selected. Then the random variables were transformed into a standard normalized space. For the.