WorldWideScience

Sample records for events indeveloping countries

  1. Insurance as an adaptation strategy for extreme weather events indeveloping countries and economies in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2004-06-30

    The insurance industry can play a material role indecreasing the vulnerability of developing countries and economies intransition to weather-related natural disasters while simultaneouslysupporting both its own market-based objectives and the objectives ofsustainable development. Although insurance is not a "silver bullet" forthe problems posed by natural disasters in emerging markets,public-private partnerships can enhance insurance's ability to spread therisks and manage the costs of weather-related disasters as well as toincrease the pool of people who have access to coverage. (For simplicityin this report, the phrase "emerging markets" is intended to encompassdeveloping countries and economies in transition.) Promising strategiesfor emerging markets involve establishing innovative products and systemsfor delivering insurance and using technologies and practices that bothreduce vulnerability to disaster-related insurance losses and supportsustainable development (including reducing greenhouse gas emissions).These strategies can enhance sustainable development efforts and increasethe insurability of risks, making insurance markets in emerging marketsmore viable. Emerging markets are especially vulnerable to extremeweather events, which impede development by causing physical damage,compromising human and ecosystem health, diverting scarce resources todisaster relief and recovery, and deterring future investment andinsurance availability by amplifying the risks faced by foreigninterests. An average of 300 million people are affected or killed eachyear by weather-related disasters in emerging markets. Characteristics ofemerging markets contributing to their particular vulnerability incontrast to developed nations include: greater frequency of poverty;weaker lifelines (transportation, communication, utilities, emergencyresponse, and hospitals); poorer quality of construction and absence ofor deficiencies in building codes and other regulations; and

  2. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON TOURISM IN THE BRICS COUNTRIES CASE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iuliana Pop; Adrian Kanovici; Gratiela Ghic; Madalina Andrei

    2016-01-01

      At the beginning of the 21st century, events tourism witnessed an impressive development in a series of countries due to the increase of the spare time and of the people's income, to the cheaper...

  3. Countries, Within-Country Regions, and Multiple-Country Regions in International Management: A Functional, Institutional, and Critical Event (FICE) Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael; Peterson, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the focused issue by offering a functional, institutional and critical event or FICE perspective on the relationship between cultural boundaries and the boundaries of modern nation states (termed countries here). Our perspective draws from three kinds of theory that suggest how...

  4. The Economic Effects of the Mega Sport Events on Tourism in the BRICS Countries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Pop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, events tourism witnessed an impressive development in a series of countries due to the increase of the spare time and of the people’s income, to the cheaper and more diversified world transport, especially the air transport and due to the emergence of new destinations. Emergent countries, such as China and Russia, recorded not only an increase in the number of tourists but also in the revenues from tourism activities. One of the reasons is the opening of these countries frontiers in order to reaffirm their power on international level (Golubchikov, 2016. Besides the relaxation, business and religious tourism, the sport tourism becomes more and more important. It also comprises the tourism for mega sport events, such as the Summer and Winter Olympics or the World Championships in different sports. For the organising countries, there is a real challenge to ensure the investments for the infrastructure, although it supports their economic development, being used after the sport events conclusion. Considering the available data from the World Bank and the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, the authors make a quantitative investigation regarding the impact of the mega sport events on the tourism phenomenon in the BRICS countries. The article also researches a small and specific group of countries (BRICS, considering a niche tourism phenomenon. The article aims to emphasize the role of the mega sport events in the BRICS countries, directly connected with their capacity to economically support the organization of these events and also with the desire to internationally promote their national values.

  5. Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Turner, Elizabeth L; Thielman, Nathan M

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera. Problem The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published. A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed. Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having earthquake. The association between large earthquake disasters and cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested. A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

  6. Extreme weather events in developing countries and related injuries and mental health disorders - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataj, Elisabeth; Kunzweiler, Katharina; Garthus-Niegel, Susan

    2016-09-29

    Due to climate change, extreme weather events have an incremental impact on human health. Injuries and mental health disorders are a particular burden of disease, which is broadly investigated in high income countries. Most distressed populations are, however, those in developing countries. Therefore, this study investigates mental and physical health impacts arising from extreme weather events in these populations. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), injury [primary outcomes], anxiety and depressive disorders [secondary outcomes], caused by weather extremes were systematically analyzed in people of developing countries. A systematic review of observational studies was conducted searching six databases, complemented by hand search, and utilizing two search engines. Review processing was done independently by two reviewers. Prevalence rates were analyzed in a pre/post design; an additional semi-structured search was conducted, to provide reference data for studies not incorporating reference values. All 17 identified studies (70,842 individuals) indicate a disease increase, compared to the reference data. Increase ranges from 0.7-52.6 % for PTSD, and from 0.3-37.3 % for injury. No studies on droughts and heatwaves were identified. All studies were conducted in South America and Asia. There is an increased burden of psychological diseases and injury. This finding needs to be incorporated into activities of prevention, preparedness and general health care of those developing countries increasingly experiencing extreme weather events. There is also a gap in research in Africa (in quantity and quality) of studies in this field and a predominant heterogeneity of health assessment tools. PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42014009109.

  7. Extreme weather events in developing countries and related injuries and mental health disorders - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rataj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to climate change, extreme weather events have an incremental impact on human health. Injuries and mental health disorders are a particular burden of disease, which is broadly investigated in high income countries. Most distressed populations are, however, those in developing countries. Therefore, this study investigates mental and physical health impacts arising from extreme weather events in these populations. Method Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, injury [primary outcomes], anxiety and depressive disorders [secondary outcomes], caused by weather extremes were systematically analyzed in people of developing countries. A systematic review of observational studies was conducted searching six databases, complemented by hand search, and utilizing two search engines. Review processing was done independently by two reviewers. Prevalence rates were analyzed in a pre/post design; an additional semi-structured search was conducted, to provide reference data for studies not incorporating reference values. Results All 17 identified studies (70,842 individuals indicate a disease increase, compared to the reference data. Increase ranges from 0.7–52.6 % for PTSD, and from 0.3–37.3 % for injury. No studies on droughts and heatwaves were identified. All studies were conducted in South America and Asia. Conclusion There is an increased burden of psychological diseases and injury. This finding needs to be incorporated into activities of prevention, preparedness and general health care of those developing countries increasingly experiencing extreme weather events. There is also a gap in research in Africa (in quantity and quality of studies in this field and a predominant heterogeneity of health assessment tools. PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42014009109

  8. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  9. Information Technology and Development Series. Volume 2. Informatics and Industrial Development. Proceedings of the International Conference on Policies for Information Processing for Developing Countries Held at Dublin, Ireland on 9-13 March 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    aricltie, of cctipation’, that support a modern industrialised societ\\. Talcott Parsons (l19M) has pointed out that ’protcsiOnalisation" of an...469 National Strategies for the Development of a Telecommunications Infrastructure in Ireland. PO01 470 Notes on Computer Education and Training in...Developing Countries. PO01 471 Education and Trining in Informatics in Africa. POOl 472 Advanced Technical Training in Developing Countries - Some

  10. Current Events and Country Reports: Enlivening Advanced Courses in Business Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parle, Dennis J.

    1997-01-01

    Students in advanced business Spanish courses gave oral presentations on geo-political and economic conditions in chosen Hispanic countries. The goals of these reports were to increase awareness of the unique identities of these countries, to introduce research tools for use in business research, and to inculcate linguistic and humanistic…

  11. Building capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas: A hospital-based multi-country network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Pérez-Vilar, Silvia; Molina-León, Helvert Felipe; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Black, Steven; Zuber, Patrick L F; Maure, Christine; Castro, Jose Luis

    2018-01-08

    New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries are being introduced without prior utilization in countries with robust vaccine pharmacovigilance systems. Our aim was to build capacity for active surveillance of vaccine adverse events in the Americas. We describe the implementation of a proof-of-concept study for the feasibility of an international collaborative hospital-based active surveillance system for vaccine safety. The study was developed and implemented in 15 sentinel sites located in seven countries of the region of the Americas, under the umbrella of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Vaccine Safety Initiative. The study evaluated the associations between measles-mumps-rubella vaccines and two well-recognized adverse events: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and aseptic meningitis. The regional network contributed 63 confirmed ITP and 16 confirmed aseptic meningitis eligible cases to the global study, representing, respectively, 33% and 19% of the total cases. To ensure long-term sustainability and usefulness to investigate adverse events following new vaccine introductions in low and middle-income countries, the network needs to be strengthened with additional sites and integrated into national health systems. Copyright © 2017 Pan American Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Hosting mega sport events in a small country: The (real impact on the development - cases of Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimić-Banović Ružica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of studies on the impact of the sports events on country's development are produced before the events take place and as such are in favour of the bidding process. When comparing these ex ante analyses to the ex post evidence, it has been in most cases obvious that they have been overly optimistic. This paper analyses the ex ante analysis provided by the Croatian bidding committee for the European Football Championship 2012. In addition to that, the ex ante study for the World Handball Championship 2009 in Croatia and (insufficient data for the handball championships that took place in Serbia were analysed as well. This paper contributes both to the debate on the realistic approach of several failed and won bids, and the debate on the future bids for the other sport events.

  13. Attained educational level and incident atherothrombotic events in low- and middle-income compared with high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhinav; Bhatt, Deepak L; Steg, P Gabriel; Gersh, Bernard J; Alberts, Mark J; Ohman, E Magnus; Corbalán, Ramón; Eagle, Kim A; Gaxiola, Efrain; Gao, Runlin; Goto, Shinya; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Califf, Robert M; Smith, Sidney C; Wilson, Peter W F

    2010-09-21

    Studies report a protective effect of higher attained educational level (AEL) on cardiovascular outcomes. However, most of these studies have been conducted in high-income countries (HICs) and lack representation from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which bear >80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease. The Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry is a prospective study of 67 888 subjects with either established atherothrombotic (coronary, cerebrovascular, and/or peripheral arterial) disease or multiple atherothrombotic risk factors enrolled from 5587 physician practices in 44 countries. At baseline, AEL (0 to 8 years, 9 to 12 years, trade or technical school, and university) was self-reported for 61 332 subjects. Outcomes included the baseline prevalence of atherothrombotic risk factors and the rate of incident cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) through 23 months across AEL groups, stratified by sex and world region (LMICs or HICs). Educational attainment was inversely associated with age and diabetes mellitus and directly associated with hypercholesterolemia in all subjects. However, for other risk factors such as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and baseline burden of vascular disease, AEL was protective (inversely associated) in HICs but not protective in LMICs. The protective effect of greater AEL on incident cardiovascular events was strongest in men from HICs (P<0.0001), more modest in women from HICs (P=0.0026) and in men from LMICs (P=0.082), and essentially absent in women from LMICs (P=0.32). In contrast to HICs, higher AEL may not be protective against cardiovascular events in LMICs, particularly in women.

  14. Monitoring adverse events following immunisation in developing countries: experience from human papillomavirus vaccination demonstration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kriti M; Paul, Proma; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-03-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFIs) is important for maintaining trust in vaccination. This paper discusses retrospective reports by parents and guardians of girls experiencing AEFIs during human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine demonstration projects in Uganda and Vietnam. A secondary analysis of data from a population-based survey measuring HPV vaccine coverage of eligible girls and acceptability among parents and guardians was conducted. Survey data from parents were analysed for frequency and type of AEFI and actions taken. Of the 1700 eligible households contacted, all responded to the survey; of those, 1313 respondents had an eligible child who had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Data were missing from 49 respondents, resulting in 1264 surveys. Twenty-five percent reported an AEFI, with fever (29.1%) and pain or swelling at the injection site (62.0%) being the most common. Events totalled 386 (10.5%) of the 3684 doses administered. Most parents reported that they took no action (63.9%) or cared for girls at home (16.1%) following an AEFI. Thirty-three parents sought advice from health workers or attended a clinic for 46 events (0.8% of all doses). Frequency of reporting varied by respondent identity, geographic location and vaccination location. AEFIs reported were similar to Phase III vaccine trials. Most parents reporting AEFIs took no action or treated the girl at home, suggesting that most AEFIs were not serious enough to contact the health system. AEFI reports were more frequent when solicited in surveys compared with reports from routine monitoring.

  15. Self-management Following a Cardiac Event in People of Chinese Ethnicity Living in Western Countries: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Gallagher, Robyn; Ding, Ding; Neubeck, Lis

    2017-04-13

    Health outcomes and impact of cardiovascular disease vary between populations, where ethnic minorities and immigrant groups are more likely to be disadvantaged. Compared with the majority residents, health outcomes, especially short-term mortality from coronary heart disease event are worse in people of Chinese ethnicity, potentially due to poor self-management and experiences with the healthcare system in host countries. A scoping review was conducted. Four overarching themes were found: (1) understanding of heart disease, risk factors and symptom recognition, (2) adherence to medication and lifestyle modification, (3) health service/information choice, and (4) family role in disease self-management and decision making. All themes were greatly influenced by English language proficiency and cultural practices. English language proficiency and cultural practices should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services for people of Chinese ethnicity, as it plays an important role in self-management and experiences with the healthcare system.

  16. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  17. A nine country study of the burden of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemic events on diabetes management and daily function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, M; Wolden, M; Christensen, T; Bushnell, D M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the burden and impact of non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemic events (NSNHEs) on diabetes management, patient functioning and well-being in order to better understand the role that NSNHEs play in caring for persons with diabetes and facilitate optimal diabetes treatment management strategies. A 20-min survey assessing the impact of NSNHEs was administered to patients with self-reported diabetes age 18 or older via the Internet in nine countries (USA, UK, Germany, Canada, France, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands and Sweden) who experienced an NSNHE in the last month. Questions captured reasons for and length of the event, and impacts on diabetes management, daily function, sleep and well-being. A total of 20 212 persons with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were screened of which 2108 respondents were eligible. Respondents initiated, on average, an additional 3.6 glucose monitoring tests, and did not resume usual functioning for an average of 3.4 hours after the NSNHE. Of the respondents using insulin, 15.8% decreased their insulin dose over an average of 3.6 days. NSNHEs also impacted sleep, with 10.4% not returning to sleep that night. Next day functioning was affected with 60.3% (n = 1273) feeling the need to take a nap and/or rest (with 65.5% of those actually taking a nap/rest) and 40.2% (n = 848) wanting to go to bed earlier than usual. A total of 21.4% were restricted in their driving the next day. These events also resulted in decreased well-being with 39.6% of respondents feeling 'emotional low' the following day. NSNHEs have serious consequences for patients. Greater attention to patient and physician education regarding the burden of NSNHEs and incorporation of corrective actions in treatment plans is needed to facilitate patients reaching optimal glycaemic control. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 a charity program “PROTECTED AREAS – LIFE SAVER” was launched for reserved areas and national parks in Russia and CIS countries. The project “Eagles of Russia” received the support of the Russian Geographical Society for the second time.  In 2015 in the Republic of Tatarstan 67 special protection forest areas (SPFA will be allotted in 17 administrative districts. Where there will be 41 areas for the protection of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, 23 – for the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla and 3 – for the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga. XIV International Ornithological Conference of Northern Eurasia was held in August 18–24, 2015 in Almaty, Kazakhstan, on the basis of Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi (KNU. V International readings from Buturlin, dedicated to the memory of Sergei Buturlin a famous Russian ornithologist, were held in September 22–24,2015 inUlyanovsk. In 29–30 October 2015, the Interregional Conference “Raptor Research and Conservation. Legislative Issue” was held in Elista. The status of steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis in the European Red List and IUCN Red List has changed. SochiNational Park, Southern Federal University, Menzbir Ornithological Society and the Working Group on birds of prey and owls of Northern Eurasia are planning to hold regular VII International Conference on research and conservation of raptors in North Eurasia inSochion the basis of theSochiNational Park. Excerpts from the Resolution Adopted at the XIV International Ornithological Conference ofNorth Eurasia. Date held: 18–22 August, 2015. Excerpts from the Resolution Adopted at the Interregional Conference “Raptor Research and Conservation. Legislative Issue”. Date held: 29–30 October, 2015.

  19. Evaluation of health benefits and harms of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country using discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrospide, Arantzazu; Rue, Montserrat; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Comas, Merce; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sarriugarte, Garbiñe; Mar, Javier

    2015-10-12

    Since the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country (BCSPBC) was started in 1996, more than 400,000 women aged 50 to 69 years have been invited to participate. Based on epidemiological observations and simulation techniques it is possible to extend observed short term data into anticipated long term results. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the programme through 2011 by quantifying the outcomes in breast cancer mortality, life-years gained, false positive results, and overdiagnosis. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to reproduce the natural history of breast cancer (disease-free, pre-clinical, symptomatic, and disease-specific death) and the actual observed characteristics of the screening programme during the evaluated period in the Basque women population. Goodness-of-fit statistics were applied for model validation. The screening effects were measured as differences in benefits and harms between the screened and unscreened populations. Breast cancer mortality reduction and life-years gained were considered as screening benefits, whereas, overdiagnosis and false positive results were assessed as harms. Results for a single cohort were also obtained. The screening programme yielded a 16 % reduction in breast cancer mortality and a 10 % increase in the incidence of breast cancer through 2011. Almost 2 % of all the women in the programme had a false positive result during the evaluation period. When a single cohort was analysed, the number of deaths decreased by 13 %, and 4 % of screen-detected cancers were overdiagnosed. Each woman with BC detected by the screening programme gained 2.5 life years due to early detection corrected by lead time. Fifteen years after the screening programme started, this study supports an important decrease in breast cancer mortality due to the screening programme, with reasonable risk of overdiagnosis and false positive results, and sustains the continuation of the breast cancer

  20. Effects of Italian smoking regulation on rates of hospital admission for acute coronary events: a country-wide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barone-Adesi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events (ACEs in the general population after the enforcement of smoking regulations, although there is uncertainty concerning the magnitude of the effect of such interventions. We conducted a country-wide evaluation of the health effects of the introduction of a smoking ban in public places, using data on hospital admissions for ACEs from the Italian population after the implementation of a national smoking regulation in January 2005. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rates of admission for ACEs in the 20 Italian regions from January 2002 to November 2006 were analysed using mixed-effect regression models that allowed for long-term trends and seasonality. Standard methods for interrupted time-series were adopted to assess the immediate and gradual effects of the smoking ban. Effect modification by age was investigated, with the assumption that exposure to passive smoking in public places would be greater among young people. In total, 936,519 hospital admissions for ACEs occurred in the Italian population during the study period. A 4% reduction in hospital admissions for ACEs among persons aged less than 70 years was evident after the introduction of the ban (Rate Ratio [RR], 0.96; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.95-0.98. No effect was found among persons aged at least 70 years (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.02. Effect modification by age was further suggested by analyses using narrower age categories. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke-free policies can constitute a simple and inexpensive intervention for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and thus should be included in prevention programmes.

  1. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purgato, M.; Gross, A.L.; Jordans, M.J.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.; Barbui, C.; Tol, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this

  2. Evaluation of health benefits and harms of the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country using discrete event simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arrospide (Arantzazu); M. Rue (Montserrat); N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); M. Comas (Merce); N. Larrañaga (Nerea); G. Sarriugarte (Garbiñe); J. Mar (Javier)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Since the breast cancer screening programme in the Basque Country (BCSPBC) was started in 1996, more than 400,000 women aged 50 to 69 years have been invited to participate. Based on epidemiological observations and simulation techniques it is possible to extend observed

  3. From ‘Seeing’ to ‘Seizing’ Opportunity: Critical Events, Turning Points and Ethnolinguistic Mobilization in the Basque Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how social movement actors carry out the transition from ‘seeing’ to ‘seizing’ critical events as empowering structures of political opportunity. Drawing on qualitative data, the discussion looks at how Basque language activists affiliated with the ikastola schooling movement

  4. TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE JOURNALISM EVENT IN SOCIAL NETWORKS: FROM THE MOBILIZATIONS AGAINST HOMOPHOBIA TO THE CRISIS OF A COUNTRY MUSIC DUO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Mendes Höehr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results of a research that investigates the creation of events through social networking sites on the Internet. There is already a specific type of event that serves the logic of these networks, especially those whose production and distribution take place based on online platforms and digital tools. This paper investigates two cases: the first concerns the duo of Brazilian country music singers, Zezé di Camargo and Luciano, who, after an argument that occurred in a concert in the city of Curitiba, announced the end of the partnership. The video was posted on YouTube and was immediately spread through the social networks, which generated intense conversation about the episode until it became a journalistic event in the traditional media. This paper also examines the organization of a protest against the attack on a homoaffective couple in a street of São Paulo in 2011, completely worked on by Facebook. Based on Charles Sanders Peirce’s concept of semiosis, a map of the construction of these events is drawn with its various ramifications, from the articulations within the network to the production of meanings that they develop. The events studied have as an element in common the leading role that social networks had in their constitution. They possess the nature of the network and are framed in what is understood now as cyberevents, a category that poses new challenges to the practice of journalism.

  5. Severe Anemia with Hemoperitoneum as a First Presentation for Multinodular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rare Event in Western Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein Swe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma is a life-threatening and rare condition in western countries with an incidence of less than 3% because of early detection of cirrhosis and neoplasm. Here, we describe a case of a 66-year-old male patient with altered mental status with hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography scan of abdomen revealed hemoperitoneum and mass in liver. Patient underwent resection of liver tumor and biopsy revealed multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma. A high degree of suspicion is required where severe anemia and hemoperitoneum can be a first presentation for hepatocellular carcinoma especially in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Early diagnosis is crucial since mortality rates remain high for untreated cases.

  6. The first ever Cochrane event in Russia and Russian speaking countries - Cochrane Russia Launch - Evidence-based medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziganshina, Liliya Eugenevna; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Kazan hosted Russia's second International Conference QiQUM 2015 on Cochrane evidence for health policy, which was entirely independent of the pharmaceutical or other health industry, bringing together 259 participants from 11 countries and 13 regions of the Russian Federation. The Conference...... was greeted and endorsed by world leaders in Evidence-based medicine, health and pharmaceutical information, policy and regulation, and the World Health Organization. Participants discussed the professional and social problems arising from biased health information, unethical pharmaceutical promotion......, misleading reporting of clinical trials with consequent flaws in health care delivery and the role of Cochrane evidence for informed decisions and better health. The first in history Cochrane workshop, facilitated jointly by experts from Cochrane and the WHO, with 40 participants from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan...

  7. Psychosocial interventions for children exposed to traumatic events in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purgato, Marianna; Gross, Alden L; Jordans, Mark J D; de Jong, Joop T V M; Barbui, Corrado; Tol, Wietse

    2014-04-11

    The burden of mental health and psychosocial problems in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low- and middle-income countries is substantial. An increasing number of randomized studies has shown promising effects of psychosocial interventions, but this evidence has shown complexity with regard to setting, conflict-phase, gender, and age. These complex findings raise the need of a detailed evaluation of the specific factors which influence size and direction of intervention effects.Individual patient data meta-analysis is a specific type of meta-analysis that allows the collection of exact information at an individual patient level, and to examine whether intervention and socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables, environmental conditions, and social support may act as moderators and mediators of intervention effect.The aim of the present study is to carry out an individual patient data meta-analysis using data from all available randomized controlled trials (either published or unpublished) comparing psychosocial intervention with waiting list or no intervention arms in children exposed to traumatic events living in low- and middle-income countries. All randomized trials comparing selective preventive psychosocial intervention versus waiting list or no treatment conditions in children (0-18 years) living in low- and middle-income countries will be included. Studies will be identified in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. There will be no restrictions on publication type, status, language, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be psychological symptoms (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (coping methods, social support, self-esteem), and function impairment. We are expecting that some variables, like socio-demographic characteristics, trauma-related variables

  8. Experiences and Lessons From Implementing Cohort Event Monitoring Programmes for Antimalarials in Four African Countries: Results of a Questionnaire-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suku, Comfort Kunak; Hill, Geraldine; Sabblah, George; Darko, Mimi; Muthuri, George; Abwao, Edward; Pandit, Jayesh; Osakwe, Adeline Ijeoma; Elagbaje, Cassandra; Nyambayo, Priscilla; Khoza, Star; Dodoo, Alexander N; Pal, Shanthi Narayan

    2015-11-01

    Cohort event monitoring (CEM) is an intensive method of post-marketing surveillance for medicines safety. The method is based on prescription event monitoring, which began in the 1970s, and has since been adapted by WHO for monitoring the safety of medicines used in Public Health Programmes. CEM aims to capture all adverse events that occur in a defined group of patients after starting treatment with a specific medicine during the course of routine clinical practice. The aims of this study were to describe the experiences of National Pharmacovigilance Centres (NCs) that have used CEM to monitor artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria in the African setting, to raise awareness of some of the challenges encountered during implementation and to highlight aspects of the method that require further consideration. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to capture the experiences of NCs that have implemented CEM for active post-marketing surveillance of antimalarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa. Six NCs were identified as having implemented CEM programmes and were invited to participate in the survey; five NCs indicated willingness to participate and were sent the questionnaire to complete. Four NCs responded to the survey-Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Zimbabwe-providing information on the implementation of a total of six CEM programmes. Their experiences indicate that CEM has helped to build pharmacovigilance capacity within the participating NCs and at the monitoring sites, and that healthcare providers (HCPs) are generally willing to participate in implementing the CEM method. All of the programmes took longer than expected to complete: contributing factors included a prolonged enrolment period and unexpectedly slow data entry. All of the programmes exceeded their budget by 11.1-63.2 %. Data management was identified as a challenge for all participating NCs. The reported experiences of four NCs that have undertaken CEM studies on ACTs

  9. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  10. Assigning historic responsibility for extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent scientific advances make it possible to assign extreme events to human-induced climate change and historical emissions. These developments allow losses and damage associated with such events to be assigned country-level responsibility.

  11. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can......The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  12. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  13. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  14. The first ever Cochrane event in Russia and Russian speaking countries - Cochrane Russia Launch - Evidence-based medicine: Achievements and barriers (QiQUM 2015) International Conference, Kazan, December 7-8, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, Liliya Eugenevna; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Kazan hosted Russia's second International Conference QiQUM 2015 on Cochrane evidence for health policy, which was entirely independent of the pharmaceutical or other health industry, bringing together 259 participants from 11 countries and 13 regions of the Russian Federation. The Conference was greeted and endorsed by world leaders in Evidence-based medicine, health and pharmaceutical information, policy and regulation, and the World Health Organization. Participants discussed the professional and social problems arising from biased health information, unethical pharmaceutical promotion, misleading reporting of clinical trials with consequent flaws in health care delivery and the role of Cochrane evidence for informed decisions and better health. The first in history Cochrane workshop, facilitated jointly by experts from Cochrane and the WHO, with 40 participants from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Russia introduced the concept of Cochrane systematic review and the Use of Cochrane evidence in WHO policy setting. Websites document conference materials and provide interface for future collaboration: http://kpfu.ru/biology-medicine/struktura-instituta/kafedry/kfikf/konferenciya/mezhdunarodnaya-konferenciya-39dokazatelnaya.html and http://russia.cochrane.org/news/international-conference.

  15. Topography's event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    measure is not there alone since you measure it in something both visual, physical and shaped by views and ideas of society; something thought and abstract. Such knowledge point out the need for being able to measure other factors that visual and physical. Metrical and proportional view of the world seems...... - to stimulate and elaborate the event of conception and topological thinking....

  16. Topography's event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    The aim of the paper is first to discuss how horizon and scale can be understood, secondly how they differ and what they might have in common? If topography can be seen as a way of working with these relations experiences, creations and latencies? Thirdly if diagrams and diagrammatology can bring...... - to stimulate and elaborate the event of conception and topological thinking....

  17. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  18. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  19. Subnational insolvency : cross-country experiences and lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lili; Waibel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subnational insolvency is a reoccurring event in development, as demonstrated by historical and modern episodes of subnational defaults in both developed and developing countries. Insolvency procedures become more important as countries decentralize expenditure, taxation, and borrowing, and broaden subnational credit markets. As the first cross-country survey of procedures to resolve subna...

  20. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  1. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  3. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...... available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries...

  4. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess ...

  6. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 Techno Security Conference The Eighth Annual International Techno Security Conference Further information : June 4-7, 2006 Myrtle Beach Marriott Resort 8400 Costa Verde Drive Myrtle Beach, SC 29572 Medical Forensic Management of Adult Sexual Assault 16-18 June 2006, Auckland Further information : Marion Davis Library Building 43, Auckland Hospital, Park Road, Grafton Auckland The 6th Annual Digital Forensic Research Workshop (DFRWS 2006 August 14-16, 2006-09-13 Further information : Purdue University Lafayette, Indiana, USA www.dfrws.org The 2006 Techno Forensics Conference November 6 - 8, 2006 Further information : Inaugural Techno Forensics Conference at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 100 Bureau Drive Administration Bldg. 101 Gaithersburg, MD 20899 http://www.techsec.com/html/TechnoForensics2006.htm The Second Islamic Countries Forensic Medicine Congress The Second Conference of Arab Forensic Pathologists and Physicians Union The First Jordanian International Conference on Forensic Sciences and Medicine 5-8 September 2006, Amman Jordan Further information : Dr Hani Jahshan Emaihhani.jahshan@jsfms.org Tel: +962 (7 5522062 http://www.jsfms.org/ Forensic Science Society Conferences 11 September 2006, United Kingdom Further information : Advances in Forensic DNA Analysis Joint Conference with Centre for Forensic Investigation, University of Teesside Innovation Centre, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough conference@forensic-science-society.org.uk Environmental Forensics Meeting: Chemical, Physical and Biological Methods, 18 - 21 September 2006, United Kingdom Further information : University of Durham, Durham, UK Contact: Rebecca Quine, Conference Promotion Executive quiner@rsc.org Forensic Neuropathology Meeting 28 September 2006,United Kingdom Further information : Royal College of Pathologists, 2 Carlton House Terrace, London, SW1Y 5AF Michelle Casey for Tel: 020 7451 6740 Email: michelle

  7. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2006-04-01

    University Lafayette, Indiana, USA www.dfrws.org XXth Congress of International Academy of Legal Medicine in Budapest 23-26 August 2006, Hungary Venue: Corvinus University Budapest, Hungary Preliminary scientific programme: Collaboration and information exchange among specialist on an international level related to the discipline of Legal Medicine Main topics: Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Forensic Toxicology, Forensic Genetics, Forensic Anthropology and Odontology, Forensic Entomology, Forensic Psychiatry and Criminology, Forensic Psychlogy, Doping,Medical Law, Insurance Medicine, Free communications and Poster session For more information: Congress Secretariat Contact person: Alice Sipos MOTESZ Congress and Travel Agency H-1443 Budapest, POB 145. Tel.: +36 1 311 66 87; Fax: +36 1 383 79 18; E-mail: congress@motesz.hu; Internet: www.motesz. hu The 2006 Techno Forensics Conference 6-8 November, 2006 Further information: Inaugural Techno Forensics Conference at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 100 Bureau Drive Administration Bldg. 101 Gaithersburg, MD 20899 http://www.techsec.com/html/TechnoForensics2006.htm The Second Islamic Countries Forensic Medicine Congress The Second Conference of Arab Forensic Pathologists and Physicians Union The First Jordanian International Conference on Forensic Sciences and Medicine 5-8 September 2006, Amman Jordan Further information: Dr Hani Jahshan Emaihhani.jahshan@jsfms.org Tel: +962 (7 5522062 http : //www .jsfms.org/ Forensic Science Society Conferences 11 September 2006, United Kingdom Further information: Advances in Forensic DNA Analysis Joint Conference with Centre for Forensic Investigation, University of Teesside Innovation Centre, University of Teesside, Middlesbrough mailto:conference@forensic-science-society.org.uk Environmental Forensics Meeting: Chemical, Physical and Biological Methods, 18-21 September 2006, United Kingdom Further information: University of Durham, Durham, UK Contact: Rebecca Quine

  8. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...

  9. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2010-04-01

    ://www.amc.edu/Academic/CME/ Upcoming_ Events.html QCLG-meeting 2011 26 November 2011, 29 November 2011 Brussels, Belgium URL: http://www.enfsi.eu/page.php?uid=2 ENFSI Joint Meeting 01 December 2011, 02 December 2011 The Hague (NFI, The Netherlands URL: http://www.enfsi.eu/page.php?uid=2 Bloodstain Pattern Recognition - Basic course 05 December 2011, 09 December 2011 The Hague, The Netherlands URL: http://www.enfsi.eu/page.php?uid= Expert Witness Intensive Training Course - 2 Day December 8th to 9th 2011 United Kingdom /London URL: http://www.healthcareconferencesuk.co.uk/ expert_witness 6th USA Pacific Medical & Legal Conference December 13th to 20th 2011 New York /USA URL: http://www.conferences21 .com/index.php? menu=home 12th Annual Multispecialty Conference on Medical Negligence & Risk Management in Medicine, Surgery, Emergency Medicine, Radiology & Family Medicine January 5th to 8th 2012 Costa Rica / URL http://www.bumc.bu.edu/cme/educational-opportunities/live-meetings/oblawl2/ 16th Annual Europe Pacific Medical & Legal Conference January 8th to 15th 2012 Italy /Cortina D’Ampezzo URL: http://www.conferences21.com/index.php? menu = home 3rd International Workshop on Medical Image Analysis and Description for Diagnosis Systems(MIAD 2012 1- 4 February 2012 Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal URL: http://www.biostec.org/MIAD.asp 3rd International Conference on Current Trends in Forensic Sciences, Forensic Medicine & Toxicology February 3rd to 5th 2012 India /Jaipur URL: http://www.iamleconf.in/home 3rd International Conference on Legal Medicine, Medical Negligence & Litigation in Medical Practice February 3rd to 5th 2012 India /Jaipur URL http://www.iamleconf.in/ 12th Annual Pan Europe Pacific Medical & Legal Conference February 5th to 12th 2012 France /Paris URL: http://www.conferences21.com/index.php? menu=home American College of Legal Medicine 2012 Annual Conference February 23rd to 26th 2012 Louisiana /New Orleans USA URL: http://www.aclm.org/

  10. Event Index - an LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index | an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  11. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA (800) ...

  12. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  13. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As recent events in Southeast Asia have demonstrated, the fragility of a country's financial sector can have severe macroeconomic consequences, affecting its ability to manufacture, import, and export. Through a combination of case studies and theoretical papers, this book addresses this vital issue by examining the ...

  14. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As recent events in Southeast Asia have demonstrated, the fragility of a country's financial sector can have severe macroeconomic consequences, affecting its ability to manufacture, import, and export. Through a combination of case studies and theoretical papers, this book addresses this vital issue by examining the ...

  15. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    , Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...... overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2014 review includes one new country...

  16. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  17. International Sport Events: Improving Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kerzaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The report and the article will be a comprehensive analysis ofthe needs to improve the international sport events marketing.Highlighting the role of international sport events in contemporarysociety and the challenges in the context of globalization,comparing opinions of various authors about aspects of classificationand the benefits for host country. The article and the reportreveals the main existing problem encountered in organizinginternational sport events, estimated perspectives for solutionof this problem. Summarizes the international sport eventsopportunities, basically modernize marketing tools according tothe marketing mix correction based on systematic synthesis ofmarketing concepts and adaptation/standardization needs, themost important factors in the marketing mix for the excretion ofthe main marketing objectives. The article is based on the latestscientific literature analysis.

  18. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  19. Day Care: Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartarson, Freida; And Others

    This collection of 5 bilingual papers on day care programs in foreign countries (China, the Soviet Union, and 3 Scandinavian countries) is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I considers day care services in…

  20. Nordic Countries: Denmark 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund; Anker, Helle Tegner

    2017-01-01

    https://academic.oup.com/yielaw/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/yiel/yvw031/3084445/6-Nordic-CountriesA-Denmark......https://academic.oup.com/yielaw/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/yiel/yvw031/3084445/6-Nordic-CountriesA-Denmark...

  1. Country Profiles, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel; Thapa, Rita

    A profile of Nepal is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population--size, growth patterns, age/sex structure, geographical distribution, topographical obstacles, ethnic and religious…

  2. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  3. Extreme Events: The Indian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, K. S.

    2008-05-01

    The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, extreme and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other extreme natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, extreme rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though

  4. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  5. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  6. Cambodia: Country Gender Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a profile of gender equity in Cambodia. Recognizing significant achievements in reducing gender gaps, it also notes significant challenges in a country where traditional norms and low levels of education and literacy still limit girls’ and women’s options. Cambodia ranks 91st out of 109 countries, according to the Gender Empowerment Measure. The publication offers an institutional assessment of the laws, policies, and the national machinery for gender equity and wome...

  7. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  8. National Special Security Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    ...) as National Special Security Events (NSSE) Beginning in September 1998 through February 2007, there have been 27 events designated as NSSEs Some of these events have included presidential inaugurations, presidential nominating conventions...

  9. Country branding: an imperative for developing countries | Akotia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country branding which is about employing strategic marketing to promote a country's identity has become a strategic tool of a country's competitiveness. ... countries entrenched in the poverty cycle there is more than persuasive rationale for country branding strategy to direct the full range of political, economic, cultural and ...

  10. Tales From Two Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines...... but their branding strategies are different, why? This paper situates their strategic differences in the local social, cultural and political context. Although country branding is externally directed, domestic politics and mechanisms of local control affect how the country can brand itself. Keywords: place branding......, branding strategies, Denmark, Singapore, tourism, destination...

  11. Countries in transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    during the dark years of the military dic- tatorship helped nurture a core group of researchers ready to set their country on the road to democracy. Few scholars ... Morocco's e-Mtiaz prize for electronic administration in 2006, and the Technol- ogy in Government in Africa and United. Nations Public Service awards in 2007.

  12. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  13. COUNTRIES IN TRANSITION

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    the early stages, capacity building might necessarily precede actual research. Above all, the particular features of any real or impending transition place a high value on strategic intelligence about local conditions. That means knowing the country, its politics, and its potential research partners even before research starts.

  14. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  15. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  16. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  17. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based on internatio......INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... 6.8-8.1 between the countries. Cardiac disease (n=29) was the most frequent cause of death followed by preeclampsia (n=24), thromboembolism (n=20), and suicide (n=20). Improvements to care which could potentially have made a difference to the outcome were identified in 1/3 of the deaths, i.......e. in as many as 60% of preeclamptic, 45% of thromboembolic, and 32% of the deaths from cardiac disease. CONCLUSION: Direct deaths exceeded indirect maternal deaths in the Nordic countries. To reduce maternal deaths increased efforts to better implement existing clinical guidelines seem warranted, particularly...

  18. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  19. An infrastructural event: Making sense of Panama’s drought

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley Carse

    2017-01-01

    .... This article analyses a 2015-16 drought in Panama, typically among the world’s rainiest countries, to argue that some droughts might also be usefully conceptualised as infrastructural events...

  20. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  1. Macroeconomics in develpoing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.

  2. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  3. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  4. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  5. Tales From Two Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines the branding strategies of two very different countries – Denmark and Singapore. In Singapore, the convergence between the brand message and the place reality is frequently engineered by creating new brand...

  6. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  7. Marketing in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  8. Co-design Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Eriksen, Mette Agger

    2010-01-01

    One powerful co-design event is worth a thousand hours of individual work! Driving Innovation as a series of co-design events helps mobilize and involve all stakeholders to explore present everyday practices and to sketch new possible futures. But what makes a co-design event powerful? And why...... are series of events better than a sequence of deliverables and milestones in keeping innovation on track?...

  9. Event Modelling in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Latest tests of double parton scattering, underlying event tunes, minimum bias, and diffraction made by comparing CMS Run I and Run II data to the state-of-the-art theoretical predictions interfaced with up-to-date parton shower codes are presented. Studies to derive and to test the new CMS event tune obtained through jet kinematics in top quark pair events and global event variables are described.

  10. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management meetings; employee ... are responsible for demonstrating the highest standard of ethical conduct as outlined in the IDRC ... All other events such as social events, the Government of Canada Workplace Charitable. Campaign ...

  11. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for in your child and how to take care of your child after a traumatic event. Get professional help if your child is not recovering. Kinds of Traumatic Events Your child could experience a one-time traumatic event or a repeated trauma that happens over and over again. Examples of ...

  12. National vulnerability to extreme climatic events: the cases of electricity disruption in China and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Li Fan; Qiao-Mei Liang; Xiao-Jie Liang; Hirokazu Tatano; Yoshio Kajitani; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events are likely to adversely affect many countries throughout the world, but the degrees among countries may be different. China and Japan are the countries with high incidences of extreme weather/disaster, both facing with the urgent task of addressing climate change. This study seeks to quantitatively compare the impacts of extreme climatic events on socio-economic systems (defined as vulnerability) of the two countries by simulating the consequences of hypothetical the s...

  13. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  14. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  15. The impact of extreme weather events on budget balances and implications for fiscal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lis, Eliza M.; Nickel, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores implications of climate change for fiscal policy by assessing the impact of large scale extreme weather events on changes in public budgets. We apply alternative measures for large scale extreme weather events and conclude that the budgetary impact of such events ranges between 0.23% and 1.1% of GDP depending on the country group. Developing countries face a much larger effect on changes in budget balances following an extreme weather event than do advanced economies. Base...

  16. Tamworth, Australia's "Country Music Capital": Place Marketing, Rurality, and Resident Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Chris; Davidson, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Tamworth has become well known as Australia's "country music capital". Its annual Country and Western Music Festival has become the leading event of its type in Australia, attracting over 60,000 visitors every year. The festival, and country music more generally, have become central to the town's identity and tourism…

  17. Influence of country brand slogan and logo in country positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pipoli de Azambuja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To build the image of a country minds consumers’ minds, countries apply marketing strategies that are based on their country brand development, in the same way that companies apply marketing to their products and services. The development of the logo and slogan to be used in the communication strategy, are two key elements of its success in the process of building the country brand (Keller 2008. Thus the objective of this research is to know the importance of using the logo and slogan in international marketing strategies of countries. To do this, this research analyzes the use of the logo and slogan, in country brand strategies of countries in the top places in the Country Brand Index (2009 of Future Brand.

  18. Sport events and their socio-economic impact: residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport events have become big business as countries as well as cities are competing fi ercely to host major events. The purpose of this article is to determine the economic impact of visitor spending during the annual Cape Argus Pick 'n Pay Cycle Tour. Direct spending was determined based on a survey consisting of 583 ...

  19. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  20. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  1. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  2. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  3. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  4. Country watch: Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado Carreon, L

    1998-01-01

    The Asian Regional Conference on Gender and Communication, held in the Philippines, developed a plan of action to improve the portrayal of women in the mass media. Even in developing countries with traditional attitudes toward women, pornographic-type images are used to boost product sales. The conference's recommendations address the challenges posed by globalization of the media, commercialization of local media, and the increased violation of women's human rights in the media and the question of who has control over the media. After the conference, ISIS Maila assembled a report, "Status of Women and Media: Focus on Violence Against Women," which will be presented at a forum held during the 1998 meeting of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. Gender justice for women in the media requires collaboration among media specialists, women's groups, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, and local and regional networks.

  5. Implications of event attribution for loss and damage policy

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Hannah R.; Cornforth, Rosalind; Boyd, Emily; James, Rachel; Otto, Friedericke E. L.; Allen, Myles R.

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has established the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) to deal with loss and damage associated with climate change impacts, including extreme events, in developing countries. It is not yet known whether events will need to be attributed to anthropogenic climate change to be considered under the WIM. Attribution is possible for some extreme events- a climate model assessment can estimate how greenhouse gas emissions have affe...

  6. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  7. of epilepsy in tropical countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF EPILEPSY IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES. Institut d'Epidémiologie ... country or in different countries (up to 9999 subjects), and .... tal retardation when IQ is between 50 and 70 and severe men- tal retardation when IQ is below 50. The IQ system is not however indispensable and the doctor should do a global eva- luation of ...

  8. Educational Planning in Small Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark

    For years, international literature has neglected the special features of educational planning in small countries. The recognition of small countries has increased over the last two decades, as they have begun to play a more important role in world politics. This three-part book evaluates the nature of the ecology of small countries and its…

  9. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  10. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  11. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  12. The ATLAS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Vandelli, W; Battaglia, A; Beck, H P; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W; Haberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, B; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    2008-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three-level trigger system, which, at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2), reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz to $sim$3~kHz. At this rate, the Event Builder collects the data from the readout system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the Event Filter (EF). The EF is the third trigger level and its aim is to achieve a further rate reduction to $sim$200~Hz on the permanent storage. The Event Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via a Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs, and substantial fractions of the Event Builder and Event Filter PCs have been installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which is capable of going beyond the required data rates and bandwidths for Event Building for the ATLAS experiment.

  13. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  14. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  15. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... Evening meal events for Governors, held in connection with Board meetings, must not cost more per person than 2.625 times the applicable meal allowance. The Chair of the Board must authorize any exception to the provision of this paragraph. Overnight stays related to events (other than conferences and ...

  16. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  17. Burundi: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsum, L

    1988-10-01

    One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.

  18. Swaziland: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, L

    1988-06-01

    Although Swaziland had been independent from colonialism for 20 years, a powerful monarch, King Mswati II, continues to control the country's political, religious, and social system. Swaziland has a population of 676,000, half of whom are under 15 years of age. The infant mortality rate is 105/1000 live births and 25% of children die before they reach their 5th birthday. Life expectancy is 54 years. Tribal chiefs, representing the king, hold and distribute about half of the national land. Most of the fertile land remains in the hands of white settler farmers. The concentration of income in foreign companies and urban centers has exacerbated poverty in rural areas. Depreciation of rand-linked local currency has boosted export earnings, but it has also raised the price of food and medical imports. Swaziland's main exports are sugar, wood pulp, chemicals, and fruit, most of which go to the UK and South Africa. The major food crops are maize, beans, groundnuts, and sorghum. About half of the working population is engaged in small-scale subsistence farming, but food yields are declining. The major producers are foreign companies attracted by Swaziland's low taxes and cheap labor supply.

  19. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  20. Mega sport event legacies and the 2010 FIFA World Cup | Swart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both developing and developed countries are attracted to hosting mega sport events. The FIFA World Cup is regarded as a prestigious event and for the first time in its history Africa hosted the 2010 tournament in South Africa. There are considerable debates pertaining to the capability of developing countries to host mega ...

  1. Country watch: Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrawi, S R; Blimbingsari, S

    1996-01-01

    Together with the Ford Foundation and Lentera PKBI-DIY, a nongovernmental organization (NGO) working on HIV and AIDS issues, the Yogyakarta Institute of Education, Research and Publication (LP3Y) started a program known as the "AIDS Media Center and Training for Journalists (PMP-AIDS)." 27 journalists attended the first workshop in 1994; medical and social experts spoke, and participants received a handbook describing methods of reporting HIV and AIDS with empathy and understanding, rather than with sensationalism. "Emphatic Journalism" was defined as "compassionate journalism that empowers society through its reporting of reality." The handbook, which is entitled "11 Langkah Memahami AIDS" (Eleven Steps to Understanding AIDS), was distributed free of charge to all Indonesian journalists beginning in 1995. The Center provides free HIV/AIDS data on a computer-based bulletin board system which is accessible 24 hours a day; information is also available free of charge by phone or fax. The Center's AIDS newsletter is available in printed form and on the Internet in both English and Bahasa Indonesian. The Center has conducted six more workshops for 123 journalists since the first one in 1994. Applicants are screened and evaluated; for selected participants, all expenses during the 4-day workshop are covered by the Center. After the workshop, the articles of participants are evaluated for empathy, critical attitude, and positive thought. Annual writing competitions are conducted; the prizes are opportunities to cover international events.

  2. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  3. News and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research staff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  4. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  5. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  6. Event visualization in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, R. M.; Boudreau, J.; Konstantinidis, N.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Moyse, E.; Thomas, J.; Waugh, B. M.; Yallup, D. P.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  7. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  8. CCG - News & Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  9. Discrete Event Simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. Discrete Event Simulation. Matthew Jacob ... Keywords. Simulation; modelling; computer programming. Author Affiliations. Matthew Jacob1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.

  10. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  11. QCD (&) event generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  12. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  13. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  14. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  15. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  16. Seismic event classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  17. Analysis of Tsunami Culture in Countries Affected by Recent Tsunamis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Shibayama, T.; Mikami, T.; Ohira, K.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 there is a growing global awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries (such as Chile and Japan), in many other places they had been virtually unheard of before 2004.

  18. Teaching about the Holocaust in Less Impacted Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines reasons for teaching about the Holocaust in countries only marginally impacted by these events. Against the backdrop of a recent global study showing that anti-Semitism is still quite pervasive around the globe, an attempt is made to show in what ways teaching about the Holocaust can affect attitudes of young people toward…

  19. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  20. Kenya mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiima, David Musau; Njenga, Frank G; Okonji, Max M O; Kigamwa, Pius A

    2004-01-01

    The Kenya country profile is a description of Kenya covering the demographic, economic, cultural, religious, and health aspects including mental health in the country today. Like any other developing countries, Kenya is faced today with major challenges in terms of poverty, economic decline, and lack of adequate resources to meet the health needs and demands, including the mental health of the population. The situational analysis is described in the country profile with a snapshot of the approach in terms of objectives to address the way forward for Kenya.

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  2. Refugees in Africa: A Country by Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Washington, DC.

    The status of the refugees in Africa and the work of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is charted on a country by country basis in this report. The size of the refugee population and their needs are described along with various assistance efforts directed at improving their situation. Sums of money spent by UNHCR office are…

  3. South African mega-events and their impact on tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Karly Spronk; Johan Fourie

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 FIFA World Cup, one of the largest mega-sport events, has stirred renewed interest in the benefits that a host country can derive from these events. While most predict a large increase in the number of tourist arrivals, the recent international literature suggest that ex ante studies are often too optimistic. South Africa has played host to numerous mega-events since 1994. Using a time-series auto-regressive model, we identify increases in tourism numbers for most of these events, co...

  4. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  5. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  6. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  7. Do all countries grow alike?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Economidou, C.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.

    This paper investigates the driving forces of output change in 77 countries during the period 1970-2000. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for (i) the inefficient use of resources, and (ii) different production technologies across countries. The proposed model can identify

  8. Lumpy countries, urbanization, and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Lumpiness of production factors within a country might overturn the Heckscher-Ohlin (HO) model's predictions for the factor content of trade. Trade patterns, as predicted by this model, can both be magnified or reversed by uneven concentration of production factors within a country. Cities are the

  9. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Togo

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ROSC assessment of corporate governance in Togo is to help improve corporate governance in the country by assessing law and practice, suggesting reforms, and supporting the country in its effort to implement changes for better corporate governance. Corporate governance refers to the structures and processes for the direction and control of companies. Corporate governanc...

  10. First Indico Virtual Event

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The first Indico virtual event will take place on February 4th 15:00 and will focus on two main topics The release of Indico v1.2 The migration of the OO Indico backend database (ZODB) to a more standard DBMS It will be fully virtual using the CERN Vidyo service and will foster discussions between developers and administrators of Indico servers worldwide. Connections to the virtual room will be open, but attendees are encouraged to register to the event, in order to be informed of any changes in the organisation if any. If you would like to add a topic of discussion or propose yourself a contribution, please let us know at indico-team@cern.ch. Connection to Vidyo Vidyo connection details are available here CERN Vidyo service documentation can be found here First-time users are encouraged to try the service before connecting to the real event

  11. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  12. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  13. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  14. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  15. TRANSITION COUNTRIES TOWARDS INTERNATIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazmend Qorraj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the transition countries in Europe had significant benefits from the EU enlargement but the positive effects depend also from the structure of the economy and reforms of these countries. It’s important to analyze: if transition countries ensured sustainable economic reforms or just short term stability and emergent solutions. This paper will address international competitiveness which is the main challenge for the transition countries but also for the EU. First, monopoly position of some international firms in local markets and lack of creativity and innovations of the local firms, especially in Western Balkans due to lack of institutional support and non-stable business environment. The problem of creativity and lack of innovations by the firms is also a serious issue for the EU countries. The second important issue is large productivity gap. The recent global financial crisis as well as EU crises present the difficulties in the Euro zone and highlighted the interdependence of national economies and the convergence problems within European Union. The third challenge is absorption capacity for the structural and cohesion funds. The past experience of Central European countries shows that success in effectively using the EU financial and technical assistance is positively related with the success of countries on creating sustainable economic development and international competitiveness. Fourth issue is that some transition countries achieved economic growth but due to unequal distribution of welfare on these countries there is no significant reduce of unemployment and social cohesion. Last but not least the international competitiveness in most of the countries is harmed by the lack of functional institutions due to high level of corruption, inefficiency, rule of law, the lack of transparency and accountability.

  16. District heat in Europe. Country by country. 2003 Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview on the latest development of the CHP/DHC (Combined Heat and Power generation and District Heating and Cooling) sector from Iceland to Croatia. For each of the 22 countries covered, it reflects on market developments, policy and legislative framework the context of new European Union priorities, regulation and taxation aspects. It also includes statistical information, elements related to promotion and future prospects for CHP/DHC sector in surveyed countries. For the first time, each country report dedicates a specific chapter to District Cooling.

  17. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  18. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  19. Event Management for Teacher-Coaches: Risk and Supervision Considerations for School-Based Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiement, Craig A.; Payment, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    A professional sports event requires considerable planning in which years are devoted to the success of that single activity. School-based sports events do not have that luxury, because high schools across the country host athletic events nearly every day. It is not uncommon during the fall sports season for a combination of boys' and girls'…

  20. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... Training events that relate to ensuring that employees are qualified to perform their assigned duties – for instance, acquiring or maintaining professional accreditations of recognized professional bodies as required by the employees to practice their profession; and membership to such professional bodies;.

  1. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc...

  2. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  3. Print Centre Event 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hadbavny, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  4. Print Centre Event 3

    OpenAIRE

    Hadbavny, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  5. Language As Social Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  6. Business Event Notification Service (BENS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — BENS provides a notification of pre-defined business events to applications, portals, and automated business processes. Such events are defined in the Event Catalog,...

  7. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related...... activities inside and outside an IT-system. We use event-activity diagrams to model activity. Such diagrams support the modeling of activity flow, object flow, shared events, triggering events, and interrupting events....

  8. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities......This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...

  9. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  10. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  11. The Method of Event Determination Registered on the Event Source

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Vasilevich Kuznetcov

    2016-01-01

    In this article the method of event determination registered into audit trails on the event source based on solution of linear programming task is described. This method allows optimizing the event management process within an information security management system by quantity of incidents. This method considers restrictions related to performance of the event source.

  12. The Method of Event Determination Registered on the Event Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vasilevich Kuznetcov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the method of event determination registered into audit trails on the event source based on solution of linear programming task is described. This method allows optimizing the event management process within an information security management system by quantity of incidents. This method considers restrictions related to performance of the event source.

  13. A country thirsty for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Following the recent crisis, the Turkish economy has been regaining strength and experts are again warning of future energy supply bottlenecks. In view of the high energy import dependency, the country is now increasingly focusing on alternative solutions. (orig.)

  14. Nutritional blindness in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Gross

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Of the world's estimated forty two million blind population ninety percent live in the Southern countries. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. Nutritional blindness in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Elna Gross

    1997-01-01

    Of the world's estimated forty two million blind population ninety percent live in the Southern countries. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  16. REDD+ Readiness progress across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, P.A.; Noordwijk, van M.; Duguma, L.A.; Alemagi, D.; Do, T.H.; Bernard, F.; Agung, P.; Robiglio, V.; Catacutan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) have grown in importance in developing countries following negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

  17. Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Sameeksha

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries. Three important dichotomies in the research on entrepreneurship are discussed: formal-informal, legal-illegal, and necessity-opportunity. Several common measures of entrepreneurship are outlined along with their relevance to developing countries, including self-employment, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey data and OECD data. The implications o...

  18. Collective bargaining in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarche, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Because theoretical arguments differ on the economic impact of collective bargaining agreements in developing countries, empirical studies are needed to provide greater clarity. Recent empirical studies for some Latin American countries have examined whether industry- or firm-level collective bargaining is more advantageous for productivity growth. Although differences in labor market institutions and in coverage of collective bargaining agreements limit the generalizability of the findings, ...

  19. Modelling of Internal Country Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Lionikaitė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of globalization countries increasingly implement various initiatives associated to branding to effectively compete in the global market of capital, labour and knowledge. Most of these initiatives are focused on external markets – they are designed to attract foreign investors, tourists, talented people, etc. However, scientists increasingly emphasize the internal audiences’ importance, efforts to involve internal audiences in the process of country branding has recently emerg...

  20. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  3. Gympie's Country Music Muster: Creating a Cultural Economy from a Local Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rob

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the National Country Music Muster, a country music festival held in a forest outside of Gympie, a town in rural southeast Queensland, Australia, between the period 1982 and 2006 (the first twenty-five years of the event). This article analyses the origins of the Muster, demonstrating how local events…

  4. Chelyabinsk event: injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Popova, O.; Jenniskens, P.; Glazachev, D.

    2017-09-01

    In the morning of 2013 February 15 (at 3:20 UT), a relatively large ( 20m) meteoroid entered the Earth atmosphere in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia and caused an airburst strong enough to create widespread glass damage. This event was observed by numerous eye witnesses. Most recent tally shows that 1613 people asked for medical assistance at hospitals. This paper presents data of injuries of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid obtained through interviews of eyewitnesses and from the official sources.

  5. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  6. Intercorporate Security Event Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kovalev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security controls are prone to false positives and false negatives which can lead to unwanted reputation losses for the bank. The reputational database within the security operations center (SOC and intercorporate correlation of security events are offered as a solution to increase attack detection fidelity. The theses introduce the definition and structure of the reputation, architectures of reputational exchange and the place of intercorporate correlation in overall SOC correlation analysis.

  7. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  8. Pharmacovigilance activities in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Tan-Koi, Wei-Chuen; Kongkaew, Chuenjid

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the current landscape and identify challenges of pharmacovigilance (PV) among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This cross-sectional survey collected data from May 2014 to December 2015. Questionnaires seeking to collect information on resources, processes, roles and responsibility, and functions of PV systems were sent to relevant persons in the ASEAN countries. Functions of PV centers were measured using the minimum World Health Organization requirements for a functional national PV system. Performances of PV centers were measured by the following: (1) the indicators related to the average number of individual case safety reports (ICSR); (2) presence of signal detection activities and subsequent action; and (3) contribution to the global vigilance database. Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam completed the survey. PV systems in four surveyed countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) achieved all aspects of the World Health Organization minimum requirement for a functional national PV system; the remaining countries were deemed to have unclear communication strategies and/or no official advisory committee. Average numbers of recent ICSR national returns ranged from 7 to 3817 reports/year/million population; three countries (Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) demonstrated good performance in reporting system and reported signal detection activities and subsequent actions. All participating countries had submitted ICSRs to the Uppsala Monitoring Center during the survey period (2013-2015). Four participating countries had functional PV systems. PV capacity, functionality, and legislative framework varied depending on local healthcare ecosystem networks. Implementing effective communication strategies and/or technical assistance from the advisory committee are needed to strengthen PV in ASEAN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  9. Physics teaching in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  10. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  11. Assessing patient safety culture in hospitals across countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C; Smits, M; Sorra, J; Huang, C C

    2013-07-01

    It is believed that in order to reduce the number of adverse events, hospitals have to stimulate a more open culture and reflective attitude towards errors and patient safety. The objective is to examine similarities and differences in hospital patient safety culture in three countries: the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. This is a cross-sectional survey study across three countries. A questionnaire, the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS), was disseminated nationwide in the Netherlands, the USA and Taiwan. The study was conducted in 45 hospitals in the Netherlands, 622 in the USA and 74 in Taiwan. A total of 3779 professionals from the participating hospitals in the Netherlands, 196 462 from the USA and 10 146 from Taiwan participated in the study. The main outcome measures of the study were 12 dimensions of patient safety culture, e.g. Teamwork, Organizational learning, Communication openness. Most hospitals in all three countries have high scores on teamwork within units. The area with a high potential for improvement in all three countries is Handoffs and transitions. Differences between countries exist on the following dimensions: Non-punitive response to error, Feedback and communication about error, Communication openness, Management support for patient safety and Organizational learning--continuous improvement. On the whole, US respondents were more positive about the safety culture in their hospitals than Dutch and Taiwanese respondents. Nevertheless, there are even larger differences between hospitals within a country. Comparison of patient safety culture data has shown similarities and differences within and between countries. All three countries can improve areas of their patient safety culture. Countries can identify and share best practices and learn from each other.

  12. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  13. Tourists events in under-developed areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the countries in transition, such as Serbia, event tourism represents a form of tourist offer and marketing directed towards attractive natural and anthropogenic touristic values and localities, with the purpose of their inclusion into important international tourist destinations. Event tourism as a part of overall economic activities, with its own economic effects, has a role in opening of less developed regions towards potential investors manufacturers and consumers and also in improving employment and overall national income. This paper will point out the events in less developed regions of Serbia, as a base for development of touristic and overall economy.

  14. Detection of solar events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  15. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the emergence and evolution of catastrophe models (cat models. Starting with the present context of extreme weather events and features of catastrophic risk (cat risk we’ll make a chronological illustration from a theoretical point of view of the main steps taken for building such models. In this way the importance of interdisciplinary can be observed. The first cat model considered contains three modules. For each of these indentified modules: hazard, vulnerability and financial losses a detailed overview and also an exemplification of a potential case of an earthquake that measures more than 7 on Richter scale occurring nowadays in Bucharest will be provided. The key areas exposed to earthquake in Romania will be identified. Then, based on past catastrophe data and taking into account present conditions of housing stock, insurance coverage and the population of Bucharest the impact will be quantified by determining potential losses. In order to accomplish this work we consider a scenario with data representing average values for: dwelling’s surface, location, finishing works. On each step we’ll make a reference to the earthquake on March 4 1977 to see what would happen today if a similar event occurred. The value of Bucharest housing stock will be determined taking firstly the market value, then the replacement value and ultimately the real value to quantify potential damages. Through this approach we can find the insurance coverage of potential losses and also the uncovered gap. A solution that may be taken into account by public authorities, for example by Bucharest City Hall will be offered: in case such an event occurs the impossibility of paying compensations to insured people, rebuilding infrastructure and public buildings and helping the suffering persons should be avoided. An actively public-private partnership should be created between government authorities, the Natural Disaster Insurance Pool, private

  16. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  17. Analysis of catchments response to severe drought event for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    high deficit in rainfall. The dry spell started at the beginning of the November 1998 and ended in January 1999, provoking serious drought conditions in the country and affecting all ... detail by determining both duration and deficit volume of the event (Figure 1). Accordingly ... commercial and domestic purposes. Rainfall ...

  18. Air Quality Side Event Proposal November 2016 GEO XIII ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which EPA has participated in since 2003, has put out a call for Side Events for its thirteenth annual international Plenary Meeting which is in St. Petersburg, Russia this year during November, 2016. EPA has put on Side Events on Air Quality and Health observational systems at eight of the previous Plenaries. This document is a Side Event proposal regarding air quality, health and next generation monitoring and observations techniques. It is submitted to the GEO Secretariat for consideration. If accepted, there will likely be presentations by EPA and NASA, other GEO Member Countries and UNEP and other GEO Participating Organizations at the Side Event. It is an opportunity to share scientific and technological advances in this area and build partnerships and collaboration. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which EPA has participated in since 2003, has put out a call for Side Events for its thirteenth annual international Plenary Meeting which is in St. Petersburg, Russia this year during November, 2016. EPA has put on Side Events on Air Quality and Health observational systems at eight of the previous Plenaries. This document is a Side Event proposal regarding air quality, health and next generation monitoring and observations techniques.  It is submitted to the GEO Secretariat for consideration. If accepted, there will likely be presentations by EPA and NASA, other GEO Member Countries and UNEP and other GEO P

  19. State-based Event Detection Optimization for Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanglian PENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Detection of patterns in high speed, large volume of event streams has been an important paradigm in many application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP including security monitoring, financial markets analysis and health-care monitoring. To assure real-time responsive complex pattern detection over high volume and speed event streams, efficient event detection techniques have to be designed. Unfortunately evaluation of the Nondeterministic Finite Automaton (NFA based event detection model mainly considers single event query and its optimization. In this paper, we propose multiple event queries evaluation on event streams. In particular, we consider scalable multiple event detection model that shares NFA transfer states of different event queries. For each event query, the event query is parse into NFA and states of the NFA are partitioned into different units. With this partition, the same individual state of NFA is run on different processing nodes, providing states sharing and reducing partial matches maintenance. We compare our state-based approach with Stream-based And Shared Event processing (SASE. Our experiments demonstrate that state-based approach outperforms SASE both on CPU time usage and memory consumption.

  20. Social representation of events in world history: crosscultural consensus or Western discourse? How Turkish students view events in world history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Serap; Ergün, Gökçe

    2013-01-01

    The perceptions of historical events are considered to be an important cultural, political, and social psychological variable. Earlier studies have shown a crosscultural consensus on historical events that are considered to be important. It has been indicated that a strong Western-Christian European template dominates the view of which events are considered to be important events in history, by many samples across the world. It was the aim of this study to test this finding with a Turkish sample, which would represent some unique characteristics in that it is Muslim, comes from an Empire background, and has undergone a recent nation-building process. College students (n = 372) responded to a questionnaire that was utilized in seven other countries. It was shown that Turkish students were not Eurocentric as expected by the literature: They were highly sociocentric; they gave importance to events related to Turkish history. They were similar to their European counterparts in that war and violence were given primary importance when selecting events as important in history. However, they did not behave as predicted by earlier literature: They did not see Western European events as having a primary importance in history but gave at least equal importance to events that originated from Ottoman Empire roots. The results were discussed in terms of the unique cultural and historical variables that contribute to the identity and social psychological attributions of Turkish students. Further research should focus on not only which events are considered as important historical events but also the reasons behind these.

  1. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program.

  2. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  3. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  4. Use Cases of Discrete Event Simulation Appliance and Research

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Discrete Event Simulation has conquered many different application areas. This trend is, on the one hand, driven by an ever wider use of this technology in different fields of science and on the other hand by an incredibly creative use of available software programs through dedicated experts. This book contains articles from scientists and experts from 10 countries. They illuminate the width of application of this technology and the quality of problems solved using Discrete Event Simulation. Practical applications of simulation dominate in the present book.   The book is aimed to researchers and students who deal in their work with Discrete Event Simulation and which want to inform them about current applications. By focusing on discrete event simulation, this book can also serve as an inspiration source for practitioners for solving specific problems during their work. Decision makers who deal with the question of the introduction of discrete event simulation for planning support and o...

  5. Event Shape Sorting: selecting events with similar evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomášik Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel method for the organisation of events. The method is based on comparing event-by-event histograms of a chosen quantity Q that is measured for each particle in every event. The events are organised in such a way that those with similar shape of the Q-histograms end-up placed close to each other. We apply the method on histograms of azimuthal angle of the produced hadrons in ultrarelativsitic nuclear collisions. By selecting events with similar azimuthal shape of their hadron distribution one chooses events which are likely that they underwent similar evolution from the initial state to the freeze-out. Such events can more easily be compared to theoretical simulations where all conditions can be controlled. We illustrate the method on data simulated by the AMPT model.

  6. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  7. A Spatial Analysis of Population Distribution and Housing Patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the spatial patterns of population distribution andhousing in Abraka in Delta State of Nigeria. Population is a vital componentof development in any country including Nigeria. Housing is a physical andsocial necessity of life which holds a place of strategic importance indevelopment. However, the high ...

  8. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red.

  9. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red.

  10. Uncovering undetected hypoglycemic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Hypoglycemia is the rate-limiting factor that often prevents patients with diabetes from safely and effectively achieving their glycemic goals. Recent studies have reported that severe hypoglycemia is associated with a significant increase in the adjusted risks of major macrovascular events, major microvascular events, and mortality. Minor hypoglycemic episodes can also have serious implications for patient health, psychological well being, and adherence to treatment regimens. Hypoglycemic events can impact the health economics of the patient, their employer, and third-party payers. Insulin treatment is a key predictor of hypoglycemia, with one large population-based study reporting an overall prevalence of 7.1% (type 1 diabetes mellitus and 7.3% (type 2 diabetes mellitus in insulin-treated patients, compared with 0.8% in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an oral sulfonylurea. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically experience symptomatic hypoglycemia on average twice weekly and severe hypoglycemia once annually. The progressive loss of islet cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a higher risk of both symptomatic and unrecognized hypoglycemia over time. Patients with diabetes who become hypoglycemic are also more susceptible to developing defective counter-regulation, also known as hypoglycemia awareness autonomic failure, which is life-threatening and must be aggressively addressed. In patients unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, frequent home monitoring or use of continuous glucose sensors are critical. Primary care physicians play a key role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, particularly in those requiring intensive insulin therapy, yet physicians are often unaware of the multitude of consequences of hypoglycemia or how to deal with them. Careful monitoring, adherence to guidelines, and use of optimal

  11. Event-by-event simulation of quantum phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De; Raedt, K. De; Michielsen, K.; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB

    2006-01-01

    In various basic experiments in quantum physics, observations are recorded event-by-event. The final outcome of such experiments can be computed according to the rules of quantum theory but quantum theory does not describe single events. In this paper, we describe a stimulation approach that does

  12. Event Segmentation Improves Event Memory up to One Month Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Shaney; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer…

  13. Analysis of Future Event Set Algorithms for Discrete Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, William M.; Sargent, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    This work reports on new analytical and empirical results on the performance of algorithms for handling the future event set in discrete event simulation. These results provide a clear insight to the factors affecting algorithm performance; evaluate the "hold" model, often used to study future event set algorithms; and determine the best algorithm(s) to use.

  14. Event by event method for quantum interference simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutia Delina, M

    2014-01-01

    Event by event method is a simulation approach which is not based on the knowledge of the Schrödinger equation. This approach uses the classical wave theory and particle concept: we use particles, not waves. The data is obtained by counting the events that were detected by the detector, just as in

  15. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  16. Responsibilities of the destination country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Bailliet

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available According to UNHCR’s Recommended Principles and Guidelines for Human Rights and Human Trafficking,1 human rights must be at the heart of counter-trafficking measures. Destination countries may need to reassess strategies to ensure that they conform to international standards and provide better protection to the victims of trafficking.

  17. Responsibilities of the destination country

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia M Bailliet

    2006-01-01

    According to UNHCR’s Recommended Principles and Guidelines for Human Rights and Human Trafficking,1 human rights must be at the heart of counter-trafficking measures. Destination countries may need to reassess strategies to ensure that they conform to international standards and provide better protection to the victims of trafficking.

  18. Trade preferences for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Bruin, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report draws on a body of existing literature to assess the impact of trade preferences granted by the European Union on trade and welfare in developing countries. It is argued that the Everything But Arms amendment to the EU preference scheme will have limited effect on export potential and

  19. Child Welfare in Developing Countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Profiling Child Poverty in Four WAEMU Countries: A Comparative Analysis Based on the Multidimensional Poverty Approach. 61. Gustave Kossi ...... Other premises relate to the relationship between morbidity and mortality (medical science methodologies), which is beyond the scope of this chapter. Given these premises ...

  20. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia.

  1. RIO Country Report 2015: Poland

    OpenAIRE

    KLINCEWICZ Krzysztof; SZKUTA KATARZYNA

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.

  2. Armenia Country Gender Assessment, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Despite economic progress over the last decade, disparities between women and men remain salient in Armenia, especially in dimensions that are powerfully influenced by social norms. In domains like education and health, gender equality in outcomes in Armenia are broadly comparable with those in Europe and Central Asia and better than those of lower-middle-income countries globally. However...

  3. Uganda mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Basangwa, David; Lutakome, Julius; Mubiru, Christine

    2004-01-01

    With the help of the International Consortium for Mental Health Policy and Services, data on country mental health services was gathered through a descriptive, cross sectional study. The study population included policymakers, health providers and consumers of health services. Data was collected at national level from relevant sectors including the Ministry of Health, Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital and four rural districts. The districts were purposively selected because of existing consumer groups. Quantitative data was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire and record reviews at hospitals and district headquarters. It was observed that the country has inadequate numbers of mental health professionals with poor mental health funding. Such factors, compounded with inappropriate cultural beliefs, are major obstacles to the delivery of mental health services. There is however an attempt by the Government to improve mental health services. The current health policy is an opportunity to improve access to mental health care. Currently there is improved pre-service and in-service training for mental health workers with ongoing rehabilitation and remodelling of the mental health infrastructure in the country. The burden of mental disorders in Uganda is high in a country that is poorly resourced. The majority of the population is rural and still harbours negative cultural beliefs. There is a need to increase advocacy for mental health and develop capacity for professional mental and general health workers to be supported by appropriate policies, facilities and finances.

  4. RIO Country Report 2016: Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    DŐRY TIBOR; CSONKA LÁSZLÓ; SLAVCHEVA MILENA

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 series of the RIO Country Report analyses and assesses the development and performance of the national research and innovation system of the EU-28 Member States and related policies with the aim of monitoring and evaluating the EU policy implementation as well as facilitating policy learning in the Member States.

  5. Anxiety sensitivity in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvolensky, MJ; Arrindell, WA; Taylor, S; Bouvard, M; Cox, BJ; Stewart, SH; Sandin, B; Cardenas, SJ; Eifert, GH

    In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; Taylor & Cox, Journal of Anxiety Disorders 12 (1998) 463; Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 (1998) 37) was administered to a large sample of persons (n = 2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada,

  6. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  7. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely to be un...

  8. Hepatoblastoma in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, S; Schmidt, L S; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of hepatoblastoma. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hepatoblastoma in the Nordic countries and the association between selected birth...

  9. Social mix in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, it appears to have become ‘fashionable’ for politicians who are engaged in urban issues to argue for more social mix of the population at the neighbourhood level. It is assumed that a concentration of poverty reproduces a lack of social opportunities. Therefore, a more balanced

  10. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  11. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  12. Lessons from the eight countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battista, R.N.; David Banta, H.; Jonnson, E.; Hodge, M.; Gelband, H.

    1994-01-01

    While the eight countries presented in this issue differ considerably from each other, they have important similarities. All have faced the problem of increasing health care expenditures, and all are coming to recognize problems with health care technology such as inappropriate use and poor quality

  13. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that

  14. Patient safety in South Africa: PICU adverse event registration*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jentien M; van Dijk, Monique; van der Starre, Cynthia; Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M; Argent, Andrew Charles

    2014-06-01

    Adverse event registration is a means to improve patient safety in a PICU. So far it has been used in European and North American countries mainly. We studied adverse events in a South African setting with the aims to 1) assess rates and types of adverse events with two different registration methods and 2) describe characteristics of patients experiencing adverse events. This study consisted of 1) a retrospective audit of randomly selected patient records and 2) a prospective observational study of real-time registration of AEs during ward rounds. Adverse events were identified using the Child Health Corporation of America - Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group PICU trigger tool. A multidisciplinary 20 bed PICU at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town. The retrospective section of the study involved 80 randomly selected patients who had been discharged from the PICU, and the prospective study involved patients who were present in the PICU between March and June 2012. None. The retrospective audit identified 260 adverse events in 61 patients (50.8 per 100 patient days). Nineteen patients (24%) did not have any adverse events. Catheter complications, hypoglycemia, and endotracheal tube malpositioning requiring repositioning were most frequent. Prospective registration during 58 ward rounds revealed 272 adverse events in 236 patients (27.2 per 100 patient days), particularly catheter complications, nosocomial infection, and surgical complications. Hundred thirty-two patients of the total 236 patients (56%) did not experience an adverse event. Patients experiencing adverse events underwent mechanical ventilation significantly more frequently. Length of stay was significantly associated with number of adverse events. The trigger tool method identifies a higher adverse event rate compared with real-time registration. Each method has a unique contribution to yield types of adverse events.

  15. No-fault compensation following adverse events attributed to vaccination: a review of international programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Looker, Clare; Kelly, Heath

    2011-01-01

    Programmes that provide no-fault compensation for an adverse event following vaccination have been implemented in 19 countries worldwide, the first in Germany in 1961 and the most recent in Hungary in 2005...

  16. If you host it, where will they come from? Mega-Events and Tourism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Victor; PEETERS, Thomas; Szymanski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Hosting a major international sporting event is a costly affair for the organizing country. Growth in tourism is often cited as one of the economic benefits, which should allow the host to earn back these costs. In this paper we use monthly country-by-country arrival data to assess the impact of organizing the FIFA 2010 World Cup on tourism in South Africa. We find that South Africa attracted around 200,000 extra arrivals from non-SADC countries during the event. Participating countries and S...

  17. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event......-based modeling approaches are analyzed and the results are used to formulate a general event concept that can be used for unifying the seemingly unrelated event concepts. Events are characterized as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms...... of information structures. The general event concept can be used to guide systems analysis and design and to improve modeling approaches....

  18. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...

  19. The Infinite Latent Events Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wingate, David; Roy, Daniel; Tenenbaum, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We present the Infinite Latent Events Model, a nonparametric hierarchical Bayesian distribution over infinite dimensional Dynamic Bayesian Networks with binary state representations and noisy-OR-like transitions. The distribution can be used to learn structure in discrete timeseries data by simultaneously inferring a set of latent events, which events fired at each timestep, and how those events are causally linked. We illustrate the model on a sound factorization task, a network topology identification task, and a video game task.

  20. The ATLAS Student Event Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fassouliotis, D; Roupas, Z; Vudragovic, D

    2007-01-01

    The ASEC (ATLAS Student Event Challenge) is an educational project which allows the students to learn about the elementary particles by studying "events", the products of beam collisions at the LHC. The events are collected by the ATLAS detector and displayed graphically using the ATLANTIS package. The students are given the means to select and analyse the events on-line, and subsequently present the results and draw conclusions.

  1. Mega-Sporting Events in Developing Nations : Playing the Way to Prosperity?

    OpenAIRE

    Victor A Matheson; Robert A. Baade

    2003-01-01

    Supporters of mega-sporting events such as the World Cup and Olympics claim that these events attract hoards of wealthy visitors and lead to lasting economic benefits for the host regions. For this reason, cities and countries compete vigorously for the right to stage these spectacles. Recently, developing countries have become increasingly vocal in demanding that they get the right to share in the economic benefits of these international games. China, for example, has been awarded the 2008 S...

  2. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  3. Integrity & sport events: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hover, P.; Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; Eekeren, F.J.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Sport events are appreciated as important sources of inspiration and positive energy. Yet, for a growing number of people, the negative aspects of sport events have come to cast a shadow over sport events as a positive experience. Questions and doubts have been raised about the transparency and good

  4. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  5. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  6. The Chelyabinsk event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovička, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    On February 15, 2013, 3:20 UT, an asteroid of the size of about 19 meters and mass of 12,000 metric tons entered the Earth's atmosphere unexpectedly near the border of Kazakhstan and Russia. It was the largest confirmed Earth impactor since the Tunguska event in 1908. The body moved approximately westwards with a speed of 19 km s-1, on a trajectory inclined 18 degrees to the surface, creating a fireball of steadily increasing brightness. Eleven seconds after the first sightings, the fireball reached its maximum brightness. At that point, it was located less than 40 km south from Chelyabinsk, a Russian city of population more than one million, at an altitude of 30 km. For people directly underneath, the fireball was 30 times brighter than the Sun. The cosmic body disrupted into fragments; the largest of them was visible for another five seconds before it disappeared at an altitude of 12.5 km, when it was decelerated to 3 km s-1. Fifty six second later, that ~600 kg fragment landed in Lake Chebarkul and created a 8 m wide hole in the ice. Small meteorites landed in an area 80 km long and several km wide and caused no damage. The meteorites were classified as LL ordinary chondrites and were interesting by the presence of two phases, light and dark. More material remained, however, in the atmosphere forming a dust trail up to 2 km wide and extending along the fireball trajectory from altitude 18 to 70 km. The dust then circled the Earth within few days and formed a ring around the northern hemisphere. In Chelyabinsk and its surroundings a very strong blast wave arrived 90 - 150 s after the fireball passage (depending on location). The wave was produced by the supersonic flight of the body and broke ~10% of windows in Chelyabinsk (~40% of buildings were affected). More than 1600 people were injured, mostly from broken glass. The whole event was well documented by video cameras, seismic and infrasonic records, and satellite observations. The total energy was 500 kT TNT

  7. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  8. Bulgaria mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma; Mladenova, Maya; Lazarova, Irina; Sotirov, Vladimir; Okoliyski, Mihail

    2004-01-01

    The mental health profile of Bulgaria has been compiled and following analysis of both the factual findings and the process of data collection a report has been prepared. The subject of discussion in the paper concerns several major findings: the discrepancy between what the policy documents state and the actual situation in mental health; the organizational culture, which alienates; and the peculiarities of the process of change and how it is driven under political pressure from outside the country. Analysis extends to encompass the influence of the general health reform on the mental health sector, the deficits of the leadership and how they impact on the effectiveness of the system, and the interdependence between the country's economy and the health sector. A conclusion is made about the need to consolidate the public health approach using the lever of international collaboration in the field of mental health.

  9. Comparing variation across European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristobal; Librero-López, Julián

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In geographical studies, population distribution is a key issue. An unequal distribution across units of analysis might entail extra-variation and produce misleading conclusions on healthcare performance variations. This article aims at assessing the impact of building more homogeneous...... units of analysis in the estimation of systematic variation in three countries. METHODS: Hospital discharges for six conditions (congestive heart failure, short-term complications of diabetes, hip fracture, knee replacement, prostatectomy in prostate cancer and percutaneous coronary intervention...... inhabitants vs. 7% in Denmark and 5% in England. Point estimates for Extremal Quotient and Interquartile Interval Ratio were lower in the three countries, particularly in less prevalent conditions. In turn, the Systematic Component of Variation and Empirical Bayes statistic were slightly lower in more...

  10. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  11. Cine Club - Special Event

    CERN Document Server

    Cine Club

    2017-01-01

    Special event on Thursday 4 May 2017 at 18:30 CERN Council Chamber In collaboration with the CERN Running Club and the Women In Technology initiative, the CERN CineClub is happy to announce the screening of the film Free to Run Directed by Pierre Morath Switzerland, 2016, 99 minutes Today, all anybody needs to run is the determination and a pair of the right shoes. But just fifty years ago, running was viewed almost exclusively as the domain of elite male athletes who competed on tracks. With insight and propulsive energy, director Pierre Morath traces running's rise to the 1960s, examining how the liberation movements and newfound sense of personal freedom that defined the era took the sport out of the stadiums and onto the streets, and how legends like Steve Prefontaine, Fred Lebow, and Kathrine Switzer redefined running as a populist phenomenon. Original version French; English subtitles. http://freetorun.ch/ Come along to watch the film and learn more about the history of popular races and amat...

  12. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly esta...... of switching merits attention in the future design of firm surveys across developing countries and in associated analytical studies....

  13. Event trigger identification for biomedical events extraction using domain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deyu; Zhong, Dayou; He, Yulan

    2014-06-01

    In molecular biology, molecular events describe observable alterations of biomolecules, such as binding of proteins or RNA production. These events might be responsible for drug reactions or development of certain diseases. As such, biomedical event extraction, the process of automatically detecting description of molecular interactions in research articles, attracted substantial research interest recently. Event trigger identification, detecting the words describing the event types, is a crucial and prerequisite step in the pipeline process of biomedical event extraction. Taking the event types as classes, event trigger identification can be viewed as a classification task. For each word in a sentence, a trained classifier predicts whether the word corresponds to an event type and which event type based on the context features. Therefore, a well-designed feature set with a good level of discrimination and generalization is crucial for the performance of event trigger identification. In this article, we propose a novel framework for event trigger identification. In particular, we learn biomedical domain knowledge from a large text corpus built from Medline and embed it into word features using neural language modeling. The embedded features are then combined with the syntactic and semantic context features using the multiple kernel learning method. The combined feature set is used for training the event trigger classifier. Experimental results on the golden standard corpus show that >2.5% improvement on F-score is achieved by the proposed framework when compared with the state-of-the-art approach, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed framework. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Lithuania mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puras, Dainius; Germanavicius, Arunas; Povilaitis, Robertas; Veniute, Marija; Jasilionis, Domantas

    2004-01-01

    As a part of international mental health policy, programmes and services project, the 'country profile' instrument was used for assessment of mental health policy and services in the Republic of Lithuania. Analysis of contextual factors revealed high levels of social pathology (including violence, suicide and other self-destructive behaviour) with stigmatizing approaches by the general population to mentally disturbed persons and other vulnerable groups. Analysis of existing data about resources invested in the mental health care system raises questions for policymakers about the effectiveness of this traditional way of investment. The largest proportion of physical and human capital is concentrated in psychiatric institutions, with large numbers of beds, psychiatrists and increasing funding for medications, while other components of care--such as housing, psychosocial and vocational rehabilitation, community-based child mental health services--are not being developed. Statistical accounts keep the tradition of presenting processes as outcomes, while modern assessment of outcomes of services, programmes and policies are lacking. The findings from this country profile may be very useful in the development of modern mental health policies in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe, which have been deprived for decades from the opportunity to introduce evidence-based mental health policies and services.

  15. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  16. Prospective coding in event representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    A perceived event such as a visual stimulus in the external world and a to-be-produced event such as an intentional action are subserved by event representations. Event representations do not only contain information about present states but also about past and future states. Here we focus on the role of representing future states in event perception and generation (i.e., prospective coding). Relevant theoretical issues and paradigms are discussed. We suggest that the predictive power of the motor system may be exploited for prospective coding not only in producing but also in perceiving events. Predicting is more advantageous than simply reacting. Perceptual prediction allows us to select appropriate responses ahead of the realization of an (anticipated) event and therefore, it is indispensable to flexibly and timely adapt to new situations and thus, successfully interact with our physical and social environment.

  17. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  18. Transportation planning for planned special events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events inc...

  19. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  20. Continuing Medical Education in six European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Livio; Gritti, Sara; De Compadri, Paola; Casadei, Gianluigi

    2010-03-01

    We examined Continuing Medical Education (CME) systems in a sample of six EU countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, and the UK. The aim of this comparative study was to assess the main country-specific institutional settings applied by governments. A common scheme of analysis was applied to investigate the following variables: (i) CME institutional framework; (ii) benefits and/or penalties to participants; (iii) types of CME activities and system of credits; (iv) accreditation of CME providers and events; (v) CME funding and sponsorship. The analysis involved reviewing the literature on CME policy and interviewing a selected panel of local experts in each country (at least one public manager, one representative of medical associations and one pharmaceutical manager). CME is formally compulsory in Austria, France, Italy and the UK, although no sanctions are enforced against non-compliant physicians in practice. The only two countries that offer financial incentives to enhance CME participation are Belgium and Norway, although limited to specific categories of physicians. Formal accreditation of CME providers is required in Austria, France and Italy, while in the other three countries accreditation is focused on activities. Private sponsorship is allowed in all countries but Norway, although within certain limits. This comparative exercise provides an overview of the CME policies adopted by six EU countries to regulate both demand and supply. The substantial variability in the organization and accreditation of schemes indicates that much could be done to improve effectiveness. Although further analysis is needed to assess the results of these policies in practice, lessons drawn from this study may help clarify the weaknesses and strengths of single domestic policies in the perspective of pan-European CME harmonization.

  1. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  2. Human based roots of failures in nuclear events investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziedelis, Stanislovas; Noel, Marc; Strucic, Miodrag [Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). European Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for Nuclear Power Plants

    2012-10-15

    This paper aims for improvement of quality of the event investigations in the nuclear industry through analysis of the existing practices, identifying and removing the existing Human and Organizational Factors (HOF) and management related barriers. It presents the essential results of several studies performed by the European Clearinghouse on Operational Experience. Outcomes of studies are based on survey of currently existing event investigation practices typical for nuclear industry of 12 European countries, as well as on insights from analysis of numerous event investigation reports. System of operational experience feedback from information based on event investigation results is not enough effective to prevent and even to decrease frequency of recurring events due to existing methodological, HOF-related and/or knowledge management related constraints. Besides that, several latent root causes of unsuccessful event investigation are related to weaknesses in safety culture of personnel and managers. These weaknesses include focus on costs or schedule, political manipulation, arrogance, ignorance, entitlement and/or autocracy. Upgrades in safety culture of organization's personnel and its senior management especially seem to be an effective way to improvement. Increasing of competencies, capabilities and level of independency of event investigation teams, elaboration of comprehensive software, ensuring of positive approach, adequate support and impartiality of management could also facilitate for improvement of quality of the event investigations. (orig.)

  3. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; De Mooij, Ruud A.; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  4. Events and mega events: leisure and business in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of events and mega events mobilizes at the same time, in a concatenated way or not, leisure and business practices, which are captured by the tourism industry as a stimulus for the reproduction of capitalism, by the amount of other activities which raise (primary, secondary and tertiary , placing the architecture and the city as protagonists in contemporary urban development. In this sense, the article analyzes the articulation of events and mega events to the provision of architecture and urban infrastructure, as well as the construction of the tourist image of the places, motivated by leisure and business activities. The methodological procedures have theoretical and exploratory character and have multidisciplinary intentions. This will be discussed, in a historical perspective, the concepts of leisure and business activities that raise as moving or traveling; next it will be delimited similarities and differences between tourism events and business tourism, entering after the analysis of the distinctions between events and mega events, highlighting the complexity and the role of mega-events as a major symptom of globalization; finally it will be presented the spatial scale developments in architecture and the city in the realization of (mega events, as well as its impact on the city's image. As a synthesis, it is important to notice that spatial developments business tourism, events and mega events are manifested in various scales and with different levels of complexity, revealing the strengths and / or weaknesses of the places. The urban planning, architecture and urbanism are important objects of knowledge and spatial intervention to ensure infrastructure and urban and architectural structures appropriate for events, which should be sensitive to the demands of tourists and host communities.

  5. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  6. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  7. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red. The inset on the right-hand side shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The inset on top shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 muons originate from the same primary vertex.

  8. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  9. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  10. Territorial Factors in a Globalised Art World? : The visibility of countries in international contemporary art events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.J. van Hest (Femke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn comparison to other disciplines of high culture, the visual arts seem to be the most suitable to internationalise (cf. Crane, 1992; Janssen, Kuipers & Verboord, 2008). The global diffusion of visual art works, for example, is far less complex than that of the performing arts, which

  11. Synoptic Scale Influences on Increasing Summertime Extreme Precipitation Events in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison; Bosilovich, Mike; Koster, Randal

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the northeastern United States has seen a statistically significant increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation events that is larger and more widespread than anywhere else in the country. This increase in events is more likely to be associated with frontal and low-pressure systems, rather than being caused by more tropical cyclones impacting the region.

  12. Does the recent intensification of nationalistic and xenophobic attitudes in Eastern European countries adversely affect public mental health?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja; Wolińska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    .... Discussion The authors attempt to describe the sequence of adverse events that led to the intensification of xenophobia and characterize the current state of public mental health in European countries...

  13. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  14. Youth Entrepreneurship in Visegrad Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our paper is to analyse the entrepreneurial activity drivers of youth and young adults in Visegrad countries, considering the opportunity/necessity motivation dichotomy. Research Design & Methods: We employ the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for young individuals (18 to 34 years from V4 countries for years 2011 to 2013. We use the binomial logistic regression modelling with logit transformation. Separate models are constructed for youth and young adults, as well as for opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurial activity. Findings: We found common drivers and distinctive attributes affecting involvement of young people in business start-up according to its motivation. Self-confidence and access to networks are universally important factors. In most examined cases, fear of failure and being a female reduces chance of business start-up. Especially among youth, being a student significantly inhibits involvement in enterprising efforts. Implications & Recommendations: In order to support youth entrepreneurship, an emphasis should be put on education and training to build skills and knowledge required to business start-up, together with capacity to spot opportunities, and reduce fear of failure.  Also, formal and informal networking plays an important role. Contribution & Value Added: Based on empirical analysis, our findings point out the key drivers of entrepreneurial activity among young people in V4 countries. We show directions for policy makers aiming to foster entrepreneurship within young generation as both way to exploit available business opportunities, as well as reaction to necessity situations.

  15. Pesticide use in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecobichon, D J

    2001-03-07

    Chemical pesticides have been a boon to equatorial, developing nations in their efforts to eradicate insect-borne, endemic diseases, to produce adequate food and to protect forests, plantations and fibre (wood, cotton, clothing, etc.). Controversy exists over the global dependence on such agents, given their excessive use/misuse, their volatility, long-distance transport and eventual environmental contamination in colder climates. Many developing countries are in transitional phases with migration of the agricultural workforce to urban centres in search of better-paying jobs, leaving fewer people responsible for raising traditional foods for themselves and for the new, industrialized workforce. Capable of growing two or three crops per year, these same countries are becoming "breadbaskets" for the world, exporting nontraditional agricultural produce to regions having colder climates and shorter growing seasons, thereby earning much needed international trade credits. To attain these goals, there has been increased reliance on chemical pesticides. Many older, nonpatented, more toxic, environmentally persistent and inexpensive chemicals are used extensively in developing nations, creating serious acute health problems and local and global environmental contamination. There is growing public concern in these countries that no one is aware of the extent of pesticide residue contamination on local, fresh produce purchased daily or of potential, long-term, adverse health effects on consumers. Few developing nations have a clearly expressed "philosophy" concerning pesticides. There is a lack of rigorous legislation and regulations to control pesticides as well as training programs for personnel to inspect and monitor use and to initiate training programs for pesticide consumers.

  16. Nepal mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, S K; Pokharel, A; Ojha, S P; Pradhan, S N; Chapagain, G

    2004-01-01

    The Kingdom of Nepal is situated in the heart of Asia, between its two big neighbours China and India. Nepal is home to several ethnic groups. The majority of the 23 million population reside in the countryside. Although figures on many of the health and socio-economic indicators are non-existing, some existing ones show gradual improvement over the years. However the figures for illiteracy and infant mortality are still one of the highest in the world. As per GDP, and population living below the poverty line and per capita income, Nepal still remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Despite this, it provides shelter to thousands of Bhutanese refugees in its land. Frequent natural disasters and recent violent conflicts in Nepal have further added hardship to life. Less than 3% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Mental health receives insignificant attention. The Government spends about 1% of the health budget on mental health. There is no mental health act and the National Mental Health Policy formulated in 1997 is yet to be fully operational. Mental ill health is not much talked about because of the stigma attached. The roles of the legal and insurance systems are almost negligible. The financial burden rests upon the family. The traditional/religious healing methods still remain actively practiced, specifically in the field of mental health. The service, comprising little more than two-dozen psychiatrists along with a few psychiatric nurses and clinical psychologists (mainly practicing in modern health care facilities) has started showing its impact--however this is limited to specific urban areas. The majority of the modern health care facilities across the country are devoid of a mental health facility. The main contextual challenges for mental health in Nepal are the provision of adequate manpower, spreading the services across the country, increasing public awareness and formulating and implementing an adequate policy.

  17. The role of event tourism strategy of Serbia in strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist events represent not only a significant tourism potential, but also the touristic product of Serbia. There are approximately 2500 events every year, attended by several million visitors from Serbia and all around the world. Since the 1990s in the world and since the beginning of the 21st century in Serbia, the organization and development of events has become a significantly profitable activity. Certain countries developed event tourism strategies on the level of the country or on the regional level; in Serbia, the event tourism is mentioned in the national tourism development strategies and certain regional ones. This paper targets the need for development of Event Tourism Strategy on the level of Serbia.

  18. Country profile: leprosy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Maria Lucia Fernandes; Grossi, Maria Aparecida De Faria; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Brazil has high rates of leprosy case detection, especially in the northern and west-central areas of the country. Effective decentralisation of routine treatment for leprosy has gathered pace since the year 2000 and this has improved access for patients, leading to a peak in new case detection in 2003 and a gradual decline thereafter. This is in parallel with specific government programmes aimed at poverty reduction. Disability prevention and surveillance for drug resistance remain important tasks within the leprosy control programme, in which six key referral centres lead the way.

  19. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  20. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  1. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Lehman; Risto Miikkulainen

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. ...

  2. EventSlider User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    vi 1. Introduction 1 2. Visual Elements of the EventSlider 2 3. Manipulation 3 4. Library and Namespace 4 5. Event Data 4 6. Initialization 5 7...is a Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) control developed using the .NET framework in Microsoft Visual Studio. As a WPF control, it can be used in...any WPF application as a graphical visual element. The purpose of the control is to visually display time-related events as vertical lines on a

  3. Extreme Rainfall Indices for Tropical Monsoon Countries in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumastuti, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asian countries have the possibility to have rainfall and number of extreme rainfall event change due to future climate variation. This paper proposed three extreme rainfall indices as a modification of climate extremes indices from CLIMDEX Project by researchers at the Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC, the University of New South Wales (UNSW. The proposed indices aim to be used as a parameter for observing extreme rainfall events in tropical monsoon countries. Eleven extreme precipitation indices from CLIMDEX Project and the three proposed extreme precipitation for tropical monsoon countries are systematically analyzed based on data of daily rainfall from meteorological stations in Bangkok and Jakarta. Mann-Kendall test was used to observe the trend of extreme rainfall. In general, the analysis of a total of 14 extreme indices show both Bangkok and Jakarta received more rainfall during rainy season and less rainfall during dry season. Specifically, a significant increasing trend of extreme rainfall indices (R60 and R80 was revealed using the proposed indices.

  4. Event-by-event simulation of quantum phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel

    A discrete-event simulation approach is reviewed that does not require the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system, yet reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The simulation approach is illustrated by applications

  5. More than the loss of a parent: potentially traumatic events among orphaned and abandoned children

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn, Whetten; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel; O'Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines rates of potentially traumatic events and associated anxiety and emotional/behavioral difficulties among 1,258 orphaned and abandoned children in 5 low and middle-income countries. The study quantifies the types of events the children experienced and demonstrates that anxiety and emotional/behavioral difficulties increase with additional event exposure. As policies for orphaned and abandoned children are being implemented, this study helps policy makers and providers recog...

  6. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  7. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display (side view) of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively. Electron clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen. The three displays on the right-hand side show the r-phi view of the event (top), a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 electrons originate from the same primary vertex (middle), and a Lego plot indicating the amount of transverse energy Et measured in the calorimeters (bottom).

  8. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  9. [Research ethics and developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudonné, Désiré Adiogo

    2007-12-01

    Developing countries are a breeding ground for research, especially for infectious diseases and HIV. On one hand, due to the prevalence of these diseases in this part of the world, and on the other, due to its needs in terms of research, disease prevention and heath care. The actions taken in the fight against HIV infection over the past years, considering that the urgent state of the health care situation has been a sensitive issue for ethical deviation evident in the following examples: Nonoxynol 9 trial (1996-1999) in Cameroon; Tenofovir trial (2003-2005) in Cameroon; Trials of fusion inhibitors in Latin America. No sanctions were imposed due to these deviations, and there was no possibility of recourse. What can these poor states do faced with health care emergencies, the extreme vulnerability of these populations and the big powerful pharmaceutical companies whose turnover or even profits are higher than the GDP of these countries? It is of the utmost importance that an international court of appeal be established to handle litigation regarding research related issues and the fair sharing of the profits resulting from research. The protection of vulnerable populations and the strict respect of ethical rules can only be implemented to the fullest if sanctions are applied to abusers.

  10. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  11. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  12. Tourism experience, destination and event management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitić Andriela

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tend to show some of the challenges of matured and world-known tourism destination, as well some of the modalities in keeping and increasing a level of Honolulu cluster's competitiveness. Accordingly, specific tourism experience as socio-cultural dimension of destination competitiveness was evaluated. A core of the paper is primary research of tourism event "Brunch on the Beach" Honolulu, Hawaii, that was done in 2004. Data for analysis were collected during the internship that author did in the City and Country - Honolulu. Internship was a part of JFDP scholarship received by the American Councils for International Educations (ACIE. George Washington University was the institution where the author completed the most of specialization and which gave a support for the internship organization. Questionnaire method was used for the research, while SPSS software was used for data analyses.

  13. Measures of patient safety in developing and emerging countries: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K B; Duevel, M A; Lee, P W; Wu, A W; Bates, D W; Runciman, W B; Baker, G R; Larizgoitia, I; Weeks, W B

    2010-02-01

    The World Alliance for Patient Safety was formed to accelerate worldwide research progress towards measurably improving patient safety. Although rates of adverse events have been studied in industrialised countries, little is known about the rates of adverse events in developing and emerging countries. To review the literature on patient safety issues in developing and emerging countries, to identify patient safety measures presently used in these countries and to propose a method of measurably improving patient safety measurement in these countries. Using the Medline database for 1998 to 2007, we identified and reviewed 23 English-language articles that examined patient safety measurement in developing and emerging countries. Results Our review included 12 studies that prospectively measured patient safety and 11 studies that retrospectively measured safety. Two studies used measures of structure and the remaining used process measures, outcome measures or both. Whereas a few studies used surveys or direct observation, most studies used chart audits to measure patient safety. Most studies addressed safety at a single facility. Investigation of patient safety in developing and emerging countries has been infrequent and limited in scope. Establishing fundamental safe patient practices, integrating those processes into routine health services delivery and developing patients' expectations that such processes be present are necessary prerequisites to measuring and monitoring progress towards safe patient care in emerging and developing countries.

  14. Country of Parts, Country of Design and Country of Assembly as Moderators of Malaysian Consumers’ Perceptions of Hybrid Products

    OpenAIRE

    Chiwenga, Gamu

    2005-01-01

    The COO (Country-of-Origin) construct can be deconstructed into three dimensions: country of design, country of parts and country of assembly. Empirical COO studies based on Malaysian consumers are still limited. This study investigates the effects of adjusting all of the COO dimensions on Malaysian consumers’ quality perceptions of sports shoes, mobile phones and cars. Germany, China and Korea were used as the COO dimensions. A sample of 180 Malaysian respondents was presented one of three q...

  15. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  16. Management of Membranous Nephropathy in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaadhel, Talal; Cattran, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults in Western countries. In 2012, the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) working group published guidelines for the management of glomerulonephritis, thus providing a template for the treatment of this condition. While being aware of the impact of the clinicians' acumen and that patients may choose a different therapeutic option due to the risks of specific drugs and also of the evolving guidelines, this review details our approach to the management of patients with IMN in a Western center (Toronto). Based on studies published in Europe and North America, we included recent advances in the diagnosis and management of patients with membranous nephropathy similar to our practice population. We highlight the importance of establishing the idiopathic nature of this condition before initiating immunosuppressive therapy, which should include the screening for secondary causes, especially malignancy in the elderly population. The expected outcomes with and without treatment for patients with different risks of progression will be discussed to help guide clinicians in choosing the appropriate course of treatment. The role of conservative therapy as well as of established immunosuppressive treatment, such as the combination of cyclophosphamide and prednisone, and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), as well as of newer agents such as rituximab will be reviewed. Appropriate assessment is required to exclude secondary conditions causing membranous glomerulonephritis. The role of antibodies to phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) in establishing the primary disease is growing, though more data are required. The increase in therapeutic options supports treatment individualization, taking into account the availability, benefits and risks, as well as patient preference. (1) The prevalence of IMN is increasing worldwide, particularly in elderly patients, and has been reported in

  17. Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, K F; Thomas, D Rh; Salmon, R L; Wyn-Jones, A P; Kay, D

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme water-related weather events such as excessive precipitation, floods, and drought. We conducted a systematic review to examine waterborne outbreaks following such events and explored their distribution between the different types of extreme water-related weather events. Four medical and meteorological databases (Medline, Embase, GeoRef, PubMed) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched, from 1910 to 2010. Eighty-seven waterborne outbreaks involving extreme water-related weather events were identified and included, alongside 235 ProMED reports. Heavy rainfall and flooding were the most common events preceding outbreaks associated with extreme weather and were reported in 55·2% and 52·9% of accounts, respectively. The most common pathogens reported in these outbreaks were Vibrio spp. (21·6%) and Leptospira spp. (12·7%). Outbreaks following extreme water-related weather events were often the result of contamination of the drinking-water supply (53·7%). Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Extreme water-related weather events represent a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities.

  18. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...

  19. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  20. Underlying Event Measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of Underlying Event activity using proton-proton collision data collected by the CMS detector will be presented. To check the energy dependence of the underlying event activity, results are compared with previous measurements from different experiments at different centre-of-mass energies.

  1. Serious Games Conferences and Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games is an evolving subject for researchers and practitioners. More and more events take place with the focus or at least with some side attention given to this subject. We present some of these events as a support tool for potential authors in the selection of the best places to publish their work.

  2. Eventos de Junio (June Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on six June events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Nathan Hale, Dia de la Bandera (Flag Day), Francisco Oller, Dia de los Padres (Father's Day), Fiesta de San Juan Bautista, and school graduation. Designed for teachers, the booklet includes a listing of 16 historical events occurring in…

  3. Attitudes towards non-invasive prenatal diagnosis among obstetricians in Pakistan: a developing, Islamic country

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Jafri, H; Rashid, Y.; Mason, G.; Ehsan, Y; Ahmed, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Stakeholders' views are essential for informing implementation strategies for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Little is known about such views in developing countries. We explored attitudes towards NIPT among obstetricians in Pakistan, a developing, Islamic country. Methods A 35-item questionnaire was distributed and collected at eight events (a national conference and seven workshops in five cities) for obstetric professionals on advances in fetal medicine. Results Responses...

  4. Extinction events can accelerate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific in the long term.

  5. Event shape engineering with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrin, A

    2013-01-01

    The strong fluctuations in the initial energy density of heavy-ion collisions allow an efficient selection of events corresponding to a specific initial geometry. For such "shape engineered events", the elliptic flow coefficient, $v_2$, of unidentified charged particles, pions and (anti-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\snn = 2.76$ TeV is measured by the ALICE collaboration. $v_2$ obtained with the event plane method at mid-rapidity, $|\\eta|<0.8$, is reported for different collision centralities as a function of transverse momentum, $\\pt$, out to $\\pt=20$ GeV/$c$. The measured $v_2$ for the shape engineered events is significantly larger or smaller than the average which demonstrates the ability to experimentally select events with the desired shape of the initial spatial asymmetry.

  6. Medical coverage of cycling events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, John M

    2006-05-01

    Medical coverage of recreational and competitive cycling events requires significant planning and cooperation among the race and medical directors, race officials, and local emergency medical services. The medical team should be proficient in treating minor and self-limiting injuries such as abrasions and minor trauma. The medical team should also have contingency plans for medical emergencies, such as cardiac events and major trauma, that ensure rapid stabilization and transport of the athlete to the appropriate medical facility. Stationary and mobile medical teams may be necessary for proper coverage of the event. Event day communication systems between individual medical staff as well as race officials and local emergency medical services is important to the success of the event.

  7. Aflatoxins: A silent threat in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias

    2016-08-31

    Aug 31, 2016 ... their developed counterparts and international agencies to offer them financial and technical support, ... In developing countries, cereals which constitute the ..... cost African countries about US$670 million in trade per.

  8. ELECTRICITY PRICING IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    11. ELECTRICITY PRICING IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: INCORPORATING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY. OBJECTIVES. ISAAC N. IWUAGWU,. Department of Electrical Engineering,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ABSTRACT. Electricity tariffs suffer heavy distortions in many developing countries ...

  9. Republic of Botswana. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J

    1985-08-01

    A summary of Botswana's population characteristics, population distribution, labor force characteristics, health situation, and transportation and communication facilities is provided. 87% of the country's 941,027 inhabitants live in the catchment area of the Limpopo River in the eastern region of the country. Much of the remaining area is covered by the Kalahari Desert. The population is growing at an annual rate of 3.6%, the birth rate is 50 and the total fertility rate is 6.6. The government has no official population policy. Major ethnic groups are the cattle raising Tswanas, which make up 50% of the population, the Herero, and the Basarwa, or Bushmen, of the Kalahri Desert. Urban areas are officially defined as population centers which contain 5000 or more residents and in which at least 75% of the inhabitants are engaged in nonagricultural work. According to this classification, 84% of the population is rural; however, most rural inhabitants live in agrotowns and temporarily move to outlying cattle and land posts during part of the year. Some of the agrotowns have almost 25,000 inhabitants. Major urban centers include 1) Gaborone, the capital and major administrative center, with a popualtion of 59,657; 2) Francistown, a large commercial center, with a population of 31,065; 3) Selebi-Phikwe, a mining center, populated by 29,469; and 4) Lobatse, a livestock marketing and processing center, with 19,034 residents. The urban population increased from 54,416 to 150,021 between 1971-81. The population has a young age structure. A large number of working aged males migrate temporarily to the Republic of South Africa to work in the gold mines. 37% of the economically active population is engaged in government services, 26% in mining, manufacturing, and construction, 21% in trade and finance, 6% in transportation, utilities, and communication, and 4.5% in agriculture. Only 1.3% of the land is cultivatable. The working age population is expected to double by the end of

  10. Perinatal health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, A M

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries, child mortality declined during the 1980s, but neonatal mortality did not improve. Ministries of Health do not consider reduction of early neonatal mortality to be a priority. Underreporting of perinatal deaths is common (e.g., at least 40% of perinatal deaths). Researchers sometimes categorize perinatal deaths as other causes of infant mortality. Many people believe too technological or costly interventions are needed to reduce perinatal mortality, but simple, low-cost principles of newborn care do exist: keep the newborn warm, feed often, avoid infection, and keep the newborn close to the mother. A study in Zimbabwe shows that asphyxia, a preventable condition, occurred in 76% of cases. Prenatal care; education; improved treatment of syphilis, hypertension, diabetes, and amniotic fluid infection; closer monitoring of the fetal condition during labor; and proper management of abnormal labor would reduce perinatal deaths. Premature infants are at greater risk of death than are intrauterine growth retarded infants. Research is needed to learn more about the epidemiology, causes,, and sequelae of asphyxia as well as the most cost-effective interventions. 38% of newborns at a hospital in Kathmandu had mild or moderate hypoglycemia, 44% of whom experienced at least 3 hypoglycemic episodes in the first 2 days. Known hypoglycemic risk factors are low birth weight and hypothermia. Possible hypoglycemic risk factors are prelactal feeds and a delay in beginning breast feeding. Effective perinatal health care in developing countries requires a tired system of referral and a motivated community health worker trained to manage safe delivery and newborn care. Unfriendly staff and user charges are obstacles to primary perinatal health care, however. UNICEF's Baby Friendly Hospital initiative aims to stop distribution of free infant formula in maternity wards and to improve perinatal care.

  11. Federation of Malaysia. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 population of Malaysia has been estimated at 14.7 million and the population growth rate averaged 2.3% in 1970-80. Population growth is officially encouraged to form a substantial home market for economic development. Toward this end, the 1985 budget has increased tax deductions for families with 5 children. The capital city of Kuala Lumpur is the largest metropolitan area (1 million population) and the Federal Territory is the most densely populated region. Immigration is strictly controlled by the government, and the percentage of foreign-born citizens was 5% in 1980. China, India, and Pakistan are decreasing in importance as countries of origin. Internal mobility, however, is increasing. Rural-rural migration accounted for 45% of internal migration in 1970-80 and was largely motivated by family reasons. Only 7% of Malaysians are estimated to move in search of work. Racial tensions led the government to grant special economic privileges to native-born Islamic Malays. The greatest proportion of the population is centered in the lowest age groups. The percentage of females 15-29 years of age rose from 26% in 1970 to 30% in 1980 and is expected to continue to rise. Fertility is on the decline. The majority of households in the country involve nuclear families. There has been an increase in the number of men and women who delay marriage or remain single. Education is widely available for children aged 6-15 years and those who meet certain academic standards receive free education up to age 19 years. The current labor force is estimated at 5.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Malaysia's per capita income (US $1860 in 1982) is among the highest in Southeast Asia and the gross national product increased by an average annual rate of 8% in 1970-81. The government plans to move toward the development of heavier industries and more manufacturing concerns.

  12. Fertilizer consumption trend in developing countries vs. developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motesharezadeh, Babak; Etesami, Hassan; Bagheri-Novair, Sepideh; Amirmokri, Hormoz

    2017-03-01

    The study of the chemical fertilizer consumption in different countries provides basal data for the decision-making of fertilizer production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizer application. Hence, the aim of this research was to study and compare the trend of the chemical fertilizer consumption from 1980 to 2012 in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA. For this purpose, various indices such as application rates (kg ha-1) of N, P, and K, arable land, and total fertilizer consumption were analysed. Results showed that the application rates of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) in Iran, Turkey, Japan, Germany, France, and the USA in 2012 were 100-42-7, 100-42-7, 100-94-60, 100-17-25, 100-13-38, and 100-33-35, respectively. The lowest and highest area under production were observed in Japan with 4.0 million ha (0.033 ha/person) and in the USA with 155.0 million ha (0.51 ha/person) during 2008-2015, respectively. In addition, the highest and lowest application rates of net nutrient consumption were recorded in France and Germany (285 and 285 kg ha-1) and in Iran (66 kg ha-1), respectively. Overall, the average net consumption of fertilizers in the studied countries in three recent decades (million tonnes) decreased in the order: the USA (19.282) > France (4.601) > Germany (3.302) > Turkey (1.825) > Japan (1.604) > Iran (1.130). Regarding an estimated 9.2 billion people by 2050, the balanced consumption of nutrients (N-P2O5-K2O) and the principles of optimal consumption of fertilizers are keys for achieving the increased food production, food security, and environmental conservation.

  13. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  14. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  15. African Journals Online: Browse by Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Home > African Journals Online: Browse by Country. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  16. The Timing of Industrialization Across Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We develop a measure of the timing of industrialization, comparable across 149 countries. Defining the year of industrial transition as the year in which employment in industry exceeded that in agriculture, we identify 67 countries that industrialized between 1801 and 2005 and 82 countries that had...

  17. Landslide database dominated by rainfall triggered events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoli, G.; Strauch, W.; Álvarez, A.

    2009-04-01

    A digital landslide database has been created for Nicaragua to provide the scientific community and national authorities with a tool for landslide hazard assessment. Valuable information on landslide events has been obtained from a great variety of sources. On the basis of the data stored in the database, preliminary analyses performed at national scale aimed to characterize landslides in terms of spatial and temporal distribution, types of slope movements, triggering mechanisms, number of casualties and damage to infrastructure. A total of about 17000 events spatially distributed in mountainous and volcanic terrains have been collected in the database. The events are temporally distributed between 1826 and 2003, but a large number of the records (62% of the total number) occurred during the disastrous Hurricane Mitch in October 1998. The results showed that debris flows are the most common types of landslides recorded in the database (66% of the total amount), but other types, including rockfalls and slides, have also been identified. Rainfall, also associated with tropical cyclones, is the most frequent triggering mechanism of landslides in Nicaragua, but also seismic and volcanic activities are important triggers or, especially, the combination of one of them with rainfall. Rainfall has caused all types of failures, but debris flows and translational shallow slides are more frequent types. Earthquakes have most frequently triggered rockfalls and slides, while volcanic eruptions rockfalls and debris flows. Landslides triggered by rainfall were limited in time to the wet season that lasts from May to October and an increase in the number of events is observed during the months of September and October, which is in accord with the period of the rainy season in the Pacific and Northern and Central regions and when the country has the highest probability of being impacted by hurricanes. Both Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclones have triggered landslides. At the

  18. Event-by-event simulation of quantum cryptography protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, S.; Raedt, H. De

    We present a new approach to simulate quantum cryptography protocols using event-based processes. The method is validated by simulating the BB84 protocol and the Ekert protocol, both without and with the presence of an eavesdropper.

  19. Sovereignty: analysis of its current issues in certain countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Koščo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The purpose of my article work is analyzing of the issue of sovereignty in international law. Originality of my article is that events described in the text are for people little known. Method: In the text I used to describe the method. Result: I evaluated the most important facts and influences for States Kosovo, South Ossetia, Abkhazia, Tibet and South Sudan. Society: The lives of people in the above countries, the history and present. Limitation: I clarified the important facts and dates, also bring comparison between past and the future.

  20. Pan-European stochastic flood event set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Martin; Pinto, Joaquim G.; He, Yi; Punčochář, Petr; Kelemen, Fanni D.; Manful, Desmond; Palán, Ladislav

    2017-04-01

    Impact Forecasting (IF), the model development center of Aon Benfield, has been developing a large suite of catastrophe flood models on probabilistic bases for individual countries in Europe. Such natural catastrophes do not follow national boundaries: for example, the major flood in 2016 was responsible for the Europe's largest insured loss of USD3.4bn and affected Germany, France, Belgium, Austria and parts of several other countries. Reflecting such needs, IF initiated a pan-European flood event set development which combines cross-country exposures with country based loss distributions to provide more insightful data to re/insurers. Because the observed discharge data are not available across the whole Europe in sufficient quantity and quality to permit a detailed loss evaluation purposes, a top-down approach was chosen. This approach is based on simulating precipitation from a GCM/RCM model chain followed by a calculation of discharges using rainfall-runoff modelling. IF set up this project in a close collaboration with Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) regarding the precipitation estimates and with University of East Anglia (UEA) in terms of the rainfall-runoff modelling. KIT's main objective is to provide high resolution daily historical and stochastic time series of key meteorological variables. A purely dynamical downscaling approach with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) is used to generate the historical time series, using re-analysis data as boundary conditions. The resulting time series are validated against the gridded observational dataset E-OBS, and different bias-correction methods are employed. The generation of the stochastic time series requires transfer functions between large-scale atmospheric variables and regional temperature and precipitation fields. These transfer functions are developed for the historical time series using reanalysis data as predictors and bias-corrected CCLM simulated precipitation and temperature as

  1. Event Displays for the Visualization of CMS Events

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher Duncan

    2010-01-01

    During the last year the CMS experiment engaged in consolidation of its existing event display programs. The core of the new system is based on the Fireworks event display program which was by-design directly integrated with the CMS Event Data Model (EDM) and the light version of the software framework (FWLite). The Event Visualization Environment (EVE) of the ROOT framework is used to manage a consistent set of 3D and 2D views, selection, user-feedback and user-interaction with the graphics windows; several EVE components were developed by CMS in collaboration with the ROOT project. In event display operation simple plugins are registered into the system to perform conversion from EDM collections into their visual representations which are then managed by the application. Full event navigation and filtering as well as collection-level filtering is supported. The same data-extraction principle can also be applied when Fireworks will eventually operate as a service within the full software framework.

  2. Formalization of Event Perception and Event Appraisal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Integration of emotion in a virtual agent is a topic of research to depict human-like behavior in a simulated environment. For the last few decades, many researchers are working in the field of incorporating emotions in a virtual agent. In the emotion model, the behavior of an agent depends upon how the event is perceived by the agent with respect to the goal. Hence, perception of the event while considering the past experience, importance of event towards achieving goal, agent’s own capabilities and resources is an important process which directly influences the decision making and action selection. The proposed models, till date, are either too complex to adapt or are using a very few parameters to describe the event. So, in this paper, we propose an extension of perception process in an existing emotion model, EMIA and suggest the formalization of event perception and appraisal processes to make it adaptable. This has been carried out using five parameters for event description along-with fuzzy logic which makes the process more effective yet simple.

  3. CRITICAL EVENTS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2009-01-01

    the building process and includes all participants in the construction project. A general result from the analysis was that critical events that occurred when the site was not using Lean Construction evolved much longer than critical events that occurred in the period when Lean Construction was used. Another......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate...

  4. TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL EVENTS DESIGNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to prove and disclose the essence of the author’s technology of educational events designing.Methodology and methods of research. Methodological basis of work is humanitarian approach. The method of pedagogical modeling was used for the model development of educational events influence on pedagogical activity formation. The content analysis of texts descriptions, case-study method, expert estimations of event projects were applied as the main methods of efficiency confirmation of the technology of educational events design.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristics of an educational event are emphasized by means of an empirical way: opening (what a person opens for himself; generation (a result of a personal action; and participation in creation of something "new" (new communications, relations and experience. The structure of technology of educational events design including work with concepts (an educational event, substantial and procedural components is presented. The technology of educational events designing is considered as the process of the well-grounded choice of designing technologies, mutual activity, pedagogical communication, components of educational activity: contents, methods, means, and organizational forms depending on educational aims due to age-specific peculiarities of participants of the educational event. The main conditions providing successful use of the technology are the involvement into joint cognitive activity of all its participants and importance of the events for each of them that qualitatively change the nature of a cognitive process and generate real transformations of the reality.Practical significance. The author’s experience in teaching testifies to introduction of the module «Technology of Design of Educational Events» into the basic educational subject-module «Design Competence of the Teacher» (degree program «Pedagogical Education», considering this module as

  5. Republic of Colombia. Country Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, W L

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of Colombia covers population growth, age distribution, regions and cities, households and families, housing and construction, ethnicity and religion, labor force and income, education, communications and transportation, and sources of information. Colombia's 1985 population is estimated at 28.7 million, making it the largest country in South America after Brazil. Colombia's growth in the last 5 years has averaged 2% annually, compared with an average of 2.3% a year for Latin America as a region. Colombia's moderate growth has been accompanied by shifts in population distribution and composition. In particular a massive internal migration has increased the urban population from roughly 1/3 in th 1950s to 2/3 at this time. Improved housing, education, and access to public health facilities have accompanied this rural to urban migration. At this time Colombia is holding its own economically and anticipates economic growth based on recovery in the US and Europe as well as on its own coal exports. Colombia's fertility rate, at 3.9 children/women in 1980-81, is the lowest in tropical South America but higher than the total fertility rate in the more temperate South American countries. Compared with other South American nations, Colombia's crude birthrate of 29-31 births/1000 population is low. Reflecting the impact of urban migration and the widescale effectiveness of family planning programs initiated in the 1960s and 1970s, median age has increased from 17 years in 1970 to almost 21 years in 1985. About 37% of the population is aged 14 or under at this time. The population aged 65 and older is only 3.8% and by 2000 will constitute only 4.5% of the population. From 1951-82 the urban population grew at 4.4% annually, exceeding the national average of 2.6% and the rural growth rate of less than 1%. Since 1982 the urban growth rate has been about 3% annually. In 1964 the average completed family size was 6.8 children. By 1980 it was 3.9 children. A steady

  6. Brief resolved unexplained event - BRUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events occur. BRUE is NOT the same as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). It is also NOT the same ... BRUE is unlikely to be a risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Most victims of SIDS do not ...

  7. ATLAS25: Facebook Live Events

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2017-01-01

    This video is a montage of the 5 Facebook Live events that were broadcast on 2nd October 2017, to celebrate ATLAS25. For more details visit: http://atlas.cern/updates/atlas-news/celebrating-25-years-discovery

  8. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  9. Underlying event studies at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Lami

    2003-10-13

    We present recent studies about the ''underlying event'' which originates mostly from soft spectator interactions. First Run II data results are compared to published Run I results and to QCD Monte Carlo models.

  10. Wrappers, Aspects, Quantification and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Talk overview: Object infrastructure framework (OIF). A system development to simplify building distributed applications by allowing independent implementation of multiple concern. Essence and state of AOP. Trinity. Quantification over events. Current work on a generalized AOP technology.

  11. Advanced Melanoma Facebook Live Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    In case you missed it, watch this recent Facebook Live event about the current state of research and treatment for advanced stage melanoma. To learn more, see our evidence-based information about skin cancer, including melanoma.

  12. Event Reports for Operating Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Raw data of all the events for the last month. Raw data is presented in pipe delimited format. This data set is updated monthly on the first business day of the month.

  13. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  14. The public of media events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Morgner

    2011-06-01

    The article examines different types of semantic inclusion, with a focus on emotional reactions towards three different media events: the Titanic disaster, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and the death of Princess Diana.

  15. Pattern Discovery from Event Data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Van Quoc, Anh

    2014-01-01

    Events are ubiquitous in real-life. With the rapid rise of the popularity of social media channels, massive amounts of event data, such as information about festivals, concerts, or meetings, are increasingly created and shared by users on the Internet. Deriving insights or knowledge from such social media data provides a semantically rich basis for many applications, for instance, social media marketing, service recommendation, sales promotion, or enrichment of existing data sources. In spite...

  16. Events i den globale bykonkurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Katrine

    2005-01-01

    Paper til ph.d. workshop, d. 9. december 2005. Dette paper beskriver, hvorfor og hvordan events kan bruges som strategi for byplanlægning og byudvikling i den globale bykonkurrence.......Paper til ph.d. workshop, d. 9. december 2005. Dette paper beskriver, hvorfor og hvordan events kan bruges som strategi for byplanlægning og byudvikling i den globale bykonkurrence....

  17. 4-jet events at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bizouard, M A

    1997-01-01

    Results of a special study made by the four LEP experiments on 4-jet events recorded at Vs = 130 - 136 , 161 and 172 GeV are related. This study concerns the ALEPH analysis which has shown an excess of 4-jet events in data recorded at Vs = 130 - 136 GeV. No significant evidence has been found by the 3 other experiments. Results have been combined after several checks which did not show differences of performance between the four LEP experiments.

  18. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  19. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Nigel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup.

  20. Develop a flexible method to assess buildings hosting major sports events environmentally through the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ahmed Ahmed Fekry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific international institutions are responsible for managing and organizing major sports events besides choosing the hosting city for those events which is a difficult task, as there is a need for an appropriate decision using highly credible and justifiable mechanisms. Assessing the hosting city includes the assessment of sports buildings used in those events; however the diverse characteristics of countries aiming to host sports events raises the problem of obtaining fair environmental assessment results for the submitted projects. There are already a number of environmental assessment methods of buildings around the world and some were used to evaluate a group of major sports buildings in their countries. A particular version of Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM was used to assess the sports buildings hosting the Olympic Games in London 2012. However, it cannot be used outside England without the presence of several defects in the evaluation process, especially when dealing with different regional characteristics. Many countries are still without environmental assessment methods of their own, besides the unfairness in the comparison of results from available assessment methods among countries. Difficulty finding a standardized assessment method appears because of the spatial and temporal variables. The paper aims to show the importance of having a flexible method that could adapt to all the variables affecting environmental assessment of buildings with different characteristics and conditions of the countries hosting sports events as well as the different time periods, to get the utmost justifiable and precision results when choosing the hosting city.

  1. Evolution caused by extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna

    2017-06-19

    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. TOURISMOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF SPORTING EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporting events are programs, which are dominated by creative and complex facilities, primarily sports, but also recreation and entertainment. As such, they achieve tourism effects and goals and have a socio-economic importance for the city, region or state. Depending on the size and importance of sports event, sport has a different role in the context of promoting tourist destination, as well as different values. Each sport discipline has its own criteria by which athletes are ranked individually or as team. The subject of the research is to determine the criteria for the categorization of sporting events, in order to determine the importance of sporting events as an element of the tourist offer (individually or as part of a tourist destination. Also, this paper’s results present a comparative analysis of similar methodologies for the categorization of sporting events. Based on the research presented in the paper, there are four groups of criteria: economic, media, social and environmental. Together with this, paper gives the classification of traditional sporting events in the case of Serbia, dividing them in four groups.

  3. DESIGNING AN EVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond BENEDEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet world, the amount of information available reaches very high quotas. In order to find specific information, some tools were created that automatically scroll through the existing web pages and update their databases with the latest information on the Internet. In order to systematize the search and achieve a result in a concrete form, another step is needed for processing the information returned by the search engine and generating the response in a more organized form. Centralizing events of a certain type is useful first of all for creating a news service. Through this system we are pursuing a knowledge - events from the Internet documents - extraction system. The system will recognize events of a certain type (weather, sports, politics, text data mining, etc. depending on how it will be trained (the concept it has in the dictionary. These events can be provided to the user, or it can also extract the context in which the event occurred, to indicate the initial form in which the event was embedded.

  4. Modeling Documents with Event Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhui Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently deep learning has made great breakthroughs in visual and speech processing, mainly because it draws lessons from the hierarchical mode that brain deals with images and speech. In the field of NLP, a topic model is one of the important ways for modeling documents. Topic models are built on a generative model that clearly does not match the way humans write. In this paper, we propose Event Model, which is unsupervised and based on the language processing mechanism of neurolinguistics, to model documents. In Event Model, documents are descriptions of concrete or abstract events seen, heard, or sensed by people and words are objects in the events. Event Model has two stages: word learning and dimensionality reduction. Word learning is to learn semantics of words based on deep learning. Dimensionality reduction is the process that representing a document as a low dimensional vector by a linear mode that is completely different from topic models. Event Model achieves state-of-the-art results on document retrieval tasks.

  5. Negative life events, social support and gender difference in depression: a multinational community survey with data from the ODIN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dowrick, Christopher; Lehtinen, Ville; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose Luis; Casey, Patricia; Wilkinson, Greg; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Page, Helen; Dunn, Graham

    2006-06-01

    To explore if differences in negative life events, vulnerability and social support may explain the gender difference in depression. Cross-sectional, multinational, community survey from five European countries (n = 8,787). Depression is measured by Beck Depression Inventory, whereas negative life events and social support are measured by various questionnaires. Women report slightly more negative life events than men do, mainly related to the social network, but more social support in general and in connection with reported life events. This trend is the same in all participating countries except Spain, where there is no gender difference in the reported support. In general, women are not more vulnerable to negative life events than men are. However, women with no social support, who are exposed to life events, are more vulnerable than men without support. The higher rate of depression in women is not explained by gender differences in negative life events, social support or vulnerability.

  6. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available VII International Conference on research and conservation of raptors in North Eurasia will be hold in Sochi (Russia on the basis of the Sochi National Park in 19–24 September 2016. Annual Meeting of the Raptor Research Foundation will be hold in 16–20 October 2016 in the Cape May (New Jersey, USA supported by the New Jersey Audubon Society’s Cape May Bird Observatory. IV Neotropical Raptor Network Conference will be hold in La Fortuna (Costa Rica in 10th–13th October 2016. la Fundacion Rapaces Costa Rica. V World Owl Conference will be hold in Venaus (Italy in 22–26 March 2017. 4th International Peregrine Conference will be hold in Budapest (Hungary in 27 September – 1st October 2017. Webcams on nests of Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis and Tawny Owl (Strix aluco are installed in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia in 2016. Hour broadcast has been organized since April on the website of the Russian Raptor Research Network and on the website of the Ivideon company. The equipment and technical solutions from Ivideon. MTS has provided communication.

  7. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Baikal Economic ForumInternational Scientific and Practical Conference"Culture of Wood - Wood in Culture"Summer Ateliers of UrbanistsMemorandum of Understanding between UIA and Active House AllianceKorean Team Wins the First Prize in the VELUX AwardUIA Professional Practice Commission"Zodchestvo 2010" International FestivalRainbow of "Zodchestvo 2010" in ManezhThree Opinions on One Book about Gogol's Two"Soviet Modernism" BookV Plenum of the Board of the Union of Architects of RussiaXXX Meeting of Chief ArchitectsCompetition of Graduation ProjectsInternational Day of Architecture

  8. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the April 8-10 of 2014 an International Conference “Birds of Prey in the North Caucasus and Adjacent Regions: distribution, ecology, population dynamics, protection” was held in Sochi National Park, Sochi, Russia. The Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Global Action Plan (SakerGAP has been presented at the 11th Meeting of the Parties of the Bonn Convention (CMS, which took place in Quito (Ecuador on 4-9 November 2014. On the December 17 of 2014 a meeting between inspectors of Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”, police of Khakasia Republic and experts of Siberian Environmental Center was held in the Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”. On the December 20 of 2014 an annual meeting of members of Siberian Environmental Center (SEC was held in Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, Russia. Project leaders presented reports on the main activities and achievements gained in 2014. The Long-eared Owl (Asio otus became the Bird of the Year announced by the public organization "APB-BirdLife Belarus". The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 will be held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia.

  9. The ATLAS Event Service: A New Approach to Event Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Calafiura, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration; Guan, Wen; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre­staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabi...

  10. Financail Disaster Risk Mangement Solutions for Life Systems Infrastructure in Low and Middle Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skees, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Growing populations and increased frequency of extreme climate events as a result of anthropogenic climate change will make poor populations more vulnerable in the future. Seismic events (earthquakes and tsunamis) also create extreme hazards for the poor and vulnerable living in cities in low and middle income countries. Vulnerability of life-systems infrastructure (e.g., water treatment facilities, hospitals, protective sea walls, etc.) to extreme climate and seismic events compound problems for the poor and vulnerable. By using risk hazard modelling with engineering design, it is possible to blend improved engineering in concert with financial disaster risk management (including insurance) solutions to improve the resiliency of life-systems infrastructure.

  11. Bayesian analysis of rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Papaioannou, Iason; Betz, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    In many areas of engineering and science there is an interest in predicting the probability of rare events, in particular in applications related to safety and security. Increasingly, such predictions are made through computer models of physical systems in an uncertainty quantification framework. Additionally, with advances in IT, monitoring and sensor technology, an increasing amount of data on the performance of the systems is collected. This data can be used to reduce uncertainty, improve the probability estimates and consequently enhance the management of rare events and associated risks. Bayesian analysis is the ideal method to include the data into the probabilistic model. It ensures a consistent probabilistic treatment of uncertainty, which is central in the prediction of rare events, where extrapolation from the domain of observation is common. We present a framework for performing Bayesian updating of rare event probabilities, termed BUS. It is based on a reinterpretation of the classical rejection-sampling approach to Bayesian analysis, which enables the use of established methods for estimating probabilities of rare events. By drawing upon these methods, the framework makes use of their computational efficiency. These methods include the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM), tailored importance sampling (IS) methods and Subset Simulation (SuS). In this contribution, we briefly review these methods in the context of the BUS framework and investigate their applicability to Bayesian analysis of rare events in different settings. We find that, for some applications, FORM can be highly efficient and is surprisingly accurate, enabling Bayesian analysis of rare events with just a few model evaluations. In a general setting, BUS implemented through IS and SuS is more robust and flexible.

  12. Country Value Premiums and Financial Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the value premium across countries and contributes to the investment and asset pricing literature in three ways. First, I provide fresh evidence that the high-value countries perform significantly better than the low-value countries. Additionally, this phenomenon is indifferent to the choice of the computational currency, representative index or value indicator. Second, I demonstrate that the value effect can be successfully amplified by combining with country-level size and momentum effects. Third, I show that returns to the high-value countries deteriorate in financial crisis conditions, because the country-level value premium is negatively correlated with the credit spreads, TED spread and expected volatility. I examine data from 66 markets between years 2000 and 2013.

  13. Adaptation to Climate Extremes in Developing Countries : The Role of Education

    OpenAIRE

    Laplante, Benoit; Dasgupta, Susmita; Wheeler, David; Blankespoor, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Global climate models predict a rise in extreme weather in the next century. To better understand future interactions among adaptation costs, socioeconomic development, and climate change in developing countries, observed losses of life from floods and droughts during 1960-2003 are modeled using three determinants: weather events, income per capita, and female education. The analysis revea...

  14. Stroke risk estimation across nine European countries in the MORGAM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2010-01-01

    Previous tools for stroke risk assessment have either been developed for specific populations or lack data on non-fatal events or uniform data collection. The purpose of this study was to develop a stepwise model for the estimation of 10 year risk of stroke in nine different countries across Europe....

  15. A general perspective of extreme events in weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Philip

    2011-07-01

    One of the most important problems in meteorology, physical oceanography, climatology, and related fields is the understanding and dynamical description of multi-scale interactions. Multi-scale interactions are closely related to extreme events in climate and, therefore, of great practical importance. Here an extreme event is defined in terms of the non-Gaussian tail (sometimes also called a weather or climate regime) of the data's probability density function (PDF), as opposed to the definition in extreme value theory, where the statistics of time series maxima (and minima) in a given time interval are studied. The non-Gaussian approach used here allows for a dynamical view of extreme events in weather and climate, going beyond the solely mathematical arguments of extreme value theory. Extreme events are by definition scarce, but they can have a significant impact on people and countries in the affected regions. Understanding extremes has become an important objective in weather/climate variability research because weather and climate risk assessment depends on knowing the tails of PDFs. In recent years, new tools that make use of advanced stochastic theory have evolved to evaluate extreme events and the physics that govern these events. Stochastic methods are ideal to study multi-scale interactions and extreme events because they link vastly different time and spatial scales. One theory attributes extreme anomalies to stochastically forced dynamics, where, to model nonlinear interactions, the strength of the stochastic forcing depends on the flow itself (multiplicative noise). This closure assumption follows naturally from the general form of the equations of motion. Because stochastic theory makes clear and testable predictions about non-Gaussian variability, the multiplicative noise hypothesis can be verified by analyzing the detailed non-Gaussian statistics of atmospheric and oceanic variability. This review paper discusses the theoretical framework

  16. The Home Country of the MNE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobdari, Bersant; Gammeltoft, Peter; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Research on multinational enterprises that originate from emerging economies has highlighted the importance of the home country for firms’ strategies of internationalization. In this paper, we outline a simple analytical framework linking institutions and resource munificence in the home country...... with each other, but share resources, coordinate actions and serve as each other’s role model. Strategies of outward investment thus reflect the competition and collaboration in their home country business eco-system....

  17. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  18. Transplantation in low resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Faulkner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major (TM is the most common deadly genetic disorder, a major cause of chronic non-infectious morbidity and financial burden in many low and middle-income regions. In these settings few children reach adulthood because proper long-term supportive care is seldom available. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is the only available curative modality and it can be very successful and cost-effective for young children with low-risk features and a compatible related donor. However, in countries where TM is most prevalent, there is a dire shortage of BMT centers. The Cure2Children Foundation has supported a feasibility study evaluating safety, efficacy and costs of developing a new BMT center in an underserved lower-middle-income country with relatively untrained professionals within a structured collaboration and knowledge-transfer program. A total of 24 consecutive patients who underwent BMT in Pakistan between September 2008 and August 2010 are included in this prospective analysis, 17 from an established bone marrow transplant center, the National Institute for Blood Diseases in Karachi, Pakistan and the initial 7 BMTs from a start up unit in a government civil hospital, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Children’s Hospital in Islamabad. Patients were matched for age, nutritional status, growth, disease, disease status and post-BMT follow-up time. All patients had a matched-related sibling donor, were younger than 10 years of age at the time of transplantation, received the same conditioning regimen. All needy families could rely on a support program throughout the 8-month post-transplant period. The Cure2Children Foundation provided professional and financial support as well as a structured web-based data management and cooperation platform. At a median follow up of 19.6 months (range 8.7 to 31.5 actuarial thalassemia-free survival is 85.6% and 85.7% and overall survival 94.1% and 85.7% in the established and start-up center

  19. Country watch: Comoros and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, W

    1996-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) supports programs using radio to inform and educate about HIV and AIDS in developing countries, particularly with regard to illiterate or rural populations. In 1992, in Comoros (where 80% of adults and 65% of persons aged 15-25 listen to radio and there is no national television and only one printed medium--a French magazine), as part of a National AIDS Programme initiative aimed at mobilizing youth and women leaders, two journalists of the national radio channel produced an EC-supported series of 20 radio programs that were broadcast twice weekly every other week as part of the popular program "Sante" (Health). A series of 11 programs were broadcast in 1994-95 by Radio Comoros and by two private stations that were popular with youth. Surveys showed the following: 1) the popular shows were the main source of information on HIV/AIDS and were particularly successful in rural communities when broadcast in the local language; 2) the majority of villagers wanted this and other health information to continue; and 3) public information regarding sexuality was accepted by a large majority. The radio series caused Islamic religious leaders to discuss HIV prevention and condoms. An EC-supported project in Morocco occurred in 1993. The 3-month national information campaign about HIV/AIDS covered myths and rumors, infection risks, prevention measures, the disease and women and youth, the epidemic's socioeconomic impact, the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the role of the media. A 1-hour program in Arabic was broadcast twice a week for 24 weeks, 12 30-minute programs were broadcast in three Berber dialects, and several short spots were aired daily. The program format included presentations and discussions by health staff, psychologists, sociologists, and NGO staff; listener participation was allowed. 1000 men and 700 women were surveyed using a questionnaire. Roadside interviews were conducted in some cities. These showed that the

  20. Country of origin effect on brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been a substantial amount of empirical evidence on the country of origin phenomenon. However, marketing scholars have different perspectives and views on how the country of origin effect has impacted the brand perceptions of consumers. This paper presents...... an extensive review of the literature on the COO effect and traces the conceptual development of the country-of-origin construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with a critical appraisal of the existing research on this topic. By following the grounds of the systematic literature, this study...... seeks to establish a solid base for country-of-origin research review....

  1. Challenges in neurological practice in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The burden of neurological illness is much higher in developing countries. Neurological disorders in these countries are mainly due to poverty and malnutrition. Spectrums of diseases are also different in comparison with developed countries. Lack of resources, ignorance, and overpopulation make it very difficult and challenging to tackle this problem. Majority of the patients are seen by general practitioners who have little knowledge about neurological illnesses. Most of the countries have very few or no neurologist. There is a greater need of taking neurological care at primary care level where majority of the patients struggle with epilepsy, stroke and neuroinfections.

  2. Software exporting: a developing country advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Software exports have the potential to make a significant contribution to the economies of developing countries and to the global IT industry. Developing countries have demonstrated a comparative advantage in this export sector and the global IT industry can benefit from this developing country advantage. Today, IT is high investment, high risk, and high reward and has graduated from being a critical support function to a key partner, sometimes responsible for directing the strategy of an enterprise. Business and technology managers cannot afford to miss the opportunities provided by the comparative advantage of developing countries in the IT arena.

  3. Economic impact of cultural events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saayman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of events can hardly be described as a new one.  The aim of this paper is to determine the economic benefits of three major cultural events in South Africa to the host community.  Measuring the economic impact normally entails some estimation of the cash injection into a region by visitors and applying the relevant multiplier to arrive at a monetary estimate of the economic impact.  But few regions or municipal areas have detailed economic data to construct a type of input-output model and derive a multiplier.  The purpose of the methods used in this research were firstly to determine the estimated cash injection, secondly to estimate the size of leakages in the local economy and thirdly to derive an appropriate multiplier to estimate the economic impact of the event.

  4. Organizational Learning in Rare Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly B.

    their intellectual property to court. We propose, that organizations can learn to litigate, although it is a rare event, by applying mechanisms in a current litigation case that have been successful in previous litigation cases. However, we also posit, that the usefulness of these learning mechanisms for a current......When organizations encounter rare events they often find it challenging to extract learning from the experience. We analyze opportunities for organizational learning in one such rare event, namely Intellectual Property (IP) litigation, i.e., when organizations take disputes regarding...... litigation case is contingent on the type of litigation, contract versus infringement cases. If the organization is involved in litigation based on a contract breach, we suggest that learning will be less useful because the contract preceding the litigation defines the modus operandi and leaves...

  5. Organizational learning in rare events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly

    In this paper we build a theoretical framework for understanding whether and how firms learn from the rare event of litigating intellectual property cases. We draw on literature on organizational learning from rare events and examine the conditions under which firms can learn from rare events. We...... find that, when plaintiffs in IP litigation receive quick and clear positive feedback, this helps focus their attention on litigation feedback and motivates them to allocate resources that enhance learning. We explore the moderating effect of case type, finding that organizational learning is most...... applicable in cases without contractual constraints. In the setting studied, the learning effect of previous successes is contingent on case type, being less useful when firms litigate based on breach of contract....

  6. The public of media events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Morgner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the growing importance of large-scale events and their central role in a globalised media world in relation to public reactions and public involvement. The peculiar structure of such events requires a different understanding of mass communication and its audience. Therefore, the audience is further examined with regard to its impact on and inclusion in the media itself. Consequently, questions are raised as to how the public is incorporated, the form this inclusion takes and the effect that this has on the audience’s participation.The article examines different types of semantic inclusion, with a focus on emotional reactions towards three different media events: the Titanic disaster, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and the death of Princess Diana.

  7. The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, C; Bromet, E; Karam, E G; Kessler, R C; McLaughlin, K A; Ruscio, A M; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Petukhova, M; Hill, E; Alonso, J; Atwoli, L; Bunting, B; Bruffaerts, R; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; de Girolamo, G; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Huang, Y; Lepine, J P; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, M E; Navarro-Mateu, F; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A; Slade, T; ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zarkov, Z; Koenen, K C

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs. General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure. Over 70% of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5% were exposed to four or more. Five types - witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury - accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events. Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization.

  8. Extreme events in Faraday waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael; Xia, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Observations of extreme wave events in the ocean are rare due to their low statistical probability. In the laboratory however, the evolution of extreme wave events can be studied in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The reported surface wave experiments in the short wavelength gravity-capillary range aim to contribute to the understanding of some of the underlying mechanisms for rogue wave generation. In this talk, we report on extreme wave events in parametrically excited Faraday waves. Faraday waves appear if a fluid is accelerated (normal to the fluid surface) above a critical threshold. A variety of novel tools have been deployed to characterize the 2D surface elevation. The results presented show spatio-temporal and statistical data on the surface wave conditions leading up to extreme wave events. The peak in wave amplitude during such an event is shown to exceed six times the standard deviation of the average wave field with significantly increased statistical probability compared to the background wave field [1]. The experiments also show that parametrically excited waves can be viewed as assembles of oscillons [2] (or oscillating solitons) where modulation instability seems to play a crucial role in their formation. More detailed studies on the oscillon dynamics reveal that the onset of an increased probability of extreme wave events correlates with the increase in the oscillons mobility and merger [3]. Reference: 1. Xia H., Maimbourg T., Punzmann H., and Shats M., Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples, Physical Review Letters 109, 114502 (2012) 2. Shats M., Xia H., and Punzmann H., Parametrically excited water surface ripples as ensembles of oscillons, Physical Review Letters 108, 034502 (2012) 3. Shats M., Punzmann H., Xia H., Capillary rogue waves, Physical Review Letters, 104, 104503 (2010)

  9. Haemovigilance of reactions associated with red blood cell transfusion: comparison across 17 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M A M; Rohde, J M; Blumberg, N

    2016-04-01

    The recent establishment of the National Healthcare Safety Network Hemovigilance Module in the United States affords an opportunity to compare results with those of other developed nations. Using data from national haemovigilance systems, reactions associated with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and residual risks of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases were assembled from 17 nations. Country-specific rates of adverse events were pooled using random-effects Poisson regression. Febrile non-haemolytic and delayed serologic transfusion reactions were the most frequent adverse events reported after RBC transfusion, occurring in 26 patients per 100 000 RBC units and 25 patients per 100 000 RBC units administered, respectively. Rates of allergic, febrile non-haemolytic and delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions in the United States were significantly greater than the pooled rates from other countries. Frequencies of adverse events generated from the national haemovigilance programme in the United States were considerably lower than when obtained through active surveillance. Haemovigilance reports of adverse events in the United States are comparable to, or greater than, reports from other developed countries. Rates generated from haemovigilance programmes are lower than those obtained through active surveillance. The lack of universal leucoreduction of RBC units may be a contributing factor to the higher rate of some adverse events in the United States. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Challenges and possibilities for attribution studies in developing countries: Ethiopian drought of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Sarah; Philip, Sjoukje; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Otto, Friederike; Haustein, Karsten; King, Andrew; Karoly, David; Zegeye, Abiy; Eshetu, Zewdu; Hailu, Beza; Hailemariam, Kinfe

    2017-04-01

    Few publicly available observational stations, irregular records and short time series are common obstacles to trend detection and event attribution in developing countries (and in general, data sparse regions). It is developing countries, however, that also feel the impact of extreme weather events most severely and are therefore most vulnerable to climate change. There is a clear need for objective studies that quantify the extremity of the events and investigate their cause, which can be used in raising risk awareness. Here we outline our multi-method approach, which can help to indicate whether event return times and the attribution are robust and give a fairer idea of uncertainties, using the drought of 2015 in Ethiopia as an example, and share the challenges and possibilities encountered. In a drought-free year, Ethiopia experiences two rain seasons, Belg from February to May, and Kiremt from June to mid-September. In 2015, both rain seasons failed in the north east of the country, leading to one of the lowest precipitation deficits there in at least 50 years. We discuss the steps involved in defining the event, selecting precipitation and soil moisture as indicators for drought and its impact, and selecting observational data and other sources that can be used in addition to station observations, like the CHIRPS and CenTrends datasets. Besides we show the importance of using different models that are validated well, as well as the chosen approach to trend detection and attribution to both global warming and El Nino.

  11. STRATEGI PROMOSI EVENT NAMASTE FESTIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Wibowo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Promotion Strategy is the method that you use to promote the product. If we use the wrong promotion strategy, it will bring the disadvantage for the product and company. And on the contrary, if we are using the right promotion strategy, then it will bring the benefit for the product selling as did by Namaste Festival Event. This research was conducted in order to discover how promotion strategy of Namaste Festival Event to attract Yoga market by using promotion strategy theory. This research was guided by a qualitative approach with descriptive research in particular. The method being used was case study by conducting in-depth interviews. This research enabled the writer to discuss about the promotion strategy that being used by Namaste Festival event to increase the number of visitor. Therefore the researcher will able to get view on how PT Namaste Jaya Aditi as the organizer could run the promotion to get high number of visitor. After conducting an analysis, the main conclusion of this research is that the promotion strategy that been used by Namaste Festival organize is integrated several promotion activities such as online marketing, pre event road show, selling promotion, advertising (television and media printing & publicity. The result of this research is also said that promotion strategy that been use has an important role to attract visitor to participate in the event. Strategi Promosi adalah metode yang Anda gunakan untuk mempromosikan produk. Jika kita menggunakan strategi promosi yang salah, maka akan membawa kerugian bagi produk dan perusahaan. Dan sebaliknya, jika kita menggunakan strategi promosi yang tepat, maka akan membawa keuntungan bagi penjualan produk seperti yang dilakukan oleh Namaste Festival Event. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui bagaimana strategi promosi Namaste Festival Event untuk menarik pasar Yoga dengan menggunakan teori strategi promosi. Penelitian ini dipandu oleh pendekatan kualitatif dengan

  12. The Irish National Adverse Events Study (INAES): the frequency and nature of adverse events in Irish hospitals-a retrospective record review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Natasha; Hickey, Anne; Conroy, Ronan M; Condell, Sarah; O'Connor, Paul; Vaughan, David; Walsh, Gillian; Williams, David J

    2017-02-01

    Irish healthcare has undergone extensive change recently with spending cuts and a focus on quality initiatives; however, little is known about adverse event occurrence. To assess the frequency and nature of adverse events in Irish hospitals. 1574 (53% women, mean age 54 years) randomly selected adult inpatient admissions from a sample of eight hospitals, stratified by region and size, across the Republic of Ireland in 2009 were reviewed using two-stage (nurse review of patient charts, followed by physician review of triggered charts) retrospective chart review with electronic data capture. Results were weighted to reflect the sampling strategy. The impact on adverse event rate of differing application of international adverse event criteria was also examined. 45% of charts were triggered. The prevalence of adverse events in admissions was 12.2% (95% CI 9.5% to 15.5%), with an incidence of 10.3 events per 100 admissions (95% CI 7.5 to 13.1). Over 70% of events were considered preventable. Two-thirds were rated as having a mild-to-moderate impact on the patient, 9.9% causing permanent impairment and 6.7% contributing to death. A mean of 6.1 added bed days was attributed to events, representing an expenditure of €5550 per event. The adverse event rate varied substantially (8.6%-17.0%) when applying different published adverse event eligibility criteria. This first study of adverse events in Ireland reports similar rates to other countries. In a time of austerity, adverse events in adult inpatients were estimated to cost over €194 million. These results provide important baseline data on the adverse event burden and, alongside web-based chart review, provide an incentive and methodology to monitor future patient-safety initiatives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Relationships between meteorological situations and acid rain in Spanish Basque country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, A.; Casado, H.; Lacaux, J. P.; Garcia, C.

    With an automatic sequential precipitation collector, 52 rainy events were sampled at Vitoria (Spanish Basque country) in 1986. The chemical composition of each rainy event was studied and classified, using statistical techniques of multivariate data analysis (linear correlation + principal component analysis) and an automatic classification (length χ2) of the rainy events. These techniques enabled us to show, taking into account the influence of the meteorological conditions in which the precipitations formed, the presence, in Spanish Basque country, of acid rain episodes with an anthropogenic origin. These episodes are certainly reinforced by the trans-border transport from Southern France. Moreover, rainy episodes were shown to have a basic character due to a local source of terrigenous particles.

  14. Detection of events of public health importance under the international health regulations: a toolkit to improve reporting of unusual events by frontline healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Emily; Aavitsland, Preben; Bitar, Dounia; Borgen, Katrine

    2011-09-21

    The International Health Regulations (IHR (2005)) require countries to notify WHO of any event which may constitute a public health emergency of international concern. This notification relies on reports of events occurring at the local level reaching the national public health authorities. By June 2012 WHO member states are expected to have implemented the capacity to "detect events involving disease or death above expected levels for the particular time and place" on the local level and report essential information to the appropriate level of public health authority. Our objective was to develop tools to assist European countries improve the reporting of unusual events of public health significance from frontline healthcare workers to public health authorities. We investigated obstacles and incentives to event reporting through a systematic literature review and expert consultations with national public health officials from various European countries. Multi-day expert meetings and qualitative interviews were used to gather experiences and examples of public health event reporting. Feedback on specific components of the toolkit was collected from healthcare workers and public health officials throughout the design process. Evidence from 79 scientific publications, two multi-day expert meetings and seven qualitative interviews stressed the need to clarify concepts and expectations around event reporting in European countries between the frontline and public health authorities. An analytical framework based on three priority areas for improved event reporting (professional engagement, communication and infrastructure) was developed and guided the development of the various tools. We developed a toolkit adaptable to country-specific needs that includes a guidance document for IHR National Focal Points and nine tool templates targeted at clinicians and laboratory staff: five awareness campaign tools, three education and training tools, and an implementation plan. The

  15. A mathematical model for the occurrence of historical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model was proposed for the frequency distribution of historical inter-event time τ. A basic ingredient was constructed by assuming the significance of a newly occurring historical event depending on the magnitude of a preceding event, the decrease of its significance by oblivion during the successive events, and an independent Poisson process for the occurrence of the event. The frequency distribution of τ was derived by integrating the basic ingredient with respect to all social fields and to all stake holders. The function of such a distribution was revealed as the forms of an exponential type, a power law type or an exponential-with-a-tail type depending on the values of constants appearing in the ingredient. The validity of this model was studied by applying it to the two cases of Modern China and Northern Ireland Troubles, where the τ-distribution varies depending on the different countries interacting with China and on the different stage of history of the Troubles, respectively. This indicates that history is consisted from many components with such different types of τ-distribution, which are the similar situation to the cases of other general human activities.

  16. Maize transformation technology development for commercial event generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiudeng eQue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maize is an important food and feed crop in many countries. It is also one of the most important target crops for the application of biotechnology. Currently, there are more biotech traits available on the market in maize than in any other crop. Generation of transgenic events is a crucial step in the development of biotech traits. For commercial applications, a high throughput transformation system producing a large number of high quality events in an elite genetic background is highly desirable. There has been tremendous progress in Agrobacterium-mediated maize transformation since the publication of the Ishida et al. (1996 paper and the technology has been widely adopted for transgenic event production by many labs around the world. We will review general efforts in establishing efficient maize transformation technologies useful for transgenic event production in trait research and development. The review will also discuss transformation systems used for generating commercial maize trait events currently on the market. As the number of traits is increasing steadily and two or more modes of action are used to control key pests, new tools are needed to efficiently transform vectors containing multiple trait genes. We will review general guidelines for assembling binary vectors for commercial transformation. Approaches to increase transformation efficiency and gene expression of large gene stack vectors will be discussed. Finally, recent studies of targeted genome modification and transgene insertion using different site-directed nuclease technologies will be reviewed.

  17. Detection capability of the Italian network for teleseismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchetti

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The future GSE experiment is based on a global seismic monitoring system, that should be designed for monitoring compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. Every country participating in the test will transmit data to the International Data Center. Because of the high quality of data required, we decided to conduct this study in order to determine the set of stations to be used in the experiment. The Italian telemetered seismological network can detect all events of at least magnitude 2.5 whose epicenters are inside the network itself. For external events the situation is different: the capabilíty of detection is conditioned not only by the noise condition of the station, but also by the relative position of epicenter and station. The ING bulletin (January 1991-June 1992 was the data set for the present work. Comparing these data with the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC bulletin, we established which stations are most reliable in detecting teleseismic events and, moreover, how distance and back-azimuth can influence event detection. Furthermore, we investigated the reliability of the automatic acquisition system in relation to teleseismic event detection.

  18. A General Perspective of Extreme Events in Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Extreme events are by definition scarce, but they can have a significant impact on people and countries in the affected regions. An extreme event is most commonly defined in terms of the non-Gaussian tail (sometimes called a climate regime) of the data's probability density function (PDF). Understanding extremes has become an important objective in weather/climate variability research because climate and weather risk assessment depends on knowing the tails of PDFs. In recent years, new tools that make use of advanced stochastic theory have evolved to evaluate extreme events and the physics that govern these events. One theory attributes extreme anomalies to stochastically forced dynamics, where, to model nonlinear interactions, the strength of the stochastic forcing depends on the flow itself (multiplicative noise). This closure assumption follows naturally from the general form of the equations of motion. Because stochastic theory makes clear and testable predictions about non-Gaussian variability, the multiplicative noise hypothesis can be verified by analyzing the detailed non-Gaussian statistics of atmospheric and oceanic variability. This presentation discusses the theoretical framework and some recent developments in stochastic modeling of extreme events in climate.

  19. Can we compare violence data across countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Curtis, Tine; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2004-01-01

    The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data.......The paper aims to explore what knowledge can be obtained about violence through population-based data and additionally, through inter-country comparisons of violence data....

  20. Entrepreneurship Education: Experiences in Selected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Rosni; Islam, Md Aminul; Lee, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and education play a role in enhancing the country's economic state. Entrepreneurship helps the economy by providing job opportunities. The lack of job opportunities has caused unemployment rates to increase tremendously throughout the years making the development rate of a country slow down. One way for the economy to improve is…

  1. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  2. Electricity Pricing in Less Developed Countries: Incorporating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity tariffs suffer heavy distortions in many developing countries because of undue government influence. However, in view of increasing financing constraints in recent times and the need for increased energy efficiency, private sector participation in the electric utility industry in these countries is crucial for the future ...

  3. Road safety research in desert countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Depending on the geographical location and the climatological situation, the rural areas in developing countries vary from dense jungles to deserts.The traffic situation varies accordingly. This chapter deals with developing countries in arid subtropical regions, where the rural areas are deserts

  4. 15 CFR 752.4 - Eligible countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible countries. 752.4 Section 752.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... SCL except: (1) Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. (2) Other countries that BIS may...

  5. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  6. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...

  7. Consumer ethnocentrism and Country of origin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    The research on consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin effect is quite substantial in the area of consumer research, but there are competing views as to how low involvement products influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin in a transitional market setting...

  8. Why are Rich Countries more Politically Cohesive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    We document empirically that rich countries are more politically cohesive than poorer countries. In order to explain this regularity, we provide a model where political cohesion is linked to the emergence of a fully  functioning market economy. Without market exchange, the welfare of inherently...

  9. Bibliography for Information Technology in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odedra, Mayuri; Kluzer, Stefano

    1988-01-01

    This extensive bibliography for information technology in developing countries includes references to materials on information technology in general; applications; policies and strategies; multinational and transnational corporations; specific countries; and other bibliographies. The bibliography covers existing literature in English, French,…

  10. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...

  11. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  12. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 nov. 2009 ... Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries : Economic Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic Reforms in the Middle East. Directeur(s) : Khalid Sekkat. Maison(s) d'édition : Springer, CDRI. 25 novembre ...

  13. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-11-25

    Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries : Economic Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa. Book cover Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic Reforms in the Middle East. Editor(s):. Khalid Sekkat. Publisher(s):. Springer, CDRI. November 25, 2009. ISBN:.

  14. Carbon emission patterns in different income countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina, Beijing, 100083 (China); Yi, Wen-Jing; Zou, Le-Le [Institute of Policy and Management, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Guo, Jie; Feng, Zhen-Hua [School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Wei, Yi-Ming [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2011-07-01

    In order to find the main driving forces affecting CO2 emission patterns and the relationship between economic development and CO2 emissions, this paper uses models of Sigma-convergence, absolute Beta-convergence and conditional Beta-convergence to analyze the inner characteristics of CO2 emissions and the income level of 128 countries (and regions) in the world. The countries (and regions) are divided into 5 groups based on their per capita income levels. The results show that in the past 40 years, all the groups showed trends of convergence on the CO2 emissions. In terms of emission levels, lagging countries (and regions) tend to catch up with advanced nations, with convergence tending to be conditional on country-specific characteristics such as energy use and energy structures rather than absolute convergence. Then this paper examines the impacts of selected variables such as GDP per capita, population, oil, gas, coal etc. on the emission trends. The analysis on the impacting factors shows that for the developing countries (and regions), the levels of economic development have greater effects on their carbon emissions patterns. And for the developed countries (and regions), the energy consumption structures wielded a big influence for the past 40 years. We find that the growth speed of CO2 emissions in developed countries (and regions) would get slower, and those of the developing countries (and regions) give expression to catching-up effects. These findings are expected to shed a light on the global policy making in coping climate change.

  15. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Couverture du livre Child Welfare in Developing Countries. Editor(s):. John Cockburn et Jane Kabubo-Mariara. Publisher(s):. Springer, PEP, CRDI. August 5, 2010. ISBN: 9781441963376. 308 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504888. Download PDF · Read the e-book · Order the book.

  16. Reorienting regulation: pollution enforcement in industrializing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, L.K.; van Rooij, B.; Kagan, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue aims to set a course for future inquiry on regulatory enforcement in industrializing countries. With examples from major countries including Brazil, China, and Indonesia, the articles develop four cross-cutting themes: (1) how enforcement and its institutional context vary

  17. WOUND CARE DRESSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ismail Adigun

    Abstract. Background Many sophisticated dressings are available to the wound care practitioner in the developed countries. These materials are made from a wide range of products like polyurethane, salts of alginic acid and other gelable polysaccharides. The situation is different in the developing countries where what is.

  18. Comparisons of daily behavior across 21 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranski, Erica N.; Gardiner, Gwen; Guillaume, Esther; Aveyard, Mark; Bastian, Brock; Bronin, Igor; Ivanova, Christina; Cheng, Joey T.; de Kock, Francois S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Gallardo-Pujol, David; Halama, Peter; Han, Gyuseog Q.; Bae, Jaechang; Moon, Jungsoon; Hong, Ryan Y.; Hrebickova, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Izdebski, Pawel; Lundmann, Lars; Penke, Lars; Perugini, Marco; Costantini, Giulio; Rauthmann, John; Ziegler, Matthias; Realo, Anu; Elme, Liisalotte; Sato, Tatsuya; Kawamoto, Shizuka; Szarota, Piotr; Tracy, Jessica L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Yang, Yu; Funder, David C.

    While a large body of research has investigated cultural differences in behavior, this typical study assesses a single behavioral outcome, in a single context, compared across two countries. The current study compared a broad array of behaviors across 21 countries (N = 5,522). Participants described

  19. Rising environmental cadmium levels in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It is thought to be of greater concern to rapidly industrializing developing countries because of the increasing pace of industrial activities in these countries with increasing consumption and release into the environment.

  20. Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries. Couverture du livre Finance and Competitiveness in Developing Countries. Directeur(s) : José M. Fanelli et Rohinton Medhora. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge, CRDI. 19 septembre 2001. ISBN : 9780415459211. 382 pages. e-ISBN : 1552502171. Téléchargez le PDF.

  1. Inspection of home education in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, H.; Karsten, S.

    2011-01-01

    In many European countries and in North America, home education is a viable alternative for education at school. Parents who want to home school their child are legally allowed to do so, although some countries impose rather strict conditions. This article concentrates on the way authorities

  2. Inspection of Home Education in European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Henk; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    In many European countries and in North America, home education is a viable alternative for education at school. Parents who want to home school their child are legally allowed to do so, although some countries impose rather strict conditions. This article concentrates on the way authorities supervise or inspect the quality of home education. A…

  3. Eventos de Febrero (February Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, the booklet contains brief information on eight events celebrated by Puerto Ricans in the month of February: La Candelaria; Abraham Lincoln; Black History; Valentine's Day; Julia de Burgos; Luis Munoz Marin; George Washington; and the Carnaval. Written in Spanish, the booklet discusses the orgin and ways of…

  4. Virginia Forest Landowners Events Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A quarterly calendar listing events that promote Virginia forest stewardship through sustainable forestry, wildlife management, timber marketing, outdoor recreation, and soil and water conservation. Calendar sponsors include: Virginia Forestry Association (VFA); VFA Sustainable Forestry Task Force Virginia Department of Forestry; Virginia Forestry Educational Foundation; VA Tech College of Forestry & Wildlife Resources; Virginia Cooperative Extension

  5. Adolescents' Evaluation of Cyberbullying Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Shariff, Shaheen; McConnell, Megan; Talwar, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Educators and other professionals working with adolescents have grown increasingly concerned about how technology affects social relationships given the amount of time that is spent engaging in online activities. Cyberbullying has sparked the interest of many researchers due to the tragic events reported in the media, relating to the online…

  6. Oxidation events and skin aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Luiten, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of skin aging, or that of tissue in general, is determined by a variable predominance of tissue degeneration over tissue regeneration. This review discusses the role of oxidative events of tissue degeneration and aging in general, and for the skin in particular. The mechanisms involved in

  7. Domestic Event Support Operations (DESO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    2000. Because major international events promise significant economic benefits , cities around the world will probably continue to compete hard for...bands based in Melbourne provided musical support to the Games’ Cultural Festival . Second, support was provided that offered operational or training...Subsequently, he commanded the Joint Task Forces that supported the Melbourne 2006 Commonwealth Games and the 2007 Asia-Pacific Economic

  8. Eventos de Mayo (May Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Designed as a resource for teachers, this booklet, written in Spanish, contains brief information on seven May events: La Semana de la Educacion (first Friday in May), Harry S. Truman (May 8), Dia de las Madres (second Sunday in May), Luis Llorens Torres (May 14), La Cruz Roja (May 21), John F. Kennedy (May 29), and El Dia De Conmemoracion (May…

  9. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  10. Virginia Forest Landowners Events Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    A quarterly calendar listing events that promote Virginia forest stewardship through sustainable forestry, wildlife management, timber marketing, outdoor recreation, and soil and water conservation. Calendar sponsors include: Virginia Forestry Association (VFA); VFA Sustainable Forestry Task Force Virginia Department of Forestry; Virginia Forestry Educational Foundation; VA Tech College of Forestry & Wildlife Resources; Virginia Cooperative Extension

  11. Eventos de Agosto (August Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; Pla, Myrna

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on seven August events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Herbert Hoover's birthdate (August 10); Acta del Seguro Social (Social Security Act, August 14); Julian E. Blanco (August 14), Enmienda 19 Sufragia de la Mujer (Amendment 19, Women's Suffrage, August 26); Benjamin Harrison (August 20);…

  12. Eventos de Julio (July Events).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Myrna; Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on 10 July events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: United States Declaration of Independence; the birthdays of P.T. Barnum, Elias Howe, John Quincy Adams, Luis Munoz Rivera, and Simon Bolivar; Marisol Malaret (first puerto Rican to be "Miss Universe"); Puerto Rican Constitution; Las…

  13. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  14. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  15. Gender Imbalance and Terrorism in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Javed; Sandler, Todd

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates whether gender imbalance may be conducive to domestic terrorism in developing countries. A female-dominated society may not provide sufficient administration, law, or order to limit domestic terrorism, especially since societies in developing countries primarily turn to males for administration, policing, and paramilitary forces. Other economic considerations support female imbalance resulting in grievance-generated terrorism. Because male dominance may also be linked to terrorism, empirical tests are ultimately needed to support our prediction. Based on panel data for 128 developing countries for 1975 to 2011, we find that female gender imbalance results in more total and domestic terrorist attacks. This female gender imbalance does not affect transnational terrorism in developing countries or domestic and transnational terrorism in developed countries. Further tests show that gender imbalance affects terrorism only when bureaucratic institutions are weak. Many robustness tests support our results.

  16. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI  are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.

  17. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general......Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...

  18. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  19. Thrombosis and bleeding disorders outside Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, P M

    2007-07-01

    The rapidly developing countries of Asia are witnessing substantial progress in the awareness of bleeding and thrombotic disorders as important health care problems. It has been thought for a long time that venous thromboembolism is very rare in Asia. Recent large studies that involved the majority of Asian countries demonstrated that this is not true, so that the practice of not using thromboprophylaxis in high-risk medical and surgical cases should be abandoned. The management of hemophilia and allied coagulation disorders has also dramatically improved in several Asian countries, due to the increased availability of blood products for replacement therapy coupled with the leadership role exerted by a few charismatic physicians, particularly in India and Thailand. As to the future, countries such as China and India have the capacity and expertise in biotechnology to consider the production of recombinant factors and gene transfer as the best strategies to tackle the management of persons with hemophilia in these densely populated and huge countries.

  20. Usability Evaluation in a Digitally Emerging Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizano, Fulvio; Sandoval, Maria Marta; Bruun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Several emerging countries experience increasing software development activities. With the purpose of provide useful feedback on possible courses of action for increasing application of usability evaluation in such countries, this paper explores the status of usability evaluation in a digitally...... emerging country. Our aim is to identifying common characteristics or behavioral patterns that could be compared with digitally advanced countries. We used an online survey answered by 26 software development organizations, which gave a snapshot of the application of usability evaluation...... in these organizations. We found many similarities with advanced countries, several completely new obstacles more connected with software development matters and a relatively positive improvement in the lack of “usability culture”. These findings suggest good conditions to improve conduction of usability evaluations...

  1. Visual and Real-Time Event-Specific Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Based Detection Assays for Bt Cotton Events MON531 and MON15985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Singh, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bt cotton events MON531 and MON15985 are authorized for commercial cultivation in more than 18 countries. In India, four Bt cotton events have been commercialized; more than 95% of total area under genetically modified (GM) cotton cultivation comprises events MON531 and MON15985. The present study reports on the development of efficient event-specific visual and real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection and identification of cotton events MON531 and MON15985. Efficiency of LAMP assays was compared with conventional and real-time PCR assays. Real-time LAMP assay was found time-efficient and most sensitive, detecting up to two target copies within 35 min. The developed real-time LAMP assays, when combined with efficient DNA extraction kit/protocol, may facilitate onsite GM detection to check authenticity of Bt cotton seeds.

  2. Report of a serious reportable communicable disease at a major sporting event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummiskey, J; Borrione, P; Bachil, N; Ergen, E; Pigozzi, F

    2008-06-01

    A European Youth Olympic Sports Festival (EYOF), in Jaca, Northern Aragon, Spain, involving 1500 athletes, from 43 countries was held in January for 7 days. The event was marred by a case of type B Neisseria meningitidis. The usual care of the patient was performed in a local hospital. He eventually made a full recovery. The case was reported to the Local Health Authority and the National Public Health authority of the patient's country. Their advice was to treat the core case, give prophylactic therapy to the inner circle (28 athletes and officials) and surveillance of the other close contacts (84 total) with temperature and symptom review daily. They advised against further information being given to the rest of the athletes and officials, in case it might give rise to a panic situation. The dilemma of the responsible physicians was that 1500 athletes were traveling back to 43 countries within the incubation period of the bacterial meningitis. It was decided that informing each country was appropriate. This was done at the event by informing the Chef of the Missions and writing to the Secretary Generals of each National Olympic Committee attending. This was the first serious contagious disease at a major sporting event. The way in which the wider dispersing attendees were informed at the event should form the basis of management at sporting events in the likelihood of a serious communicable disease.

  3. Political instability in a country and health state in another country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    political alternation, ethnic conflicts, tribalism, wars, coup d'états). These plagues that consume African society have serious impact on the economic growth of these countries, and diversely affect neighbouring countries known for their relative ...

  4. Developing Countries: Switching Some Multilateral Loans to Grants Lessens Poor Country Debt Burdens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... replace up to 50 percent of future lending. This proposal was motivated, in part, by concerns regarding poor countries long-term debt burdens and the adequacy of recent initiatives to provide debt relief for the world s poorest countries...

  5. Calculation of Fission Observables Through Event-by-Event Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2009-06-04

    The increased interest in more exclusive fission observables has demanded more detailed models. We present here a new computational model, FREYA, that aims to met this need by producing large samples of complete fission events from which any observable of interest can then be extracted consistently, including arbitrary correlations. The various model assumptions are described and the potential utility of the model is illustrated by means of several novel correlation observables.

  6. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  7. The Impact of Hosting a Major Sport Event on the South African Economy

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Bohlmann; Moses J.H. van Heerden

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the sporting industry on economic decision making has increased dramatically since the global media explosion in the 1980s. Tourism and advertising revenues generated by these mega-events have become a major boost to the economies of hosting nations. In addition, globalisation has placed great emphasis on the importance of foreign direct investment (FDI), especially to developing countries. This paper seeks to examine the impact of the pre-event phase expenditure attributed to t...

  8. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  9. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  10. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  11. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  12. Developing Countries Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leach, James

    2000-01-01

    This report responds to your request that we (1) assess whether the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative is likely to free up resources for poverty reduction and achieve the goal of debt sustainability, (2...

  13. Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey J A Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional and 171 (absolute had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened. Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in

  14. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  15. Parasitic Events in Envelope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Doubek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope analysis allows fast fault location of individual gearboxes and parts of bearings by repetition frequency determination of the mechanical catch of an amplitude-modulated signal. Systematic faults arise when using envelope analysis on a signal with strong changes. The source of these events is the range of function definition of used in convolution integral definition. This integral is used for Hilbert image calculation of analyzed signal. Overshoots (almost similar to Gibbs events on a synthetic signal using the Fourier series are result from these faults. Overshoots are caused by parasitic spectral lines in the frequency domain, which can produce faulty diagnostic analysis.This paper describes systematic arising during faults rising by signal numerical calculation using envelope analysis with Hilbert transform. It goes on to offer a mathematical analysis of these systematic faults.

  16. Extreme solar-terrestrial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Echer, E.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Extreme solar-terrestrial events are those in which very energetic solar ejections hit the earth?s magnetosphere, causing intense energization of the earth?s ring current. Statistically, their occurrence is approximately once per Gleissberg solar cycle (70-100yrs). The solar transient occurred on July, 23rd (2012) was potentially one of such extreme events. The associated coronal mass ejection (CME), however, was not ejected towards the earth. Instead, it hit the STEREO A spacecraft, located 120 degrees away from the Sun-Earth line. Estimates of the geoeffectiveness of such a CME point to a scenario of extreme Space Weather conditions. In terms of the ring current energization, as measured by the Disturbance Storm-Time index (Dst), had this CME hit the Earth, it would have caused the strongest geomagnetic storm in space era.

  17. Studying transient events with Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Athena is the second large mission selected in the ESA Cosmic Vision plan. With its large collecting area, high spectral-energy resolution (X-IFU instrument) and impressive grasp (WFI instrument), Athena will truly revolutionise X-ray astronomy. The most prodigious sources of high-energy photons are often transitory in nature. Athena will provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution coupled with rapid response to enable the study of the dynamic sky. Potential sources include: distant Gamma-Ray Bursts to probe the reionisation epoch and find 'missing' baryons in the cosmic web; tidal disruption events to reveal dormant supermassive and intermediate-mass black holes; and supernova explosions to understand progenitors and their environments. I will illustrate Athena's capabilities and show how it will be able to constrain the nature of explosive events.

  18. ELECTION - A STRESSFUL LIFE EVENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Shiv; Aggarwal, Rajeev; Sharma, Himanshu

    1997-01-01

    54 patients who sought consultation at this centre after developing psychiatric illness following local panchayat elections in Rajasthan were studied. The study aims to find out whether election is a stressful life event, relationship of socio-demographic characteristics, role of process of election, and nature of psychiatric illness as related to election stress. This group was compared to general psychiatric patients randomly selected from the same hospital, with or without other stressful ...

  19. Oxidation events and skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer, A; Luiten, R M

    2015-05-01

    The rate of skin aging, or that of tissue in general, is determined by a variable predominance of tissue degeneration over tissue regeneration. This review discusses the role of oxidative events of tissue degeneration and aging in general, and for the skin in particular. The mechanisms involved in intrinsic and extrinsic (photo-) aging are described. Since photoaging is recognized as an important extrinsic aging factor, we put special emphasize on the effects of UV exposure on aging, and its variable influence according to global location and skin type. We here summarise direct photochemical effects of UV on DNA, RNA, proteins and vitamin D, the factors contributing to UV-induced immunosuppression, which may delay aging, the nature and origin of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) as indirect contributors for aging, and the consequences of oxidative events for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, such as that of collagen. We conclude that conflicting data on studies investigating the validity of the free radical damage theory of aging may reflect variations in the level of ROS induction which is difficult to quantify in vivo, and the lack of targeting of experimental ROS to the relevant cellular compartment. Also mitohormesis, an adaptive response, may arise in vivo to moderate ROS levels, further complicating interpretation of in vivo results. We here describes how skin aging is mediated both directly and indirectly by oxidative degeneration.This review indicates that skin aging events are initiated and often propagated by oxidation events, despite recently recognized adaptive responses to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Complex Event Extraction using DRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    to the genre of scien - tific writing, in particular in the biomedical do- main. Events in biomedical research papers are described in a highly...headings (MeSH). Bulletin of the Medical Library Associa- tion 88 (3), 265-266. Manshadi, M. H., J. F. Allen, et al. (2008). Towards a Universal... Library of Medicine, Be- thesda, Maryland., pp. 235-239. Miyao, Y., K. Sagae, R. Sætre, T. Matsuzaki, and J. Tsujii (2009). Evaluating

  1. Contraceptive use in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Ingela; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to compare contraceptive use in the Nordic countries and to assess compliance with recommendations from the European Medicines Agency regarding the use of combined oral contraception containing low-dose estrogen and levonorgestrel, norethisterone or norgestimate. MATERIAL...... by Finland (40%). Combined oral contraception was the most used method in all countries, with the highest use in Denmark (26%). The second most used method was the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, with the highest use in Finland (15%) and ≈10% in the other countries. Copper intrauterine devices...

  2. Global mental health in high income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sashidharan, S.P.; White, Ross; Mezzina, Roberto; Jansen, Stefan; Gishoma, Darius

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade there have been significant efforts to scale-up mental health services in resource-poor countries. A number of cost-effective innovations have emerged as a result. At the same time, there is increasing concern in resource-rich countries about efficacy, efficiency and acceptability of mental health services. We consider two specific innovations used widely in low- and middle-income countries, task-sharing and a development model of mental healthcare, that we believe have t...

  3. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures.

  4. Flood basalts and extinction events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood basalts, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood basalts, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood basalts can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.

  5. The ATLAS Event Service: A new approach to event processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafiura, P.; De, K.; Guan, W.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Tsulaia, V.; Van Gemmeren, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Event Service (ES) implements a new fine grained approach to HEP event processing, designed to be agile and efficient in exploiting transient, short-lived resources such as HPC hole-filling, spot market commercial clouds, and volunteer computing. Input and output control and data flows, bookkeeping, monitoring, and data storage are all managed at the event level in an implementation capable of supporting ATLAS-scale distributed processing throughputs (about 4M CPU-hours/day). Input data flows utilize remote data repositories with no data locality or pre-staging requirements, minimizing the use of costly storage in favor of strongly leveraging powerful networks. Object stores provide a highly scalable means of remotely storing the quasi-continuous, fine grained outputs that give ES based applications a very light data footprint on a processing resource, and ensure negligible losses should the resource suddenly vanish. We will describe the motivations for the ES system, its unique features and capabilities, its architecture and the highly scalable tools and technologies employed in its implementation, and its applications in ATLAS processing on HPCs, commercial cloud resources, volunteer computing, and grid resources. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  6. 36 CFR 2.50 - Special events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 2.50 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions, entertainments, ceremonies, and similar events are allowed: Provided, however, There...

  7. 36 CFR 331.11 - Special events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 331.11..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.11 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water... charged any fee by the sponsor of such permitted event unless the District Engineer has approved in...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.50 - Special events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 1002.50... RECREATION § 1002.50 Special events. (a) Sports events, pageants, regattas, public spectator attractions, entertainments, ceremonies, and similar events are allowed: Provided, however, There is a meaningful association...

  9. 36 CFR 327.21 - Special events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special events. 327.21... § 327.21 Special events. (a) Special events including, but not limited to, water carnivals, boat... sponsor of such event unless the District Commander has approved in writing (and the sponsor has properly...

  10. Corrigendum: 'Anomalous Kolar events revisited: Dark matter?'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-08

    Mar 8, 2017 ... A couple of years ago a paper was published [1], interpreting some unusual and unexplained events (the so-called Kolar events) observed in the KGF under- ground laboratory. These events were observed in two phases over two decades starting from 1964. In [1], these unusual Kolar events were ...

  11. In search of video event semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazloom, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we aim to represent an event in a video using semantic features. We start from a bank of concept detectors for representing events in video. At first we considered the relevance of concepts to the event inside the video representation. We address the problem of video event

  12. From Event Planning to Legacy Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The importance of legacy and legacy planning is increasing in the event industry. Mega-events are becoming so expensive to host that the opportunity costs decreases the amount of potential future hosts. The events aim to surpass the costs by creating positive legacies, impacts that last longer than the event itself. Small-events can also have legacies and the positive affects can be even more significant than with the mega-events. Event planning must change to legacy planning in the future, b...

  13. Rare events: a state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1980-12-01

    The study of rare events has become increasingly important in the context of nuclear safety. Some philosophical considerations, such as the framework for the definition of a rare event, rare events and science, rare events and trans-science, and rare events and public perception, are discussed. The technical work of the Task Force on problems of Rare Events in the Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Plants (1976-1978), sponsored by OECD, is reviewed. Some recent technical considerations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The appendix contains an essay written by Anne E. Beachey, under the title: A Study of Rare Events - Problems and Promises.

  14. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  15. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    Key words: Entrepreneur, biotechnology, investment. INTRODUCTION. The biotechnological revolution has been ... western economies, biotechnology provides the promise to vastly improve the quality of life. The new ... At the forefront to exploit biotechnology in developing countries should be the entrepreneurial scientist.

  16. Public Education and Growth in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuppert, Christiane; Wirz, Nadja

    Human capital plays a key role in fostering technology adoption, the major source of economic growth in developing countries. Consequently, enhancing the level of human capital should be a matter of public concern. The present paper studies public education incentives in an environment in which...... governments can invest in human capital to facilitate the adoption of new technologies invented abroad or, instead, focus on consumptive public spending. Although human capital is pivotal for growth, the model reveals that incentives to invest in public education vanish if a country is poorly endowed...... with human capital. Rather, governments of these poorly-endowed countries focus on consumptive public spending. As a result, while their better-endowed counterparts build up human capital thereby promoting technology adoption and growth, the growth process in poorly-endowed countries stagnates....

  17. Estonian Golf & Country Club / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2005-01-01

    Konkursil "Eesti parim puitehitis 2005" pälvis voodrilaua eripreemia Jõelähtme Estonian Golf & Country Club'i katus. Arhitekt Andres Siim. Sisearhitekt Juta Lember. Konstruktor: AS Resand. 11 värv. ill

  18. Research Management Issues in the Arab Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Nabiel A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines research management, particularly within higher education institutions, in 21 Arab countries including, research and current trends in knowledge production, institutional aspects, research funding, and good practice in research management. (EV)

  19. MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION MECHANISM IN EMERGING COUNTRIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreea ROŞOIU; Iulia ROŞOIU

    2013-01-01

    .... The importance of interest rate and exchange rate channels for the emerging countries Romania, Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary is analyzed by using Bayesian VAR approach with Diffuse priors over 1998Q1-2012Q3...

  20. IMMIGRATION VERSUS OUTSOURCING: A DEVELOPING COUNTRY'S VIEW

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simontini Das; Ajitava Raychaudhuri; Saikat Sinha Roy

    2012-01-01

      This paper provides a comparative study between temporary immigration policy and product outsourcing process, from the low-income developing country's point of view, which is supply side constrained...

  1. Changing education through ICT in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topi...... in the context of education. The book is essential reading for researchers, educational planners, policy advisers, students and educators.......This book presents discussions of how information and communication technology (ICT) can play a vital role in developing education and thereby developing communities, countries and regions.Through examples of current research in developing countries, a number of highly relevant questions and topics...... and education The chapters in this volume are written by members of the international research group on ICT for Development (ICT4D) at Aalborg University together with researchers from around the world. This book is the first of its kind to concentrate fully on the relationship between ICT for development...

  2. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  3. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, A M.; Sinisalo, H.; Eilertsen, G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to elucidate...... the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. METHODS: In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have...... are exhibited some have been photographed and digitalized. Denmark and Sweden have had a local moulage production. Responses to the survey indicate that the result covers all collections of dermatological moulages in the Nordic countries, though some moulages may remain in private collections unknown...

  4. Vaccine requirements and priorities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongcharoen, P

    1986-09-01

    The situation of viral vaccines used in Asian countries is reviewed, focusing on the following vaccines: smallpox, rabies, polio, measles, rubella, mumps, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis B, varicella, dengue, and rotavirus. Vaccinations are among the most important strategies to combat communicable diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Active immunizations are more preferable in most instances than passive ones. It has taken almost 2 centuries to eradicate the highly contagious infection of smallpox from the world. In 1979 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the global eradication of smallpox. Smallpox vaccination was 1st practiced in 1840 by Dr. Dan Beach Bradley, with the last 2 cases of smallpox reported in Thailand in 1962. Despite the achievement for many years of more ideal rabies vaccine, Semple vaccine continues to be used in developing countries. Attempts should be intensified to produce newer tissue culture vaccines in developing countries themselves and to eradicate vectors. Instances of poliomyelitis were reported in Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand as late as 1983-84, but only a few sporadic cases have occurred in Malaysia since 1980. This mixed record results from polio vaccine having been incorporated into national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) programs in many countries. Measles remains 1 of the most common viral infections in children in most developing nations, but morbidity and mortality rates are not accurately obtainable in these countries. Rubella outbreaks have been reported from many countries in Southeast Asia with congenital rubella syndromes due to maternal rubella on the increase in many countries, including Thailand. Children who receive the mumps vaccination are those receiving the combined MMR vaccines. Monovalent mumps vaccine is not obtainable in developing countries. Influenza vaccine is impracticable in most developing countries. Japanese encephalitis

  5. Telehealth ICT Infrastructures in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and recommendations of ICT infrastructures and reference architectures for telehealth in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This study shows that so far only Denmark has designed a complete reference architecture, and by the end......Health in general and not designed reference architectures or done implementations for telehealth specifically. This paper recommends that all the Nordic countries join Continua and collaborate to gain more influence of the organization’s decision making....

  6. Assessing Children in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Hjörne, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent tendencies within assessment in comprehensive school in Nordic countries raise the question of the role of different practices of assessments, on how assessments are being used, for which purposes and the consequences of this. Assessments can be considered to be an integrated part of forma...... different ways of practising assessment support or work against this idea? What conclusions can be drawn from the experiences in the Nordic countries?...

  7. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Guiga Housseima; Jaleleddine Ben Rejeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied...

  8. Reporting about disability evaluation in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de

    2014-01-01

    To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured

  9. How foreign investment affects host countries

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstrom, Magnus; Kokko, Ari

    1997-01-01

    Foreign direct investment may promote economic development by helping to improve productivity growth and exports in the multinationals'host countries, the authors conclude, after reviewing the empirical evidence. But the exact relationship between foreign multinational corporations and their host economies seems to vary between industries and countries. Multinational corporations mainly enter industries where barriers to entry and concentration are relatively high, and at first they increase ...

  10. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  11. Area Handbook Series: Angola: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Socialist Policies One of the priorities of the Neto regime after independence was to repair the country’s infrastructure, which had been shattered by the...Nevertheless, such aid did not meet food requirements, and in 1986 the country experienced a cereal shortfall of more than 100,000 tons. In addi- tion...tion of cereals . Production was stagnating because of marketing and transport difficulties; shortages of seed, fertilizer, and consumer goods for trade

  12. Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    tor. Principal crops coffee, pulses, oilseeds, cereals , potatoes, sugar- cane, and vegetables. Livestock population believed largest in Africa... shattered country. In his first public speech after the EPRDF had captured Addis Ababa, Meles Zenawi indicated that Ethiopia’s coffers were empty...the country’s main areas where pulses and oilseeds were produced. Second, because peasants faced food shortages, they gave priority to cereal staples to

  13. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...... on various aspects of the relationship of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries....

  14. Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Lampi, Elina; Lofgren, Asa; Qin, Ping; Chung, Susie; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen’s willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO2 emissions. We found that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statement...

  15. Preferential tax regimes with asymmetric countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bucovetsky, Sam; Haufler, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Current policy initiatives taken by the EU and the OECD aim at abolishing preferential corporate tax regimes. This note extends Keen's (2001) analysis of symmetric capital tax competition under preferential (or discriminatory) and non-discriminatory tax regimes to allow for countries of different size. Even though size asymmetries imply a redistribution of tax revenue from the larger to the smaller country, a non-discrimination policy is found to have similar effects as in the symmetric model...

  16. Peculiarities of the Research of the History of Western European Countries, Case of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Vorobiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Researcing of history of small advanced countries of Western Europe has a number of specific features, which are connected to its socio-economic level and dynamic development and the dependence on the external economic factor. So the article is devoted to the analysis of regularity of the development of the industry of Norwegian economic specialization (energy sector in the international division of labour as an important element of its historical development. The author of the article analyzes the influence of the energy sector on the political life of the country, the balance of political forces, legislation, foreign policy priorities, and the history of the development of society. At the same time he uses the interdisciplinary approach to determine the relationship of cause and effect between historical events to compile a complete historical picture. The author concludes that the regularities in history are universal and concern all small highly developed countries of Western Europe including Norway. The complex of economic, social, political, financial, legal, tax, environmental and other measures of state support to specialized branches of the national economy is the main semantic rod of historical events in many of the small countries of Western Europe. Analysis of individual industries of the economy in the international division of labor should be an integral part of researches of the historical development of small countries which have a narrow structure of economy, because it helps to understand the peculiarities of the historical development of nations.

  17. Relationship between sawtooth events and magnetic storms

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Xia; J. C. Zhang; Clauer, C. R.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between sawtooth events and magnetospheric substorms has been discussed extensively. However, the relationship between sawtooth events and magnetic storms has not been systematically examined. Using the sawtooth event list and magnetic storm list from January 1998 to December 2007, we investigate whether sawtooth events are storm time phenomena and whether there is a dependence on the strength and phase of storms. We have found that most of sawtooth events occur during storm ...

  18. Attitude to plagiarism in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.

  19. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value for research......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level...... regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...

  20. Cultural variation in the correlates of flashbulb memories: an investigation in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Conway, Martin A; Hou, Yubo; Aydin, Cagla; Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Williams, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Flashbulb memory (FBM) refers to the vivid memory for the context of learning about a public news event. Past research has identified a number of factors that influence the formation of FBM, such as the importance of the event, the experience of intense emotions, and the amount of post-event rehearsal. Although such factors may be universal in predicting FBM formation across cultures, they may differentially impact FBM given different cultural belief systems and practices. In the present study we investigated the moderating effect of culture for various predictors of FBM in five countries: China, Germany, Turkey, the UK, and the USA. Results indicated that the effects of national importance and rehearsal of the reception context were consistent across cultures. In contrast, culture moderated the effects of personal importance, emotionality, surprise, and event rehearsal. In all cases the effects of these variables were significantly smaller in the Chinese sample.

  1. Wind and load variability in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Rissanen, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Larsen, X. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby (Denmark); Loevholm, A. L. [Kjeller Vindteknikk (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    This publication analysed the variability of wind production and load in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Nordic region as a whole, based on real data measured from large-scale wind power during 2009-2011. The Nordic-wide wind power time series was scaled up such that Sweden had same amount of wind power production than Denmark, and Finland and Norway only 50% of the wind power production in Denmark. Wind power production in Denmark and Sweden is somewhat correlated (coefficient 0.7) but less correlation is found between the other countries. The variations from one hour to the next are only weakly correlated between all countries, even between Denmark and Sweden. Largest variations occur when the production is approximately 30-70% of installed capacity and variability is low during periods of light winds. The variability in shorter time scales was less than the hourly variations. During the three years analysed in this publication there were few storm incidents and they did not produce dramatic wind power ramps in the Nordic region. Wind and load variations are not correlated between the countries, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of wind integration. The smoothing effect is shown as reduction of variability from a single country to Nordic-wide wind power. The impact of wind power on the variability that the system experiences is evaluated by analysing the variability of net load with different wind power penetration levels. The Nordic-wide wind power production increases the highest hourly ramps by 2.4% (up) and -3.6% (down) of installed wind power capacity when there is 20% wind power penetration and by 2.7% (up) and -4.7% (down) for 30% wind penetration. These results assess the impacts of variability only. The next step will be assessing the uncertainty from forecast errors. The timing of ramp events, and occurrence of high-wind and low-load are studied. With current wind penetration, low production levels (2-5% of installed wind power) can occur in a

  2. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  3. Mega sporting events: A poisoned chalice or a new dawn for low- and middle-income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mega sporting events in South Africa, which has the largest number of HIV-positive people in the world, and India, with 1.8 million deaths of children under 5 each year and 52 million stunted children, raise questions about the effective and, as importantly, the moral imperative of spending billions of dollars to host a sporting event. From a health perspective, selling alcohol and debt tarnishes further the notion of any intangible benefits of mega events to low- and middle-income countries.

  4. Potential impacts of afforestation on climate change and extreme events in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Salami, Ayobami T.; Matthew, Olaniran J.; Odedokun, Sola

    2013-07-01

    Afforestation is usually thought as a good approach to mitigate impacts of warming over a region. This study presents an argument that afforestation may have bigger impacts than originally thought by previous studies. The study investigates the impacts of afforestation on future climate and extreme events in Nigeria, using a regional climate model (RegCM3), forced with global climate model simulations. The impacts of seven afforestation options on the near future (2031-2050, under A1B scenario) climate and the extreme events are investigated. RegCM3 replicates essential features in the present-day (1981-2000) climate and the associated extreme events, and adequately simulates the seasonal variations over the ecological zones in the country. However, the model simulates the seasonal climate better over the northern ecological zones than over the southern ecological zones. The simulated spatial distribution of the extreme events agrees well with the observation, though the magnitude of the simulated events is smaller than the observed. The study shows that afforestation in Nigeria could have both positive and negative future impacts on the climate change and extreme events in the country. While afforestation reduces the projected global warming and enhances rainfall over the afforested area (and over coastal zones), it enhances the warming and reduces the rainfall over the north-eastern part of the country. In addition, the afforestation induces more frequent occurrence of extreme rainfall events (flooding) over the coastal region and more frequent occurrence of heat waves and droughts over the semi-arid region. The positive and negative impacts of the afforestation are not limited to Nigeria; they extend to the neighboring countries. While afforestation lowers the warming and enhances rainfall over Benin Republic, it increases the warming and lowers the rainfall over Niger, Chad and Cameroon. The result of the study has important implication for the ongoing climate

  5. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  6. Achieving value for money in health: a comparative analysis of OECD countries and regional countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Yusuf; Khan, Mahmud; Hikmet, Neşet

    2017-10-01

    To measure efficiency gains in health sector over the years 1995 to 2013 in OECD, EU, non-member European countries. An output-oriented DEA model with variable return to scale, and residuals estimated by regression equations were used to estimate efficiencies of health systems. Slacks for health care outputs and inputs were calculated by using DEA multistage method of estimating country efficiency scores. Better health outcomes of countries were related with higher efficiency. Japan, France, or Sweden were found to be peer-efficient countries when compared to other developed countries like Germany and United States. Increasing life expectancy beyond a certain high level becomes very difficult to achieve. Despite declining marginal productivity of inputs on health outcomes, some developed countries and developing countries were found to have lowered their inefficiencies in the use of health inputs. Although there was no systematic relationship between political system of countries and health system efficiency, the objectives of countries on social and health policy and the way of achieving these objectives might be a factor increasing the efficiency of health systems. Economic and political stability might be as important as health expenditure in improving health system goals. A better understanding of the value created by health expenditures, especially in developed countries, will require analysis of specific health interventions that can increase value for money in health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Colour reconnection in WW events

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hondt, J

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the kappa parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of colour reconnection in W /sup +/W/sup -/ to qq'qq' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of colour reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different m/sub W/ estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised colour reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about kappa. (6 refs).

  8. Programming Idioms for Transactional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kehrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transactional events (TE are an extension of Concurrent ML (CML, a programming model for synchronous message-passing. Prior work has focused on TE's formal semantics and its implementation. This paper considers programming idioms, particularly those that vary unexpectedly from the corresponding CML idioms. First, we solve a subtle problem with client-server protocols in TE. Second, we argue that CML's wrap and guard primitives do not translate well to TE, and we suggest useful workarounds. Finally, we discuss how to rewrite CML protocols that use abort actions.

  9. Parallel Event Analysis Under Unix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, S.; Nilsson, B. S.; Oest, T.; Pettersson, T.; Ranjard, F.; Thibonnier, J.-P.

    The ALEPH experiment at LEP, the CERN CN division and Digital Equipment Corp. have, in a joint project, developed a parallel event analysis system. The parallel physics code is identical to ALEPH's standard analysis code, ALPHA, only the organisation of input/output is changed. The user may switch between sequential and parallel processing by simply changing one input "card". The initial implementation runs on an 8-node DEC 3000/400 farm, using the PVM software, and exhibits a near-perfect speed-up linearity, reducing the turn-around time by a factor of 8.

  10. Human Rights in the Countries of the Southern Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Feliu i Martínez

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available After practically all of the southern-rim countries of the Mediterranean gained their independence, the process of national construction has been predicated on authoritarian regimes. These regimes justified both the use of force against political opposition and the limits on rights and liberties on the need for maintaining the unanimity of the people which had manifested itself during the struggles for liberation from the colonial yoke. Towards the end of the 1980s, the regional and international context seemed to presage a very much longed for opening-up of the political scene after some of these countries (Tunisia, Algeria and Jordan initiated a series of movements that pointed to their democratisation. The posterior evolution of events has crushed those hopes in every case, and only Morocco and Jordan (each with their respective limitations appear to have evolved towards a softening of repression. The excuse put forth from the collection of states in the region to justify the step backwards is the existence of two threats they must act with forcefulness before: the threat of Islamic “fundamentalism” and the desire of certain groups to boycott the on-going Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process.

  11. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  12. PFOS and PFOSA in Bottlenose Dolphins: An Investigation into Two Unusually High Mortality Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along the Atlantic coast of the United States during 1987 and 1988, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) suffered one of this country's largest marine mammal mass mortality events. An estimated 50% of all near-shore bottlenose died during this short period. Two years later a ...

  13. Global Surgery 2030: a roadmap for high income country actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah L M; Abdullah, Fizan; Amado, Vanda; Anderson, Geoffrey A; Cossa, Matchecane; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa; Davies, Justine; Debas, Haile T; Dyer, George S M; Erdene, Sarnai; Farmer, Paul E; Gaumnitz, Amber; Hagander, Lars; Haider, Adil; Leather, Andrew J M; Lin, Yihan; Marten, Robert; Marvin, Jeffrey T; McClain, Craig D; Meara, John G; Meheš, Mira; Mock, Charles; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Orgoi, Sergelen; Prestero, Timothy; Price, Raymond R; Raykar, Nakul P; Riesel, Johanna N; Riviello, Robert; Rudy, Stephen M; Saluja, Saurabh; Sullivan, Richard; Tarpley, John L; Taylor, Robert H; Telemaque, Louis-Franck; Toma, Gabriel; Varghese, Asha; Walker, Melanie; Yamey, Gavin; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals have ended and the Sustainable Development Goals have begun, marking a shift in the global health landscape. The frame of reference has changed from a focus on 8 development priorities to an expansive set of 17 interrelated goals intended to improve the well-being of all people. In this time of change, several groups, including the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, have brought a critical problem to the fore: 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical and anaesthesia care when needed. The magnitude of this problem and the world's new focus on strengthening health systems mandate reimagined roles for and renewed commitments from high income country actors in global surgery. To discuss the way forward, on 6 May 2015, the Commission held its North American launch event in Boston, Massachusetts. Panels of experts outlined the current state of knowledge and agreed on the roles of surgical colleges and academic medical centres; trainees and training programmes; academia; global health funders; the biomedical devices industry, and news media and advocacy organisations in building sustainable, resilient surgical systems. This paper summarises these discussions and serves as a consensus statement providing practical advice to these groups. It traces a common policy agenda between major actors and provides a roadmap for maximising benefit to surgical patients worldwide. To close the access gap by 2030, individuals and organisations must work collectively, interprofessionally and globally. High income country actors must abandon colonial narratives and work alongside low and middle income country partners to build the surgical systems of the future. PMID:28588908

  14. The normalization of AIDS in Western European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbrock, R; Dubois-Arber, F; Moers, M; Pinell, P; Schaeffer, D; Setbon, M

    2000-06-01

    The occurrence of AIDS led in every Western European country to exceptional innovations in prevention, patient care, health policy and questions of civil rights. This exception can be explained above all by the fact that not only was a health catastrophe feared but also civilizational harm in the field of civil rights. Despite national differences, this brought about similar exceptionalist alliances consisting of health professionals, social movements and those affected. With the failure of a catastrophe to arise, signs of fatigue in the exceptionalist alliance and increasing possibilities of medical treatment, exceptionalism in Europe is drawing to a close. Four phases are distinguished between in this process, given nationally different patterns of development: Approx. 1981-1985: emergence of exceptionalism. The reasons underlying exceptionalism are investigated. Approx. 1986-1991: consolidation and performance of exceptionalism. The investigation centers on the exceptionalist policy model. Approx. 1991-1996: exceptionalism crumbling, steps toward normalization. The forces driving the process of normalization are investigated. Since 1996: normalization, normality. The forms and perspectives of the changes made in the management of HIV and AIDS are elucidated using examples from the fields of health care, primary prevention and drug policies. AIDS health-policy innovations, their risks and opportunities in the course of normalization are investigated. Three possible paths of development are identified: stabilization, generalization and retreat. The chances of utilizing innovations developed in connection with AIDS for the modernization of health policy in other fields of prevention and patient care vary from country to country with the degree to which AIDS exceptionalism has been institutionalized and the distance of these innovations from medical, therapeutic events.

  15. Cross-country transferability of multi-variable damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Dennis; Lüdtke, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Bouwer, Laurens

    2017-04-01

    Flood damage assessment is often done with simple damage curves based only on flood water depth. Additionally, damage models are often transferred in space and time, e.g. from region to region or from one flood event to another. Validation has shown that depth-damage curve estimates are associated with high uncertainties, particularly when applied in regions outside the area where the data for curve development was collected. Recently, progress has been made with multi-variable damage models created with data-mining techniques, i.e. Bayesian Networks and random forest. However, it is still unknown to what extent and under which conditions model transfers are possible and reliable. Model validations in different countries will provide valuable insights into the transferability of multi-variable damage models. In this study we compare multi-variable models developed on basis of flood damage datasets from Germany as well as from The Netherlands. Data from several German floods was collected using computer aided telephone interviews. Data from the 1993 Meuse flood in the Netherlands is available, based on compensations paid by the government. The Bayesian network and random forest based models are applied and validated in both countries on basis of the individual datasets. A major challenge was the harmonization of the variables between both datasets due to factors like differences in variable definitions, and regional and temporal differences in flood hazard and exposure characteristics. Results of model validations and comparisons in both countries are discussed, particularly in respect to encountered challenges and possible solutions for an improvement of model transferability.

  16. Stressful life events, family support and successful ageing in the Biafran War generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuorji, JohnBosco Chika; Nwoke, Mary Basil; Ebere, Magnus Okechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Although the developing countries contribute substantially to the population of the elderly, little is known about ageing in populous countries like Nigeria, particularly the Biafran War generation (BWG). Some of those who witnessed the Biafran War (also known as Nigerian Civil War) as children are well into late adulthood, while the majority of this pre-war/wartime cohort who are in their golden years will enter into later life in less than a decade from now. The aim of the present research was to examine the role of stressful life events and family support in successful ageing of the BWG. Data were collected using a self-administered survey completed by 453 members of the BWG who were ≥45 years. The survey included measures such as the Successful Ageing Inventory, Life Events Inventory, and family support subscale of Family Dynamics Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses of the study. The three dimensions of stressful life events (health events, interpersonal events and work-related/financial events) had moderate negative relationships with successful ageing. Family support was moderately and positively associated with successful ageing. For the moderation hypotheses, family support was a significant moderator of only the relationship between work-related stressful life events and successful ageing, especially for the Family support provides social protection for older people, in the face of difficult socio-economic circumstances.

  17. Long-term impact of war on healthcare costs: an eight-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sabes-Figuera

    Full Text Available Exposure to war can negatively affect health and may impact on healthcare costs. Estimating these costs and identifying their predictors is important for appropriate service planning. We aimed to measure use of health services in an adult population who had experienced war in the former-Yugoslavia on average 8 years previously, and to identify characteristics associated with the use and costs of healthcare.War-affected community samples in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, and Serbia were recruited through a random walk technique. Refugees in Germany, Italy and the UK were contacted through registers, organisations and networking. Current service use was measured for the previous three months and combined with unit costs for each country for the year 2006/7. A two-part approach was used, to identify predictors of service use with a multiple logistic regression model and predictors of cost with a generalised linear regression model.3,313 participants were interviewed in Balkan countries and 854 refugees in Western European countries. In the Balkan countries, traumatic events and mental health status were related to greater service use while in Western countries these associations were not found. Participants in Balkan countries with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD had costs that were 63% higher (p = 0.005 than those without PTSD. Distress experienced during the most traumatic war event was associated with higher costs (p = 0.013. In Western European countries costs were 76% higher if non-PTSD anxiety disorders were present (0.027 and 63% higher for mood disorders (p = 0.006.War experiences and their effects on mental health are associated with increased health care costs even many years later, especially for those who stayed in the area of conflict. Focussing on the mental health impact of war is important for many reasons including those of an economic nature.

  18. Rare Events and Conditional Events on Random Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Régnier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Some strings -the texts- are assumed to be randomly generated, according to a probability model that is either a Bernoulli model or a Markov model. A rare event is the over or under-representation of a word or a set of words. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, a single word is given. One studies the tail distribution of the number of its occurrences. Sharp large deviation estimates are derived. Second, one assumes that a given word is overrepresented. The distribution of a second word is studied; formulae for the expectation and the variance are derived. In both cases, the formulae are accurate and actually computable. These results have applications in computational biology, where a genome is viewed as a text.

  19. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  20. Event Shape Analysis in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The jets are the final state manifestation of the hard parton scattering. Since at LHC energies the production of hard processes in proton-proton collisions will be copious and varied, it is important to develop methods to identify them through the study of their final states. In the present work we describe a method based on the use of some shape variables to discriminate events according their topologies. A very attractive feature of this analysis is the possibility of using the tracking information of the TPC+ITS in order to identify specific events like jets. Through the correlation between the quantities: thrust and recoil, calculated in minimum bias simulations of proton-proton collisions at 10 TeV, we show the sensitivity of the method to select specific topologies and high multiplicity. The presented results were obtained both at level generator and after reconstruction. It remains that with any kind of jet reconstruction algorithm one will confronted in general with overlapping jets. The present meth...