Sample records for events environment atmosphere

  1. Single event upset in static random access memories in atmospheric neutron environments

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Y; Ogawa, I; Kishimoto, T


    Single-event upsets (SEUs) in a 0.4 mu m 4Mbit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) were investigated in various atmospheric neutron environments at sea level, at an altitude of 2612 m mountain, at an altitude of commercial airplane, and at an underground depth of 476m. Neutron-induced SEUs increase with the increase in altitude. For a device with a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) film, SEU rates induced by thermal neutrons increase with the decrease in the cell charge of a memory cell. A thermal neutron-induced SEU is significant in SRAMs with a small cell charge. With the conditions of small cell charge, thermal neutron-induced SEUs account for 60% or more of the total neutron-induced SEUs. The SEU rate induced by atmospheric thermal neutrons can be estimated by an acceleration test using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. (author)

  2. The Radiation Environment of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Linsky


    Full Text Available Exoplanets are born and evolve in the radiation and particle environment created by their host star. The host star’s optical and infrared radiation heats the exoplanet’s lower atmosphere and surface, while the ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet and X-radiation control the photochemistry and mass loss from the exoplanet’s upper atmosphere. Stellar radiation, especially at the shorter wavelengths, changes dramatically as a host star evolves leading to changes in the planet’s atmosphere and habitability. This paper reviews the present state of our knowledge concerning the time-dependent radiation emitted by stars with convective zones, that is stars with spectral types F, G, K, and M, which comprise nearly all of the host stars of detected exoplanets.

  3. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry linking atmosphere, snow and water (United States)

    Steffen, A.; Douglas, T.; Amyot, M.; Ariya, P.; Aspmo, K.; Berg, T.; Bottenheim, J.; Brooks, S.; Cobbett, F.; Dastoor, A.; Dommergue, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Ferrari, C.; Gardfeldt, K.; Goodsite, M. E.; Lean, D.; Poulain, A.; Scherz, C.; Skov, H.; Sommar, J.; Temme, C.


    It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg). This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review the history of Hg in Polar Regions, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the roles that the snow pack, oceans, fresh water and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg are presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does not remain in the same

  4. White dwarf atmospheres and circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, Donald W


    Written by selected astronomers at the forefront of their fields, this timely and novel book compiles the latest results from research on white dwarf stars, complementing existing literature by focusing on fascinating new developments in our understanding of the atmospheric and circumstellar environments of these stellar remnants. Complete with a thorough refresher on the observational characteristics and physical basis for white dwarf classification, this is a must-have resource for researchers interested in the late stages of stellar evolution, circumstellar dust and nebulae, and the future

  5. Simulating rainbows in their atmospheric environment. (United States)

    David Gedzelman, Stanley


    Light and color of geometric optics rainbows are simulated in their atmospheric environment. Sunlight passes through a molecular atmosphere with ozone and an aerosol layer near the ground to strike a cuboidal rain shaft below an overhanging cuboidal cloud. The rainbows are treated as singly scattered sunbeams that are depleted as they pass through the atmosphere and rain shaft. They appear in a setting illuminated by scattered light from behind the observer, from the background beyond the rain shaft, and from the rain shaft. In dark backgrounds the primary and secondary bows first become visible when the optical thickness of rain shafts tau(R) congruent with 0.0003 and tau(R) congruent with 0.003, respectively. The bows are brightest and most colorful for 0.1rainbow are so pronounced that rainbows remain bright and colorful for optically thick rain shafts seen against dark backgrounds, but the bows appear washed out or vanish as the background brightens or where the rain shaft is shaded by an overhanging cloud. Rainbows also redden as the Sun approaches the horizon.

  6. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano


    -operational environment, the "Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions" (VEEDAM) aims at maintaining, running and evolving the platform, demonstrating e.g. the possibility to perform massive processing over heterogeneous data sources. This work presents the VEEDAM concepts, provides pre-operational examples, stressing on the interoperability achievable exposing standardized data access and processing services (e.g. making accessible data and processing resources from different VREs). [1] TAMP platform landing page [2] TAMP introductory video

  7. The radiation in the atmosphere during major solar particle events (United States)

    Clucas, Simon N.; Dyer, Clive S.; Lei, Fan

    Major solar particle events can give rise to greatly enhanced radiation throughout the entire atmosphere including at aircraft altitudes. These particle events are very hard to predict and their effect on aircraft is difficult to calculate. A comprehensive model of the energetic radiation in the atmosphere has been developed based on a response matrix of the atmosphere to energetic particle incidence. This model has previously been used to determine the spectral form of several ground level neutron events including February 1956 and September/October 1989. Significant validation of the model has been possible using CREAM data flying onboard Concorde during the September/October 1989 events. Further work has been carried out for the current solar maximum, including estimates of the solar particle spectra during the July 2000, April 2001, and October 2003 events and comparisons of predicted atmospheric measurements with limited flight data. Further CREAM data have been obtained onboard commercial airlines and high altitude business jets during quiet time periods. In addition, the atmospheric radiation model, along with solar particle spectra, have been used to calculate the neutron flux and dose rates along several commercial aircraft flight paths including London to Los Angeles. The influence of rigidity cut-off suppression by geomagnetic storms is examined and shows that the received flight dose during disturbed periods can be significantly enhanced compared with quiet periods.

  8. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry in the atmosphere and snow (United States)

    Steffen, A.; Douglas, T.; Amyot, M.; Ariya, P.; Aspmo, K.; Berg, T.; Bottenheim, J.; Brooks, S.; Cobbett, F.; Dastoor, A.; Dommergue, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Ferrari, C.; Gardfeldt, K.; Goodsite, M. E.; Lean, D.; Poulain, A. J.; Scherz, C.; Skov, H.; Sommar, J.; Temme, C.


    It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg). This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review Hg research taken place in Polar Regions pertaining to AMDEs, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made but the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the role that the snow pack and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg is presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does not remain in the

  9. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry in the atmosphere and snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Poulain


    Full Text Available It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg. This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review Hg research taken place in Polar Regions pertaining to AMDEs, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made but the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the role that the snow pack and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg is presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does

  10. Atmospheric patterns for heavy rain events in the Balearic Islands (United States)

    Lana, A.; Campins, J.; Genovés, A.; Jansà, A.


    The Balearic Islands, as well as other Mediterranean regions, are occasionally affected by heavy rain events, which can produce numerous damages. This study contributes to improve the understanding of the dynamical mechanisms that produce heavy rain events by means of a classification of their related atmospheric patterns. Heavy rainfall dataset for the Balearic Islands and some gridded atmospheric parameters, derived from the HIRLAM-INM-0.5° analyses, were the data used in this study. Heavy rain events were recorded at a set of pluviometric stations along the Balearics for a period of 9 years, from June 1995 to May 2004. The 1000 hPa and 500 hPa geopotential heights (hereafter φ1000 and φ500), as well as the 850 hPa temperature (T850) were the fields utilized in the classification. By means of a principal components analysis (PCA) the number of variables was reduced. The cluster analysis (CA) was then applied on those new variables and eight atmospheric patterns were finally obtained. Most of the patterns showed a strong relationship between heavy rain events and cyclones.

  11. Atmospheric patterns for heavy rain events in the Balearic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lana


    Full Text Available The Balearic Islands, as well as other Mediterranean regions, are occasionally affected by heavy rain events, which can produce numerous damages. This study contributes to improve the understanding of the dynamical mechanisms that produce heavy rain events by means of a classification of their related atmospheric patterns.

    Heavy rainfall dataset for the Balearic Islands and some gridded atmospheric parameters, derived from the HIRLAM-INM-0.5° analyses, were the data used in this study. Heavy rain events were recorded at a set of pluviometric stations along the Balearics for a period of 9 years, from June 1995 to May 2004. The 1000 hPa and 500 hPa geopotential heights (hereafter φ1000 and φ500, as well as the 850 hPa temperature (T850 were the fields utilized in the classification.

    By means of a principal components analysis (PCA the number of variables was reduced. The cluster analysis (CA was then applied on those new variables and eight atmospheric patterns were finally obtained. Most of the patterns showed a strong relationship between heavy rain events and cyclones.

  12. The Influence of Large Solar Proton Events on the Atmosphere (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.


    Solar proton events (SPEs) can cause changes in constituents in the Earth s polar middle atmosphere. A number of large SPEs have occurred over the past 50 years and tend to happen most frequently near solar maximum. The highly energetic protons cause ionizations, excitations, dissociations, and dissociative ionizations of the background constituents. Complicated ion chemistry leads to HOx (H, OH, HO2) production and dissociation of N2 leads to NOy (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, BrONO2) production. Both the HOx and NOy increases can result in changes to ozone in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The HOx increases lead to short-lived (days) ozone decreases in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. The NOy increases lead to long-lived (several months) stratospheric ozone changes because of the long lifetime of NOy constituents in this region. UARS HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument observations showed SPE-caused polar stratospheric NOx (NO+NO2) increases over 10 ppbv in September 2000 due to the very large SPE of July 2000, which are reasonably well simulated with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). WACCM-computed SPE-caused polar stratospheric ozone decreases >10% continued for up to 5 months past the largest events in the past 50 years, however, SPE-caused total ozone changes were not found to be statistically significant. Small polar middle atmospheric temperature changes of <4 K have also been predicted to occur as a result of the larger SPEs. The polar atmospheric effects of large SPEs during solar cycle 23 and 24 will be emphasized in this presentation.

  13. Harsh Environment Gas Sensor Array for Venus Atmospheric Measurements Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering and the Ohio State University propose to develop a harsh environment tolerant gas sensor array for atmospheric analysis in future Venus missions....

  14. Atmospheric Effects During Solar Energetic Particle Events in Magnetized Regions of Mars (United States)

    Jolitz, R.; Lee, C. O.; Dong, C.; Brain, D. A.; Lillis, R. J.; Curry, S.; Larson, D. E.


    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) represent an important if irregular source of energy to the Martian atmosphere. Volume rates of ionization and heating by SEP protons during intense solar events can be modeled to predict energy deposition from fluxes observed by the SEP instrument on MAVEN. ASPEN (Atmospheric Scattering of Protons and Energetic Neutrals) is a 3-D Monte Carlo simulation that tracks energy deposition by a population of protons in an atmosphere, accounting for three-dimensionally varying neutral densities and magnetic fields. ASPEN simulates proton motion using a Runge-Kutta solver to approximate Lorentz force and an adaptive trace algorithm to accurately model collisions in dense and sparse atmospheric regions. ASPEN can be generalized to study different ion fluxes in other regions of the Mars plasma environment, such as SEP oxygen in the atmosphere or penetrating solar wind protons in the corona. In this presentation, ASPEN is used to generate three-dimensional volume rates of ionization and heating using three-dimensionally-varying magnetic and electric fields from the Michigan Mars multi-fluid MHD model (MF-MHD) and altitude-varying neutral densities from the Mars Global Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (M-GITM). We present ionization rates over the crustal magnetic field anomalies in a 120° x 90° region in the Southern Lowlands and the progression of SEP ionization during a SEP ion event observed by MAVEN on 16 May 2016. Ultimately ASPEN results will help shape a comprehensive model of solar wind interactions with Mars.

  15. Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosovic, B; Belles, R; Chow, F K; Monache, L D; Dyer, K; Glascoe, L; Hanley, W; Johannesson, G; Larsen, S; Loosmore, G; Lundquist, J K; Mirin, A; Neuman, S; Nitao, J; Serban, R; Sugiyama, G; Aines, R


    Accidental or terrorist releases of hazardous materials into the atmosphere can impact large populations and cause significant loss of life or property damage. Plume predictions have been shown to be extremely valuable in guiding an effective and timely response. The two greatest sources of uncertainty in the prediction of the consequences of hazardous atmospheric releases result from poorly characterized source terms and lack of knowledge about the state of the atmosphere as reflected in the available meteorological data. In this report, we discuss the development of a new event reconstruction methodology that provides probabilistic source term estimates from field measurement data for both accidental and clandestine releases. Accurate plume dispersion prediction requires the following questions to be answered: What was released? When was it released? How much material was released? Where was it released? We have developed a dynamic data-driven event reconstruction capability which couples data and predictive models through Bayesian inference to obtain a solution to this inverse problem. The solution consists of a probability distribution of unknown source term parameters. For consequence assessment, we then use this probability distribution to construct a ''''composite'' forward plume prediction which accounts for the uncertainties in the source term. Since in most cases of practical significance it is impossible to find a closed form solution, Bayesian inference is accomplished by utilizing stochastic sampling methods. This approach takes into consideration both measurement and forward model errors and thus incorporates all the sources of uncertainty in the solution to the inverse problem. Stochastic sampling methods have the additional advantage of being suitable for problems characterized by a non-Gaussian distribution of source term parameters and for cases in which the underlying dynamical system is non-linear. We initially

  16. Impacts of Asian dust events on atmospheric fungal communities (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Mi; Kim, Yong Pyo; Jeong, Kweon; Kim, Ik Soo; Eom, Suk Won; Choi, Young Zoo; Ka, Jong-Ok


    The composition of atmospheric fungi in Seoul during Asian dust events were assessed by culturing and by molecular methods such as mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and internal transcribed spacer cloning (ITS cloning). Culturable fungal concentrations in the air were monitored from May 2008 to July 2011 and 3 pairs of ITS clone libraries, one during Asian dust (AD) day and the other during the adjacent non Asian dust (NAD) day for each pair, were constructed after direct DNA extraction from total suspended particles (TSP) samples. In addition, six aeroallergenic fungi in the atmosphere were also assessed by MSQPCR from October, 2009 to November, 2011. The levels of the airborne culturable fungal concentrations during AD days was significantly higher than that of NAD days (P culturable fungal concentrations with particulate matters equal to or less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) concentrations was observed to be high (0.775) for the AD days while correlation coefficients of PM10 as well as other particulate parameters with airborne fungal concentrations were significantly negative for the NAD days during intensive monitoring periods (May to June, 2008). It was found that during AD days several airborne allergenic fungal levels measured with MSQPCR increased up to 5-12 times depending on the species. Comparison of AD vs. NAD clones showed significant differences (P fungus isolated from semi-arid regions were observed only in AD clone libraries. Thus, it was concluded that AD impacts not only airborne fungal concentrations but also fungal communities.

  17. Work environment influences adverse events in an emergency department. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Pedersen, Anna Helene Meldgaard; Pape, Louise; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv; Nielsen, Kent Jacob


    The psychosocial work environment has been recognised as a factor that contributes to the occurrence of errors and adverse events at hospitals. There has been a strong focus on stress factors at intensive care units and emergency departments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of adverse events and to examine the relationship between work-related stressors, safety culture and adverse events at an emergency department. A total of 98 nurses and 26 doctors working in an emergency department at a Danish regional hospital filled out a questionnaire on the occurrence and pattern of adverse events, psychosocial work environment factors, safety climate and learning culture. The participants had experienced 742 adverse events during the previous month. The most frequent event types were lack of documents, referrals not performed, blood tests not available and lack of documentation. Problems related to reporting and learning and insufficient follow-up and feedback after serious events were the most frequent complaints. A poor patient safety climate and increased cognitive demands were significantly correlated to adverse events. This study supports previous findings of severe underreporting to the mandatory national reporting system. The issue of reporting bias related to self-reported data should be born in mind. Among work environment issues, the patient safety climate and stress factors related to cognitive demands had the highest impact on the occurrence of adverse events. The project was funded by Trygfonden (grant no 7-10-0949). not relevant.

  18. Nurse-perceived Patient Adverse Events and Nursing Practice Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hee Kang


    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of patient adverse events in Korean hospitals as perceived by nurses and examine the correlation between patient adverse events with the nurse practice environment at nurse and hospital level. Methods: In total, 3096 nurses working in 60 general inpatient hospital units were included. A two-level logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: At the hospital level, patient adverse events included patient falls (60.5%, nosocomial infections (51.7%, pressure sores (42.6% and medication errors (33.3%. Among the hospital-level explanatory variables associated with the nursing practice environment, ‘physician- nurse relationship’ correlated with medication errors while ‘education for improving quality of care’ affected patient falls. Conclusions: The doctor-nurse relationship and access to education that can improve the quality of care at the hospital level may help decrease the occurrence of patient adverse events.

  19. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with strong wind events in Catalonia (United States)

    Peña, J. C.; Aran, M.; Cunillera, J.; Amaro, J.


    The benefit of having a daily synoptic weather type catalogue and even more, a detailed catalogue for high impact weather events is well recognised by both climatologist and meteorologist communities. In this way the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) has produced some accurate classifications for extreme events, such as hailstorms or strong winds (SW). Within the framework of the MEDEX project, the SMC has been collaborating to increase the level of awareness about these events. Following this line of work, the aim of this study is to characterise the SW events in Catalonia. According to the guidelines of the MEDEX project we worked with its SW event database for the period June 1995 to May 2004. We also used the period 2005-2009 to test the methodology. The methodology is based on principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses and applied to four variables: SLP, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa on a synoptic-scale and local gust wind. We worked with ERA-Interim reanalysis and applied discriminant analysis to test the quality of the methodology and to classify the events of the validation period. We found seven patterns for the SW events. The strongest event corresponds to NW-Flow with the Azores Anticyclone and the passing of a low pressure through the Pyrenees. This methodology has distinguished the summer events in an independent cluster. The results obtained encourage us to follow this line of work.

  20. Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) (United States)

    Elphic, Richard; Stubbs, Timothy

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE’s science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium and potassium exospheres; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang’e 3 landing on 14 December 2013, and the Geminid meteor shower.

  1. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi......-dimensional schemes that are customized to serve specific information needs. EVER is based on an event concept that is very well suited for multi-dimensional modeling because measurement data often represent events in multi-dimensional databases...

  2. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés


    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  3. The "New Climate" New Atmospheric Events and "New Climate Risks": The case of Morocco (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.


    Since the end of last century, qualified meteorological events of "exceptional" causing floods have ceased to occur in Morocco and elsewhere, with a recurrence increasingly high, prompting to wonder about the "new" mode of climate's hydrothermal functioning inducing torrential rains, as well as its effect on the environment and societies.The latest event is the disaster of November 2014 flooding in southern Morocco, which is due especially to the non usual rains return.Weather conditions were marked by enhanced Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), characterized by persistent high temperatures during the autumn period in Morocco, mainly south of the Atlas, combined by the intrusion of a cold drop in the beginning of the event on 11.17.2014, and straightforward installation of a planetary valley across the Moroccan coast on 11.24.2014, which has evolved into storm (Xandra) in which depression has reached the surprising value of 975 hPa on 11.28.2014.Human and material damage caused by this flood are impressive: people died, roads, bridges and crops have been destroyed, overwhelmed dams. It has been a catastrophe.This event and others like it (Mohammedia 2002, Tangier 2008, Gharb 2009-2010, Casablanca 2010), must be considered as references for the simulation of future situations, and integration into development plans on future.This communication aims to identify the processes and conditions that have generated these events causing floods, the "exceptional" characteristics of recorded rainfall, the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Those floods affect the whole country, especially low areas, foothills and the mouths of rivers. There are the most vulnerable locations mainly on the autumn which is the most exposed to torrential rainfall season !! ... Etc.

  4. Volatile properties of atmospheric aerosols during nucleation events ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Continuous measurements of aerosol size distributions in the mid-point diameter range 20.5–500 nm were made from October 2005 to March 2006 at Pune (18° 32′N, 73° 51′E), India using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Volatilities of atmospheric aerosols were also measured at 40°, 125°, 175°, 300° and ...

  5. Exploration of Venus' Deep Atmosphere and Surface Environment (United States)

    Glaze, L. S.; Amato, M.; Garvin, J. B.; Johnson, N. M.


    Venus formed in the same part of our solar system as Earth, apparently from similar materials. Although both planets are about the same size, their differences are profound. Venus and Earth experienced vastly different evolutionary pathways resulting in unexplained differences in atmospheric composition and dynamics, as well as in geophysical processes of the planetary surfaces and interiors. Understanding when and why the evolutionary pathways of Venus and Earth diverged is key to understanding how terrestrial planets form and how their atmospheres and surfaces evolve. Measurements made in situ, within the near-surface or surface environment, are critical to addressing unanswered questions. We have made substantial progress modernizing and maturing pressure vessel technologies to enable science operations in the high temperature and pressure near-surface/surfaceenvironment of Venus.

  6. Meso-scale atmospheric events promote phytoplankton blooms in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Bay of Bengal is considered to be a low productive region compared to the Arabian Sea based on conventional seasonal observations. Such seasonal observations are not representative of a calendar year since the conventional approach might miss episodic high productive events associated with extreme ...

  7. Atmospheric corrosion of metals in industrial city environment. (United States)

    Kusmierek, Elzbieta; Chrzescijanska, Ewa


    Atmospheric corrosion is a significant problem given destruction of various materials, especially metals. The corrosion investigation in the industrial city environment was carried out during one year exposure. Corrosion potential was determined using the potentiometric method. The highest effect of corrosion processes was observed during the winter season due to increased air pollution. Corrosion of samples pre-treated in tannic acid before the exposure was more difficult compared with the samples without pretreatment. The corrosion products determined with the SEM/EDS method prove that the most corrosive pollutants present in the industrial city air are SO2, CO2, chlorides and dust.

  8. Pathways, Impacts, and Policies on Severe Aerosol Injections into the Atmosphere: 2011 Severe Atmospheric Aerosols Events Conference

    KAUST Repository

    Weil, Martin


    The 2011 severe atmospheric events conference, held on August 11-12, 2011, Hamburg, Germany, discussed climatic and environmental changes as a result of various kinds of huge injections of aerosols into the atmosphere and the possible consequences for the world population. Various sessions of the conference dealt with different aspects of large aerosol injections and severe atmospheric aerosol events along the geologic time scale. A presentation about radiative heating of aerosols as a self-lifting mechanism in the Australian forest fires discussed the question of how the impact of tropical volcanic eruptions depends on the eruption season. H.-F. Graf showed that cloud-resolving plume models are more suitable to predict the volcanic plume height and dispersion than one-dimensional models. G. Stenchikov pointed out that the absorbing smoke plumes in the upper troposphere can be partially mixed into the lower stratosphere because of the solar heating and lofting effect.

  9. Atmospheric microbiology in coastal northern California during Asian dust events (United States)

    Warren-Rhodes, K. A.; Griffin, D. W.


    Each year, billions of tons of dust are swept from deserts in China and Africa across the globe to the US and Caribbean. Microorganisms are likely hitchhikers aboard this aerosolized dust, with potential human health and ecological impacts. In order to investigate the presence of bacteria and fungi in dust storms from Asia, atmospheric samples for cultivatable microbiological analysis were collected during the NASA Extended- Modis Validation Experiment (EVE), occurring April 21-30, 2004 and coinciding with seasonal Asian dust storm activity. Samples were taken by Twin Otter aircraft along the coast of northern California ( ˜100 km offshore of Monterey to San Francisco). An ˜100 km horizontal leg was flown at ˜100 km altitude, typically in the marine boundary layer, followed by a vertical spiral to the dust layer (as indicated by aerosol extinction monitoring) and a second horizontal leg in the dust layer at higher altitudes (2,100-4,200 m). Air samples were taken via Venturi tube inlets with sterile Millipore filter holders outfitted with 47 mm diameter test filters connected to a vacuum pump system. Total sample time varied and was based on flight conditions and EVE objectives. Typical flow rates were 40 lpm and average sample times were ˜1hr in the marine layer and ˜30 minutes in the dust layer. Control samples for handling and contamination were also obtained. Microbial culture of the filters was conducted using sterile techniques and R2A agar, with filters incubated in the dark at room temperature and monitored for growth over a 2-week period. Fungi and bacterial colonies were further isolated on fresh plates of R2A and Tryptic Soy Broth for the purpose of cataloging/storage. No isolates were obtained from samples of dust layers at altitude. This result may be explained by: i) inadequate sample volumes to detect extremely low bacterial numbers, though sample volumes ranged from 750-2100 liters, ii) light dust layer concentrations during the sampling period

  10. Space weather events at Mars: atmospheric erosion during solar cycle 24 (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Thiemann, Ed; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Lee, Christina; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Ma, Yingjuan; Brain, David; Halekas, Jasper; Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, John E. P.


    The early Sun played a major role in the evolution of terrestrial atmospheres, with extreme EUV and X-ray fluxes, as well as a more intense solar wind and higher occurrences of powerful solar transient events. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission has been observing the upper atmosphere and magnetic topology of Mars, and has made numerous measurements of solar transient events such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) since November 2014. These events are characterized by dramatic changes in dynamic pressure, magnetic field strength and substantial increases in escaping and precipitating planetary ions. We will present MAVEN observations of ICMEs and SIRs and show three of the strongest solar transient events observed during solar cycle 24. We will also present global MHD and test particle simulations of these events and discuss their influence on the magnetic topology and atmospheric escape rates at Mars. Finally, using observations of the magnitude and frequency of M and X class flares at younger, Sun-like stars, we have extrapolated the frequency of ICMEs at earlier stages of the Sun and will present simulations of the Mars-early solar wind interaction. The extreme conditions in the Sun’s early history may have had a significant influence on the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and may also have implications for exoplanets interacting with the stellar winds of younger, more active stars.

  11. Science from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission (United States)

    Elphic, Richard; Delory, Gregory; Noble, Sarah; Colaprete, Anthony; Horanyi, Mihaly; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi


    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA’s Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, during the government shutdown. The spacecraft impacted the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE’s science objectives were twofold: (1) Determine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for particles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exospheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) acquired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wavelength range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. Among the preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longitudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lunar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization processes. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent “shroud” of small dust particles between 0

  12. EDITORIAL: Ice in the environment: connections to atmospheric chemistry Ice in the environment: connections to atmospheric chemistry (United States)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Hastings, Meredith G.


    Ice in the environment, whether in the form of ice particles in clouds or sea ice and snow at the Earth's surface, has a profound influence on atmospheric composition and climate. The interaction of trace atmospheric gases with snow and sea ice surfaces largely controls atmospheric composition in polar regions. The heterogeneous chemistry of ice particles in clouds also plays critical roles in polar stratospheric ozone depletion and in tropospheric chemistry. A quantitative physical understanding of the interactions of snow and ice with trace gases is critical for predicting the effects of climate change on atmospheric composition, for the interpretation of ice core chemical records, and for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The motivation behind this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL), and the special session at the Fall 2007 meeting of the American Geophysical Union that generated it, was to enhance communication and interactions among field and laboratory scientists and modelers working in this area. Members of these three groups are each working toward a mutual goal of understanding and quantifying the connections between the chemistry of snow and ice in the environment and atmospheric composition, and communication and collaboration across these traditional disciplinary boundaries pose a challenge for the community. We are pleased to present new work from several current leaders in the field and laboratory communities in this focus issue. Topics include the interaction of organics and mercury with snow and ice surfaces, halogen activation from halide ice, and the emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides from snow. Novel experimental techniques are presented that make progress towards overcoming the experimental challenges of quantifying the chemistry of realistic snow samples and ice chemistry at temperatures relevant to the polar boundary layer. Several of the papers in this issue also touch on one of the significant gaps in our current

  13. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment (United States)

    van Huis, Jasper R.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H.


    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale walking patterns and interactions between people. For example, pickpocketing can be recognized by the actual snatch (small scale), when he follows the victim, or when he interacts with an accomplice before and after the incident (longer time scale). This paper focusses on event recognition by detecting large-scale track-based patterns. Our event recognition method consists of several steps: pedestrian detection, object tracking, track-based feature computation and rule-based event classification. In the experiment, we focused on single track actions (walk, run, loiter, stop, turn) and track interactions (pass, meet, merge, split). The experiment includes a controlled setup, where 10 actors perform these actions. The method is also applied to all tracks that are generated in a crowded shopping mall in a selected time frame. The results show that most of the actions can be detected reliably (on average 90%) at a low false positive rate (1.1%), and that the interactions obtain lower detection rates (70% at 0.3% FP). This method may become one of the components that assists operators to find threatening behavior and enrich the selection of videos that are to be observed.

  14. Scientific Visualization for Atmospheric Data Analysis in Collaborative Virtual Environments (United States)

    Engelke, Wito; Flatken, Markus; Garcia, Arturo S.; Bar, Christian; Gerndt, Andreas


    1 INTRODUCTION The three year European research project CROSS DRIVE (Collaborative Rover Operations and Planetary Science Analysis System based on Distributed Remote and Interactive Virtual Environments) started in January 2014. The research and development within this project is motivated by three use case studies: landing site characterization, atmospheric science and rover target selection [1]. Currently the implementation for the second use case is in its final phase [2]. Here, the requirements were generated based on the domain experts input and lead to development and integration of appropriate methods for visualization and analysis of atmospheric data. The methods range from volume rendering, interactive slicing, iso-surface techniques to interactive probing. All visualization methods are integrated in DLR's Terrain Rendering application. With this, the high resolution surface data visualization can be enriched with additional methods appropriate for atmospheric data sets. This results in an integrated virtual environment where the scientist has the possibility to interactively explore his data sets directly within the correct context. The data sets include volumetric data of the martian atmosphere, precomputed two dimensional maps and vertical profiles. In most cases the surface data as well as the atmospheric data has global coverage and is of time dependent nature. Furthermore, all interaction is synchronized between different connected application instances, allowing for collaborative sessions between distant experts. 2 VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES Also the application is currently used for visualization of data sets related to Mars the techniques can be used for other data sets as well. Currently the prototype is capable of handling 2 and 2.5D surface data as well as 4D atmospheric data. Specifically, the surface data is presented using an LoD approach which is based on the HEALPix tessellation of a sphere [3, 4, 5] and can handle data sets in the order of

  15. The Long-term Middle Atmospheric Influence of Very Large Solar Proton Events (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Vitt, Francis M.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Randall, Cora E.; Fleming, Eric L.; Frith, Stacey M.


    Long-term variations in ozone have been caused by both natural and humankind related processes. The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone originates from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine) and has led to international regulations greatly limiting the release of these substances. Certain natural ozone influences are also important in polar regions and are caused by the impact of solar charged particles on the atmosphere. Such natural variations have been studied in order to better quantify the human influence on polar ozone. Large-scale explosions on the Sun near solar maximum lead to emissions of charged particles (mainly protons and electrons), some of which enter the Earth's magnetosphere and rain down on the polar regions. "Solar proton events" have been used to describe these phenomena since the protons associated with these solar events sometimes create a significant atmospheric disturbance. We have used the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to study the long-term (> few months) influences of solar proton events from 1963 through 2004 on stratospheric ozone and temperature. There were extremely large solar proton events in 1972, 1989,2000,2001, and 2003. These events caused very distinctive polar changes in layers of the Earth's atmosphere known as the stratosphere (12-50 km; -7-30 miles) and mesosphere (50-90 km; 30-55 miles). The solar protons connected with these events created hydrogen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, which led to the polar ozone destruction. The nitrogen-containing compounds, called odd nitrogen, lasted much longer than the hydrogen-containing compounds and led to long-lived stratospheric impacts. An extremely active period for these events occurred in the five-year period, 2000- 2004, and caused increases in odd nitrogen which lasted for several months after individual events. Associated stratospheric ozone decreases of >lo% were calculated

  16. Development of the new Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) in capturing the past season’s major rain events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available stream_source_info Park_2010_P.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7219 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Park_2010_P.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 K-8106 [] Development... of the new Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) in capturing the past season’s major rain events R PARK CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: – IntroductIon...

  17. Atmospheric Rivers and floods in Southern California: Climate forcing of extreme weather events. (United States)

    Hendy, I. L.; Heusser, L. E.; Napier, T.; Pak, D. K.


    Southern California has a Mediterranean type climate characterized by warm dry summers associated with the North Pacific High pressure system and cool, wet winters primarily associated in low pressure systems originating in the high latitude North Pacific. Extreme precipitation, however, is connected to strong zonal flow that brings warm, moist tropical across the Pacific (AKA atmospheric river). Here we present a revised record of flood events in Santa Barbara Basin that have been linked to atmospheric rivers focusing on events associated with transitions between known climate events using new radiocarbon chronology and detailed sediment composition. Flood events identified by homogenous grey layers are present throughout the Holocene with a recurrence every 110 years, but are particularly common (85 year recurrence) between 4,200 and 2,000 years BP. Interval between 6,500 and 4,500 commonly associated with dry conditions in California was associated with fewer flood events (recurrence interval increased to 176 years). Intervals of high lake levels in California associated with pluvials appear to be associated with more frequent extreme precipitation events. The longest recurrence interval (535 years) is associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly. The season in which the atmospheric river occurs was estimated using the relative abundance of pollen within the flood deposit. The 735 and 1270 C.E. flood events are associated with May-June flowering vegetation, while the most recent events (1861-2 and 1761 C.E.) were associated with November to March flowering vegetation. This agrees with the December-January rainfall records of the historic 1861-62. We conclude the frequency of extreme precipitation events appears to increase as climate cools (e.g. the Little Ice Age).

  18. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event (United States)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia


    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  19. Mercury in the atmospheric and coastal environments of Mexico. (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Delgado-Alvarez, Carolina; Frías-Espericueta, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico


    In Mexico, published studies relating to the occurrence of Hg in the environment are limited. Among the main sources of Hg in Mexico are mining and refining of Auand Hg, chloralkali plants, Cu smelting, residential combustion of wood, carbo electric plants, and oil refineries. Hg levels are highly variable in the atmospheric compartment because of the atmospheric dynamics and ongoing metal exchange with the terrestrial surface. In atmospheric studies, Hg levels are usually reported as total gaseous Hg (TGM). In Mexico, TGM values ranged from 1.32 ng m-3 in Hidalgo state (a rural agricultural area) to 71.82 ng m-3 in Zacatecas state (an area where brick manufacturers use mining wastes as a raw material).Published information on mercury levels in the coastal environment comprise 21 studies, representing 21 areas, in which sediments constituted the substrate that was analyzed for Hg. In addition, water samples were analyzed for Hg in nine studies.Few studies exist on Hg levels in the Caribbean and in the southwest of the country where tourism is rapidly increasing. Hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury in these increasingly visited areas. In regions where studies have been undertaken, Hg levels in sediments were highly variable. Variations in Hg sediment levels mainly result from geological factors and the varying degree of anthropogenic impacts in the studied areas. In areas that still have pristine or nearly pristine environments (e.g., coast, Baja California, Todos Santos Bay, and La Paz lagoon), sediment Hg levels ranged from Mexico, it is clear that Hg fluxes to sediments have increased from2- to 15-fold in recent years. Since the 1940s, historical increases of Hg fluxes have resulted from higher agricultural waste releases and exhaust from the thermo electric plants. The levels of Hg in water reveal a moderate to elevated contamination of some Mexican coastal sites. In Urias lagoon (NW Mexico), moderate to high levels were found in

  20. Designing Resilience of the Built Environment to Extreme Weather Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Jankovic


    Full Text Available Built environment comprises of a multitude of complex networks of buildings and processes in and between buildings. The paper looks at resilience design on three different levels: the building, the site, and the region. The building resilience design is studied using multi-objective optimization of a recently completed Passivhaus retrofit, under four different climate years: current, 2030, 2050, and 2080. The site resilience design is studied on the basis of a balance between incoming solar radiation and evaporative cooling from transpiration of plants to mitigate heat island effect. The regional resilience design is studied using a network model, taking into account connectivity, information capacity, and the ability to reconfigure. A common denominator found between these three aspects is a degree of system redundancy. Thus, a provision for adaptable building thermal insulation, a provision for adaptable green areas, and a provision for adaptable connectivity are the ingredients for resilient designs on these three respective levels. The findings increase our understanding of practical issues and implications for the resilience design of the built environment under extreme weather events. A combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches discussed in the paper provides practical guidance for designers and policy makers.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere of Underground Environments as Tracers of Climatic Changes (United States)

    Madonia, P.; di Pietro, R.; Francofonte, V.


    Carbon dioxide is often observed in concentrations much higher than in external atmosphere inside underground environments, both of natural (caves) and artificial (galleries) origin. With the aim of evaluating the possible use as a tracer of climatic changes, CO2 static concentrations have been discontinuously monitored since the year 2000 in the atmosphere of the Carburangeli and Santa Ninfa Caves, located in a limestone karst areas near the city of Palermo and in a gypsum karst area in the Belice Valley (Sicily, Italy) respectively. The measurements have been acquired with a portable 0-9999 ppm infrared spectrometer, together with dripping waters rate, air temperature and relative humidity (both continuous and discontinuous measures); free CO2 contents of dripping waters have been determined with titration method. Highest values were recorded in Carburangeli cave, when underground air temperature is colder than external atmosphere: in this case air circulation is blocked and carbon dioxide concentration arises. Very high concentrations of carbon dioxide were recorded also in winter, when hot winds blew from SE. The main source for carbon dioxide has been individuated in the dripping waters, which rate depends on the dynamic of rainfall events. These preliminary data suggests that carbon dioxide concentrations in the underground atmosphere of Carburangeli cave strongly depend on the delicate equilibria between internal and external air temperatures and dripping waters rate, being all these parameters affected by possible climate changes. Atmospheric warming and intensification of rainfalls rate might be traced by variations in the space-time dynamic of carbon dioxide inside the cave.

  2. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.


    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  3. Scavenging of ice-nucleating microorganisms from the atmosphere by artificial rain events (United States)

    Hanlon, Regina; Powers, Craig; Failor, Kevin; Vinatzer, Boris; Schmale, David


    Little is known about how microorganisms are scavenged from the atmosphere during rainfall. Microorganisms are abundant and diverse in rain (precipitation) collected near the surface of the earth. Some of these rain-associated microorganisms produce proteins that catalyze the nucleation of ice crystals at significantly warmer temperatures than would normally be required for ice formation, suggesting that they may play important roles in weather, including the onset of precipitation. We conducted a series of field experiments to test the hypothesis that ice-nucleating microorganisms are scavenged from the atmosphere by rainfall. Thirteen artificial rain events were conducted off the side of the Smart Road Bridge in Blacksburg, VA, USA. In each event, sterile water was dispensed over the side of the bridge (simulated rainfall), and recovered in sterile containers following gravitational settling from the side of the bridge to an open fallow agricultural field below (a distance of ~55m from the release site to the collection site). Microbes scavenged from the artificial rain events were cultured on six different types of agar media (R2A, TSA, CA; +/- cycloheximide) and the ice nucleation activity was examined for colonies cultured from the different media types. Mean CFUs scavenged by artificial rain ranged from 83 to 196 CFUs/mL across all six media types. Ice-nucleating microorganisms were recovered from 85% (11/13) of the simulated rain events, and represented about 1% of the total number of colonies assayed from each event. Strikingly, this percentage is nearly identical to the percentage of culturable ice-nucleating microorganisms occurring in about half of the natural rain events studied to date in Blacksburg, Virginia. This work expands our knowledge of the scavenging properties of rain, and suggests that at least some ice nucleators in natural precipitation events may have been stripped from the atmosphere during rainfall, thus negating their potential role in

  4. Re-Sonification of Objects, Events, and Environments (United States)

    Fink, Alex M.

    Digital sound synthesis allows the creation of a great variety of sounds. Focusing on interesting or ecologically valid sounds for music, simulation, aesthetics, or other purposes limits the otherwise vast digital audio palette. Tools for creating such sounds vary from arbitrary methods of altering recordings to precise simulations of vibrating objects. In this work, methods of sound synthesis by re-sonification are considered. Re-sonification, herein, refers to the general process of analyzing, possibly transforming, and resynthesizing or reusing recorded sounds in meaningful ways, to convey information. Applied to soundscapes, re-sonification is presented as a means of conveying activity within an environment. Applied to the sounds of objects, this work examines modeling the perception of objects as well as their physical properties and the ability to simulate interactive events with such objects. To create soundscapes to re-sonify geographic environments, a method of automated soundscape design is presented. Using recorded sounds that are classified based on acoustic, social, semantic, and geographic information, this method produces stochastically generated soundscapes to re-sonify selected geographic areas. Drawing on prior knowledge, local sounds and those deemed similar comprise a locale's soundscape. In the context of re-sonifying events, this work examines processes for modeling and estimating the excitations of sounding objects. These include plucking, striking, rubbing, and any interaction that imparts energy into a system, affecting the resultant sound. A method of estimating a linear system's input, constrained to a signal-subspace, is presented and applied toward improving the estimation of percussive excitations for re-sonification. To work toward robust recording-based modeling and re-sonification of objects, new implementations of banded waveguide (BWG) models are proposed for object modeling and sound synthesis. Previous implementations of BWGs

  5. Improving Infrasound Signal Detection and Event Location in the Western US Using Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Dannemann, F. K.; Park, J.; Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.


    Data from five infrasound arrays in the western US jointly operated by University of Utah Seismograph Station and Southern Methodist University are used to test a database-centric processing pipeline, InfraPy, for automated event detection, association and location. Infrasonic array data from a one-year time period (January 1 2012 to December 31 2012) are used. This study focuses on the identification and location of 53 ground-truth verified events produced from near surface military explosions at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Signals are detected using an adaptive F-detector, which accounts for correlated and uncorrelated time-varying noise in order to reduce false detections due to the presence of coherent noise. Variations in detection azimuth and correlation are found to be consistent with seasonal changes in atmospheric winds. The Bayesian infrasonic source location (BISL) method is used to produce source location and time credibility contours based on posterior probability density functions. Updates to the previous BISL methodology include the application of celerity range and azimuth deviation distributions in order to accurately account for the spatial and temporal variability of infrasound propagation through the atmosphere. These priors are estimated by ray tracing through Ground-to-Space (G2S) atmospheric models as a function of season and time of day using historic atmospheric characterizations from 2007 to 2013. Out of the 53 events, 31 are successfully located using the InfraPy pipeline. Confidence contour areas for maximum a posteriori event locations produce error estimates which are reduced a maximum of 98% and an average of 25% from location estimates utilizing a simple time independent uniform atmosphere. We compare real-time ray tracing results with the statistical atmospheric priors used in this study to examine large time differences between known origin times and estimated origin times that might be due to the misidentification of

  6. Measurements of organic gases during aerosol formation events in the boreal forest atmosphere during QUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sellegri


    Full Text Available Biogenic VOCs are important in the growth and possibly also in the early stages of formation of atmospheric aerosol particles. In this work, we present 10 min-time resolution measurements of organic trace gases at Hyytiälä, Finland during March 2002. The measurements were part of the project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer and took place during a two-week period when nucleation events occurred with various intensities nearly every day. Using a ground-based Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS instrument, the following trace gases were detected: acetone, TMA, DMA, mass 68amu (candidate=isoprene, monoterpenes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MaCR and monoterpene oxidation products (MTOP. For all of them except for the amines, we present daily variations during different classes of nucleation events, and non-event days. BVOC oxidation products (MVK, MaCR and MTOP show a higher ratio to the CS on event days compared to non-event days, indicating that their abundance relative to the surface of aerosol available is higher on nucleation days. Moreover, BVOC oxidation products are found to show significant correlations with the condensational sink (CS on nucleation event days, which indicates that they are representative of less volatile organic compounds that contribute to the growth of the nucleated particles and generally secondary organic aerosol formation. Behaviors of BVOC on event and non event days are compared to the behavior of CO.

  7. The impact of the early Sun and space weather events on the Martian atmosphere (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Thiemann, Edward; Dong, Chuanfei; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Brain, David; DiBraccio, Gina; Jakosky, Bruce; Ma, Yingjuan; Espley, Jared; Lee, Christina; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack; McFadden, James; Hara, Takuya


    Observations of Sun-like stars have indicated that the early Sun can be characterized by extreme EUV and X-ray fluxes, as well as a more intense solar wind and higher occurrences of powerful solar transient events. The nature of the early Sun is a critical aspect for understanding atmospheric evolution among the terrestrial planets. In particular, the interaction of the solar wind with Mars has been a topic of recent interest with the arrival of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the upper atmosphere and magnetic topology of Mars during solar transient events such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs) spanning from November 2014 to the present. Observations include dramatic changes in heavy ion acceleration along open, closed and draped magnetic field lines, and significant enhancements of escaping and precipitating planetary ions. We will present MAVEN observations of ICMEs and SIRs within the context of the current declining phase of solar cycle 24. With the use of global MHD and test particle simulations, we will also discuss the influence of the observed space weather events on the global loss rates of the Martian atmosphere. Finally, using observations of the magnitude and frequency of M and X class flares at younger, Sun-like stars, we have extrapolated the frequency of ICMEs at earlier stages of the Sun and will present simulations of the Mars-early solar wind interaction. The extreme conditions in the Sun's early history may have had a significant influence on the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and may also have implications for exoplanets interacting with the stellar winds of younger, more active stars.

  8. Comparison of discrete event simulation tools in an academic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jadrić


    Full Text Available A new research model for simulation software evaluation is proposed consisting of three main categories of criteria: modeling and simulation capabilities of the explored tools, and tools’ input/output analysis possibilities, all with respective sub-criteria. Using the presented model, two discrete event simulation tools are evaluated in detail using the task-centred scenario. Both tools (Arena and ExtendSim were used for teaching discrete event simulation in preceding academic years. With the aim to inspect their effectiveness and to help us determine which tool is more suitable for students i.e. academic purposes, we used a simple simulation model of entities competing for limited resources. The main goal was to measure subjective (primarily attitude and objective indicators while using the tools when the same simulation scenario is given. The subjects were first year students of Master studies in Information Management at the Faculty of Economics in Split taking a course in Business Process Simulations (BPS. In a controlled environment – in a computer lab, two groups of students were given detailed, step-by-step instructions for building models using both tools - first using ExtendSim then Arena or vice versa. Subjective indicators (students’ attitudes were collected using an online survey completed immediately upon building each model. Subjective indicators primarily include students’ personal estimations of Arena and ExtendSim capabilities/features for model building, model simulation and result analysis. Objective indicators were measured using specialised software that logs information on user's behavior while performing a particular task on their computer such as distance crossed by mouse during model building, the number of mouse clicks, usage of the mouse wheel and speed achieved. The results indicate that ExtendSim is well preferred comparing to Arena with regards to subjective indicators while the objective indicators are

  9. Lidar network for atmosphere environment monitoring of the city (United States)

    Dai, Yongjiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Sun, Fuxing; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Xiangjun


    The big city is a center of the economic and political for every country and territory. The population is coarctation$DALindustry is focus and traffic is developed in the city. Especially, there are a lot of factories and cars. Burning coal for heating and life garbage are more too. It is a mostly cause beget atmosphere polluted. The Network can be availability inspects the buildup of the atmosphere, it's 3-D static state distributing and dynamic distributing. Also can be coarsely inspect at the car and helicopter. The network is low cost, high capability and facility using. It is commendably expand for every city.

  10. Atmosphere-ocean-lithosphere interactions during the Great Oxidation Event: insights from zircon δ18O (United States)

    Spencer, C. J.; Partin, C. A.; Kirkland, C.; Shiels, C.; Raub, T. D.; Kinny, P.


    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) records a precipitous atmospheric oxygen rise, perhaps by as much as three to four orders of magnitude within a few million years. The timescale of the GOE is primarily constrained by the rapid loss of mass-independently fractionated sulfur isotopes. The drastic surface changes associated with the GOE are reflected by the appearance of marine sulfate and manganese deposits, as well as increased redox-sensitive trace metal abundances in banded iron formations and shale. Each of these manifestations is recorded at the atmosphere-lithosphere or atmosphere-ocean interface. However, how the GOE affected the lithosphere beyond the atmosphere interface has received little attention to date. We present zircon δ18O data from Paleoproterozoic sedimentary successions in Western Australia and Canada that display a step-change from the isotopically distinct reservoir with high δ18O that was incorporated into subduction zone magmas. One likely candidate is marine sulfate evaporite deposits, which appear with the GOE. The incorporation of this enriched δ18O reservoir would have facilitated the step change seen in the zircon δ18O record. This signal may also be present to a much lower degree associated with the "whiffs" of atmospheric oxygen prior to the GOE.

  11. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014 (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.


    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  12. Detection, tracking and event localization of jet stream features in 4-D atmospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Limbach


    Full Text Available We introduce a novel algorithm for the efficient detection and tracking of features in spatiotemporal atmospheric data, as well as for the precise localization of the occurring genesis, lysis, merging and splitting events. The algorithm works on data given on a four-dimensional structured grid. Feature selection and clustering are based on adjustable local and global criteria, feature tracking is predominantly based on spatial overlaps of the feature's full volumes. The resulting 3-D features and the identified correspondences between features of consecutive time steps are represented as the nodes and edges of a directed acyclic graph, the event graph. Merging and splitting events appear in the event graph as nodes with multiple incoming or outgoing edges, respectively. The precise localization of the splitting events is based on a search for all grid points inside the initial 3-D feature that have a similar distance to two successive 3-D features of the next time step. The merging event is localized analogously, operating backward in time. As a first application of our method we present a climatology of upper-tropospheric jet streams and their events, based on four-dimensional wind speed data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analyses. We compare our results with a climatology from a previous study, investigate the statistical distribution of the merging and splitting events, and illustrate the meteorological significance of the jet splitting events with a case study. A brief outlook is given on additional potential applications of the 4-D data segmentation technique.

  13. An atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework for environment management and protection based on CAMx. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu


    This paper presents an atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework based on CAMx that should be helpful to assess potential impacts of changes in human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements of atmospheric vulnerability. It is also a useful and effective tool that can provide policy-guidance for environmental protection and management to reduce the atmospheric vulnerability. The developed framework was applied to evaluate the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region for verification. The results indicated that regional disparity of the atmospheric vulnerability existed in the study site. More specifically, the central and southern regions show more atmospheric environment vulnerability than the northern regions. The impact factors of atmospheric environment vulnerability in the BTH region mainly derived from increasing population press, frequently unfavorable meteorological conditions, extensive economic growth of secondary industry, increased environmental pollution, and accelerating population aging. The framework shown in this paper is an interpretative and heuristic tool for a better understanding of atmospheric vulnerability. This framework can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to straightly support environmental managers with decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced transfer of terrestrially derived carbon to the atmosphere in a flooding event (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Shields, Michael; Mills, Heath J.; Butman, David; Osburn, Christopher; Raymond, Peter A.; Shank, G. Christopher; DiMarco, Steven F.; Walker, Nan; Kiel Reese, Brandi; Mullins-Perry, Ruth; Quigg, Antonietta; Aiken, George R.; Grossman, Ethan L.


    Rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, global climate change, and the sustainability of the Earth's biosphere are great societal concerns for the 21st century. Global climate change has, in part, resulted in a higher frequency of flooding events, which allow for greater exchange between soil/plant litter and aquatic carbon pools. Here we demonstrate that the summer 2011 flood in the Mississippi River basin, caused by extreme precipitation events, resulted in a “flushing” of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) to the northern Gulf of Mexico. Data from the lower Atchafalaya and Mississippi rivers showed that the DOC flux to the northern Gulf of Mexico during this flood was significantly higher than in previous years. We also show that consumption of radiocarbon-modern TDOC by bacteria in floodwaters in the lower Atchafalaya River and along the adjacent shelf contributed to northern Gulf shelf waters changing from a net sink to a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere in June and August 2011. This work shows that enhanced flooding, which may or may not be caused by climate change, can result in rapid losses of stored carbon in soils to the atmosphere via processes in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment. (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej


    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  16. Neutral Middle Atmospheric Influences by the Extremely Large October 2003 Solar Proton Event (United States)

    Jackman, C. H.; Fleming, E. L.


    The huge coronal mass ejection (CME) on October 28,2003 caused an extremely large solar proton event (SPE) at the Earth, which impacted the middle atmospheric polar cap regions. The highly energetic protons produce ionizations, excitations, dissociations, and dissociative ionizations of the background constituents, which lead to the production of HOx (H, OH, HO2) and NOy (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, BrONO2). The total production of middle atmospheric NOy molecules by individual SPEs can be used to compare their sizes. Using this scale, the extremely large October 2003 SPE was the fourth largest in the past 40 years and the second largest of solar cycle 23. Only the October 1989, August 1972, and July 2000 SPEs were larger. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Two-dimensional (2D) Model was used in computing the influence of this gigantic SPE. The NOy amount was increased by over two orders of magnitude in the mesosphere in both the GSFC 2D Model computations and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements as a result of this noteworthy SPE. The model also calculated polar middle mesospheric ozone decreases of over 70% during the SPE. Other atmospheric impacts from both model predictions and measurements as a result of this major SPE will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Microbial ice nucleators scavenged from the atmosphere during simulated rain events (United States)

    Hanlon, Regina; Powers, Craig; Failor, Kevin; Monteil, Caroline L.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Schmale, David G.


    Rain and snow collected at ground level have been found to contain biological ice nucleators. These ice nucleators have been proposed to have originated in clouds, where they may have participated in the formation of precipitation via ice phase nucleation. We conducted a series of field experiments to test the hypothesis that at least some of the microbial ice nucleators (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) present in rain may not originate in clouds but instead be scavenged from the lower atmosphere by rainfall. Thirty-three simulated rain events were conducted over four months off the side of the Smart Road Bridge in Blacksburg, VA, USA. In each event, sterile water was dispensed over the side of the bridge and recovered in sterile containers in an open fallow agricultural field below (a distance of ∼55 m). Microbes scavenged from the simulated rain events were cultured and their ice nucleation activity was examined. Putative microbial ice nucleators were cultured from 94% (31/33) of the simulated rain events, and represented 1.5% (121/8331) of the total colonies assayed. Putative ice nucleators were subjected to additional droplet freezing assays, and those confirmed through these repeated assays represented 0.4% (34/8331) of the total. Mean CFUs scavenged by simulated rain ranged from 2 to 267 CFUs/mL. Scavenged ice nucleators belong to a number of taxa including the bacterial genera Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Xanthomonas, and the fungal genera Fusarium, Humicola, and Mortierella. An ice-nucleating strain of the fungal genus Penicillium was also recovered from a volumetric air sampler at the study site. This work expands our knowledge of the scavenging properties of rainfall, and suggests that at least some ice nucleators in natural precipitation events may have been scrubbed from the atmosphere during rainfall, and thus are not likely to be involved in precipitation.

  18. Molecular Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Inferred from a Nationwide Biomass Burning Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Peng; Bluvshtein, Nir; Rudich, Yinon; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander


    Lag Ba'Omer, a nationwide bonfire festival in Israel, was chosen as a case study to investigate the influence of a major biomass burning event on the light absorption properties of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC). The chemical composition and optical properties of BrC chromophores were investigated using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) platform coupled to photo diode array (PDA) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detectors. Substantial increase of BrC light absorption coefficient was observed during the night-long biomass burning event. Most chromophores observed during the event were attributed to nitroaromatic compounds, comprising 28 elemental formulas of at least 63 structural isomers. The NAC, in combination, accounted for 50-80% of the total visible light absorption (> 400 nm) by solvent extractable BrC. The results highlight that NAC, particular nitrophenols, are important light absorption contributors of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), suggesting that night time chemistry of ▪NO3 and N2O5 with particles may play a significant role in atmospheric transformations of BrC. Nitrophenols and related compounds were especially important chromophores of BBOA. The absorption spectra of the BrC chromophores are influenced by the extraction solvent and solution pH, implying that the aerosol acidity is an important factor controlling the light absorption properties of BrC.

  19. Atmospheric Contributors to Heavy Rainfall Events in the Arkansas-Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A. McCorkle


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the top 1% 24-hour rainfall events from 1994 to 2013 at eight climatological sites that represent the east to west precipitation gradient across the Arkansas-Red River Basin in North America. A total of 131 cases were identified and subsequently classified on the synoptic-scale, mesoscale, and local-scale to compile a climatological analysis of these extreme, heavy rainfall events based on atmospheric forcings. For each location, the prominent midtropospheric pattern, mesoscale feature, and predetermined thermodynamic variables were used to classify each 1% rainfall event. Individual events were then compared with other cases throughout the basin. The most profound results were that the magnitudes of the thermodynamic variables such as convective available potential energy and precipitable water values were poor predictors of the amount of rainfall produced in these extreme events. Further, the mesoscale forcings had more of an impact during the warm season and for the westernmost locations, whereas synoptic forcings were extremely prevalent during the cold season at the easternmost locations in the basin. The implications of this research are aimed at improving the forecasting of heavy precipitation at individual weather forecasts offices within the basin through the identified patterns at various scales.

  20. The lunar atmosphere and dust environment explorer mission (LADEE)

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Christopher


    This volume contains five articles describing the mission and its instruments.  The first paper, by the project scientist Richard C. Elphic and his colleagues, describes the mission objectives, the launch vehicle, spacecraft and the mission itself.  This is followed by a description of LADEE’s Neutral Mass Spectrometer by Paul Mahaffy and company.  This paper describes the investigation that directly targets the lunar exosphere, which can also be explored optically in the ultraviolet.  In the following article Anthony Colaprete describes LADEE’s Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer that operated from 230 nm to 810 nm scanning the atmosphere just above the surface.  Not only is there atmosphere but there is also dust that putatively can be levitated above the surface, possibly by electric fields on the Moon’s surface.  Mihaly Horanyi leads this investigation, called the Lunar Dust Experiment, aimed at understanding the purported observations of levitated dust.  This experiment was also very succes...

  1. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazej Adamczyk

    Full Text Available Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service. Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  2. Changes in the airborne bacterial community in outdoor environments following Asian dust events. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Park, Jonguk; Kodama, Makiko; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Baba, Takashi; Nasu, Masao


    Bacterial abundance and community compositions have been examined in aeolian dust in order to clarify their possible impacts on public health and ecosystems. The influence of transcontinentally transported bacterial cells on microbial communities in the outdoor environments of downwind areas should be determined because the rapid influx of a large amount of bacterial cells can disturb indigenous microbial ecosystems. In the present study, we analyzed bacteria in air samples (approximately 100 m(3) d(-1)) that were collected on both Asian dust days and non-Asian dust days over 2 years (between November 2010 and July 2012). Changes in bacterial abundance and community composition were investigated based on their 16S rRNA gene amount and sequence diversity. Seasonal monitoring revealed that airborne bacterial abundance was more than 10-fold higher on severe dust days, while moderate dust events did not affect airborne bacterial abundance. A comparison of bacterial community compositions revealed that bacteria in Asian dust did not immediately disturb the airborne microbial community in areas 3,000-5,000 km downwind of dust source regions, even when a large amount of bacterial cells were transported by the atmospheric event. However, microbes in aeolian dust may have a greater impact on indigenous microbial communities in downwind areas near the dust source. Continuous temporal and spatial analyses from dust source regions to downwind regions (e.g., from the Gobi desert to China, Korea, Japan, and North America) will assist in estimating the impact of atmospherically transported bacteria on indigenous microbial ecosystems in downwind areas.

  3. End-of-Century Projections of North American Atmospheric River Events in CMIP5 Climate Models (United States)

    Warner, M.; Mass, C.; Salathe, E. P., Jr.


    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with narrow plumes of above-average water vapor concentration that stretch from the tropics or subtropics to the West Coast. These events generally occur during the wet season (October-March) and are referred to as atmospheric rivers (AR). ARs can cause major river management problems, damage from flooding or landslides, and loss of life. It is expected that anthropogenic global warming could lead to thermodynamic and dynamic changes in the atmosphere, such as increases in water vapor content and, thus, precipitation, and shifts in the climatological jet stream. Since AR events are associated with extreme values of integrated water vapor (IWV) near the West Coast, increases in IWV could impact the intensity of AR events intersecting the coast. Additionally, ARs are associated with cyclonic activity that originates near and propagates along the jet stream. The jet stream configuration influences the frequency and location of AR landfall along the North American west coast. It is probable that any changes in the general circulation of the atmosphere will result in changes in the frequency, orientation, and location of AR landfalls. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT) approaching the coast. Ten Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulations are used to identify changes in ARs impacting the west coast of North America between historical (1970-1999) and end-of-century (2070-2099) runs, using representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5. The most extreme ARs are identified in both time periods by the 99th percentile of IVT days along a north-south transect offshore of the coast. Integrated water vapor (IWV) and IVT are predicted to increase, while lower-tropospheric winds change little. Winter-mean precipitation along the West

  4. Kinematic reconstruction of atmospheric neutrino events in a large water Cherenkov detector with proton identification

    CERN Document Server

    Fechner, M


    We report the development of a proton identification method for the Super-Kamiokande detector. This new tool is applied to the search for events with a single proton track, a high purity neutral current sample of interest for sterile neutrino searches. After selection using a neural network, we observe 38 events in the combined SK-I and SK-II data corresponding to 2285.1 days of exposure, with an estimated signal to background ratio of 1.6 to 1. Proton identification was also applied to a direct search for charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) events, obtaining a high precision sample of fully kinematically reconstructed atmospheric neutrinos, which has not been previously reported in water Cherenkov detectors. The CCQE fraction of this sample is 55%, and its neutrino (as opposed to anti-neutrino) fraction is 91.7+/-3%. We selected 78 mu-like and 47 e-like events in the SK-I and SK-II data set. With this data, a clear zenith angle distortion of the neutrino direction itself is reported in a sub-GeV sample of m...

  5. Wideband Channel Modeling in Real Atmospheric Environments with Experimental Evaluation (United States)


    received signal will experience ISI and the channel is considered wideband. If either the transmitter or receiver is mobile or the environment is not...are commonly used in spread spectrum communication systems such as Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) systems. Narrowband interference mitigation...Model (APM) for Mobile Radio Applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 10 (October), pp. 2869–2877. [5] A. Barrios. 1995

  6. Atmospheric washout of radioactive aerosol for different types of precipitation events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Felix


    Ionizing radiation is widely used in many applications such as medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, where the beneficial aspect of radiation exposure is obvious. However, the exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation may also have some negative effects on human health. After the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident measured deposition patterns did not match to patterns predicted by atmospheric transport models used in decision support systems. It was suggested that one reason for these discrepancies might be that these models do not differentiate between deposition by rain and snow. Up to now much effort has been spent on the theoretical and experimental investigation of the washout of atmospheric aerosol particles by rain. In contrast, only limited knowledge is available on the washout efficiency of snow, due to the complexity of the process. Therefore, the aim of the presented work was to analyze wet deposition of aerosol particles and particle bound radionuclides in different types of precipitation events. The thesis focused on below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles in a size range from 10 nm to 510 nm in solid phase precipitation events. It is based on measurements of natural precipitation and natural aerosol particle concentration that were performed in the free atmosphere, at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus. For this purpose, a method was developed to characterize and classify precipitation events, which goes beyond the common differentiation between liquid, mixed and solid phase precipitation. The method included use of a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD), that was adapted for the detection of mixed and solid phase hydrometeors (e.g. snowflakes). A new matching algorithm, that was developed for this thesis, allowed detection of solid, mixed and liquid phase hydrometeors with a maximum dimension larger than 0.5 mm. On the basis of shape and velocity descriptors, a classification algorithm that differentiates between three

  7. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR


    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  8. Atmospheric Environment Vulnerability Cause Analysis for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu


    Assessing and quantifying atmospheric vulnerability is a key issue in urban environmental protection and management. This paper integrated the Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy synthesis evaluation and Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis into an Exposure-Sensitivity-Adaptive capacity (ESA) framework to quantitatively assess atmospheric environment vulnerability in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region with spatial and temporal comparisons. The elaboration of the relationships between atmospheric environment vulnerability and indices of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity supports enable analysis of the atmospheric environment vulnerability. Our findings indicate that the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the BTH region exhibits obvious spatial heterogeneity, which is caused by regional diversity in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indices. The results of atmospheric environment vulnerability assessment and the cause analysis can provide guidance to pick out key control regions and recognize vulnerable indicators for study sites. The framework developed in this paper can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to support environmental management.

  9. Atmospheric electric field anomalies associated with solar flare/coronal mass ejection events and solar energetic charged particle "Ground Level Events" (United States)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Rycroft, M. J.; Marcz, F.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.


    We discuss the fair weather atmospheric electric field signatures of three major solar energetic charged particle events which occurred in on 15 April 2001, 18 April and 4 November, and their causative solar flares/coronal mass ejections (SF/CMEs). Only the 15 April 2001 shows clear evidence for Ez variation associated to SF/CME events and the other two events may support this hypothesis as well although for them the meteorological data were not available. All three events seem to be associated with relativistic solar protons (i.e. protons with energies >450 MeV) of the Ground Level Event (GLE) type. The study presents data on variations of the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field (Ez) measured at the auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8°, the polar cap station Vostok (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3°) and the middle latitude stations Voyeikovo (geomagnetic latitude: 56.1°) and Nagycenk (geomagnetic latitude: 47.2°). A significant disturbance in the atmospheric electric field is sometimes observed close to the time of the causative solar flare; the beginning of the electric field perturbation at Apatity is detected one or two hours before the flare onset and the GLE onset. Atmospheric electric field records at Vostok and Voyeikovo show a similar disturbance at the same time for the 15 April 2001 event. Some mechanisms responsible for the electric field perturbations are considered.

  10. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis, J.R. van; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Burghouts, G.J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Hollander, R.J.M.; Dijk, J.; Rest, J.H.C. van


    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale

  11. A study on the dynamic interaction of the atmospheric and hydrologic environment in the drainage basin of Sperchios River, Greece (United States)

    Nomikou, Vera-Margarita; Varlas, George; Theofanidi, Sofia; Karymbalis, Efthymios; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros


    The interaction between the atmosphere and inland waters affects the water cycle of the planet and trigger mechanisms that change the water budget, the climate and the land cover. In this study, a fully coupled atmospheric-hydrologic modeling system, WRF-Hydro, is used to study the interaction between the atmosphere and the hydrologic environment as a unified system. The test bed was the drainage basin of the Sperchios River, in which there is a dense network of monitoring. The system was configured on a very fine horizontal resolution using multiple nests and utilizing GIS platform to accurately build the drainage basin of the river. Its hydrological component was also calibrated using runoff measurements along Sperchios River. Two simulations based on the offline and the two-way coupled modes of the system were performed in a case study of a flash flood event. The two-way fully coupled mode of the modeling system was able to resolve the momentum and energy fluxes from the soil surface towards the atmosphere as well as the induced changes in the evapotranspiration, the precipitation, the air temperature and humidity. The thermodynamic condition of the drainage basin modified the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer changing the stability conditions, the condensation level and the wind profile in the local atmospheric environment. The outputs from both simulations were evaluated using measurements of precipitation and runoff at various places in the basin. Preliminary results indicate slight improvement on the spatiotemporal distribution of the precipitation and the runoff simulated by the two-way fully coupled mode of the system.

  12. Multi-wavelength Observations of Two Explosive Events and Their Effects on the Solar Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus G. Admiranto


    Full Text Available We investigated two flares in the solar atmosphere that occurred on June 3, 2012 and July 6, 2012 and caused propagation of Moreton and EIT waves. In the June 3 event, we noticed a filament winking which presumably was caused by the wave propagation from the flare. An interesting feature of this event is that there was a reflection of this wave by a coronal hole located alongside the wave propagation, but not all of this wave was transmitted by the coronal hole. Using the running difference method, we calculated the speed of Moreton and EIT waves and we found values of 926 km/s before the reflection and 276 km/s after the reflection (Moreton wave and 1,127 km/s before the reflection and 46 km/s after the reflection (EIT wave. In the July 6 event, this phenomenon was accompanied by type II and type III solar radio bursts, and we also performed a running difference analysis to find the speed of the Moreton wave, obtaining a value of 988 km/s. The speed derived from the analysis of the solar radio burst was 1,200 km/s, and we assume that this difference was caused by the different nature of the motions in these phenomena, where the solar radio burst was caused by the propagating particles, not waves.

  13. Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Ricardo M.


    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in both Europe and USA. ARs are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV responsible for horizontal transport in the lower atmosphere corresponding to the core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. Over the North Atlantic ARs are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. It was shown that more than 90% of the meridional WV transport in the mid-latitudes occurs in the AR, although they cover less than 10% of the area of the globe. The large amount of WV that is transported can lead to heavy precipitation and floods. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin allowing the identification and a comprehensive characterization of the major AR events that affected the Iberian Peninsula over the 1948-2012 period. The extreme precipitation days in the Iberian Peninsula were assessed recently by us (Ramos et al., 2014) and their association (or not) with the occurrence of AR is analyzed in detail here. The extreme precipitation days are ranked by their magnitude and are obtained after considering 1) the area affected and 2) the precipitation intensity. Different rankings are presented for the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also for the six largest Iberian river basins (Minho, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana, Guadalquivir and Ebro) covering the 1950-2008 period (Ramos et al., 2014). Results show that the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western domains (Portugal

  14. An improved criterion for new particle formation in diverse atmospheric environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kuang


    Full Text Available A dimensionless theory for new particle formation (NPF was developed, using an aerosol population balance model incorporating recent developments in nucleation rates and measured particle growth rates. Based on this theoretical analysis, it was shown that a dimensionless parameter LΓ, characterizing the ratio of the particle scavenging loss rate to the particle growth rate, exclusively determined whether or not NPF would occur on a particular day. This parameter determines the probability that a nucleated particle will grow to a detectable size before being lost by coagulation with the pre-existing aerosol. Cluster-cluster coagulation was shown to contribute negligibly to this survival probability under conditions pertinent to the atmosphere. Data acquired during intensive measurement campaigns in Tecamac (MILAGRO, Atlanta (ANARChE, Boulder, and Hyytiälä (QUEST II, QUEST IV, and EUCAARI were used to test the validity of LΓ as an NPF criterion. Measurements included aerosol size distributions down to 3 nm and gas-phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The model was applied to seventy-seven NPF events and nineteen non-events (characterized by growth of pre-existing aerosol without NPF measured in diverse environments with broad ranges in sulfuric acid concentrations, ultrafine number concentrations, aerosol surface areas, and particle growth rates (nearly two orders of magnitude. Across this diverse data set, a nominal value of LΓ=0.7 was found to determine the boundary for the occurrence of NPF, with NPF occurring when LΓ<0.7 and being suppressed when LΓ>0.7. Moreover, nearly 45% of measured LΓ values associated with NPF fell in the relatively narrow range of 0.1<LΓ<0.3.

  15. Small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere. II. Lifetime, total energy, and magnetic properties (United States)

    Guerreiro, N.; Haberreiter, M.; Hansteen, V.; Schmutz, W.


    Context. Small-scale heating events (SSHEs) are believed to play a fundamental role in understanding the process responsible for heating of the solar corona, the pervading redshifts in the transition region, and the acceleration of spicules. Aims: We determine the properties of the SSHEs and the atmospheric response to them in 3D magnetohydrodynamics (3D-MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Methods: We developed a method for identifying and following SSHEs over their lifetime, and applied it to two simulation models. We identified the locations where the energy dissipation is greatest inside the SSHEs volume, and we traced the SSHEs by following the spatial and temporal evolution of the maximum energy dissipation inside the SSHEs volume. Results: The method is effective in following the SSHEs. We can determine their lifetime, total energy, and properties of the plasma, as well as the magnetic field orientation in the vicinity of the SSHEs. Conclusions: We determine that the SSHEs that have the potential to heat the corona live less than 4 min, and typically the energy they release ranges from 1020 to 1024 erg. In addition, the directional change of the field lines on the two sides of the current sheet constituting the SSHEs ranges from 5° to 15° at the moment of the absolute maximum energy dissipation.

  16. Aerosol size and chemical composition measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Lab (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Tremblay, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Leaitch, R.; Kolonjari, F.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; AboEl Fetouh, Y.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.


    This study presents observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian High Arctic (80N, 86W). The current aerosol measurement program at PEARL has been ongoing for more than a year providing long-term observations of Arctic aerosol size distributions for both coarse and fine modes. Particle nucleation events were frequently observed during the summers of 2015 and 2016. The size distribution data are also compared against similar measurements taken at the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory (82N, 62W) for July and August 2015. The nucleation events are correlated at the two sites, despite a distance of approximately 500 km, suggesting regional conditions favorable for particle nucleation and growth during this period. Size resolved chemical composition measurements were also carried out using an aerosol mass spectrometer. The smallest measured particles between 40 and 60 nm are almost entirely organic aerosol (OA) indicating that the condensation of organic vapors is responsible for particle growth events and possibly particle nucleation. This conclusion is further supported by the relatively high oxygen content of the OA, which is consistent with secondary formation of OA via atmospheric oxidation.Lastly, surface measurements of the aerosol scattering coefficient are compared against the coefficient values calculated using Mie theory and the measured aerosol size distribution. Both the actual and the calculated scattering coefficients are then compared to sun photometer measurements to understand the relationship between surface and columnar aerosol optical properties. The measurements at PEARL provide a unique combination of surface and columnar data sets on aerosols in the High Arctic, a region where such measurements are scarce despite the important impact of aerosols on Arctic climate.PEARL research is supported by the Natural Sciences and

  17. Overview of EVE – the event visualization environment of ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Tadel, M


    EVE is a high-level visualization library using ROOT's data-processing, GUI and OpenGL interfaces. It is designed as a framework for object management offering hierarchical data organization, object interaction and visualization via GUI and OpenGL representations. Automatic creation of 2D projected views is also supported. On the other hand, it can serve as an event visualization toolkit satisfying most HEP requirements: visualization of geometry, simulated and reconstructed data such as hits, clusters, tracks and calorimeter information. Special classes are available for visualization of raw-data. Object-interaction layer allows for easy selection and highlighting of objects and their derived representations (projections) across several views (3D, Rho-Z, R-Phi). Object-specific tooltips are provided in both GUI and GL views. The visual-configuration layer of EVE is built around a data-base of template objects that can be applied to specific instances of visualization objects to ensure consistent object prese...

  18. On the influence of atmospheric super-saturation layer on China's heavy haze-fog events (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Liu, Hua; Che, Huizheng; Shen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yaqiang


    With the background of global change, the air quality in Earth's atmosphere has significantly decreased. The North China Plain (NCP), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Si-Chuan Basin (SCB) are the major areas suffering the decreasing air quality and frequent pollution events in recent years. Studying the effect of meteorological conditions on the concentration of pollution aerosols in these pollution sensitive regions is a hot focus now. This paper analyses the characteristics of atmospheric super-saturation and the corresponding H_PMLs (height of supersaturated pollution mixing layer), investigating their contribution to the frequently-seen heavy haze-fog weather. The results suggest that: (1) in the above-mentioned pollution sensitive regions in China, super-saturated layers repeatedly appear in the low altitude and the peak value of supersaturation S can reach 6-10%, which makes pollution particles into the wet adiabatic uplift process in the stable-static atmosphere. After low-level atmosphere reaches the super-saturation state below the H_PMLs, meteorological condition contributes to humidification and condensation of pollution particles. (2) Caculation of condensation function Fc, one of PLAM sensetive parameter, indicates that super-saturation state helps promote condensation, beneficial to the formation of Condensational Kink (CK) in the pollution sensitive areas. This favors the formation of new aerosol particles and intensities the cumulative growth of aerosol concentration. (3) By calculating the convective inhibition energy on average │CIN│ > 1.0 × 104 J kg-1, we found the value is about 100 times higher than the stable critical value. The uplifting diffusion of the particles is inhibited by the ambient airflow. So, this is the important reason for the aggravation and persistence of aerosol pollutants in local areas. (4) H_PMLs is negatively correlated to the pollution meteorological condition index PLAM which can describe the

  19. Simulation of atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs during polar springtime using the MECCA box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-Q. Xie


    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs during polar springtime are closely correlated with bromine-catalyzed tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs. To study gas- and aqueous-phase reaction kinetics and speciation of mercury during AMDEs, we have included mercury chemistry into the box model MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere, which enables dynamic simulation of bromine activation and ODEs.

    We found that the reaction of Hg with Br atoms dominates the loss of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM. To explain the experimentally observed synchronous depletion of GEM and O3, the reaction rate of Hg+BrO has to be much lower than that of Hg+Br. The synchronicity is best reproduced with rate coefficients at the lower limit of the literature values for both reactions, i.e. kHg+Br≈3×10−13 and kHg+BrO≤1×10−15 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively.

    Throughout the simulated AMDEs, chem{BrHgOBr} was the most abundant reactive mercury species, both in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase. The aqueous-phase concentrations of BrHgOBr, HgBr2, and HgCl2 were several orders of magnitude larger than that of Hg(SO322−.

    Considering chlorine chemistry outside depletion events (i.e. without bromine activation, the concentration of total divalent mercury in sea-salt aerosol particles (mostly HgCl42− was much higher than in dilute aqueous droplets (mostly Hg(SO322−, and did not exhibit a diurnal cycle (no correlation with HO2 radicals.

  20. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.


    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  1. Event heap: a coordination infrastructure for dynamic heterogeneous application interactions in ubiquitous computing environments (United States)

    Johanson, Bradley E.; Fox, Armando; Winograd, Terry A.; Hanrahan, Patrick M.


    An efficient and adaptive middleware infrastructure called the Event Heap system dynamically coordinates application interactions and communications in a ubiquitous computing environment, e.g., an interactive workspace, having heterogeneous software applications running on various machines and devices across different platforms. Applications exchange events via the Event Heap. Each event is characterized by a set of unordered, named fields. Events are routed by matching certain attributes in the fields. The source and target versions of each field are automatically set when an event is posted or used as a template. The Event Heap system implements a unique combination of features, both intrinsic to tuplespaces and specific to the Event Heap, including content based addressing, support for routing patterns, standard routing fields, limited data persistence, query persistence/registration, transparent communication, self-description, flexible typing, logical/physical centralization, portable client API, at most once per source first-in-first-out ordering, and modular restartability.

  2. Psychosocial Working Environment and Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients Treated for Coronary Heart Disease. (United States)

    Biering, Karin; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hjollund, Niels Henrik


    During the last decades a possible association between psychosocial working environment and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been debated and moderate evidence supports that high psychological demands, lack of social support and iso-strain (the combination of high job strain and lack of social support) is associated with primary CHD. Whether psychosocial working environment plays a role as risk factor for new cardiac events and readmissions in patients with existing cardiovascular disease is less studied. A cohort of patients psychosocial working environment. Patients were followed in the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System for 3+ years to identify adverse cardiac events and death. We analysed the association between psychosocial working environment and adverse cardiac events by Cox Regression. A number of 528 patients had returned to work 12 weeks after PCI, while 97 were still sick-listed. We identified 12 deaths and 211 other events during follow-up. We found no statistically significant associations between psychosocial working environment and risk of adverse cardiac events and readmissions or mortality. The psychosocial working environment was not associated with adverse cardiac events.

  3. Mercury fluxes over an Australian alpine grassland and observation of nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Howard


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m−2 h−1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of −1.5 ± 7.8 ng m−2 h−1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m−2 h−1. Deposition velocities ranged from −2.2 to 2.9 cm s−1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m−3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as

  4. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)


    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  5. Mercury fluxes over an Australian alpine grassland and observation of nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (United States)

    Howard, Dean; Edwards, Grant C.


    Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m-2 h-1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of -1.5 ± 7.8 ng m-2 h-1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m-2 h-1. Deposition velocities ranged from -2.2 to 2.9 cm s-1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m-3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs) were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as cumulative GEM flux across the study period was close to zero.

  6. Numerical investigations with WRF about atmospheric features leading to heavy precipitation and flood events over the Central Andes' complex topography (United States)

    Zamuriano, Marcelo; Brönnimann, Stefan


    It's known that some extremes such as heavy rainfalls, flood events, heatwaves and droughts depend largely on the atmospheric circulation and local features. Bolivia is no exception and while the large scale dynamics over the Amazon has been largely investigated, the local features driven by the Andes Cordillera and the Altiplano is still poorly documented. New insights on the regional atmospheric dynamics preceding heavy precipitation and flood events over the complex topography of the Andes-Amazon interface are added through numerical investigations of several case events: flash flood episodes over La Paz city and the extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin. Large scale atmospheric water transport is dynamically downscaled in order to take into account the complex topography forcing and local features as modulators of these events. For this purpose, a series of high resolution numerical experiments with the WRF-ARW model is conducted using various global datasets and parameterizations. While several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the dynamics of these episodes, they have not been tested yet through numerical modelling experiments. The simulations captures realistically the local water transport and the terrain influence over atmospheric circulation, even though the precipitation intensity is in general unrealistic. Nevertheless, the results show that Dynamical Downscaling over the tropical Andes' complex terrain provides useful meteorological data for a variety of studies and contributes to a better understanding of physical processes involved in the configuration of these events.

  7. Tropical teleconnections via the ocean and atmosphere induced by Southern Ocean deep convective events (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gunn, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    The current generation (CMIP5) of Earth System Models (ESMs) shows a huge variability in their ability to represent Southern Ocean (SO) deep-ocean convection and Antarctic Bottom Water, with a preference for open-sea convection in the Weddell and Ross gyres. A long control simulation in a coarse 3o resolution ESM (the GFDL CM2Mc model) shows a highly regular multi-decadal oscillation between periods of SO open sea convection and non-convective periods. This process also happens naturally, with different frequencies and durations of convection across most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al, 2014). Here we assess the impact of SO deep convection and resulting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the tropical atmosphere and ocean via teleconnections, with a focus on interannual to multi-decadal timescales. We combine analysis of our low-resolution coupled model with inter-model analysis across historical CMIP5 simulations. SST cooling south of 60S during non-convective decades triggers a stronger, northward shifted SH Hadley cell, which results in intensified northward cross-equatorial moist heat transport and a poleward shift in the ITCZ. Resulting correlations between the cross-equatorial atmospheric heat transport and ITCZ location are in good agreement with recent theories (e.g. Frierson et al. 2013; Donohoe et al. 2014). Lagged correlations between a SO convective index and cross-equatorial heat transports (in the atmosphere and ocean), as well as various tropical (and ENSO) climate indices are analyzed. In the ocean realm, we find that non-convective decades result in weaker AABW formation and weaker ACC but stronger Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) formation, likely as a result of stronger SO westerlies (more positive SAM). The signals of AABW and AAIW are seen in the tropics on short timescales of years to decades in the temperature, heat storage and heat transport anomalies and also in deep and intermediate ocean oxygen. Most

  8. When the Sky Falls: Performing Initial Assessments of Bright Atmospheric Events (United States)

    Cooke, William J.; Brown, Peter; Blaauw, Rhiannon; Kingery, Aaron; Moser, Danielle


    The 2013 Chelyabinsk super bolide was the first "significant" impact event to occur in the age of social media and 24 hour news. Scientists, used to taking many days or weeks to analyze fireball events, were hard pressed to meet the immediate demands (within hours) for answers from the media, general public, and government officials. Fulfilling these requests forced many researchers to exploit information available from various Internet sources - videos were downloaded from sites like Youtube, geolocated via Google Street View, and quickly analyzed with improvised software; Twitter and Facebook were scoured for eyewitness accounts of the fireball and reports of meteorites. These data, combined with infrasound analyses, enabled a fairly accurate description of the Chelyabinsk event to be formed within a few hours; in particular, any relationship to 2012 DA14 (which passed near Earth later that same day) was eliminated. Results of these analyses were quickly disseminated to members of the NEO community for press conferences and media interviews. Despite a few minor glitches, the rapid initial assessment of Chelyabinsk was a triumph, permitting the timely conveyance of accurate information to the public and the incorporation of social media into fireball analyses. Beginning in 2008, the NASA Meteoroid Environments Office, working in cooperation with Western's Meteor Physics Group, developed processes and software that permit quick characterization - mass, trajectory, and orbital properties - of fireball events. These tools include automated monitoring of Twitter to establish the time of events (the first tweet is usually no more than a few seconds after the fireball), mining of Youtube and all sky camera web archives to locate videos suitable for analyses, use of Google Earth and Street View to geolocate the video locations, and software to determine the fireball trajectory and object orbital parameters, including generation of animations suitable for popular media


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MIKA


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to comprehend possible impacts of the atmospheric extreme events and of the expected climate change in three different spatial levels. They are first collected at the national level, i.e. all impacts are included in matrices, where the rows are the extremities in the first aspect and the regional climate change in the second aspect. The columns are the impacts on the natural resources, i.e. on hydrology & water management, on natural ecosystems and on agriculture & food supply, as well, as on the human dimensions, i.e. on urban settlements, on energy and transportation and on human health, in both aspects. The impacts most relevant in the two other levels, i.e. North-East Hungary and the Bükk-Miskolc microregion are also unequivocally indicated in the matrices. Importance of the impacts is preliminarily illustrated by quantitative information on the extremes, the changes and some impacts already happened at the selected space scales. The paper is closing by the related adaptation measures in North-East Hungary.

  10. Forbush Decrease events in Lunar Radiation Environment observed by the LRO/CRaTER (United States)

    Sohn, J.; Oh, S.; Yi, Y.; Kim, E.; Lee, J.; Spence, H. E.


    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched on June 16, 2009 has six experiments including of the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard. The CRaTER instrument characterizes the radiation environment to be experienced by humans during future lunar missions. The CRaTER instrument measures the effects of ionizing energy loss in matter specifically in silicon solid-state detectors due to penetrating solar energetic protons (SEP) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) after interactions with tissue-equivalent plastic (TEP), a synthetic analog of human tissue. The CRaTER instrument houses a compact and highly precise microdosimeter. It measures dose rates below one micro-Rad/sec in lunar radiation environment. Forbush decrease (FD) event is the sudden decrease of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. The FD event is considered to be caused by exclusion of GCR due to intense interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) structures of interplanetary shock (IP) sheath region and/or the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (CME) following the IP shocks as a shock driver. We use the data of cosmic ray flux and dose rates observed by the CRaTER instrument. We also use the CME list of STEREO SECCHI inner, outer coronagraph and the IMF (Interplanetary CME) data of the ACE/MAG instrument. We examine the origins and the characteristics of the FD-like events in lunar radiation environment. We also compare these events with the FD events on the Earth. We find that whenever the FD events are recorded at ground Neutron Monitor stations, the FD-like events also occur on the lunar environments. The flux variation amplitude of FD-like events on the Moon is approximately two times larger than that of FD events on the Earth. We compare time profiles of GCR flux with of the dose rate of FD-like events in the lunar environment. We figure out that the distinct FD-like events correspond to dose rate events in the CRaTER on lunar environment during the event period.

  11. Characterization of Recent Greenland Melt Events in Atmospheric Analyses and Satellite Data (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Nowicki, S.; Zhao, B.; Koenig, L.; Moustafa, S.


    Data from a variety of observational and modeling sources have indicated enhanced, widespread melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface in recent years. In 2012, this melting was punctuated by the circumstance on 11 July when almost the entirety of the ice sheet simultaneously experienced surface melt, including Summit. While such an event has been considered as the result of unique meteorological conditions, the melting record for the season also occurred in 2012 based on spatial extent and duration. Previous melt extent records also occurred in 2002, 2007, and 2010. Melt extent may be estimated from remote sensing methods, but runoff volume may only be obtained from select in situ measurement locations or modeling methods. The aim of this study is to assess differences in available estimates of melt extent and runoff volume, and to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of surface melt. Significantly, the evaluation is conducted over the full available period from 1980 to the present, rather than focusing on one event. The GEOS-5 global atmospheric model with an improved surface representation for the GrIS is replayed against the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) to produce an historical reanalysis. The use of GEOS-5 offers the potential for applying a global model with a realistic GrIS surface representation for the assessment of melt events and their relation to the large-scale climate. These values are compared with output from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model and passive microwave remote sensing data. The approach is to spatially average values by drainage basins and evaluate the resulting time series. Seasonally, numerical analyses and models typically indicate less melt coverage during the early summer and more in late summer in comparison to passive microwave data. The relation between melt area, melt duration, and runoff volume differs markedly by drainage basin

  12. Northern Hemisphere atmospheric influence of the solar proton events and ground level enhancement in January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman


    Full Text Available Solar eruptions in early 2005 led to a substantial barrage of charged particles on the Earth's atmosphere during the 16–21 January period. Proton fluxes were greatly increased during these several days and led to the production of HOx (H, OH, HO2 and NOx (N, NO, NO2, which then caused the destruction of ozone. We focus on the Northern polar region, where satellite measurements and simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM3 showed large enhancements in mesospheric HOx and NOx constituents, and associated ozone reductions, due to these solar proton events (SPEs. The WACCM3 simulations show enhanced short-lived OH and HO2 concentrations throughout the mesosphere in the 60–82.5° N latitude band due to the SPEs for most days in the 16–21 January 2005 period, somewhat higher in abundance than those observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. These HOx enhancements led to huge predicted and MLS-measured ozone decreases of greater than 40 % throughout most of the northern polar mesosphere during the SPE period. Envisat Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 show increases throughout the stratosphere with highest enhancements of about 60 pptv in the lowermost mesosphere over the 16–18 January 2005 period due to the solar protons. WACCM3 predictions indicate H2O2 enhancements over the same time period of about three times that amount. Measurements of nitric acid (HNO3 by both MLS and MIPAS show an increase of about 1 ppbv above background levels in the upper stratosphere during 16–29 January 2005. WACCM3 simulations show only minuscule HNO3 increases (<0.05 ppbv in the upper stratosphere during this time period. Polar mesospheric enhancements of NOx are computed to be greater than 50

  13. Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Influence of the Solar Proton Events and Ground Level Enhancement in January 2005 (United States)

    Jackman, C. H.; Marsh, D. R.; Vitt, F. M.; Roble, R. G.; Randall, C. E.; Bernath, P. F.; Funke, B.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Versick, S.; Stiller, G. P.; hide


    Solar eruptions in early 2005 led substantial barrage of charged particles on the Earth's atmosphere during the January 16-21 period. Proton fluxes were greatly increased during these several days and led to the production ofHO(x)(H, OH, BO2)and NO(x)(N, NO, NO2), which then caused the destruction of ozone. We focus on the Northern polar region, where satellite measurements and simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM3) showed large enhancements in mesospheric HO(x) and NO(x) constituents, and associated ozone reductions, due 10 these solar proton events (SPEs). The WACCM3 simulations show enhanced short-lived OH throughout the mesosphere in the 60-82.5degN latitude band due to the SPEs for most days in the Jan.16-2l,2005 period, in reasonable agreement with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements. Mesospheric HO2 is also predicted to be increased by the SPEs, however, the modeled HO2 results are somewhat larger than the MLS measurements. These HO(x) enhancements led to huge predicted and MLS-measured ozone decreases of greater than 40% throughout most of the Northern polar mesosphere during the SPE period. Envisat Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) show increases throughout the stratosphere with highest enhancements of about 60 ppt y in the lowermost mesosphere over the Jan. 16-18, 2005 period due to the solar protons. WACCM3 predictions indicate H2O2 enhancements over the same time period of more than twice that amount. Measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) by both MLS and MIPAS show an increase of about 1 ppbv above background levels in the upper stratosphere during January 16-29, 2005. WACCM3 simulations show only minuscule HNO3 changes in the upper stratosphere during this time period. However due to the small loss rates during winter, polar mesospheric enhancements of NO(x) are computed to be greater than 50 ppbv during the SPE period. Computed NO

  14. Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8,200-years-B.P. cooling event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Aaby, B.; Visscher, H.


    By applying the inverse relation between numbers of leaf stomata and atmospheric CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis of fossil birch leaves from lake deposits in Denmark reveals a century-scale CO2 change during the prominent Holocene cooling event that occurred in the North Atlantic

  15. A climatological analysis of high-precipitation events in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, and associated large-scale atmospheric conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Froidevaux, Paul; Reijmer, Carleen H.; Fischer, Hubertus


    The link between high precipitation in Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica, and the large-scale atmospheric circulation is investigated using ERA-Interim data for 1979-2009. High-precipitation events are analyzed at Halvfarryggen situated in the coastal region of DML and at Kohnen Station located

  16. Combined model-data analysis during the recent stratospheric warming events: WACCM-X predictions and upper atmosphere data assimilation (United States)

    Yudin, V.; Liu, H.; Goncharenko, L.


    The paper will present the initial investigations of predictability of the Mesosphere and Thermosphere (MT) region and examination of the physical mechanisms of variability in the community MT models governed and constrained by two important sources of information, (1) lower atmosphere weather patterns and (2) Middle Atmosphere (MA) observations. To relate explicitly Numerical Weather and Space Weather predictions, this study explores the novel framework for constraining the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and its extension in the thermosphere and ionosphere, WACCM-X, by the meteorological analyses (MERRA and GEOS-5) of Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). During the recent stratospheric warming events the research satellite data from NASA's TIMED (SABER and TIDI) and EOS-Aura (HIRDLS and MLS) instruments resolve the vertical structures of mean flow, waves and composition providing additional constraints for modeling of the lower-upper atmosphere coupling. Their sequential assimilation in the WACCM-X/MERRA will allow data constrained predictions of tides, planetary waves, and neutral-ion chemistry with the realistic weather in the lower atmosphere. For constraining the fast varying wave dynamics and composition novel aspects of the upper atmosphere data assimilation will be discussed including recreation of the fast diurnal variations in WACCM-X. The model and analysis results will be compared with independent ground-based and space-borne observations during stratospheric warming events.

  17. Sensitivity of the Atmospheric Response to Warm Pool El Nino Events to Modeled SSTs and Future Climate Forcings (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Newman, Paul A.; Oman, Luke D.


    Warm pool El Nino (WPEN) events are characterized by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific. Under present-day climate conditions, WPEN events generate poleward propagating wavetrains and enhance midlatitude planetary wave activity, weakening the stratospheric polar vortices. The late 21st century extratropical atmospheric response to WPEN events is investigated using the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM), version 2. GEOSCCM simulations are forced by projected late 21st century concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and by SSTs and sea ice concentrations from an existing ocean-atmosphere simulation. Despite known ocean-atmosphere model biases, the prescribed SST fields represent a best estimate of the structure of late 21st century WPEN events. The future Arctic vortex response is qualitatively similar to that observed in recent decades but is weaker in late winter. This response reflects the weaker SST forcing in the Nino 3.4 region and subsequently weaker Northern Hemisphere tropospheric teleconnections. The Antarctic stratosphere does not respond to WPEN events in a future climate, reflecting a change in tropospheric teleconnections: The meridional wavetrain weakens while a more zonal wavetrain originates near Australia. Sensitivity simulations show that a strong poleward wavetrain response to WPEN requires a strengthening and southeastward extension of the South Pacific Convergence Zone; this feature is not captured by the late 21st century modeled SSTs. Expected future increases in GHGs and decreases in ODSs do not affect the polar stratospheric responses to WPEN.

  18. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin


    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  19. Infrared signature of transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere simulated for a limb line of sight observation (United States)

    Payan, Sebastien; Romand, Frederic; Laurence, Croizé


    Transient Luminous Events (TLE) are electrical and optical events which occurs above thunderstorms. Their occurrence is closely linked with the lightning activity below thunderstorms. TLEs are observed from the base of the stratosphere to the thermosphere (15 - 110 km). They are a very brief phenomenon which lasts from 1 to 300 milliseconds. At a worldwide scale, some to some tenths of TLEs occurs each minute. The energy deposition, about some tenths of megajoules, is able to ionize, dissociate and excite the molecules of the atmosphere. Then, a phase of recombination and relaxation starts. The interest of their study is multiple. In atmospheric chemistry we know that lightening are important sources of NOx in the troposphere, which indirectly influence the concentrations of O3 and OH. We wonder what could be the chemical effects of TLEs in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Experimentally, the HALESIS (High altitude Luminous Events Studied by Infrared Spectro-imagery) project aims to load a spectro-imager in a stratospheric balloon in order to measure atmospheric radiances in the moments following the electrical discharge of a TLE and then, to estimate the concentration of some components of interest (CO2, NO, O3, OH…) with spectrum inversions. In a Defense point of view, some airborne detection or guiding devices are equipped with infrared sensors, which may be disturbed by the TLEs infrared signal. The objective is to provide a tool which will describe the TLE phenomenon from the electric discharge to the detection threw an infrared sensor. To achieve this work we first compute the Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium population of a background atmosphere with the code SAMM2. The starting atmosphere comes from the Whole Atmosphere community Climate Model (WACCM). Then, we apply a TLE perturbation to a region of the background atmosphere. To do so we compute the plasma and atmospheric chemistry consecutive to the discharge of a TLE with the codes BOLSIG+ and

  20. Comm for Small Sats: The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Communications Subsystem (United States)

    Kuroda, Vanessa M.; Allard, Mark R.; Lewis, Brian; Lindsay, Michael


    September 6, 2013 through April 21, 2014 marked the mission lifecycle of the highly successful LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission that orbited the moon to gather detailed information about the thin lunar atmosphere. This paper will address the development, risks, and lessons learned regarding the specification, selection, and deployment of LADEE's unique Radio Frequency based communications subsystem and supporting tools. This includes the Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE), test regimes, and RF dynamic link analysis environment developed to meet mission requirements for small, flexible, low cost, high performance, fast turnaround, and reusable spacecraft communication capabilities with easy and reliable application to future similar low cost small satellite missions over widely varying needs for communications and communications system complexity. LADEE communication subsystem key components, architecture, and mission performance will be reviewed toward applicability for future mission planning, design, and utilization.

  1. Global hexachlorocyclohexane use trends and their impact on the Arctic atmospheric environment (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Bidleman, T. F.; Barrie, L. A.; McConnell, L. L.

    The relationship between the global technical HCH use trends and their impact on the arctic atmospheric environment has been studied. Two significant drops in global technical HCH usage were identified. In 1983, China banned the use of technical HCH. This represented the largest drop ever in global use rates. In 1990 India stopped technical HCH usage in agriculture and the former Soviet Union banned the use of technical HCH. Since 1990, India has been the biggest user of technical HCH in the world. Significant drops in atmospheric α-HCH in the arctic were observed between 1982 and 1983, and again between 1990 and 1992. The rapid response in atmospheric concentrations to usage is encouraging; however, since α-HCH concentrations in the arctic waters have remained relatively unchanged, the decline in atmospheric α-HCH has reversed the net direction of air-sea gas flux. The accumulated mass in oceans and large lakes may represent a new source of HCH to the arctic atmosphere.

  2. Dependence of the Martian radiation environment on atmospheric depth: Modeling and measurement (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Slaba, Tony C.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Badavi, Francis F.; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Rafkin, Scot


    The energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is influenced by solar and heliospheric modulation and changes in the local atmospheric pressure (or column depth). The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity on the surface of Mars has been measuring this effect for over four Earth years (about two Martian years). The anticorrelation between the recorded surface Galactic Cosmic Ray-induced dose rates and pressure changes has been investigated by Rafkin et al. (2014) and the long-term solar modulation has also been empirically analyzed and modeled by Guo et al. (2015). This paper employs the newly updated HZETRN2015 code to model the Martian atmospheric shielding effect on the accumulated dose rates and the change of this effect under different solar modulation and atmospheric conditions. The modeled results are compared with the most up-to-date (from 14 August 2012 to 29 June 2016) observations of the RAD instrument on the surface of Mars. Both model and measurements agree reasonably well and show the atmospheric shielding effect under weak solar modulation conditions and the decline of this effect as solar modulation becomes stronger. This result is important for better risk estimations of future human explorations to Mars under different heliospheric and Martian atmospheric conditions.

  3. Dependence of Martian radiation environment on atmospheric depth: modeling and measurement (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Slaba, Tony; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Boehm, Eckart; Brinza, David; Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald; Matthiae, Daniel; Rafkin, Scot; Badavi, Francis


    The energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is influenced by solar and heliospheric modulation and changes in the local atmospheric pressure (or column depth). The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity on the surface of Mars has been measuring this effect for over four Earth years (about two Martian years). The anti-correlation between the recorded surface Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) induced dose rates and pressure changes has been investigated by Rafkin et al. (2014) and the long-term solar modulation have also been empirically analyzed and modeled by Guo et al. (2015). This paper employs the newly updated HZETRN2015 code to model the Martian atmospheric shielding effect on the accumulated dose rates and the change of this effect under different solar modulation and atmospheric conditions. The modeled results are compared with the most up-to-date (from 14 August 2012 until 29 June 2016) observations of the RAD instrument on the surface of Mars. Both model and measurements agree reasonably well and show the atmospheric shielding effect under weak solar modulation conditions and the decline of this effect as solar modulation becomes stronger. This result is important for better risk estimations of future human explorations to Mars under different heliospheric and Martian atmospheric conditions.

  4. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata G.; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen


    with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 ◦C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging......High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible...

  5. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) (United States)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah


    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  6. Analyzing System on A Chip Single Event Upset Responses using Single Event Upset Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael


    We are investigating the application of classical reliability performance metrics combined with standard single event upset (SEU) analysis data. We expect to relate SEU behavior to system performance requirements. Our proposed methodology will provide better prediction of SEU responses in harsh radiation environments with confidence metrics. single event upset (SEU), single event effect (SEE), field programmable gate array devises (FPGAs)

  7. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment. (United States)

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R


    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  8. Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment? (United States)

    Dris, Rachid; Gasperi, Johnny; Saad, Mohamed; Mirande, Cécile; Tassin, Bruno


    Sources, pathways and reservoirs of microplastics, plastic particles smaller than 5mm, remain poorly documented in an urban context. While some studies pointed out wastewater treatment plants as a potential pathway of microplastics, none have focused on the atmospheric compartment. In this work, the atmospheric fallout of microplastics was investigated in two different urban and sub-urban sites. Microplastics were collected continuously with a stainless steel funnel. Samples were then filtered and observed with a stereomicroscope. Fibers accounted for almost all the microplastics collected. An atmospheric fallout between 2 and 355 particles/m(2)/day was highlighted. Registered fluxes were systematically higher at the urban than at the sub-urban site. Chemical characterization allowed to estimate at 29% the proportion of these fibers being all synthetic (made with petrochemicals), or a mixture of natural and synthetic material. Extrapolation using weight and volume estimates of the collected fibers, allowed a rough estimation showing that between 3 and 10 tons of fibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration every year (2500 km(2)). These results could serve the scientific community working on the different sources of microplastic in both continental and marine environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurements of hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles during ultrafine particle formation events at urban, industrial, and coastal sites. (United States)

    Park, Kihong; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Seung Ho


    The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique was applied to determine the hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles in three sites of urban Gwangju, industrial Yeosu, and coastal Taean in South Korea. A database for the hygroscopicity and volatility of the known compositions and sizes of the laboratory-generated particles wasfirst constructed for comparison with the measured properties of atmospheric ultrafine particles. Distinct differences in hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles werefound between a "photochemical event" and a "combustion event" as well as among different sites. At the Gwangju site, ultrafine particles in the "photochemical event" were determined to be more hygroscopic (growth factor (GF) = 1.05-1.33) than those in the "combustion event" (GF = 1.02-1.12), but their hygroscopicity was not as high as pure ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the laboratory-generated database, suggesting they were internally mixed with less soluble species. Ultrafine particles in the "photochemical event" at the Yeosu site, having a variety of SO2, CO, and VOC emission sources, were more hygroscopic (GF = 1.34-1.60) and had a higher amount of volatile species (47-75%)than those observed at the Gwangju site. Ultrafine particle concentration at the Taean site increased during daylight hours with low tide, having a higher GF (1.34-1.80) than the Gwangju site and a lower amount of volatile species (17-34%) than the Yeosu site. Occasionally ultrafine particles were externally mixed according to their hygroscopicity and volatility, and TEM/EDS data showed that each type of particle had a distinct morphology and elemental composition.

  10. Comparison of the Synoptic Environments Conducive to Eastward versus Southeastward Transport of Asian Dust Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujung Tsai


    Full Text Available Asian dust events that travel eastward and southeastward in the lower troposphere affect different areas near the coastal East Asia. To understand the synoptic differences between the two types of dust events, four dust events from 2006 to 2009 are selected for each type and the synoptic environment is compared. Surface measurements, trajectory analyses, and a regional dust model are also applied to further analyze each type. Results show that the strength of the low-level trough and the surface anticyclonic system are important in determining the transport route of dust event. A deep 700–850 hPa trough extending far south beyond 30°N associated with an intense surface anticyclone with maximum pressure greater than 1020 hPa over coastal East Asia favors southeastward movement of dust event. The prevailing northwesterlies or northerlies behind the deep trough and ahead of the intense surface anticyclone promote the southeastward movement of dust event. Since intense surface anticyclones often associated with strong dust events, severe dust activities tend to move southeastward. In contrast, a shallow trough accompanied by a weak surface high locating north of 30°N over the coastal East Asia favors an eastward transport route.

  11. Group sex events amongst non-gay drug users: an understudied risk environment. (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Sandoval, Milagros


    This article discusses relevant literature on group sex events--defined as events at which some people have sex with more than one partner--as risk environments, with a particular focus on group sex events where people who take drugs by non-injection routes of administration participate and where the event is not primarily LGBT-identified, at a "classic" crack house, nor in a brothel. It also briefly presents some findings from a small ethnography of such events. Group sex participation by people who take drugs by non-injection routes of administration seems to be widespread. It involves both behavioural and network risk for HIV and STI infection, including documented high-risk behaviour and sexual mixing of STI- and HIV-infected people with those who are uninfected. Indeed several HIV and STI outbreaks have been documented as based on such group sex events. Further, group sex events often serve as potential bridge environments that may allow infections to pass from members of one high-risk-behavioural category to another, and to branch out through these people's sexual and/or injection networks to other members of the local community. The ethnographic data presented here suggest a serious possibility of "third party transmission" of infectious agents between people who do not have sex with each other. This can occur even when condoms are consistently used since condoms and sex toys are sometimes used with different people without being removed or cleaned, and since fingers and mouths come into contact with mucosal surfaces of other members of the same or opposite sex. In addition to being risk environments, many of these group sex events are venues where risk-reducing norms, activities and roles are present--which lays the basis for harm reduction interventions. Research in more geographical locations is needed so we can better understand risks associated with group sex events in which drug users participate--and, in particular, how both participants and others

  12. Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy in a Tropical Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyu Cui


    Full Text Available Atmospheric corrosion behavior of 2A12 aluminum alloy exposed to a tropical marine environment for 4 years was investigated. Weight loss of 2A12 alloy in the log-log coordinates can be well fitted with two linear segments, attributing to the evolution of the corrosion products. EIS results indicate that the corrosion product layer formed on the specimens exposed for 12 months or longer presents a good barrier effect. Corrosion morphology changes from pitting corrosion to severe intergranular corrosion with the extension of exposure time, resulting in the reduction of the mechanical properties.

  13. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature anomalies associated with atmospheric blocking events over Eastern Europe in spring - summer 2010 (United States)

    Sitnov, S. A.; Mokhov, I. I.; Lupo, A. R.


    Using data from the AIRS satellite instrument (V6, L3), ozone, water vapor (WV), and temperature anomalies associated with the relatively short spring atmospheric blocking event and anomalously prolonged summer block over European Russia (ER) in 2010 are analyzed. Within the domain of the blocking anticyclones, negative total column ozone (TCO) anomalies and positive total column water vapor (TCWV) anomalies reaching the values of -25 and -32 Dobson Units (DU) and 10 and 11 kg m-2 during the spring and summer blocks are observed, respectively. Conversely, within the regions adjacent to the anticyclones to the west and east, positive TCO anomalies (77 and 45 DU) and negative TCWV anomalies (-3 and -4 kg m-2) are found. These TCO and TCWV anomalies are conditioned by the regional atmospheric circulation associated with the strong omega-type blocking. The TCO deficit and TCWV surplus within the atmospheric blocking domain are explained primarily by the poleward advection of subtropical air with low TCO and high TCWV content and tropopause uplift. The TCO and TCWV anomalies are also associated with quasi-stationary Rossby wave trains that accompanied these blocking events. An analysis of the anomaly vertical structure shows that the marked TCO decrease is primarily due to the lower stratospheric ozone decrease, while the strong TCWV increase is mainly the result of an increase of lower tropospheric WV content. The possible role of photochemical ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere due to WV advection within the blocked regions is also discussed. Vertical profiles of the thermal anomalies during both atmospheric blocking events reveal dipole-like structures characterized by positive temperature anomalies in the troposphere and negative anomalies in the lower stratosphere.

  14. In situ TEM studies of the shape evolution of Pd nanocrystals under oxygen and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure. (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Meng, Jun; Zhu, Beien; Yu, Jian; Zou, Shihui; Zhang, Ze; Gao, Yi; Wang, Yong


    We demonstrate an atomic scale TEM observation of shape evolutions of Pd nanocrystals under oxygen and hydrogen environments at atmospheric pressure. Combined with multi-scale structure reconstruction model calculations, the reshaping mechanism is fully understood.

  15. Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yáñez-Serrano


    Full Text Available Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites, a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR Estonia site in a remote hemiboreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia. Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.

  16. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhifeng


    formula, then it been divided by 3 is MOR. The aerosol concentration in chamber can be changed by adjusting aerosol generator that producing variety of visibility atmospherical environment. The experiment has been carried out and the measurement accuracy of atmospheric transmittance is 0.3‰ Corresponding to the accuracy of MOR 4.9% at the 2km visibility environment. So this system can be calibrated and validated the other visibility measuring devices.

  17. Atmospheric/Space Environment Support Lessons Learned Regarding Aerospace Vehicle Design and Operations (United States)

    Vaughan, William W.; Anderson, B. Jeffrey


    In modern government and aerospace industry institutions the necessity of controlling current year costs often leads to high mobility in the technical workforce, "one-deep" technical capabilities, and minimal mentoring for young engineers. Thus, formal recording, use, and teaching of lessons learned are especially important in the maintenance and improvement of current knowledge and development of new technologies, regardless of the discipline area. Within the NASA Technical Standards Program Website there is a menu item entitled "Lessons Learned/Best Practices". It contains links to a large number of engineering and technical disciplines related data sets that contain a wealth of lessons learned information based on past experiences. This paper has provided a small sample of lessons learned relative to the atmospheric and space environment. There are many more whose subsequent applications have improved our knowledge of the atmosphere and space environment, and the application of this knowledge to the engineering and operations for a variety of aerospace programs.

  18. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis. (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René


    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical Surrogate Modeling of Atmospheric Dispersion Events Using Bayesian Adaptive Splines (United States)

    Francom, D.; Sansó, B.; Bulaevskaya, V.; Lucas, D. D.


    Uncertainty in the inputs of complex computer models, including atmospheric dispersion and transport codes, is often assessed via statistical surrogate models. Surrogate models are computationally efficient statistical approximations of expensive computer models that enable uncertainty analysis. We introduce Bayesian adaptive spline methods for producing surrogate models that capture the major spatiotemporal patterns of the parent model, while satisfying all the necessities of flexibility, accuracy and computational feasibility. We present novel methodological and computational approaches motivated by a controlled atmospheric tracer release experiment conducted at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant in California. Traditional methods for building statistical surrogate models often do not scale well to experiments with large amounts of data. Our approach is well suited to experiments involving large numbers of model inputs, large numbers of simulations, and functional output for each simulation. Our approach allows us to perform global sensitivity analysis with ease. We also present an approach to calibration of simulators using field data.

  20. RESTful Discovery and Eventing for Service Provisioning in Assisted Living Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Parra


    Full Text Available Service provisioning in assisted living environments faces distinct challenges due to the heterogeneity of networks, access technology, and sensing/actuation devices in such an environment. Existing solutions, such as SOAP-based web services, can interconnect heterogeneous devices and services, and can be published, discovered and invoked dynamically. However, it is considered heavier than what is required in the smart environment-like context and hence suffers from performance degradation. Alternatively, REpresentational State Transfer (REST has gained much attention from the community and is considered as a lighter and cleaner technology compared to the SOAP-based web services. Since it is simple to publish and use a RESTful web service, more and more service providers are moving toward REST-based solutions, which promote a resource-centric conceptualization as opposed to a service-centric conceptualization. Despite such benefits of REST, the dynamic discovery and eventing of RESTful services are yet considered a major hurdle to utilization of the full potential of REST-based approaches. In this paper, we address this issue, by providing a RESTful discovery and eventing specification and demonstrate it in an assisted living healthcare scenario. We envisage that through this approach, the service provisioning in ambient assisted living or other smart environment settings will be more efficient, timely, and less resource-intensive.

  1. Academic environment and dynamics in response to extreme events: Theory and Practice (Katrina Lessons) (United States)

    Sidorovskaia, Natalia


    The possibility of a catastrophic event requires the department as a unit and the university as an organization to devise a comprehensive emergency response plan to minimize the impact and shorten the recovery stage. Does the academic organizational structure and environment possess key features for the possibility of successful response to extreme events? The post Hurricane Katrina experience of Louisiana universities offers data to address this theoretical question. It also emphasizes that the mitigation plan should include two aspects: preparing/protecting a university for/during a catastrophic event and assisting other academic institutions experiencing an extreme event. Short-term and longer-term statistics and other data pertain to the interaction of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette (as an assistance unit) with the universities in New Orleans (units in distress), including the dynamics of student population, faculty influx, course adjustments, and response and recovery actions are presented. An attempt is made to categorize the losses and to assess the recovery quality and time. Faculty and institutional administration interviews are summarized to assist in developing future proactive response plans. UL Lafayette and UNO research capabilities and intellectual resources for developing complex models simulating the multi-variable effects of catastrophic events and providing adaptability in the decision-making process are investigated.

  2. Gauging events that influence students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment: findings from one institution. (United States)

    Shochet, Robert B; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Levine, Rachel B; Wright, Scott M


    The medical school learning environment (LE), encompassing the physical, social, and psychological context for learning, holds significant influence on students' professional development. Among these myriad experiences, the authors sought to gauge what students judge as influencing their perceptions of the LE. Fourth-year medical students at Johns Hopkins University participated in this cohort survey study before their 2010 graduation. A list of 55 events was iteratively revised and pilot-tested before being administered online. Responses assessed whether students experienced each event and, if so, the degree of impact on perceptions of the LE. A calculated mean impact score (MIS) provided a means to compare the relative impact of events. Of 119 students, 84 (71%) completed the survey. Students rated the overall LE as exceptional (29/84; 35%), good (36/84; 43%), fair (17/84; 20%), or poor (2/84; 2%). Eighty percent of students experienced at least 41 of the 55 events. MIS values ranged from 2.00 to 3.76 (highest possible: 4.00). Students rated positive events as having the highest impact. Few significant differences were found across gender, age, or surgical/nonsurgical specialty choice. MIS distributions differed between those perceiving the LE as exceptional or fair to poor for 22 (40%) of 55 events. This study attempted to identify the discrete events that medical students perceive as most affecting their sense of the LE. Knowing the phenomena that most strongly influence student perceptions can inform how settings, relationships, and interactions can be shaped for meaningful learning and professional formation.

  3. Focal and Ambient Processing of Built Environments: Intellectual and Atmospheric Experiences of Architecture. (United States)

    Rooney, Kevin K; Condia, Robert J; Loschky, Lester C


    Neuroscience has well established that human vision divides into the central and peripheral fields of view. Central vision extends from the point of gaze (where we are looking) out to about 5° of visual angle (the width of one's fist at arm's length), while peripheral vision is the vast remainder of the visual field. These visual fields project to the parvo and magno ganglion cells, which process distinctly different types of information from the world around us and project that information to the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively. Building on the dorsal/ventral stream dichotomy, we can further distinguish between focal processing of central vision, and ambient processing of peripheral vision. Thus, our visual processing of and attention to objects and scenes depends on how and where these stimuli fall on the retina. The built environment is no exception to these dependencies, specifically in terms of how focal object perception and ambient spatial perception create different types of experiences we have with built environments. We argue that these foundational mechanisms of the eye and the visual stream are limiting parameters of architectural experience. We hypothesize that people experience architecture in two basic ways based on these visual limitations; by intellectually assessing architecture consciously through focal object processing and assessing architecture in terms of atmosphere through pre-conscious ambient spatial processing. Furthermore, these separate ways of processing architectural stimuli operate in parallel throughout the visual perceptual system. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of architecture must take into account that built environments are stimuli that are treated differently by focal and ambient vision, which enable intellectual analysis of architectural experience versus the experience of architectural atmosphere, respectively. We offer this theoretical model to help advance a more precise understanding of the

  4. NASA's Meteoroid Environments Office's Response to Three Significant Bolide Events Over North America (United States)

    Blaauw, Rhiannon C.; Cooke, William J.; Kingery, Aaron M.


    Being the only U.S. Government entity charged with monitoring the meteor environment, the Meteoroid Environment Office has deployed a network of all sky and wide field meteor cameras, along with the appropriate software tools to quickly analyze data from these systems. However, the coverage of this network is still quite limited, forcing the incorporation of data from other cameras posted to the internet in analyzing many of the fireballs reported by the public and media. A procedure has been developed that determines the analysis process for a given fireball event based on the types and amount of data available. The differences between these analysis process will be explained and outlined by looking at three bolide events, all of which were large enough to produce meteorites. The first example is an ideal event - a bright meteor that occurred over NASA's All Sky Camera Network on August 2, 2014. With clear video of the event from various angles, a high-accuracy trajectory, beginning and end heights, orbit and approximate brightness/size of the event are able to be found very quickly using custom software. The bolide had the potential to have dropped meteorites, so dark flight analysis and modeling was performed, allowing potential fall locations to be mapped as a function of meteorite mass. The second case study was a bright bolide that occurred November 3, 2014 over West Virginia. This was just north of the NASA southeastern all-sky network, and just south of the Ohio-Pennsylvania network. This case study showcases the MEO's ability to use social media and various internet sources to locate videos of the event from obscure sources (including the Washington Monument) for anything that will permit a determination of a basic trajectory and fireball light curve The third case study will highlight the ability to use doppler weather radar in helping locate meteorites, which enable a definitive classification of the impactor. The input data and analysis steps differ for

  5. Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Cold Environments (LATICE): The role of Atmosphere - Biosphere - Cryosphere - Hydrosphere interactions in a changing climate (United States)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stordal, F.; Berntsen, T.; Westermann, S.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Etzelmuller, B.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Hamran, S. E.; Lande, T. S.; Bryn, A.


    Climate change is impacting the high latitudes more rapidly and significantly than any other region of the Earth because of feedback processes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. A warmer climate has already led to thawing of permafrost, reducing snow cover and a longer growing season; changes, which in turn influence the atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Still, many studies rely on one-way coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface, thereby neglecting important interactions and feedbacks. The observation, understanding and prediction of such processes from local to regional and global scales, represent a major scientific challenge that requires multidisciplinary scientific effort. The successful integration of earth observations (remote and in-situ data) and model development requires a harmonized research effort between earth system scientists, modelers and the developers of technologies and sensors. LATICE, which is recognized as a priority research area by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Oslo, aims to advance the knowledge base concerning land atmosphere interactions and their role in controlling climate variability and climate change at high northern latitudes. The consortium consists of an interdisciplinary team of experts from the atmospheric and terrestrial (hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere) research groups, together with key expertise on earth observations and novel sensor technologies. LATICE addresses critical knowledge gaps in the current climate assessment capacity through: Improving parameterizations of processes in earth system models controlling the interactions and feedbacks between the land (snow, ice, permafrost, soil and vegetation) and the atmosphere at high latitudes, including the boreal, alpine and artic zone. Assessing the influence of climate and land cover changes on water and energy fluxes. Integrating remote earth observations with in-situ data and

  6. The Siberian Traps and the end-Permian event: Geology, geochemistry and atmospheric modeling of gas release (United States)

    Svensen, Henrik; Stordal, Frode; Roscher, Marco; Sokalska, Ewa; Planke, Sverre


    The Siberian Traps were emplaces through sedimentary basins covering the Siberian Craton, passing thick accumulations of carbonates and evaporites. Contact metamorphism of the sedimentary rocks around dolerite sills and dikes generated greenhouse gases and halocarbons to such an extent that the process could be responsible for both the end-Permian carbon isotope excursion and the mass extinction. The key processes are suggested to be 1) metamorphism of oil-saturated rock salt sequences (halocarbon production), 2) methane generation from metamorphism of organic-rich shales (methane production), and 3) decarbonation of dolostones (carbon dioxide production). We have analyzed the petrography and geochemistry (including carbon isotopes) of contact metamorphic carbonates from outcrops, and can document the devolatilization processes. In addition, we have explored the potential global warming effects of CO2 and CH4 emissions to the end-Permian atmosphere from the volatile generation. We have constrained the effect of century scale degassing events using the atmospheric lifetime of CH4 and CO2, the pre-event atmospheric composition in terms of methane and carbon-dioxide as well as H2S, the gas flux to the atmosphere, the IR absorption efficiency, the radiative forcing and the climate sensitivity. Assuming rapid emplacement of one single major sill intrusion into the Tunguska Basin, and 100 year gas release with 60% CH4 and 40% CO2, the global annual mean temperature could rise by 2-5°C (best estimate ~3.5°C). In contrast, degassing from subaerial lava flows with the same magma volume as a sill has one order of magnitude lower influence on the global climate, resulting in a warming of about 0.1°C. Per molecule CH4 is much more efficient in absorbing and re-emitting IR radiation than CO2, yielding a much stronger greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere. Considering that the heat trapped in the atmosphere over a 100 year period resulting from an emission of CH4 is

  7. The 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop in Athens: The discussions, social events, environment, atmosphere, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Kawagoe, K

    Over 220 people attended the 4th Atlas Software Workshop in Athens, Greece, a place with a history of thousands of years of scientific achievement. The workshop was hosted by the University of Athens, the National Technical University of Athens, and the Aristotle University of Thessalonki. The venue for the meeting was the newly opened Conference Center of the Physics Department of the University of Athens which featured very comfortable plush red chairs (too comfortable for some of the more jet-lagged workshop participants!). Fig.1. Participants gathering in front of the Conference Center. The workshop schedule was structured to allow plenty of time during breaks for the many lively discussions that developed from the presentations. Ample supplies of coffee, juice, and cookies fueled the discussions. Discussions continued over lunches featuring Greek Salads and other tasty fare. The food was so good that one speaker offered the meal tickets as prize for answering a quiz at the end of her talk! The w...

  8. Semiannual Variation in the Number of Energetic Electron Precipitation Events Recorded in the Polar Atmosphere (United States)

    Stozhkov, Y. Ivanovich; Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Krainev, M. B.; Svirkhevskaya, A. K.; Svirzhevsky, N. S.; Mailin, S. Y.


    The analysis of the monthly numbers of Electron Precipitation Events (EPEs) recorded at Olenya station (Murmansk region) during 1970-1987, shows the semiannual variation with two maxima centered on April and September. We analyse the interplanetary plasma and geomagnetic indices data sets associated with the EPEs recorded. The possible relationship of this variation and RusselMcPherron, Equino ctial and Axial effects is discussed.

  9. Vegetation Cover and Furrow Erosion due to Extreme Rain Events in Semiarid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Cárceles-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The conservation of the soil resource in semi-arid environments is one of the major challenges of agricultural systems, particularly in the Mediterranean region. In the present study, two types of soil management were compared: minimum tillage (ML and minimum tillage with spontaneous vegetation cover (MLVE. The comparison was conducted in a rainfed almond plantation at slope (35%, under an extraordinary event in 2015 (91.3 mm and EI30 of 2,719.89 mm ha-1 h-1. In this situation in MLVE plots, the development of furrows in contrast to ML were not recorded; the total soil loss was more than 12 times lower than that recorded in the latter. This fact demonstrated the effectiveness of the vegetal cover in the protection of the agricultural soil against the erosion during extreme events. Also, for ML management, furrow erosion represented more than 60% of the total soil loss, demonstrating the dominance of this type of erosion. Finally, it should be noted that this event represents the almost total loss of soil recorded in the experimental plots during the period 2012-2015; and this consequently shows the significant impact of extreme events on erosion rates in the Mediterranean region.

  10. Impact of Urban Surface Roughness Length Parameterization Scheme on Urban Atmospheric Environment Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meichun Cao


    Full Text Available In this paper, the impact of urban surface roughness length z0 parameterization scheme on the atmospheric environment simulation over Beijing has been investigated through two sets of numerical experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the Urban Canopy Model. For the control experiment (CTL, the urban surface z0 parameterization scheme used in UCM is the model default one. For another experiment (EXP, a newly developed urban surface z0 parameterization scheme is adopted, which takes into account the comprehensive effects of urban morphology. The comparison of the two sets of simulation results shows that all the roughness parameters computed from the EXP run are larger than those in the CTL run. The increased roughness parameters in the EXP run result in strengthened drag and blocking effects exerted by buildings, which lead to enhanced friction velocity, weakened wind speed in daytime, and boosted turbulent kinetic energy after sunset. Thermal variables (sensible heat flux and temperature are much less sensitive to z0 variations. In contrast with the CTL run, the EXP run reasonably simulates the observed nocturnal low-level jet. Besides, the EXP run-simulated land surface-atmosphere momentum and heat exchanges are also in better agreement with the observation.

  11. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter. (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D


    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  12. Event-Based Control Strategy for Mobile Robots in Wireless Environments. (United States)

    Socas, Rafael; Dormido, Sebastián; Dormido, Raquel; Fabregas, Ernesto


    In this paper, a new event-based control strategy for mobile robots is presented. It has been designed to work in wireless environments where a centralized controller has to interchange information with the robots over an RF (radio frequency) interface. The event-based architectures have been developed for differential wheeled robots, although they can be applied to other kinds of robots in a simple way. The solution has been checked over classical navigation algorithms, like wall following and obstacle avoidance, using scenarios with a unique or multiple robots. A comparison between the proposed architectures and the classical discrete-time strategy is also carried out. The experimental results shows that the proposed solution has a higher efficiency in communication resource usage than the classical discrete-time strategy with the same accuracy.

  13. Evolving Impacts of Multiyear La Niña Events on Atmospheric Circulation and U.S. Drought (United States)

    Okumura, Yuko M.; DiNezio, Pedro; Deser, Clara


    Wintertime precipitation over the southern U.S. is known to decrease with interannual cooling of the equatorial Pacific associated with La Niña, which often persists 2 years or longer. Composite analysis based on a suite of observational and reanalysis data sets covering the period 1901-2012 reveals distinct evolution of atmospheric teleconnections and U.S. precipitation anomalies during multiyear La Niña events. In particular, atmospheric circulation anomalies strengthen and become more zonally elongated over the North Pacific in the second winter compared to the first winter. U.S. precipitation deficits also remain large, while the region of reduced precipitation shifts northeastward in the second winter. This occurs despite a significant weakening of the equatorial Pacific cooling in the second winter and suggests that the large-scale atmospheric circulation is more sensitive to tropical sea surface temperature anomalies of broader meridional extent. Given the extended climatic impacts, accurate prediction of La Niña duration is crucial.

  14. Atmospheric forcing intensifies the effects of regional ocean warming on reef-scale temperature anomalies during a coral bleaching event (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenlin; Falter, James; Lowe, Ryan; Ivey, Greg; McCulloch, Malcolm


    We investigate how local atmospheric conditions and hydrodynamic forcing contributed to local variations in water temperature within a fringing coral reef-lagoon system during the peak of a marine heat wave in 2010-2011 that caused mass coral bleaching across Western Australia. A three-dimensional circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with a built-in air-sea heat flux exchange module Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Experiment (COARE) was coupled with a spectral wave model Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) to resolve the surface heat exchange and wave-driven reef circulation in Coral Bay, Ningaloo Reef. Using realistic oceanic and atmospheric forcing, the model predictions were in good agreement with measured time series of water temperature at various locations in the coral reef system during the bleaching event. Through a series of sensitivity analyses, we found that the difference in temperature between the reef and surrounding offshore waters (ΔT) was predominantly a function of both the daily mean net heat flux (Qnet>¯) and residence time, whereas diurnal variations in reef water temperature were dependent on the diurnal fluctuation in the net heat flux. We found that reef temperatures were substantially higher than offshore in the inner lagoon under normal weather conditions and over the entire reef domain under more extreme weather conditions (0.7°C-1.5°C). Although these temperature elevations were still less than that caused by the regional ocean warming (2°C-3°C), the arrival of peak seasonal temperatures in the summer of 2010-2011 (when net atmospheric heat fluxes were positive and abnormally high) caused substantially higher thermal stresses than would have otherwise occurred if offshore temperatures had reached their normal seasonal maxima in autumn (when net atmospheric heat fluxes were negative or cooling). Therefore, the degree heating weeks calculated based on offshore temperature substantially underestimated the thermal stresses

  15.  Psychosocial working environment for patients with ischaemic heart disease and association to adverse cardiac events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Hviid Andersen, Johan


    of quantitative and cognitive demands, workload, involvement, influence, tolerance, social support, the combinations of effort-reward and demand-control and the risk of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Reporting of problems in the psychosocial working environment are not associated with risk of adverse cardiac events...... readmissions and events. We examined the association between psychosocial working environment and adverse events among those who had returned to work at 3 months by Cox Regression analysis. RESULTS: We were not able to detect any significant associations between psychosocial working environment in terms....... However, tendencies of a lower risk of cardiac event were present for employees reporting the worst psychosocial environment. This unexpected finding may be explained by vulnerable persons not returning to work....

  16. Studies of atmosphere radio-sounding for monitoring of radiation environments around nuclear power plants (United States)

    Boyarchuk, Kirill; Karelin, Alexander; Tumanov, Mikhail


    The nuclear power plants practically do not discharge to the atmosphere any products causing significant radioactive contaminations. However, during the years of the nuclear power industry, some large accidents occurred at the nuclear objects, and that caused enormous environmental contamination. Among the most significant accidents are: thermal explosion of a reservoir with high-level wastes at the Mayak enterprise in the South Ural region, near the town of Kyshtym, in the end of September 1957; accident at the nuclear power plant in Windscale, UK, in October 1957; accident at the Three-Mile Island, USA, in 1979; accident at the Chernobyl power plant in April 1986. In March of 2011, a large earthquake and the following tsunami caused the largest nuclear catastrophe of XXI century, the accident at the Fucushima-1 power plant. The last accident highlighted the need to review seriously the safety issues at the active power plants and to develop the new effective methods for remote detection and control over radioactive environmental contamination and over general geophysical situation in the areas. The main influence of the fission products on the environment is its ionisation, and therefore various detectable biological and physical processes that are caused by ions. Presence of an ionisation source within the area under study may cause significant changes of absolute humidity and, that is especially important, changes of the chemical potential of atmosphere vapours indicating presence of charged condensation centres. These effects may cause anomalies in the IR radiation emitted from the Earth surface and jumps in the chemical potentials of water vapours that may be observed by means of the satellite remote sensing by specialized equipment (works by Dimitar Ouzounov, Sergey Pulinets, e.a.). In the current study, the theoretical description is presented from positions of the molecular-kinetic condensation theory that shows significant changes of the absolute and

  17. Development of a Virtual Learning Environment addressing adverse events in nursing. (United States)

    Xelegati, Rosicler; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez


    The authors have developed a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) addressing the management of adverse events to promote continuing education for nurses, including the following themes: pressure ulcer, medication errors, phlebitis, fall, and loss of nasogastroenteral probes. The pedagogical framework was grounded on the information processing theory and this applied study used the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) model to develop the program. The environment was developed with HTML language through Microsoft Office Word 2003®. The authors developed evaluation exercises in each module through the Hot Potatoes program, version 6.0 for Windows. The conclusion is that the methodology utilized was appropriate for achieving the proposed objectives. In the future, the authors will assess the developed product and verify the possibility of using it in nursing services.

  18. Multi-Meteotsunami Event in the Adriatic Sea Generated by Atmospheric Disturbances of 25-26 June 2014 (United States)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Međugorac, Iva; Janeković, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica


    A series of meteotsunamis hit a few locations in the Mediterranean and Black Seas during 22-27 June 2014. Meteotsunamis were particularly numerous on 25 and 26 June in the Adriatic Sea, where at least six harbours and bays were stricken by powerful waves: strongest events occurred in Vela Luka (Korčula Island), a known meteotsunami hot-spot, where waves reached height of 3 m, and in Rijeka dubrovačka Bay, where strong 5 m/s currents accompanied 2.5 m high waves. Intensification of high-frequency sea level activity was observed at both the eastern and western Adriatic tide gauge stations, with maximum recorded wave heights reaching 68 cm (Ortona, Italy). A series of individual air pressure disturbances characterized by pronounced rates of air pressure change (up to 2.4 hPa/5 min), limited spatial extent ( 50 km) and high temporal variability, propagated over the Adriatic on 2 days in question. Numerical hydrodynamic model SCHISM forced by measured and idealised air pressure disturbances was utilised to reproduce the observed Adriatic sea level response. Several important conclusions were reached: (1) meteotsunamis occurring at various parts of the coast were generated by different atmospheric air pressure disturbances; (2) topographic influence can be removed from sea level spectra by computing spectral signal-to-background ratios; the result, being related to the external forcing, resembles atmospheric pressure spectra; (3) sea response is strongly dependant on details of atmospheric forcing; and (4) over complex bathymetries, like the middle and south Adriatic ones, numerous effects, including Proudman resonance, edge waves, strong topographical enhancement and refractions on the islands placed on the pathway of atmospheric disturbances should be taken into account to fully understand meteotsunami generation and dynamics. An in-depth numerical study is planned to supplement the latter conclusion and to quantify contribution of each process.

  19. Time evolution of atmospheric particle number concentration during high-intensity pyrotechnic events (United States)

    Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F.; Caballero, Sandra; Galindo, Nuria


    The Mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events, typical of eastern Spanish festivals, in which thousands of firecrackers are burnt at ground level in an intense, short-time (<8 min) deafening spectacle that generates short-lived, thick aerosol clouds. In this study, the impact of such events on air quality has been evaluated by means of particle number concentration measurements performed close to the venue during the June festival in Alicante (southeastern Spain). Peak concentrations and dilution times observed throughout the Mascletàs have been compared to those measured when conventional aerial fireworks were launched 2 km away from the monitoring site. The impact of the Mascletàs on the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.3 μm was higher (maximum ∼2·104 cm-3) than that of fireworks (maximum ∼2·103 cm-3). The effect of fireworks depended on whether the dominant meteorological conditions favoured the transport of the plume to the measurement location. However, the time required for particle concentrations to return to background levels is longer and more variable for firework displays (minutes to hours) than for the Mascletàs (<25 min).

  20. Large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbances in the night ionosphere during the solar terrestrial event of 23 May 2002 (United States)

    Lynn, K. J. W.; Gardiner-Garden, R.; Sjarifudin, M.; Terkildsen, M.; Shi, J.; Harris, T. J.


    This paper examines the night of 23 May 2002 as observed by a large number of Australian ionosondes (19) as well as others situated in New Guinea, Indonesia and China. The arrival of a solar Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and subsequent negative Bz turnings in the solar wind resulted in a magnetic storm with two bursts of energy inputs into the auroral zones. The energy depositions produced two successive rise and falls in ionospheric height over a 300 km height range within the period 12.30-21.00 UT. The two events were seen in the night-side hemisphere by all ionosondes at Southeast Asian longitudes in the southern hemisphere, as well as in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, the simultaneity and spatial variability of these events is investigated. The first event, after an initial expansion towards the equator, ended with a retreat in the area of height rise back towards the auroral zone. The second event was of greater complexity and did not show such a steady variation in rise and fall times with latitude. Such events are often described as large-scale travelling atmospheric/ionospheric disturbances (LTADs or LTIDs). In the southern hemisphere, the front of the initial height rise was found to move at a speed up to 1300 m/s as was also measured by Tsugawa et al. [2006. Geomagnetic conjugate observations of large-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances using GPS networks in Japan and Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, A02302] from small changes in GPS TEC. The front was uniform across the widest longitudinal range of observation (52° or 5360 km).The relationship between the subsequent fall in ionospheric height and an associated temporary increase in foF2 was found to be consistent with previous observations. Ionospheric drivers that move ionization up and down magnetic field lines are suggested as the common cause of the relationship between foF2 and height.

  1. Environment-Dependent Radiation Damage in Atmospheric Pressure X-ray Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Weatherup, Robert S; Wu, Cheng Hao; Escudero, Carlos; Pérez-Dieste, Virginia; Salmeron, Miquel B


    Atmospheric pressure X-ray spectroscopy techniques based on soft X-ray excitation can provide powerful interface-sensitive chemical information about a solid surface immersed in a gas or liquid environment. However, X-ray illumination of such dense phases can lead to the generation of considerable quantities of radical species by radiolysis. Soft X-ray absorption measurements of Cu films in both air and aqueous alkali halide solutions reveal that this can cause significant evolution of the Cu oxidation state. In air and NaOH (0.1 M) solutions, the Cu is oxidized toward CuO, while the addition of small amounts of CH3OH to the solution leads to reduction toward Cu2O. For Ni films in NaHCO3 solutions, the oxidation state of the surface is found to remain stable under X-ray illumination and can be electrochemically cycled between a reduced and oxidized state. We provide a consistent explanation for this behavior based on the products of X-ray-induced radiolysis in these different environments and highlight a number of general approaches that can mitigate radiolysis effects when performing operando X-ray measurements.

  2. The ward atmosphere important for the psychosocial work environment of nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Hansson Christine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nursing staff working in psychiatric care have a demanding work situation, which may be reflected in how they view their psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The aims of the present study were to investigate in what way different aspects of the ward atmosphere were related to the psychosocial work environment, as perceived by nursing staff working in psychiatric in-patient care, and possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants. Methods 93 nursing staff working at 12 general psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden completed two questionnaires, the Ward Atmosphere Scale and the QPSNordic 34+. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman rank correlations and forward stepwise conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The data revealed that there were no differences between nurses and nurse assistants concerning perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and the ward atmosphere. The ward atmosphere subscales Personal Problem Orientation and Program Clarity were associated with a psychosocial work environment characterized by Empowering Leadership. Program Clarity was related to the staff's perceived Role Clarity, and Practical Orientation and Order and Organization were positively related to staff perceptions of the Organizational Climate. Conclusions The results from the present study indicate that several ward atmosphere subscales were related to the nursing staff's perceptions of the psychosocial work environment in terms of Empowering Leadership, Role Clarity and Organizational Climate. Improvements in the ward atmosphere could be another way to accomplish improvements in the working conditions of the staff, and such improvements would affect nurses and nurse assistants in similar ways.

  3. Long-Term cosmic ray experiment in the atmosphere: Energetic electron precipitation events during the 20-23 solar activity cycles. (United States)

    Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Krainev, M. B.; Storini, M.


    More than 400 energetic electron precipitation events (EPEs) were observed in the Earth's Northern polar atmosphere (Murmansk region, 68°57'N, 33°03'E) during a long-term cosmic ray balloon experiment (from 1957 up to now). It is shown that the significant X-ray fluxes, caused by precipitating electrons at the top of the atmosphere, sometimes penetrated down to the atmospheric depth of ~60 g· cm-2 (about 20 km). It means that primary energy of precipitating electrons was more than ~ 6 10 MeV. Here we summarize only the characteristics of the energetic electron precipitation events recorded during solar activity cycles 20 to 23. We dis cuss results from the analyses of the interplanetary and geomagnetic conditions related to these events in the atmosphere.

  4. Atmospheric temporal variations in the pre-landfall environment of typhoon Nangka (2015) observed by the Himawari-8 AHI (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Li, Jun; Li, Zhenglong; Schmit, Timothy


    The next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R series (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) legacy atmospheric profile (LAP) retrieval algorithm is applied to the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) radiance measurements from the Himawari-8 satellite. Derived products included atmospheric temperature/moisture profiles, total precipitable water (TPW), and atmospheric stability indices. Since both AHI and ABI have 9 similar infrared bands, the GOES-R ABI LAP retrieval algorithm can be applied to the AHI measurements with minimal modifications. With the capability of frequent (10-min interval) full disk observations over the East Asia and Western Pacific regions, the AHI measurements are used to investigate the atmospheric temporal variation in the pre-landfall environment for typhoon Nangka (2015). Before its landfall over Japan, heavy rainfalls from Nangka occurred over the southern region of Honshu Island. During the pre-landfall period, the trends of the AHI LAP products indicated the development of the atmospheric environment favorable for heavy rainfall. Even though, the AHI LAP products are generated only in the clear skies, the 10-minute interval AHI measurements provide detailed information on the pre-landfall environment for typhoon Nangka. This study shows the capability of the AHI radiance measurements, together with the derived products, for depicting the detailed temporal features of the pre-landfall environment of a typhoon, which may also be possible for hurricanes and storms with ABI on the GOES-R satellite.

  5. Volatile properties of atmospheric aerosols during nucleation events at Pune, India (United States)

    Murugavel, P.; Chate, D. M.


    Continuous measurements of aerosol size distributions in the mid-point diameter range 20.5-500 nm were made from October 2005 to March 2006 at Pune (18°32'N, 73°51'E), India using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Volatilities of atmospheric aerosols were also measured at 40°, 125°, 175°, 300° and 350°C temperatures with Thermodenuder-SMPS coupled system to determine aerosol volatile fractions. Aerosols in nucleated, CCN and accumulated modes are characterized from the measured percentage of particles volatized at 40°, 125°, 175°, 300° and 350°C temperatures. Averaged monthly aerosol concentration is at its maximum in November and gradually decreases to its minimum at the end of March. The diurnal variations of aerosol concentrations gradually decrease in the night and in early morning hours (0400-0800 hr). However, concentration attains minimum in its variations in the noon (1400-1600 hr) due to higher ventilation factor (product of mixing height and wind speed). The half an hour averaged diurnal variation of aerosol number concentration shows about 5 to 10-fold increase despite the ventilation factor at higher side before 1200 hr. This sudden increase in aerosol concentrations is linked with prevailing conditions for nucleation bursts. The measurement of volatile fraction of ambient aerosols reveals that there are large number of highly volatile particles in the Aitken mode in the morning hours and these volatile fractions of aerosols at temperatures <150°C are of ammonium chloride and ammonium sulfate, acetic and formic acids.

  6. Modelling the concentration of atmospheric CO2 during the Younger Dryas climate event (United States)

    Marchal, O.; Stocker, T. F.; Joos, F.; Indermühle, A.; Blunier, T.; Tschumi, J.

    The Younger Dryas (YD, dated between 12.7-11.6 ky BP in the GRIP ice core, Central Greenland) is a distinct cold period in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. A popular, but controversial hypothesis to explain the cooling is a reduction of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) and associated northward heat flux as triggered by glacial meltwater. Recently, a CH4-based synchronization of GRIP δ18O and Byrd CO2 records (West Antarctica) indicated that the concentration of atmospheric CO2 (COatm2) rose steadily during the YD, suggesting a minor influence of the THC on COatm2 at that time. Here we show that the COatm2 change in a zonally averaged, circulation-biogeochemistry ocean model when THC is collapsed by freshwater flux anomaly is consistent with the Byrd record. Cooling in the North Atlantic has a small effect on COatm2 in this model, because it is spatially limited and compensated by far-field changes such as a warming in the Southern Ocean. The modelled Southern Ocean warming is in agreement with the anti-phase evolution of isotopic temperature records from GRIP (Northern Hemisphere) and from Byrd and Vostok (East Antarctica) during the YD. δ13C depletion and PO4 enrichment are predicted at depth in the North Atlantic, but not in the Southern Ocean. This could explain a part of the controversy about the intensity of the THC during the YD. Potential weaknesses in our interpretation of the Byrd CO2 record in terms of THC changes are discussed.

  7. Modelling the concentration of atmospheric CO[sub 2] during the Younger Dryas climate event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, O.; Stocker, T.F.; Joos, F.; Indermuehle, A.; Blunier, T.; Tschumi, J. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik)


    The Younger Dryas (YD, dated between 12.7-11.6 ky BP in the GRIP ice core, Central Greenland) is a distinct cold period in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. A popular, but controversial hypothesis to explain the cooling is a reduction of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) and associated northward heat flux as triggered by glacial meltwater. Recently, a CH[sub 4]-based synchronization of GRIP [delta][sup 18]O and Byrd CO[sub 2] records (West Antarctica) indicated that the concentration of atmospheric CO[sub 2] (CO[sup atm][sub 2]) rose steadily during the YD, suggesting a minor influence of the THC on CO[sup atm][sub 2] at that time. Here we show that the CO[sup atm][sub 2] change in a zonally averaged, circulation-biogeochemistry ocean model when THC is collapsed by freshwater flux anomaly is consistent with the Byrd record. Cooling in the North Atlantic has a small effect on CO[sup atm][sub 2] in this model, because it is spatially limited and compensated by far-field changes such as a warming in the Southern Ocean. The modelled Southern Ocean warming is in agreement with the antiphase evolution of isotopic temperature records from GRIP (Northern Hemisphere) and from Byrd and Vostok (East Antarctica) during the YD. [delta][sup 13]C depletion and PO[sub 4] enrichment are predicted at depth in the North Atlantic, but not in the Southern Ocean. This could explain a part of the controversy about the intensity of the THC during the YD. Potential weaknesses in our interpretation of the Byrd CO[sub 2] record in terms of THC changes are discussed. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 91 refs.

  8. Revisiting the radionuclide atmospheric dispersion event of the Chernobyl disaster - modelling sensitivity and data assimilation (United States)

    Roustan, Yelva; Duhanyan, Nora; Bocquet, Marc; Winiarek, Victor


    A sensitivity study of the numerical model, as well as, an inverse modelling approach applied to the atmospheric dispersion issues after the Chernobyl disaster are both presented in this paper. On the one hand, the robustness of the source term reconstruction through advanced data assimilation techniques was tested. On the other hand, the classical approaches for sensitivity analysis were enhanced by the use of an optimised forcing field which otherwise is known to be strongly uncertain. The POLYPHEMUS air quality system was used to perform the simulations of radionuclide dispersion. Activity concentrations in air and deposited to the ground of iodine-131, caesium-137 and caesium-134 were considered. The impact of the implemented parameterizations of the physical processes (dry and wet depositions, vertical turbulent diffusion), of the forcing fields (meteorology and source terms) and of the numerical configuration (horizontal resolution) were investigated for the sensitivity study of the model. A four dimensional variational scheme (4D-Var) based on the approximate adjoint of the chemistry transport model was used to invert the source term. The data assimilation is performed with measurements of activity concentrations in air extracted from the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database. For most of the investigated configurations (sensitivity study), the statistics to compare the model results to the field measurements as regards the concentrations in air are clearly improved while using a reconstructed source term. As regards the ground deposited concentrations, an improvement can only be seen in case of satisfactorily modelled episode. Through these studies, the source term and the meteorological fields are proved to have a major impact on the activity concentrations in air. These studies also reinforce the use of reconstructed source term instead of the usual estimated one. A more detailed parameterization of the deposition process seems also to be

  9. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin


    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  10. Plasma observations during the Mars atmospheric "plume" event of March-April 2012 (United States)

    Andrews, D. J.; Barabash, S.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hall, B. E. S.; Holmström, M.; Lester, M.; Morgan, D. D.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Ramstad, R.; Sanchez-Cano, B.; Way, M.; Witasse, O.


    We present initial analyses and conclusions from plasma observations made during the reported "Mars plume event" of March-April 2012. During this period, multiple independent amateur observers detected a localized, high-altitude "plume" over the Martian dawn terminator, the cause of which remains to be explained. The estimated brightness of the plume exceeds that expected for auroral emissions, and its projected altitude greatly exceeds that at which clouds are expected to form. We report on in situ measurements of ionospheric plasma density and solar wind parameters throughout this interval made by Mars Express, obtained over the same surface region but at the opposing terminator. Measurements in the ionosphere at the corresponding location frequently show a disturbed structure, though this is not atypical for such regions with intense crustal magnetic fields. We tentatively conclude that the formation and/or transport of this plume to the altitudes where it was observed could be due in part to the result of a large interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) encountering the Martian system. Interestingly, we note that the only similar plume detection in May 1997 may also have been associated with a large ICME impact at Mars.

  11. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael


    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  12. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China. (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan


    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evaluation of the moisture sources in two extreme landfalling atmospheric river events using an Eulerian WRF tracers tool (United States)

    Eiras-Barca, Jorge; Dominguez, Francina; Hu, Huancui; Garaboa-Paz, Daniel; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo


    A new 3-D tracer tool is coupled to the WRF model to analyze the origin of the moisture in two extreme atmospheric river (AR) events: the so-called Great Coastal Gale of 2007 in the Pacific Ocean and the Great Storm of 1987 in the North Atlantic. Results show that between 80 and 90 % of moisture advected by the ARs, and a high percentage of the total precipitation produced by the systems have a tropical origin. The tropical contribution to precipitation is in general above 50 % and largely exceeds this value in the most affected areas. Local convergence transport is responsible for the remaining moisture and precipitation. The ratio of tropical moisture to total moisture is maximized as the cold front arrives on land. Vertical cross sections of the moisture content suggest that the maximum in tropical humidity does not necessarily coincide with the low-level jet (LLJ) of the extratropical cyclone. Instead, the amount of tropical humidity is maximized in the lowest atmospheric level in southern latitudes and can be located above, below or ahead of the LLJ in northern latitudes in both analyzed cases.

  14. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R


    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  15. ENTRYSAT: A 3U Cubesat to Study the Re-Entry Atmospheric Environment (United States)

    Garcia, R. F.; Chaix, J.; Mimoun, D.; EntrySat student Team


    The EntrySat is a 3U CubeSat designed to study the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. The project, developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA, is funded by CNES and is intended to be launched in January 2016, in the context of the QB50 network. The scientific goal is to relate the kinematics of the satellite with the aerothermodynamic environment during re-entry. In particular, data will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. According to these requirements, the satellite will measure the temperature, pressure, heat flux, and drag force during re-entry, as well as the trajectory and attitude of the satellite. One of the major technological challenges is the retrieval of data during the re-entry phase, which will be based on the Iridium satellite network. The system design is based on the use of commercial COTS components, and is mostly developed by students from ISAE. As such, the EntrySat has an important educational value in the formation of young engineers.

  16. First Observations of Separated Atmospheric Muon Neutrino and Muon Anti-Neutrino Events in the MINOS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Anderson, K; Andreopoulos, C; Andrews, M; Andrews, R; Arroyo, C; Avvakumov, S; Ayres, D S; Baller, B; Barish, B; Barker, M A; Barnes, P D; Barr, G; Barrett, W L; Beall, E; Becker, B R; Belias, A; Bergfeld, T; Bernstein, R H; Bhattacharya, D; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bocean, V; Bock, B; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Border, P M; Bower, C; Boyd, S; Buckley-Geer, E; Byon-Wagner, A; Böhm, J; Böhnlein, D J; Cabrera, A; Chapman, J D; Chase, T R; Chernichenko, S K; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Cobb, J H; Cossairt, J D; Courant, H; Crane, D A; Culling, A J; Dawson, J W; De Muth, D M; De Santo, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Drake, G; Ducar, R; Durkin, T; Erwin, A R; Escobar, C O; Evans, J; Fackler, O D; Falk-Harris, E; Feldman, G J; Felt, N; Fields, T H; Ford, R; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gebhard, M; Godley, A; Gogos, J; Goodman, M C; Gornushkin, Yu; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grossman, N; Grudzinski, J J; Grzelak, K; Guarino, V; Habig, A; Halsall, R; Hanson, J; Harris, D; Harris, P G; Hartnell, J; Hartouni, E P; Hatcher, R; Heller, K; Hill, N; Ho, Y; Howcroft, C; Hylen, J; Ignatenko, M A; Indurthy, D; Irwin, G M; James, C; Jenner, L; Jensen, D; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kang, H J; Kasahara, S M; Kilmer, J; Kim, H; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Koskinen, D J; Kostin, M; Krakauer, D A; Kumaratunga, S; Ladran, A S; Lang, K; Laughton, C; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Lee, W Y; Libkind, M A; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Liu, J; Longley, N P; Lucas, P; Luebke, W; Madani, S; Maher, E; Makeev, V; Mann, W A; Marchionni, A; Marino, A D; Marshak, M L; Marshall, J S; McDonald, J; McGowan, A; Meier, J R; Merzon, G I; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Milburn, R H; Miller, J L; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Miyagawa, P S; Moore, Cristopher; Morf, J; Morse, R; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Murgia, S; Murtagh, M J; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, C; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nezrick, F A; Nichol, R J; Nicholls, T C; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oliver, J; Oliver, W P; Onuchin, V A; Osiecki, T; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Para, A; Patzak, T; Pavlovich, Z; Pearce, G F; Pearson, N; Peck, C W; Perry, C; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Ping, H; Piteira, R; Pla-Dalmau, A; Plunkett, R K; Price, L E; Proga, M; Pushka, D R; Rahman, D; Rameika, R A; Raufer, T M; Read, A L; Rebel, B; Reyna, D E; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Ruddick, K; Ryabov, V A; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, M C; Saoulidou, N; Schneps, J; Schoessow, P V; Schreiner, P; Schwienhorst, R; Semenov, V K; Seun, S M; Shanahan, P; Shield, P D; Smart, W; Smirnitsky, A V; Smith, C; Smith, P N; Sousa, A; Speakman, B; Stamoulis, P; Stefanik, A; Sullivan, P; Swan, J M; Symes, P A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Tetteh-Lartey, E; Thomas, J; Thompson, J; Thomson, M A; Thron, J L; Trendler, R; Trevor, J; Trostin, I; Tsarev, V A; Tzanakos, G S; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Vakili, M; Vaziri, K; Velissaris, C; Verebryusov, V; Viren, B; Wai, L; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watabe, M; Webb, R C; Weber, A; Wehmann, A; West, N; White, C; White, R F; Wojcicki, S G; Wright, D M; Wu, Q K; Yan, W G; Yang, T; Yumiceva, F X; Yun, J C; Zheng, H; Zois, M; Zwaska, R


    The complete 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking data since the beginning of August 2003 at a depth of 2070 meters water-equivalent in the Soudan mine, Minnesota. This paper presents the first MINOS observations of muon neutrino and muon anti-neutrino charged-current atmospheric neutrino interactions based on an exposure of 418 days. The ratio of upward to downward-going events in the data is compared to the Monte Carlo expectation in the absence of neutrino oscillations giving: R_data(up/down)/R_MC(up/down) = 0.62^{+0.19}_{-0.14} (stat.) +- 0.02 (sys.). An extended maximum likelihood analysis of the observed L/E distributions excludes the null hypothesis of no neutrino oscillations at the 98 % confidence level. Using the curvature of the observed muons in the 1.3 T MINOS magnetic field muon neutrino and muon anti-neutrino interactions are separated. The ratio of muon neutrino to muon anti-neutrino events in the data is compared to the Monte Carlo expectation assuming neutrinos and anti-neutrinos osci...

  17. Observations on the use of membrane filtration and liquid impingement to collect airborne microorganisms in various atmospheric environments (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Gonzalez, C.; Teigell, N.; Petrosky, T.; Northup, D.E.; Lyles, M.


    The influence of sample-collection-time on the recovery of culturable airborne microorganisms using a low-flow-rate membrane-filtration unit and a high-flow-rate liquid impinger were investigated. Differences in recoveries were investigated in four different atmospheric environments, one mid-oceanic at an altitude of ~10.0 m, one on a mountain top at an altitude of ~3,000.0 m, one at ~1.0 m altitude in Tallahassee, Florida, and one at ~1.0 m above ground in a subterranean-cave. Regarding use of membrane filtration, a common trend was observed: the shorter the collection period, the higher the recovery of culturable bacteria and fungi. These data also demonstrated that lower culturable counts were common in the more remote mid-oceanic and mountain-top atmospheric environments with bacteria, fungi, and total numbers averaging (by sample time or method categories) membrane filtration for aeromicrobiology studies if start-up costs are not an issue and temperature permits use; (2) although membrane filtration is more cost friendly and has a 'typically' wider operational range, its limits include loss of cell viability with increased sample time and issues with effectively extracting nucleic acids for community-based analyses; (3) the ability to recover culturable microorganisms is limited in 'extreme' atmospheric environments and thus the use of a 'limited' methodology in these environments must be taken into account; and (4) the atmosphere culls, i.e., everything is not everywhere. ?? 2010 US Government.

  18. Serum proteins behavior in the urban population from a center with a lead-polluted atmospheric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casin, I.; Ghelberg, N.W.


    Serum protein behavior was determined in an urban population from a center with a lead polluted atmospheric environment. The following increased amounts of serum proteins are found in 94 adult subjects: haptoglobin 75 percent; ceruloplasmin and transferrin 55 percent; IgA (immunoglobulin A) and IgG 40 percent; Igm and beta lc proteins 25 percent.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Risk Assessment Process Modeling for Urban Hazard Events in Sensor Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available Immediate risk assessment and analysis are crucial in managing urban hazard events (UHEs. However, it is a challenge to develop an immediate risk assessment process (RAP that can integrate distributed sensors and data to determine the uncertain model parameters of facilities, environments, and populations. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a RAP modeling method within a unified spatio-temporal framework and forms a 10-tuple process information description structure based on a Meta-Object Facility (MOF. A RAP is designed as an abstract RAP chain that collects urban information resources and performs immediate risk assessments. In addition, we propose a prototype system known as Risk Assessment Process Management (RAPM to achieve the functions of RAP modeling, management, execution and visualization. An urban gas leakage event is simulated as an example in which individual risk and social risk are used to illustrate the applicability of the RAP modeling method based on the 10-tuple metadata framework. The experimental results show that the proposed RAP immediately assesses risk by the aggregation of urban sensors, data, and model resources. Moreover, an extension mechanism is introduced in the spatio-temporal RAP modeling method to assess risk and to provide decision-making support for different UHEs.

  20. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric


    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  1. Identification of Major Sources of Atmospheric NH3 in an Urban Environment in Northern China During Wintertime. (United States)

    Teng, Xiaolin; Hu, Qingjing; Zhang, Leiming; Qi, Jiajia; Shi, Jinhui; Xie, Huan; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong


    To assess the relative contributions of traffic emission and other potential sources to high levels of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in urban areas in the wintertime, atmospheric NH3 and related pollutants were measured at an urban site, ∼300 m from a major traffic road, in northern China in November and December 2015. Hourly average NH3 varied from 0.3 to 10.8 ppb with an average of 2.4 ppb during the campaign. Contrary to the common perspective in literature, traffic emission was demonstrated to be a negligible contributor to atmospheric NH3. Atmospheric NH3 correlated well with ambient water vapor during many time periods lasting from tens of hours to several days, implying NH3 released from water evaporation is an important source. Emissions from local green space inside the urban areas were identified to significantly contribute to the observed atmospheric NH3 during ∼60% of the sampling times. Evaporation of predeposited NHx through wet precipitation combined with emissions from local green space likely caused the spikes of atmospheric NH3 mostly occurring 1-4 h after morning rush hours or after and during slight shower events. There are still ∼30% of the data samples with appreciable NH3 level for which major contributors are yet to be identified.

  2. A Dropsonde UAV for Atmospheric Sensing in a Turbulent Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dropsondes are one of the primary atmospheric measurement tools available to researchers. Current dropsondes are deployed with a free fall parachute trajectory,...

  3. The crucial role of ocean-atmosphere coupling on the Indian monsoon anomalous response during dipole events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.; Swapna, P.; Ayantika, D.C.; Mujumdar, M. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Climate and Global Modelling Division, Pune (India); Sundaram, Suchithra [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Climate and Global Modelling Division, Pune (India); Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Kumar, Vinay [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Climate and Global Modelling Division, Pune (India); Florida State University, Department of Meteorology, Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    This paper examines an issue concerning the simulation of anomalously wet Indian summer monsoons like 1994 which co-occurred with strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) conditions in the tropical Indian Ocean. Contrary to observations it has been noticed that standalone atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) forced with observed SST boundary condition, consistently depicted a decrease of the summer monsoon rainfall during 1994 over the Indian region. Given the ocean-atmosphere coupling during IOD events, we have examined whether the failure of standalone AGCM simulations in capturing wet Indian monsoons like 1994 can be remedied by including a simple form of coupling that allows the monsoon circulation to dynamically interact with the IOD anomalies. With this view, we have performed a suite of simulations by coupling an AGCM to a slab-ocean model with spatially varying mixed-layer-depth (MLD) specified from observations for the 1994 IOD; as well as four other cases (1983, 1997, 2006, 2007). The specification of spatially varying MLD from observations allows us to constrain the model to observed IOD conditions. It is seen that the inclusion of coupling significantly improves the large-scale circulation response by strengthening the monsoon cross-equatorial flow; leading to precipitation enhancement over the subcontinent and rainfall decrease over south-eastern tropical Indian Ocean - in a manner broadly consistent with observations. A plausible physical mechanism is suggested to explain the monsoonal response in the coupled frame-work. These results warrant the need for improved monsoon simulations with fully coupled models to be able to better capture the observed monsoon interannual variability. (orig.)

  4. Creating a store environment that encourages buying: A study on sight atmospherics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Hefer


    Full Text Available More than ever, consumers respond to more than just the physical product when making a decision to purchase a product. One of the most noteworthy features of a product is the atmosphere of the place in which the product is bought. From time to time, the store atmosphere is more powerful than the product itself. This study focused specifically on the most important atmospheric element – sight. The main research question explored the effect of sight atmospherics on consumer perceptions. Explorative research was conducted together with qualitative research by means of focus groups. Purposive sampling was deemed the most appropriate sampling method for this study. The findings indicated that sight atmospherics can influence consumers’ perceptions either subconsciously or consciously, and have a direct influence on the amount of time consumers spend in a specific store. Consumers perceived sight atmospherics as a tool to establish a ‘purchasing’ atmosphere and as a means of communication to represent the brand of the store. It was established that sight atmospherics create visual attraction and stimulation with consumers, and that they contribute to the image and the character of the store.

  5. Atmospheric refraction effects on optical-infrared sensor performance in a littoral-maritime environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, P.; Moerman, M.M.; Jong, A.N.; Leeuw, G. de; Winkel, H.


    During a number of transmission experiments over littoral waters, quantitative measurements of atmospheric refraction phenomena were carried out to determine the range performance of optical–IR sensors. Examples of distortion and intensity gain generated by spatial variations of the atmospheric

  6. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases. (United States)

    Didyk, L A; Gorgo, Yu P; Dirckx, J J J; Bogdanov, V B; Buytaert, J A N; Lysenko, V A; Didyk, N P; Vershygora, A V; Erygina, V T


    This study examines whether a relation exists between rapid atmospheric pressure fluctuations, attributed to the far infrasound frequency range (APF), and a number of emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases (EEC). Over an entire year, the average integral amplitudes of APF in the range of periods from 3 s to 120 s over each hour (HA) were measured. Daily dynamics of HA averaged over the year revealed a wave shape with smooth increase from night to day followed by decrease from day to night. The total daily number of EEC within the city of Kiev, Ukraine, was related to the daily mean of HA (DHA) and to the ratio of HA averaged over the day time to HA averaged over the night time (Rdn), and was checked for confounding effects of classical meteorological variables through non-parametric regression algorithms. The number of EEC were significantly higher on days with high DHA (3.72-11.07 Pa, n = 87) compared to the low DHA (0.7-3.62 Pa, n = 260, p = 0.01), as well at days with low Rdn (0.21-1.64, n = 229) compared to the high Rdn (1.65-7.2, n = 118, p = 0.03). A difference between DHA and Rdn effects on the emergency events related to different categories of circulatory diseases points to a higher sensitivity of rheumatic and cerebro-vascular diseases to DHA, and ischaemic and hypertensive diseases to Rdn. Results suggest that APF could be considered as a meteorotropic factor capable of influencing circulatory system diseases.

  7. [Economic evaluation of a workplace occupational health nursing service: based on comparison with atmospheric environment managing engineer]. (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim


    The purpose of this study was to use cost-benefit analysis of activity to clarify the economic effect of prepared nurses versus atmospheric environment managing engineers as healthcare managers. For the study 111 workplaces were surveyed, workplaces in which nurses or atmospheric environment managing engineers were employed as healthcare managers. The survey content included annual gross salaries, participation in external job training, costs in joining association covered by the company, location and year of construction of the healthcare office, various kinds of healthcare expenditures, costs in operating healthcare office, health education, and activity performance in the work of environment management. In the case of the healthcare manager being a nurse, benefit was larger than input costs at a ratio of 2.31. On the other hand, in the case of healthcare manager being an atmospheric environment managing engineer, input costs were larger than benefits (benefit-cost ratio 0.88). Results indicate that nurses are an effective healthcare human resource and can offer good quality healthcare service. Therefore companies should hire nurses and actively promote the economic efficiency of nurses in workplace.

  8. Context-Aware Mobile Sensors for Sensing Discrete Events in Smart Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad


    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, several advancements in the field of smart environment gained importance, so the experts can analyze ideas for smart building based on embedded systems to minimize the expense and energy conservation. Therefore, propelling the concept of smart home toward smart building, several challenges of power, communication, and sensors’ connectivity can be seen. Such challenges distort the interconnectivity between different technologies, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee, making it possible to provide the continuous connectivity among different objects such as sensors, actuators, home appliances, and cell phones. Therefore, this paper presents the concept of smart building based on embedded systems that enhance low power mobile sensors for sensing discrete events in embedded systems. The proposed scheme comprises system architecture that welcomes all the mobile sensors to communicate with each other using a single platform service. The proposed system enhances the concept of smart building in three stages (i.e., visualization, data analysis, and application. For low power mobile sensors, we propose a communication model, which provides a common medium for communication. Finally, the results show that the proposed system architecture efficiently processes, analyzes, and integrates different datasets efficiently and triggers actions to provide safety measurements for the elderly, patients, and others.

  9. Fate of Chloromethanes in the Atmospheric Environment: Implications for Human Health, Ozone Formation and Depletion, and Global Warming Impacts. (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien


    Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH₃Cl; methylene chloride, CH₂Cl₂; chloroform, CHCl₃; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed. In addition, this paper further discusses their atmospheric fates and human health implications because they are apt to reside in the lower atmosphere when released into the environment. According to the atmospheric degradation mechanism, their toxic degradation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride (HCl), carbon monoxide (CO), chlorine (Cl₂), formyl chloride (HCOCl), carbonyl chloride (COCl₂), and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Among them, COCl₂ (also called phosgene) is a powerful irritating gas, which is easily hydrolyzed or thermally decomposed to form hydrogen chloride.

  10. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.


    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  11. The Person-Event Data Environment: leveraging big data for studies of psychological strengths in soldiers. (United States)

    Vie, Loryana L; Griffith, Kevin N; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Seligman, Martin E P


    The Department of Defense (DoD) strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE) was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment, and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.

  12. Space Based Measurements for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: a New Tool for Monitoring Our Environment (United States)

    Crisp, David


    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and other human activities are now adding almost 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere each year. Interestingly, as these emissions have increased over time, natural "sinks" in land biosphere and oceans have absorbed roughly half of this CO2, reducing the rate of atmospheric buildup by a half. Measurements of the increasing acidity (pH) of seawater indicate that the ocean absorbs one quarter of this CO2. Another quarter is apparently being absorbed by the land biosphere, but the identity and location of these natural land CO2 "sinks" are still unknown. The existing ground-based greenhouse gas monitoring network provides an accurate record of the atmospheric buildup, but still does not have the spatial resolution or coverage needed to identify or quantify CO2 sources and sinks.

  13. Synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in Southern California (United States)

    Chenjie Huang; Y.L. Lin; M.L. Kaplan; Joseph J.J. Charney


    This study has employed both observational data and numerical simulation results to diagnose the synoptic-scale and mesoscale environments conducive to forest fires during the October 2003 extreme fire event in southern California. A three-stage process is proposed to illustrate the coupling of the synoptic-scale forcing that is evident from the observations,...

  14. Work Placements as Learning Environments for Patient Safety: Finnish and British Preregistration Nursing Students' Important Learning Events (United States)

    Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele


    Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…

  15. Anoxic atmospheres on Mars driven by volcanism: Implications for past environments and life (United States)

    Sholes, Steven F.; Smith, Megan L.; Claire, Mark W.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Catling, David C.


    Mars today has no active volcanism and its atmosphere is oxidizing, dominated by the photochemistry of CO2 and H2O. Mars experienced widespread volcanism in the past and volcanic emissions should have included reducing gases, such as H2 and CO, as well as sulfur-bearing gases. Using a one-dimensional photochemical model, we consider whether plausible volcanic gas fluxes could have switched the redox-state of the past martian atmosphere to reducing conditions. In our model, the total quantity and proportions of volcanic gases depend on the water content, outgassing pressure, and oxygen fugacity of the source melt. We find that, with reasonable melt parameters, the past martian atmosphere (∼3.5 Gyr to present) could have easily reached reducing and anoxic conditions with modest levels of volcanism, >0.14 km3 yr-1, which are well within the range of estimates from thermal evolution models or photogeological studies. Counter-intuitively we also find that more reducing melts with lower oxygen fugacity require greater amounts of volcanism to switch a paleo-atmosphere from oxidizing to reducing. The reason is that sulfur is more stable in such melts and lower absolute fluxes of sulfur-bearing gases more than compensate for increases in the proportions of H2 and CO. These results imply that ancient Mars should have experienced periods with anoxic and reducing atmospheres even through the mid-Amazonian whenever volcanic outgassing was sustained at sufficient levels. Reducing anoxic conditions are potentially conducive to the synthesis of prebiotic organic compounds, such as amino acids, and are therefore relevant to the possibility of life on Mars. Also, anoxic reducing conditions should have influenced the type of minerals that were formed on the surface or deposited from the atmosphere. We suggest looking for elemental polysulfur (S8) as a signature of past reducing atmospheres. Finally, our models allow us to estimate the amount of volcanically sourced atmospheric

  16. Atmospheric Electricity Hazards Analytical Model Development and Application. Volume I. Lightning Environment Modeling. (United States)


    Library, Signet, 1964. Battan, L.J., Radar observation of the atmosphere, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1973. Barry, J.D., Ball lightning and...B.F.J., The flight of thunderbolts, 2nd (ed.), Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1964. Singer, S., The nature of ball lightning , Plenum Press, New York, 1971

  17. Overview of the Atmosphere and Environment within Gale Crater on Mars (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Crisp, J. A.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.


    Curiosity's mission at Gale Crater places a number of highly capable atmospheric and environmental sensors within a dynamic setting: next to a 5-km mountain within a 150-km diameter impact crater whose floor is -4.5 km. Curiosity's scientific payload was chosen primarily to allow a geologic and geochemical investigation of Mars' environmental history and habitability, as preserved in the layered sediments on the crater floor and mound. Atmospheric and environmental sensors will contribute by measuring the bulk atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition, the flux of high-energy particle and ultraviolet radiation after modification by the atmosphere, and modern processes related to meteorology and climate over at least one Mars year. The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument will analyze the atmosphere with its mass spectrometer and tunable laser spectrometer. The former is capable of providing bulk composition and isotopic ratios of relevance to planetary evolution, such as nitrogen and noble gases. The latter is designed to acquire high-precision measurements of atmospheric species including CH4, CO2, and H2O, and key isotope ratios in H, C, and O. An important goal will be to compare CH4 abundance and time variability over the mission with the reported detections from the Mars Express orbiter and ground-based observations. The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) measures a broad spectrum of high-energy radiation incident at the surface, including secondary particles created via interactions of galactic cosmic rays and solar protons with Mars' atmospheric constituents. Curiosity's Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) carries six ultraviolet sensors, spanning 200-380 nm. For the first time, both the high-energy and ultraviolet radiation measured at the surface can be compared with measurements above the atmosphere, acquired by other platforms. Modern meteorology and the climatology of dust and water will be studied using the rover's cameras and REMS

  18. Atmospheric Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of a Ni-Advanced Weathering Steel in Simulated Tropical Marine Environment (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zeng, Zhongping; Cheng, Xuequn; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Bo


    Corrosion behavior of Ni-advanced weathering steel, as well as carbon steel and conventional weathering steel, in a simulated tropical marine atmosphere was studied by field exposure and indoor simulation tests. Meanwhile, morphology and composition of corrosion products formed on the exposed steels were surveyed through scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results indicated that the additive Ni in weathering steel played an important role during the corrosion process, which took part in the formation of corrosion products, enriched in the inner rust layer and promoted the transformation from loose γ-FeOOH to dense α-FeOOH. As a result, the main aggressive ion, i.e., Cl-, was effectively separated in the outer rust layer which leads to the lowest corrosion rate among these tested steels. Thus, the resistance of Ni-advanced weathering steel to atmospheric corrosion was significantly improved in a simulated tropical marine environment.

  19. Venus High Temperature Atmospheric Dropsonde and Extreme-Environment Seismometer (HADES) (United States)

    Boll, Nathan J.; Salazar, Denise; Stelter, Christopher J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.


    The atmospheric composition and geologic structure of Venus have been identified by the US National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Planetary Science as priority targets for scientific exploration, however the high temperature and pressure at the surface, along with the highly corrosive chemistry of the Venus atmosphere, present significant obstacles to spacecraft design that have severely limited past and proposed landed missions. Following the methodology of the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) proposal regime and the Collaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design protocol, this paper presents a conceptual study and initial feasibility analysis for a Discovery-class Venus lander capable of an extended-duration mission at ambient temperature and pressure, incorporating emerging technologies within the field of high temperature electronics in combination with novel configurations of proven, high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) systems. Radioisotope Thermal Power (RTG) systems and silicon carbide (SiC) communications and data handling are examined in detail, and various high-temperature instruments are proposed, including a seismometer and an advanced photodiode imager. The study combines this technological analysis with proposals for a descent instrument package and a relay orbiter to demonstrate the viability of an integrated atmospheric and in-situ geologic exploratory mission that differs from previous proposals by greatly reducing the mass, power requirements, and cost, while achieving important scientific goals.

  20. The atmosphere, the p-factor and the bright visible circumstellar environment of the prototype of classical Cepheids δ Cep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardetto Nicolas


    Full Text Available Even ≃ 16000 cycles after its discovery by John Goodricke in 1783, δ Cep, the prototype of classical Cepheids, is still studied intensively in order to better understand its atmospheric dynamical structure and its environment. Using HARPS-N spectroscopic measurements, we have measured the atmospheric velocity gradient of δ Cep for the first time and we confirm the decomposition of the projection factor, a subtle physical quantity limiting the Baade-Wesselink (BW method of distance determination. This decomposition clarifies the physics behind the projection factor and will be useful to interpret the hundreds of p-factors that will come out from the next Gaia release. Besides, VEGA/CHARA interferometric observations of the star revealed a bright visible circumstellar environment contributing to about 7% to the total flux. Better understanding the physics of the pulsation and the environment of Cepheids is necessary to improve the BW method of distance determination, a robust tool to reach Cepheids in the MilkyWay, and beyond, in the Local Group.

  1. A simulation research on the natural degradation process of tetrabromobisphenol A in soil under the atmospheric different environments. (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Niu, Xiaojun; Song, Xiaofei


    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most commonly used flame retardants and has become an environmental contaminant worldwide. More data on the basic characteristics of TBBPA are needed to better understand and used to describe its environmental fate. The aim of this study is to investigate the degradation of TBBPA with different degrees of bromination under the atmospheric different environments. TBBPA was removed quickly due to the strong oxidizing ability of ozone in the atmospheric environment. The half-life of TBBPA was approximately 2.5 h when the ozone concentration was 0.3 mg L(-1). The degradation reaction rates of TBBPA increase with increasing ozone concentration but decreased with increasing soil depth. When the ozone concentration was 10 mg L(-1), the removal rate of TBBPA reached 90.37 % at the soil surface after 2 h. Under UV irradiation, TBBPA was removed quickly, and the photodegradation reactions were faster than with solar irradiation. The conditions of alkaline soil and high ground temperature in the summer were both contributors to the degradation of TBBPA. These results could facilitate the improvement of waste treatment designs and could lead to better predictions of the outcome of TBBPA in the environment.

  2. Special Analysis: Atmospheric Dose Resulting from the Release of C14 from Reactor Moderator Deionizers in a Disposal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, Robert A.; Swingle, Robert F.


    The proposed action of disposing of 52 moderator deionizer vessels within the ILV was evaluated in this SA. In particular, a detailed analysis of the release of {sup 14}C via the atmospheric pathway was conducted for these vessels since the major concern has been the nearly 20 Ci of {sup 14}C that is associated with each vessel. The more rigorous evaluation of the atmospheric pathway for {sup 14}C included incorporation of new information about the chemical availability of {sup 14}C when disposed in a grout/cement encapsulation environment, as will be the case in the ILV. This information was utilized to establish the source term for a 1-D numerical model to simulate the diffusion of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from the ILV Waste Zone to the land surface. The results indicate a peak surface emanation rate from the entire ILV of 1.42E-08 Ci/yr with an associated dose of only 3.83E-05 mrem/yr to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at 100m. The fact that the atmospheric pathway exposure for {sup 14}C is controlled by chemical solubility limits for {sup 14}C between the solid waste, pore water and pore vapor within the disposal environment rather than the absolute inventory suggests that the establishment of specific facility limits is inappropriate. With the relaxation of the atmospheric pathway restriction, the groundwater pathway becomes the more restrictive in terms of disposing {sup 14}C or {sup 14}C{sub KB} within the ILV. Since the resin-based {sup 14}C of the 52 moderator deionizer vessels is highly similar to the {sup 14}C{sub KB} waste form, the inventory from the 52 deionizer vessels is compared against the groundwater limits for that waste form. The small groundwater pathway fraction (1.14E-05) calculated for the proposed inventory of the 52 moderator deionizer vessels indicates that the proposed action will have an insignificant impact with respect to possible exposures via the groundwater pathway. This investigation recommends that there be no ILV Atmospheric

  3. Causes and consequences of mid–21st-century rapid ice loss events simulated by the Rossby centre regional atmosphere-ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Paquin


    Full Text Available Recent observations and modelling studies suggest that the Arctic climate is undergoing important transition. One manifestation of this change is seen in the rapid sea-ice cover decrease as experienced in 2007 and 2012. Although most numerical climate models cannot adequately reproduce the recent changes, some models produce similar Rapid Ice Loss Events (RILEs during the mid–21st-century. This study presents an analysis of four specific RILEs clustered around 2040 in three transient climate projections performed with the coupled Rossby Centre regional Atmosphere-Ocean model (RCAO. The analysis shows that long-term thinning causes increased vulnerability of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover. In the Atlantic sector, pre-conditioning (thinning of sea ice combined with anomalous atmospheric and oceanic heat transport causes large ice loss, while in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean sea-ice albedo feedback appears important, particularly along the retreating sea-ice margin. Although maximum sea-ice loss occurs in the autumn, response in surface air temperature occurs in early winter, caused by strong increase in ocean-atmosphere surface energy fluxes, mainly the turbulent fluxes. Synchronicity of the events around 2040 in the projections is caused by a strong large-scale atmospheric circulation anomaly at the Atlantic lateral boundary of the regional model. The limited impact on land is caused by vertical propagation of the surface heat anomaly rather than horizontal, caused by the absence of low-level temperature inversion over the ocean.

  4. Morphometric differences of Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf. de la Sota (Polypodiaceae leaves in environments with distinct atmospheric air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Plants growing in environments with different atmospheric conditions may present changes in the morphometric parameters of their leaves. Microgramma squamulosa (Kaulf. de la Sota is a neotropical epiphytic fern found in impacted environments. The aims of this study were to quantitatively compare structural characteristics of leaves in areas with different air quality conditions, and to identify morphometric parameters that are potential indicators of the effects of pollution on these plants. Fertile and sterile leaves growing on isolated trees were collected from an urban (Estância Velha and a rural (Novo Hamburgo environment, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For each leaf type, macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed on 192 samples collected in each environment. The sterile and fertile leaves showed significantly greater thickness of the midrib and greater vascular bundle and leaf blade areas in the rural environment, which is characterized by less air pollution. The thickness of the hypodermis and the stomatal density of the fertile leaves were greater in the urban area, which is characterized by more air pollution. Based on the fact that significant changes were found in the parameters of both types of leaves, which could possibly be related to air pollutants, M. squamulosa may be a potential bioindicator.

  5. Examination of geostatistical and machine-learning techniques as interpolators in anisotropic atmospheric environments (United States)

    Tadić, Jovan M.; Ilić, Velibor; Biraud, Sebastien


    Selecting which interpolation method to use significantly affects the results of atmospheric studies. The goal of this study is to examine the performance of several interpolation techniques under typical atmospheric conditions. Several types of kriging and artificial neural networks used as spatial interpolators are here compared and evaluated against ordinary kriging, using real airborne CO2 mixing-ratio data and synthetic data. The real data were measured (on December 26, 2012) between Billings and Lamont, near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, within and above the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Predictions were made all along the flight trajectory within a total volume of 5000 km3 of atmospheric air (27 × 33 × 5.6 km). We evaluated (a) universal kriging, (b) ensemble neural networks, (c) universal kriging with ensemble neural network outputs used as covariates, and (d) ensemble neural networks with ordinary kriging of the residuals as interpolation tools. We found that in certain cases, when the weaknesses of ordinary kriging interpolation schemes (based on an omnidirectional isotropic variogram presumption) became apparent, more sophisticated interpolation methods were in order. In this study, preservation of the potentially nonlinear relationship between the trend and coordinates (by using neural kriging output as a covariate in a universal kriging scheme) was attempted, with varying degrees of success (it was best performer in 4 out of 8 cases). The study confirmed the necessity of selecting an interpolation approach that includes a combination of expert understanding and appropriate interpolation tools. The error analysis showed that uncertainty representations generated by the kriging methods are superior to neural networks, but that the actual error varies from case to case.

  6. Perceived Stress among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric Inpatient Care: The Influence of Perceptions of the Ward Atmosphere and the Psychosocial Work Environment.


    Tuvesson, Hanna; Eklund, Mona; Wann-Hansson, Christine


    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) perceived stress as felt by the nursing staff working in psychiatric inpatient care, (2) possible differences between nurses and nurse assistants, and (3) associations among individual characteristics, the ward atmosphere, the psychosocial work environment, and perceived stress. Ninety-three members of the nursing staff completed three instruments-one each measuring perceived stress, the ward atmosphere, and the psychosocial work environment. The...

  7. Impact of urban atmospheric environment on hospital admissions in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelci Nunes da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of intra-urban atmospheric conditions on circulatory and respiratory diseases in elder adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on data from 33,212 hospital admissions in adults over 60 years in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, from 2003 to 2007. The association between atmospheric variables from Congonhas airport and bioclimatic index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature, was analyzed according to the district's socioenvironmental profile. Descriptive statistical analysis and regression models were used. RESULTS: There was an increase in hospital admissions due to circulatory diseases as average and lowest temperatures decreased. The likelihood of being admitted to the hospital increased by 12% with 1ºC decrease in the bioclimatic index and with 1ºC increase in the highest temperatures in the group with lower socioenvironmental conditions. The risk of admission due to respiratory diseases increased with inadequate air quality in districts with higher socioenvironmental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between morbidity and climate variables and the comfort index varied in different groups and diseases. Lower and higher temperatures increased the risk of hospital admission in the elderly. Districts with lower socioenvironmental conditions showed greater adverse health impacts.

  8. Substitution of Organic Solvents - a Way to improve Working Environment and reduce Emissions to the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Often there is a conflict between considerations regarding the working environment, and considerations regarding the environment, locally and globally, outside the company. When processes involving use of volatile, organic solvents are closely analyzed, it may in many cases be possible to change...... solvents as cleaning agents has been reached. However, some barriers to this substitution process, are found outside the printing companies. In designing of machines and auxiliary equipment, the manufacturers must take into account, that cleaning with non-volatile agents should be possible. Even a rather...

  9. FLCNDEMF: An Event Metamodel for Flood Process Information Management under the Sensor Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengcheng Chen


    Full Text Available Significant economic losses, large affected populations, and serious environmental damage caused by recurrent natural disaster events (NDE worldwide indicate insufficiency in emergency preparedness and response. The barrier of full life cycle data preparation and information support is one of the main reasons. This paper adopts the method of integrated environmental modeling, incorporates information from existing event protocols, languages, and models, analyzes observation demands from different event stages, and forms the abstract full life cycle natural disaster event metamodel (FLCNDEM based on meta-object facility. Then task library and knowledge base for floods are built to instantiate FLCNDEM, forming the FLCNDEM for floods (FLCNDEMF. FLCNDEMF is formalized according to Event Pattern Markup Language, and a prototype system, Natural Disaster Event Manager, is developed to assist in the template-based modeling and management. The flood in Liangzi (LZ Lake of Hubei, China on 16 July 2010 is adopted to illustrate how to apply FLCNDEM in real scenarios. FLCNDEM-based modeling is realized, and the candidate remote sensing (RS dataset for different observing missions are provided for LZ Lake flood. Taking the mission of flood area extraction as an example, the appropriate RS data are selected via the model of simplified general perturbation version 4, and the flood area in different phases are calculated and displayed on the map. The phase-based modeling and visualization intuitively display the spatial-temporal distribution and the evolution process of the LZ Lake flood, and it is of great significance for flood responding. In addition, through the extension mechanism, FLCNDEM can also be applied in other environmental applications, providing important support for full life cycle information sharing and rapid responding.

  10. A mobile robots experimental environment with event-based wireless communication. (United States)

    Guinaldo, María; Fábregas, Ernesto; Farias, Gonzalo; Dormido-Canto, Sebastián; Chaos, Dictino; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián


    An experimental platform to communicate between a set of mobile robots through a wireless network has been developed. The mobile robots get their position through a camera which performs as sensor. The video images are processed in a PC and a Waspmote card sends the corresponding position to each robot using the ZigBee standard. A distributed control algorithm based on event-triggered communications has been designed and implemented to bring the robots into the desired formation. Each robot communicates to its neighbors only at event times. Furthermore, a simulation tool has been developed to design and perform experiments with the system. An example of usage is presented.

  11. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects of Peer Deviance, Parental Knowledge and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Alcohol Use. (United States)

    Cooke, Megan E; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latvala, Antti; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M


    The purpose of this study was to address two methodological issues that have called into question whether previously reported gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects for adolescent alcohol use are 'real'. These issues are (1) the potential correlation between the environmental moderator and the outcome across twins and (2) non-linear transformations of the behavioral outcome. Three environments that have been previously studied (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events) were examined here. For each moderator (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events), a series of models was fit to both a raw and transformed measure of monthly adolescent alcohol use in a sample that included 825 dizygotic (DZ) and 803 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The results showed that the moderating effect of peer deviance was robust to transformation, and that although the significance of moderating effects of parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events were dependent on the scale of the adolescent alcohol use outcome, the overall results were consistent across transformation. In addition, the findings did not vary across statistical models. The consistency of the peer deviance results and the shift of the parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events results between trending and significant, shed some light on why previous findings for certain moderators have been inconsistent and emphasize the importance of considering both methodological issues and previous findings when conducting and interpreting GxE analyses.

  12. New Planetary Energy Balance, Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction and their Effects on Extreme Events in North Atlantic (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said


    Global warming has now reached the energetic phase of H2O's return to the ground after the saturation of the atmosphere in evaporation since the 80s and 90s of the last century, which were characterized by severe droughts, mainly in Africa. This phase is the result of the accumulation of thermal energy exchanges in the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere system that resulted in the thrust reversal of the energy balance toward the poles. This situation is characterized by a new thermal distribution: above the ocean, the situation is more in surplus compared to the mainland, or even opposite when the balance is negative on the land, and in the atmosphere, warm thermal advection easily reach the North Pole (planetary crests), as well as cold advection push deep into North Africa and the Gulf of Mexico (planetary valleys). This "New Ground Energy Balance" establishes a "New Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC)" with an undulating character throughout the year, including the winter characterized by intense latitudinal very active energy exchanges between the surplus areas (tropical) and the deficit (polar) on the one hand, and the atmosphere, the ocean and the continent on the other. The excess radiation balance increases the potential evaporation of the atmosphere and provides a new geographical distribution of H2O worldwide: the excess water vapor is easily converted by cold advection (polar vortex) to heavy rains that cause floods or snow storms that paralyze the normal functioning of human activities, which creates many difficulties for users and leaves damage and casualties, but ensures water availability missing since a long time in many parts of the world, in Africa, Europe and America. The new thermal distribution reorganizes the geography of atmospheric pressure: the ocean energy concentration is transmitted directly to the atmosphere, and the excess torque is pushed northward. The Azores anticyclone is strengthened and is a global lock by the Atlantic ridge at Greenland

  13. Atmospheric forcing of cool subsurface water events in Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Alfaro


    Full Text Available Bahía Culebra, at Gulf of Papagayo on the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is an area of seasonal upwelling where more intense cooling events may occur during some boreal winter weeks mainly. To study these extreme cool events, records of nine sea subsurface temperature stations from 1998 to 2010 were analyzed. Five events associated with extremely cool temperatures in this region were identified from these records and taken as study cases. Sea temperatures decreased about 8-9ºC during these events and occurred while cold fronts were present in the Caribbean, with strong trade wind conditions over Central America. These strong wind conditions may have favored the offshore displacement of the sea surface water. The axis of Bahía Culebra runs northeastsouthwest, a condition that favors and triggers cool water events, mainly because the displaced water is replaced by water from deeper levels.

  14. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS near and far detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.


    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. Thus, at the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  15. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS Near and Far Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Castromonte, C M; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Connor, J O; Orchanian, M; Osprey, S; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R


    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. At the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5-8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  16. Controlling a stream of paranoia evoking events in a virtual reality environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isnanda, R.G.; Brinkman, W.P.; Veling, W.; van der Gaag, M.; Neerincx, M.


    Although virtual reality exposure has been reported as a method to induce paranoid thought, little is known about mechanisms to control specific virtual stressors. This paper reports on a study that examines the effect of controlling the stream of potential paranoia evoking events in a virtual

  17. Prevention through policy : Urban macroplastic leakages to the marine environment during extreme rainfall events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axelsson, Charles; van Sebille, Erik


    The leakage of large plastic litter (macroplastics) into the ocean is a major environmental problem. A significant fraction of this leakage originates from coastal cities, particularly during extreme rainfall events. As coastal cities continue to grow, finding ways to reduce this macroplastic

  18. Impact of an intense rainfall event on soil properties following a wildfire in a Mediterranean environment (North-East Spain). (United States)

    Francos, Marcos; Pereira, Paulo; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier


    Intense rainfall events after severe wildfires can have an impact on soil properties, above all in the Mediterranean environment. This study seeks to examine the immediate impact and the effect after a year of an intense rainfall event on a Mediterranean forest affected by a high severity wildfire. The work analyses the following soil properties: soil aggregate stability, total nitrogen, total carbon, organic and inorganic carbon, the C/N ratio, carbonates, pH, electrical conductivity, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, available phosphorous and the sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR). We sampled soils in the burned area before, immediately after and one year after the rainfall event. The results showed that the intense rainfall event did not have an immediate impact on soil aggregate stability, but a significant difference was recorded one year after. The intense precipitation did not result in any significant changes in soil total nitrogen, total carbon, inorganic carbon, the C/N ratio and carbonates during the study period. Differences were only registered in soil organic carbon. The soil organic carbon content was significantly higher after the rainfall than in the other sampling dates. The rainfall event did increase soil pH, electrical conductivity, major cations, available phosphorous and the SPAR. One year after the fire, a significant decrease in soil aggregate stability was observed that can be attributed to high SPAR levels and human intervention, while the reduction in extractable elements can be attributed to soil leaching and vegetation consumption. Overall, the intense rainfall event, other post-fire rainfall events and human intervention did not have a detrimental impact on soil properties in all probability owing to the flat plot topography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EntrySat: A 3U CubeStat to study the reentry atmospheric environment (United States)

    Anthony, Sournac; Raphael, Garcia; David, Mimoun; Jeremie, Chaix


    ISAE France Entrysat has for main scientific objective the study of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. This project, is developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA and University of Toulouse, is funded by CNES, in the overall frame of the QB50 project. This nano-satellite is a 3U Cubesat measuring 34*10*10 cm3, similar to secondary debris produced during the break up of a spacecraft. EntrySat will collect the external and internal temperatures, pressure, heat flux, attitude variations and drag force of the satellite between ≈150 and 90 km before its destruction in the atmosphere, and transmit them during the re-entry using the IRIDIUM satellite network. The result will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. In order to fulfil the scientific objectives, the satellite will acquire 18 re-entry sensors signals, convert them and compress them, thanks to an electronic board developed by ISAE students in cooperation with EREMS. In order to transmit these data every second during the re-entry phase, the satellite will use an IRIDIUM connection. In order to keep a stable enough attitudes during this phase, a simple attitude orbit and control system using magnetotorquers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is developed at ISAE by students. A commercial GPS board is also integrated in the satellite into Entry Sat to determine its position and velocity which are necessary during the re-entry phase. This GPS will also be used to synchronize the on-board clock with the real-time UTC data. During the orbital phase (≈2 year) EntrySat measurements will be recorded transmitted through a more classical "UHF/VHF" connection. Preference for presentation: Poster Most suitable session: Author for correspondence: Dr Raphael F. Garcia ISAE 10, ave E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France +33 5 61 33 81 14

  20. Femtoradical events in aqueous molecular environments: the tenuous borderline between direct and indirect radiation damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauduel, Y; Glinec, Y; Malka, V [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, CNRS UMR 7639, Ecole Polytechnique - ENS Techniques Avancees, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France)], E-mail:


    The complex links existing between radiation physics and radiobiology concern the complete understanding of spatio-temporal events triggered by an initial energy deposition in confined spaces called spurs. Microscopic radiation effects (photons or relativistic particles) on integrated biological targets such as water 'the solvent of life' and biomolecular architectures (DNA, histones, enzymes) cannot be satisfactorily described from an absorbed dose delivery profile or a linear energy transfer (LET) approach. Primary radiation damages on biological targets being dependent on the survival probability of secondary electrons and short-lived radicals inside nascent nanometric clusters of ionisation, a thorough knowledge of these processes require the real-time probing of early events on sub-micrometric scale, in the temporal range 10{sup -15} - 10{sup -10} s. Major strides concern early water damages: primary water cation formation (H{sub 2}O{sup .+} or positive hole), concerted electron-proton couplings, attachment dynamics of p-like excited prehydrated electron on biomolecule, short-lived radical pairs involving water-bridged radical OH{sup .} and hydronium ion H{sub 3}O{sup +}. The deactivation frequency of electron-radical pairs is comparable to an H-OH deactivation of excited water molecules (v{sub H2O}* {approx} 0.33 x 10{sup 13} s{sup -1}). These short-lived events take place in the prethermal regime of delocalized secondary electrons and represent a tenuous borderline between direct and indirect molecular damages.

  1. Revealing pre-earthquake signatures in atmosphere and ionosphere associated with 2015 M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Davidenko, Dmitry


    We analyze retrospectively/prospectively the transient variations of three different physical parameters of atmosphere during the time of M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal: outgoing earth radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC and the thermodynamic proprieties in the lower atmosphere. We found that in mid March 2015 a rapid augment of satellite observed earth radiation in atmosphere and the anomaly located in close vicinity to the future M7.8 epicenter reached the maximum on April 21-22. Our continuous satellite analysis revealed prospectively the new strong anomaly on May 3th, which was the reason to contemplate another large event in the area. On May 12, 2015 a large aftershock of M7.3 occurred. The analysis of air temperature from weather ground station near Katmandu shows analogous patterns with offset 1-2 days earlier to the satellite anomalies. The GPS/TEC data analysis indicates an augment and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value during April 22-24 period. A strong negative TEC anomaly in the crest of ...

  2. Composition Changes After the "Halloween" Solar Proton Event: The High-Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) Model Versus MIPAS Data Intercomparison Study (United States)

    Funke, B.; Baumgaertner, A.; Calisto, M.; Egorova, T.; Jackman, C. H.; Kieser, J.; Krivolutsky, A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Marsh. D. R.; Reddmann, T.; hide


    We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2,O3, N2O, HNO3 , N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE) in October/November 2003 at 25-0.01 hPa in the Northern hemisphere (40-90 N) and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2D model (B2dM) and Bremen 3D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM), the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the ECHAM5/MESSY Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, the modeling tool for SO1ar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOS, and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications on the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO) fields. Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5% with the observations. Simulated NO(y) enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30% higher than indicated by the observations which can be partly attributed to an overestimation of simulated electron-induced ionization. The analysis of the observed and modeled NO(y) partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement additional ion chemistry (HNO3 formation via ion-ion recombination and water cluster ions) into the chemical schemes. An overestimation of observed H2O2 enhancements by all models hints at an underestimation of the OH/HO2 ratio in the upper polar stratosphere during the SPE. The

  3. The Characterization of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Depth and Turbulence in a Mixed Rural and Urban Convective Environment (United States)

    Hicks, Micheal M.

    A comprehensive analysis of surface-atmosphere flux exchanges over a mixed rural and urban convective environment is conducted at Howard University Beltsville, MD Research Campus. This heterogeneous site consists of rural, suburban and industrial surface covers to its south, east and west, within a 2 km radius of a flux sensor. The eddy covariance method is utilized to estimate surface-atmosphere flux exchanges of momentum, heat and moisture. The attributes of these surface flux exchanges are contrasted to those of classical homogeneous sites and assessed for accuracy, to evaluate the following: (I) their similarity to conventional convective boundary layer (CBL) processes and (II) their representativeness of the surrounding environment's turbulent properties. Both evaluations are performed as a function of upwind surface conditions. In particular, the flux estimates' obedience to spectrum power laws and similarity theory relationships is used for performing the first evaluation, and their ability to close the surface energy balance and accurately model CBL heights is used for the latter. An algorithm that estimates atmospheric boundary layer heights from observed lidar extinction backscatter was developed, tested and applied in this study. The derived lidar based CBL heights compared well with those derived from balloon borne soundings, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient and standard deviation of 0.85 and 223 m, respectively. This algorithm assisted in the evaluation of the response of CBL processes to surface heterogeneity, by deriving high temporal CBL heights and using them as independent references of the surrounding area averaged sensible heat fluxes. This study found that the heterogeneous site under evaluation was rougher than classical homogeneous sites, with slower dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy. Flux measurements downwind of the industrial complexes exhibited enhanced efficiency in surface-atmosphere momentum, heat, and

  4. Aleppo pine bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in the arid environment of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Alawi, Mu' taz M.; Jiries, Anwar [Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Carreras, Hebe [University of Cordoba, FCEFyN, Cordoba (Argentina); Alawi, Mahmoud [Chemistry Department, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Geography, Environment and Disaster Management, Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Batarseh, Mufeed I.


    Monitoring of atmospheric pollution using Aleppo bark as a bioindicator was carried out in the industrial area surrounding the Al-Hussein thermal power station and the oil refinery at Al-Hashimyeh town, Jordan. The concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc, iron, and chromium) were analyzed in bark samples collected from the study area during July 2004. The results showed that high levels of heavy metals were found in tree bark samples retrieved from all studied sites compared with the remote reference site. This is, essentially, due to the fact that the oil refinery and the thermal power plant still use low-quality fuel oil from the by-products of oil refining. Automobile emissions are another source of pollution since the study area is located along a major heavy-traffic highway. It was found that the area around the study sites (Al-Hashimyeh town, Zarqa) is polluted with high levels of heavy metals. Pine bark was found to be a suitable bioindicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals in arid regions. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Testing FSO WDM communication system in simulation software optiwave OptiSystem in different atmospheric environments (United States)

    Vanderka, Ales; Hajek, Lukas; Bednarek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir


    In this article the author's team deals with using Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications. In FSO communication occurs due to the influence of atmospheric effect (attenuation, and fluctuation of the received power signal, influence turbulence) and the WDM channel suffers from interchannel crosstalk. There is considered only the one direction. The behavior FSO link was tested for one or eight channels. Here we will be dealing with modulation schemes OOK (On-Off keying), QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and Subcarrier Intensity Modulation (SIM) based on a BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying). Simulation software OptiSystem 14 was used for tasting. For simulation some parameters were set according to real FSO link such as the datarate 1.25 Gbps, link range 1.4 km. Simulated FSO link used wavelength of 1550 nm with 0.8 nm spacing. There is obtained the influence of crosstalk and modulation format for the BER, depending on the amount of turbulence in the propagation medium.

  6. Extreme Space Weather Events and Charging Hazard Assessments in Lunar Environments (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.


    The sunlit lunar surface charges to positive potentials with mean values of a few tens of volts where photoelectron currents dominate the charging process. In contrast, surfaces in darkness may charge to negative potentials on the order of a few hundred volts when the charging process is dominated by hot electron populations in the absence of solar photons. Recently, observations of electron beams measured by instruments on spacecraft in low lunar orbit have been interpreted as evidence for extreme lunar surface potentials exceeding a few kilovolts suggesting that lunar orbital and surface plasma environments may contain charging risks similar to geostationary orbit during extreme space weather conditions. Space system design for successful operation in a wide range of lunar environments will therefore require evaluation of charging hazards during extreme space weather conditions. We present results from a study of space weather environments conducted to obtained credible extreme charging environments for use in charging hazard assessments for lunar missions including extreme conditions encountered when the Moon is in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, and the Earth's magnetotail.

  7. Natural Environment Corrosion Testing at the Kennedy Space Center Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.


    This presentation will provide an overview of how NASA has been conducting corrosion testing in the Natural Marine Environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S. The following questions will be addressed: What factors should be considered when selecting and constructing a test site? What are the attributes of a good test site? Is more severe always better? What environmental parameters should be monitored? How frequently? What factors should be considered when designing test specimens? Are current test standards sufficient? How do diurnal, annual and other fluctuations in corrosivity influence tests? How are test results interpreted? Can they be quantified?

  8. Response of water vapour D-excess to land–atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Parkes


    large variability during the night. These results indicate dET can generally be expected to show large spatial and temporal variability and to depend on the soil moisture state. For long periods between rain events, common in semi-arid environments, ET would be expected to impose negative forcing on the surface dv. Spatial and temporal variability of D-excess in ET fluxes therefore needs to be considered when using dv to study moisture recycling and during extended dry periods with weak moisture recycling may act as a tracer of the relative humidity at the oceanic moisture source.

  9. Effect of Ground Surface Roughness on Atmospheric Dispersion and Dry Deposition of Cs-137 in the UAE Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sungyeop; Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Kim, Sungyeop; Chang, Soonheung; Lee, Kunjai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The site of nuclear power plant (NPP) in the UAE has several unique characteristics as a NPP on the desert environment near coastal region. Those characteristics are represented like below: · Arid ground surface · Low ground surface roughness length · Relatively simple (flat) terrain · Extremely low precipitation · Intense solar radiation and high temperature in day time · Sea breeze · Relatively high humidity of atmosphere · Etc. From the review of this desert environment in the UAE, low ground surface roughness is regarded as one of definitively different characteristics from that of other NPP sites. In this context, surface roughness is selected as independent variables for the sensitivity analyses in this research. Another important reason of this selection is that this parameters is less dependent on the day and night change than other parameters. With ground level concentration, dry deposition rate has been chosen as a dependent variable to be considered rather than wet deposition because UAE shows almost zero rainfall especially in summer. Lower ground level concentration of Cs-137 near the site and extremely lower dry deposition of Cs-137 are predicted in the UAE environment because of the lower ground surface roughness of the desert.

  10. Analysis of a voip telephony system with environment of ururau discrete event simulation software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo dos Santos Ferreira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the free and open-source discrete event simulation software, Ururau. A voice over IP telephony system model was constructed in order to to evaluate the dimensioning of the resources. The model designed in Ururau was tested and compared to the results of another model of the same system, built with commercial software package Arena. The results of the simulation showed that the current system easily meets institutional demand and that resources are being underused. The results also demonstrated the viability of using of Ururau for small applications.

  11. Music effects on event-related potentials of humans on the basis of cultural environment. (United States)

    Arikan, M K; Devrim, M; Oran, O; Inan, S; Elhih, M; Demiralp, T


    Auditory oddball responses were recorded from Turkish subjects in a silent environment or superimposed on white noise, or music played with violoncello or a similar music played with ney, a reed flute frequently listened by the Turkish population. P3 amplitudes with ney music in the background were significantly larger than both the white noise and violoncello backgrounds. The topography of the P3 response changed significantly between the ney and silent background conditions, indicating a relatively higher participation of frontal areas during hearing ney. Our results showed that hearing music of a familiar style increases the allocation of attentional resources during memory updating processes which is supposed to determine the P3 amplitude, and therefore showed the effects of cultural environment on the cognitive processes.

  12. Links Between Flood Events In Central Europe Since Ad 1500 and The Large-scale Atmospheric Circulation (United States)

    Jacobeit, J.; Glaser, R.

    Based on historical climatic data bank information compiled by Glaser (2001) inci- dence variations of flood events can be reconstructed back to AD 1500 for several catchment areas in Central Europe. Based on gridded SLP data reconstructed back to AD 1500 by Luterbacher et al. (University of Berne) links to the large-scale atmo- spheric circulation may be identified on climatic time scales (monthly to seasonal). For this purpose several indices have been calculated describing the particular im- portance of different circulation patterns as a dynamical background for the varying incidence of flood events. For example, zonal circulation patterns cover the greatest part of these events, in relation to the pattern frequency, however, other circulation modes come to the fore during historical periods of increased flood frequency, e.g. modes characterised by Atlantic low and Russian high pressure centres during win- ter. Additionally, modifications in large-scale circulation patterns have been identified between periods with and without flood events as well as between periods with in- creased and decreased flood frequency, respectively. In particular shifts from westerly types to southwesterly or cyclonic wave patterns could be substantiated for months with historical flood events during winter.

  13. Horizontal Advection and Mixing of Pollutants in the Urban Atmospheric Environment (United States)

    Magnusson, S. P.; Entekhabi, D.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.; Fernando, H. J.


    Although urban air quality and its impacts on the public health have long been studied, the increasing urbanization is raising concerns on how to better control and mitigate these health impacts. A necessary element in predicting exposure levels is fundamental understanding of flow and dispersion in urban canyons. The complex topology of building structures and roads requires the resolution of turbulence phenomena within urban canyons. The use of dense and low porosity construction material can lead to rapid heating in response to direct solar exposure due to large thermal mass. Hence thermal and buoyancy effects may be as important as mechanically-forced or shear-induced flows. In this study, the transport of pollutants within the urban environment, as well as the thermal and advection effects, are investigated. The focus is on the horizontal transport or the advection effects within the urban environment. With increased urbanization and larger and more spread cities, concern about how the upstream air quality situation can affect downstream areas. The study also examines the release and the dispersion of hazardous material. Due to the variety and complexity of urban areas around the world, the urban environment is simplified into adjacent two-dimensional urban street canyons. Pollutants are released inside each canyon. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are applied to evaluate and quantify the flow rate out of each canyon and also the exchange of pollutants between the canyons. Imagine a row of ten adjacent urban street canyons of aspect ratio 1 with horizontal flow perpendicular to it as shown in the attached figure. C is the concentration of pollutants. The first digit indicates in what canyon the pollutant is released and the second digit indicates the location of that pollutant. For example, C3,4 is the concentration of pollutant released inside canyon 3 measured in canyon 4. The same amount of pollution is released inside the ten street canyons

  14. Impact of the smoke aerosol from Russian forest fires on the atmospheric environment over Korea during May 2003 (United States)

    Lee, Kwon H.; Kim, Jeong E.; Kim, Young J.; Kim, Jhoon; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang

    Extensive forest fire activities occurred in May 2003 across Siberia, Russia, particularly in the area between the Amur and Lena rivers east of Lake Baikal. These forest fires released large amounts of particulates and gases into the atmosphere, resulting in adverse effects on regional air quality and radiation budget. On certain occasions, a smoke pollution plume from these forest fires was transported through Mongolia and eastern China, down to the Korean peninsula. In this study, satellite data and ground-based radiation measurement data were analyzed to estimate the smoke aerosol's impact on the local atmospheric environment over Korea. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values retrieved using the Bremen Aerosol Retrieval method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data were compared with those derived from ground-based radiation measurements. Large AOD values in the range 2.0-4.0 were observed on 20 May 2003 over Korea due to the influence of the long-range transported smoke aerosol plume from the Russian fires, resulting in a surface-observed short-wavelength direct aerosol radiative forcing efficiency of -90 to -200 W m -2. This smoke aerosol plume also resulted in a decrease in the solar visible irradiance of up to 57%, and increased the surface PM10 concentration by up to 258 μg m -3.

  15. A Surface-to-Environment Synoptic Typing Approach to Classify Cyclone Forcing of Ocean-Sea Ice-Atmosphere Coupling within the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead (United States)

    Asplin, M. G.; Barber, D. G.; Candlish, L. M.; Raddatz, R.


    The Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system represents a key dynamic physical and biophysical interface between the atmosphere, ocean, and sea ice in the Arctic Basin. The CFL system is an area of open water and thin ice, and is formed where the mobile central pack ice moves away from coastal fast ice. This process can release large heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere throughout the winter and spring, thus modifying the regional boundary layer climate. This process was monitored throughout the eleven-month long International Polar Year Circumpolar Flaw Lead System Study, which involved over-wintering the Canadian Research Icebreaker CCGS Amundsen from September 2007 to August 2008 in the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead. In this paper, we propose a technique to generate a surface-to-environment synoptic climatology for the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead region using gridded ice concentration data, and link it to an existing environment-to-surface synoptic climatology based upon sea level pressure to examine dynamic and thermodynamic cyclone forcing of the atmosphere-sea ice interface in the Banks Island flaw lead. The existing environment-to-surface synoptic climatology characterizes atmospheric forcing of sea ice motion well, and it is expected that the surface-to-environment synoptic climatology will be effective at classifying how sea ice concentration forces seasonal boundary layer atmospheric profiles over the Cape Bathurst flaw lead. Cyclone-driven heat and moisture coupling between the ocean and atmosphere within the boundary layer can then be assessed.

  16. Explanatory analysis of the relationship between atmospheric circulation and occurrence of flood generating events in a coastal city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, H.


    , and SE). For concurrent events significantly high occurrence was obtained in LCC W. We assessed the change in LCC occurrence frequency in the future based on two regional climate models (RCMs). The projections indicate that the westerly directions in LCCs are expected to increase in the future....... Consequently, simultaneous occurrence of extreme water level and precipitation events is expected to increase in the future as a result of change in LCC frequencies. The RCM projections for LCC frequencies are uncertain because the representation of current LCCs is poor; a large number of days cannot...

  17. An Effective Semantic Event Matching System in the Internet of Things (IoT) Environment. (United States)

    Alhakbani, Noura; Hassan, Mohammed Mehedi; Ykhlef, Mourad


    IoT sensors use the publish/subscribe model for communication to benefit from its decoupled nature with respect to space, time, and synchronization. Because of the heterogeneity of communicating parties, semantic decoupling is added as a fourth dimension. The added semantic decoupling complicates the matching process and reduces its efficiency. Our proposed algorithm clusters subscriptions and events according to topic and performs the matching process within these clusters, which increases the throughput by reducing the matching time from the range of 16-18 ms to 2-4 ms. Moreover, the accuracy of matching is improved when subscriptions must be fully approximated, as demonstrated by an over 40% increase in F-score results. This work shows the benefit of clustering, as well as the improvement in the matching accuracy and efficiency achieved using this approach.

  18. The Response of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas to a Summer Mistral Event: A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Approach (United States)


    Sciences and Climate, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche (CNR- ISAC ) in Rome (Marullo et al., 2007). This product utilizes Advanced Very High Resolution...previous Mistral and/or Tramontane events. Reanalysis data from the CNR- ISAC SST satellite product compiled for the 25th June shows a similar spatial

  19. The Analysis on Space Radiation Environment and Effect of the KOMPSAT-2 Spacecraft(II): Single Event Effect (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Day-Young; Kim, Hak-Jung


    In this paper, space radiation environment and single event effect(SEE) have been analyzed for the KOMPSAT-2 operational orbit. As spacecraft external and internal space environment, trapped proton, SEP(solar energetic particle) and GCR(galactic cosmic ray) high energy protons and heavy ions spectrums are analyzed. Finally, SEU and SEL rate prediction has been perfomed for the Intel 80386 microprocessor CPU that is planned to be used in the KOMPSAT-2. As the estimation results, under nominal operational condition, it is predicted that trapped proton and high energetic proton induced SEU effect will not occur. But, it is predicted that heavy ion induced SEU can occur several times during KOMPSAT-2 3-year mission operation. KOMPSAT-2 has been implementing system level design to mitigate SEU occurrence using processor CPU error detection function of the on-board flight software.

  20. Atomistic Modeling of Corrosion Events at the Interface between a Metal and Its Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor


    Full Text Available Atomistic simulation is a powerful tool for probing the structure and properties of materials and the nature of chemical reactions. Corrosion is a complex process that involves chemical reactions occurring at the interface between a material and its environment and is, therefore, highly suited to study by atomistic modeling techniques. In this paper, the complex nature of corrosion processes and mechanisms is briefly reviewed. Various atomistic methods for exploring corrosion mechanisms are then described, and recent applications in the literature surveyed. Several instances of the application of atomistic modeling to corrosion science are then reviewed in detail, including studies of the metal-water interface, the reaction of water on electrified metallic interfaces, the dissolution of metal atoms from metallic surfaces, and the role of competitive adsorption in controlling the chemical nature and structure of a metallic surface. Some perspectives are then given concerning the future of atomistic modeling in the field of corrosion science.

  1. Exposition of Spontaneous Humor in Digital Environment Especially in Social Media After Social Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicabi Arslan


    Full Text Available Humor, besides the fact that it is a funny, comic and extraordinary way to look to the social facts, it’s main character is criticism. Therefore it’s not a solo activity. Humor, not only lets us to look at the facts from another point of view, it also declines the pressure of the government and it enables the society’s perception to criticize the existing order and to protest it. Humor can be seen in various media channels (radio, TV, newspaper, magazine, social media etc. not only in Turkish society, but also in the other societies too. According to German political scientist and philosopher Hannah Arendt, “The biggest enemy of the authority is disobediency and the sharpest way to agitate it is to laugh”. Therefore, can we assume that  humor is a disobedience activity while it jeers with the authority? If it’s accepted as humor has an endless freedom area, then how the digital ambient creates a background for the social events which develops as a reflexion?

  2. Atmospheric forcing of cool subsurface water events in Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Alfaro


    Full Text Available Bahía Culebra, at Gulf of Papagayo on the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is an area of seasonal upwelling where more intense cooling events may occur during some boreal winter weeks mainly. To study these extreme cool events, records of nine sea subsurface temperature stations from 1998 to 2010 were analyzed. Five events associated with extremely cool temperatures in this region were identified from these records and taken as study cases. Sea temperatures decreased about 8-9ºC during these events and occurred while cold fronts were present in the Caribbean, with strong trade wind conditions over Central America. These strong wind conditions may have favored the offshore displacement of the sea surface water. The axis of Bahía Culebra runs northeastsouthwest, a condition that favors and triggers cool water events, mainly because the displaced water is replaced by water from deeper levels.Bahía Culebra, localizada en el Golfo de Papagayo, al norte de la costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica, es un área de afloramiento estacional, en donde pueden ocurrir eventos de enfriamiento más intensos, principalmente durante algunas semanas del invierno boreal. Para estudiar estos eventos de enfriamiento extremo, se analizaron datos de nueve estaciones con registros de la temperatura subsuperficial del mar, desde 1998 hasta el 2010. A partir de estos registros, se identificaron cinco casos de estudio asociados a enfriamientos del mar en la región. Los descensos de la temperatura de estos eventos fueron de aproximadamente 8-9ºC y se asociaron al paso de empujes fríos en la región del Caribe y una fuerte magnitud del viento alisio sobre América Central. Este reforzamiento del flujo alisio favorece el desplazamiento del agua superficial hacia afuera de Bahía Culebra, cuyo eje principal se ubica en la dirección noreste-suroeste. Lo anterior favorece y provoca un enfriamiento de la temperatura del mar en la bahía, ya que el agua desplazada es

  3. Verification and Quantification of Single Event Effects on High Speed SRAM in Terrestrial Environments (United States)

    Huff, H.; You, Z.; Williams, T.; Nichols, T.; Attia, J.; Fogarty, T. N.; Kirby, K.; Wilkins, R.; Lawton, R.


    As integrated circuits become more sensitive to charged particles and neutrons, anomalous performance due to single event effects (SEE) is a concern and requires experimental verification and quantification. The Center for Applied Radiation Research (CARR) at Prairie View A&M University has developed experiments as a participant in the NASA ER-2 Flight Program, the APEX balloon flight program and the Student Launch Program. Other high altitude and ground level experiments of interest to DoD and commercial applications are being developed. The experiment characterizes the SEE behavior of high speed and high density SRAM's. The system includes a PC-104 computer unit, an optical drive for storage, a test board with the components under test, and a latchup detection and reset unit. The test program will continuously monitor the stored checkerboard data pattern in the SW and record errors. Since both the computer and the optical drive contain integrated circuits, they are also vulnerable to radiation effects. A latchup detection unit with discrete components will monitor the test program and reset the system when necessary. The first results will be obtained from the NASA ER-2 flights, which are now planned to take place in early 1998 from Dryden Research Center in California. The series of flights, at altitudes up to 70,000 feet, and a variety of flight profiles should yield a distribution of conditions for correlating SEES. SEE measurements will be performed from the time of aircraft power-up on the ground throughout the flight regime until systems power-off after landing.

  4. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró


    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  5. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands. (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie


    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Towards the measurement of event-related EEG activity in real-life working environments. (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Heppner, Holger; Hoffmann, Sven


    In applied contexts, psychophysiological measures have a long tradition to evaluate the user state. EEG correlates that indicate mechanisms of information processing, however, are hardly accessible since discrete time stamps that are necessary for this approach are commonly not available in natural situations. However, eye blinks may close this gap. Eye blinks are assumed to mark distinct points in information processing, necessary to segment the incoming data stream. By using mobile EEG in a simulated working situation we demonstrate that eye-blink-related potentials provide reliable information about cognitive processing in distinct working environments. During cognitive tasks, an increase in the fronto-central N2 component as well as evoked theta activity can be shown, both indices of enhanced cognitive control. The posterior P3 is reduced during physical tasks (sorting of boxes), probably reflecting the more continuous nature of this task. The data are discussed within a model of dopaminergic modulation of blink activity that involves both task specific aspects like executive control and modulating influences of motivation or fatigue. © 2013.

  7. Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke


    Full Text Available We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE in late October 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2-D model (B2dM and Bremen 3-D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM, the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA, the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, the modeling tool for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi, and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4. The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOy and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications for the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO fields.

    Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5 % with the observations. Simulated NOy enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30 % higher than indicated by the observations which are likely to be related to deficiencies in the used ionization rates, though other error sources related to the models' atmospheric background state and/or transport schemes cannot be excluded. The analysis of the observed and modeled NOy partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement

  8. Analyzing Test-As-You-Fly Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael


    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  9. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita


    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  10. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)


    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  11. Atmospheric Electricity Hazards Analytical Model Development and Application. Volume III. Electromagnetic Coupling Modeling of the Lightning/ Aircraft Interaction Event (United States)


    In (i) AR ’Bn(i) x TxiB B-1-t"w $ (i) G.) 1i n+l . n+l * )II/ 4B ) /> ( ~ B !B lI~ (i)- In (i..l +B VB+I 2) 6 x B A 277 In the above equations...8. Nanevicz, J.E., R.T. Bly and R..C. Adams, " Airborne Measurement cf Electromagnetic Environments Near Thunderstorm Cells (TRIP-76)," AFFDL-TR-77

  12. Persistence of Carbonate Platform Environments in Central Mexico during the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: impact of the Carribean Plateau? (United States)

    Bomou, Brahimsamba; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl; Arnaud-Vanneau, Annie; Fleitmann, Dominik


    The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 is described as an interruption of normal pelagic sediment deposition by several distinct intervals of widespread oceanic anoxia (Schlanger & Jenkyns, 1976; Jenkyns, 1980; Arthur et al., 1990) characterized by black shales deposition coinciding with a positive shift in carbon isotope excursion. Some authors show a relationship between OAEs and massive volcanic events associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and sea floor spreading at mid-ocean ridges (Kuroda et al., 2007; Snow et al., 2005). High metal abundance anomalies recorded in pelagic sections (e.g. Pueblo, Colorado) coincide with the massive volcanism that built the Carribean plateau (around 93-94 Ma), associated with the onset of OAE 2 (Snow et al., 2005). Mort et al., (2007) demonstrate that the onset of the OAE 2 was triggered by a short-lived but significant increase in phosphorus burial. The bottom waters became anoxic and switched from being a P sink to a P source, sustaining the productivity in a positive feedback loop. However, the behaviour of phosphorus and trace metals at larger scale, in different paleogeography and paleodepht is still poorly known. The Axaxacualco and Baranca el Cañon sections, located at the Guerrero-Morelos carbonate platform in southern Mexico exhibit a fully correlateable d13C curves. In the distal part of the carbonate platform at Axaxacualco, the maximum d13C positive excursion coincides with oligotrophic carbonate platform environments supported by low concentrations in P and characterized by abundant and diversified benthic microfauna and rudists. The impact of OAE appears may be more significant in the proximal part of the carbonate platform at Barranca, characterized by the deposition of thick laminated microbialites indicative of mesotrophic conditions. The Morelos Carbonate platform with oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions was persistent throughout the entire OAE2 in Central Mexico despite

  13. West Africa Extreme Rainfall Events and Large-Scale Ocean Surface and Atmospheric Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ta


    Full Text Available Based on daily precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP data during April–October of the 1997–2014 period, the daily extreme rainfall trends and variability over West Africa are characterized using 90th-percentile threshold at each grid point. The contribution of the extreme rainfall amount reaches ~50–90% in the northern region while it is ~30–50% in the south. The yearly cumulated extreme rainfall amount indicates significant and negative trends in the 6°N–12°N; 6°N–12°N; 17°W–10°W and 4°N–7°N; 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E 4°N–7°N; 6°E–10°E domains, while the number of days exhibits nonsignificant trends over West Africa. The empirical orthogonal functions performed on the standardized anomalies show four variability modes that include all West Africa with a focus on the Sahelian region, the eastern region including the south of Nigeria, the western part including Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea-Bissau, and finally a small region at the coast of Ghana and Togo. These four modes are influenced differently by the large-scale ocean surface and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Atlantic. The results are applicable in planning the risks associated with these climate hazards, particularly on water resource management and civil defense.

  14. Hygroscopic properties of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol particles measured with H-TDMA instruments in various environments-a review (United States)

    Swietlicki, E.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hämeri, K.; Svenningsson, B.; Massling, A.; McFiggans, G.; McMurry, P. H.; Petäjä, T.; Tunved, P.; Gysel, M.; Topping, D.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Rissler, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.


    The hygroscopic properties play a vital role for the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate, as well as the health effects of particulate matter (PM) by modifying the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the humid human respiratory tract. Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) instruments have been used in field campaigns in various environments globally over the last 25 yr to determine the water uptake on submicrometre particles at subsaturated conditions. These investigations have yielded valuable and comprehensive information regarding the particle hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosol, including state of mixing. These properties determine the equilibrium particle size at ambient relative humidities and have successfully been used to calculate the activation of particles at water vapour supersaturation. This paper summarizes the existing published H-TDMA results on the size-resolved submicrometre aerosol particle hygroscopic properties obtained from ground-based measurements at multiple marine, rural, urban and free tropospheric measurement sites. The data is classified into groups of hygroscopic growth indicating the external mixture, and providing clues to the sources and processes controlling the aerosol. An evaluation is given on how different chemical and physical properties affect the hygroscopic growth.

  15. Testimony presented to the Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.


    This report contains the basis for oral testimony to the House Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere in November 1975. The subject of the hearings was ''Effects and Costs of Long-term Exposure to Low Levels of Manmade Pollutants'' and the purpose of the hearings was to increase the awareness of low-level pollution and its impacts on human health, agriculture and climate. This report contains information related to impacts of low-level pollutants on human health. I have attempted to point out the major adverse health effects (e.g., carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic) that may result from chronic exposure to low-level pollutants. Also addressed are important questions such as what do we know about dose-response relations for chronic exposure to pollutants and how can we establish comparisons with knowledge obtained from exposure to ionizing radiations. The report also considers the wisdom of extrapolating from health effects data obtained from acute, high-level exposures to chronic, low-level exposure conditions. Lastly, a few examples of the societal costs related to low-level pollutant exposure are presented. (auth)

  16. Development of Experience-based Learning about Atmospheric Environment with Quantitative Viewpoint aimed at Education for Sustainable Development (United States)

    Saitoh, Y.; Tago, H.


    The word "ESD (Education for Sustainable Development)" has spread over the world in UN decade (2005 - 2014), and the momentum of the educational innovation aimed at ESD also has grown in the world. Especially, environmental educations recognized as one of the most important ESD have developed in many countries including Japan, but most of those are still mainly experiences in nature. Those could develop "Respect for Environment" of the educational targets of ESD, however we would have to take a further step in order to enhance "Ability of analysis and thinking logically about the environment" which are also targets of ESD.Thus, we developed experienced-learning program about atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5), for understanding the state of the environment objectively based on quantitative data. PM2.5 is known for harmful, and various human activities are considered a source of it, therefore environmental standards for PM2.5 have been established in many countries. This program was tested on junior high school students of 13 - 15 years old, and the questionnaire survey also was conducted to them before and after the program for evaluating educational effects. Students experienced to measure the concentration of PM2.5 at 5 places around their school in a practical manner. The measured concentration of PM2.5 ranged from 19 to 41 μg/m3/day, that value at the most crowded roadside exceeded Japan's environmental standard (35 μg/m3/day). Many of them expressed "Value of PM2.5 is high" in their individual discussion notes. As a consistent with that, the answer "Don't know" to the question "What do you think about the state of the air?" markedly decreased after the program, on the other hand the answer "Pollution" to the same question increased instead. From above-mentioned, it was considered that they could judge the state of the air objectively. Consequently, the questionnaire result "Concern about Air Pollution" increased significantly after the program compared

  17. CROSS DRIVE: A Collaborative and Distributed Virtual Environment for Exploitation of Atmospherical and Geological Datasets of Mars (United States)

    Cencetti, Michele


    European space exploration missions have produced huge data sets of potentially immense value for research as well as for planning and operating future missions. For instance, Mars Exploration programs comprise a series of missions with launches ranging from the past to beyond present, which are anticipated to produce exceptional volumes of data which provide prospects for research breakthroughs and advancing further activities in space. These collected data include a variety of information, such as imagery, topography, atmospheric, geochemical datasets and more, which has resulted in and still demands, databases, versatile visualisation tools and data reduction methods. Such rate of valuable data acquisition requires the scientists, researchers and computer scientists to coordinate their storage, processing and relevant tools to enable efficient data analysis. However, the current position is that expert teams from various disciplines, the databases and tools are fragmented, leaving little scope for unlocking its value through collaborative activities. The benefits of collaborative virtual environments have been implemented in various industrial fields allowing real-time multi-user collaborative work among people from different disciplines. Exploiting the benefits of advanced immersive virtual environments (IVE) has been recognized as an important interaction paradigm to facilitate future space exploration. The current work is mainly aimed towards the presentation of the preliminary results coming from the CROSS DRIVE project. This research received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 607177 and is mainly aimed towards the implementation of a distributed virtual workspace for collaborative scientific discovery, mission planning and operations. The purpose of the CROSS DRIVE project is to lay foundations of collaborative European workspaces for space science. It will demonstrate the feasibility and

  18. Sensitivity of the Reaction Mechanism of the Ozone Depletion Events during the Arctic Spring on the Initial Atmospheric Composition of the Troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Cao


    Full Text Available Ozone depletion events (ODEs during the Arctic spring have been investigated since the 1980s. It was found that the depletion of ozone is highly associated with the release of halogens, especially bromine containing compounds. These compounds originate from various substrates such as the ice/snow-covered surfaces in Arctic. In the present study, the dependence of the mixing ratios of ozone and principal bromine species during ODEs on the initial composition of the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer was investigated by using a concentration sensitivity analysis. This analysis was performed by implementing a reaction mechanism representing the ozone depletion and halogen release in the box model KINAL (KInetic aNALysis of reaction mechanics. The ratios between the relative change of the mixing ratios of particular species such as ozone and the variation in the initial concentration of each atmospheric component were calculated, which indicate the relative importance of each initial species in the chemical kinetic system. The results of the computations show that the impact of various chemical species is different for ozone and bromine containing compounds during the depletion of ozone. It was found that CH3CHO critically controls the time scale of the complete removal of ozone. However, the rate of the ozone loss and the maximum values of bromine species are only slightly influenced by the initial value of CH3CHO. In addition, according to the concentration sensitivity analysis, the reduction of initial Br2 was found to cause a significant retardant of the ODE while the initial mixing ratio of HBr exerts minor influence on both ozone and bromine species. In addition, it is also interesting to note that the increase of C2H2 would significantly raise the amount of HOBr and Br in the atmosphere while the ozone depletion is hardly changed.

  19. The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission (United States)

    Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; hide


    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.

  20. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional model simulations, measurements, and interpretation of the influence of the October 1989 solar proton events on the middle atmosphere (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Cerniglia, Marck C.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Allen, Dale J.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; McPeters, Richard D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Rood, Richard B.


    The very large solar proton events (SPEs) which occurred from October 19 to 27, 1989, earned substantial middle-atmospheric HOx and NOx constituent increases. Although no measurements of HOx increases were made during these SPEs, increases in NO were observed by rocket instruments which are in good agreement with calculated NO increases from our proton energy degradation code. Both the HOx and the NOx increases can cause ozone decreases; however, the HOx-induced ozone changes are relatively short-lived because HOx species have lifetimes of only hours in the middle atmosphere. Our two-dimensional model, when used to simulate effects of the longer-lived NOx, predicted lower-stratospheric polar ozone decreases of greater than 2% persisting for one and a half years past these SPEs. Previous three-dimensional model simulations of these SPEs (Jackman et al., 1993) indicated the importance of properly representing the polar vortices and warming events when accounting for the ozone decreases observed by the solar backscattered ultraviolet 2 instrument two months past these atmospheric perturbations. In an expansion of that study, we found that it was necessary to simulate the November 1, 1989, to April 2, 1990, time period and the November 1, 1986, to April 2, 1987, time period with our three-dimensional model in order to more directly compare to the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II observations of lower stratospheric NO2 and ozone changes between the end of March 1987 and 1990 at 70°N. Both the NOx increases from the October 1989 SPEs and the larger downward transport in the 1989-1990 northern winter compared to the 1986-1987 northern winter contributed to the large enhancements in NO2 in the lower stratosphere observed in the SAGE II measurements at the end of March 1990. Our three-dimensional model simulations predict smaller ozone decreases than those observed by SAGE II in the lower stratosphere near the end of March 1990, indicating that other

  1. A Survey of Precipitation-Induced Atmospheric Cold Pools over Oceans and Their Interactions with the Larger-Scale Environment (United States)

    Zuidema, Paquita; Torri, Giuseppe; Muller, Caroline; Chandra, Arunchandra


    Pools of air cooled by partial rain evaporation span up to several hundreds of kilometers in nature and typically last less than 1 day, ultimately losing their identity to the large-scale flow. These fundamentally differ in character from the radiatively-driven dry pools defining convective aggregation. Advancement in remote sensing and in computer capabilities has promoted exploration of how precipitation-induced cold pool processes modify the convective spectrum and life cycle. This contribution surveys current understanding of such cold pools over the tropical and subtropical oceans. In shallow convection with low rain rates, the cold pools moisten, preserving the near-surface equivalent potential temperature or increasing it if the surface moisture fluxes cannot ventilate beyond the new surface layer; both conditions indicate downdraft origin air from within the boundary layer. When rain rates exceed ˜ 2 mm h^{-1} , convective-scale downdrafts can bring down drier air of lower equivalent potential temperature from above the boundary layer. The resulting density currents facilitate the lifting of locally thermodynamically favorable air and can impose an arc-shaped mesoscale cloud organization. This organization allows clouds capable of reaching 4-5 km within otherwise dry environments. These are more commonly observed in the northern hemisphere trade wind regime, where the flow to the intertropical convergence zone is unimpeded by the equator. Their near-surface air properties share much with those shown from cold pools sampled in the equatorial Indian Ocean. Cold pools are most effective at influencing the mesoscale organization when the atmosphere is moist in the lower free troposphere and dry above, suggesting an optimal range of water vapor paths. Outstanding questions on the relationship between cold pools, their accompanying moisture distribution and cloud cover are detailed further. Near-surface water vapor rings are documented in one model inside but

  2. Unidata Workshop: Demonstrating Democratization of Numerical Weather Prediction Capabilities Using Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) Capabilities (United States)

    Baltzer, T.; Wilson, A.; Marru, S.; Rossi, A.; Christi, M.; Hampton, S.; Gannon, D.; Alameda, J.; Ramamurthy, M.; Droegemeier, K.


    On July 13th 2006 during the triannual Unidata Workshop, members of the Unidata community got their first experience with capabilities being developed under the Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) project (see: The key LEAD goal demonstrated during the workshop was that of "Democratization," that is, providing capabilities that typically have a high barrier to entry to the larger meteorological community. At the workshop, participants worked with software that demonstrated the specific concepts of: 1) Lowering the barrier to entry by making it easy for users to: - Experiment using meteorological tools - Create meteorological forecasts - Perform mesoscale modeling and forecasting - Access data (source and product) - Make use of large scale cyberinfrastructure (E.g. TeraGrid) 2) Giving users the freedom from technological issues such as: - Hassle-free access to supercomputing resources - Hassle-free execution of forecast models and related tools - Data format independence This talk will overview the capabilities presented to the Unidata workshop participants as well as capabilities developed since the workshop. There will also be a lessons-learned section. This overview will be accomplished with a live demonstration of some of the capabilities. Capabilities that will be discussed and demonstrated have applicability across many disciplines e.g. discovering, acquiring and using data and orchestrating of complex workflow. Acknowledgement: The LEAD project involves the work of nearly 100 individuals whose dedication has resulted in the capabilities that will be shown here. The authors would like to recognize all of them, but in particular we'd like to recognize: John Caron, Rich Clark, Ethan Davis, Charles Hart, Yuan Ho, Scott Jenson, Rob Kambic, Brian Kelly, Ning Liu, Jeff McWhirter, Don Murray, Beth Plale, Rahul Ramachandran, Yogesh Simmhan, Kevin Thomas, Nithya Vijayakumar, Yunheng Wang, Dan Weber, and Bob Wilhelmson.

  3. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara


    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  4. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa – Part 2: Fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and effects on mean values and long-term changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Rieder


    Full Text Available In this study the frequency of days with extreme low (termed ELOs and extreme high (termed EHOs total ozone values and their influence on mean values and trends are analyzed for the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland. The results show (i an increase in ELOs and (ii a decrease in EHOs during the last decades and (iii that the overall trend during the 1970s and 1980s in total ozone is strongly dominated by changes in these extreme events. After removing the extremes, the time series shows a strongly reduced trend (reduction by a factor of 2.5 for trend in annual mean. Excursions in the frequency of extreme events reveal "fingerprints" of dynamical factors such as ENSO or NAO, and chemical factors, such as cold Arctic vortex ozone losses, as well as major volcanic eruptions of the 20th century (Gunung Agung, El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo. Furthermore, atmospheric loading of ozone depleting substances leads to a continuous modification of column ozone in the Northern Hemisphere also with respect to extreme values (partly again in connection with polar vortex contributions. Application of extreme value theory allows the identification of many more such "fingerprints" than conventional time series analysis of annual and seasonal mean values. The analysis shows in particular the strong influence of dynamics, revealing that even moderate ENSO and NAO events have a discernible effect on total ozone. Overall the approach to extremal modelling provides new information on time series properties, variability, trends and the influence of dynamics and chemistry, complementing earlier analyses focusing only on monthly (or annual mean values.

  5. Two spatial scales in a bleaching event: Corals from the mildest and the most extreme thermal environments escape mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Pineda, Jesús


    In summer 2010, a bleaching event decimated the abundant reef flat coral Stylophora pistillata in some areas of the central Red Sea, where a series of coral reefs 100–300 m wide by several kilometers long extends from the coastline to about 20 km offshore. Mortality of corals along the exposed and protected sides of inner (inshore) and mid and outer (offshore) reefs and in situ and satellite sea surface temperatures (SSTs) revealed that the variability in the mortality event corresponded to two spatial scales of temperature variability: 300 m across the reef flat and 20 km across a series of reefs. However, the relationship between coral mortality and habitat thermal severity was opposite at the two scales. SSTs in summer 2010 were similar or increased modestly (0.5°C) in the outer and mid reefs relative to 2009. In the inner reef, 2010 temperatures were 1.4°C above the 2009 seasonal maximum for several weeks. We detected little or no coral mortality in mid and outer reefs. In the inner reef, mortality depended on exposure. Within the inner reef, mortality was modest on the protected (shoreward) side, the most severe thermal environment, with highest overall mean and maximum temperatures. In contrast, acute mortality was observed in the exposed (seaward) side, where temperature fluctuations and upper water temperature values were relatively less extreme. Refuges to thermally induced coral bleaching may include sites where extreme, high-frequency thermal variability may select for coral holobionts preadapted to, and physiologically condition corals to withstand, regional increases in water temperature.

  6. Landslides, floods and sinkholes in a karst environment: the 1-6 September 2014 Gargano event, southern Italy (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro; Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Melillo, Massimo; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Trabace, Maria; Parise, Mario; Guzzetti, Fausto


    In karst environments, heavy rainfall is known to cause multiple geohydrological hazards, including inundations, flash floods, landslides and sinkholes. We studied a period of intense rainfall from 1 to 6 September 2014 in the Gargano Promontory, a karst area in Puglia, southern Italy. In the period, a sequence of torrential rainfall events caused severe damage and claimed two fatalities. The amount and accuracy of the geographical and temporal information varied for the different hazards. The temporal information was most accurate for the inundation caused by a major river, less accurate for flash floods caused by minor torrents and even less accurate for landslides. For sinkholes, only generic information on the period of occurrence of the failures was available. Our analysis revealed that in the promontory, rainfall-driven hazards occurred in response to extreme meteorological conditions and that the karst landscape responded to the torrential rainfall with a threshold behaviour. We exploited the rainfall and the landslide information to design the new ensemble-non-exceedance probability (E-NEP) algorithm for the quantitative evaluation of the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides and of related geohydrological hazards. The ensemble of the metrics produced by the E-NEP algorithm provided better diagnostics than the single metrics often used for landslide forecasting, including rainfall duration, cumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. We expect that the E-NEP algorithm will be useful for landslide early warning in karst areas and in other similar environments. We acknowledge that further tests are needed to evaluate the algorithm in different meteorological, geological and physiographical settings.

  7. Epigenetic genes and emotional reactivity to daily life events: a multi-step gene-environment interaction study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Pishva

    Full Text Available Recent human and animal studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms mediate the impact of environment on development of mental disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in epigenetic-regulatory genes impact stress-induced emotional changes. A multi-step, multi-sample gene-environment interaction analysis was conducted to test whether 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in epigenetic-regulatory genes, i.e. three DNA methyltransferase genes DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, moderate emotional responses to stressful and pleasant stimuli in daily life as measured by Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM. In the first step, main and interactive effects were tested in a sample of 112 healthy individuals. Significant associations in this discovery sample were then investigated in a population-based sample of 434 individuals for replication. SNPs showing significant effects in both the discovery and replication samples were subsequently tested in three other samples of: (i 85 unaffected siblings of patients with psychosis, (ii 110 patients with psychotic disorders, and iii 126 patients with a history of major depressive disorder. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed no significant association between SNPs and negative affect or positive affect. No SNPs moderated the effect of pleasant stimuli on positive affect. Three SNPs of DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825 and 1 SNP of MTHFR (rs1801131 moderated the effect of stressful events on negative affect. Only rs11683424 of DNMT3A showed consistent directions of effect in the majority of the 5 samples. These data provide the first evidence that emotional responses to daily life stressors may be moderated by genetic variation in the genes involved in the epigenetic machinery.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric trace metal deposition in urban environments using direct and indirect measurement methodology and contributions from wet and dry depositions (United States)

    Omrani, Mehrazin; Ruban, Véronique; Ruban, Gwenaël; Lamprea, Katerine


    Bulk Atmospheric Deposition (BAD), Wet Atmospheric Deposition (WAD) and Dry Atmospheric Deposition (DAD) were all measured within an urban residential area in Nantes (France) over a 9-month period (27 February - 10 December 2014). The objectives of this study were to compare 2 methods for measuring dry and wet atmospheric depositions in the urban environment (DAD and WAD: direct method; BAD and WAD: indirect one), and to characterize as well the variations and relative contributions of these depositions. Trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pt and V) were used to carry out these comparison and quantification. BAD was collected with two open polyethylene containers (72 × 54 × 21 cm), while WAD was collected by means of an automated rainwater collector and DAD was determined from both air measurements (recorded by an air sampler) and 7Be deposition velocities. The comparison based on a detailed evaluation of uncertainties showed a significant difference between the direct and indirect methods. Dry and wet depositions varied widely from one month to the next. Zn and Cu were the most abundant elements in both dry and wet depositions. The mean contribution of DAD to the bulk atmospheric deposition during this 9-month study was significant for Zn, Cu and V (about 25%) as well as for Pb (approx. 60%). For this relatively unpolluted urban residential catchment, the contribution of atmospheric deposition to global load at the catchment outlet was low, between 10% and 20% for Zn, Cu, V and Pb, 25% for Cr and about 30% for Ni. For other urban sites exhibiting high atmospheric pollution however, the atmospheric contribution to the global pollution load could be much greater. An accurate and representative estimation of DAD thus proves critical.

  9. Rising susceptibility of freshwater DOC inputs to extreme events? The implications of underlying changes in atmospheric deposition and land-management. (Invited) (United States)

    Evans, C.; Monteith, D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Peacock, M.; Gauci, V.; Page, S. E.; Moore, S.


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) represents a significant loss term within the carbon (C) balance of many terrestrial ecosystems, and a quantitatively important and reactive C input to many freshwater ecosystems. DOC concentrations have risen dramatically, over a period of decades, in rivers and lakes draining semi-natural catchments across large areas of Northern Europe and Northeast North America, with wide-ranging consequences for C cycling, aquatic ecosystem functioning and drinking water treatment. These increases have been variously attributed to climatic changes, including increased incidence of extreme events, as well as land-management factors and changes in atmospheric deposition. A growing body of evidence now indicates that the primary driver of rising DOC has been ecosystem recovery from the historic effects of acid deposition, and thus that observed increases - whilst sometimes economically problematic - may represent a return to pre-industrial baseline conditions. In light of the apparent dominance of acidity change as a driver of recent freshwater DOC increases, we consider whether or not other potential drivers of change, including climatic extremes and management-related disturbances, are likely to exert a significant influence on the transport of DOC from catchments to surface waters. We conclude that the alleviation of acidification pressures has now made catchments in regions formerly impacted by sulphur pollution much more susceptible to extreme events and disturbances. Drawing on monitoring and experimental case studies from the UK, we suggest that DOC export from organic soils may be shifting from ';solubility controlled' to ';supply controlled', and that climatic events leading to enhanced DOC production (e.g. high temperatures or drought-rewet cycles) and/or shallow lateral transport (e.g. high flow events) are now generating freshwater DOC peaks that are unprecedented in the monitoring record. We also examine the role of land-management as

  10. Non-stationarities of Mediterranean heavy precipitation events in the second half of the 20th century related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation (United States)

    Merkenschlager, Christian; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus


    In the context of analysing temporally varying relationships of heavy precipitation events in the Mediterranean area and associated anomalies of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, quantile regression models (QRMs) have been established. Different circulation and thermodynamic variables at the 700hPa and 850hPa levels of the NCEP/NCAR-reanalysis dataset (predictors) as well as daily precipitation time series of different weather stations in the Mediterranean area (predictand) have been used in these regression models. Special emphasis is put on non-stationarities in the relationships of the large-scale atmospheric circulation and heavy precipitation events. Based on rainfall time series tested for homogeneity and completeness, a s-mode principal component analysis (PCA) yields 22 regions of similar precipitation variability for the winter season. The station with the highest PC loading represents the reference station for each region. S-mode PCAs have also been applied to reduce dimensions of the predictor data. The areas of high PC loadings reflect corresponding spatial centres of variation and their time coefficients (scores) are used as predictors in the QRMs. Since the daily precipitation sums are not Gaussian distributed, a three-step censored quantile regression is used to assess the different quantiles. The zero precipitation line represents the censor. By means of the Censored Quantile Verification Skill Score (CQVSS) as a measure of goodness, the best combination of predictor variables can be determined. Mostly, a combination of one thermodynamic predictor and one circulation predictor provides the highest scores whereas an additional predictor does not lead to any significant improvement. In a next step, the number of PCs for both predictors has been determined according to their significance on the level of α=0.01 for every quantile. In the scope of assessing non-stationarities in the predictors-predictand relationships, the time series are divided

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.


    Separate absracts were prepared for the 15 sections of this progress report which is a description of atmospheric research at PNL organized in terms of the following energy technologies: coal, gas and oil; fission and fusion; and oil shale. (KRM)

  12. Observations of the UARS Particle Environment Monitor and computation of ionization rates in the middle and upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm (United States)

    Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Biard, J. C.; Lummerzheim, D.; Rees, M. H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.; Nightingale, R. W.; Imhof, W. L.


    In this paper we present observations made by the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) instruments during the geomagnetic storm of 8-9 November, 1991. Ionization and energy deposition rates as functions of altitude in the middle and upper atmosphere by incident electrons and positive ions in the storm interval are computed. The suite of PEM instruments provides a systematic measurement of energetic particles and their associated X-rays over an energy range not fully covered by previous satellite missions.

  13. Climate and atmospheric deposition patterns and trends (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman; John Hom; Brian E. Potter


    One of the most important factors impacting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is the atmospheric environment. Climatic and weather events play a significant role in governing the natural processes that occur in these ecosystems. The current characteristics of the vast number of ecosystems that cover the northeast and north central United States are, in part, the...

  14. The U.S. Army Person-Event Data Environment: A Military-Civilian Big Data Enterprise. (United States)

    Vie, Loryana L; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Ho, Tiffany E; Labarthe, Darwin R; Seligman, Martin E P


    This report describes a groundbreaking military-civilian collaboration that benefits from an Army and Department of Defense (DoD) big data business intelligence platform called the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE). The PDE is a consolidated data repository that contains unclassified but sensitive manpower, training, financial, health, and medical records covering U.S. Army personnel (Active Duty, Reserve, and National Guard), civilian contractors, and military dependents. These unique data assets provide a veridical timeline capturing each soldier's military experience from entry to separation from the armed forces. The PDE was designed to afford unprecedented cost-efficiencies by bringing researchers and military scientists to a single computerized repository rather than porting vast data resources to individual laboratories. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Positive Psychology Center joined forces with the U.S. Army Research Facilitation Laboratory, forming the scientific backbone of the military-civilian collaboration. This unparalleled opportunity was necessitated by a growing need to learn more about relations between psychological and health assets and health outcomes, including healthcare utilization and costs-issues of major importance for both military and civilian population health. The PDE represents more than 100 times the population size and many times the number of linked variables covered by the nation's leading sources of population health data (e.g., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Following extensive Army vetting procedures, civilian researchers can mine the PDE's trove of information using a suite of statistical packages made available in a Citrix Virtual Desktop. A SharePoint collaboration and governance management environment ensures user compliance with federal and DoD regulations concerning human subjects' protections and also provides a secure

  15. Multi-physics modelling contributions to investigate the atmospheric cosmic rays on the single event upset sensitivity along the scaling trend of CMOS technologies. (United States)

    Hubert, G; Regis, D; Cheminet, A; Gatti, M; Lacoste, V


    Particles originating from primary cosmic radiation, which hit the Earth's atmosphere give rise to a complex field of secondary particles. These particles include neutrons, protons, muons, pions, etc. Since the 1980s it has been known that terrestrial cosmic rays can penetrate the natural shielding of buildings, equipment and circuit package and induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Recently, research has shown that commercial static random access memories are now so small and sufficiently sensitive that single event upsets (SEUs) may be induced from the electronic stopping of a proton. With continued advancements in process size, this downward trend in sensitivity is expected to continue. Then, muon soft errors have been predicted for nano-electronics. This paper describes the effects in the specific cases such as neutron-, proton- and muon-induced SEU observed in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor. The results will allow investigating the technology node sensitivity along the scaling trend. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. The Nittany Atmospheric Trailer and Integrated Validation Experiment (NATIVE)and Pollution Events at Yellowknife, NT, During the Summer 08 ARCTAS Campaign (United States)

    Miller, S. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Doughty, D. C.; Luzik, A. M.; Bryan, A. M.; Shelow, D. M.; Walker, T.


    The Nittany Atmospheric Trailer and Integrated Validation Experiment (hereafter NATIVE) is designed for mobile research into air quality, pollution transport, and satellite validation. It is equipped with surface trace gas sensors and a suite of meteorological instruments, as well as several sun photometers and an aerosol lidar. NATIVE also serves as a ground station for ozonesonde launches. During the ARCTAS field campaign, NATIVE was located in Yellowknife, NT (62.48N, 114.48W) where we conducted ozonesonde launches and trace gas measurements of local pollution and forest fire impacts on local air quality and tropospheric ozone. We combine meteorological data with trace gas measurements to better understand the fire and pollution dynamics that occur during the summer of 2008 in Yellowknife, NT. On June 29, elevated pollution levels and significant smoke were observed at the measurement location. This may be related to forest fires sparked by a recent thunderstorm. Additionally, back trajectory analysis suggests that pollutants from fires were transported over long distances in the free troposphere, which were entrained into the boundary layer. On July 1, with no local fires, elevated pollution levels are again observed in Yellowknife, which may be related to more local sources. During this event, ozone mixing ratios increased from ˜10 to ˜20 ppb over the course of two hours.

  17. The Person-Event Data Environment (PDE: Leveraging Big Data for Studies of Psychological Strengths in Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loryana L. Vie


    Full Text Available The Department of Defense (DoD strives to efficiently manage the large volumes of administrative data collected and repurpose this information for research and analyses with policy implications. This need is especially present in the United States Army, which maintains numerous electronic databases with information on more than one million Active-Duty, Reserve, and National Guard soldiers, their family members, and Army civilian employees. The accumulation of vast amounts of digitized health, military service, and demographic data thus approaches, and may even exceed, traditional benchmarks for Big Data. Given the challenges of disseminating sensitive personal and health information, the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE was created to unify disparate Army and DoD databases in a secure cloud-based enclave. This electronic repository serves the ultimate goal of achieving cost efficiencies in psychological and healthcare studies and provides a platform for collaboration among diverse scientists. This paper provides an overview of the uses of the PDE to perform command surveillance and policy analysis for Army leadership. The paper highlights the confluence of both economic and behavioral science perspectives elucidating empirically-based studies examining relations between psychological assets, health, and healthcare utilization. Specific examples explore the role of psychological assets in major cost drivers such as medical expenditures both during deployment and stateside, drug use, attrition from basic training, and low reenlistment rates. Through creation of the PDE, the Army and scientific community can now capitalize on the vast amounts of personnel, financial, medical, training and education, deployment and security systems that influence Army-wide policies and procedures.

  18. Response of water vapour D-excess to land–atmosphere interactions in a semi-arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen


    The stable isotopic composition of water vapour provides information about moisture sources and processes difficult to obtain with traditional measurement techniques. Recently, it has been proposed that the D-excess of water vapour (d =δH-8× δO) can provide a diagnostic tracer of continental moisture recycling. However, D-excess exhibits a diurnal cycle that has been observed across a variety of ecosystems and may be influenced by a range of processes beyond regional-scale moisture recycling, including local evaporation (ET) fluxes. There is a lack of measurements of D-excess in evaporation (ET) fluxes, which has made it difficult to assess how ET fluxes modify the Dexcess in water vapour (d). With this in mind, we employed a chamber-based approach to directly measure D-excess in ET (d) fluxes. We show that ET fluxes imposed a negative forcing on the ambient vapour and could not explain the higher daytime d values. The low d observed here was sourced from a soil water pool that had undergone an extended drying period, leading to low D-excess in the soil moisture pool. A strong correlation between daytime d and locally measured relative humidity was consistent with an oceanic moisture source, suggesting that remote hydrological processes were the major contributor to daytime d variability. During the early evening, ET fluxes into a shallow nocturnal inversion layer caused a lowering of d values near the surface. In addition, transient mixing of vapour with a higher D-excess from above the nocturnal inversion modified these values, causing large variability during the night. These results indicate d can generally be expected to show large spatial and temporal variability and to depend on the soil moisture state. For long periods between rain events, common in semi-arid environments, ET would be expected to impose negative forcing on the surface d. Spatial and temporal variability of D-excess in ET fluxes therefore needs to be considered when using d to study

  19. Embryological Development: Evolutionary History, Genetic Bias, and Cellular Environment Control the Flow of Developmental Events. Part I. (United States)

    Caplan, Arnold I.


    Describes development of the limb and various interactions necessary for the expression of its unique form and phenotypes to uncover the hierarchical controlling steps in the development process for the potential of avoiding abnormal events and manipulating what might be detrimental genetic events into a normal sequence. (Author/SK)

  20. Gait Event Detection in Real-World Environment for Long-Term Applications: Incorporating Domain Knowledge Into Time-Frequency Analysis. (United States)

    Khandelwal, Siddhartha; Wickstrom, Nicholas


    Detecting gait events is the key to many gait analysis applications that would benefit from continuous monitoring or long-term analysis. Most gait event detection algorithms using wearable sensors that offer a potential for use in daily living have been developed from data collected in controlled indoor experiments. However, for real-word applications, it is essential that the analysis is carried out in humans' natural environment; that involves different gait speeds, changing walking terrains, varying surface inclinations and regular turns among other factors. Existing domain knowledge in the form of principles or underlying fundamental gait relationships can be utilized to drive and support the data analysis in order to develop robust algorithms that can tackle real-world challenges in gait analysis. This paper presents a novel approach that exhibits how domain knowledge about human gait can be incorporated into time-frequency analysis to detect gait events from long-term accelerometer signals. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed algorithm are validated by experiments done in indoor and outdoor environments with approximately 93 600 gait events in total. The proposed algorithm exhibits consistently high performance scores across all datasets in both, indoor and outdoor environments.

  1. Investigation on the development of measurement techniques, the behavior in the environment and the estimation of internal radiation dose by inhalation for some typical atmospheric radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Radionuclides in surface atmosphere on the earth are {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their short lived progeny, {sup 7}Be, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and so on. In this paper, among them, {sup 222}Rn, their short lived progeny ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Po), {sup 7}Be, {sup 3}H, and {sup 90}Sr are focused on as follows based on the experimental and observed results, 1. Development of their measurement techniques, 2. Analysis of their variation of atmospheric concentration with time and places, 3. Analysis of their interaction characteristics with surface environment including plants, 4. Estimation of internal radiation doses by inhalation of them. (author). 228 refs.

  2. Stable isotopes of carbon in environment of Madrid (atmosphere, freshwater rivers and groundwaters); Variacion de ``13 C en el ambiente de Madrid (atmosfera, aguas superciciales y aguas subterraneas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Vera, F.; Tejado, J.J.; Fabian, E.; gomez Artola, C.; Redondo, R.


    Stable isotopes of carbon are studied in atmosphere, freshwater (rivers) and groundwater of the region of Madrid. Sampling and analytical techniques are adapted for the isotopic study of carbon in the environment. The atmosphere samples show delta ``13 C values from -13.92 to-15.67%, closely related to the pollution level of air. The water from wells, to the Tertiary aquifer, with delta``13 C among-13.92 and 15.67%. The dissolution of carbonatic rocks and the biologic activity could be the origin of the wide variations delta ``13 C from-7.07 to -11.85% found in the waters from rivers Jarama Guadalix and Guadarrama. (Author) 11 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Kian NEO


    Full Text Available The inclusion of digital multimedia into teaching and learning has changed instructional strategies in the classroom. While this course has been traditionally given in lecture-based environment, an attempt was made to move it towards a more multimedia-mediated environment to provide a student-centred approach in teaching the principles of animation. The aim of this project is to incorporate Gagne’s 9 Events of Instructions in a multimedia-mediated student-centred learning environment to teach an animation course and to study its impact on student learning. The study assesses the effects the learning environment has on the students’ learning outcome as well as their perceptions in this learning environment. Therefore, data was gathered through various research instruments including surveys and questionnaires to garner their perceptions and their feedback on the learning environment. Furthermore, tests were administrated to the students to gauge their learning outcome. The results were later analysed using a paired t-test. The results were positive and encouraging. They show that the students were motivated and were actively pursuing their learning at their own pace. They enjoyed this self-directed learning approach and liked using multimedia to stimulate and enhance their learning process. The paper also provides evidence that will benefit those wanting to switch from traditional classroom to a more technological and multimedia oriented student-centred learning environment as this learning environment proves to be a viable alternative teaching approach to learning the principles of animation.

  4. Aviation and the Environment: Aviation's Effects on the Global Atmosphere Are Potentially Significant and Expected to Grow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... to 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit over the last century. Many experts agree that, in total, greenhouse gases are warming the earth and that this warming could have harmful effects on the environment and human health...

  5. Miniaturized, Multi-Analyte Sensor Array for the Automated Monitoring of Major Atmospheric Constituents in Spacecraft Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — InnoSense LLC (ISL) proposes to develop a miniaturized, multi-analyte sensor for near real-time monitoring of analytes in the spacecraft environment. The proposed...

  6. Atmospheric Environment Fabrication of Composite Films by Ethanol Catalytic Combustion and Its Use as Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Soar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zou


    Full Text Available The composite films which consist of amorphous carbon, carbon nanotube, and iron nanoparticles were prepared by ethanol catalytic combustion in atmospheric environment. The as-prepared composite films have good electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity which is due to their particular structure. The efficiency of the composite films based dye-sensitized soar cells (DSSCs is closed to that of the Pt based one. Most importantly, the DSSC employing the composite films presents a higher FF than those of Pt based solar cell. In addition, it is a simple method for mass production of composite films counter electrode (CE which is expected to reduce the cost of fabricating DSSCs.

  7. Tritium concentrations in the atmospheric environment at Rokkasho, Japan before the final testing of the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (United States)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Shima, Nagayoshi; Iyogi, Takashi; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi


    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in precipitation and air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Tritium concentration in monthly precipitation during fiscal years 2001-2005 had a seasonal variation pattern which was high in spring and low in summer. The tritium concentration was higher than that observed at Chiba City as a whole. The seasonal peak concentration at Rokkasho was generally higher than that at Chiba City, while the baseline concentrations of both were similar. The reason for the difference may be the effect of air mass from the Asian continent which is considered to have high tritium concentration. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH(3)T) fractions, and the samples collected every 3 d-14 d during fiscal year 2005 were analyzed for these fractions. The HTO concentration as radioactivity in water correlated well with that in the precipitation samples. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH(3)T concentrations. The HT and CH(3)T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH(3)T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH(4) to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH(3)T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The comparisons of anthropogenic-biogenic-atmospheric interactions in pristine, clean, and polluted environments using ambient PTR-ToF-MS spectra (United States)

    Sanchez, D.; Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J.; Su, L.; Mak, J. E.; Lee, M.; Ahn, J. Y.; Guenther, A. B.


    The proton transfer reaction (PTR) technology has a great advantage as it is capable of ionizing the most of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. The atmospheric community has utilized the characteristics to assess unknown and unidentified compounds in the atmosphere. The combination of PTR and the time-of-flight (ToF) technology has brought even more possibilities as it provides improved mass resolution and sensitivity towards the high mass compounds (e.g. m/z > 100). We propose to present a comprehensive comparison among the datasets from SOAS 2013 (Brent, Alabama USA), GOAmazon 2014 (Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil), and MAPS-Seoul 2016 (Taehwa Research Forest, Gyunggi, South Korea). For all the field observations, a high resolution PTR-ToF-MS system (IONICON GmbH) was deployed to detect ambient distributions of VOCs. The comparison will provide a unique opportunity for us to examine BVOCs, especially isoprene chemistry in pristine, clean, and polluted conditions. We will discuss the quantitative comparisons of 1) known BVOCs and their oxidation products and 2) unidentified peaks potentially important in determining missing OH reactivity and aerosol formations in the three very different photochemical environments.

  9. Utilization of 134Cs/137Cs in the environment to identify the reactor units that caused atmospheric releases during the Fukushima Daiichi accident (United States)

    Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Katata, Genki; Mikami, Satoshi; Torii, Tatsuo; Saito, Kimiaki; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu


    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power reactor units that generated large amounts of airborne discharges during the period of March 12-21, 2011 were identified individually by analyzing the combination of measured 134Cs/137Cs depositions on ground surfaces and atmospheric transport and deposition simulations. Because the values of 134Cs/137Cs are different in reactor units owing to fuel burnup differences, the 134Cs/137Cs ratio measured in the environment was used to determine which reactor unit ultimately contaminated a specific area. Atmospheric dispersion model simulations were used for predicting specific areas contaminated by each dominant release. Finally, by comparing the results from both sources, the specific reactor units that yielded the most dominant atmospheric release quantities could be determined. The major source reactor units were Unit 1 in the afternoon of March 12, 2011, Unit 2 during the period from the late night of March 14 to the morning of March 15, 2011. These results corresponded to those assumed in our previous source term estimation studies. Furthermore, new findings suggested that the major source reactors from the evening of March 15, 2011 were Units 2 and 3 and that the dominant source reactor on March 20, 2011 temporally changed from Unit 3 to Unit 2.

  10. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons (United States)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin


    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  11. Development of Client Environments for a Synchronization System based on Events; Desarrollo de Entornos Cliente para un Sistema de Sincronizacion Basado en Eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Vega, J.


    The Asynchronous Event Distribution System (AEDS) was built to provides synchronization resources within the TJ-II local area network. It is a software system developed to add soft synchronization capabilities to the TJ-II data acquisition, control and analysis environments Soft synchronization signifies that AEDS is not a realtime system. In fact, AEDS is based on TCP/IP over ETHERNET networks. However, its response time is adequate for practical purposes when synchronization requirements can support some delay between event dispatch and message reception. Event broadcasters (or synchronization servers in AEDS terminology) are Windows computers. Destination computers (or synchronization clients) were also Windows machines in the first version of AEDS. However, this fact imposed a very important limitation on synchronization capabilities. to overcome this situation, synchronization clients for different environments have been added to AEDS: time-sharing operating systems (UNIX and LINUX), real-time operating systems (OS9 and VxWorks) and Java applications. The synchronization primitives that operate in these systems are very different between them and therefore, several approaches were chosen in order to provide the same functionality to the various environments. POSLX thread library with its basic synchronization primitives (mutex and conditions variables) was used to accomplish this task on UNIX/LINUX systems, IPC mechanisms for concurrent processes on OS9 and VxWorks real time operating systems, and synchronized-wait/notify primitives on Java virtual machines. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. A Combined Atmospheric Rivers and Geopotential Height Analysis for the Detection of High Streamflow Event Probability Occurrence in UK and Germany (United States)

    Rosario Conticello, Federico; Cioffi, Francesco; Lall, Upmanu; Merz, Bruno


    The role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in inducing High Streamflow Events (HSEs) in Europe has been confirmed by numerous studies. Here, we assume as HSEs the streamflows exceeding the 99th percentile of daily flowrate time series measured at streamflow gauges. Among the indicators of ARs are: the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) and Integrated Water Vapor Transport (IVT). For both indicators the literature suggests thresholds in order to identify ARs. Furthermore, local thresholds of such indices are used to assess the occurrence of HSEs in a given region. Recent research on ARs still leaves room for open issues: 1) The literature is not unanimous in defining which of the two indicators is better. 2) The selection of the thresholds is based on subjective assessments. 3) The predictability of HSEs at the local scale associated with these indices seems to be weak and to exist only in the winter months. In order to address these issues, we propose an original methodology: (i) to choose between the two indicators which one is the most suitable for HSEs predictions; (ii) to select IWT and/or IVT (IVT/IWV) local thresholds in a more objective way; (iii) to implement an algorithm able to determine whether a IVT/IWV configuration is inducing HSEs, regardless of the season. In pursuing this goal, besides IWV and IVT fields, we introduce as further predictor the geopotential height at 850 hPa (GPH850) field, that implicitly contains information about the pattern of temperature, direction and intensity of the winds. In fact, the introduction of the GPH850 would help to improve the assessment of the occurrence of HSEs throughout the year. It is also plausible to hypothesize, that IVT/IWV local thresholds could vary in dependence of the GPH850 configuration. In this study, we propose a model to statistically relate these predictors, IVT/IWV and GPH850, to the simultaneous occurrence of HSEs in one or more streamflow gauges in UK and Germany. Historical data from 57 streamflow gauges

  13. Evaluation of LLNL BSL-3 Maximum Credible Event Potential Consequence to the General Population and Surrounding Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of this evaluation is to establish reproducibility of the analysis and consequence results to the general population and surrounding environment in the LLNL Biosafety Level 3 Facility Environmental Assessment (LLNL 2008).

  14. Venus: The Atmosphere, Climate, Surface, Interior and Near-Space Environment of an Earth-Like Planet (United States)

    Taylor, Fredric W.; Svedhem, Håkan; Head, James W.


    This is a review of current knowledge about Earth's nearest planetary neighbour and near twin, Venus. Such knowledge has recently been extended by the European Venus Express and the Japanese Akatsuki spacecraft in orbit around the planet; these missions and their achievements are concisely described in the first part of the review, along with a summary of previous Venus observations. The scientific discussions which follow are divided into three main sections: on the surface and interior; the atmosphere and climate; and the thermosphere, exosphere and magnetosphere. These reports are intended to provide an overview for the general reader, and also an introduction to the more detailed topical surveys in the following articles in this issue, where full references to original material may be found.

  15. ModObs: Atmospheric modelling for wind energy, climate and environment applications : exploring added value from new observation technique (United States)

    Sempreviva, A. M.


    The EC FP6 Marie Curie Training Network "ModObs" addresses the improvement of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models to investigate the interplay of processes at different temporal and spatial scales, and to explore the added value from new observation techniques. The overall goal is to bring young scientists to work together with experienced researchers in developing a better interaction amongst scientific communities of modelers and experimentalists, using a comprehensive approach to "Climate Change", "Clean Energy assessment" and "Environmental Policies", issues. This poster describes the work in progress of ten students, funded by the network, under the supervision of a team of scientists within atmospheric physics, engineering and satellite remote sensing and end-users such as companies in the private sector, all with the appropriate expertise to integrate the most advanced research methods and techniques in the following topics. MODELING: GLOBAL-TO-MESO SCALE: Analytical and process oriented numerical models will be used to study the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean on a regional scale. Initial results indicate an interaction between the intensity of polar lows and the subsurface warm core often present in the Nordic Seas (11). The presence of waves, mainly swell, influence the MABL fluxes and turbulence structure. The regional and global wave effect on the atmosphere will be also studied and quantified (7) MESO-SCALE: Applicability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parametrizations in the meso-scale WRF model to marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the North Sea is investigated. The most suitable existing PBL parametrization will be additionally improved and used for downscaling North Sea past and future climates (2). Application of the meso-scale model (MM5 and WRF) for the wind energy in off-shore and coastal area. Set-up of the meso-scale model, post-processing and verification of the data from

  16. Extreme rainfall events in karst environments: the case study of September 2014 in the Gargano area (southern Italy) (United States)

    Martinotti, Maria Elena; Pisano, Luca; Trabace, Maria; Marchesini, Ivan; Peruccacci, Silvia; Rossi, Mauro; Amoruso, Giuseppe; Loiacono, Pierluigi; Vennari, Carmela; Vessia, Giovanna; Parise, Mario; Brunetti, Maria Teresa


    In the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, SE Italy) was hit by an extreme rainfall event that caused several landslides, floods and sinkholes. As a consequence of the floods, two people lost their lives and severe socio-economic damages were reported. The highest peaks of rainfall were recorded between September 3rd and 6th at the Cagnano Varano and San Marco in Lamis rain gauges with a maximum daily rainfall (over 230 mm) that is about 30% the mean annual rainfall. The Gargano Promontory is characterized by complex orographic conditions, with the highest elevation of about 1000 m a.s.l. The geological setting consists of different types of carbonate deposits affected by intensive development of karst processes. The morphological and climatic settings of the area, associated with frequent extreme rainfall events can cause various types of geohazards (e.g., landslides, floods, sinkholes). A further element enhancing the natural predisposition of the area to the occurrence of landslides, floods and sinkholes is an intense human activity, characterized by an inappropriate land use and management. In order to obtain consistent and reliable data on the effects produced by the storm, a systematic collection of information through field observations, a critical analysis of newspaper articles and web-news, and a co-operation with the Regional Civil Protection and local geologists started immediately after the event. The information collected has been organized in a database including the location, the occurrence time and the type of geohazard documented with photographs. The September 2014 extreme rainfall event in the Gargano Promontory was also analyzed to validate the forecasts issued by the Italian national early-warning system for rainfall-induced landslides (SANF), developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC). SANF compares rainfall measurements and

  17. Theorizing "Big Events" as a potential risk environment for drug use, drug-related harm and HIV epidemic outbreaks. (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Rossi, Diana; Braine, Naomi


    Political-economic transitions in the Soviet Union, Indonesia, and China, but not the Philippines, were followed by HIV epidemics among drug users. Wars also may sometimes increase HIV risk. Based on similarities in some of the causal pathways through which wars and transitions can affect HIV risk, we use the term "Big Events" to include both. We first critique several prior epidemiological models of Big Events as inadequately incorporating social agency and as somewhat imprecise and over-generalizing in their sociology. We then suggest a model using the following concepts: first, event-specific HIV transmission probabilities are functions of (a) the probability that partners are infection-discordant; (b) the infection-susceptibility of the uninfected partner; (c) the infectivity of the infected--as well as (d) the behaviours engaged in. These probabilities depend on the distributions of HIV and other variables in populations. Sexual or injection events incorporate risk behaviours and are embedded in sexual and injection partnership patterns and community networks, which in turn are shaped by the content of normative regulation in communities. Wars and transitions can change socio-economic variables that can sometimes precipitate increases in the numbers of people who engage in high-risk drug and sexual networks and behaviours and in the riskiness of what they do. These variables that Big Events affect may include population displacement; economic difficulties and policies; police corruption, repressiveness, and failure to preserve order; health services; migration; social movements; gender roles; and inter-communal violence--which, in turn, affect normative regulation, youth alienation, networks and behaviours. As part of these pathways, autonomous action by neighbourhood residents, teenagers, drug users and sex workers to maintain their economic welfare, health or happiness may affect many of these variables or otherwise mediate whether HIV epidemics follow

  18. Solar-Storm/Lunar Atmosphere Model (SSLAM): An overview of the effort and description of the driving storm environment (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Gross, N.; Bleacher, L. V.; Krauss-Varben, D.; Travnicek, P.; Hurley, D.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Jackson, T. L.


    On 29 April 1998, a coronal mass ejection (CME) was emitted from the Sun that had a significant impact at Earth. The terrestrial magnetosphere became more electrically active during the storm passage. Less explored is the effect of such a storm on an exposed rocky body like our Moon. The solar-storm/lunar atmosphere modeling effort (SSLAM) brings together surface interactions, exosphere, plasma, and surface charging models all run with a common driver - the solar storm and CME passage occurring from 1 to 4 May 1998. We present herein an expanded discussion on the solar driver during the 1-4 May 1998 period that included the passage of an intense coronal mass ejection (CME) that had >10 times the solar wind density and had a compositional component of He++ that exceeded 20%. During this time, the plasma mass flux to the exposed lunar surface increased by over 20 times compared to the nominal solar wind, to a value near 10-13 kg/m2-s. Over a two day CME passage by the Moon, this amount approaches 300 tons of added mass to the Moon in the form of individual proton and helium ions. Such an increase in ion flux should have a profound impact on sputtering loss rates from the surface, since this process scales as the mass, energy, and charge state of the incident ion. Associated loss processes were addressed by SSLAM and will be discussed herein.

  19. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai


    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  20. Solar-Storm/Lunar Atmosphere Model (SSLAM): An Overview of the Effort and Description of the Driving Storm Environment (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delroy, G. T.; Gross, N.; Bleacher, V; Krauss-Varben, D.; Hurley, D; Zimmerman, M. I.


    On 29 April 1998, a coronal mass ejection (CME) was emitted from the Sun that had a significant impact on bodies located at 1 AU. The terrestrial magnetosphere did indeed become more electrically active during the storm passage but an obvious question is the effect of such a storm on an exposed rocky body like our Moon. The solar-storm/lunar atmosphere modeling effort (SSLAM) brings together surface interactions, exosphere, plasma, and surface charging models all run with a common driver - the solar storm and CME passage occurring from 1-4 May 1998. We present herein an expanded discussion on the solar driver during the 1-4 May 1998 period that included the passage of an intense coronal mass ejection (CME) that had> 10 times the solar wind density and had a compositional component of He++ that exceeded 20%. We also provide a very brief overview oflhe SSLAM system layout and overarching results. One primary result is that the CME driver plasma can greatly increase the exospheric content via sputtering, with total mass loss rates that approach 1 kg/s during the 2-day CME passage. By analogy, we suggest that CME-related sputtering increases might also be expected during a CME passage by a near-earth asteroid or at the Mars exobase, resulting in an enhanced loss of material.

  1. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.


    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A geometric method for computing ocular kinematics and classifying gaze events using monocular remote eye tracking in a robotic environment. (United States)

    Singh, Tarkeshwar; Perry, Christopher M; Herter, Troy M


    Robotic and virtual-reality systems offer tremendous potential for improving assessment and rehabilitation of neurological disorders affecting the upper extremity. A key feature of these systems is that visual stimuli are often presented within the same workspace as the hands (i.e., peripersonal space). Integrating video-based remote eye tracking with robotic and virtual-reality systems can provide an additional tool for investigating how cognitive processes influence visuomotor learning and rehabilitation of the upper extremity. However, remote eye tracking systems typically compute ocular kinematics by assuming eye movements are made in a plane with constant depth (e.g. frontal plane). When visual stimuli are presented at variable depths (e.g. transverse plane), eye movements have a vergence component that may influence reliable detection of gaze events (fixations, smooth pursuits and saccades). To our knowledge, there are no available methods to classify gaze events in the transverse plane for monocular remote eye tracking systems. Here we present a geometrical method to compute ocular kinematics from a monocular remote eye tracking system when visual stimuli are presented in the transverse plane. We then use the obtained kinematics to compute velocity-based thresholds that allow us to accurately identify onsets and offsets of fixations, saccades and smooth pursuits. Finally, we validate our algorithm by comparing the gaze events computed by the algorithm with those obtained from the eye-tracking software and manual digitization. Within the transverse plane, our algorithm reliably differentiates saccades from fixations (static visual stimuli) and smooth pursuits from saccades and fixations when visual stimuli are dynamic. The proposed methods provide advancements for examining eye movements in robotic and virtual-reality systems. Our methods can also be used with other video-based or tablet-based systems in which eye movements are performed in a peripersonal

  3. Kinematics of child volunteers and child anthropomorphic test devices during emergency braking events in real car environment. (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta; Brolin, Karin


    The objective of this study was to present, compare, and discuss the kinematic response of children and child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during emergency braking events in different restraint configurations in a passenger vehicle. A driving study was conducted on a closed-circuit test track comprising 16 children aged 4 to 12 years old and the Q3, Hybrid III (HIII) 3-year-old, 6-year-old, and 10-year-old ATDs restrained on the right rear seat of a modern passenger vehicle. The children were exposed to one braking event in each of the 2 restraint systems and the ATDs were exposed to 2 braking events in each restraint system. All events had a deceleration of 1.0 g. Short children (stature 107-123 cm) and the Q3, HIII 3-year-old, and 6-year-old were restrained on booster cushions as well as high-back booster seats. Tall children (stature 135-150 cm) and HIII 10-year-old were restrained on booster cushions or restrained by 3-point belts directly on the car seat. Vehicle data were collected and synchronized with video data. Forward trajectories for the forehead and external auditory canal (ear) were determined as well as head rotation and shoulder belt force. A total of 40 trials were analyzed. Child volunteers had greater maximum forward displacement of the head and greater head rotation compared to the ATDs. The average maximum displacement for children ranged from 165 to 210 mm and 155 to 195 mm for the forehead and ear target, respectively. Corresponding values for the ATDs were 55 to 165 mm and 50 to 160 mm. The change in head angle was greater for short children than for tall children. Shoulder belt force was within the same range for short children when restrained on booster cushions or high-back booster seats. For tall children, the shoulder belt force was greater when restrained on booster cushions compared to being restrained by seat belts directly on the car seat. The forward displacement was within the same range for all children regardless of

  4. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi


    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  5. flexCloud: Deployment of the FLEXPART Atmospheric Transport Model as a Cloud SaaS Environment (United States)

    Morton, Don; Arnold, Dèlia


    FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) is a Lagrangian transport and dispersion model used by a growing international community. We have used it to simulate and forecast the atmospheric transport of wildfire smoke, volcanic ash and radionuclides. Additionally, FLEXPART may be run in backwards mode to provide information for the determination of emission sources such as nuclear emissions and greenhouse gases. This open source software is distributed in source code form, and has several compiler and library dependencies that users need to address. Although well-documented, getting it compiled, set up, running, and post-processed is often tedious, making it difficult for the inexperienced user. Our interest is in moving scientific modeling and simulation activities from site-specific clusters and supercomputers to a cloud model as a service paradigm. Choosing FLEXPART for our prototyping, our vision is to construct customised IaaS images containing fully-compiled and configured FLEXPART codes, including pre-processing, execution and postprocessing components. In addition, with the inclusion of a small web server in the image, we introduce a web-accessible graphical user interface that drives the system. A further initiative being pursued is the deployment of multiple, simultaneous FLEXPART ensembles in the cloud. A single front-end web interface is used to define the ensemble members, and separate cloud instances are launched, on-demand, to run the individual models and to conglomerate the outputs into a unified display. The outcome of this work is a Software as a Service (Saas) deployment whereby the details of the underlying modeling systems are hidden, allowing modelers to perform their science activities without the burden of considering implementation details.

  6. Characterization and source regions of 51 high-CO events observed during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights between south China and the Philippines, 2005-2008 (United States)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.


    Carbon monoxide (CO) and other atmospheric trace constituents were measured from onboard an Airbus 340-600 passenger aircraft in the upper troposphere (UT) between south China and the Philippines during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights from May 2005 until March 2008. A total of 132 events having CO enhancements were observed in the UT over the region during the 81 CARIBIC flights from Frankfurt, Germany, to Manila, Philippines, with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. Among these, 51 high-CO events with enhancements more than 50 ppb above background were observed. For these events enhancements ranged from 52.7 to 221.3 ppb and persisted for 3 to 78 min (˜40 to 1200 km), indicating an influence of strong pollution from biomass/biofuel/fossil fuel burning on the trace gas composition of the UT. Back trajectory analysis shows that south China, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the Philippines/Indonesia are the main source regions of the high-CO events. The composition of air parcels originating from south China was found to be primarily influenced by anthropogenic urban/industrial emissions, while emissions from biomass/biofuel burning contributed substantially to CO enhancements from the Indochinese Peninsula. During the Philippines/Indonesia events, air parcel composition suggests contributions from both biomass/biofuel burning and urban/industrial sources. Long-range transport of air parcels from northeast Asia and India also contributed to CO enhancements in the UT over the region. The general features of regional influence, typical cases, and the contributions of biomass/biofuel burning and anthropogenic emissions are presented and discussed to characterize the air parcels during the observed high-CO events.

  7. [Stressor events in the family environment that are indicative of mental health problems in children of school age]. (United States)

    de Matos, Mariana Bonati; Cruz, Ana Catarina Nova; Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Dias, Natália da Costa; Carret, Renata Bonati Peters; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila


    The scope of this article is to evaluate the relationship between stressor events that occurred last year in the family of children and adolescents that are indicative of mental health problems in a sample of students from two schools in a city in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,075 students enrolled in two public elementary schools. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess emotional and behavioral factors of the child and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) of Holmes and Rahe (1967) to assess stressor events. The chi-square and Poisson regression test with robust variance adjustment for expressing the results in the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence intervals of 95% were used. The chances of presenting problems of hyperactivity were 1.42 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.83) times higher in the intermediate tercile and 1.37 (95% CI 1.06-1.78) in the higher tercile compared with the lower tercile. With respect to relationship problems the chances were of 1.49 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.93) times higher in the higher tercile when compared with the lower tercile. The results suggest that environmental factors may be strongly related to the etiology of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  8. Modeling the effectiveness of shielding in the earth-moon-mars radiation environment using PREDICCS: five solar events in 2012 (United States)

    Quinn, Philip R.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Townsend, Larry W.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Case, Anthony W.; Spence, Harlan E.; Wilson, Jody K.; Joyce, Colin J.


    Radiation in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs) presents a severe risk to the short-term health of astronauts and the success of human exploration missions beyond Earth's protective shielding. Modeling how shielding mitigates the dose accumulated by astronauts is an essential step toward reducing these risks. PREDICCS (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating the CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements) is an online tool for the near real-time prediction of radiation exposure at Earth, the Moon, and Mars behind various levels of shielding. We compare shielded dose rates from PREDICCS with dose rates from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon and from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) during its cruise phase to Mars for five solar events in 2012 when Earth, MSL, and Mars were magnetically well connected. Calculations of the accumulated dose demonstrate a reasonable agreement between PREDICCS and RAD ranging from as little as 2% difference to 54%. We determine mathematical relationships between shielding levels and accumulated dose. Lastly, the gradient of accumulated dose between Earth and Mars shows that for the largest of the five solar events, lunar missions require aluminum shielding between 1.0 g cm-2 and 5.0 g cm-2 to prevent radiation exposure from exceeding the 30-day limits for lens and skin. The limits were not exceeded near Mars.

  9. Detection of laser-produced tin plasma emission lines in atmospheric environment by optical emission spectroscopy technique (United States)

    Aadim, Kadhim A.


    A spectroscopic study on laser-produced tin plasma utilizing the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique is presented. Plasma is produced from a solid tin target irradiated with pulsed laser in room environment. Electron temperature is determined at different laser peak powers from the ratio of line intensities, while electron density is deduced from Saha-Boltzmann equation. A limited number of suitable tin lines are detected, and the effect of the laser peak power on the intensity of emission lines is discussed. Electron temperatures are measured in the range of 0.36 eV-0.44 eV with electron densities of the order 1017 cm-3 as the laser peak power is varied from 11 MW to 22 MW.

  10. Modeling the effectiveness of shielding in the earth-moon-mars radiation environment using PREDICCS: five solar events in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Philip R.


    Full Text Available Radiation in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs presents a severe risk to the short-term health of astronauts and the success of human exploration missions beyond Earth’s protective shielding. Modeling how shielding mitigates the dose accumulated by astronauts is an essential step toward reducing these risks. PREDICCS (Predictions of radiation from REleASE, EMMREM, and Data Incorporating the CRaTER, COSTEP, and other SEP measurements is an online tool for the near real-time prediction of radiation exposure at Earth, the Moon, and Mars behind various levels of shielding. We compare shielded dose rates from PREDICCS with dose rates from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO at the Moon and from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL during its cruise phase to Mars for five solar events in 2012 when Earth, MSL, and Mars were magnetically well connected. Calculations of the accumulated dose demonstrate a reasonable agreement between PREDICCS and RAD ranging from as little as 2% difference to 54%. We determine mathematical relationships between shielding levels and accumulated dose. Lastly, the gradient of accumulated dose between Earth and Mars shows that for the largest of the five solar events, lunar missions require aluminum shielding between 1.0 g cm−2 and 5.0 g cm−2 to prevent radiation exposure from exceeding the 30-day limits for lens and skin. The limits were not exceeded near Mars.

  11. Tetraploidization events by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent in apomictic citrus and are dependent on genotype and environment (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Froelicher, Yann; Schwarz, Sergio; Agustí, Manuel; Hernández, María; Juárez, José; Luro, François; Morillon, Raphael; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick


    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a major component of plant evolution. The citrus gene pool is essentially diploid but tetraploid plants are frequently encountered in seedlings of diploid apomictic genotypes. The main objectives of the present study were to establish the origin of these tetraploid plants and to ascertain the importance of genotypic and environmental factors on tetraploid formation. Methods Tetraploid seedlings from 30 diploid apomictic genotypes were selected by flow cytometry and genotyped with 24 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse their genetic origin. Embryo rescue was used to grow all embryos contained in polyembryonic seeds of ‘Tardivo di Ciaculli’ mandarin, followed by characterization of the plantlets obtained by flow cytometry and SSR markers to accurately establish the rate of tetraploidization events and their potential tissue location. Inter-annual variations in tetraploid seedling rates were analysed for seven genotypes. Variation in tetraploid plantlet rates was analysed between different seedlings of the same genotype (‘Carrizo’ citrange; Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) from seeds collected in different tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean countries. Key Results Tetraploid plants were obtained for all the studied diploid genotypes, except for four mandarins. All tetraploid plants were identical to their diploid maternal line for SSR markers and were not cytochimeric. Significant genotypic and environmental effects were observed, as well as negative correlation between mean temperature during the flowering period and tetraploidy seedling rates. The higher frequencies (20 %) of tetraploids were observed for citranges cultivated in the Mediterranean area. Conclusions Tetraploidization by chromosome doubling of nucellar cells are frequent events in apomictic citrus, and are affected by both genotypic and environmental factors. Colder conditions in marginal climatic areas appear to favour the expression of

  12. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area. (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Iturmendi, A; Mastral, A M


    The total PAH associated to the airborne particulate matter (PM10) was apportioned by one receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) in an urban environment (Zaragoza city, Spain) during February 2010-January 2011. Four sources associated with coal combustion, gasoline, vehicular and stationary emissions were identified, allowing a good modelling of the total PAH (R(2) = 0.99). A seasonal behaviour of the four factors was obtained with higher concentrations in the cold season. The NE direction was one of the predominant directions showing the negative impact of industrial parks, a paper factory and a highway located in that direction. Samples were classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis obtaining that, episodes with the most negative impact on human health (the highest lifetime cancer risk concentrations), were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season favoured by high relative humidity, low temperature and low wind speed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Computing environment logbook (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M


    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  14. Spatial Variability of L-Band Brightness Temperature during Freeze/Thaw Events over a Prairie Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roy


    Full Text Available Passive microwave measurements from space are known to be sensitive to the freeze/thaw (F/T state of the land surface. These measurements are at a coarse spatial resolution (~15–50 km and the spatial variability of the microwave emissions within a pixel can have important effects on the interpretation of the signal. An L-band ground-based microwave radiometer campaign was conducted in the Canadian Prairies during winter 2014–2015 to examine the spatial variability of surface emissions during frozen and thawed periods. Seven different sites within the Kenaston soil monitoring network were sampled five times between October 2014 and April 2015 with a mobile ground-based L-band radiometer system at approximately monthly intervals. The radiometer measurements showed that in a seemingly homogenous prairie landscape, the spatial variability of brightness temperature (TB is non-negligible during both frozen and unfrozen soil conditions. Under frozen soil conditions, TB was negatively correlated with soil permittivity (εG. This correlation was related to soil moisture conditions before the main freezing event, showing that the soil ice volumetric content at least partly affects TB. However, because of the effect of snow on L-Band emission, the correlation between TB and εG decreased with snow accumulation. When compared to satellite measurements, the average TB of the seven plots were well correlated with the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS TB with a root mean square difference of 8.1 K and consistent representation of the strong F/T signal (i.e., TB increases and decreases when soil freezing and thawing, respectively. This study allows better quantitative understanding of the spatial variability in L-Band emissions related to landscape F/T, and will help the calibration and validation of satellite-based F/T retrieval algorithms.

  15. On the Response of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager to the Marine Environment: Implications for Atmospheric Parameter Retrievals. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.


    A reasonably rigorous basis for understanding and extracting the physical information content of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) satellite images of the marine environment is provided. To this end, a comprehensive algebraic parameterization is developed for the response of the SSM/I to a set of nine atmospheric and ocean surface parameters. The brightness temperature model includes a closed-form approximation to microwave radiative transfer in a non-scattering atmosphere and fitted models for surface emission and scattering based on geometric optics calculations for the roughened sea surface. The combined model is empirically tuned using suitable sets of SSM/I data and coincident surface observations. The brightness temperature model is then used to examine the sensitivity of the SSM/I to realistic variations in the scene being observed and to evaluate the theoretical maximum precision of global SSM/I retrievals of integrated water vapor, integrated cloud liquid water, and surface wind speed. A general minimum-variance method for optimally retrieving geophysical parameters from multichannel brightness temperature measurements is outlined, and several global statistical constraints of the type required by this method are computed. Finally, a unified set of efficient statistical and semi-physical algorithms is presented for obtaining fields of surface wind speed, integrated water vapor, cloud liquid water, and precipitation from SSM/I brightness temperature data. Features include: a semi-physical method for retrieving integrated cloud liquid water at 15 km resolution and with rms errors as small as approximately 0.02 kg/sq m; a 3-channel statistical algorithm for integrated water vapor which was constructed so as to have improved linear response to water vapor and reduced sensitivity to precipitation; and two complementary indices of precipitation activity (based on 37 GHz attenuation and 85 GHz scattering, respectively), each of which are relatively

  16. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  17. Identification of the non-stationarity of extreme precipitation events and correlations with large-scale ocean-atmospheric circulation patterns: A case study in the Wei River Basin, China (United States)

    Liu, Saiyan; Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Xie, Yangyang; Leng, Guoyong; Luan, Jinkai; Song, Xiaoyu; Wei, Xiu; Li, Xiangyang


    The investigation of extreme precipitation events in terms of variation characteristics, stationarity, and their underlying causes is of great significance to better understand the regional response of the precipitation variability to global climate change. In this study, the Wei River Basin (WRB), a typical eco-environmentally vulnerable region of the Loess Plateau in China was selected as the study region. A set of precipitation indices was adopted to study the changing patterns of precipitation extremes and the stationarity of extreme precipitation events. Furthermore, the correlations between the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)/El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and precipitation extremes were explored using the cross wavelet technique. The results indicate that: (1) extreme precipitation events in the WRB are characterized by a significant decrease of consecutive wet days (CWD) at the 95% confidence level; (2) compared with annual precipitation, daily precipitation extremes are much more sensitive to changing environments, and the assumption of stationarity of extreme precipitation in the WRB is invalid, especially in the upstream, thereby introducing large uncertainty to the design and management of water conservancy engineering; (3) both PDO and ENSO events have a strong influence on precipitation extremes in the WRB. These findings highlight the importance of examining the validity of the stationarity assumption in extreme hydrological frequency analysis, which has great implications for the prediction of extreme hydrological events.

  18. Model Simulations of a Mesocosm Experiment Investigating the Response of a Low Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (LNLC Marine Ecosystem to Atmospheric Deposition Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas P. Tsiaras


    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus represents an important source of nutrients, enhancing the marine productivity in oligotrophic areas, e.g., the Mediterranean. A comprehensive biogeochemical model (ERSEM was setup and customized to simulate a mesocosm experiment, where dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus by means of atmospheric dust (single addition/SA and repetitive addition/RA in three successive doses was added in controlled tanks and compared with a control (blank, all with Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean water. Observations on almost all components of the pelagic ecosystem in a ten-day period allowed investigating the effect of atmospheric deposition and the pathways of the added nutrients. The model was able to reasonably capture the observed variability of different ecosystem components and reproduce the main features of the experiment. An enhancement of primary production and phytoplankton biomass with added nutrients was simulated, in agreement with observations. A significant increase of bacterial production was also reproduced, while the model underestimated the observed increase and variability in bacterial biomass, but this deviation could be partly removed considering a lower carbon conversion factor from cell abundance data. A slightly stronger overall response was simulated with the single dust addition, compared to the repetitive that showed a few days delay. The simulated carbon pathways indicated that nutrient additions did not modify the microbial food web structure, but just increased its trophic status. Changes in model assumptions and parameter set that were necessary to reproduce the observed variability in the mesocosm experiment were discussed through a series of sensitivity simulations. Bacterial production was assumed to be mostly affected by the in situ produced labile organic matter, while it was further stimulated by the addition of inorganic nutrients, adopting a function of external

  19. Summer extreme climatic event in the future: impact on the net CO2 and water fluxes of an upland grassland and buffering impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 (United States)

    Roy, Jacques; Ravel, Olivier; Landais, Damien; Piel, Clément; Defossez, Marc; Escape, Christophe; Devidal, Sébastien; Didier, Philippe; Bahn, Michael; Volaire, Florence; Augusti, Angela; Soussana, Jean-François; Picon-Cochard, Catherine


    Extreme climatic events are expected to be more frequent and intense in a few decades, but they will also occur in a climatic context different from the current one. In the Montpellier Ecotron, we studied the response of intact grassland monoliths (1m², 60 cm deep) sampled in an upland grassland of the French Massif Central. The first year the grasslands were acclimated to the average climatic conditions of the years around 2050 (+ 4 °C and - 56 mm for summer precipitations). The second year, the same climate was maintained but in half of the experimental units we imposed a summer drought and heat wave (50 % reduction of precipitations for a month and then 100 % precipitation reduction combined with a 3,4 °C increase in temperature for two weeks). A CO2 treatment (520 vs 380 µmol/mol) was crossed with the climatic treatment. Net CO2 fluxes were measured continuously during the second year of the experiment. The extreme climatic event induced a total senescence of the canopy whatever the CO2 treatment. The interactive effect of elevated CO2 with the drought treatment was significant at the onset of the drought and particularly large in the fall after the recovery period, with a net photosynthesis twice as high in the (extreme climate+ CO2) treatment compared to the control. Integrated over the year, elevated CO2 totally buffered the impact of the extreme climatic event on net CO2 exchanges. These results are discussed together with the evapotranspiration and soil humidity data.

  20. The Interacting Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Depression Is Not an Artifact of Gene-Environment Correlation: Evidence from a Longitudinal Twin Study (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; McGue, Matt


    Background: Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the…

  1. Investigating the impacts of deep ocean euxinia on continental shelf environments during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event: did changes in global oceanic redox have any effect? (United States)

    Marenco, P. J.; Marenco, K. N.; Phillips, D. E.; Garcia, E.; Toure, N.; Fullem, A.


    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event was one of the most important radiations in the history of animal life. In particular, the GOBE was characterized by pronounced increases in diversity within the Paleozoic and Modern Evolutionary Faunas (e.g., Droser and Finnegan, 2003). Rather than being attributable to a singular cause, a number of tectonic, ecologic, and climate-related factors are thought to have contributed to this biodiversification event (e.g., Servais et al., 2009). For example, continental shelf area during the GOBE was more extensive than at any other time during the Phanerozoic, and the availability of these warm, shallow-water, well-oxygenated environments likely influenced the radiation (e.g., Servais et al., 2009). Despite this evidence for favorable conditions, recent geochemical studies suggest that the early Paleozoic, including the Ordovician, was a time of episodic deep ocean euxinia (e.g., Gill et al., 2011, Thompson and Kah, 2012). It remains unclear how the hypothesized deep ocean euxinia may have affected the GOBE. For example, it is possible that episodic incursions of euxinic deep water onto the continental shelves may have acted to slow down the GOBE or even dampen its magnitude. On the other hand, such incursions may have accelerated the radiation by adding additional selection pressures to communities that were already adapting to new predation and substrate conditions. Alternatively, the GOBE may have proceeded without any incursions of euxinic deep water onto the continental shelves. One way to address this issue is to investigate short-term, localized redox changes in shallow marine settings. Here we present results from our ongoing investigation of redox changes in shallow-water environments from the Lower and Middle Ordovician of Utah. Specifically, we use abundances of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS) as localized redox proxies. We use the isotopic composition of carbonate associated sulfate (δ34SCAS

  2. Spatial-temporal variations of dominant drought/flood modes and the associated atmospheric circulation and ocean events in rainy season over the east of China (United States)

    Huang, Shaoni; Huang, Fei


    By using Season-reliant Empirical Orthogonal Function (S-EOF) analysis, three dominant modes of the spatial-temporal evolution of the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are revealed for the period of 1960-2004. The first two leading modes occur during the turnabout phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) decaying year, but the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are different due to the role of the Indian Ocean (IO). The first leading mode appears closely correlated with the ENSO events. In the decaying year of El Niño, the associated western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone located over the Philippine Sea persists from the previous winter to the next early summer, transports warm and moist air toward the southern Yangtze River in China, and leads to wet conditions over this entire region. Therefore, the precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Southern Flood and Northern Drought' pattern over East China. On the other hand, the basin-wide Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) plays a crucial role in prolonging the impact of ENSO on the second mode during the ENSO decaying summer. The Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) warming persists through summer and unleashes its influence, which forces a Matsuno-Gill pattern in the upper troposphere. Over the subtropical western North Pacific, an anomalous anticyclone forms in the lower troposphere. The southerlies on the northwest flank of this anticyclone increase the moisture transport onto central China, leading to abundant rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys. The anomalous anticyclone causes dry conditions over South China and the South China Sea (SCS). The precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Northern Flood and Southern Drought' pattern over East China. Therefore, besides the ENSO event the IOBM is an important factor to influence the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over

  3. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene


    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...

  4. Development of the Finse Alpine Research Station towards a platform for multi-disciplinary research on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments (LATICE) (United States)

    Burkhart, John F.; Decker, Sven; Filhol, Simon; Hulth, John; Nesje, Atle; Schuler, Thomas V.; Sobolowski, Stefan; Tallaksen, Lena M.


    The Finse Alpine Research Station provides convenient access to the Hardangervidda mountain plateau in Southern Norway (60 deg N, 1222 m asl). The station is located above the tree-line in vicinity to the west-eastern mountain water divide and is easily accessible by train from Bergen and Oslo. The station itself offers housing and basic laboratory facilities and has been used for ecological monitoring. Over the past years, studies on small-scale snow distribution and ground temperature have been performed and accompanied by a suite of meteorological measurements. Supported by strategic investments by the University of Oslo and ongoing research projects, these activities are currently expanded and the site is developed towards a mountain field laboratory for studies on Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Cold Environments, facilitated by the LATICE project ( Additional synergy comes from close collaborations with a range of institutions that perform operational monitoring close to Finse, including long-term time series of meteorological data and global radiation. Through our activities, this infrastructure has been complemented by a permanent tower for continuous Eddy-Covariance measurements along with associated gas fluxes. A second, mobile covariance system is in preparation and will become operational in 2017. In addition, a wireless sensor network is set up to grasp the spatial distributions of basic meteorological variables, snow depth and glacier mass balance on the nearby Hardangerjøkulen ice cap. While the research focus so far was on small scale processes (snow redistribution), this is now being expanded to cover hydrological processes on the catchment and regional scale. To this end, two discharge stations have been installed to gauge discharge from two contrasting catchments (glacier dominated and non-glacierized). In this presentation, we provide an overview over existing and planned infrastructure, field campaigns and research

  5. Parietaria judaica flowering phenology, pollen production, viability and atmospheric circulation, and expansive ability in the urban environment: impacts of environmental factors (United States)

    Fotiou, Christina; Damialis, Athanasios; Krigas, Nikolaos; Halley, John M.; Vokou, Despoina


    Parietaria judaica (Urticaceae) grows abundantly in urban areas of the Mediterranean region. Its pollen is a major allergy source. We studied the species' distribution and abundance in and around Thessaloniki (Greece), pollen production and pollen season. We also examined how urban pollution affects pollen viability. Our ultimate goal was to obtain an estimate of the species' performance and ability to expand under different environmental conditions related to climate change. We mapped P. judaica and the other Urticaceae species. In a north- and a south-facing population, we recorded the progress of P. judaica flowering and estimated the pollen content per flower, shoot and surface unit. We concurrently assessed atmospheric circulation of Urticaceae pollen. We estimated P. judaica pollen viability and Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in plants collected from sites differing in traffic intensity. P. judaica is the most abundant Urticaceae species in the area; its occurrence has increased dramatically over the last 100 years. Production of flowers is intense in spring and autumn. Flowering started 12 days earlier in the south-facing population in spring, and 3 days later in autumn. Pollen production was higher in spring and in the south-facing population. Flower and pollen production were positively correlated with the size of the plant and the flower, respectively. Copper and lead concentrations in plants were positively correlated with pollen viability, which was higher for plants collected from high-traffic sites. P. judaica has a high phenotypic plasticity; this is a feature that promotes success of expansive and invasive species. It is also well adapted to warm and polluted urban environments. The climatic change forecast for the Mediterranean region could provoke earlier, longer, and more pronounced flowering and, consequently, more P. judaica pollen in the air. In return, this would result in increased severity of Parietaria pollinosis.

  6. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M


    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  7. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  8. The micro-social risk environment for injection drug use: An event specific analysis of dyadic, situational, and network predictors of injection risk behavior. (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick


    This study explores the risk environment for drug use by examining injection risk behavior during specific injection episodes. By leveraging multiple observations of injection episodes of participants, the study attempts to move beyond global assessment of environmental variables to simultaneously model within (i.e., event level) as well as between (i.e., individual level) predictors of injection risk. Furthermore, gender is also explored as a potential moderator of the relationship between the association of specific partner characteristics (e.g., having an injection partner who is also a sexual partner) and injection risk behavior. Data is used from the Sexual Acquisition of Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Study (SATHCAP). Multilevel structural equation modeling is utilized to predict within and between variations in underlying injection risk behavior as measured using four indicators of injection risk. Results indicated that a number of partner level characteristics (i.e., being emotionally close with the partner, sexual partnership, being a first time partner) and one social situational (i.e., the number of non-injectors present at the injection episode) characteristic predicted event level injection risk behavior. However, the impact of partner characteristics also appears to be moderated by gender of the participants. More specifically, sharing a sexual partnership with an injection partner was more strongly associated with injection risk among females as compared to males and females indicated higher levels of risk when injecting with other females while the partner's gender showed no significant association with risk for male injectors. These results suggest that people who inject drug do report varying levels of risk during different injection episodes and this variation can be explained by partner and situational characteristics. Improved understanding of the social processes surrounding injection episodes is required to further refine harm

  9. Source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) using a constrained US-EPA-PMF5.0 model at different urban environments in France (United States)

    Salameh, Dalia; Favez, Olivier; Golly, Benjamin; Besombes, Jean Luc; Alleman, Laurent; Albinet, Alexandre; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc


    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most studied atmospheric pollutant in urban areas due to their adverse effects on human health (Pope et al., 2009). Intrinsic properties of PM (e.g. chemical composition and morphology) are directly linked to their origins. Therefore, a harmonized and comprehensive apportionment study of PM sources in urban environments is extremely required to connect source contributions with PM concentration levels and then develop effective PM abatement strategies. Multivariate receptor models such as Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) are very useful and have been used worldwide for PM source apportionment (Viana et al., 2008). PMF uses a weighted least-squares fit and quantitatively determines source fingerprints (factors) and their contributions to the total PM mass. However, in many cases, it could be tricky to separate two factors that co-vary due to similar seasonal variations, making unclear the physical sense of the extracted factors. To address such issues of source collinearities, additional specific constraints are incorporated into the model (i.e., constrained PMF) based on user's external knowledge allowing better apportionment results. In this work and within the framework of the SOURCES project, a harmonized source apportionment approach has been implemented and applied for the determination of PM sources on a large number of sites (up to 20) of different typologies (e.g. urban background, industrial, traffic, rural and/or alpine sites) distributed all over France and previously investigated with annual or multiannual studies (2012-2016). A constrained PMF approach (using US-EPA PMF5.0 software) was applied to the comprehensive PM-offline chemical datasets (i.e. carbonaceous fraction, major ions, metals/trace elements, specific organic markers) in a harmonized way for all the investigated sites. Different types of specific chemical constraints from well-characterized sources were defined based on external knowledge and were

  10. Interpretation of the distribution of sedimentary environments of the sidescan sonar mosaic of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) survey H11043 off Branford, Connecticut (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  11. Numerical simulation of heavy precipitation events using mesoscale weather forecast models. Validation with radar data and diagnosis of the atmospheric moisture budget; Numerische Simulation von Starkniederschlagsereignissen mit mesoskaligen Wettervorhersagemodellen. Ueberpruefung mit Radar-Daten und Diagnose der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, C.


    Convective precipitation systems contribute substantially to the summertime rainfall maximum in the northern Alpine region. The capability of mesoscale weather forecast models in capturing such heavy precipitation events is investigated. The complementary application of so far hardly used areal radar data and conventional rain gauge observations enables a case-study-type evaluation of summertime precipitation episodes. Different rainfall episodes are simulated with the former operational model (DM, meshsize 14 km) of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). The influence of the horizontal resolution and the parameterization of moist convection is subsequently studied with a higher resolution atmospheric model (MC2, meshsize 2 km). Diagnostic studies on the atmospheric water budget regarding the rainfall episode, which instigated the Oder-flood in summer 1997, allow an examination of the origin of the moisture and the genesis of the copious precipitation. (orig.) [German] Konvektive Niederschlagssysterne tragen im Nordalpenraum wesentlich zum sommerlichen Niederschlagsmaximum bei. Die Faehigkeit mesoskaliger Wettervorhersagemodelle, solche Starkniederschlagsereignisse zu erfassen, wird in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Durch den komplementaeren Gebrauch von, bisher kaum genutzten, flaechendeckenden Radardaten und konventionellen Niederschlagsmessungen des Bodenmessnetzes werden Modellergebnisse sommerlicher Niederschlagssysteme fallstudienhaft detailliert ueberprueft. Fuer verschiedene Starkniederschlagsereignisse werden dazu Modellsimulationen mit dem in den 90er Jahren operationellen Modell (DM, Maschenweite 14 km) des Deutschen Wetterdienstes (DWD) durchgefuehrt. Zur Untersuchung des Einflusses der horizontalen Maschenweite und der Niederschlagsparametrisierung werden ferner numerische Simulationen mit einem hoeher aufloesdenden Atmosphaerenmodell (MC2, Maschenweite 2 km) behandelt. Anhand diagnostischer Untersuchungen der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz laesst sich ausserdem die

  12. Impact of urbanization on tropical mesoscale events: investigation of three heavy rainfall events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Prashant; Shivappa, Himesh [CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation, Bangalore (India); Goud, Bharamanagoudra S. [UVCE, Jnana Bharathi, Dept. of civil Engineering, Bangalore Univ., Bangalore (India)


    The growing worldwide trend in urbanization leading to the development of mega cities is likely to have a strong impact on local weather and climate through a variety of effects like Urban Heat Island (UHI), increased surface heat fux and atmospheric air temperature. These changes, in turn, can have a significant impact on energy demands for cooling or warming. It is, therefore, necessary to study these effects through models that comprehensively describe the local atmospheric dynamics in a large-scale environment. In this work we examine the impact of urbanization on the evolution and dynamics of three heavy rainfall events that occurred over Indian cities (Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai) in different seasons using the mesoscale atmospheric model MM5, version-3. Numerical experiments were carried out for each of the events using a 3-nest configuration with a 2 km resolution for the innermost domain. Simulations were carried out for two scenarios; partially urban and fully urban. It was found that urbanization drastically increases maximum surface temperature (ground temperature) for both Mumbai and Chennai event, while for the Bangalore event, the change is mostly in the minimum temperature. In general it was found that urbanization increases the Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR). These differences in temperature, prominent in the pre-rainfall period, dissipate during the event window. Urbanization was also found to increase the temperature throughout the depth of the atmospheric column. Of primary concern is the change in the intensity and duration of extreme weather events. Our results show that increased urbanization affects both intensity and spatial distribution of rain. Partial urbanization was found to be associated with more total rain, larger spatial extend of distribution and less intensity, while the converse is true for the fully urban scenario. The impact of the spatial extant of urbanization (large city vs. megacity) was also examined through an

  13. The impact of atmospheric dust deposition and trace elements levels on the villages surrounding the former mining areas in a semi-arid environment (SE Spain) (United States)

    Sánchez Bisquert, David; Matías Peñas Castejón, José; García Fernández, Gregorio


    It is understood that particulate matter in the atmosphere from metallic mining waste has adverse health effects on populations living nearby. Atmospheric deposition is a process connecting the mining wasteswith nearby ecosystems. Unfortunately, very limited information is available about atmospheric deposition surrounding rural metallic mining areas. This article will focus on the deposition from mining areas, combined with its impact on nearby rural built areas and populations. Particle samples were collected between June 2011 and March 2013. They were collected according to Spanish legislation in ten specialised dust collectors. They were located near populations close to a former Mediterranean mining area, plus a control, to assess the impact of mining waste on these villages. This article and its results have been made through an analysis of atmospheric deposition of these trace elements (Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). It also includes an analysis of total dust flux. Within this analysis it has considered the spatial variations of atmospheric deposition flux in these locations. The average annual level of total bulk deposition registered was 42.0 g m-2 per year. This was higher than most of the areas affected by a Mediterranean climate or in semi-arid conditions around the world. Regarding the overall analysis of trace elements, the annual bulk deposition fluxes of total Zn far exceeded the values of other areas. While Mn, Cd and Pb showed similar or lower values, and in part much lower than those described in other Mediterranean mining areas. This study confirmed some spatial variability of dust and trace elements, contained within the atmospheric deposition. From both an environmental and a public health perspective, environmental managers must take into account the cumulative effect of the deposition of trace elements on the soil and air quality around and within the villages surrounding metallic mining areas.

  14. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data (United States)

    Catling, D. C.


    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  15. Reduced early growing season freezing resistance in alpine treeline plants under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, M.; Gavazov, K.S.; Körner, S.; Rixen, C.


    The frequency of freezing events during the early growing season and the vulnerability to freezing of plants in European high-altitude environments could increase under future atmospheric and climate change. We tested early growing season freezing sensitivity in 10 species, from four plant

  16. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  17. Cutoff latitude variation during solar proton events: Causes and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tyssøy, H Nesse


    To accurately quantify the effect of solar proton events (SPEs) on the atmosphere requires a good estimate of the particle energy deposition in the middle atmosphere (60- 100 km) and how the energy is distributed globally. Protons in the energy range 1-20MeV, depositing their energy in the middle atmosphere, are subject to more complex dynamics with strong day-night asymmetries compared to higher-energy particles. Our study targets six SPEs from 2003 to 2012. By using measurements from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on all available Polar Orbit Environment Satellites (POES), we show that in the main phase of geomagnetic storms the dayside cutoff latitudes are pushed poleward, while the nightside cutoff latitudes have the opposite response, resulting in strong day-night asymmetries in the energy deposition. These features cannot bemeasured by the frequently used Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Assuming that the protons impact the polar atmosphere homogeneously above a...

  18. Atmospheric Change on Pluto (United States)

    Person, Michael


    We propose to use SOFIA with HIPO and FLITECAM (FLIPO) to measure the parameters of Pluto's atmosphere (temperature, pressure, possible particulate haze) by observing a stellar occultation by Pluto on 15 November 2014. Due to its highly elliptical orbit and seasonally variable obliquity, Pluto's atmosphere is predicted to condense onto its surface within the next ~10 years and possibly within the next few years and thus frequent observations are critical. Detection of the occultation central flash will allow measurement of the structure of Pluto's lower atmosphere and atmospheric oblateness. We will use FLIPO to measure the refracted starlight contemporaneously at visible and infrared wavelengths; this approach is needed to differentiate between two competing explanations for the deficiency in the observed light refracted from Pluto's lower atmosphere (strong thermal gradients versus variable particulate extinction). Only an airborne platform such as SOFIA has the flexibility to place a large telescope in the center of the shadow path of this brief event while at the same time nearly eliminating the possibility of missing time-critical observations due to unfortunate weather systems. Occultation predictions will be updated throughout the period preceding the observations with the goal of achieving sufficient prediction accuracy at the event time to place SOFIA directly in the path of Pluto's central flash. This SOFIA observation will be combined with our ongoing ground-based observing program whose goal is to measure the temporal variability of Pluto's atmosphere in response to its changing seasonal obliquity (and resulting ice migration) and recession from the sun. For the NASA New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt, this Pluto occultation event represents the last chance, prior to the spacecraft closest approach to the Pluto/Charon system (July 2015), to provide input to the mission for encounter planning, as well as context and supporting atmospheric

  19. A novel GLM-based method for the Automatic IDentification of functional Events (AIDE) in fNIRS data recorded in naturalistic environments. (United States)

    Pinti, Paola; Merla, Arcangelo; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul W; Tachtsidis, Ilias


    Recent technological advances have allowed the development of portable functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) devices that can be used to perform neuroimaging in the real-world. However, as real-world experiments are designed to mimic everyday life situations, the identification of event onsets can be extremely challenging and time-consuming. Here, we present a novel analysis method based on the general linear model (GLM) least square fit analysis for the Automatic IDentification of functional Events (or AIDE) directly from real-world fNIRS neuroimaging data. In order to investigate the accuracy and feasibility of this method, as a proof-of-principle we applied the algorithm to (i) synthetic fNIRS data simulating both block-, event-related and mixed-design experiments and (ii) experimental fNIRS data recorded during a conventional lab-based task (involving maths). AIDE was able to recover functional events from simulated fNIRS data with an accuracy of 89%, 97% and 91% for the simulated block-, event-related and mixed-design experiments respectively. For the lab-based experiment, AIDE recovered more than the 66.7% of the functional events from the fNIRS experimental measured data. To illustrate the strength of this method, we then applied AIDE to fNIRS data recorded by a wearable system on one participant during a complex real-world prospective memory experiment conducted outside the lab. As part of the experiment, there were four and six events (actions where participants had to interact with a target) for the two different conditions respectively (condition 1: social-interact with a person; condition 2: non-social-interact with an object). AIDE managed to recover 3/4 events and 3/6 events for conditions 1 and 2 respectively. The identified functional events were then corresponded to behavioural data from the video recordings of the movements and actions of the participant. Our results suggest that "brain-first" rather than "behaviour-first" analysis is

  20. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie


    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  1. Asian Dust Storm Activity and Its Association with Atmospheric Circulation from 1995 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuh Yu


    Full Text Available In this pa per, Asian dust storm activity from 1995 to 2006 and the associated atmospheric circulation are examined using SYNOP data and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis atmospheric data. Observations show that the Gobi Desert is the most frequent birth place for severe dust events in Asia, accounting for pproximately 58% of the total percent age, followed by about 32% from the Taklamakan Desert and nearly 10% from the Loess Plateau. Climatologically, the existence of a large-scale dry zone over mid-latitudes of Asia during the Spring pro vides a favor able environment for the frequent occurrences of dust events and subsequent dust transport across Asia.

  2. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan


    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  3. Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa: Application of extreme value theory and fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and their effects on mean values and long-term changes (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Peter, Thomas; Ribatet, Mathieu; Davison, Anthony C.; Stübi, Rene; Weihs, Philipp; Holawe, Franz


    ón, Mt. Pinatubo). Furthermore, atmospheric loading in ozone depleting substances lead to a continuous modification of column ozone in the northern hemisphere also with respect to extreme values (partly again in connection with polar vortex contributions). It is shown that application of extreme value theory allows the identification of many more such fingerprints than conventional time series analysis of annual and seasonal mean values. Especially, the analysis shows the strong influence of dynamics, revealing that even moderate ENSO and NAO events have a discernible effect on total ozone (Rieder et al., 2010b). Overall the presented new extremes concept provides new information on time series properties, variability, trends and the influence of dynamics and chemistry, complementing earlier analyses focusing only on monthly (or annual) mean values. References: Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer Series in Statistics, ISBN:1852334592, Springer, Berlin, 2001. Ribatet, M.: POT: Modelling peaks over a threshold, R News, 7, 34-36, 2007. Rieder ,H.E., Staehelin, J., Maeder, J.A., Ribatet, M., Stübi, R., Weihs, P., Holawe, F., Peter, T., and A.D., Davison (2010): Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa - Part I: Application of extreme value theory, to be submitted to ACPD. Rieder, H.E., Staehelin, J., Maeder, J.A., Ribatet, M., Stübi, R., Weihs, P., Holawe, F., Peter, T., and A.D., Davison (2010): Extreme events in total ozone over Arosa - Part II: Fingerprints of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and effects on mean values and long-term changes, to be submitted to ACPD. Staehelin, J., Renaud, A., Bader, J., McPeters, R., Viatte, P., Hoegger, B., Bugnion, V., Giroud, M., and Schill, H.: Total ozone series at Arosa (Switzerland): Homogenization and data comparison, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D5), 5827-5842, doi:10.1029/97JD02402, 1998a. Staehelin, J., Kegel, R., and Harris, N. R.: Trend analysis of the homogenized total ozone series of

  4. Nursing unit teams matter: Impact of unit-level nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, and quality of care, and patient adverse events--a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Timmermans, Olaf; Weeks, Susan Mace; van Heusden, Danny; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik


    To investigate the impact of nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events variables at the nursing unit level. Nurse practice environment studies show growing insights and knowledge about determining factors for nurse workforce stability, quality of care, and patient safety. Until now, international studies have primarily focused on variability at the hospital level; however, insights at the nursing unit level can reveal key factors in the nurse practice environment. A cross-sectional design with a survey. In a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 1108 nurses assigned to 96 nursing units completed a structured questionnaire composed of various validated instruments measuring nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout, nurse reported job outcomes, quality of care, and patient adverse events. Associations between the variables were examined using multilevel modelling techniques. Various unit-level associations (simple models) were identified between nurse practice environment factors, nurse work characteristics, burnout dimensions, and nurse reported outcome variables. Multiple multilevel models showed various independent variables such as nursing management at the unit level, social capital, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization as important predictors of nurse reported outcome variables such job satisfaction, turnover intentions, quality of care (at the unit, the last shift, and in the hospital within the last year), patient and family complaints, patient and family verbal abuse, patient falls, nosocomial infections, and medications errors. Results suggested a stable nurse work force, with the capability to achieve superior quality and patient safety outcomes, is associated with unit-level favourable perceptions of nurse work environment factors, workload, decision latitude, and social capital, as well low levels of burnout

  5. Atmospheric corrosion of low carbon steel in a polar marine environment. Study of the effect of wind regime; Corrosion atmosferica del acero bajo en carbono en un ambiente marino polar. Estudio del efecto del regimen de vientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, S.; Chico, B.; Fuente, D. de la; Morcillo, M.


    The present work studies the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel (UNE-EN 10130) in a sub-polar marine environment (Artigas Antarctic Scientific Base (BCAA), Uruguay) as a function of site atmospheric salinity and exposure time. A linear relationship is established between corrosion rate and airborne salinity deposition rate, valid in the deposition range encountered (125-225 mg Cl-l/m{sup 2}.d) and a bi logarithmic relationship established between corrosion and exposure time (1-4 years). Atmospheric salinity is related with the monthly wind speed average, based on the concept of the wind run. chloride ion deposition rates of less than 300 mg Cl-l/m{sup 2}.d are related with remote (oceanic) winds and coastal winds basically of speeds between 1-40 km/h, while higher deposition rates (300-700 mg Cl-/m{sup 2}.d) correspond to coastal marine winds of a certain persistence with speeds of between 41-80 km/h. (Author) 39 refs.

  6. Urban atmospheres. (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew


    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  7. The Relationships between Negative Life Events, Perceived Support in the School Environment and Depressive Symptoms among Norwegian Senior High School Students: A Prospective Study (United States)

    Murberg, Terje A.; Bru, Edvin


    The present study prospectively explored the main and interactive effect of negative life events and social support from teachers and classroom peers on depressive symptoms in a sample of 198 (111 females, 87 males) students in a Norwegian senior high school. In the longitudinal multivariate analyses, self-reported depressive symptom levels at…

  8. Characteristics of aerosol at a lower atmospheric layer in DRAGON field campaign (United States)

    KUJI, M.; Azuma, Y.; Kitakoga, S.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.


    Air pollution arises severely over East Asia with the rapid economic development nowadays. Monitoring the atmospheric environment, as one of the purposes, an intensive field campaign, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON), was carried out in the spring of year 2012, led by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At that time, atmospheric phenomena such as Yellow sand and haze events were observed at Nara in the western part of Japan, as one of the DRAGON observation sites. The atmospheric events were characterized with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. As a result of the data analysis, it was found that more light-absorbing and smaller particles dominated at the lower than upper atmospheric layer for the Kosa event in particular. A backward trajectory analysis suggested that the Yellow sand event traveled over the East Asian industrial cities, which could lead to a mixture of sand and air pollutants with moderate particle size and light-absorptivity. In addition, visibility observation was evaluated quantitatively with AERONET data in the DRAGON campaign since eye observation was inherently semi-quantitative. The extinction coefficient estimated from visibility was compared to that from AERONET. As a result, it was found that the extinction coefficients were generally consistent to each other. But there were some discrepancies, which could be caused with the atmospheric phenomena or aerosol types. It is confirmed that visibility is strongly influenced with aerosols in the case of severe atmospheric phenomena in particular.

  9. United States high-altitude test experiences. A review emphasizing the impact on the environment. [Checkmate, Bluegill, Kingfish and Tightrope events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerlin, H.


    The US high-altitude nuclear explosions of the 1955-1962 period are listed chronologically; dates, locations, and yields are given. The major physical phases of the interactions of the weapon outputs with the atmosphere are described, such as the formation of fireballs at the low high-altitudes and the partition of energies and their distribution over very large spaces at the higher high-altitudes. The effects of these explosions on the normal activities of populations and the protective measures taken are documented. Many scientific observations, together with their significance and values, are reviewed. 109 refs.

  10. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions--an alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 1: examination of the traditional stabilization concept. (United States)

    Matsuno, Taroh; Maruyama, Koki; Tsutsui, Junichi


    The concept of "stabilization" of atmospheric CO(2) concentration is re-examined in connection with climate-change mitigation strategies. A new "zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)" is proposed, where CO(2) emissions are reduced to zero at some time and thereafter the concentration is decreased by natural removal processes, eventually reaching an equilibrated stable state. Simplified climate experiments show that, under Z-stabilization, considerably larger emissions are permissible in the near future compared with traditional stabilization, with the same constraint on temperature rise. Over longer time scales, the concentration and temperature decrease close to their equilibrium values, much lower than those under traditional stabilization. The smaller temperature rise at final state is essential to avoid longer-term risk of sea level rise, a significant concern under traditional stabilization. Because of these advantages a Z-stabilization pathway can be a candidate of practical mitigation strategies as treated in Part 2.

  11. Characteristic Surface Processes Between Atmosphere, Cryosphere and Oceanic Environment Inferred from Infrasound Array Observations in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica (United States)

    Ishihara, Y.; Kanao, M.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Murayama, T.; Okada, K.; Toda, S.; Matsushima, T.


    Infrasound is sub-audible sound whose frequency range is about 3 mHz to 20 Hz. Because this frequency is common between atmospheric, oceanic and solid earth vibrations, those waves are interacting with each other and interaction itself generates infrasound. At polar region, cryosphere also play an important role for generation and propagation of infrasound. The Japanese Antarctic infrasound observation started at April 2008. A sensor was installed at Syowa Station (SYO) in Lützow-Holm Bay (LHB) of East Antarctica, as a part of the International Polar Year. Characteristic infrasound waves observed at SYO demonstrate physical interaction involving environmental changes in the Antarctic region. Continuous recordings of infrasound clearly indicate existence of the hums generated by ocean-atmosphere interaction (microbaroms) with peaks of 0.1 to 0.25 Hz. Because larger amount of sea-ice extending around the LHB near SYO suppress ocean wave, the microbaroms become weak during austral winter. Following success of pilot observation, in austral summer in 2013, we extended one-sensor observation at SYO to 3-sensor arrayed observations, and installed a few field stations along the coast of the LHB. Newly established SYO array clearly detected the propagating directions and frequency contents of the microbaroms from Southern Ocean. In addition, we found harmonic signals around lowermost human audible band, however, currently unclear how and what generating hamonic signals. Those signals are recorded under windy condition. Since our system has no mechanical resonance at those frequency ranges, we speculate that the characteristic harmonic signals are probably related to local surficial phenomena such as ice sheet vibration generated by katabatic winds. Infrasound measurement at Antarctica could be a new proxy for monitoring a regional environmental change in high southern latitude. In such point of view, we will continue and improve the observations at and around SYO

  12. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper


    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  13. Atmospheric mercury—An overview (United States)

    Schroeder, William H.; Munthe, John

    This paper presents a broad overview and synthesis of current knowledge and understanding pertaining to all major aspects of mercury in the atmosphere. The significant physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of this element and its environmentally relebant species encountered in the atmosphere are examined. Atmospheric pathways and processes considered herein include anthropogenic as well as natural sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere, aerial transport and dispersion (including spatial and temporal variability), atmospheric transformations (both physical and chemical types), wet and dry removal/deposition processes to Earth's surface. In addition, inter-compartmental (air-water/soil/vegetation) transfer and biogeochemical cycling of mercury are considered and discussed. The section on numerical modelling deals with atmospheric transport models as well as process-oriented models. Important gaps in our current knowledge of mercury in the atmospheric environment are identified, and suggestions for future areas of research are offered.

  14. Effectively utilising a 3rd party 3D visualization component in a discrete event simulation environment for Joint Command and Control (JC2)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramadeen, P


    Full Text Available A 3rd party 3-dimensional visualization tool (developed by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)) is being used to visualize and assist with the development of a synthetic environment for joint command and control technology...

  15. The phenomenology of protest atmosphere: A demonstrator perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.L.; van Stekelenburg, J.; Klandermans, P.G.


    This paper aims to improve our understanding of demonstrators' atmosphere perceptions, that is, demonstrators' affective state, which is induced by the protest environment. We examined how demonstrators perceive protest atmosphere, why they do so, and whether atmosphere perceptions influence

  16. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM1.0 of urban environments: Carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risk by age groups. (United States)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana M; Teixeira, Elba C; Schneider, Ismael L; Lara, Sheila Rincón; Silva, Luis F O


    We investigated the carcinogenic and mutagenic respiratory health risks related to the exposure to atmospheric PAHs in an urban area. Our study focused in the association of these pollutants and their possible effect in human health, principally respiratory and circulatory diseases. Also, we determined a relationship between the inhalation risk of PAHs and meteorological conditions. We validated the hypothesis that in winter PAHs with high molecular weight associated to submicron particles (PM1) may increase exposure risk, especially for respiratory diseases, bronchitis and pneumonia diseases. Moreover, in our study we verified the relationship between diseases and several carcinogenic PAHs (Ind, BbkF, DahA, BaP, and BghiP). These individual PAHs contributed the most to the potential risk of exposure for inhalation of PM1.0. Even at lower ambient concentrations of BaP and DahA in comparison with individual concentrations of other PAHs associated to PM1.0. Mainly, research suggests to include carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs in future studies of environmental health risk due to their capacity to associate to PM10. Such carcinogenic and mutagenic PAHs are likely to provide the majority of the human exposure, since they originate from dense traffic urban areas were humans congregate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric mercury accumulation and washoff processes on impervious urban surfaces (United States)

    Eckley, C.S.; Branfireun, B.; Diamond, M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Heitmuller, F.


    The deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) has been studied extensively in rural environments but is less understood in urbanized catchments, where elevated atmospheric Hg concentrations and impervious surfaces may efficiently deliver Hg to waterways in stormwater runoff. We determined the rate at which atmospheric Hg accumulates on windows, identified the importance of washoff in removing accumulated Hg, and measured atmospheric Hg concentrations to help understand the relationship between deposition and surface accumulation. The main study location was Toronto, Ontario. Similar samples were also collected from Austin, Texas for comparison of Hg accumulation between cities. Windows provided a good sampling surface because they are ubiquitous in urban environments and are easy to clean/blank allowing the assessment of contemporary Hg accumulation. Hg Accumulation rates were spatially variable ranging from 0.82 to 2.7 ng m-2 d-1 in Toronto and showed similar variability in Austin. The highest accumulation rate in Toronto was at the city center and was 5?? higher than the rural comparison site (0.58 ng m-2 d-1). The atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were less than 2?? higher between the rural and urban locations (1.7 ?? 0.3 and 2.7 ?? 1.1 ng m-3, respectively). The atmospheric particulate bound fraction (HgP), however, was more than 3?? higher between the rural and urban sites, which may have contributed to the higher urban Hg accumulation rates. Windows exposed to precipitation had 73 ?? 9% lower accumulation rates than windows sheltered from precipitation. Runoff collected from simulated rain events confirmed that most Hg accumulated on windows was easily removed and that most of the Hg in washoff was HgP. Our results indicate that the Hg flux from urban catchments will respond rapidly to changes in atmospheric concentrations due to the mobilization of the majority of the surface accumulated Hg during precipitation events. ?? 2008 Elsevier

  18. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment. (United States)

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland


    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. © 2013.

  19. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can......The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  20. Chelyabinsk event: injuries (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Popova, O.; Jenniskens, P.; Glazachev, D.


    In the morning of 2013 February 15 (at 3:20 UT), a relatively large ( 20m) meteoroid entered the Earth atmosphere in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia and caused an airburst strong enough to create widespread glass damage. This event was observed by numerous eye witnesses. Most recent tally shows that 1613 people asked for medical assistance at hospitals. This paper presents data of injuries of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid obtained through interviews of eyewitnesses and from the official sources.

  1. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V


    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida


    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  3. Contributions of nitrated aromatic compounds to the light absorption of water-soluble and particulate brown carbon in different atmospheric environments (United States)

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Wang, Michael; Kecorius, Simonas; Wang, Zhibin; Müller, Thomas; Močnik, Griša; Herrmann, Hartmut


    Recently the importance of light absorbing carbon, so-called brown carbon (BrC), on aerosol light absorption properties became more and more evident. The presence of BrC can enhance the light absorption of aerosols and therefore have an impact on the earth climate system. Despite the numerous studies published in the past few years little is known about the molecular composition and sources of BrC or the impact of single organic molecules on the BrC light absorption. The present study aims to deepen the understanding of atmospheric particulate and water soluble BrC by determining the ambient concentrations of eight individual nitrated aromatic compounds (nitrophenols and nitrated salicylic acids), and connecting the obtained chemical information with the light absorption properties of aqueous particle extracts (indicating water soluble BrC) and the overall particulate BrC light absorption. High-volume filter samples were collected during six campaigns, performed at five locations in two seasons: (I) two campaigns with strong influence of biomass burning (BB) aerosol - at the TROPOS institute (winter, 2014, urban background, Leipzig, Germany) and the Melpitz research site (winter, 2014, rural background); (II) two campaigns with strong influence from biogenic emissions - at Melpitz (summer, 2014) and the forest site Waldstein (summer, 2014, Fichtelgebirge, Germany), and (III) two CAREBeijing-NCP campaigns - at Xianghe (summer, 2013, anthropogenic polluted background) and Wangdu (summer, 2014, anthropogenic polluted background with a distinct BB-episode), both in the North China Plain. The light absorption properties of the aqueous particle extracts were determined by UV/Vis spectrometry for the same set of filter samples. Particulate BrC light absorption properties were derived from a seven-wavelength Aethalometer for a subset of these samples. A clear seasonality was observed in the data from the German sites where higher concentrations as well as higher light

  4. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  5. Atmospheric humidity (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  6. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars


    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  7. Reseau Environnement's brief on the project regarding atmospheric regulations : submitted to the Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks; Memoire de Reseau Environnement sur le projet de reglement sur l'assainissement de l'atmosphere : transmis au ministere du Developpement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Reseau Environnement is a Montreal-based organization that promotes the protection of ecosystems and human health. Their mandate is to extend the existing standards for reducing pollutants and to tap the full potential of Quebec expertise in addressing pollution sources. Reseau Environnement recently appealed to the Quebec Minister of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks to develop clear, flexible and modern regulations for Quebec, similar to those found in Europe and the United States, to efficiently control atmospheric emissions in an effort to counteract the negative effects they impart on ecosystems and human health. Among the requests was the revision of certain pollution regulation clauses to regulate odor emissions; identify preferred measuring methods for pollutants; apply ambient air quality standards to existing installations; apply standards for particulates; impose requirements for the frequency of pollution sampling and make changes to some components of Montreal's Regulation 90 regarding air pollution from industrial activities. 13 refs.

  8. Computer simulations of 10-km-diameter asteroid impacts into oceanic and continental sites: Preliminary results on atmospheric passage, cratering and ejecta dynamics (United States)

    Roddy, D. J.; Schuster, S. H.; Rosenblatt, Martin; Grant, L. B.; Hassig, P. J.; Kreyenhagen, K. N.


    A series of analytical calculations of large scale cratering events for both oceanic and continental sites were made in order to examine their effects on the target media and atmosphere. The first analytical studies that were completed consists of computer simulations of the dynamics of: (1) the passage of a 10 km diameter asteroid moving at 20 km/sec through the Earth's atmosphere, and (2) the impact cratering events in both oceanic and continental environments. Calculation of the dynamics associated with the passage of the asteroid through the atmosphere showed strong effects on the surrounding air mass. The calculations of the impact cratering events showed equally dramatic effects on the oceanic and continental environments. These effects are briefly discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Between 11.09 and 14.09 2013 the north-eastern part of Tulcea County, especially the areas located around Somova village was affected by heavy, torrential rainfall that totalized over 30 mm/sq m and triggered dangerous hydrological phenomena (important slope, stream and river flows. As a result of these heavy downpours, Flam’s Valley was affected by an exceptional flash-flood which measured a peak discharge that reached a 1% exceeding probability. Another destructive characteristic of the weather phenomena that occurred in September 2013 was that the heavy rain was accompanied by violent gusty winds that resembled tornado-like features, bringing serious threat to houses, households and roads. In this paper we have analyzed the weather features that produced the September 2013 flash flood from both a spatial and a temporal perspective. The hydrological analysis focuses on the peak discharge that was recorded during the flash flood as well as on the characteristics elements of the topographic profiles. The paper ends with a brief presentation of the consequences that the weather and hydrological phenomena had upon the environment and population as well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the Ricla area (Zaragoza, Aragonese Branch of the Iberian Range, at the top of the Yátova Formation, grey-reddish wackestone limestones grade into yellow-green siliciclastic limestones of the Aldealpozo Formation. These changes of facies between the two successive formations are associated with syndepositional palaeoreliefs developed during the Late Oxfordian. The uppermost deposits of the Yátova Formation represent an Oxfordian condensed section, from the upper Bifurcatus Zone (Middle Oxfordian and Hypselum Zone (Upper Oxfordian. These deposits are interpreted as developed in an open marine, moderately deep carbonate platform, showing uniform low-energy conditions with extremely reduced carbonate and terrigenous background sedimentation, and very low sedimentation rates. The low diversity of the benthic fauna, scarce development of sponge bioherms and ammonite populations inhabiting the platform are palaeobiological criteria which corroborate these palaeoenvironmental conditions. Ammonite assemblages are composed of Sub-Mediterranean taxa. Over 900 ammonite specimens have been collected from the upper Bifurcatus and Hypselum zones. Oppeliidae (45,2% and Perisphinctidae (37,9 % are dominant. Aspidoceratidae (14,3% are common. Haploceratidae (2,2% are scarce. Two phylloceratids and a lytoceratid have been found. Ammonoids are commonly preserved as concretionary calcareous internal moulds of reelaborated elements. Resedimented shells are scarce. The degree of packing of ammonite remains and the stratigraphical persistence display high values. Taphonomic features indicative of sedimentary starving in deep carbonate platform environments are: 1 high concentrations of reelaborated ammonites, 2 taphonic population of type two, 3 phragmocones completely filled with sediment, and 4 homogeneous concretionary internal moulds, bearing no signs of abrasion, bioerosion or dense encrusting by organisms (such as serpulids, bryozoans or oysters. In

  11. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  12. Solar particle effects on minor components of the Polar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, A. [ICES - International Center for Earth Sciences c/o Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Acustica ' O.M. Corbino' ; INAF, Roma (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario; Storini, M.; Laurenza, M. [INAF, Roma (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario; Rafanelli, C. [ICES - International Center for Earth Sciences c/o Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Acustica ' O.M. Corbino'


    Solar activity can influence the Earth's environment, and in particular the ozone layer, by direct modulation of the e.m. radiation or through variability of the incoming cosmic ray flux (solar and galactic particles). In particular, solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide additional external energy to the terrestrial environment; they are able to interact with the minor constituents of the atmospheric layer and produce ionizations, dissociations, dissociative ionizations and excitations. This paper highlights the SEP effects on the chemistry of the upper atmosphere by analysing some SEP events recorded during 2005 in the descending phase of the current solar cycle. It is shown that these events can lead to short- (hours) and medium- (days) term ozone variations through catalytic cycles (e.g. HO{sub x} and NO{sub x} increases). We focus attention on the relationship between ozone and OH data (retrieved from MLS EOS AURA) for four SEP events: 17 and 20 January, 15 May and 8 September. We confirm that SEP effects are different on the night and day hemispheres at high latitudes. (orig.)

  13. Solar particle effects on minor components of the Polar atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Damiani


    Full Text Available Solar activity can influence the Earth's environment, and in particular the ozone layer, by direct modulation of the e.m. radiation or through variability of the incoming cosmic ray flux (solar and galactic particles. In particular, solar energetic particles (SEPs provide additional external energy to the terrestrial environment; they are able to interact with the minor constituents of the atmospheric layer and produce ionizations, dissociations, dissociative ionizations and excitations. This paper highlights the SEP effects on the chemistry of the upper atmosphere by analysing some SEP events recorded during 2005 in the descending phase of the current solar cycle. It is shown that these events can lead to short- (hours and medium- (days term ozone variations through catalytic cycles (e.g. HOx and NOx increases. We focus attention on the relationship between ozone and OH data (retrieved from MLS EOS AURA for four SEP events: 17 and 20 January, 15 May and 8 September. We confirm that SEP effects are different on the night and day hemispheres at high latitudes.

  14. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan


    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  15. Atmospheric Pollutions Emissions, environmental challenges of Isfahan City


    V. Ezzatian; S. Hasheminasab


    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe recent fatal events with regard to the rise in the atmospheric pollutants levels have suggested that the reason of their occurrence be more identified. The long-term and short-term effects on the environment caused by pollutants that reached unacceptable level are apparent; existence of pollutatnts has led to short-term effects such as appearance and aggravation of cancer and respiratory‚ optic and lung diseases. The sequence of long-term effects is seen on ...

  16. Gone with the Wind: Three Years of MAVEN Measurements of Atmospheric Loss at Mars (United States)

    Brain, David; MAVEN Team


    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission is making measurements of the Martian upper atmosphere and near space environment, and their interactions with energy inputs from the Sun. A major goal of the mission is to evaluate the loss of atmospheric gases to space in the present epoch, and over Martian history. MAVEN is equipped with instruments that measure both the neutral and charged upper atmospheric system (thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, and magnetosphere), inputs from the Sun (extreme ultraviolet flux, solar wind and solar energetic particles, and interplanetary magnetic field), and escaping atmospheric particles. The MAVEN instruments, coupled with models, allow us to more completely understand the physical processes that control atmospheric loss and the particle reservoirs for loss.Here, we provide an overview of the significant results from MAVEN over approximately 1.5 Mars years (nearly three Earth years) of observation, from November 2014 to present. We argue that the MAVEN measurements tell us that the loss of atmospheric gases to space was significant over Martian history, and present the seasonal behavior of the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere. We also discuss the influence of extreme events such as solar storms, and a variety of new discoveries and observations of the Martian system made by MAVEN.

  17. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    , the notion of atmosphere is presented as parallactic for designing experience in architectural fields, since it transgresses formal and material boundaries of bodies, opening a new gap that exposes the orthodox space-body-environment relationships to questions. It leads to the dissolution...... of the architectural ‘object’ and its fixity and offers a new understanding of context and space – approached as a field of dynamic relationships. It calls for a re-evaluation of perceptual experience, offering to architecture an expanded domain in which architecture manifests itself, including qualities – besides...... poetics and beauty – that architecture has long resisted. That is, it defines space as a contingent construction, performative and intensely affective. Accordingly, the intention is to critically analyse what the term atmosphere entails in architecture, and to expand its notion in terms of affective...

  18. Space Environment Modeling (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  19. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B


    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  20. Experimental studies of anomalous radon activity in the Tlamacas Mountain, Popocatepetl Volcano area, México: new tools to study lithosphere-atmosphere coupling for forecasting volcanic and seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Lopez Cruz Abeyro


    Full Text Available

    This study presents and discusses the results of soil radon monitoring at three different volcano sites and one reference site, from December 2007 to January 2009. This relates to the activity of the Popocatepetl Volcano and a radon survey and gamma-ray spectrometry in the area between Paso de Cortes and Tlamacas Mountain, and in the adjacent regions. The results are applied to the aspects of atmosphere electricity and lithosphere-atmosphere coupling in relation to the forecasting of volcano and earthquake activity. The monitoring of radon release reveals a decrease in radon concentration (down to total suppression with approaching moderate volcanic eruptions. The behavior of the radon activity at the Tlamacas site is more apparent, compared to other observational sites. The average level of radon release observed at the Tlamacas site is much higher, with some characteristic variations. Both the radon survey and gamma-ray spectrometry indicate intensive diffusion radon emission localized in the area of Tlamacas Mountain. The average radon concentration in the area of Tlamacas is about 10-20-fold greater than the background volcano values. The new concept of lithosphere-atmosphere coupling is presented: intensive radon release in high elevated areas shortens and modifies the Earth-to-thunderclouds electric circuit, which provokes microdischarges into the air close to the ground, attracting lightning discharges. This concept attempts to explain in a new way the noise-like geomagnetic emissions registered before major earthquakes, and it promotes interest for the study of thunderstorm activity in seismo-active zones, as a promising instrument for earthquake forecasting.

  1. Improvements in Aerosol Retrieval for Atmospheric Correction (United States)


    spherical albedo of the atmosphere from the ground, L*a is the radiance backscattered by the atmosphere, and a and b are coefficients that solely...extinction, the scattering albedo for each scattering event and the value of the scattering phase function. For a stratified atmosphere, the phase function...The MODIS 2.1-μm Channel-Correlation with Visible Reflectance for Use in Remote Sensing of Aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 35, 1286

  2. [A follow-up study on the degree of satisfaction regarding environment, life style and the coming Olympic events in the inhabitants living in the typical communities of Beijing]. (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Ma, Jun; Song, Yi; Li, Yan; Zong, Shu-ting; Xiao, Feng; Chen, Bo-wen


    To measure the degree of satisfaction on various environmental and health components and to discuss the impact of Olympic Games among the residents so as to make relative policy suggestions. In 2006, permanent residents over 15 years old lived in the Asian Games Village Community (where the 29th Olympic Games to be held) were selected to conduct a household's survey, while 1610 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire included demographic information, degrees of satisfaction on various health-related environmental components, living condition and on Olympic events. The top 4 aspects with the highest satisfaction rates were "overall rates of satisfaction on current life" "green space", "housing conditions" and "water quality", which were 50.43%, 48.59%, 38.95%, 37.08%, respectively. Residents' satisfaction on "impact of hosting the Olympic Games on China's international image", "China's economic development level", "living conditions" and "personal life" were 65.53%, 56.09%, 47.27%, 46.40%, respectively. Data from partial correlation analysis showed that the total scores of satisfaction on environment and life had positive correlation with the total scores of Olympic satisfaction (P impact could be reflected by two factors--the influence of image to the nation and impact on personal income. Logistic regression showed that the impact of Olympic Games on personal income, the impact of Olympic Games on the image of the nation and standard of living, gender, education level were independent influencing factors of the total scores of environment and life satisfaction (P impact of the Olympic Games to the country's image, the country's economic development level, the environment and personal standard of living.

  3. Meetings, Gatherings and Events in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Spencer, S.N


    We survey our research on smart meeting rooms and its relevance for augmented reality meeting support and virtual reality generation of meetings in real-time or off-line. Our aim is to research representations of what takes place during meetings in order to allow generation, e.g. in virtual reality,

  4. Topography's event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    measure is not there alone since you measure it in something both visual, physical and shaped by views and ideas of society; something thought and abstract. Such knowledge point out the need for being able to measure other factors that visual and physical. Metrical and proportional view of the world seems...... - to stimulate and elaborate the event of conception and topological thinking....

  5. Topography's event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    The aim of the paper is first to discuss how horizon and scale can be understood, secondly how they differ and what they might have in common? If topography can be seen as a way of working with these relations experiences, creations and latencies? Thirdly if diagrams and diagrammatology can bring...... - to stimulate and elaborate the event of conception and topological thinking....

  6. A theory of atmospheric oxygen. (United States)

    Laakso, T A; Schrag, D P


    Geological records of atmospheric oxygen suggest that pO 2 was less than 0.001% of present atmospheric levels (PAL) during the Archean, increasing abruptly to a Proterozoic value between 0.1% and 10% PAL, and rising quickly to modern levels in the Phanerozoic. Using a simple model of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, iron, and phosphorous, we demonstrate that there are three stable states for atmospheric oxygen, roughly corresponding to levels observed in the geological record. These stable states arise from a series of specific positive and negative feedbacks, requiring a large geochemical perturbation to the redox state to transition from one to another. In particular, we show that a very low oxygen level in the Archean (i.e., 10 -7 PAL) is consistent with the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis and a robust organic carbon cycle. We show that the Snowball Earth glaciations, which immediately precede both transitions, provide an appropriate transient increase in atmospheric oxygen to drive the atmosphere either from its Archean state to its Proterozoic state, or from its Proterozoic state to its Phanerozoic state. This hypothesis provides a mechanistic explanation for the apparent synchronicity of the Proterozoic Snowball Earth events with both the Great Oxidation Event, and the Neoproterozoic oxidation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    , hospital-based and museum-staged. Prompted by the ambition to acknowledge the museum’s need to have its activities rooted in thorough investigation of the given culture on show, the dual analytical disposition is a sine qua non spanning varied fields and disciplines. The conceptual discussion offered...... their attention away from smell – as skilled inattentive noses – in order to focus on their more important work. Intruding body odours breaching the uniform ‘scentless silence’ of the environment, however, provoked explicit handlings to avoid discomfort observed in the interaction between nurses and patients...

  8. Prospective coding in event representation. (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang


    A perceived event such as a visual stimulus in the external world and a to-be-produced event such as an intentional action are subserved by event representations. Event representations do not only contain information about present states but also about past and future states. Here we focus on the role of representing future states in event perception and generation (i.e., prospective coding). Relevant theoretical issues and paradigms are discussed. We suggest that the predictive power of the motor system may be exploited for prospective coding not only in producing but also in perceiving events. Predicting is more advantageous than simply reacting. Perceptual prediction allows us to select appropriate responses ahead of the realization of an (anticipated) event and therefore, it is indispensable to flexibly and timely adapt to new situations and thus, successfully interact with our physical and social environment.

  9. Temperature extremes in Europe: overview of their driving atmospheric patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andrade


    Full Text Available As temperature extremes have a deep impact on environment, hydrology, agriculture, society and economy, the analysis of the mechanisms underlying their occurrence, including their relationships with the large-scale atmospheric circulation, is particularly pertinent and is discussed here for Europe and in the period 1961–2010 (50 yr. For this aim, a canonical correlation analysis, coupled with a principal component analysis (BPCCA, is applied between the monthly mean sea level pressure fields, defined within a large Euro-Atlantic sector, and the monthly occurrences of two temperature extreme indices (TN10p – cold nights and TX90p – warm days in Europe. Each co-variability mode represents a large-scale forcing on the occurrence of temperature extremes. North Atlantic Oscillation-like patterns and strong anomalies in the atmospheric flow westwards of the British Isles are leading couplings between large-scale atmospheric circulation and winter, spring and autumn occurrences of both cold nights and warm days in Europe. Although summer couplings depict lower coherence between warm and cold events, important atmospheric anomalies are key driving mechanisms. For a better characterization of the extremes, the main features of the statistical distributions of the absolute minima (TNN and maxima (TXX are also examined for each season. Furthermore, statistically significant downward (upward trends are detected in the cold night (warm day occurrences over the period 1961–2010 throughout Europe, particularly in summer, which is in clear agreement with the overall warming.

  10. Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed on Mars with MSL/RAD (United States)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Guo, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Rafkin, S. C.; Posner, A.; Reitz, G.


    The Mars Science Laboratory's Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) has been conducting measurements of the ionizing radiation field on the Martian surface since August 2012. While this field is mainly dominated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and their interactions with the atoms in the atmosphere and soil, Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events can contribute significantly to the radiation environment on short time scales and enhance and dominate, in particular, the Martian surface proton flux. Monitoring and understanding the effects of these SEP events on the radiation environment is of great importance to assess the associated health risks for potential, future manned missions to Mars. Furthermore, measurements of the proton spectra during such events aids in the validation of particle transport codes that are used to model the propagation of SEPs through the Martian atmosphere. Comparing the temporal evolution of the SEP events signals detected by MSL/RAD with measurements from other spacecraft can further yield insight into SEP propagation throughout the heliosphere. Here, we present and overview of measurements of the SEP events that have been directly detected on the Martian surface by the MSL/RAD instrument.

  11. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere (United States)

    Sagan, C.


    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  12. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem


    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  13. Atmospheric neutrinos in Soudan 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M. C.; Soudan 2 Collaboration


    Soudan 2 has measured the atmospheric neutrino flavor ratio with 4.2 fiducial kiloton-years of exposure. It measures a flavor ratio of 0.66 {+-} 0.11(stat), inconsistent with the expected ratio but consistent with the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations and the Super-Kamiokande data. In a sample of events with good angular resolution, fits to the L/E distribution suggest that {Delta}m{sup 2} > 10{sup {minus}3} eV{sup 2}.


    Mossotti, Victor G.; Lindsay, James R.; Hochella, Michael F.


    Salem limestone samples were exposed to weathering for 1 y in several urban and one rural environments. Samples exposed in the rural location were chemically indistinguishable from the freshly quarried limestone, whereas all samples collected from urban exposure sites developed gypsum stains on the ground-facing surfaces where the stones were not washed by precipitation. The gas-solid reaction of SO//2 with calcite was selected for detailed consideration. It appears from the model that under arid conditions, the quantity of stain deposited on an unwashed surface is independent of atmospheric SO//2 concentration once the surface has been saturated with gypsum. Under wet conditions, surface sulfation and weight loss are probably dominated by mechanisms involving wet stone. However, if the rain events are frequent and delimited by periods of dryness, the quantity of gypsum produced by a gas-solid reaction mechanism should correlate with both the frequency of rain events and the atmospheric SO//2 level.

  15. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; hide


    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  16. Satellite Anomalies Due to Environment (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These events range from minor operational problems to permanent spacecraft failures. Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States...

  17. A Generalized Approach to Model the Spectra and Radiation Dose Rate of Solar Particle Events on the Surface of Mars (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; McDole, Thoren; Kühl, Patrick; Appel, Jan C.; Matthiä, Daniel; Krauss, Johannes; Köhler, Jan


    For future human missions to Mars, it is important to study the surface radiation environment during extreme and elevated conditions. In the long term, it is mainly galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) modulated by solar activity that contribute to the radiation on the surface of Mars, but intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events may induce acute health effects. Such events may enhance the radiation level significantly and should be detected as immediately as possible to prevent severe damage to humans and equipment. However, the energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is significantly different from that in deep space due to the influence of the Martian atmosphere. Depending on the intensity and shape of the original solar particle spectra, as well as particle types, the surface spectra may induce entirely different radiation effects. In order to give immediate and accurate alerts while avoiding unnecessary ones, it is important to model and well understand the atmospheric effect on the incoming SEPs, including both protons and helium ions. In this paper, we have developed a generalized approach to quickly model the surface response of any given incoming proton/helium ion spectra and have applied it to a set of historical large solar events, thus providing insights into the possible variety of surface radiation environments that may be induced during SEP events. Based on the statistical study of more than 30 significant solar events, we have obtained an empirical model for estimating the surface dose rate directly from the intensities of a power-law SEP spectra.

  18. Interpretation of Sedimentary Environments Within the Area of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84, H12012_SEDENV.SHP) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  19. Interpretation of Sedimentary Environments from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, Offshore Southeastern Massachusetts (H12007_SEDENV.SHP, Geographic, WGS84) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  20. Studies of Tenuous Planetary Atmospheres (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.


    The final report includes an overall project overview as well as scientific background summaries of dust and sodium in comets, and tenuous atmospheres of Jupiter's natural satellites. Progress and continuing work related to dust coma and tenuous atmospheric studies are presented. Also included are published articles written during the course of the report period. These are entitled: (1) On Europa's Magnetospheric Interaction: An MHD Simulation; (2) Dust-Gas Interrelations in Comets: Observations and Theory; and (3) Io's Plasma Environment During the Galileo Flyby: Global Three Dimensional MHD Modeling with Adaptive Mesh Refinement.

  1. Bubble bursting as an aerosol generation mechanism during an oil spill in the deep-sea environment: molecular dynamics simulations of oil alkanes and dispersants in atmospheric air/salt water interfaces. (United States)

    Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P; Zhang, Zenghui; Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Avij, Paria; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Hung, Francisco R


    Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the properties of oil n-alkanes [i.e., n-pentadecane (C15), n-icosane (C20) and n-triacontane (C30)], as well as several surfactant species [i.e., the standard anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and three model dispersants similar to the Tween and Span species present in Corexit 9500A] at air/salt water interfaces. This study was motivated by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, and our simulation results show that, from the thermodynamic point of view, the n-alkanes and the model dispersants have a strong preference to remain at the air/salt water interface, as indicated by the presence of deep free energy minima at these interfaces. The free energy minimum of these n-alkanes becomes deeper as their chain length increases, and as the concentration of surfactant species at the interface increases. The n-alkanes tend to adopt a flat orientation and form aggregates at the bare air/salt water interface. When this interface is coated with surfactants, the n-alkanes tend to adopt more tilted orientations with respect to the vector normal to the interface. These simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings reported in the accompanying paper [Ehrenhauser et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts 2013, in press, (DOI: 10.1039/c3em00390f)]. The fact that these long-chain n-alkanes show a strong thermodynamic preference to remain at the air/salt water interfaces, especially if these interfaces are coated with surfactants, makes these species very likely to adsorb at the surface of bubbles or droplets and be ejected to the atmosphere by sea surface processes such as whitecaps (breaking waves) and bubble bursting. Finally, the experimental finding that more oil hydrocarbons are ejected when Corexit 9500A is present in the system is consistent with the deeper free energy minima observed for the n-alkanes at the air/salt water

  2. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howcroft, Caius Leo Frederick [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  3. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  4. Events diary (United States)


    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from or from the website . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: or 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info:

  5. Impact of two-way ocean atmosphere coupling on precipitation forecast for the coastal Adriatic region (United States)

    Smerkol, Peter; Cedilnik, Jure; Fettich, Anja; Licer, Matjaz; Strajnar, Benedikt; Jerman, Jure


    A two-way coupled ocean and atmosphere modeling system has been developed at Slovenian Environment Agency and the National Institute of Biology (Ličer at al., 2016). The system comprises 4.4 km ALADIN/ALARO limited-area numerical weather prediction model and Princeton Ocean Model (POM) for Adriatic sea and uses Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) as ocean component outside the POM model domain. The heat and momentum fluxes between sea surface and atmosphere as estimated by ALADIN model are transferred into POM every model time stamp, and sea surface temperature (SST) is returned from POM to ALADIN. A positive impact of such a coupling system with respect to one-way coupling was demonstrated mainly for sea surface variables. In this contribution we study the impact on atmospheric variables, mainly precipitation. Unlike in the previous work where the atmospheric part of the system was reinitialized every day from external (non-coupled) data assimilation cycle, we implement the two-way coupling in the data assimilation cycle for ALADIN. Rather than running long-term simulations which would presumably lack observational information given no data assimilation for the ocean component, we focus on several precipitation events and assess performance of the atmospheric model by running the coupled system for a short warm-up periods beforehand the events. We evaluate several approaches to applying the one- or two-way coupling (in the warm-up period, during the main forecast, or both) and several approaches to using SST information in ALADIN in the one-way coupled mode (POM, MFS, global atmospheric model). Preliminary results suggest that it is important that two-way coupling is applied not only during the long term (e.g. 72 h) forecast but also already in the data assimilation cycle prior to event.

  6. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry


    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography ( to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  7. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.


    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  8. The atmosphere during the younger dryas. (United States)

    Mayewski, P A; Meeker, L D; Whitlow, S; Twickler, M S; Morrison, M C; Alley, R B; Bloomfield, P; Taylor, K


    One of the most dramatic climate change events observed in marine and ice core records is the Younger Dryas, a return to near-glacial conditions that punctuated the last deglaciation. High-resolution, continuous glaciochemical records, newly retrieved from central Greenland, record the chemical composition of the arctic atmosphere at this time. This record shows that both the onset and the termination of the Younger Dryas occurred within 10 to 20 years and that massive, frequent, and short-term (decadal or less) changes in atmospheric composition occurred throughout this event. Changes in atmospheric composition are attributable to changes in the size of the polar atmospheric cell and resultant changes in source regions and to the growth and decay of continental biogenic source regions.

  9. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits. (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W


    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels


    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...

  11. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Cavalli, F.


    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  12. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants (United States)


    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  13. On the response of the upper atmosphere to solar flares (United States)

    Pawlowski, David J.

    Over the past several decades, modern civilizations have become increasingly dependent on spacecraft that reside in the near-Earth space environment. For this reason, scientists and engineers have been interested in understanding the causes of perturbations to the background state of the Earth's upper atmosphere, and to quantify the impact of these events. As a result of the states of the thermosphere and ionosphere being directly dependent on the incident radiation from the sum, it is expected that sudden changes in the solar radiative output should cause significant changes in the upper atmosphere. Such dynamics are investigated in this study, specifically the manner in which solar flares affect the density, circulation, and temperature of the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere. A global model of this region is used to examine how the upper atmosphere responds to such transient events. In order to quantify the response, the model is run during realistic events in order to understand the magnitudes of the resulting perturbations to the global ionosphere-thermosphere system. In the thermosphere, density perturbations of approximately 15% are found to occur on the dayside within 1.5 hours after the start of a solar flare. The addition of solar energy to the dayside launches a traveling atmospheric disturbance which propagates towards the night-side at the local sound speed plus the background velocity. As the disturbance converges on itself near the midnight sector, density enhancements almost as large as those seen on the day-side can occur. Furthermore, these night-side neutral perturbations cause both enhancements and depletions in the night-side electron density. In addition, theoretical simulations are performed to study the effects that the major characteristics of solar flares have on the atmosphere. In particular, dynamics resulting from changes in the total integrated energy, flare magnitude, and relevant time scales are investigated. The most important

  14. FASCODE for the Environment (United States)


    the Environment (FASE) is the latest in a long line of atmospheric transmittance and radiance models developed by the Battlespace Environment Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), formerly known as the Optical Physics Division of the Geophysics Directorate, USAF Phillips Laboratory, and before that, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). FASE is a direct descendent of the line-by-line atmospheric transmittance/radiance model FASCOD3. It also incorporates recent developments from the similar model LBLRTM. This report presents the additions and

  15. Effects of atmospheric VPD, plant canopies, and low-water years on leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthetic water use efficiency in fifteen potential crop species for use in arid environments (United States)

    Lue, A.; Jasoni, R. L.; Arnone, J.


    When evaluating the potential for growing alternative crop species in arid environments, high vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) that could potentially inhibit crop productivity by limiting stomatal conductance and CO2 uptake must be considered. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of VPD and irrigation levels on leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE) for a range of alternative crop species for aridland agriculture. We evaluated fifteen alternative crops in a field trial in the northern Nevada Walker River Basin. Plots of each species were subjected to two irrigation treatments, 4 and 2 acre-feet per growing season, to simulate normal-year and dry-year irrigation levels. We quantified gs and photosynthesis (A) under decreasing relative humidity (RH) (increasing VPDs) in 10% increments, from about 75% to 2%. About seventeen leaves per species were measured throughout the 2010 growing season over eleven days of samplings. Canopy air temperature and RH were logged in experimental plots to calculate diel and seasonal patterns in canopy VPD. Volumetric water content was also collected to quantify the effects of irrigation treatments on soil moisture and leaf gas exchange. Species varied in their gs and PWUE responses to increasing VPD. Stomatal conductance (gs) of leaves of all species generally increased initially as RH was lowered but then decreased at differing rates as RH dropped further. Average gs (across all measurement VPDs), maximum gs, maximum PWUE, and corresponding VPDs differed among species and between irrigation treatments. Some species (Medicago sativa, Leymus racemosus) showed higher gs across the range of measurement VPDs than other species (Bothrichloa ischaemum, Sorghastrum nutans), while some species exhibited maximum gs and maximum PWUE at higher VPDs (Erograstis tef, Calamovilfa longifolia) than other species (Leymus cinereus, Sorghastrum nutans). These results suggest that some species may

  16. Systematic evaluation of atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Siour, Guillaume; Couvidat, Florian; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Turquety, Solene


    Regional-scale atmospheric chemistry-transport models (CTM) are used to develop air quality regulatory measures, to support environmentally sensitive decisions in the industry, and to address variety of scientific questions involving the atmospheric composition. Model performance evaluation with measurement data is critical to understand their limits and the degree of confidence in model results. CHIMERE CTM ( is a French national tool for operational forecast and decision support and is widely used in the international research community in various areas of atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, and environment ( This work presents the model evaluation framework applied systematically to the new CHIMERE CTM versions in the course of the continuous model development. The framework uses three of the four CTM evaluation types identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS): operational, diagnostic, and dynamic. It allows to compare the overall model performance in subsequent model versions (operational evaluation), identify specific processes and/or model inputs that could be improved (diagnostic evaluation), and test the model sensitivity to the changes in air quality, such as emission reductions and meteorological events (dynamic evaluation). The observation datasets currently used for the evaluation are: EMEP (surface concentrations), AERONET (optical depths), and WOUDC (ozone sounding profiles). The framework is implemented as an automated processing chain and allows interactive exploration of the results via a web interface.

  17. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks


    Zhangbing Zhou; Riliang Xing; Yucong Duan; Yueqin Zhu; Jianming Xiang


    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sour...

  18. Development of a virtual learning environment addressing adverse events in nursing Desarrollo de ambiente virtual de aprendizaje en eventos adversos en enfermería Desenvolvimento de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem em eventos adversos em enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosicler Xelegati


    Full Text Available The authors have developed a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE addressing the management of adverse events to promote continuing education for nurses, including the following themes: pressure ulcer, medication errors, phlebitis, fall, and loss of nasogastroenteral probes. The pedagogical framework was grounded on the information processing theory and this applied study used the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI model to develop the program. The environment was developed with HTML language through Microsoft Office Word 2003®. The authors developed evaluation exercises in each module through the Hot Potatoes program, version 6.0 for Windows. The conclusion is that the methodology utilized was appropriate for achieving the proposed objectives. In the future, the authors will assess the developed product and verify the possibility of using it in nursing services.El estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un ambiente virtual de aprendizaje (AVA sobre administración en eventos adversos para educación permanente de enfermeros, abordando las temáticas: úlcera por presión, errores de medicación, flebitis, caída y pérdida de sonda nasogastroenteral. El marco pedagógico fue fundamentado en la teoría de procesamiento de información y la metodología, una investigación aplicada, utilizó el Modelo de desarrollo de programas de Instrucción Auxiliado por Computador (IAC. El ambiente fue desarrollado en el lenguaje HTML utilizando el programa Microsoft Office Word 2003®. Los ejercicios de evaluación de cada módulo fueron creados por las autoras de este estudio con la utilización del programa Hot Potatoes versión 6.0 para Windows. Se concluyó que la metodología adoptada fue adecuada para el alcance del objetivo propuesto. Como metas futuras, las autoras evaluaran el producto desarrollado y verificaran la posibilidad de su uso en los servicios de enfermería.O estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver um ambiente virtual de aprendizagem (AVA

  19. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessandro, B. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Cortes Maldonado, I. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Cuautle, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez Tellez, A. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Gomez Jimenez, R. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Gonzalez Santos, H. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Herrera Corral, G. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Leon, I. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Podesta, P. [Dpto. de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados (Mexico); Ramirez Reyes, A. [Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M., E-mail: [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico); Sitta, M. [Universita Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria (Italy); Subieta, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dep. di Fisica Universita di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S. [Fac. Ciencias Fisico Mat. and Fac. Ciencias Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)


    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  20. Climatology of atmospheric circulation patterns of Arabian dust in western Iran. (United States)

    Najafi, Mohammad Saeed; Sarraf, B S; Zarrin, A; Rasouli, A A


    Being in vicinity of vast deserts, the west and southwest of Iran are characterized by high levels of dust events, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems, and environment. Using ground based dataset of dust events in western Iran and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the atmospheric circulation patterns of dust events in the Arabian region and west of Iran are identified. The atmospheric circulation patterns which lead to dust events in the Arabian region and western Iran were classified into two main categories: the Shamal dust events that occurs in warm period of year and the frontal dust events as cold period pattern. In frontal dust events, the western trough or blocking pattern at mid-level leads to frontogenesis, instability, and air uplift at lower levels of troposphere in the southwest of Asia. Non-frontal is other pattern of dust event in the cold period and dust generation are due to the regional circulation systems at the lower level of troposphere. In Shamal wind pattern, the Saudi Arabian anticyclone, Turkmenistan anticyclone, and Zagros thermal low play the key roles in formation of this pattern. Summer and transitional patterns are two sub-categories of summer Shamal wind pattern. In summer trough pattern, the mid-tropospheric trough leads to intensify the surface thermal systems in the Middle East and causes instability and rising of wind speed in the region. In synthetic pattern of Shamal wind and summer trough, dust is created by the impact of a trough in mid-levels of troposphere as well as existing the mentioned regional systems which are contributed in formation of summer Shamal wind pattern.

  1. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules


    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...

  2. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD


    :// Upcoming_ Events.html QCLG-meeting 2011 26 November 2011, 29 November 2011 Brussels, Belgium URL: ENFSI Joint Meeting 01 December 2011, 02 December 2011 The Hague (NFI, The Netherlands URL: Bloodstain Pattern Recognition - Basic course 05 December 2011, 09 December 2011 The Hague, The Netherlands URL: Expert Witness Intensive Training Course - 2 Day December 8th to 9th 2011 United Kingdom /London URL: expert_witness 6th USA Pacific Medical & Legal Conference December 13th to 20th 2011 New York /USA URL: http://www.conferences21 .com/index.php? menu=home 12th Annual Multispecialty Conference on Medical Negligence & Risk Management in Medicine, Surgery, Emergency Medicine, Radiology & Family Medicine January 5th to 8th 2012 Costa Rica / URL 16th Annual Europe Pacific Medical & Legal Conference January 8th to 15th 2012 Italy /Cortina D’Ampezzo URL: menu = home 3rd International Workshop on Medical Image Analysis and Description for Diagnosis Systems(MIAD 2012 1- 4 February 2012 Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal URL: 3rd International Conference on Current Trends in Forensic Sciences, Forensic Medicine & Toxicology February 3rd to 5th 2012 India /Jaipur URL: 3rd International Conference on Legal Medicine, Medical Negligence & Litigation in Medical Practice February 3rd to 5th 2012 India /Jaipur URL 12th Annual Pan Europe Pacific Medical & Legal Conference February 5th to 12th 2012 France /Paris URL: menu=home American College of Legal Medicine 2012 Annual Conference February 23rd to 26th 2012 Louisiana /New Orleans USA URL:

  3. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Atmospheric Waves (United States)

    Koucka Knizova, Petra; Lastovicka, Jan


    The Earth atmosphere and ionosphere is complicated and highly variable system which displays oscillations on wide range scales. The most important factor influencing the ionosphere is certainly the solar and geomagnetic activity. However, the processes even in distant regions in the neutral atmosphere cannot be simply neglected. This contribution reviews aspects of ionospheric variability originating in the lower laying atmosphere. It focuses especially on the generation and propagation of the atmospheric waves from their source region up to the heights of the ionosphere. We will show the role of infrasound, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Particularly gravity waves are of high importance for the ionosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental results will briefly be reviewed.

  4. Oxygenation as a driver of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (United States)

    Edwards, Cole T.; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Royer, Dana L.; Fike, David A.


    The largest radiation of Phanerozoic marine animal life quadrupled genus-level diversity towards the end of the Ordovician Period about 450 million years ago. A leading hypothesis for this Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event is that cooling of the Ordovician climate lowered sea surface temperatures into the thermal tolerance window of many animal groups, such as corals. A complementary role for oxygenation of subsurface environments has been inferred based on the increasing abundance of skeletal carbonate, but direct constraints on atmospheric O2 levels remain elusive. Here, we use high-resolution paired bulk carbonate and organic carbon isotope records to determine the changes in isotopic fractionation between these phases throughout the Ordovician radiation. These results can be used to reconstruct atmospheric O2 levels based on the O2-dependent fractionation of carbon isotopes by photosynthesis. We find a strong temporal link between the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event and rising O2 concentrations, a pattern that is corroborated by O2 models that use traditional carbon-sulfur mass balance. We conclude that that oxygen levels probably played an important role in regulating early Palaeozoic biodiversity levels, even after the Cambrian Explosion.

  5. Modelling New Particle Formation Events in the South African Savannah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael


    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, aka aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scale, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There are already some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first time detailed simulations, that include all the main processes relevant to particle formation, were done. The results show that both investigated particle formation mechanisms overestimated the formation rates dependency on sulphuric acid. The approach including low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events. To get reliable estimation of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa.

  6. Event Index - an LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    Ustyuzhanin, Andrey


    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index | an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  7. Vaccine Adverse Events (United States)

    ... Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA (800) ...

  8. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter


    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  9. A Southern California Perspective of the April, 1998 Trans-Pacific Asian Dust Event (United States)

    Tratt, David M.; Frouin, Robert J.; Westphal, Douglas L.


    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) coherent CO2 backscatter lidar has been in almost continuous operation since 1984 and has now accumulated a significant time-series database tracking the long-term and seasonal variability of backscatter from the atmospheric column above the Pasadena, Calif. locale. A particularly noteworthy episode observed by the lidar in 1998 was a particularly extreme instance of incursion by Asian-sourced dust during the closing days of April. Such events are not uncommon during the northern spring, when strong cold fronts and convection over the Asian interior deserts loft crustal material into the mid-troposphere whence it can be transported across the Pacific Ocean, occasionally reaching the continental US. However, the abnormal strength of the initiating storm in this case generated an atypically dense cloud of material which resulted in dramatically reduced visibility along the length of the Western Seaboard. These dust events are now recognized as a potentially significant, non-negligible radiative forcing influence. The progress of the April 1998 dust cloud eastward across the Pacific Ocean was initially observed in satellite imagery and transmitted to the broader atmospheric research community via electronic communications. The use of Internet technology in this way was effective in facilitating a rapid response correlative measurement exercise by numerous atmospheric observation stations throughout the western US and its success has resulted in the subsequent establishment of an ad hoc communications environment, data exchange medium, and mechanism for providing early-warning alert of other significant atmospheric phenomena in the future.

  10. Deposition rates of viruses and bacteria above the atmospheric boundary layer. (United States)

    Reche, Isabel; D'Orta, Gaetano; Mladenov, Natalie; Winget, Danielle M; Suttle, Curtis A


    Aerosolization of soil-dust and organic aggregates in sea spray facilitates the long-range transport of bacteria, and likely viruses across the free atmosphere. Although long-distance transport occurs, there are many uncertainties associated with their deposition rates. Here, we demonstrate that even in pristine environments, above the atmospheric boundary layer, the downward flux of viruses ranged from 0.26 × 10 9 to >7 × 10 9  m -2 per day. These deposition rates were 9-461 times greater than the rates for bacteria, which ranged from 0.3 × 10 7 to >8 × 10 7  m -2 per day. The highest relative deposition rates for viruses were associated with atmospheric transport from marine rather than terrestrial sources. Deposition rates of bacteria were significantly higher during rain events and Saharan dust intrusions, whereas, rainfall did not significantly influence virus deposition. Virus deposition rates were positively correlated with organic aerosols 0.7 μm, implying that viruses could have longer residence times in the atmosphere and, consequently, will be dispersed further. These results provide an explanation for enigmatic observations that viruses with very high genetic identity can be found in very distant and different environments.

  11. Volatile properties of atmospheric aerosols during nucleation events ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C temperatures. Averaged monthly aerosol concen- tration is at its maximum in November and gradually decreases to its minimum at the end of March. The diurnal variations of aerosol concentrations gradually decrease in the night and in early morning hours (0400–0800 hr). However, concentration attains minimum in its ...

  12. Land-atmosphere interactions during a Northwestern Argentina Low event (United States)

    Paegle, J.; Ferreira, L.; Saulo, C.; Seluchi, M.; Ruiz, J.


    Impacts of changes in land use upon rainfall distribution and low-level circulation over subtropical Argentina are studied with a state-of-the art regional model (WRF, Weather Research Forecast model) in a downscaling mode, using various scenarios of soil moisture for a 10 day period. The selected case (starting January 29, 2003) was characterized by well-defined low level northerly flow that extended east of the Andes over subtropical latitudes. Four tests were conducted at 50 km horizontal resolution with 31 sigma levels, decreasing and increasing the soil moisture initial condition by 50% over the entire domain, 50 % reduction over northwest Argentina and 50% increase over South East South America. A control run with NCEP/GDAS initial conditions was used to assess the impact of the different soil moisture configurations. It was found that land-surface interactions are stronger when soil moisture is decreased, with a coherent reduction of precipitation over southern south America. Enhanced northerly winds are related to an increase in the zonal gradient of pressure at low levels. In contrast, when soil moisture is increased, no circulation changes are found, though there appears to be a local feedback effect between the land and precipitation The combined effects of changes in the circulation and in local stratification induced by soil wetness modifications, through variations in evaporation and CAPE, are as follows: there is a dynamical response in the dry run, essentially associated with a stronger LLJ, that involves decreased convergence in the northwestern portion of the domain and enhanced convergence at the exit region of the LLJ, which is displaced towards the south. This dynamical response is not as robust as that induced by changes in evaporation related to changes in soil moisture. These modifications also alter the stratification, in agreement with what has been found by other studies, resulting in coherent modifications of precipitation when variations of CAPE and moisture flux convergence mutually reinforce.

  13. Improved predictions of atmospheric icing in Norway (United States)

    Engdahl, Bjørg Jenny; Nygaard, Bjørn Egil; Thompson, Gregory; Bengtsson, Lisa; Berntsen, Terje


    Atmospheric icing of ground structures is a problem in cold climate locations such as Norway. During the 2013/2014 winter season two major power lines in southern Norway suffered severe damage due to ice loads exceeding their design values by two to three times. Better methods are needed to estimate the ice loads that affect various infrastructure, and better models are needed to improve the prediction of severe icing events. The Wind, Ice and Snow loads Impact on Infrastructure and the Natural Environment (WISLINE) project, was initiated to address this problem and to explore how a changing climate may affect the ice loads in Norway. Creating better forecasts of icing requires a proper simulation of supercooled liquid water (SLW). Preliminary results show that the operational numerical weather prediction model (HARMONIE-AROME) at MET-Norway generates considerably lower values of SLW as compared with the WRF model when run with the Thompson microphysics scheme. Therefore, we are piecewise implementing specific processes found in the Thompson scheme into the AROME model and testing the resulting impacts to prediction of SLW and structural icing. Both idealized and real icing cases are carried out to test the newly modified AROME microphysics scheme. Besides conventional observations, a unique set of specialized instrumentation for icing measurements are used for validation. Initial results of this investigation will be presented at the conference.

  14. Creating Special Events (United States)

    deLisle, Lee


    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  15. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M


    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  16. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  17. Early Detection of Lightning Caused Wildfires and Prediction of Wildfire Behavior through Energy Distribution, Atmospherics, Geophysics, the Sun's Azimuth, and Topology (United States)

    Giesige, C.; Nava, E.


    In the midst of a changing climate we have seen extremes in weather events: lightning, wildfires, hurricanes, tornadoes, and earthquakes. All of these ride on an imbalance of magnetic and electrical distribution about the earth including what goes on from the atmospheric and geophysic levels. There is relevance to the important role the sun plays in developing and feeding of the extreme weather events along with the sun's role helping to create a separation of charges on earth furthering climactic extremes. Focusing attention in North America and on how the sun, atmospheric and geophysic winds come together producing lightning events, there are connections between energy distribution in the environment, lightning caused wildfires, and extreme wildfire behavior. Lightning caused wildfires and extreme fire behavior have become enhanced with the changing climate conditions. Even with strong developments in wildfire science, there remains a lack in full understanding of connections that create a lightning caused wildfire event and lack of monitoring advancements in predicting extreme fire behavior. Several connections have been made in our research allowing us to connect multiple facets of the environment in regards to electric and magnetic influences on wildfires. Among them include: irradiance, winds, pressure systems, humidity, and topology. The connections can be made to develop better detection systems of wildfires, establish with more accuracy areas of highest risk for wildfire and extreme wildfire behavior, and prediction of wildfire behavior. A platform found within the environment can also lead to further understanding and monitoring of other extreme weather events in the future.

  18. Abrupt climate change and extinction events (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.


    There is a growing body of theoretical and empirical support for the concept of instabilities in the climate system, and indications that abrupt climate change may in some cases contribute to abrupt extinctions. Theoretical indications of instabilities can be found in a broad spectrum of climate models (energy balance models, a thermohaline model of deep-water circulation, atmospheric general circulation models, and coupled ocean-atmosphere models). Abrupt transitions can be of several types and affect the environment in different ways. There is increasing evidence for abrupt climate change in the geologic record and involves both interglacial-glacial scale transitions and the longer-term evolution of climate over the last 100 million years. Records from the Cenozoic clearly show that the long-term trend is characterized by numerous abrupt steps where the system appears to be rapidly moving to a new equilibrium state. The long-term trend probably is due to changes associated with plate tectonic processes, but the abrupt steps most likely reflect instabilities in the climate system as the slowly changing boundary conditions caused the climate to reach some threshold critical point. A more detailed analysis of abrupt steps comes from high-resolution studies of glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Comparison of climate transitions with the extinction record indicates that many climate and biotic transitions coincide. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is not a candidate for an extinction event due to instabilities in the climate system. It is quite possible that more detailed comparisons and analysis will indicate some flaws in the climate instability-extinction hypothesis, but at present it appears to be a viable candidate as an alternate mechanism for causing abrupt environmental changes and extinctions.

  19. The Chelyabinsk event (United States)

    Borovička, Jiří


    On February 15, 2013, 3:20 UT, an asteroid of the size of about 19 meters and mass of 12,000 metric tons entered the Earth's atmosphere unexpectedly near the border of Kazakhstan and Russia. It was the largest confirmed Earth impactor since the Tunguska event in 1908. The body moved approximately westwards with a speed of 19 km s-1, on a trajectory inclined 18 degrees to the surface, creating a fireball of steadily increasing brightness. Eleven seconds after the first sightings, the fireball reached its maximum brightness. At that point, it was located less than 40 km south from Chelyabinsk, a Russian city of population more than one million, at an altitude of 30 km. For people directly underneath, the fireball was 30 times brighter than the Sun. The cosmic body disrupted into fragments; the largest of them was visible for another five seconds before it disappeared at an altitude of 12.5 km, when it was decelerated to 3 km s-1. Fifty six second later, that ~600 kg fragment landed in Lake Chebarkul and created a 8 m wide hole in the ice. Small meteorites landed in an area 80 km long and several km wide and caused no damage. The meteorites were classified as LL ordinary chondrites and were interesting by the presence of two phases, light and dark. More material remained, however, in the atmosphere forming a dust trail up to 2 km wide and extending along the fireball trajectory from altitude 18 to 70 km. The dust then circled the Earth within few days and formed a ring around the northern hemisphere. In Chelyabinsk and its surroundings a very strong blast wave arrived 90 - 150 s after the fireball passage (depending on location). The wave was produced by the supersonic flight of the body and broke ~10% of windows in Chelyabinsk (~40% of buildings were affected). More than 1600 people were injured, mostly from broken glass. The whole event was well documented by video cameras, seismic and infrasonic records, and satellite observations. The total energy was 500 kT TNT

  20. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra


    Effenberger, Andrew J.; Scott, Jill R.


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.

  1. Effect of atmospheric conditions on LIBS spectra. (United States)

    Effenberger, Andrew J; Scott, Jill R


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar) or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.

  2. Effect of Atmospheric Conditions on LIBS Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Effenberger


    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS is typically performed at ambient Earth atmospheric conditions. However, interest in LIBS in other atmospheric conditions has increased in recent years, especially for use in space exploration (e.g., Mars and Lunar or to improve resolution for isotopic signatures. This review focuses on what has been reported about the performance of LIBS in reduced pressure environments as well as in various gases other than air.

  3. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S


    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  4. Natural Hazards of the Space Environment (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)


    Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are subject to numerous environmental hazards. Here I'll briefly discuss three environment factors that pose acute threats to the survival of spacecraft systems and crew: atmospheric drag, impacts by meteoroids and orbital debris, and ionizing radiation. Atmospheric drag continuously opposes the orbital motion of a satellite, causing the orbit to decay. This decay will lead to reentry if not countered by reboost maneuvers. Orbital debris is a by-product of man's activities in space, and consists of objects ranging in size from miniscule paint chips to spent rocket stages and dead satellites. Ionizing radiation experienced in LEO has several components: geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen belts); energetic solar particles; galactic cosmic rays; and albedo neutrons. These particles can have several types of prompt harmful effects on equipment and crew, from single-event upsets, latchup, and burnout of electronics, to lethal doses to crew.All three types of prompt threat show some dependence on the solar activity cycle. Atmospheric drag mitigation and large debris avoidance require propulsive maneuvers. M/OD and ionizing radiation require some form of shielding for crew and sensitive equipment. Limiting exposure time is a mitigation technique for ionizing radiation and meteor streams.

  5. Atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation in Norway (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Haarsma, Rein; Sillmann, Jana


    'Atmospheric rivers' are long, narrow regions of high water vapour content that are responsible for the horizontal transport of moisture to higher latitudes. They are associated with the majority of extreme precipitation events in Norway throughout the observational record. These extreme precipitation events can be associated with flooding that has large impacts on society, such as the October 2014 event in Flåm. We examined changes in extreme precipitation between the current and future climates in the coupled global climate model, EC-EARTH, using high-resolution simulations ( 25 km) that can resolve extratropical storms and atmospheric rivers. We use the r-largest method (r=3) to fit stationary (no covariates) and non-stationary (with an index of atmospheric rivers as a covariate) generalised extreme value distributions to the block maxima of annual precipitation. The value of a regional 'index flood' type approach is explored and future changes in the largest precipitation events of the year that are associated with atmospheric rivers are presented.

  6. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Beukes, Nicolas J.


    the GreatOxidation Event2,3.Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6–2.7 billion years ago4–6. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billionyear- old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near...

  7. Atmospheric neutrino results from Super-Kamiokande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Kamioka Observatory, Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research, Tokyo Univ., Kamioka, Gifu (Japan)


    Recent results from Super-kamiokande on atmospheric neutrino measurement are presented. The small ({mu}/e){sub data}/({mu}/e){sub MC} was strongly confirmed. In addition, a statistically significant zenith angle dependence of the high-energy {mu}-like events was observed, suggesting {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations. (author)

  8. Feedback mechanisms between snow and atmospheric mercury: Results and observations from field campaigns on the Antarctic plateau. (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Angot, Hélène; Roman, Marco; Dommergue, Aurélien; Scarchilli, Claudio; Vardè, Massimiliano; Del Guasta, Massimo; Pedeli, Xanthi; Varin, Cristiano; Sprovieri, Francesca; Magand, Olivier; Legrand, Michel; Barbante, Carlo; Cairns, Warren R L


    The Antarctic Plateau snowpack is an important environment for the mercury geochemical cycle. We have extensively characterized and compared the changes in surface snow and atmospheric mercury concentrations that occur at Dome C. Three summer sampling campaigns were conducted between 2013 and 2016. The three campaigns had different meteorological conditions that significantly affected mercury deposition processes and its abundance in surface snow. In the absence of snow deposition events, the surface mercury concentration remained stable with narrow oscillations, while an increase in precipitation results in a higher mercury variability. The Hg concentrations detected confirm that snowfall can act as a mercury atmospheric scavenger. A high temporal resolution sampling experiment showed that surface concentration changes are connected with the diurnal solar radiation cycle. Mercury in surface snow is highly dynamic and it could decrease by up to 90% within 4/6 h. A negative relationship between surface snow mercury and atmospheric concentrations has been detected suggesting a mutual dynamic exchange between these two environments. Mercury concentrations were also compared with the Br concentrations in surface and deeper snow, results suggest that Br could have an active role in Hg deposition, particularly when air masses are from coastal areas. This research presents new information on the presence of Hg in surface and deeper snow layers, improving our understanding of atmospheric Hg deposition to the snow surface and the possible role of re-emission on the atmospheric Hg concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NOAA Environmental Satellite Measurements of Extreme Space Weather Events (United States)

    Denig, W. F.; Wilkinson, D. C.; Redmon, R. J.


    For over 40 years the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has continuously monitored the near-earth space environment in support of space weather operations. Data from this period have covered a wide range of geophysical conditions including periods of extreme space weather such as the great geomagnetic March 1989, the 2003 Halloween storm and the more recent St Patrick's Day storm of 2015. While not specifically addressed here, these storms have stressed our technology infrastructure in unexpected and surprising ways. Space weather data from NOAA geostationary (GOES) and polar (POES) satellites along with supporting data from the Air Force are presented to compare and contrast the space environmental conditions measured during extreme events.

  10. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael


    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  11. Astrophysical neutrinos and atmospheric leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser T.K.


    Full Text Available IceCube measurements of the neutrino flux from TeV to PeV show the signal of astrophysical neutrinos standing out at high energy well above the steeply falling foreground of atmospheric neutrinos. The astrophysical signal appears both in measurements of neutrino-induced muons and in the starting event sample, which responds preferentially to electron and tau neutrinos, but which also includes muon neutrinos. Searches for point sources of astrophysical neutrinos have, however, not yet identified a single source or class of sources for the astrophysical component. Some constraints on astrophysical sources implied by the current observations will be described in this talk. Uncertainties in the fluxes of atmospheric leptons resulting from an incomplete knowledge of the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and from a limited understanding of meson production, including charm will also be reviewed. The ultimate goal is to improve the understanding of the astrophysical spectrum in the transition to lower energy where atmospheric neutrinos dominate. The main aspects of this presentation will be included in the author's Review Talk at the end of the Symposium.

  12. How do atmospheric rivers form? (United States)

    Dacre, Helen


    The term atmospheric river is used to describe corridors of strong water vapor transport in the troposphere. Filaments of enhanced water vapor, commonly observed in satellite imagery extending from the subtropics to the extratropics, are routinely used as a proxy for identifying these regions of strong water vapor transport. The precipitation associated with these filaments of enhanced water vapor can lead to high impact flooding events. However, there remains some debate as to how these filaments form. In this study we analyse the transport of water vapor within a climatology of wintertime North Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Results show that atmospheric rivers are formed by the cold front which sweeps up water vapor in the warm sector as it catches up with the warm front. This causes a narrow band of high water vapor content to form ahead of the cold front at the base of the warm conveyor belt airflow. Thus, water vapor in the cyclone's warm sector, and not long-distance transport of water vapor from the subtropics, is responsible for the generation of filaments of high water vapor content. A continuous cycle of evaporation and moisture convergence within the cyclone replenishes water vapor lost via precipitation. Thus, rather than representing a direct and continuous feed of moist air from the subtropics into the centre of a cyclone (as suggested by the term atmospheric river), these filaments are, in-fact, the result of water vapor exported from the cyclone and thus they represent the footprints left behind as cyclones travel polewards from subtropics.

  13. Line Transport in Turbulent Atmospheres (United States)

    Nikoghossian, A. G.


    The spectral line transfer in turbulent atmospheres with a spatially correlated velocity field is examined. Both the finite and semi-infinite media are treated. In finding the observed intensities we first deal with the problem for determining the mean intensity of radiation emerging from the medium for a fixed value of turbulent velocity at its boundary. A new approach proposed for solving this problem is based on the invariant imbedding technique which yields the solution of the proper problems for a family of media of different optical thicknesses and allows tackling different kinds of inhomogeneous problems. The dependence of the line profile, integral intensity, and the line width on the mean correlation length and the average value of the hydrodynamic velocity is studied. It is shown that the transition from a micro-turbulent regime to a macro-turbulence occurs within a comparatively narrow range of variation in the correlation length . Ambartsumian's principle of invariance is used to solve the problem of diffuse reflection of the line radiation from a one-dimensional semi-infinite turbulent atmosphere. In addition to the observed spectral line profile, statistical averages describing the diffusion process in the atmosphere (mean number of scattering events, average time spent by a diffusing photon in the medium) are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the average hydrodynamic velocity and correlation coefficient is studied.

  14. Event Displays for the Visualization of CMS Events

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher Duncan


    During the last year the CMS experiment engaged in consolidation of its existing event display programs. The core of the new system is based on the Fireworks event display program which was by-design directly integrated with the CMS Event Data Model (EDM) and the light version of the software framework (FWLite). The Event Visualization Environment (EVE) of the ROOT framework is used to manage a consistent set of 3D and 2D views, selection, user-feedback and user-interaction with the graphics windows; several EVE components were developed by CMS in collaboration with the ROOT project. In event display operation simple plugins are registered into the system to perform conversion from EDM collections into their visual representations which are then managed by the application. Full event navigation and filtering as well as collection-level filtering is supported. The same data-extraction principle can also be applied when Fireworks will eventually operate as a service within the full software framework.

  15. Formalization of Event Perception and Event Appraisal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain


    Full Text Available Integration of emotion in a virtual agent is a topic of research to depict human-like behavior in a simulated environment. For the last few decades, many researchers are working in the field of incorporating emotions in a virtual agent. In the emotion model, the behavior of an agent depends upon how the event is perceived by the agent with respect to the goal. Hence, perception of the event while considering the past experience, importance of event towards achieving goal, agent’s own capabilities and resources is an important process which directly influences the decision making and action selection. The proposed models, till date, are either too complex to adapt or are using a very few parameters to describe the event. So, in this paper, we propose an extension of perception process in an existing emotion model, EMIA and suggest the formalization of event perception and appraisal processes to make it adaptable. This has been carried out using five parameters for event description along-with fuzzy logic which makes the process more effective yet simple.

  16. Speech processing in mobile environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa


    This book focuses on speech processing in the presence of low-bit rate coding and varying background environments. The methods presented in the book exploit the speech events which are robust in noisy environments. Accurate estimation of these crucial events will be useful for carrying out various speech tasks such as speech recognition, speaker recognition and speech rate modification in mobile environments. The authors provide insights into designing and developing robust methods to process the speech in mobile environments. Covering temporal and spectral enhancement methods to minimize the effect of noise and examining methods and models on speech and speaker recognition applications in mobile environments.

  17. A New Look at Triton's Atmosphere (United States)

    Person, Michael

    When it was first examined with stellar occultations in the 1990s, Triton's atmosphere was seen to undergo global expansion during the period from 1993 to 1997. This expansion was confirmed as a continuing phenomenon with a stellar occultation observation in 2001 . Unfortunately, as Triton started to pass through a fairly sparse star field, occultation observations have been much more difficult to make. There have been no published occultation data on Triton's atmosphere since the 2001 event, and reported observations in early 2007 had too low of a signal-to-noise ratio to say anything about the atmospheric profile. Thus, it has been over 15 years since the last direct measurement of Triton's expanding atmosphere was made, leaving wide open the question of Triton's current atmospheric state. Is the atmosphere still expanding or is it now collapsing? Are the haze layers seen by Voyager still present? Are the variations seen in the 1990s seasonal or cyclic on shorter time scales due to Triton surface processes? The observation of stellar occultations remains the only way to gain current data on Triton's atmosphere from Earth, and SOFIA's unique ability to be reliably placed in the central flash region of occultation events where the richest dataset is available, and its immunity to low-level weather disturbances make it the ideal platform for updating our knowledge on Triton and beginning to answer these many outstanding questions. We therefore propose to use SOFIA with HIPO, FLITECAM (FLIPO), and the FPI+ to measure temperature, pressure, and particulate haze radial profiles of Triton's atmosphere by observing a stellar occultation which will be visible over the eastern portion of North America in October of 2017. We expect to use FLITECAM/HIPO (FLIPO) Guaranteed Time Observing (GTO) hours for the included observations with the agreement of the FLITECAM and HIPO instrument teams.

  18. Flight attendant radiation dose from solar particle events. (United States)

    Anderson, Jeri L; Mertens, Christopher J; Grajewski, Barbara; Luo, Lian; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T


    Research has suggested that work as a flight attendant may be related to increased risk for reproductive health effects. Air cabin exposures that may influence reproductive health include radiation dose from galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle events. This paper describes the assessment of radiation dose accrued during solar particle events as part of a reproductive health study of flight attendants. Solar storm data were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Weather Prediction Center list of solar proton events affecting the Earth environment to ascertain storms relevant to the two study periods (1992-1996 and 1999-2001). Radiation dose from exposure to solar energetic particles was estimated using the NAIRAS model in conjunction with galactic cosmic radiation dose calculated using the CARI-6P computer program. Seven solar particle events were determined to have potential for significant radiation exposure, two in the first study period and five in the second study period, and over-lapped with 24,807 flight segments. Absorbed (and effective) flight segment doses averaged 6.5 μGy (18 μSv) and 3.1 μGy (8.3 μSv) for the first and second study periods, respectively. Maximum doses were as high as 440 μGy (1.2 mSv) and 20 flight segments had doses greater than 190 μGy (0.5 mSv). During solar particle events, a pregnant flight attendant could potentially exceed the equivalent dose limit to the conceptus of 0.5 mSv in a month recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

  19. National Special Security Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn


    ...) as National Special Security Events (NSSE) Beginning in September 1998 through February 2007, there have been 27 events designated as NSSEs Some of these events have included presidential inaugurations, presidential nominating conventions...

  20. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  1. Event Attribution of the August 2010 Russian Heat Wave

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Imada, Yukiko; Mori, Masato; Ishii, Masayoshi; Kimoto, Masahide


    An extreme heat wave hit western Russia in the summer of 2010. To investigate the contribution of anthropogenic climate change to this event, 100-member ensembles of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM...

  2. Infants Segment Continuous Events Using Transitional Probabilities (United States)

    Stahl, Aimee E.; Romberg, Alexa R.; Roseberry, Sarah; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn


    Throughout their 1st year, infants adeptly detect statistical structure in their environment. However, little is known about whether statistical learning is a primary mechanism for event segmentation. This study directly tests whether statistical learning alone is sufficient to segment continuous events. Twenty-eight 7- to 9-month-old infants…

  3. Assessing the Influence of the Multisensory Atmosphere on the Taste of Vodka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang


    Full Text Available A preliminary study designed to assess the impact of the multisensory atmosphere (involving variations in lighting and music on people’s rating of unflavoured and flavoured (citron and raspberry vodkas is reported. The auditory and visual attributes of the environment were changed as people tasted, and then rated, four unlabelled glasses of vodka (two unflavoured samples, one sample of citron-flavoured and one sample of raspberry-flavoured vodka. Due to the public nature of the event, all participants experienced the same order of auditory and visual changes at the same time. For flavoured vodkas, we saw significant correlations between atmosphere-vodka matching and both liking and fruitiness, and this was reinforced by results showing that those participants who tasted the vodkas in congruent atmospheric conditions (raspberry vodka in red lighting and sweet music, citron vodka in green lighting and sour music gave significantly higher ratings of liking and fruitiness than did those participants who tasted the vodkas in atmospheric conditions that were incongruent. Specifically, the participants liked the raspberry-flavoured vodka significantly more, and rated it as tasting significantly fruitier, under red lighting while listening to sweet music as compared to under green lighting and listening to sour music. Meanwhile, the unflavoured vodka was liked less under green lighting while listening to the putatively sour music than under white lighting and no music. These results demonstrate how the multisensory attributes of the environment impact on people’s experience of both unflavoured and flavoured vodkas, even when they are not given any information about what they are tasting. Some of the real-world implications for bars (i.e., the “on trade”, experiential events, and other beverage businesses are discussed.

  4. ModObs: Atmospheric modelling for wind energy, climate and environment applications: exploring added value from new observation technique. Work in progress within a FP6 Marie Curie Research Training Network (United States)

    Sempreviva, A. M.


    The EC FP6 Marie Curie Training Network "ModObs” addresses the improvement of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models to investigate the interplay of processes at different temporal and spatial scales, and to explore the added value from new observation techniques. The overall goal is to bring young scientists to work ogether with experienced researchers in developing a better interaction amongst scientific communities of modelers and experimentalists, using a comprehensive approach to "Climate Change”, "Clean Energy assessment” and "Environmental Policies”, issues. This poster describes the work in progress of ten students, funded by the network, under the supervision of a team of scientists within atmospheric physics, engineering and satellite remote sensing and end-users such as companies in the private sector, all with the appropriate expertise to integrate the most advanced research methods and techniques in the following topics. MODELING: GLOBAL-TO-MESO SCALE: Analytical and process oriented numerical models will be used to study the interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean on a regional scale. Initial results indicate an interaction between the intensity of polar lows and the subsurface warm core often present in the Nordic Seas (11). The presence of waves, mainly swell, influence the MABL fluxes and turbulence structure. The regional and global wave effect on the atmosphere will be also studied and quantified (7) MESO-SCALE: Applicability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) parametrizations in the meso-scale WRF model to marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) over the North Sea is investigated. The most suitable existing PBL parametrization will be additionally improved and used for downscaling North Sea past and future climates (2). Application of the meso-scale model (MM5 and WRF) for the wind energy in off-shore and coastal area. Set-up of the meso-scale model, post-processing and verification of the data

  5. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets


    Showman, Adam P.; Cho, James Y-K.; Menou, Kristen


    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-wate...

  6. Evolution caused by extreme events. (United States)

    Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Huey, Raymond B; Johnson, Marc T J; Knoll, Andrew H; Schmitt, Johanna


    Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks. These extreme events set up strong selection pressures on organisms, and are small-scale analogues of the dramatic changes documented in the fossil record. Because extreme events are rare, almost by definition, they are difficult to study. So far most attention has been given to their ecological rather than to their evolutionary consequences. We review several case studies of contemporary evolution in response to two types of extreme environmental perturbations, episodic (pulse) or prolonged (press). Evolution is most likely to occur when extreme events alter community composition. We encourage investigators to be prepared for evolutionary change in response to rare events during long-term field studies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie


    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...

  8. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  9. Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce


    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Rd. Victoria, BCV9E 2E7 (Canada); Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gimeno, German [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Brown, Michael E., E-mail: [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)


    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  11. Impact of climate change on heavy precipitation events of the Mediterranean basin; Impact du changement climatique sur les evenements de pluie intense du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, D.; Beaulant, A.L.; Deque, M.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Martin, E.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana Segui, P.; Ribes, A.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France et CNRS, Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (GAME), 31 - Toulouse (France); Boe, J. [California Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    A second topic covered by the CYPRIM project aims to characterize the evolution of heavy precipitation events in Mediterranean in the context of climate change. To this end, a continuous climate simulation from 1960 to 2099 has been run using a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model under IPCC A2 emission scenario. Various techniques of down-scaling, down to the very fine 2 km scale, and methods to highlight synoptic environments favourable to heavy rain, have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on precipitation and hydrology over South-East France, both for the whole autumn season and the heavy rain events. (authors)

  12. Photochemistry of planetary atmospheres. [Mars atmospheric composition (United States)

    Stief, L. J.


    The atmospheric composition of Mars is presented, and the applicability of laboratory data on CO2 absorption cross sections and quantum yields of dissociation is discussed. A summary and critical evaluation are presented on the various mechanisms proposed for converting the photodissociation products CO and O2 back to CO2.

  13. Atmospheric Prebiotic Chemistry and Organic Hazes (United States)

    Trainer, Melissa G.


    Earth's atmospheric composition at the time of the origin of life is not known, but it has often been suggested that chemical transformation of reactive species in the atmosphere was a significant source of pre biotic organic molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies over the past half century have shown that atmospheric synthesis can yield molecules such as amino acids and nucleobases, but these processes are very sensitive to gas composition and energy source. Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is more productive in reduced atmospheres, yet the primitive Earth may not have been as reducing as earlier workers assumed, and recent research has reflected this shift in thinking. This work provides a survey of the range of chemical products that can be produced given a set of atmospheric conditions, with a particular focus on recent reports. Intertwined with the discussion of atmospheric synthesis is the consideration of an organic haze layer, which has been suggested as a possible ultraviolet shield on the anoxic early Earth. Since such a haze layer - if formed - would serve as a reservoir for organic molecules, the chemical composition of the aerosol should be closely examined. The results highlighted here show that a variety of products can be formed in mildly reducing or even neutral atmospheres, demonstrating that contributions of atmospheric synthesis to the organic inventory on early Earth should not be discounted. This review intends to bridge current knowledge of the range of possible atmospheric conditions in the prebiotic environment and pathways for synthesis under such conditions by examining the possible products of organic chemistry in the early atmosphere.

  14. Automated Event Service: Efficient and Flexible Searching for Earth Science Phenomena Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an Automated Event Service system that: Methodically mines custom-defined events in the reanalysis data sets of global atmospheric models. Enables...

  15. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets. (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J


    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  16. Charge Transfer Scheme for Atmospheric Ice Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umair Najeeb MUGHAL


    Full Text Available The atmospheric icing parameters are being measured nowadays with the aid of more customized yet limited commercial equipment. The parameters include atmospheric ice detection, icing load and icing rate. The robustness of such equipment is usually under scrutiny when it comes to cold/harsh environment operations. This phenomenon was experienced consistently by the atmospheric Icing Research Team at Narvik University College during data retrieval exercises from its atmospheric icing stations installed at Fargnesfjellet during 2012-13. In this paper it is aimed to address the potential feasibility to produce a robust hardware addressing the icing measurements signals, which includes instrumentation hardware giving icing indications, icing type and de- icing rate measurements in a single platform (not commercially available till date.

  17. Controlled Atmosphere Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.


    Controlled atmosphere (CAS) stunning includes several variations of gaseous mixtures given to induce an anaesthetic state before slaughter poultry. One method of multi phase CAS is to unload the birds out of the crate on a conveyor belt and subject the birds to an atmosphere of 30% O2, 40% CO2 and

  18. The Power of Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    composed of bubbles of affects – that is, the particles that are charged with power and normativity. References Grtiffero, T. (2014 (2010)). Atmospheres: Aesthetics of Emotional Spaces. Ashgate Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, A. (2013). Atmospheres of law: Senses, affects, lawscapes, in Emotion, Space...

  19. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful....... The potentials and implications are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Line, Michael R.; Montero, Cezar; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Luther, Kyle, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California, 366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We explore how well spectra from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will likely constrain bulk atmospheric properties of transiting exoplanets. We start by modeling the atmospheres of archetypal hot Jupiter, warm Neptune, warm sub-Neptune, and cool super-Earth planets with atmospheres that are clear, cloudy, or of high mean molecular weight (HMMW). Next we simulate the λ = 1–11 μm transmission and emission spectra of these systems for several JWST instrument modes for single-transit or single-eclipse events. We then perform retrievals to determine how well temperatures and molecular mixing ratios (CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}) can be constrained. We find that λ = 1–2.5 μm transmission spectra will often constrain the major molecular constituents of clear solar-composition atmospheres well. Cloudy or HMMW atmospheres will often require full 1–11 μm spectra for good constraints, and emission data may be more useful in cases of sufficiently high F{sub p} and high F{sub p}/F{sub *}. Strong temperature inversions in the solar-composition hot-Jupiter atmosphere should be detectable with 1–2.5+ μm emission spectra, and 1–5+ μm emission spectra will constrain the temperature–pressure profiles of warm planets. Transmission spectra over 1–5+ μm will constrain [Fe/H] values to better than 0.5 dex for the clear atmospheres of the hot and warm planets studied. Carbon-to-oxygen ratios can be constrained to better than a factor of 2 in some systems. We expect that these results will provide useful predictions of the scientific value of single-event JWST spectra until its on-orbit performance is known.

  1. Systematic approaches to adverse events in obstetrics, Part I: Event identification and classification. (United States)

    Pettker, Christian M


    Despite our best intentions to improve health when a patient presents for care, adverse events are ubiquitous in medical practice today. Known complications related to the course of a patient's illness or condition or to the characteristics of the treatment have been an openly stated part of taking care of patients for centuries. However, it is only in the past decade that preventable adverse events, instances of harm related to error and deviations in accepted practice have become a primary part of these conversations. Human and system errors are an innate part of working in a complex environment like health care and we are now well aware of this burden in medicine. Now, we are building ways to react to adverse events from error in systematic ways. A systematic approach to identifying and classifying events is a critical part of any safety program, let alone an obstetric safety program. This article reviews the various systems that are used to identify adverse events, in particular sentinel events, state reportable events, and the significant local adverse "trigger" events in obstetrics. These events typically become identified through robust reporting systems where staff can report adverse, near-miss events, or precursor safety events. After events are reported, a system for classifying events, including a structured tracking and reporting system with built in accountability, is necessary. The concept of the "serious safety event," and how these differ from known complications or unpreventable events, and how this is classified are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmosphere Impact Losses (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy


    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  3. The PHOCUS Project: Atmospheric Composition (United States)

    Hedin, J.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.


    On the morning of July 21, 2011, the PHOCUS sounding rocket was launched from Esrange, Sweden, into strong noctilucent clouds (NLC) and polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The aim of the PHOCUS project (Particles, Hydrogen and Oxygen Chemistry in the Upper Summer mesosphere) is to study mesospheric particles (ice and meteoric smoke) and their interaction with their neutral and charged environment. Interactions of interest comprise the charging and nucleation of particles, the relationship between meteoric smoke and ice, and the influence of these particles on gas-phase chemistry. Here we will describe the optical measurements of the atmospheric composition and present first results including comparison to the other simultaneous measurements. The atmospheric composition was probed by a set of optical instruments from Stockholm University. The idea behind the instrument setup was to combine the advantages of the sensitive resonance fluorescence with well-calibrated airglow photometry. The set of instruments consisted of two resonance fluorescence probes (each containing a lamp and a detector), one for atomic oxygen and one for atomic hydrogen, and two IR photometers for O2 and OH dayglow emissions in the near IR. The O2 IR Atmospheric system at 1.27 μm is related to the photolysis of O3, which during the day is in steady state with O and a retrieval of O is possible. The OH Meinel emission is produced by the reaction between mesospheric O3 and H, and H concentrations can be deduced by combining information from both photometers. Unfortunately, some of these measurements were corrupted by instrument problems or payload glow. O3 and O profiles will be presented and compared to the simultaneous measurements of ice and meteoric smoke particles, water vapour and the state of the background neutral and charged atmosphere.

  4. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse


    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  5. Increasing retention of early career female atmospheric scientists (United States)

    Edwards, L. M.; Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Thiry, H.


    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT uses a multi-faceted approach to provide junior scientists with tools that will help them meet the challenges in their research and teaching career paths and will promote their retention in the field. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful and prepared to fill vacancies created by the “baby boomer” retirees. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory, Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. Post-workshop reunion events are held at national scientific meetings to maintain connectivity among each year’s participants, and for collaborating among participants of all workshops held to date. Evaluations of the two workshop cohorts thus far conclude that the workshops have been successful in achieving the goals of establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  6. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.


    in the size range 1 nm–10 μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean–atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased...... and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using...... aircraft and satellite remote sensing. The application of a flux-based approach in assessment of O3 effects on vegetation at regional scales is an important policy linked development secured through improved quantification of fluxes. The coupling of monitoring, modelling and intensive flux measurement...

  7. Variations in the structure of airborne bacterial communities in Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert area during dust events. (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Onishi, Kazunari; Lee, Kevin C; Pointing, Stephen B; Jugder, Dulam; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Masato


    Asian dust events transport the airborne bacteria in Chinese desert regions as well as mineral particles and influence downwind area varying biological ecosystems and climate changes. However, the airborne bacterial dynamics were rarely investigated in the Gobi desert area, where dust events are highly frequent. In this study, air samplings were sequentially performed at a 2-m high above the ground at the sampling site located in desert area (Tsogt-Ovoo of Gobi desert; Mongolia 44.2304°N, 105.1700°E). During the dust event days, the bacterial cells and mineral particles increased to more than tenfold of concentrations. MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the airborne bacteria in desert area mainly belonged to the classes Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Bacilli, Alpha-proteobacteria, Beta-proteobacteria, and Gamma-proteobacteria. The bacterial community structures were different between dust events and non-dust events. The air samples collected at the dust events indicated high abundance rates of Alpha-proteobacteria, which were reported to dominate on the leaf surfaces of plants or in the saline lake environments. After the dust events, the members of Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Bacteroidetes, which are known to form endospore and attach with coarse particles, respectively, increased their relative abundances in the air samples. Presumably, the bacterial compositions and diversities in atmosphere significantly vary during dust events, which carry some particles from grassland (phyllo-sphere), dry lake, and sand surfaces, as well as some bacterial populations such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes maintain in the atmosphere for longer time.

  8. Mercury in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, L.J.


    The global mercury cycle is diagrammed, and the movement of mercury in aquatic food chains is discussed. The methylation mechanisms in aquatic systems are diagrammed and discussed. The mercury flow in US society is diagrammed; the diagram shows the percentage contribution of various sources to the environment. Atmospheric levels of mercury are graphed, and the concentration of mercury in foodstuffs from various parts of the world are tabulated. The possibility of chromosome damage caused by mercury is briefly treated. 7 figures, 1 table.

  9. Virtual Environments 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the joint 9th International Immersive Projection Technologies Workshop and the 11th EUROGRAPHICS Virtual Environments Workshop (IPTEGVE). The event was held in Aalborg, Denmark the 6. and 7. October 2005. It was organized at the VR Media Lab, Aalborg University...

  10. Actions for the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C


    As an International Organization, one the most important issues that CERN has to respect and guarantee is the protection of the environment. Several of ST activities and operations have a direct impact on the environment: civil engineering works, electrical (transformers) and air-cooling operation, chemical products storage, various waste disposal etc.... Important measures, taken in the past, have to be kept and new ones should be applied in order to insure the conformity of the infrastructure with existing legislation, the correct operation of equipment and systems, the constant monitoring of the different situations and the traceability of the events. Moreover good management of the environment would bring large savings to CERN.

  11. Regimes of self-organized criticality in the atmospheric convection

    CERN Document Server

    Spineanu, F; Palade, D


    Large scale organization in ensembles of events of atmospheric convection can be generated by the combined effect of forcing and of the interaction between the raising plumes and the environment. Here the "large scale" refers to the space extension that is larger or comparable with the basic resolved cell of a numerical weather prediction system. Under the action of external forcing like heating individual events of convection respond to the slow accumulation of vapor by a threshold-type dynamics. This is due to the a time-scale separation, between the slow drive and the fast convective response, expressed as the "quasi-equilibrium". When there is interaction between the convection plumes, the effect is a correlated response. We show that the correlated response have many of the characteristics of the self-organized criticality (SOC). It is suggested that from the SOC perspective, a description of the specific dynamics induced by "quasi-equilibrium" can be provided by models of "punctuated equilibrium". Indee...

  12. Extreme environments and exobiology (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.


    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  13. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani


    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  14. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai


    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  15. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke


    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, base