WorldWideScience

Sample records for events contingency planning

  1. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument......Outbreaks of infectious animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, Newcastle disease and avian influenza may have a devastating impact, not only on the livestock sector and the rural community in the directly affected areas, but also beyond agriculture and nation wide...... in the preparation for and the handling of an epidemic. The legislation of the European Union requires that all Member States draw up a contingency plan which specifies the national measures required to maintain a high level of awareness and preparedness and is to be implemented in the event of disease outbreak...

  2. Waterfowl disease contingency plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this contingency plan is reduce waterfowl losses from disease, primarily avian botulism, along the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This...

  3. Energy Emergency and Contingency Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Region 3 document outlines the purpose of Energy Emergency and Contingency Plans. These plans are intended to help refuges continue to function during energy...

  4. National Contingency Plan Subpart J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subpart J of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) directs EPA to prepare a schedule of dispersants, other chemicals, and oil spill mitigating devices and substances that may be used to remove or control oil discharges.

  5. RMA Emergency Management / Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The RMA Emergency Management/Contingency Plan (EM/CP) provides guidance to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) and the RMA National Wildlife Refuge (RMANWR) managers...

  6. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... police departments, fire departments, hospitals, and State and local emergency response teams that may be called upon to provide emergency services. ... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan...

  7. [Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Disease Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Ottawa NWR provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge personnel, equipment, and resources; and...

  8. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  9. Volcanic Eruption: Students Develop a Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2013-04-01

    , causing a blockage and afflux of the Rhine, which, due to the given conditions of a very narrow valley, would lead to excessive flooding affecting even the greater Rhine-Main-region. Not to mention the consequences of a pyroclastic flow, dropping volcanic bombs and further hazardous/disastrous consequences. In comparison to other "potentially active" or "active volcanoes", e.g. the Vesuvius, the Laacher See is scarcely monitored and according to recent publications poorly analyzed in terms of contingency and evacuation plans. This offers space for critical analysis and creative solutions to an existing problem. Short: We need geographers and their knowledge to provide help. Given these facts, the Laacher See could be the layout for a very interesting geography project bringing together previously gained knowledge and understanding of volcanic activities, their destructive powers, consequences and risks in case of an eruption in combination with their topographical characteristics. Your students thereby act the role of a geoscientist developing contingency plans and evacuation zones for the greater Laacher See area. This involves a detailed analysis of the topographical characteristics based on (classic) topographic maps or online via the use of a GIS (e.g. Google maps). In a second step students enlist the possible consequences they already know according to their range and copy them onto a transparency layer on the topographic map. Using such a layer technique students add population density, important topographic features and maybe even anticipated wind directions to their map. The information density and the specific layout of this map are thereby only determined by the student's previous knowledge, their personal abilities and skills and the amount of time provided. This offers the opportunities to even differentiate the task within your group and provide support adjusted to the individual students level. On the basis of their own thematic map your students should be

  10. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Submitted to all local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, and State and local emergency response teams that may be called upon to provide emergency services. ... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy...

  11. National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This instruction advises of the current National Oil and Hazardous Material Contingency Plan, the Bureau's role in effecting the Plan, and guidelines for handling...

  12. Communications Contingency Plan: Planning for Crises and Controversy. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treise, Deborah; Bernstein, Arla G.; Yates, Brad

    1998-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with a variety of Marshall Space Flight Center personnel and local media representatives in Huntsville, Alabama, in order to identify the current perceptions of these individuals regarding communication effectiveness between MSFC and the media. The purposes of the Phase One report are to (1) assess the need for a contingency plan for communicating in situations of crisis and controversy; (2) identify goals and objectives for the planning process; and (3) provide recommendations for future planning activities to achieve the goals and objectives outlined in Phase One. It is strongly recommended that MSFC personnel who are involved in communications with the media participate in a facilitated, strategic communications planning process in order to develop Phase Two of the Communications Contingency Plan (CCP). Phase Two will address (1) the categorizing, ranking and prioritizing of crises and controversies; (2) the development of action steps and implementation strategies for the CCP; and (3) the development of a monitoring and evaluation process for ongoing plan effectiveness.

  13. National Contingency Plan (NCP) Subpart J Product Schedule Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan stipulates the criteria for listing and managing the use of dispersants and other chemical and biological agents used to mitigate oil spills.

  14. National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) is to provide the organizational structure and procedures for preparing for and responding to discharges of oil and releases of hazardous substances, pollutants...

  15. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on migratory bird disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge...

  16. Counterfactual Reasoning for Regretted Situations Involving Controllable Versus Uncontrollable Events: The Modulating Role of Contingent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Ball, Linden J.; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person’s sense of self-worth is based on self and others’ expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future. PMID:25883697

  17. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Runge-Ranzinger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks.Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed.Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak Prediction/ Detection and Outbreak Response seeks to

  18. 34 CFR 685.209 - Income contingent repayment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Income contingent repayment plan. 685.209 Section 685.209 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WILLIAM D. FORD FEDERAL DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM Borrower Provisions...

  19. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  20. Special event planning for the emergency manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Peter T

    2009-11-01

    In the domain of emergency management and homeland security there is a lack of a formal planning process at the local level when it comes to special event planning. The unique nature of special event planning demands an understanding of the planning process for both traditional and non-traditional planning partners. This understanding will make certain that local governments apply due diligence when planning for the safety of the public. This paper offers a practical roadmap for planning at the local level. It will address those 'special events' that are beyond routine local events but not of a sufficient scale to be granted National Special Security Event status. Due to the infrequency of 'special events' in most communities, it is imperative that deliberate planning takes place. Upon conclusion, the reader will be able to construct a planning process tailored to the needs of their community, guide both traditional and non-traditional planning partners through the planning process, determine priorities, explore alternatives, plan for contingencies, conduct a confirmation brief, facilitate operations and assemble an after-action report and improvement plan.

  1. Modoc refuge DVE contingency plan [ rough draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The DVE disease plan includes waterfowl populations data, dispersal of waterfowl, concentration of waterfowl, and extermination for Modoc NWR.

  2. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  3. Transportation planning for planned special events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events inc...

  4. A parallel asynchronous decomposition for on-line contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, V.C. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Talukdar, S.N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Engineering Design Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Traditional formulations of security-constrained-optimal-power-flows represent contingencies by hard constraints. The disadvantages are four-fold. First, the conflicts among contingencies must be arbitrated apriori, before their effects are known. Second, the feasible region shrinks with increase in the number of contingencies. Third, computational time increases with the number of contingencies. Fourth, hard constraints provide poor models of fuzzy quantities such as equipment ratings and operating guidelines. This paper develops a modeling framework without these disadvantages. Specifically, it allows for soft constraints and always has feasible solutions. The effects of conflicts among contingencies are displayed so system operators can arbitrate them in an informed manner. Moreover, each contingency can be handled asynchronously and in parallel. In other words, the computational time, for handling an arbitrarily large number of contingencies, remains the same as for performing an optimal power flow without any contingencies (provided that a computer is dedicated to each contingency).

  5. A parallel asynchronous decomposition for on-line contingency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, V.C. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Talukdar, S.N. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Engineering Design Research Center

    1996-02-01

    Traditional formulations of security-constrained-optimal-power-flows represent contingencies by hard constraints. The disadvantages are four-fold. First, the conflicts among contingencies must be arbitrated a priori, before their effects are known. Second, the feasible region shrinks with increase in the number of contingencies. Third, computational time increases with the number of contingencies. Fourth, hard constraints provide poor models of fuzzy quantities such as equipment ratings and operating guidelines. This paper develops a modeling framework without these disadvantages. Specifically, it allows for soft constraints and always has feasible solutions. The effects of conflicts among contingencies are displayed so system operators can arbitrate them in an informed manner. Moreover, each contingency can be handled asynchronously and in parallel. In other words, the computational time, for handling an arbitrarily large number of contingencies, remains the same as for performing an optimal power flow without any contingencies (provided that a computer is dedicated to each contingency).

  6. From Event Planning to Legacy Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    The importance of legacy and legacy planning is increasing in the event industry. Mega-events are becoming so expensive to host that the opportunity costs decreases the amount of potential future hosts. The events aim to surpass the costs by creating positive legacies, impacts that last longer than the event itself. Small-events can also have legacies and the positive affects can be even more significant than with the mega-events. Event planning must change to legacy planning in the future, b...

  7. 76 FR 49397 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Utah, through the Utah Department of....m. to 4 p.m. Tooele City Library, 128 West Vine Street, Tooele, Utah 84074, (435) 882-2182. FOR...

  8. 76 FR 76118 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the..., Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  9. 76 FR 45484 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  10. 76 FR 45483 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  11. 76 FR 76336 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The EPA and the State of Texas, through the Texas Commission on... recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U.S.C. 1321(c)(2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 73 - Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards Contingency Plans C... MATERIALS Pt. 73, App. C Appendix C to Part 73—Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards Contingency Plans I.... For nuclear power reactor licensees subject to the requirements of § 73.55, the licensee shall provide...

  13. 78 FR 11589 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Superfund Site (Site) located in West Chicago, Illinois, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL... Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This direct final deletion is being published by EPA with the concurrence...

  14. 77 FR 21919 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State of Illinois, through the Illinois... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...) located in Greenup, Illinois from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comments on this...

  15. 78 FR 11620 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National... Superfund Site located in West Chicago, DuPage County, Illinois from the National Priorities List (NPL) and... appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). EPA and the State...

  16. Modeling oil spill trajectory in Bosphorus for contingency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurtoğlu, Şafak Nur Ertürk

    2017-10-15

    Bosphorus, is a strongly driven international maritime route between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and is a high risk area for oil spill due to the heavy tanker traffic. In this study an oil spill trajectory model was developed for investigating the potential risks of accidental oil spills in Bosphorus. The proposed oil spill trajectory model combines the surface current velocity data obtained from a calibrated hydrodynamic model with the advection, spreading, and evaporation processes that are effective only on the sea surface and dominant for a couple of hours after the oil spill. Model simulations revealed that spilled oil reaches the shoreline on both sides of Bosphorus in spill. We proposed locations for emergency intervention stations in Bosphorus which can be used to devise a suitable oil spill contingency plan to keep the adverse impacts of oil spills at minimum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  18. 40 CFR 109.5 - Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL REMOVAL CONTINGENCY PLANS § 109.5 Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans. Criteria for the development and implementation of State, local and... criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans. 109.5 Section 109.5 Protection of...

  19. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed....... It is essential that these plans are established during ‘peace-time’ and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance...... of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those...

  20. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  1. 1983 Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge personnel,...

  2. Fish and wildlife contingency plan for oil and hazardous materials spills in South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Spill responders should become familiar with the contacts and other information contained in this Contingency Plan before a spill occurs. Spill cleanup methods vary...

  3. Chronic wasting disease contingency plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting deer and elk (cervids) in North America. The goal of this contingency plan...

  4. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) contingency plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Disease contingency plan to reduce avian mortality from highly pathogenic avian influenza (HAPI) outbreaks at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  5. Potable Water Emergency/Contingency Plan. Water Supply Information Paper; No. IP-31-020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grover, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides guidance to installations for preparing an emergency/contingency plan to effectively address potential contamination of drinking water supplies, and for providing potable water during emergencies...

  6. Assessing Energy Intake in Daily Life: Signal-Contingent Smartphone Application Versus Event-Contingent Paper and Pencil Estimated Diet Diary

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Wouters; Viviane Thewissen; Mira Duif; Lilian Lechner; Nele Jacobs

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Investigating between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants such as emotions and stress presents challenges because both vary from moment to moment throughout the day. A smartphone application (app), was developed to map momentary between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants in the context of daily life. The aim of this study was to compare energy intake reported with the signal-contingent app and reported with an event-contingent paper and pencil diet dia...

  7. A High Performance System With Explicit Incorporation of ATC Regulations to Generate Contingency Plans for UAVs with Lost Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a comprehensive and systematic contingency plan generation framework to deal with lost communication in UAVs. ATC regulations are explicitly incorporated...

  8. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)

  9. 76 FR 42055 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Residential Populated Areas, of the California Gulch Superfund Site (Site), located in Lake County, Colorado... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... County Public Library, 1115 Harrison Avenue, Leadville, CO 80461. (719) 486-0569: Viewing hours: Monday...

  10. 76 FR 30081 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Populated Areas, of the California Gulch Superfund Site (Site), located in Lake County, Colorado, from the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

  11. 78 FR 64402 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Contingency Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... address Clean Air Act (CAA) contingency measure requirements for the 1997 annual and 24-hour national... Air Basin (South Coast). Approval of this SIP revision terminates the sanctions clocks and a federal implementation plan (FIP) clock that were triggered by EPA's partial disapproval of a related SIP submission on...

  12. 76 FR 57702 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National..., Texas 75202-2733; Hours of operation: Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. Contact...

  13. 76 FR 510 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Authority: 33 U... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Agency, Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, Texas 75202-2733. Such deliveries are only accepted during...

  14. 76 FR 76048 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... of the shallow ground water. The State of Texas defines ground water resources based on water quality... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  15. 76 FR 57661 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National..., Texas 75202-2733; Hours of operation: Monday thru Friday, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. and 1 to 4 p.m. Contact...

  16. 76 FR 57701 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... at: 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 700, Dallas, Texas...

  17. 76 FR 57662 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., Intergovernmental relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... at: 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6; 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 700; Dallas, Texas...

  18. 76 FR 45428 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... of the shallow ground water. The State of Texas defines ground water resources based on water quality... relations, Penalties, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National...

  19. 76 FR 11350 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 300 National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National... Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, from the National Priorities List (NPL). The NPL, promulgated... (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended, is an appendix of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution...

  20. Application of Planned Behavior Theory to Account for College Students' Occupational Intentions in Contingent Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior to examine college students' intentions to engage in contingent employment. Data were collected from 845 students in 8 colleges and universities in Taiwan. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that both attitude and subjective norms were…

  1. Sustainability Criteria for Planning, Constructing, and Operating Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    common PREREQ 1 Walkable Streets yes Planning, Desi gn, Construction, OaM Medium use areas. Plan careft,j!y to accommodate simftar functions in the...apjly the specific LEED·ND criteria. Pay special attention to roads that connect LSA ~ife support areas) to common Walkable Streets yes Planning... Walkable Streets  Intent: ►To promote transportation efficiency. ►To promote walking by providing: • Safe •Appealing •Comfortable street

  2. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, contractors, and State and local emergency response teams to coordinate emergency services, pursuant to § 264.37. (d) The plan must list names... include a list of all emergency equipment at the facility (such as fire extinguishing systems, spill...

  3. 78 FR 64879 - Liquidity and Contingency Funding Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...'s borrowing authority has been reduced to just over $2 billion. These events followed several years.... 1795-1795k. Eighteen commenters either opposed applying Basel III liquidity measures and monitoring... a policy establishes liquidity measures and associated benchmarks, a reporting requirement to keep...

  4. Contingency Plans for War in Western Europe, 1920-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    heavily based on official papers: Albert !-Leopold III: 20 ans de Politique Militaire Belge, 1920-1940 (Bruges, 1948), and Au Service de la Belgique ...34La Politique Militaire de la Belgique en 1939-1940," RGB, Vol. 92, May 1960. Nierstrasz, Major-Gen. V. E., "L’evolution du Plan d’Operations...understood to he those of observation, of bombing, of protec- tion for aircraft engaged in those missions, and of defense against enemy aircraft

  5. Experience of contingency and congruent interpretation of life events in clinical psychiatric settings. A qualitative pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherer-Rath, M.; Brand, J.A.M. van den; Straten, C. van; Modderkolk, L.; Terlouw, C.; Hoencamp, E.

    2012-01-01

    This is a qualitative pilot study of congruence in narrative reconstruction of interpretations of life events by patients in a clinical psychiatric setting. It is based on the assumption that a coherent interpretive structure means that the interpretation of contingent life events by a person must

  6. Legal concerns for the elaboration of a contingency plan for oil spills in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Plácido de Mello

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the oceans assume vital importance for life on Earth. Environmental monitoring of prospection, exploration and oil transport is imperative in order to prevent and minimize oil and gas accidents. It is necessary to elaborate a Contingency Plan for oil spilling in the sea in the various exploration and production areas, with the collaboration of platform operators. Such strategies may be organized in two parts: the first one containing the plan’s documented policy, and the second presenting the operational plan. A good cooperation among those involved in the accident response plan is critical.

  7. Wilderness event medicine: planning for mass gatherings in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Timothy E

    2005-11-01

    An increasing number of large recreational events are taking place in remote environments where medical care is far away. Such events include adventure races and large outdoor trips. Wilderness event medicine (WEM) has been previously defined as the healthcare response at any discrete event with more than 200 persons located more than 1h from hospital treatment. However, there is little literature describing the steps for providing medical care at such events. This article provides a framework for planning and executing WEM. It reviews the published data on wilderness injury and illness rates and describes the nature of injuries as they relate to specific activities. The article then discusses the three stages of WEM: pre-event planning, medical treatment at the event, and post-event tasks. Wilderness events include myriad activities, including orienteering, mountain biking, mountaineering, and whitewater paddling. The injury and illness rates are in the range of 1-10 per 1000 person-days of exposure, with rates one order of magnitude greater for events which last many days, include extremes of environment (heat, altitude), or are competitive in nature. Professional adventure racers may present for medical evaluation at rates as high as 1000 encounters per 1000 racer-days. Injuries depend largely on activity. Illnesses are mostly gastrointestinal, 'flu-like' malaise, or related to the event environment, such as humidity or altitude. Providing medical care requires the proper staff, equipment, and contingency plans. The remoteness of these events mandates different protocols than would be used at an urban mass gathering. WEM will likely continue to grow and evolve as a specialty. Additional reports from wilderness events, perhaps facilitated through a web-based incident reporting system, will allow medical providers to improve the quality of care given at remote events. Research into wilderness activity physiology will also be useful in understanding the prevention

  8. Transportation Contingency Plans for Future Gas Shortages will not Meet Commuter Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    documents, the contingency plans and supporting documentation, and statistical reports on transit ridership and rideshare /carpool applications . le...personnel and equipment, such as school buses or retired transit buses that have been held in reserve, (3) increase ridesharing by promotional activities and...actions such as alternative work hour programs and rideshar - ing programs (see pp. 22 to 25), (2) problems with acquiring, maintaining, and activating

  9. Legal concerns for the elaboration of a contingency plan for oil spills in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio José Plácido de Mello

    2010-01-01

    Issues related to the oceans assume vital importance for life on Earth. Environmental monitoring of prospection, exploration and oil transport is imperative in order to prevent and minimize oil and gas accidents. It is necessary to elaborate a Contingency Plan for oil spilling in the sea in the various exploration and production areas, with the collaboration of platform operators. Such strategies may be organized in two parts: the first one containing the plan’s documented policy, and the sec...

  10. Assessing Energy Intake in Daily Life: Signal-Contingent Smartphone Application Versus Event-Contingent Paper and Pencil Estimated Diet Diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Wouters

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigating between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants such as emotions and stress presents challenges because both vary from moment to moment throughout the day. A smartphone application (app, was developed to map momentary between-meal snack intake and its associated determinants in the context of daily life. The aim of this study was to compare energy intake reported with the signal-contingent app and reported with an event-contingent paper and pencil diet diary. Methods: In a counterbalanced, cross-sectional design, adults (N = 46 from the general population reported between-meal snack intake during four consecutive days with the app and four consecutive days with a paper and pencil diet diary. A 10-day interval was applied between the two reporting periods. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare both instruments on reported momentary and daily energy intake from snacks.  Results: Results showed no significant difference (B = 11.84, p = .14 in momentary energy intake from snacks between the two instruments. However, a significant difference (B = –105.89, p < .01 was found on energy intake from total daily snack consumption. Conclusions: As at momentary level both instruments were comparable in assessing energy intake, research purposes will largely determine the sampling procedure of choice. When momentary associations across time are the interest of study, a signal-contingent sampling procedure may be a suitable method. Since the compared instruments differed on two main features (i.e. the sampling procedure and the device used it is difficult to disentangle which instrument was the most accurate in assessing daily energy intake.

  11. Modafinil improves event related potentials P300 and contingent negative variation after 24 h sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Koushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Panjwani, Usha; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sahu, Surajit; Ghosh, Sayan; Thakur, Lalan; Anand, Jag Parvesh

    2012-08-21

    The efficacy of modafinil as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline following 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD) on subjective sleepiness scales, event-related potential (ERP) P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. Eleven healthy males, age 25-30 years participated. The experiment was performed in five sessions on different days between 7 and 8a.m. Session 1, baseline recordings; Session 2, after one night's SD; Session 3, 48 h of recovery from SD; Session 4, after 1 week of Session 1, following one night's SD along with modafinil (400mg/day); Session 5, 48 h of recovery after SD+modafinil. Subjective sleepiness scores increased significantly after SD as compared to baseline (PP300 peak latencies of ERP following SD (PP300 peak latencies after SD (PP300 amplitudes and CNV N100, M200 peak latencies and M100, M200 amplitudes were observed. The results strongly suggest that modafinil in a dose of 400mg/day, reduces the subjective sleepiness and cognitive decline following 24 h of SD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tyrosine ameliorates heat induced delay in event related potential P300 and contingent negative variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Krishna; Ray, Koushik; Anand, J P; Thakur, Lalan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panjwani, Usha

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of tyrosine, a catecholamine precursor, as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline during heat exposure (HE) using event-related potential P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. Ten healthy males, age 20-30years participated in the study. Volunteers received placebo or tyrosine (6.5g) 90min prior to HE (1.5h in 45°C+30% RH). P300 latency was significantly increased (p<0.01) during exposure with placebo, which was reduced significantly (p<0.01) after tyrosine supplementation. There was an increase in CNV M100 latency (p<0.05) and reaction time (p<0.01) and decrease in M100 amplitude (p<0.01) during HE with placebo, which returns to near normal level with the tyrosine administration. A significantly higher plasma norepinephrine (p<0.05), dopamine and epinephrine levels were detected in tyrosine supplemented group post heat exposure. HE increases the brain catecholamine activity thereby reduces the plasma norepinephrine and dopamine level leading to a reduction in cognitive performances. Tyrosine supplementation increases the catecholamine level and reduces the impairment of cognitive performance during HE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Local government role in energy-contingency planning: an information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Four case studies of local government contingency plans which were developed in response to potential energy shortage situations are given. Established plans of two cities and two urban counties are documented and suggested strategies to consider in developing similar plans are discussed. These suggested strategies include centralization of energy emergency planning activities, assignment of task and responsibility within the government, prioritization of services and operations, and the design of a public outreach capability. A listing of information resources is included.

  14. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  15. Contingency planning for nuclear plants: an approach for use in industrial plants and hazardous products storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Werneck de, E-mail: paulo@pwerneck.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Hora, Antonio Ferreira da, E-mail: dahora@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is establishing a basic system model for the development of contingency plans for emergencies. This includes the identification of agents involved in aid and assistance planning, pointing out communication chains among them, the delegation of action coordination and control, as well as the composition and structure of crisis centers equipped with physical and technological resources, the development of emergency procedures, the training of the teams involved, drill planning, and a policy for interactions with community members and the media in the course of a crisis. This paper aims at proposing actions in case an emergency affects the surroundings areas to the accident site. The outlined propositions are not to be adopted only under nuclear or radiological emergencies, since Brazil has specific legislation for this purpose, as established in the Brazilian Nuclear Program Protection System (SIPRON), in addition to the structures and contingency plans currently implemented, validated and periodically tested. (author)

  16. Contingency Management Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision F

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This is the High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Contingency Management (CM) Functional Requirements document. This document applies to HALE ROA operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) limited at this time to enroute operations above 43,000 feet (defined as Step 1 of the Access 5 project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A contingency is an unforeseen event requiring a response. The unforeseen event may be an emergency, an incident, a deviation, or an observation. Contingency Management (CM) is the process of evaluating the event, deciding on the proper course of action (a plan), and successfully executing the plan.

  17. Hydrologic modeling as a tool for land management and contingency planning in the Calcasieu Sabine Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Meselhe, E.; Kheiashy, K.; Miller, R. [C.H. Fenstermaker and Associates Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States); Douglas, C. [Chevron Environmental Management Co., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Calcasieu-Sabine Basin in southwest Louisiana contains approximately 126,518 hectares of wetlands, consisting of fresh marsh, intermediate marsh, brackish marsh and saline marsh. The hydrodynamics of the basin involves a combination of estuarine processes such as saltwater intrusion, response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary and lake dynamics. The basin is also affected by deep ship channels. As such, a robust, flexible and efficient numerical model is needed to incorporate all of these processes in an operational program. This study developed a hydrodynamic and salinity model for a portion of the basin that includes the lakes and marshes for the purpose of land management and contingency planning. The newly developed finite-difference hydrodynamic and salinity model is a combination of 1 and 2 dimensional computations and is intended for land, wildlife and habitat management. It can be used as a coastal restoration tool to evaluate the effectiveness of future and ongoing coastal restoration projects. The model was calibrated and validated against field measurements. It was shown to produce accurate simulations of the complex flow patterns of the Calcasieu-Sabine Basin along with information on salinity, water level fluctuations, velocities and discharges throughout the main channels and open water bodies within the area. It was concluded that the model provides a very useful planning and adaptive management tool to improve the understanding of the complex hydrology and salinity circulation pattern within the system. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  19. Contingency plans and successful response strategies for oil spills into rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Edward H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States)]. E-mail: ehowens@polarisappliedsciences.com

    2003-07-01

    Oil spilled into a river enters a dynamic environment. An effective response can only succeed if the dynamics of the river system are understood and if the strategies and tactics are designed to match these conditions. Oil is transported downstream at the speed of the current, therefore, an estimate of the rate of movement is essential to identify effective intercept locations. Boom performance is affected by local surface water velocities as entrainment of oil typically begins when velocities exceed 0.4 m/s. However, boom configurations can be effective in current velocities as great as 2.5 m/s. Response operations can be successful if staging or control locations have been identified as part of contingency planning and if booms are deployed to take into account local surface current characteristics. Tracking and control of submerged or sunken oil is difficult and may not be practical. Recovery operations for sunken oil depend on the channel depth, current velocities, and on the distribution and concentration of the oil. (author)

  20. Legacy effects and memory loss: how contingencies moderate the response of rocky intertidal biofilms to present and past extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, Martina; Rindi, Luca; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how historical processes modulate the response of ecosystems to perturbations is becoming increasingly important. In contrast to the growing interest in projecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under future climate scenarios, how legacy effects originating from historical conditions drive change in ecosystems remains largely unexplored. Using experiments in combination with stochastic antecedent modelling, we evaluated how extreme warming, sediment deposition and grazing events modulated the ecological memory of rocky intertidal epilithic microphytobenthos (EMPB). We found memory effects in the non-clustered scenario of disturbance (60 days apart), where EMPB biomass fluctuated in time, but not under clustered disturbances (15 days apart), where EMPB biomass was consistently low. A massive grazing event impacted on EMPB biomass in a second run of the experiment, also muting ecological memory. Our results provide empirical support to the theoretical expectation that stochastic fluctuations promote ecological memory, but also show that contingencies may lead to memory loss. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 78 FR 37741 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Contingency Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... clarification that does not alter the substance of the Contingency Measures SIP. B. Substantive Requirements for... existing engines, and encouraging the early retirement of older, more polluting vehicles. Id. The...

  2. 78 FR 53113 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley; Contingency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... provide only technical support and do not alter the substance of the Contingency Measure SIP. All of these... engines, and encouraging the early retirement of older, more polluting vehicles. Id. The Prop 1B program...

  3. Teaching Tacting of Private Events Based on Public Accompaniments: Effects of Contingencies, Audience Control, and Stimulus Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Hart, John M

    2014-06-01

    Our current understanding of the role of private events in the science of behavior is based largely on Skinner's natural science interpretation of private events. Skinner described public accompaniments as one source of control for a verbal community to differentially reinforce verbal behavior regarding private events. In this study, we developed an experimental analogue to study variables influencing tacting of private events. The participant had exclusive access to one set of stimuli (the private stimuli), and the experimenter attempted to teach tacts for private stimuli based on their correspondence with public stimuli accessible to both the experimenter and participant. Results of experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that reports of private stimuli were a function of degree of public-private correspondence, reinforcement contingency, and audience control. In some cases, we encountered reports controlled exclusively by public stimuli. Results of experiment 3 showed that public control was less likely when public stimuli were more complex and the experimenter had a unique behavioral history with respect to those stimuli that was not shared by the learner. The orderly patterns of data obtained suggest that analogue arrangements might be a useful, and even necessary, starting point for experimental investigations of how private events may enter into the analysis of behavior.

  4. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  5. Resource Estimations in Contingency Planning for Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Boklund

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparedness planning for a veterinary crisis is important to be fast and effective in the eradication of disease. For countries with a large export of animals and animal products, each extra day in an epidemic will cost millions of Euros due to the closure of export markets. This is important for the Danish husbandry industry, especially the swine industry, which had an export of €4.4 billion in 2012. The purposes of this project were to (1 develop an iterative tool with the aim of estimating the resources needed during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Denmark, (2 identify areas, which can delay the control of the disease. The tool developed should easily be updated, when knowledge is gained from other veterinary crises or during an outbreak of FMD. The stochastic simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate spread of FMD in Denmark. For each task occurring during an epidemic of FMD, the time and personnel needed per herd was estimated by a working group with expertise in contingency and crisis management. By combining this information, an iterative model was created to calculate the needed personnel on a daily basis during the epidemic. The needed personnel was predicted to peak within the first week with a requirement of approximately 123 (65–175 veterinarians, 33 (23–64 technicians, and 36 (26–49 administrative staff on day 2, while the personnel needed in the Danish Emergency Management Agency (responsible for the hygiene barrier and initial cleaning and disinfection of the farm was predicted to be 174 (58–464, mostly recruits. The time needed for surveillance visits was predicted to be the most influential factor in the calculations. Based on results from a stochastic simulation model, it was possible to create an iterative model to estimate the requirements for personnel during an FMD outbreak in Denmark. The model can easily be adjusted, when new information on resources appears from management of other crisis or

  6. 14 CFR 259.4 - Contingency plan for lengthy tarmac delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ENHANCED PROTECTIONS FOR AIRLINE PASSENGERS § 259.4 Contingency... the tarmac for more than three hours unless: (i) The pilot-in-command determines there is a safety... deplane, unless: (i) The pilot-in-command determines there is a safety-related or security-related reason...

  7. Planning and Leveraging Event Portfolios: Towards a Holistic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ziakas, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper seeks to advance the discourse on the leveraging and legacies of events by examining the planning, management, and leveraging of event portfolios. This examination shifts the common focus from analyzing single events towards multiple events and purposes that can enable cross-leveraging among different events in pursuit of\\ud attainment and magnification of specific ends. The following frameworks are proposed:\\ud (1) event portfolio planning and leveraging, and (2) analyz...

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) General Contingency Plan for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    This contingency plan provides a description of the Y-12 plant and its waste units and prescribes control procedures and emergency response procedures. It lists emergency and spill response equipment, provides information on coordination agreements with local agencies, and describes the evacuation plan and reporting requirements.

  9. Natural Disaster Scenarios in the Food Security Early Warning Contingency Planning Process: The Role of Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Rainfall Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Funk, C. C.; Choularton, R.

    2006-12-01

    In this talk, we will explore how scenarios are used in early warning systems in Africa as they respond to the food security consequences of droughts and floods, and determine ways EWS could use remote sensing products more effectively. Early warning of an incipient agricultural drought triggers the contingency planning process at the national governmental level, supported by international organizations such as USAID's Famine Early Warning Network or FEWS NET. Contingency planning focuses on updating relevant national contingency plans. These scenarios are usually described as `Worst Case', `Mid-Case', and `Best Case', and focus on providing guidance for humanitarian organizations' assistance planning process. There is an increasingly apparent need to provide appropriate, nuanced, and constructive assistance. Remote sensing can support this objective by providing earlier early warning, giving aid organizations the time necessary to coordinate effective aid packages and policies. In this talk we will explore how recently developed projections of vegetation data one to four months into the future could be used to guide the scenarios both spatially and temporally, and provide probabilities for which case is most likely to occur. A case study of Ethiopia and its contingency planning process for the past few years will be presented.

  10. Stimulus evaluation, event preparation, and motor action planning in young patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirilä, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; Meere, Jaap J van der

    2012-04-01

    The study investigated stimulus evaluation time, event preparation, and motor action planning of patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group in the age range of 9 to 18 years. To this end, participants were carrying out a stimulus recognition task. Findings indicated an overall slowness and inaccurate reaction time performance of the patient group. An event-related potential analysis revealed that the stimulus evaluation processing, indexed by the parietal P300, was intact in the group of patients. Also event preparation and action planning, indexed by respectively the frontal late contingent negative variation and the frontal P2, were intact in the group of patients. It was concluded that patients' motor slowness reflected poor motor execution processes.

  11. Uncoupling of contingent negative variation and alpha band event-related desynchronization in a go/no-go task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, S R; Jahanshahi, M; Rothwell, J C

    2001-07-01

    To examine how the differences in the sequences of brain activation during the go/no-go delayed response choice reaction time (RT) task are reflected into two concurrent methods of measuring brain electrical activity, the alpha band event-related desynchronization (alpha ERD) and the contingent negative variation (CNV). alpha ERD and CNV were calculated using appropriate techniques from the same samples of electroencephalographic activity recorded during performance of a cued choice go/no-go delayed response RT task (i.e. S1 (go/no-go)--S2 paradigm) in 8 healthy subjects. All segments of the CNV traces were different in the go and the no-go conditions. The go CNV traces displayed a typical pattern of slow rising negativity reflecting the build-up of attentional resources necessary for adequate performance of the task. On the other hand, the no-go traces remained close to zero reflecting the 'withdrawal' of further preparation after evaluation of S1. During the same period, both go and no-go ERD traces showed a gradual decrease in alpha band power (desynchronization) that was evident until shortly before the presentation of S2. It was only in the 500 ms before S2 presentation that there was any indication that the go and no-go ERD traces were different, but this did not reach statistical significance. Our data show that the pattern of the go/no-go difference in alpha ERD traces does not correspond to the pattern that can be seen in the CNV traces. This suggests that there is no direct coupling of CNV and alpha ERD, most probably because they measure different aspects of cortical electrical activity. In addition, the extent of the no-go alpha ERD reveals that refraining from performance of a pre-programmed movement is by no means a passive/inactive process.

  12. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

  13. Oil and Hazardous Materials Pollution Contingency Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify and correct unsafe...

  14. 10 CFR 72.186 - Change to physical security and safeguards contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plans. 72.186 Section 72.186 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... (Background, Generic Planning Base, Licensee Planning Base, and Responsibility Matrix) contained in the... Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in accordance with § 72.4, containing a...

  15. Event planning the ultimate guide to successful meetings, corporate events, fundraising galas, conferences, conventions, incentives and other special events

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This bestselling all–in–one guide to the event planning business is back and better than ever, fully updated and revised to reflect the very latest trends and best practices in the industry. This handy, comprehensive guide includes forms, checklists, and tips for managing events, as well as examples and case studies of both successful and unsuccessful events. Judy Allen (Toronto, ON, Canada) is founder and President of Judy Allen Productions, a full–service event planning production company.

  16. Collective proposal of Contingency Plan as an alternative for management risks to socioenvironmental disasters within Network Management Risk of Córrego Dantas (REGER-CD), Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leonardo; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana

    2017-04-01

    An extreme rainfall event took place in the Mountainous Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro in January 2011, causing a catastrophic landslide that resulted in more than 900 deaths and 350 people disappearances. Precipitation events associated with landslides are common in this region and climate change tends to increase the frequency of intense rains and, consequently, landslides. At the same time, the vulnerability of communities has increased as a result of disorderly urban growth. Despite that, before 2011 communities and public power were not prepared to disaster management..After the 2011 event, public authorities try to established policies to reduce these vulnerabilities. One of the communities where the government acted was Córrego Dantas. However, the actions in this place were carried out in a top-down model, without discussion with population. As a consequence, the performance of public power has amplified social vulnerabilities. Highlight for the truculent removal of residents; resettlement in geographically isolated housing complexes; and the establishment of urbanization policies that go against the interests of the residents. The construction of the Córrego d'Aantas Disaster Risk Management Network (REGER-CD), including residents of affected communities, researchers, NGO members and representatives of the public power, is one way to respond these questions. Within this network, the construction of a proposal for a collective contingency plan, articulated with the municipal contingency plan, is generating residents' empowerment, greater adaptation to risks and reducing the vulnerability of Disasters and mass movements

  17. DVE contingency plan Upper Mississippi River and Wildlife and Fish Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines a strategy for addressing a Duck Virus Enteritis (DVE) outbreak; specifically, it provides Refuge background information (e.g. maps, staff...

  18. 76 FR 51266 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... agreed to implement the remedy which was selected in the ROD. The SDs hired M&S Ingenieria y Ciencia.... On December 16, 1999, EPA approved the Remedial Action Work Plan and M&S Ingenieria y Ciencia...

  19. Hydrologic modeling as a tool for land management and contingency planning in the Calcasieu Sabine Basin. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States); Meselhe, E.; Kheiashy, K.; Miller, R. [C.H. Fenstermaker and Associates Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States); Douglas, C. [Chevron Environmental Management Co., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Calcasieu-Sabine Basin in southwest Louisiana contains approximately 126,518 hectares of wetlands, consisting of fresh marsh, intermediate marsh, brackish marsh and saline marsh. The hydrodynamics of the basin involves a combination of estuarine processes such as saltwater intrusion, response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary and lake dynamics. The basin is also affected by deep ship channels. As such, a robust, flexible and efficient numerical model is needed to incorporate all of these processes in an operational program. This study developed a hydrodynamic and salinity model for a portion of the basin that includes the lakes and marshes for the purpose of land management and contingency planning. The newly developed finite-difference hydrodynamic and salinity model is a combination of 1 and 2 dimensional computations and is intended for land, wildlife and habitat management. It can be used as a coastal restoration tool to evaluate the effectiveness of future and ongoing coastal restoration projects. The model was calibrated and validated against field measurements. It was shown to produce accurate simulations of the complex flow patterns of the Calcasieu-Sabine Basin along with information on salinity, water level fluctuations, velocities and discharges throughout the main channels and open water bodies within the area. It was concluded that the model provides a very useful planning and adaptive management tool to improve the understanding of the complex hydrology and salinity circulation pattern within the system. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Contingency plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Sluicing Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This revised contingency plan addresses potential scenarios involving the release of radioactively contaminated waste from the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Contents Removal project to the environment. The tanks are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The project involves sluicing the contents of the five underground tanks to mix the sludge and supernatant layers, and pumping the mixture to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) for future processing. The sluicing system to be used for the project consists of a spray nozzle designated the {open_quotes}Borehole Miner,{close_quotes} with an associated pump; in-tank submersible pumps to transfer tank contents from the sluice tanks to the recycle tank; high-pressure pumps providing slurry circulation and slurry transport to the MVST; piping; a ventilation system; a process water system; an instrumentation and control system centered around a programmable logic controller; a video monitoring system; and auxiliary equipment. The earlier version of this plan, which was developed during the preliminary design phase of the project, identified eight scenarios in which waste from the tanks might be released to the environment as a result of unanticipated equipment failure or an accident (e.g., vehicular accident). One of those scenarios, nuclear criticality, is no longer addressed by this plan because the tank waste will be isotopically diluted before sluicing begins. The other seven scenarios have been combined into three, and a fourth, Borehole Miner Failure, has been added as follows: (1) underground release from the tanks; (2) aboveground release or spill from the sluicing system, a tank riser, or the transfer pipeline; (3) release of unfiltered air through the ventilation system; and (4) Borehole Miner arm retraction failure. Methods for preventing, detecting, and responding to each release scenario are set out in the plan.

  1. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.

  2. 76 FR 81840 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... or CD-ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot... in the 2001 MNA Pilot Study Report, the Remedial Goal Verification Plan (RGVP) monitoring program was... community involvement activities, including community interviews, have occurred during each Five-Year review...

  3. Phase Zero Contracting Operations-Strategic and Integrative Planning for Contingency and Expeditionary Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purchase Agreement; COCO = Chief of Contracting Office; DO = Delivery Order; FOO = Field Ordering Officer; HCA = Head of Contracting Activity; JRSOI...Transportation; Interpreter; Heavy Equipment; Latrine and Showers; Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants; Oce Support; and Laundry Additional Quality of...and COCO ) REQUIREMENTS PLANNING CONTRACT FORMATION CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Customer Relationship Management Vendor Management Requirement Generation

  4. 76 FR 77388 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... south of the intersection of Route 51 with State Highway Route 20. The former tannery property... area and contaminated wetland and river sediments posed unacceptable ecological risks. In addition... to protect ecological resources. As part of plans to redevelop the Site, a walkway was placed along...

  5. Verification and Planning for Stochastic Processes with Asynchronous Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Younes, Hakan L

    2005-01-01

    .... The most common assumption is that of history-independence: the Markov assumption. In this thesis, the author considers the problems of verification and planning for stochastic processes with asynchronous events, without relying on the Markov assumption...

  6. Planned special events : cost management and cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This purpose of this primer is to aid jurisdictions and agencies, especially Departments of Transportation, with identifying and managing the costs of planned special events (PSEs) and forming policy for cost recovery. Cost management the effectiv...

  7. 75 FR 55479 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... two letters were opposed to the proposed partial deletion of the CES and OPS. All public comments and... site from the NPL does not affect responsible party liability, in the unlikely event that future..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: September...

  8. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    , but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...... contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...

  9. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    , but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...... contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...

  10. Strategies and Exemplars for Public Outreach Events: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, W. H.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.; Shebby, S.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionEach year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsors a variety of public outreach events to share information with educators, students, and the general public. These events are designed to increase interest in and awareness of the mission and goals of NASA. Planning and implementation best practices gleaned from the NASA SMD Education's review of large-scale events, "Best Practices in Outreach Events" will be shared. Outcomes from an event, i C Ceres, celebrating the Dawn mission's arrival at dwarf planet Ceres that utilized these strategies will be shared. Best practices included can be pertinent for all event organizers and evaluators regardless of event size. BackgroundThe literature review focused on identifying evaluations of large-scale public outreach events—and, within these evaluations, identifying best practices. The following criteria for identifying journal articles and reports to potentially include: Public, science-related events open to adults and children. Events with more than 1,000 attendees. Events that occurred during the last 5 years. Evaluations that included information on data collected from visitors and/or volunteers. Evaluations that specified the type of data collected, methodology, and associated results. Planning and Implementation Best PracticesThe literature review revealed key considerations for planning and of large-scale events implementing events. A summary of related best practices is presented below. 1) Advertise the event 2) Use and advertise access to scientists 3) Recruit scientists using these findings 4) Ensure that the event is group and particularly child friendly 5) Target specific event outcomes Best Practices Informing Real-world Planning, Implementation and EvaluationDawn mission's collaborative design of a series of events, i C Ceres, including in-person, interactive events geared to families and live presentations will be shared. Outcomes and lessons learned will be imparted

  11. New Americans among Us: Public Event Planning for Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gretchen Aggertt

    This report contends that public events are effective ways for community colleges to provide a venue in which the burgeoning population of immigrant Americans may have a voice. The ten successful goals to successful public-event planning are: (1) determining goals; (2) selecting a date; (3) reserving facilities; (4) creating a student planning…

  12. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style.

  13. Planning urban megaprojects in the Gulf: The international consultancy firms in urban planning between global and contingent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oula Aoun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Driven by globalization and market openings, many architecture and engineering firms have become global. By focusing on the urban megaprojects in the Gulf, a particular cultural and political context, this paper argues that such firms have a major role in the rapid urban transformation of Gulf countries and act as transfer agents of an international knowledge in the urban planning domain. However, the transfer is adapted by several context-related characteristics, such as local governance, urban knowledge, and regulatory framework. This paper explores the procedural adaptation of these firms to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC in terms of internal structure, methodology, adopted tools, and interaction with the context. The level of learning that results from this transfer is also investigated.

  14. Managing and Planning an Event for Case Company X

    OpenAIRE

    Palo, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is written for Case Company X, which is an international and sales-focused accelerator for innovative software companies. The company invests seed capital in their portfolio companies and deliver concrete results for their sales and international growth. In addition, Case Company X organizes events for startup founders. This thesis will discuss how to plan and manage an event for Case Company X. The objective of this thesis is to clarify the process of organizing a successful ...

  15. Evaluation and analysis of emergency maintenance due by third party action's, formulation and execution of contingency plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Vega, Raul; Nunez Ribera, Gary [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    In September 2008, in the Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline (GASYRG) located in the south of Bolivia, atypical situations took place. Due to the political events and the social mobilizations in which the country was, a series of third party actions developed putting in risk the facilities of the gas pipeline. These actions resulted in the rupture of a 1 inch instrumentation pipe, causing a leak witch some time caught fire and caused an interruption of the transportation service in that section of the pipeline, later on, another action derived in safety valve shut down causing a total pipeline shut down. In addition to these events we experience a fuel shortage, road blocks and a telephone communication system failure. In spite of these obstacles the maintenance activities were realized and emergency repairs put back in operating conditions the gas pipeline, task that was accomplished in a very short time, taking in account the situation. Later analysis, including all the adverse elements of the situation, result in the adoption of a series of measures and plans directed to mitigate the risk associated to this type of events, such as Mutual Aid Plans with fellow companies and institutions, fortification of the patrimonial security, stock material handling for emergency repairs, etc. (author)

  16. Planning for a Violent Intruder Event: The School Nurse's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selekman, Janice; Melvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    School shootings occur too frequently and often with devastating results. The key to prevention and mitigation of these events is to have a plan that is simple, up-to-date, disseminated, and practiced. This article discusses the steps that school nurses can take to work with school administration to prepare themselves, their staff, and their students.

  17. Planning Single-Event Nutrition Education: A New Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lora Beth

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical model for planning single-event nutrition education contrasts a Practical, Foods, and Positive (PFP) emphasis to an Abstract, Nutrient, and Negative (ANN) focus on nutrition topics. Use of this model makes messages more appealing to consumers and may increase the likelihood that people will apply the nutrition information in their…

  18. Detailed oil spill contingency analysis in establishment of preparedness plans for exploration drilling in environmentally sensitive areas: an integrated management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spikkerud, Cathrine S.; Skeie, Geir Morten; Brude, Odd Willy; Gravir, Gjermund [DNV Managing Risk, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the integrated management process leading up to a dynamic oil spill preparedness plan based on detailed analysis of oil spill contingency requirements and environmental risk in environmentally sensitive areas. Starting with a detailed environmental risk and oil spill contingency analysis, oil spill preparedness plans are developed. These plans are generic for the area possibly affected by an oil spill, and are developed in detail for environmental 'hot spots' that are highly challenging in terms of oil spill response. The detailed plans make use of detailed data sets on shoreline substrate sensitivities and cleanup methodology, photographic inventory, logistical issues and access to real-time incident data for important areas. This detailed approach ensures sufficient knowledge about the sensitive area in advance to provide fast and correct strategic and tactical operational recovery decisions. A final element of the integrated process is a web based GIS, providing all parties involved with one common situation overview, ensuring that the facts remain in focus throughout the operation and that those responsible for informing stake-holders have access to correct and timely updated information. (author)

  19. Auditory event files: integrating auditory perception and action planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmigrod, Sharon; Hommel, Bernhard

    2009-02-01

    The features of perceived objects are processed in distinct neural pathways, which call for mechanisms that integrate the distributed information into coherent representations (the binding problem). Recent studies of sequential effects have demonstrated feature binding not only in perception, but also across (visual) perception and action planning. We investigated whether comparable effects can be obtained in and across auditory perception and action. The results from two experiments revealed effects indicative of spontaneous integration of auditory features (pitch and loudness, pitch and location), as well as evidence for audio-manual stimulus-response integration. Even though integration takes place spontaneously, features related to task-relevant stimulus or response dimensions are more likely to be integrated. Moreover, integration seems to follow a temporal overlap principle, with features coded close in time being more likely to be bound together. Taken altogether, the findings are consistent with the idea of episodic event files integrating perception and action plans.

  20. Diving into Data: Planning a Research Data Management Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Reed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The George T. Harrell Health Sciences Library at Penn State Hershey initiated its participation in institutional research data management activities by coordinating and hosting a well-attended data management symposium. To maximize relevance to clinical and basic sciences researchers, a planning committee of faculty and administrators assisted in defining important topics for the event. This article describes the symposium development and outcomes. The goal is to share this information with librarians who are seeking ways to become more involved with data management in their institutions.

  1. Between Discourse and Reality: The Un-Sustainability of Mega-Event Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Gaffney

    2013-01-01

    The zero-sum nature of mega-event hosting encourages cities to escalate investment with an eye towards convincing event rights holders that a positive outcome will result. The discursive frameworks of “legacy” and “sustainability”, the global competition to attract events and the compressed event horizon make for mega-event preparation regimes that may seriously compromise long-term urban planning agendas in mega-event hosts. By examining the sustainable urban planning literature, the discurs...

  2. Planning: fixed-foreperiod event-related potentials during the Tower of London task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Dana L; Case, Kimberly H; Berg, W Keith

    2011-04-01

    Slow wave ERPs were recorded from 28 young adults as they generated plans for various difficulty levels of a fixed-foreperiod version of the Tower of London task. The resulting waveform included three segments: (1) a left-lateralized negative early-interval wave, which was frontally maximal but not sensitive to difficulty, (2) a right-lateralized frontally maximal mid-interval wave, which was more positive for more difficult problems, and (3) a left lateralized centrally maximal negative-ramping contingent negative variation (CNV) late wave, which was more negative for more difficult problems. The current study adds to the current literature in that it finds that the frontal and central neural utilization with difficulty changes across plan generation. This suggests that plan generation should be considered in terms of when component processes of planning are differentially utilized as plan generation unfolds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cluster analysis of behavioural and event-related potentials during a contingent negative variation paradigm in remitting-relapsing and benign forms of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Event-related potentials (ERPs) may be used as a highly sensitive way of detecting subtle degrees of cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, impairment of cognitive skills is increasingly recognised as a hallmark of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought to determine the psychophysiological pattern of information processing among MS patients with the relapsing-remitting form of the disease and low physical disability considered as two subtypes: 'typical relapsing-remitting' (RRMS) and 'benign MS' (BMS). Furthermore, we subjected our data to a cluster analysis to determine whether MS patients and healthy controls could be differentiated in terms of their psychophysiological profile. Methods We investigated MS patients with RRMS and BMS subtypes using event-related potentials (ERPs) acquired in the context of a Posner visual-spatial cueing paradigm. Specifically, our study aimed to assess ERP brain activity in response preparation (contingent negative variation -CNV) and stimuli processing in MS patients. Latency and amplitude of different ERP components (P1, eN1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and late negativity -LN) as well as behavioural responses (reaction time -RT; correct responses -CRs; and number of errors) were analyzed and then subjected to cluster analysis. Results Both MS groups showed delayed behavioural responses and enhanced latency for long-latency ERP components (P2, N2, P3) as well as relatively preserved ERP amplitude, but BMS patients obtained more important performance deficits (lower CRs and higher RTs) and abnormalities related to the latency (N1, P3) and amplitude of ERPs (eCNV, eN1, LN). However, RRMS patients also demonstrated abnormally high amplitudes related to the preparation performance period of CNV (cCNV) and post-processing phase (LN). Cluster analyses revealed that RRMS patients appear to make up a relatively homogeneous group with moderate deficits mainly related to ERP latencies, whereas BMS patients appear to

  4. Defining Indices for the Extreme Snowfall Events and Analyzing their Trends in Northern Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    WANG, Shaoping; DING, Yongjian; JIANG, Fengqing; ANJUM, Muhammad Naveed; IQBAL, Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    .... To assess the impacts of climate change in this region and to provide scientific knowledge for the resources and contingency plans, analysis of the spatial and temporal variations in extreme snowfall events (ESEs...

  5. Searching for Plausible N-k Contingencies Endangering Voltage Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel search algorithm using time-domain simulations to identify plausible N − k contingencies endangering voltage stability. Starting from an initial list of disturbances, progressively more severe contingencies are investigated. After simulation of a N − k contingency......, the simulation results are assessed. If the system response is unstable, a plausible harmful contingency sequence has been found. Otherwise, components affected by the contingencies are considered as candidate next event leading to N − (k + 1) contingencies. This implicitly takes into account hidden failures...

  6. Model for negotiation on contingency plans for distribution of natural gas; Modelo de negociacao para planos de contingencia energetica na area de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Morais, Danielle Costa [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The high consumption of Natural Gas (NG), the environmental and economic turbulences that occurred in recent years raises questions about the supply of the product in critical situations. Characteristic factors of natural gas, like the high cost of storage, show the need for the establishment of contingency plans that define what procedures should be adopted in the distribution of Natural Gas or redistribute among consumers in times of restriction of supply, substantial increase on demand or reduction in the ability of supply. These plans aim to define in advance the actions that will be adopted, providing business and consumer segments clear rules indicate the time to search for alternative sources in case of crisis. The current models can not yet address the problem of negotiation for the division of the product following the concepts proposed by the science of trading, making things like proportionality and envy-free are not observed. The aim of this study is to propose a model for distribution of quotas for supply of NG between different consumer segments. The proposed algorithm combines the procedures of Knaster, Steinhaus and Divide the Dollar, seeking an allocation that minimize the feeling of jealousy and provide an equitable distribution. (author)

  7. Do stated preference methods stand the test of time? A test of the stability of contingent values and models for health risks when facing an extreme event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal stability of dichotomous choice (DC) contingent values and models and the implication of time related aspects for benefits transfer as a viable valuation method. From a practical point of view, time plays an important role in benefits transfer. Results are used

  8. PETROBRAS Transportes (TRANSPETRO) contingency plan system; Metodologia SIE (Sistema Informatizado de Emergencia) aplicada no gerenciamento das contingencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo; Mendonca, Daniela [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Seguranca, Saude e Meio Ambiente de Dutos e Terminais; Morais, Lucia B.; Carvalho, Marcelo Tilio M. de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica. Grupo de Tecnologia em Computacao Grafica (TECGRAF)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the PETROBRAS Transportes Emergency Response System, which was designed to improve the response to emergency situations. The plans are defined based on an evaluation of the organization of the emergency teams, the communication procedures, characterization of the installations, definition of accidental scenarios, environmental sensitivity maps; simulation of oil spill trajectories and dispersion behavior; geographical data of the area surrounding the installations; other conventional data related to the installations, including equipment available and the InfoPAE system. Plans include several scenarios as oil spills, gas, fire, explosion, hazardous materials which can be applied to terminals and pipelines. (author)

  9. 78 FR 33395 - Annual Updates to the Income Contingent Repayment (ICR) Plan Formula for 2013-William D. Ford...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this site, you can view this document... borrowers and the public regarding how monthly ICR payment amounts will be calculated for the 2013-2014 year... his or her monthly payment amount recalculated under the ICR plan during that period. FOR FURTHER...

  10. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  11. The Event Chain of Survival in the Context of Music Festivals: A Framework for Improving Outcomes at Major Planned Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Adam; Turris, Sheila

    2017-08-01

    Despite the best efforts of event producers and on-site medical teams, there are sometimes serious illnesses, life-threatening injuries, and fatalities related to music festival attendance. Producers, clinicians, and researchers are actively seeking ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with these events. After analyzing the available literature on music festival health and safety, several major themes emerged. Principally, stakeholder groups planning in isolation from one another (ie, in silos) create fragmentation, gaps, and overlap in plans for major planned events (MPEs). The authors hypothesized that one approach to minimizing this fragmentation may be to create a framework to "connect the dots," or join together the many silos of professionals responsible for safety, security, health, and emergency planning at MPEs. Adapted from the well-established literature regarding the management of cardiac arrests, both in and out of hospital, the "chain of survival" concept is applied to the disparate groups providing services that support event safety in the context of music festivals. The authors propose this framework for describing, understanding, coordinating and planning around the integration of safety, security, health, and emergency service for events. The adapted Event Chain of Survival contains six interdependent links, including: (1) event producers; (2) police and security; (3) festival health; (4) on-site medical services; (5) ambulance services; and (6) off-site medical services. The authors argue that adapting and applying this framework in the context of MPEs in general, and music festivals specifically, has the potential to break down the current disconnected approach to event safety, security, health, and emergency planning. It offers a means of shifting the focus from a purely reactive stance to a more proactive, collaborative, and integrated approach. Improving health outcomes for music festival attendees, reducing gaps in planning

  12. A Conceptual Framework for More Effectively Integrating Combat Support Capabilities and Constraints into Contingency Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    planning would require investments in modeling capabilities and staff development. The Headquarters Air Force (HAF) operations group and combat...communities do not currently have a common set of metrics and models that relate how constraints in one area impact operationally relevant metrics, e.g...responsibilities in terms of demand-side, supply- side, and integrator roles. See also James Leftwich, Robert S. Tripp, Amanda B. Geller , Patrick

  13. Decision support tools for urban contingency policy: a scenario approach to risk management of the Vesuvio area in Naples, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Concilio, Grazia; Torrieri, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    Contingency management, in particular the management of unanticipated events outside the control of an ordinary planning system, has in the last 50years become an important andfrequently debated issue in the scientific literature on complex systems management underrisk conditions. The urban system

  14. Contingency planning for a deliberate release of smallpox in Great Britain - the role of geographical scale and contact structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danon Leon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the event of a release of a pathogen such as smallpox, which is human-to-human transmissible and has high associated mortality, a key question is how best to deploy containment and control strategies. Given the general uncertainty surrounding this issue, mathematical modelling has played an important role in informing the likely optimal response, in particular defining the conditions under which mass-vaccination would be appropriate. In this paper, we consider two key questions currently unanswered in the literature: firstly, what is the optimal spatial scale for intervention; and secondly, how sensitive are results to the modelling assumptions made about the pattern of human contacts? Methods Here we develop a novel mathematical model for smallpox that incorporates both information on individual contact structure (which is important if the effects of contact tracing are to be captured accurately and large-scale patterns of movement across a range of spatial scales in Great Britain. Results Analysis of this model confirms previous work suggesting that a locally targeted 'ring' vaccination strategy is optimal, and that this conclusion is actually quite robust for different socio-demographic and epidemiological assumptions. Conclusions Our method allows for intuitive understanding of the reasons why national mass vaccination is typically predicted to be suboptimal. As such, we present a general framework for fast calculation of expected outcomes during the attempted control of diverse emerging infections; this is particularly important given that parameters would need to be interactively estimated and modelled in any release scenario.

  15. Medical planning for very large events: Special Olympics World Games Los Angeles 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marissa S; Fong, Michael K; Patel, Leena J; Kurose, Brian; Tierney, John; Gardner, Imani; Yazdani-Arazi, Arash; Su, John K

    2015-01-01

    Mass gathering events that involve special populations have challenges that require unique medical planning. The key to a successful mass event is in the preparation, planning, and communication. Concerns in communication such as language barriers, age of participants, and intellectual disability should be addressed early in the planning. In the event of a mass casualty disaster, there should be a clear chain of command and escalation policy. The primary concern of the sports medicine team is to ensure safety for the participation of an athlete. The risk of injury to an athlete varies depending on the event and venue. The sporting venue may require special consideration for access to athletes, crowd control, and ingress/egress of medical personnel and transports. In order to ensure safety and efficient care, it is paramount to have the necessary medical planning and preparedness to manage a large-scale sporting event.

  16. Certificate program in meeting and event planning to be offered spring 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech Continuing and Professional Education will again offer a four-weekend-long certificate program in meeting and event planning in spring 2009. This is the second time the program will be available since its inaugural offering in 2008.

  17. Virginia Tech to launch certificate program in meeting and event planning in spring 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech Continuing and Professional Education, in partnership with the Virginia Tech Hampton Roads Center, will offer a four-weekend-long certificate program in meeting and event planning in spring 2008.

  18. Intelligent transportation systems for planned special events : a cross-cutting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This cross-cutting study examines how six agencies in five states used and continue to use ITS to reduce congestion generated by planned special events, thereby reducing crashes, increasing travel time reliability, and reducing driver frustration.

  19. From Ephemeral Planning to Permanent Urbanism: An Urban Planning Theory of Mega-Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kassens-Noor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega-events like the Olympic Games are powerful forces that shape cities. In the wake of mega-events, a variety of positive and negative legacies have remained in host cities. In order to bring some theoretical clarity to debates about legacy creation, I introduce the concepts of the mega-event utopia, dystopia and heterotopia. A mega-event utopia is ideal and imaginary urbanism embracing abstract concepts about economies, socio-political systems, spaces, and societies in the host during events. The mega-event utopia (in contrast to other utopian visions other stakeholders may hold is dictated by the desires of the mega-event owners irrespective of the realities in the event host. In short, a mega-event utopia is the perfect event host from the owner’s perspective. Mega-event utopias are suggested as a theoretical model for the systematic transformation of their host cities. As large-scale events progress as ever more powerful transformers into this century, mega-event dystopias have emerged as negatives of these idealistic utopias. As hybrid post-event landscapes, mega-event heterotopias manifest the temporary mega-event utopia as legacy imprints into the long-term realities in hosting cities. Using the Olympic utopia as an example of a mega-event utopia, I theorize utopian visions around four urban traits: economy, image, infrastructure and society. Through the concept of the mega-event legacy utopia, I also provide some insight toward the operationalization of the four urban traits for a city’s economic development, local place marketing, urban development, and public participation.

  20. Effects of Internal and External Supports on Preschool Children's Event Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.; Hudson, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined how internal and external supports affected planning for enabling (logically linked) and conventional (arbitrarily linked) events. In Experiment 1, preschoolers were given either two or four training sessions before planning and enacting invariably sequenced art projects. In Experiment 2, preschoolers were given two…

  1. Joint Contingency Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    parents, Ellsworth K. Johnson, Jr. and Helen E. Johnson, for their lifelong love and support. Mom, thanks for always being there when I needed you...Hurricanes Charley , Jeanne and Andrew are examples of domestic disaster emergency relief. 2. Phases of Contingency Contracting Contingency

  2. Searching and Planning: Young Children's Reasoning about Past and Future Event Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Kerry L.; McCormack, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Six experiments examined children's ability to make inferences using temporal order information. Children completed versions of a task involving a toy zoo; one version required reasoning about past events (search task) and the other required reasoning about future events (planning task). Children younger than 5 years failed both the search and the…

  3. Stakeholder relationships in the festival and event planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen la Cour, Annette

    2017-01-01

    In 2013 the most important sport-for-all-festival in Denmark, the Landsstævne dating back to 1863 successfully took place in the city of Esbjerg. The relationship of the stakeholders managing the festival was the subject of a study of the difference in aims, strategies and power in the last four...... study consisting of nine qualitative interviews with stakeholders, a document study as well as participant observation during the festival. The findings pointed to the importance of the collaboration, as all the stakeholders despite their differences in interest, aims and organizational role...... in their strategic use of the planning process were able to strengthen their specific interests in order to create a positive social impact. Whereas the DGI redesigned their festival call in order to rebrand the festival as a young festival, the city of Esbjerg used the festival to rebrand the city as a family...

  4. Defining and representing events in a satellite scheduling system - The IEPS (Interactive Experimenter Planning System) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, David R.; Littlefield, Ronald G.; Macoughtry, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is described for defining and representing satellite events from the IEPS perspective. The task of doing this is divided into four categories and includes defining and representing resource windows, event parameters, event scheduling strategies, and event constraints. The description of each of these categories includes examples from the IEPS ERBS-TDRSS Contact Planning System. This is a system which is being used by the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) schedulers to request TDRSS contact times from the NCC. The system is written in the C programming language and uses a custom built inference engine (TIE1) to do constraint checking and a custom built strategies interpreter to derive the plan. The planning system runs on the IBM-PC/AT or on any similar hardware which has a C development environment and 640K of memory.

  5. The mega-event syndrome: why so much goes wrong in mega-event planning and what to do about It

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Problem, research strategy, and findings: Mega-events such as the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup have become complex and transformative under- takings over the last 30 years, with costs often exceeding USD $10 billion. These events are currently planned and governed in ways that produce adverse effects for cities, regions, and residents. This study identifies a mega-event syndrome, a group of symptoms that occur together and afflict mega-event planning, including overpromising benef...

  6. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  7. Contingency Contracting Customer Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    deployed contracting officer to train individual customers on the process, the customer support guide provides the necessary explanations without...straining valuable manpower resources. The Contracting Deployment Customer Guide aids the customer in contingency situations and addresses purchase requests

  8. Contingent Information Systems Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Schoonhoven, Bram

    1996-01-01

    Situated approaches based on project contingencies are becoming more and more an important research topic for information systems development organizations. The Information Services Organization, which was investigated, has recognized that it should tune its systems development approaches to the

  9. Strategy changes in human contingency judgments as a function of contingency tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, T; Tsuda, Y; Imada, H

    1991-10-01

    Judgment strategies of 169 undergraduate students on problems to judge the contingency between two binary events were identified by the method of rule-based analysis to clarify whether or not the strategies the subjects used would be affected by the concrete nature of the contingency table. Problems were constructed along two factors: total cell frequency and width of range of objective contingencies. Although the factor of total cell frequency had no effect on subjects' strategies, the number of subjects who changed strategies corresponding with problem instances increased when the objective contingencies were set closer to zero or when problems became more difficult. These results are discussed in the context of previous studies of this issue in the literature.

  10. Planning volunteer responses to low-volume mass gatherings: do event characteristics predict patient workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, John; Watt, Kerrianne; Walker, Damien; Tippett, Vivienne; Enraght-Moony, Emma; Bertolo, Chris; Mildwaters, Brett; Morrison, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Workforce planning for first aid and medical coverage of mass gatherings is hampered by limited research. In particular, the characteristics and likely presentation patterns of low-volume mass gatherings of between several hundred to several thousand people are poorly described in the existing literature. This study was conducted to: 1. Describe key patient and event characteristics of medical presentations at a series of mass gatherings, including events smaller than those previously described in the literature; 2. Determine whether event type and event size affect the mean number of patients presenting for treatment per event, and specifically, whether the 1:2,000 deployment rule used by St John Ambulance Australia is appropriate; and 3. Identify factors that are predictive of injury at mass gatherings. A retrospective, observational, case-series design was used to examine all cases treated by two Divisions of St John Ambulance (Queensland) in the greater metropolitan Brisbane region over a three-year period (01 January 2002-31 December 2004). Data were obtained from routinely collected patient treatment forms completed by St John officers at the time of treatment. Event-related data (e.g., weather, event size) were obtained from event forms designed for this study. Outcome measures include: total and average number of patient presentations for each event; event type; and event size category. Descriptive analyses were conducted using chi-square tests, and mean presentations per event and event type were investigated using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables independently associated with injury presentation (compared with non-injury presentations). Over the three-year study period, St John Ambulance officers treated 705 patients over 156 separate events. The mean number of patients who presented with any medical condition at small events (less than or equal to 2,000 attendees) did not differ significantly from that of

  11. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  12. 11. Strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    There are several types of planning processes and plans, including strategic, operational, tactical, and contingency. For this document, operational planning includes tactical planning. This chapter examines the strategic planning process and includes an introduction into disaster response plans. "A strategic plan is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organisation as a whole in mind, rather than with the goals of specific divisions or departments". Strategic planning includes all measures taken to provide a broad picture of what must be achieved and in which order, including how to organise a system capable of achieving the overall goals. Strategic planning often is done pre-event, based on previous experience and expertise. The strategic planning for disasters converts needs into a strategic plan of action. Strategic plans detail the goals that must be achieved. The process of converting needs into plans has been deconstructed into its components and includes consideration of: (1) disaster response plans; (2) interventions underway or planned; (3) available resources; (4) current status vs. pre-event status; (5) history and experience of the planners; and (6) access to the affected population. These factors are tempered by the local: (a) geography; (b) climate; (c) culture; (d) safety; and (e) practicality. The planning process consumes resources (costs). All plans must be adapted to the actual conditions--things never happen exactly as planned.

  13. Medical coverage of cycling events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, John M

    2006-05-01

    Medical coverage of recreational and competitive cycling events requires significant planning and cooperation among the race and medical directors, race officials, and local emergency medical services. The medical team should be proficient in treating minor and self-limiting injuries such as abrasions and minor trauma. The medical team should also have contingency plans for medical emergencies, such as cardiac events and major trauma, that ensure rapid stabilization and transport of the athlete to the appropriate medical facility. Stationary and mobile medical teams may be necessary for proper coverage of the event. Event day communication systems between individual medical staff as well as race officials and local emergency medical services is important to the success of the event.

  14. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  15. 75 FR 1060 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism to Ensure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...-2009-D-0568] Draft Guidance for Industry on Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism to Ensure... guidance for industry entitled ``Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism to Ensure Availability of... products (MNPs) and components to develop contingency production plans in the event of an emergency that...

  16. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  17. A Quantitative Index to Support Recurrence Prevention Plans of Human-Related Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, HuRAM+ (Human related event Root cause Analysis Method plus) was developed to scrutinize the causes of the human-related events. The information of the human-related events investigated by the HuRAM+ method has been also managed by a database management system, R-tracer. It is obvious that accumulating data of human error causes aims to support plans that reduce recurrences of similar events. However, in spite of the efforts for the development of the human error database, it was indicated that the database does not provide useful empirical basis for establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, because the framework to interpret the collected data and apply the insights from the data into the prevention plants has not been developed yet. In this paper, in order to support establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, a quantitative index, Human Error Repeat Interval (HERI), was proposed and its applications to human error prevention were introduced. In this paper, a quantitative index, the HERI was proposed and the statistics of HERIs were introduced. These estimations can be employed to evaluate effects of recurrence prevention plans to human errors. If a mean HERI score is low and the linear trend is not positive, it can be suspected that the recurrence prevention plans applied every human-related event has not been effectively propagated. For reducing repetitive error causes, the system design or operational culture can be reviewed. If there is a strong and negative trend, systematic investigation of the root causes behind these trends is required. Likewise, we expect that the HERI index will provide significant basis for establishing or adjusting prevention plans of human errors. The accurate estimation and application of HERI scores is expected to be done after accumulating more data. When a scatter plot of HERIs is fitted by two or more models, a statistical model selection method can be employed. Some criteria have been introduced by

  18. The use of discrete-event simulation modelling to improve radiation therapy planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werker, Greg; Sauré, Antoine; French, John; Shechter, Steven

    2009-07-01

    The planning portion of the radiation therapy treatment process at the British Columbia Cancer Agency is efficient but nevertheless contains room for improvement. The purpose of this study is to show how a discrete-event simulation (DES) model can be used to represent this complex process and to suggest improvements that may reduce the planning time and ultimately reduce overall waiting times. A simulation model of the radiation therapy (RT) planning process was constructed using the Arena simulation software, representing the complexities of the system. Several types of inputs feed into the model; these inputs come from historical data, a staff survey, and interviews with planners. The simulation model was validated against historical data and then used to test various scenarios to identify and quantify potential improvements to the RT planning process. Simulation modelling is an attractive tool for describing complex systems, and can be used to identify improvements to the processes involved. It is possible to use this technique in the area of radiation therapy planning with the intent of reducing process times and subsequent delays for patient treatment. In this particular system, reducing the variability and length of oncologist-related delays contributes most to improving the planning time.

  19. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; Gentile, Francesco; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2013-01-01

    During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology) of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards"), to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards"), to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square."). Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W') and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity). In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'). The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  20. The use of significant event analysis and personal development plans in developing CPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P D; Franklin, C D

    2007-07-14

    This paper describes the work undertaken by the Postgraduate Primary Care Trust (PCT) Dental Tutor for South Yorkshire and East Midlands Regional Postgraduate Dental Education Office during the first year of a two-year pilot. The tutor has special responsibility for facilitating the writing of Personal Development Plans (PDPs) and the introduction of Significant Event Analysis to the 202 general dental practitioners in the four Sheffield PCTs. Data were collected on significant events and the educational needs highlighted as a result. A hands-on workshop format was used in small practice groups and 45% of Sheffield general dental practitioners now have written PDPs compared with a 16% national average. A library of significant events has also been collated from the data collected.

  1. Contingencies of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2014-01-01

    Based on a study of the admission test at a design school, this paper investigates the contingencies of aesthetic values as these become visible in assessment practices. Theoretically, the paper takes its starting point in Herrnstein Smith’s notion of ‘contingencies of values’ and outlines...... a pragmatist ground where cultural sociology and economic sociology meet. Informed by the literature on cultural intermediaries, the paper discusses the role of evaluators and the devices which accompany them. Whereas studies of cultural intermediaries traditionally apply a Bourdieusian perspective, recent...... developments within this field of literature draws inspiration from the socalled ‘new new economic sociology,’ which this paper adds to. While the admission test is easily described as a matter of overcoming “subjective” aesthetic evaluations by means of “objective” and standardized assessment criteria...

  2. Differential beta-band event-related desynchronization during categorical action sequence planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hame; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-01-01

    A primate study reported the existence of neurons from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex which fired prior to executing categorical action sequences. The authors suggested these activities may represent abstract level information. Here, we aimed to find the neurophysiological representation of planning categorical action sequences at the population level in healthy humans. Previous human studies have shown beta-band event-related desynchronization (ERD) during action planning in humans. Some of these studies showed different levels of ERD according to different types of action preparation. Especially, the literature suggests that variations in cognitive factors rather than physical factors (force, direction, etc) modulate the level of beta-ERD. We hypothesized that the level of beta-band power will differ according to planning of different categorical sequences. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) from 22 subjects performing 11 four-sequence actions--each consisting of one or two of three simple actions--in 3 categories; 'Paired (ooxx)', 'Alternative (oxox)' and 'Repetitive (oooo)' ('o' and 'x' each denoting one of three simple actions). Time-frequency representations were calculated for each category during the planning period, and the corresponding beta-power time-courses were compared. We found beta-ERD during the planning period for all subjects, mostly in the contralateral fronto-parietal areas shortly after visual cue onset. Power increase (transient rebound) followed ERD in 20 out of 22 subjects. Amplitudes differed among categories in 20 subjects for both ERD and transient rebound. In 18 out of 20 subjects 'Repetitive' category showed the largest ERD and rebound. The current result suggests that beta-ERD in the contralateral frontal/motor/parietal areas during planning is differentiated by the category of action sequences.

  3. Critical issues in preparing for a mass casualty event: highlights from a new community planning guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    To assist community planners in allocating scarce resources in a mass casualty event, the Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response collaborated with leading experts on a series of issue papers on preparedness and response. These papers were presented at an expert meeting in Washington, DC, in June 2006. The papers, revised based on meeting discussions, have been published by AHRQ as Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide.

  4. Collaborative Open Source Geospatial Tools and Maps Supporting the Response Planning to Disastrous Earthquake Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina James

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest improvements in geo-informatics offer new opportunities in a wide range of territorial and environmental applications. In this general framework, a relevant issue is represented by earthquake early warning and emergency management. This research work presents the investigation and development of a simple and innovative geospatial methodology and related collaborative open source geospatial tools for predicting and mapping the vulnerability to seismic hazard in order to support the response planning to disastrous events. The proposed geospatial methodology and tools have been integrated into an open source collaborative GIS system, designed and developed as an integrated component of an earthquake early warning and emergency management system.

  5. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Timmers

    Full Text Available During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards", to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards", to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square.". Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W' and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity. In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'. The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  6. A biologically based model for the integration of sensory-motor contingencies in rules and plans: a prefrontal cortex based extension of the Distributed Adaptive Control architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Armin; Fibla, Marti Sanchez; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2011-06-30

    Intelligence depends on the ability of the brain to acquire and apply rules and representations. At the neuronal level these properties have been shown to critically depend on the prefrontal cortex. Here we present, in the context of the Distributed Adaptive Control architecture (DAC), a biologically based model for flexible control and planning based on key physiological properties of the prefrontal cortex, i.e. reward modulated sustained activity and plasticity of lateral connectivity. We test the model in a series of pertinent tasks, including multiple T-mazes and the Tower of London that are standard experimental tasks to assess flexible control and planning. We show that the model is both able to acquire and express rules that capture the properties of the task and to quickly adapt to changes. Further, we demonstrate that this biomimetic self-contained cognitive architecture generalizes to planning. In addition, we analyze the extended DAC architecture, called DAC 6, as a model that can be applied for the creation of intelligent and psychologically believable synthetic agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contingent kernel density estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Fortmann-Roe

    Full Text Available Kernel density estimation is a widely used method for estimating a distribution based on a sample of points drawn from that distribution. Generally, in practice some form of error contaminates the sample of observed points. Such error can be the result of imprecise measurements or observation bias. Often this error is negligible and may be disregarded in analysis. In cases where the error is non-negligible, estimation methods should be adjusted to reduce resulting bias. Several modifications of kernel density estimation have been developed to address specific forms of errors. One form of error that has not yet been addressed is the case where observations are nominally placed at the centers of areas from which the points are assumed to have been drawn, where these areas are of varying sizes. In this scenario, the bias arises because the size of the error can vary among points and some subset of points can be known to have smaller error than another subset or the form of the error may change among points. This paper proposes a "contingent kernel density estimation" technique to address this form of error. This new technique adjusts the standard kernel on a point-by-point basis in an adaptive response to changing structure and magnitude of error. In this paper, equations for our contingent kernel technique are derived, the technique is validated using numerical simulations, and an example using the geographic locations of social networking users is worked to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  8. Stimulus Evaluation, Event Preparation, and Motor Action Planning in Young Patients With Mild Spastic Cerebral Palsy : An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirila, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    The study investigated stimulus evaluation time, event preparation, and motor action planning of patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group in the age range of 9 to 18 years. To this end, participants were carrying out a stimulus recognition task. Findings indicated an

  9. The Ethics of Group Contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    Group contingencies structure situations which link individual behavior with group outcomes, attempting to change behavior through peer pressure. As such, group contingencies raise numerous methodological and ethical problems, and illuminate the relationship between what data is collected and what subsequent decisions can be made. Over 100…

  10. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion.

  11. CONSUMERS' INTENTION TO ATTEND SOCCER EVENTS: APPLICATION AND EXTENSION OF THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddosary, Melfy; Ko, Yong Jae; Sagas, Michael; Kim, Hee Youn

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify important factors of consumers' intention to attend professional soccer events among Saudi Arabian soccer fans. To explore the decision-making process of this relatively understudied population, the theory of planned behavior was used as theoretical background. Particularly, this study measured the effect of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (time and money), and game importance on intention to attend, and examined the moderating role of commitment. Structural equation modeling (SEM) using 231 Saudi university students (M = 21.9 yr., SD = 1.21) indicate that attitude and game importance were significantly related to attendance intention. The effect of subjective norms was significant only for the low commitment group and game importance was more important for the low than the high commitment group.

  12. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  13. Planning for post disaster recovery: Lesson learnt from flood events in Kelantan Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Noorizhar; Khalid, Khairin Norhashidah

    2017-10-01

    As the frequency of disaster occurrence increases, the world cities today are getting more difficult in terms of the management of the event. One of the most discussed issues today is the management of the post-disaster recovery that involves several stages such as the planning, management of multiple stakeholders, restoration, reconstruction and delivery. It is important to note that input from related stakeholders is necessary to make the right decision during this most critical period. In the process of building back after a disaster, it is important to ensure the newly constructed infrastructures are built to be more resilient and able to withstand a certain level of disaster recurrence. Elements of disaster risk reduction should be incorporated in the planning, redesign, construction and the operation of the built environment. In Malaysia, the disaster management has been the responsibility of the Disaster Management and Relief Committee that consists of agencies at the central, state and local levels. This is to ensure that all aspects are being considered and to be more effective in managing the situation.

  14. Capacity planning for maternal-fetal medicine using discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Nicole M; Reamer, Courtney B; Reynolds, Thomas A; Howell, Lori J; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Day, Theodore Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Maternal-fetal medicine is a rapidly growing field requiring collaboration from many subspecialties. We provide an evidence-based estimate of capacity needs for our clinic, as well as demonstrate how simulation can aid in capacity planning in similar environments. A Discrete Event Simulation of the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment and Special Delivery Unit at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was designed and validated. This model was then used to determine the time until demand overwhelms inpatient bed availability under increasing capacity. No significant deviation was found between historical inpatient censuses and simulated censuses for the validation phase (p = 0.889). Prospectively increasing capacity was found to delay time to balk (the inability of the center to provide bed space for a patient in need of admission). With current capacity, the model predicts mean time to balk of 276 days. Adding three beds delays mean time to first balk to 762 days; an additional six beds to 1,335 days. Providing sufficient access is a patient safety issue, and good planning is crucial for targeting infrastructure investments appropriately. Computer-simulated analysis can provide an evidence base for both medical and administrative decision making in a complex clinical environment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Using discrete-event simulation in strategic capacity planning for an outpatient physical therapy service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Chi-Lun; Tsai, Pei-Fang Jennifer; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Tan, Jhih-Cian; Syu, Hong-Cheng; Jheng, Yue-Ling; Ciou, Ting-Syuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan

    2013-12-01

    This study uses a simulation model as a tool for strategic capacity planning for an outpatient physical therapy clinic in Taipei, Taiwan. The clinic provides a wide range of physical treatments, with 6 full-time therapists in each session. We constructed a discrete-event simulation model to study the dynamics of patient mixes with realistic treatment plans, and to estimate the practical capacity of the physical therapy room. The changes in time-related and space-related performance measurements were used to evaluate the impact of various strategies on the capacity of the clinic. The simulation results confirmed that the clinic is extremely patient-oriented, with a bottleneck occurring at the traction units for Intermittent Pelvic Traction (IPT), with usage at 58.9 %. Sensitivity analysis showed that attending to more patients would significantly increase the number of patients staying for overtime sessions. We found that pooling the therapists produced beneficial results. The average waiting time per patient could be reduced by 45 % when we pooled 2 therapists. We found that treating up to 12 new patients per session had no significantly negative impact on returning patients. Moreover, we found that the average waiting time for new patients decreased if they were given priority over returning patients when called by the therapists.

  16. Market Reaction to the Approval of Stock Option Plans: an Event Study of Bovespa Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro Perobelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify market reactions to Employee Stock Options Plans (ESOP proposals and awards in the Brazilian Stock Exchange from July 1994 to March 2007. In order to achieve such objective, event studies methodology was applied and the original sample (comprised by all companies that adopted ESOP during the survey period was divided according to employees’ eligibility to ESOP and CEOs bargain power. Using non-parametric tests (Sign Test e Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, we could verify that announcements of ESOP proposals and ESOP awards were not related to positive abnormal returns. As the opposite, returns around those announcements dates were negatives, in general. Such pattern could be explained by some theoretical consequences of ESOP plans: increase in the CEOs risky behavior, constrains in the dividend policy and CEOs opportunistic behavior by managing the timing of their voluntary disclosures around stock option awards. We also found evidences suggesting that employees´ eligibility is related to abnormal returns. When all employees are awarded, returns are even more negative. Possible explanations are indirect costs of capital pulverization and increase in the companies cost of capital due to the ESOP. Our findings suggest that an ESOP adoption in a poor governance environment can increase agency problems, instead of aligning CEOs and shareholders interests.

  17. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Petty, Brian; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only approximately 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini-ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  18. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the April 8-10 of 2014 an International Conference “Birds of Prey in the North Caucasus and Adjacent Regions: distribution, ecology, population dynamics, protection” was held in Sochi National Park, Sochi, Russia. The Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Global Action Plan (SakerGAP has been presented at the 11th Meeting of the Parties of the Bonn Convention (CMS, which took place in Quito (Ecuador on 4-9 November 2014. On the December 17 of 2014 a meeting between inspectors of Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”, police of Khakasia Republic and experts of Siberian Environmental Center was held in the Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”. On the December 20 of 2014 an annual meeting of members of Siberian Environmental Center (SEC was held in Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, Russia. Project leaders presented reports on the main activities and achievements gained in 2014. The Long-eared Owl (Asio otus became the Bird of the Year announced by the public organization "APB-BirdLife Belarus". The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 will be held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia.

  19. Climate Resiliency Planning: Making Extreme Event Science Useful for Managers and Planners in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M.; Kenneston, A.; Wall, T. U.; Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    Effective climate resiliency planning at the regional level requires extensive interactive dialogue among climate scientists, emergency managers, public health officials, urban planners, social scientists, and policy makers. Engaging federal, tribal, state, local governments and private sector business and infrastructure owners/operators in defining, assessing and characterizing the impacts of extreme events allows communities to understand how different events "break the system" forcing local communities to seek support and resources from state/federal governments and/or the private sector and what actions can be taken proactively to mitigate consequences and accelerate recovery. The Washoe County Regional Resiliency Study was prepared in response to potential climate variability related impacts specific to the Northern Nevada Region. The last several decades have seen dramatic growth in the region, coupled with increased resource demands that have forced local governments to consider how those impacts will affect the region and may, in turn, impact the region's ability to provide essential services. The Western Regional Climate Center of the Desert Research Institute provided a synthesis of climate studies with predictions regarding plausible changes in the local climate of Northern California and Nevada for the next 50 years. In general, these predictions indicate that the region's climate is undergoing a gradual shift, which will primarily affect the frequency, amount, and form of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin. Changes in water availability and other extreme events may have serious and long lasting effects in the Northern Nevada Region, and create a variety of social, environmental and economic concerns. A range of extreme events were considered including Adverse Air Quality, Droughts, Floods, Heat Waves, High Wind, Structure Fires, Wildland Fires, and Major Winter Storms. Due to the complexity of our climate systems, and the difficulty in

  20. The dependency and contingency of politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Historical Institutionalism and genealogy are two strong analytical approaches that emphasise the importance of history in grasping contemporary politics that so far have lived in isolation from each other. This article, firstly, accounts for the similarities and differences between the two...... differences which make any analytical synthesis both a difficult and a questionable endeavour. In particular, whereas historical institutionalism seeks to explain the present in terms of its dependence on past events, genealogy seeks to provoke the present by demonstrating its historical contingency. In spite...

  1. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In April 2015 a charity program “PROTECTED AREAS – LIFE SAVER” was launched for reserved areas and national parks in Russia and CIS countries. The project “Eagles of Russia” received the support of the Russian Geographical Society for the second time.  In 2015 in the Republic of Tatarstan 67 special protection forest areas (SPFA will be allotted in 17 administrative districts. Where there will be 41 areas for the protection of the Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, 23 – for the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla and 3 – for the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga. XIV International Ornithological Conference of Northern Eurasia was held in August 18–24, 2015 in Almaty, Kazakhstan, on the basis of Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi (KNU. V International readings from Buturlin, dedicated to the memory of Sergei Buturlin a famous Russian ornithologist, were held in September 22–24,2015 inUlyanovsk. In 29–30 October 2015, the Interregional Conference “Raptor Research and Conservation. Legislative Issue” was held in Elista. The status of steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis in the European Red List and IUCN Red List has changed. SochiNational Park, Southern Federal University, Menzbir Ornithological Society and the Working Group on birds of prey and owls of Northern Eurasia are planning to hold regular VII International Conference on research and conservation of raptors in North Eurasia inSochion the basis of theSochiNational Park. Excerpts from the Resolution Adopted at the XIV International Ornithological Conference ofNorth Eurasia. Date held: 18–22 August, 2015. Excerpts from the Resolution Adopted at the Interregional Conference “Raptor Research and Conservation. Legislative Issue”. Date held: 29–30 October, 2015.

  2. Contingency Analysis Post-Processing With Advanced Computing and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Fitzhenry, Erin B.

    2017-07-03

    Contingency analysis is a critical function widely used in energy management systems to assess the impact of power system component failures. Its outputs are important for power system operation for improved situational awareness, power system planning studies, and power market operations. With the increased complexity of power system modeling and simulation caused by increased energy production and demand, the penetration of renewable energy and fast deployment of smart grid devices, and the trend of operating grids closer to their capacity for better efficiency, more and more contingencies must be executed and analyzed quickly in order to ensure grid reliability and accuracy for the power market. Currently, many researchers have proposed different techniques to accelerate the computational speed of contingency analysis, but not much work has been published on how to post-process the large amount of contingency outputs quickly. This paper proposes a parallel post-processing function that can analyze contingency analysis outputs faster and display them in a web-based visualization tool to help power engineers improve their work efficiency by fast information digestion. Case studies using an ESCA-60 bus system and a WECC planning system are presented to demonstrate the functionality of the parallel post-processing technique and the web-based visualization tool.

  3. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  4. Medical planning for mass-participation running events: a 3-year review of a half-marathon in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Clive M; Tan, Ian Wern; Kok, Wai Leong; Lee, Melvin C; Lee, Vernon J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematically planning appropriate medical coverage for mass-participation running events is a challenge that has received relatively little attention in the medical literature, despite its potentially severe consequences. In particular, the literature lacks quantitative information on running events that medical planners can utilize for decisions on medical resource allocation and deployment. Methods Using a case-study approach, this study provides a detailed quantitative medical...

  5. Contingency-Constrained Unit Commitmentin Meshed Isolated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Vinter, Peter; Bærentsen, Runi

    2015-01-01

    is kept above a predefined limit in the event of a contingency. The minimum frequency constraints are formulated using novel sufficient conditions that take into account the system inertia and the dynamics of the power generators. The proposed sufficient conditions are attractive from both a computational...

  6. Avian Influenza Surveillance and Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ability to efficiently control the spread of a highly infectious, exotic, viral disease, is dependent upon the capacity to rapidly detect the pathogen if...

  7. Disease Contingency Plan: Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is intended to serve as a ready reference source for background information, an inventory of refuge personnel, equipment, and resources and the outline...

  8. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  9. Resource estimations in contingency planning for FMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Sten, Mortensen; Holm Johansen, Maren

    Based on results from a stochastic simulation model, it was possible to create a simple model in excel to estimate the requirements for personnel and materiel during an FMD outbreak in Denmark. The model can easily be adjusted, when new information on resources appears from management of other...

  10. Drought Contingency Planning on Fixed Army Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    in deeper wells can result from over-pumping. This is called " mining " the water, because water is being removed from the ground faster than it can be...5.9 to 7.1 m 3/kilometer) for old lines and 1500 to 2500 gpd/mile (3.5 to 5.9 m /kilometer) for newly constructed lines. 3. Underground leakage...monthly use patterns. c. Use estimates. II. Dynamometers : a. Number. b. Daily, weekly, monthly use patterns. c. Use estimates. 12. Industrial laundries

  11. Continuity and Contingency in USAF Posture Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    shot down Cairo airport Terrorism/piracy/crime North Africa 73 Nigerian offshore wells seized Terrorism/piracy/crime Sub-Saharan Africa 74 Mubai...expansion SCS SLIC Southeast Asia 110 Chinese illegal fishing SLIC Oceania 111 US-Mexico over fisheries SLIC Canada, US, Mexico 112 Nicaragua-Hondurus... fisheries SLIC Central America/Carb 113 Venezuela-Colombia maritime SLIC South America 114 US-Russia over oil SLIC Arctic 115 China-Chile over oil SLIC

  12. Making the Jump to Hybrid Space: Employing Face-to-Face and Online Modalities in a Special Event Planning Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Every quarter at California State University East Bay, a special event-planning course is offered in a hybrid format (face-to-face and online) and uses interactive Problem-Based Learning (PBL) activities designed to challenge and inspire intellectual growth. The PLB method is different in that students are not only receivers of knowledge but are…

  13. INNOVATION IN THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES – CASE STUDY OF AN EVENT PLANNING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filculescu Adina

    2013-07-01

    policies refer to national or local governmental mechanisms that seek to guide and fund innovation. These categories represent (factors that bring important contributions to the innovation process, while at the same time representing sources of major business risks for the event management company. The article follows the way in which these four items interact during the innovation process which was split into four stages: idea generation, negotiation of the idea, preparations for implementation and implementation of the idea. We conclude with the observation that innovation in event planning is human centered, the main referential system being based on the dyad company-client, a thing which has not been explicitly researched until now. Also we suggest that before trying to understand the way in which companies innovate, it is critical to undergo a thorough assessment of the entrepreneurs’ perception of business risks.

  14. Contingent Conspiracies: Art, Philosophy, Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    with contingency (Negarestani), they do so today with a new paradigm of scientific knowledge at their disposal. For science too has increasingly been forced to respond to the notion of contingency. Progressively discovering the ubiquity of non-linear dynamics, deterministic chaos and emergent complexity...... in the natural world, science has been forced it to reassess its foundational motifs. Contingency and necessity, or unreason and reason, are philosophically inextricable from science’s discovery of systems where randomness emerges from simple deterministic processes or where ordered patterns emerge from random...... distributions (chaos). Perhaps most intriguingly of all, on the “edge of chaos”, between order and randomness, universal computing (Turing) has been shown to emerge in simple rule-based systems such as Conway’s “Game of Life” and Wolfram’s “rule 110”, implying that any computational universe can be emulated...

  15. Medical planning for mass-participation running events: a 3-year review of a half-marathon in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Clive M; Tan, Ian Wern; Kok, Wai Leong; Lee, Melvin C; Lee, Vernon J

    2014-10-27

    Systematically planning appropriate medical coverage for mass-participation running events is a challenge that has received relatively little attention in the medical literature, despite its potentially severe consequences. In particular, the literature lacks quantitative information on running events that medical planners can utilize for decisions on medical resource allocation and deployment. Using a case-study approach, this study provides a detailed quantitative medical services utilization profile for the Singapore Army Half-Marathon, constructed from participant and casualty data spanning three years and comprising over 80,000 data points. Casualty rates for participants of varying age and sex in different running events were also estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Qualitatively, planning processes and practices were described and discussed. The quantitative profile yielded three main findings. Firstly, the analysis reveals that the gross Medical Usage Rate had remained fairly stable at between 16.9 and 26.0 casualties per 10,000 participants over the three years. Secondly, comparing injury types, musculoskeletal and soft-tissue injuries were the most commonly-presented injuries. Thirdly, more casualties presented at the race end-point as compared to the along the race routes. The regression analysis showed that, of the four modeled variables, the longer event distance (21 km vs. 10 km) had the largest effect on the likelihood that a participant would become a casualty. Conversely, being of an older age, being male, and running in a non-competitive event were each associated with lower casualty risk. The stable and intuitive casualty patterns detailed in this study provide a strong basis for further quantitative research on the medical aspects of running events, as well as for mass-participation sporting events in general. The qualitative aspects of this report may serve as a useful resource to medical planners for running events.

  16. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  17. Establishing a Distance Learning Plan for International Space Station (ISS) Interactive Video Education Events (IVEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Clint

    1999-01-01

    Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria

  18. The role of event tourism strategy of Serbia in strategic planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist events represent not only a significant tourism potential, but also the touristic product of Serbia. There are approximately 2500 events every year, attended by several million visitors from Serbia and all around the world. Since the 1990s in the world and since the beginning of the 21st century in Serbia, the organization and development of events has become a significantly profitable activity. Certain countries developed event tourism strategies on the level of the country or on the regional level; in Serbia, the event tourism is mentioned in the national tourism development strategies and certain regional ones. This paper targets the need for development of Event Tourism Strategy on the level of Serbia.

  19. The Contingency Theory of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Develops a conceptual framework for determining the appropriateness of various methodologies. Concludes that educators should stop switching from one to another and recognize that the best methodology is contingent upon the circumstances. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 5DL, UK) (JOW)

  20. The Psychophysics of Contingency Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Lorraine G.; Hannah, Samuel D.; Crump, Matthew J. C.; Siegel, Shepard

    2008-01-01

    The authors previously described a procedure that permits rapid, multiple within-participant evaluations of contingency assessment (the "streamed-trial" procedure, M. J. C. Crump, S. D. Hannah, L. G. Allan, & L. K. Hord, 2007). In the present experiments, they used the streamed-trial procedure, combined with the method of constant stimuli and a…

  1. How Precarious Is Contingent Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2015-01-01

    rights and opportunities in the job. The analyses (based on logit modelling, multivariate logistic regression) clearly show that contingent employment (e.g. as a temp) is a risk condition, not only because of the stipulated end of the employment period, but also because it implies a clearly lower chance...

  2. Job satisfaction and contingent employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Zijl, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses job satisfaction as an aggregate of satisfaction with several job aspects, with special focus on the influence of contingent-employment contracts. Fixed-effect analysis is applied on a longitudinal sample of Dutch employees in four work arrangements: regular, fixed-term, on-call

  3. APPROPRIATE ALLOCATION OF CONTINGENCY USING RISK ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cost overruns in the world of construction are attributable to either unforeseen events or foreseen events for which uncertainty was not appropriately accommodated. It is argued that a significant improvement to project management performance may result from greater attention to the process of analyzing project risks. The objective of this paper is to propose a risk analysis methodology for appropriate allocation of contingency in project cost estimation. In the first step, project risks will be identified. Influence diagramming technique is employed to identify and to show how the risks affect the project cost elements and also the relationships among the risks themselves. The second step is to assess the project costs with regards to the risks under consideration. Using a linguistic approach, the degree of uncertainty of identified project risks is assessed and quantified. The problem of dependency between risks is taken into consideration during this analysis. For the final step, as the main purpose of this paper, a method for allocating appropriate contingency is presented. Two types of contingencies, i.e. project contingency and management reserve are proposed to accommodate the risks. An illustrative example is presented at the end to show the application of the methodology.

  4. A Roadmap for Recovery/Decontamination Plan for Critical Infrastructure after CBRN Event Involving Drinking Water Utilities: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS CSSP -2012-CD-1020 A Roadmap for Recovery/Decontamination Plan for Critical Infrastructure after CBRN Event Involving...Drinking Water Utilities was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre...Section. CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover

  5. A Discrete, Deterministic Model for Understanding Software Project Development Contingency Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Barkstrom

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple, discrete deterministic model for the allocation of project contingency as a function of project phase. When a project starts, there is always some uncertainty regarding the resources it will require. As the project proceeds, the participants discover this uncertainty and remove it through the expenditure of resources. In addition, the project may encounter unexpected changes in its environment that force the project to change. The model assumes that the project will eventually discover a (relatively small number of contingencies, each of which requires the same workforce and duration to resolve. Because the time of appearance and resolution time for each contingency is independent of other contingencies, there may be several overlapping contingencies the project will work on at the same time. Because the model assumes that contingencies suddenly add and subtract staff, managing staff becomes much more complex than is the case with a more uniform staffing plan. In particular, if there are appreciable hiring and firing costs, a project may find it desirable to simply retain staff that can be assigned to contingencies, even though there may be periods with no contingency work.

  6. Distinct motivational effects of contingent and non-contingent rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar, S.; Finzi, R; Drew, DS; Husain, M

    2017-01-01

    When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency?the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by mea...

  7. Gesture subtype-dependent left lateralization of praxis planning: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlhalter, S; Hattori, N; Wheaton, L; Fridman, E; Shamim, E A; Garraux, G; Hallett, M

    2009-06-01

    Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest-based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = -0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (-0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = -0.47 + 0.14 and -0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (-0.56 + 0.11 and -0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature.

  8. Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

    2007-05-01

    In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

  9. Emergency planning for sudden cardiac events in North Carolina high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Anna; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Davis, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the state of emergency planning for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in North Carolina high schools, primarily focusing on the existence and characteristics of written plans and the presence of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). All athletic directors listed in the 2007-2008 North Carolina High School Athletic Association Directory were surveyed via an online survey to determine their level of planning and preparation for SCA. Completed surveys were received from 36.7% (138/376) of the schools. Emergency action plans (EAPs) existed in 55.8% (n = 77) of high schools and were significantly less likely to be present in Divisions 1 and 2 (p schools, and the presence of an AED was related to the presence of an EAP (p Schools in Division 1 were less likely to possess an AED (p schools in the larger divisions. Of schools without AEDs, 39.5% (n = 15) reported children or adults attending or working at the school who were at risk for heart disease. Lack of funding was the most commonly reported barrier to obtaining an AED. A low response rate and self-reported data may have biased results in favor of those who adopted plans or purchased an AED. The majority of responding schools possessed both an EAP and an AED and reported that they met several current recommended guidelines for emergency preparedness for SCA. These results for North Carolina high schools are similar to reports from other states. Significant room for improvement exists, however, as the number of schools without an EAP or AED is still relatively large and some important components of emergency planning are lacking in the EAPs.

  10. Detecting contingencies: an infomax approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, Nicholas J; Movellan, Javier R

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect social contingencies plays an important role in the social and emotional development of infants. Analyzing this problem from a computational perspective may provide important clues for understanding social development, as well as for the synthesis of social behavior in robots. In this paper, we show that the turn-taking behaviors observed in infants during contingency detection situations are tuned to optimally gather information as to whether a person is responsive to them. We show that simple reinforcement learning mechanisms can explain how infants acquire these efficient contingency detection schemas. The key is to use the reduction of uncertainty (information gain) as a reward signal. The result is an interesting form of learning in which the learner rewards itself for conducting actions that help reduce its own sense of uncertainty. This paper illustrates the possibilities of an emerging area of computer science and engineering that focuses on the computational understanding of human behavior and on its synthesis in robots. We believe that the theory of stochastic optimal control will play a key role providing a formal mathematical foundation for this newly emerging discipline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Information flow in the mental lexicon during speech planning: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jescheniak, J.D.; Hahne, A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    A major issue in speech production research is the question of how speakers retrieve words from the so-called mental lexicon. Current models of lexical retrieval converge on the assumption that category associates of a target word are semantically activated during speech planning. However, the

  12. A discrete event simulation design for block-based maintenance planning under random machine usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on block-based preventive maintenance planning generally assumes that machines are either used continuously, or that times until failure do not depend on the actual usage of machines. In practice, however, it is often more realistic to assume that machines are not used continuously

  13. Motion as manipulation: implementation of force-motion analogies by event-file binding and action planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2012-08-01

    Tool-improvisation analogies are structure-mapping inferences implemented, in many species, by event-file binding and pre-motor action planning. These processes act on multi-modal representations of currently perceived situations and eventuate in motor acts that can be directly evaluated for success or failure; they employ implicit representations of force-motion relations encoded by the pre-motor system and do not depend on explicit, language-like representations of relational concepts. A detailed reconstruction of the analogical reasoning steps involved in Rutherford's and Bohr's development of the first quantized-orbit model of atomic structure is used to show that human force-motion analogies can in general be implemented by these mechanisms. This event-file manipulation model of the implementation of force-motion analogies is distinguished from the standard view that structure-mapping analogies require the manipulation of explicit, language-like representations of relational concepts.

  14. Major Sports events in Brazil: from the expression of brazilian sports policy to the urban neodevelopmentalist planning concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Castellani Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We will seek some considerations about the major sports events in the Brazilian  territory as  the main expression of a particular logic of urban development and less of a sports policy itself, focusing on its impact in South America. In particular, we will focus on the paradox of the official discourse centered on the recognition of the Sport as Social Right and of a practice committed to the neodevelopmentalist conception of urban planning, ratifying its apprehension as a product likely to be commercialized having high appeal in the field of business.

  15. A.A.EVENT PLANNING - Catering Services For A Wedding Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Adelaide

    2012-01-01

    This project report focuses on planning the traditional wedding reception for a couple who are interested in having a western reception with an African traditional touch. That is a western African wedding reception. They are both Christians and have invited their church members as well as their family members to be part of their great celebration day. Since the couples and I are members of the same church, they heard of my established business through word of mouth and assign my wedding p...

  16. Lesson Plan Prototype for International Space Station's Interactive Video Education Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The outreach and education components of the International Space Station Program are creating a number of materials, programs, and activities that educate and inform various groups as to the implementation and purposes of the International Space Station. One of the strategies for disseminating this information to K-12 students involves an electronic class room using state of the art video conferencing technology. K-12 classrooms are able to visit the JSC, via an electronic field trip. Students interact with outreach personnel as they are taken on a tour of ISS mockups. Currently these events can be generally characterized as: Being limited to a one shot events, providing only one opportunity for students to view the ISS mockups; Using a "one to many" mode of communications; Using a transmissive, lecture based method of presenting information; Having student interactions limited to Q&A during the live event; Making limited use of media; and Lacking any formal, performance based, demonstration of learning on the part of students. My project involved developing interactive lessons for K-12 students (specifically 7th grade) that will reflect a 2nd generation design for electronic field trips. The goal of this design will be to create electronic field trips that will: Conform to national education standards; More fully utilize existing information resources; Integrate media into field trip presentations; Make support media accessible to both presenters and students; Challenge students to actively participate in field trip related activities; and Provide students with opportunities to demonstrate learning

  17. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building Related to International Sports Event Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Bálint

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.

  18. Evolutionary contingency and SETI revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2014-07-01

    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing "astrobiological revolution". Simpson's argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson's argument have occasionally mispresented its core content. Proponents often oversimplify it as just another consequence of biological contingency, thus leaving their position open to general arguments limiting the scope of contingency in evolution (such as the recent argument of Geerat Vermeij based on selection effects in the fossil record). They also tend to neglect that the argument has been presented as essentially atemporal, while referring to entities and processes that are likely to change over time; this has become even less justifiable as our astrobiological knowledge increased in recent years. Opponents have failed to see that the weaknesses in Simpson's position could be removed by restructuring of the argument; I suggest one way of such restructuring, envisioned long ago in the fictional context by Stanislaw Lem. While no firm consensus has emerged on the validity of Simpson's argument so far, I suggest that, contrary to the original motivation, today it is less an anti-SETI argument, and more an astrobiological research programme. In this research programme, SETI could be generalized into a platform for testing some of the deepest assumptions about evolutionary continuity and the relative role of contingency versus convergence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Automated Contingency Management for Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing demand for improved reliability and survivability of mission-critical systems is driving the development of health monitoring and Automated Contingency...

  20. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Platform Requirements - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frazier, Christopher Rawls [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bandlow, Alisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is in Phase 3 Sustainment of development of a prototype tool, currently referred to as the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOTP), under the direction of OSD Program Support. CCOT-P is intended to help provide senior Department of Defense (DoD) leaders with comprehensive insight into the global availability, readiness and capabilities of the Total Force Mix. The CCOT-P will allow senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks and mitigating strategies for proposed changes to force/capabilities assignments, apportionments and allocations options, focusing specifically on contingency contractor planning. During Phase 2 of the program, conducted during fiscal year 2012, Sandia developed an electronic storyboard prototype of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool that can be used for communication with senior decision makers and other Operational Contract Support (OCS) stakeholders. Phase 3 used feedback from demonstrations of the electronic storyboard prototype to develop an engineering prototype for planners to evaluate. Sandia worked with the DoD and Joint Chiefs of Staff strategic planning community to get feedback and input to ensure that the engineering prototype was developed to closely align with future planning needs. The intended deployment environment was also a key consideration as this prototype was developed. Initial release of the engineering prototype was done on servers at Sandia in the middle of Phase 3. In 2013, the tool was installed on a production pilot server managed by the OUSD(AT&L) eBusiness Center. The purpose of this document is to specify the CCOT-P engineering prototype platform requirements as of May 2016. Sandia developed the CCOT-P engineering prototype using common technologies to minimize the likelihood of deployment issues. CCOT-P engineering prototype was architected and designed to be as independent as possible of the major deployment

  1. Structured event complexes in the medial prefrontal cortex support counterfactual representations for future planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-05-12

    We propose that counterfactual representations for reasoning about the past or predicting the future depend on structured event complexes (SECs) in the human prefrontal cortex (PFC; 'What would happen if X were performed in the past or enacted in the future?'). We identify three major categories of counterfactual thought (concerning action versus inaction, the self versus other and upward versus downward thinking) and propose that each form of inference recruits SEC representations in distinct regions of the medial PFC. We develop a process model of the regulatory functions these representations serve and draw conclusions about the importance of SECs for explaining the past and predicting the future.

  2. Assurance calculations for planning clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shijie; Oakley, Jeremy E

    2014-01-15

    We consider the use of the assurance method in clinical trial planning. In the assurance method, which is an alternative to a power calculation, we calculate the probability of a clinical trial resulting in a successful outcome, via eliciting a prior probability distribution about the relevant treatment effect. This is typically a hybrid Bayesian-frequentist procedure, in that it is usually assumed that the trial data will be analysed using a frequentist hypothesis test, so that the prior distribution is only used to calculate the probability of observing the desired outcome in the frequentist test. We argue that assessing the probability of a successful clinical trial is a useful part of the trial planning process. We develop assurance methods to accommodate survival outcome measures, assuming both parametric and nonparametric models. We also develop prior elicitation procedures for each survival model so that the assurance calculations can be performed more easily and reliably. We have made free software available for implementing our methods. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Speech Timing Deficit of Stuttering: Evidence from Contingent Negative Variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ning

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS. Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1 was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2 was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1 or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking. Three differences were found between AWS and AFS. First, the mean amplitude of the ERP component parietal positivity elicited by S1 (S1-P3 was smaller in AWS than in AFS, which implies that AWS may have deficits in investing working memory on phonological programming. Second, the topographic shift from the early phase to the late phase of contingent negative variation occurred earlier for AWS than for AFS, thus suggesting that the motor preparation process is promoted in AWS. Third, the NoGo effect in the ERP component parietal positivity elicited by S2 (S2-P3 was larger for AFS than for AWS, indicating that AWS have difficulties in inhibiting a planned speech response. These results provide a full picture of the speech preparation and response inhibition processes of AWS. The relationship among these three findings is discussed. However, as stuttering was not manipulated in this study, it is still unclear whether the effects are the causes or the results of stuttering. Further studies are suggested to explore the relationship between stuttering and the effects found in the present study.

  4. Knowledge Quartet’s Unit of Contingency in the Light of Mathematics Content Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiha Kula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce the Contingency unit of Knowledge Quartet, which is a framework used in assessing mathematics student teachers’ subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge, address its significance and demonstrate examples from its reflections on classroom setting. The study initially covers the type of knowledge that teachers should possess and Knowledge Quartet, which enables examining and assessing subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge together. Next, general information was given regarding knowledge units of this model and it was explained including contingency components. Finally, the importance of Contingency was mentioned and some examples in classroom setting were discussed. It is thought that through this study, awareness of mathematics student teachers can be made ensured with regards to situations that teachers may encounter and that are almost impossible to plan in advance.Key Words:    Contingency, knowledge quartet, mathematics student teacher, subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge

  5. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  6. Reducing Patient Waiting Times for Radiation Therapy and Improving the Treatment Planning Process: a Discrete-event Simulation Model (Radiation Treatment Planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babashov, V; Aivas, I; Begen, M A; Cao, J Q; Rodrigues, G; D'Souza, D; Lock, M; Zaric, G S

    2017-06-01

    We analysed the radiotherapy planning process at the London Regional Cancer Program to determine the bottlenecks and to quantify the effect of specific resource levels with the goal of reducing waiting times. We developed a discrete-event simulation model of a patient's journey from the point of referral to a radiation oncologist to the start of radiotherapy, considering the sequential steps and resources of the treatment planning process. We measured the effect of several resource changes on the ready-to-treat to treatment (RTTT) waiting time and on the percentage treated within a 14 calendar day target. Increasing the number of dosimetrists by one reduced the mean RTTT by 6.55%, leading to 84.92% of patients being treated within the 14 calendar day target. Adding one more oncologist decreased the mean RTTT from 10.83 to 10.55 days, whereas a 15% increase in arriving patients increased the waiting time by 22.53%. The model was relatively robust to the changes in quantity of other resources. Our model identified sensitive and non-sensitive system parameters. A similar approach could be applied by other cancer programmes, using their respective data and individualised adjustments, which may be beneficial in making the most effective use of limited resources. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 78797 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... proposed approval includes the revised maintenance plan's 2021 transportation conformity motor vehicle..., Monitoring Network/Verification of Continued Attainment, Contingency Plan, and Transportation Conformity... reduction potential, economic and social concerns, and/or other factors. We find that the contingency...

  8. The Role of Contingency in Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Bitterman, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiments suggesting that classical conditioning depends on the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) are reconsidered along with later evidence that shows conditioning of the CS and its context in random training. CS-US contingency is neither necessary nor sufficient for conditioning. (SLD)

  9. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  10. 48 CFR 218.201 - Contingency operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... preparation for overseas contingency, humanitarian, or peacekeeping operations. See 213.270(c)(3) and (5). (4... humanitarian or peacekeeping operation may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase... threshold in support of a contingency operation or a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation. See 213.305-3(d...

  11. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu

    2010-05-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other research, predict a significant future increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events in many regions. This increase runoff and soil erosion, and reduce agricultural productivity, as well as increasing risks of flood damage to crops and infrastructure. Implementing adaptation measures and improved land management through erosion control and soil protection are among those that protect water and agriculture and limit their vulnerability. Soil erosion control practices are often based on long-term climatic averages. Special attention is needed to provide protection against average high-return frequency storms as well as severe storms with low-return frequency. Suitable and affordable soil conservation plans, coupled with an appropriate enabling environment, are needed. A watershed and community were selected in the mountainous area of North West Syria. The fields represent the non-tropical highland dry areas and dominated by olive orchards on steep slopes. Farmers were aware of resource degradation and productivity reduction, but lacked financial capital to implement the needed adaptation measures. A micro-credit system was established with the help of the UNDP Global Environment Facility - Small Grants Program (GEF-SGP) with small grants available for each farmer. Haphazard implementation on scattered fields proved inefficient in demonstrating obvious impact. Therefore, each watershed was classified into three erosion risk categories (high, moderate and low), derived from maps of flow accumulation, slope steepness, slope shape and land use. Using field survey of land ownership, the boundaries of 168 farms in the watersheds were mapped. Farmers' fields were classified using the erosion-risk map and considering the on-farm erosion hazard and the off-farm effect on other farmers' fields following the hillslope sequence. More than 60% of the farms were

  12. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  13. An event-related potential evoked by movement planning is modulated by performance and learning in visuomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holger

    2009-06-01

    Based on a previous exploratory study, the functionality of event-related potentials related to visuomotor processing and learning was investigated. Three pursuit tracking tasks (cursor control either mouse, joystick, or bimanually) revealed the greatest tracking error and greatest learning effect in the bimanual task. The smallest error without learning was found in the mouse task. Error reduction reflected visuomotor learning. In detail, target-cursor distance was reduced continuously, indicating a better fit to a changed direction, whereas response time remained at 300 ms. A central positive ERP component with an activity onset 100 ms after a directional change of the target and most likely generated in premotor areas could be assigned to response planning and execution. The magnitude of this component was modulated by within-and-between-task difficulty and size of the tracking error. Most importantly, the size of this component was sensitive to between-subject performance and increased with visuomotor learning.

  14. The Enhanced Plan for Features, Events, and Processes (FEPS) at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Freeze

    2002-03-25

    A performance assessment is required to demonstrate compliance with the post-closure performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), as stated in 10 CFR Part 63.1 13 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). A performance assessment is defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (66 FR 55732, p. 55794) as an analysis that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of those FEPs upon the performance of the potential geologic repository; and (3) estimates the expected dose incurred by a specified reasonably maximally exposed individual as a result of releases caused by significant FEPs. The performance assessment must also provide the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs in the performance assessment as stated in 10 CFR 63.114 (66 FR 55732, p. 55807). An initial approach for FEP development, in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000e), was documented in Freeze et al. (2001). The development of a comprehensive list of FEPs potentially relevant to the post-closure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository is an ongoing, iterative process based on site-specific information, design, and regulations. Although comprehensiveness of the FEPs list cannot be proven with absolute certainty, confidence can be gained through a combination of formal and systematic reviews (both top-down and bottom-up), audits, and comparisons with other FEP lists and through the application of more than one classification scheme. To support TSPA-SR, DOE used a multi-step approach for demonstrating comprehensiveness of the initial list of FEPs. Input was obtained from other international radioactive waste disposal programs as compiled by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to establish a general list of FEPs. The list was subsequently refined to include YMP

  15. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  16. The historical contingency of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, D J

    2000-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics.

  17. Types and incidence of disease among soldiers IX and X of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-07-01

    The conditions encountered during military service in Afghanistan create number of different medical problems, resulting in interruptions in the performance of soldiers and even evacuation to the home country. A search of the literature yielded no comprehensive studies of medical problems of any single national contingent now serving in Afghanistan. A review of medical reports was made of the Polish Military Contingent in Operation Enduring Freedom from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. Due to various reasons, 9.1% to 22.8% of all deployed Polish soldiers were unable to continue active duty. Acute respiratory infections and infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal disorders are the main causes of temporary inability to serve. An important problem in the Polish soldiers is also dental health. Predicting the combat capability of Polish forces in Afghanistan and planning of its medical security requires the inclusion of the seasonality factor. This study is a review of medical records of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan, covering the period from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011, from records and data maintained by the Armed Forces Operational Command. (changes: IX and X). All cases were soldiers unable to continue active military duty due to health reasons. The analysis shows that among the soldiers of PKW there occurred varied medical events, which directly or through further complications were the cause of temporary inability to serve and which sometimes were the ultimate cause of an evacuation to the home country. Acute respiratory infections and infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal disorders were the main cause of temporary inability to serve.

  18. STUDI KOMITMEN ORGANISASIONAL: PEKERJA CONTINGENT DAN SURVIVOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Walani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, contingent and survivor workers have emerged as a common reality in business activities. Unfortunately, contingent worker has high job insecurity on his employment status. On the other side, downsizing activities can result in decreasing job security of survivor worker. As a consequence, both contingent and survivor workers very potential have low organizational commitment. However, organizations still have an opportunity to give their workers an exclusive treatment for building organizational commitment without ignoring the fact that workers have other commitment foci.

  19. Inevitability and contingency: The political economy of Brexit

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Placing Britain’s vote on 23 June 2016 to leave the European Union (EU) in historical time raises an immediate analytical problem. What was clearly the result of a number of contingencies, starting with the 2015 general election where we can see how events could readily have turned out otherwise, the result might also represent the inevitable end of Britain’s membership of the EU seen from the distant future. This article seeks to take both temporal perspectives seriously. It aims to provide ...

  20. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  1. The special involvement of the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in planning abilities: an event-related fMRI study with the Tower of London paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M

    2006-01-01

    Planning abilities are essential for the successful management of everyday life activities. Although several neuroimaging studies provide evidence that the prefrontal cortex is crucially involved in planning, the differential roles of its subregions are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of planning by focusing on the functional differentiation between the dorsolateral and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex using the Tower of London (ToL) task and a parametric event-related functional MRI design. In order to control for activations unspecific to planning, two control conditions were presented, which were matched for the length of single events in the ToL task. Seventeen right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. All statistics were reported with corrections for multiple comparisons (p planning levels, which could not be observed in the control conditions. Hence, current findings suggest that planning involves an extensive fronto-parieto-thalamic network. Within this network, the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to be the only region that is exclusively reactive to planning specific processes, which we described in terms of simultaneous monitoring of internally generated and externally presented information.

  2. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Franklin Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately...

  3. Pension regulation and the market value of pension liabilities - A contingent claims analysis using Parisian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the market-consistent valuation of pension liabilities in a contingent claim framework whereby a knock-out barrier feature is applied to capture early regulatory closure of a pension plan. We investigate two cases which we call "immediate closure procedure" and "delayed closure

  4. Problems with Contingency Theory: Testing Assumptions Hidden within the Language of Contingency "Theory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonhoven, Clausia Bird

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems in contingency theory, which relates organizational structure to the tasks performed and the information needed. Analysis of data from 17 hospitals suggests that traditional contingency theory underrepresents the complexity of relations among technological uncertainty, structure, and organizational effectiveness. (Author/RW)

  5. Optimal self-esteem is contingent: Intrinsic versus extrinsic and upward versus downward contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, R.; Smit, H.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that noncontingent, unconditional self-esteem is not optimal but defensive. We introduce the concept of intrinsic contingency, where self-esteem is affected by whether one's actions are self-congruent and conducive to personal growth. Whereas external contingencies, especially social and

  6. The state of art of contingency and emergency plans for oil spill in the Brazilian ports and terminals; O estado da arte dos planos de emergencia e contingencia para derramamento de oleo nos portos e terminais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Sergio R.; Wasserman, Julio C.; Lima, Gilson B.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazilian legislation establishes that the potentially polluting activities, as is the case of the ports and terminals, possess plans of emergency for spilling in order to prevent impacts to the physical, socio cultural and of the work environment. The Federal Law n. 9966, of April 2000, known as the 'Law of the Oil' established the basic principles, to be obeyed for the companies, for harmful or dangerous oil movement and other substances in ports, terminals, platforms and ships in waters under national jurisdiction. The Law defines that the emergency plans are a set of measures that determine the responsibilities and the actions to be unchained after an incident immediately, as well as define the human resources, material and adequate equipment to the prevention, has controlled and combat to the pollution of waters. The CONAMA n. 398, of June of 2008, create a standardization of those procedures, so that there is an integration among the several emergency plans in a certain area. This article has for objective to accomplish a diagnosis in the several institutional programs of emergency to identify the current situation in the organized and terminal ports specialized in liquid barns, evaluating, when possible, it rationality of support logistic, the organization of operational administration and integration. (author)

  7. Joint Planning, Education, and Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanasse, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    .... Two key facets of the legislation were the intent to increase attention to the formulation of strategy and contingency planning, and the implementation of mandatory joint education and training...

  8. Examination of pharmacists' intention to report serious adverse drug events (ADEs) to the FDA using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaza, Paul; Brown, Carolyn M; Lawson, Kenneth A; Rascati, Karen L; Wilson, James P; Steinhardt, Mary

    2011-12-01

    Adverse drug event (ADE) reporting by pharmacists is an indispensable part of the drug safety system. U.S. pharmacists may submit reports of serious ADEs that they encounter to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through MedWatch. However, underreporting of serious ADEs is a common problem. Little is known about pharmacists' decision making with respect to ADE reporting. This study explored the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model in predicting Texas pharmacists' intention to report serious ADEs to the FDA. Data were collected from practicing Texas pharmacists using a mail questionnaire. A total of 1500 surveys were mailed, and 377 usable responses were obtained for a response rate of 26.4%. A majority (70.2%) of the 377 respondents were white/Caucasian, and 52.9% were male. Overall, pharmacists intended to report serious ADEs (mean=15.87±4.22; possible range: 3-21), had a positive attitude toward reporting (mean=4.62±4.92; possible range: -15 to +15), perceived that important others wanted them to report (subjective norm [SN] score=5.65±2.99; possible range: -9 to +9), and believed that they had control over their reporting behavior (perceived behavioral control [PBC] score=3.54±2.69; possible/actual range: -6 to +6). Attitude (β=0.221, P.05) did not. Attitude, SN, and PBC together accounted for 34.0% of the variance in intention to report serious ADEs (Preporting behavior (P=.021) and perceived moral obligation (Preport serious ADEs to the FDA. Strategies to increase pharmacists' intentions to report serious ADEs should focus on helping them see the value of reporting and altering their perception of social pressure toward reporting. The TPB may have utility in predicting ADE-reporting behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Um plano sobre o caos (reflexão acerca do evento A plan on chaos (a reflection on event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia M. de Oliveira

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspirado no método das investigações wittgensteinianas, este ensaio parte de um breve estudo sobre a forma do fragmento para chegar a seu foco central: um questionamento da categoria de evento. Em síntese, intenta-se uma abordagem estética de um problema situado em um ponto de cruzamento entre a teoria da literatura, a história, a filosofia e até mesmo a ciência. A liga possível é sugerida por Deleuze e Guattari, em sua análise das três grandes formas de pensamento - a arte, a ciência e a filosofia - como diferentes maneiras de enfrentar o caos, traçando um plano secante que o atravessa. Como se trata de uma pesquisa ainda em curso, o que se pretende é o levantamento de questões básicas, apontando para os possíveis desdobramentos por vir.Inspired by Wittgensteinian philosophical investigation, this essay begins with an analysis of fragmentary form in order to reach the central point: a discussion on event as a category. Briefly, it seeks an aesthetic approach to a problem situated at the crossroads of literary theory, history, philosophy, and even science. A possible link is suggested by Deleuze and Guattari in their discussion of the three major trends of thought - art, science, and philosophy- as different ways of dealing with chaos, tracing a plan which traverses it. As a study still in progress, the essay is intended to raise basic questions to be developed further through future investigation.

  10. Multi-day activity scheduling reactions to planned activities and future events in a dynamic model of activity-travel behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Linda; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling multi-day planning has received scarce attention in activity-based transport demand modeling so far. However, new dynamic activity-based approaches are being developed at the current moment. The frequency and inflexibility of planned activities and events in activity schedules of individuals indicate the importance of incorporating those pre-planned activities in the new generation of dynamic travel demand models. Elaborating and combining previous work on event-driven activity generation, the aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a need-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was conducted for six different activities, and the parameter values used were consistent with an earlier estimation study. The results show that the model works well and that the influences of the parameters are consistent, logical, and have clear interpretations. These findings offer further evidence of face and construct validity to the suggested modeling approach.

  11. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Verification and Validation V&V) Report - Contingency Contractor Optimization Engineering - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandlow, Alisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Durfee, Justin David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Frazier, Christopher Rawls [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Adair, Kristin Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Operations Research and Computational Analysis; Turgeon, Jennifer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). High Confidence System Environments

    2016-04-01

    The reports and test plans contained within this document serve as supporting materials to the activities listed within the “Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool – Prototype (CCOT-P) Verification & Validation Plan” [1]. The activities included test development, testing, peer reviews, and expert reviews. The engineering prototype reviews were done for both the software and the mathematical model used in CCOT-P. Section 2 includes the peer and expert review reports, which summarize the findings from each of the reviews and document the resolution of any issues. Section 3 details the test plans that were followed for functional testing of the application through the interface. Section 4 describes the unit tests that were run on the code.

  12. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  13. A contingency table approach to nonparametric testing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, JCW

    2000-01-01

    Most texts on nonparametric techniques concentrate on location and linear-linear (correlation) tests, with less emphasis on dispersion effects and linear-quadratic tests. Tests for higher moment effects are virtually ignored. Using a fresh approach, A Contingency Table Approach to Nonparametric Testing unifies and extends the popular, standard tests by linking them to tests based on models for data that can be presented in contingency tables.This approach unifies popular nonparametric statistical inference and makes the traditional, most commonly performed nonparametric analyses much more comp

  14. Estimating state-contingent production functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend; Karantininis, Kostas

    The paper reviews the empirical problem of estimating state-contingent production functions. The major problem is that states of nature may not be registered and/or that the number of observation per state is low. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate an artificial, uncertain production...... environment based on Cobb Douglas production functions with state-contingent parameters. The pa-rameters are subsequently estimated based on different sizes of samples using Generalized Least Squares and Generalized Maximum Entropy and the results are compared. It is concluded that Maximum Entropy may...... be useful, but that further analysis is needed to evaluate the efficiency of this estimation method compared to traditional methods....

  15. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  16. Embracing the Devil: An Analysis of the Formal Adoption of Red Teaming in the Security Planning for Major Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Inaugural Ceremonies JFCOM Joint Forces Command MC Millennium Challenge MERT Major Event Red Team NFL National Football League NORAD North...political conventions, State of the Union events, world leader summits, such as the annual United Nations General Assembly, and the National Football ...and explosives successfully past Transportation Security Administration screeners in 67 out 70 separate attempts.60 Similarly, in the cyber-world

  17. Insensitivity to Scope in Contingent Valuation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Background: The credibility of contingent valuation studies has been questioned because of the potential occurrence of scope insensitivity, i.e. that respondents do not react to higher quantities or qualities of a good. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the extent of scope insensiti......Background: The credibility of contingent valuation studies has been questioned because of the potential occurrence of scope insensitivity, i.e. that respondents do not react to higher quantities or qualities of a good. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the extent of scope...... insensitivity and to assess the relevance of potential explanations that may help to shed light on how to appropriately handle this problem in contingent valuation studies. Methods: We surveyed a sample of 2004 men invited for cardiovascular disease screening. Each respondent had three contingent valuation...... was overall found to be sensitive to scope, testing at the conventional sample-mean level. At the individual respondent level, however, more than half of the respondents failed the tests. Potential determinants for failing the tests were examined in alternative regression models but few consistent...

  18. An Exploratory Contingency Model for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whorton, David M.

    In an application of contingency theory, data from 45 Arizona schools were analyzed to determine the relationships between three sets of independent variables (organizational structure, leadership style, and environmental characteristics) and the dependent variable (organizational effectiveness as perceived by principals and teachers). Contingency…

  19. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  20. Paradoxes of leadership: contingencies and critical learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    In our resolution we argue that the contingencies of leadership contexts are sufficiently different to compromise the goal of producing a single leadership model. Instead, we urge that the role of school leaders in promoting learning, or other organizational goals, needs to be discerned from the leader's own theory that guides ...

  1. Towards a contingency theory of Operations Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Demeter, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of papers addressing relationships between context, OM practice and performance, published in IJOPM and JOM over the last 25 years. The analysis suggest that the field is highly scattered, still quite immature, but growing. Suggestions for further analysis of exist...... of existing, and directions for future, research are formulated, aimed at furthering the development of OM contingency theory....

  2. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  3. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Third-Party Software List - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOT-P) requires several third-party software packages. These are documented below for each of the CCOT-P elements: client, web server, database server, solver, web application and polling application.

  4. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how…

  5. Managing Contingent Liabilities in Public-Private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Timothy; Mokdad, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Contingent liabilities create management problems for governments. They have a cost, but judging what the cost is and whether it is worth incurring is difficult. Except in the case of contingent liabilities created by simple guarantees of debt, governments usually can incur contingent liabilities without budgetary approval or recognition in the governments accounts. So governments may pref...

  6. Acute incident rapid response at a mass-gathering event through comprehensive planning systems: a case report from the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başdere, Mehmet; Ross, Colleen; Chan, Jennifer L; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Smilowitz, Karen; Chiampas, George

    2014-06-01

    Planning and execution of mass-gathering events involves various challenges. In this case report, the Chicago Model (CM), which was designed to organize and operate such events and to maintain the health and wellbeing of both runners and the public in a more effective way, is described. The Chicago Model also was designed to prepare for unexpected incidents, including disasters, during the marathon event. The model has been used successfully in the planning and execution stages of the Bank of America Shamrock Shuffle and the Bank of America Chicago Marathon since 2008. The key components of the CM are organizational structure, information systems, and communication. This case report describes how the organizers at the 2013 Shamrock Shuffle used the key components of the CM approach in order to respond to an acute incident caused by a man who was threatening to jump off the State Street Bridge. The course route was changed to accommodate this unexpected event, while maintaining access to key health care facilities. The lessons learned from the incident are presented and further improvements to the existing model are proposed.

  7. Sexual frequency and planning among at-risk men who have sex with men in the United States: implications for event-based intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Jonathan E; Liu, Albert; Vittinghoff, Eric; Irvin, Risha; Kroboth, Elizabeth; Krakower, Douglas; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sullivan, Patrick S; Buchbinder, Susan P

    2012-09-01

    Intermittent dosing of pre-exposure prophylaxis (iPrEP) has potential to decrease costs, improve adherence, and minimize toxicity. Practical event-based dosing of iPrEP requires men who have sex with men (MSM) to be sexually active on fewer than 3 days each week and plan for sexual activity. MSM who may be most suitable for event-based dosing were older, more educated, more frequently used sexual networking websites, and more often reported that their last sexual encounter was not with a committed partner. A substantial proportion of these MSM endorse high-risk sexual activity, and event-based iPrEP may best target this population.

  8. Modelling, Simulation & Analysis (MS&A): Potent Enabling Tools for Planning and Executing Complex Major National Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    requirement to efficiently test and validate Emergency Management Plans and Business Continuity Plans, a persistent capability framework to support...including, London 2012 Olympics, 2015 Commonwealth Games in Toronto as well as the Cross-border Management of Emergencies, such as earthquakes, floods and...tremblements de terre, inondations, feux de forêt). Les auteurs de ce rapport ont conclu que la MS & A et sa grande utilité ont de la valeur et des

  9. An Analysis of Current Operational Contract Support Planning Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    planning activities and common vocabulary linking inorganic acquisition and non-acquisition entities.. Also, that future contingency contracting...vocabulary linking inorganic acquisition and non-acquisition entities.. Also, that future contingency contracting planning guidance developed is...supply needs. Vendors/contractors are eager commercial sources who participate and capitalize on the chance for profits (Nagle, 1999). The importance

  10. The Yale Tuition Postponement Plan in the Mid-Seventies

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    The Yale Tuition Postponement Plan (TPO), an income-contingent loan scheme, is discussed and analysed with reference to the interest rate crisis and default rates. Conclusion: the high default rate is the most dangerous weakness of contingency loans, and this Plan is the only scheme of its kind likely to exist in the near future. (Editor/JT)

  11. Modes of relating to contingency: An exploration of experiences in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruizinga, Renske; Hartog, Iris D; Scherer-Rath, Michael; Schilderman, Hans; Van Laarhoven, Hanneke

    2017-08-01

    Throughout their lives, people are confronted with unexpected life events, which can be difficult to incorporate into their life narratives. Such a confrontation can result in an experience of contingency. Different ways of relating to contingency have been described by Wuchterl: denying, acknowledging, and "encounter with the Other." In the present article, we aim to trace these theoretical distinctions in real-life experiences of patients. We analyzed 45 interviews using the constant comparative method with a directed content analysis approach in the Atlas.ti coding program. The interviews originated from a randomized controlled trial evaluating an assisted reflection on life events and ultimate life goals. Seven spiritual counselors from six hospitals in the Netherlands conducted the interviews from July of 2014 to March of 2016. All 45 patients had advanced cancer. We found four different modes into which relating to contingency can be classified: denying, acknowledging, accepting, and receiving. With denying, patients did not mention any impact of the life event on their lives. In acknowledging, the impact was recognized and a start was made to incorporate the event into their life. In accepting, patients went through a process of reinterpretation of the event. In receiving, patients talked about receiving insights from their illness and living a more conscious life. Our study is the first to investigate the different ways of relating to contingency in clinical practice. The defined modes will improve our understanding of the various ways in which cancer patients relate to their disease, allowing caregivers to better target and shape individual care.

  12. Hypothetical scenario exercises to improve planning and readiness for drinking water quality management during extreme weather events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Daniel; Leusch, Frederic D L; Humpage, Andrew; Cunliffe, David; Khan, Stuart J

    2017-03-15

    Two hypothetical scenario exercises were designed and conducted to reflect the increasingly extreme weather-related challenges faced by water utilities as the global climate changes. The first event was based on an extreme flood scenario. The second scenario involved a combination of weather events, including a wild forest fire ('bushfire') followed by runoff due to significant rainfall. For each scenario, a panel of diverse personnel from water utilities and relevant agencies (e.g. health departments) formed a hypothetical water utility and associated regulatory body to manage water quality following the simulated extreme weather event. A larger audience participated by asking questions and contributing key insights. Participants were confronted with unanticipated developments as the simulated scenarios unfolded, introduced by a facilitator. Participants were presented with information that may have challenged their conventional experiences regarding operational procedures in order to identify limitations in current procedures, assumptions, and readily available information. The process worked toward the identification of a list of specific key lessons for each event. At the conclusion of each simulation a facilitated discussion was used to establish key lessons of value to water utilities in preparing them for similar future extreme events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R

    2009-03-01

    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  14. Power and Liberty: A Long-Term Course Planning Strategy to Encourage the Contextualization of Events in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Applying a consistent historical theme throughout a social studies course is an effective long-term planning strategy that can promote student engagement, retention of information, and contextualized knowledge of history's continuity and change. This article demonstrates how one such theme, power and liberty, might be incorporated into a secondary…

  15. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    Naval Research (ONR 342) 875 N. Randolph St. Arlington, VA 22203- 1995 Subject: Reference: Quarter!~ Performance/Technical Report of the National...information from transplant centers, build awareness of the Transplant Center Contingency Planning Committee and educate the transplant community about...the development of a Full Scale Exercise to be held at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer N I T O ational Marro IA.2 Task 2: Si yping Standard perating

  16. Analysis of Contemporary Contingency Contracting Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    Attn: James B. Greene , RADM, USN, (Ret) Acquisition Chair Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Naval Postgraduate School 555 Dyer Road...Registration CERP Commander’s Emergency Response Program CICA Competition in Contracting Act CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff CoCo ...334 Matrix OO LCO IPE 1 2 3 4 5 TLO 1 Recognize and defend the most appropriate approaches for a contingency CoCo in an AOR throughout the four

  17. Contingent Claim-Based Expected Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Zhiyao Chen; Strebulaev, Ilya A.

    2013-01-01

    We develop and test a parsimonious contingent claims model for cross-sectional returns of stock portfolios formed on market leverage, book-to-market equity, asset growth rate, and equity size. Since stocks are residual claims on firms' assets that generate operating cash flows, stock returns are cash flow rates scaled by the sensitivities of stocks to cash flows. Our model performs well because the stock-cash flow sensitivities contain economic information. Value stocks, high-leverage stocks ...

  18. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Garth J.; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  19. Planning and evaluating clinical trials with composite time-to-first-event endpoints in a competing risk framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, G; Beyersmann, J

    2013-09-20

    Composite endpoints combine several events of interest within a single variable. These are often time-to-first-event data, which are analyzed via survival analysis techniques. To demonstrate the significance of an overall clinical benefit, it is sufficient to assess the test problem formulated for the composite. However, the effect observed for the composite does not necessarily reflect the effects for the components. Therefore, it would be desirable that the sample size for clinical trials using composite endpoints provides enough power not only to detect a clinically relevant superiority for the composite but also to address the components in an adequate way. The single components of a composite endpoint assessed as time-to-first-event define competing risks. We consider multiple test problems based on the cause-specific hazards of competing events to address the problem of analyzing both a composite endpoint and its components. Thereby, we use sequentially rejective test procedures to reduce the power loss to a minimum. We show how to calculate the sample size for the given multiple test problem by using a simply applicable simulation tool in SAS. Our ideas are illustrated by two clinical study examples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  1. A Conceptual Examination of Setting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark; Driscoll, Coralie

    2007-01-01

    Setting events are typically seen as antecedent contextual variables that influence behaviour. They are thought to act independently of Skinner's three-term contingency, which consists of a discriminative stimulus, response, and reinforcing consequence. There has been increasing interest in setting events in education from both a theoretical and…

  2. Post-event reviews: Using a quantitative approach for analysing incident response to demonstrate the value of business continuity programmes and increase planning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Karthik

    2017-01-01

    Business continuity management is often thought of as a proactive planning process for minimising impact from large-scale incidents and disasters. While this is true, and it is critical to plan for the worst, consistently validating plan effectiveness against smaller disruptions can enable an organisation to gain key insights about its business continuity readiness, drive programme improvements, reduce costs and provide an opportunity to quantitatively demonstrate the value of the programme to management. This paper describes a post mortem framework which is used as a continuous improvement mechanism for tracking, reviewing and learning from real-world events at Microsoft Customer Service & Support. This approach was developed and adopted because conducting regular business continuity exercises proved difficult and expensive in a complex and distributed operations environment with high availability requirements. Using a quantitative approach to measure response to incidents, and categorising outcomes based on such responses, enables business continuity teams to provide data-driven insights to leadership, change perceptions of incident root cause, and instil a higher level of confidence towards disaster response readiness and incident management. The scope of the framework discussed here is specific to reviewing and driving improvements from operational incidents. However, the concept can be extended to learning and evolving readiness plans for other types of incidents.

  3. Context and time in causal learning: contingency and mood dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Wade, Caroline; Murphy, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    Defining cues for instrumental causality are the temporal, spatial and contingency relationships between actions and their effects. In this study, we carried out a series of causal learning experiments that systematically manipulated time and context in positive and negative contingency conditions. In addition, we tested participants categorized as non-dysphoric and mildly dysphoric because depressed mood has been shown to affect the processing of all these causal cues. Findings showed that causal judgements made by non-dysphoric participants were contextualized at baseline and were affected by the temporal spacing of actions and effects only with generative, but not preventative, contingency relationships. Participants categorized as dysphoric made less contextualized causal ratings at baseline but were more sensitive than others to temporal manipulations across the contingencies. These effects were consistent with depression affecting causal learning through the effects of slowed time experience on accrued exposure to the context in which causal events took place. Taken together, these findings are consistent with associative approaches to causal judgement.

  4. The Peoples Liberation Army and Contingency Planning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    millions of homes and leaving 5 million people homeless . The earthquake also caused extensive damage to basic infrastructure, including schools...ship People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy task force to the Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait startled Australia and India.4 These actions reflect...February 19, 2014, available at <http://thediplomat.com/2014/02/tensions-set-to- rise-in-the-south-china-sea/>. 3 Ibid. 4 Henry Lawton, “ Australia

  5. 40 CFR 300.210 - Federal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... historical use, as well as all critical, special, significant, or otherwise designated protected areas. (B... under current federal and state laws and corresponding regulations. Requirements include, but are not... telephone numbers for these offices may be found in the United States Government Manual, issued annually, or...

  6. Long Island Sound area contingency plan. Change 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Contained in this revision are: Updated Marine Firefighting annex; Updated Hazardous Material response annex; Comprehensive update of resource phone numbers; Listing of State Historic Protection Officers (SHPO`s); Response techniques and listing of facilities which handle Group V Oils; and Substantial update to the Sensitive Areas on Long Island.

  7. National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    First developed and published in 1968, this has become the federal government's blueprint for responding to spills and releases. It provides a system of accident reporting, spill containment and cleanup, and coordination among the hierarchy of responders.

  8. Building and Executing Rover Plans with Contingent Tasks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During recent robotic field tests, NASA investigated the use of intelligent planetary rovers to improve the productivity of human explorers on planetary surfaces....

  9. 77 FR 76815 - Handling of Animals; Contingency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... newly hired personnel is unnecessary and not in keeping with the lack of specificity for the rest of the... ready to help shoulder some of the costs until a facility can be repaired. One commenter expressed...

  10. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  11. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Canada geese, black ducks, mallards, and blue-winged teal are the primary waterfowl species that nest on Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Black ducks and...

  12. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; Baughman, Mike; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Yelena A.

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportatin corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have beem revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings.

  13. Management plan abstract and keyword generator

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fill-in-the-blank Word form will generate abstracts for common management plans including: cropland management, disease contingency, fire management, fishing,...

  14. Spill prevention control and countermeasure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This report includes facility descriptions for both oil and hazardous chemicals storage. It gives oil spill history; regulatory guideline conformance; local emergency arrangements; evacuation procedures and the contingency plan for oil and hazardous substances. (PSB)

  15. Analysis of Circular Development and Investment Possibilities (Transport, Energy and Building) Related to International Sports Event Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth Bálint; Fogarassy Csaba

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building) to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport...

  16. Modes of executive control in sequence learning: from stimulus-based to plan-based control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Elisabet; Hommel, Bernhard; López-Moliner, Joan

    2007-02-01

    The authors argue that human sequential learning is often but not always characterized by a shift from stimulus- to plan-based action control. To diagnose this shift, they manipulated the frequency of 1st-order transitions in a repeated manual left-right sequence, assuming that performance is sensitive to frequency-induced biases under stimulus- but not plan-based control. Indeed, frequency biases tended to disappear with practice, but only for explicit learners. This tendency was facilitated by visual-verbal target stimuli, response-contingent sounds, and intentional instructions and hampered by auditory (but not visual) noise. Findings are interpreted within an event-coding model of action control, which holds that plans for sequences of discrete actions are coded phonetically, integrating order and relative timing. The model distinguishes between plan acquisition, linked to explicit knowledge, and plan execution, linked to the action control mode. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. An evaluation model of protective function in forest management planning: slope stability in regard to shallow landslide events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of forest protective function has been divided into four main branches according to the different types of instability phenomena (landslide events, erosion, floods, avalanches. This paper presents the first module related to landslide events and will be followed by others. Two opposing factors have been considered: instability tendency of a selected land unit and protective function of the vegetation. While the first factor tends to promote landslide events, the second one opposes their occurrence. An expert evaluation of these aspects allows us to derive some qualitative indexes. For each territorial unit, these indexes express the protection value of vegetation, the degree of management restrictions and suitable improvements to the forest cover. Both propension and protective functional character are influenced by many and different parameters which require multidisciplinary competences to correctly evaluate them. Such skills are not easily found in technicians in charge of forest management. The present paper aims to provide a decision making support tool; based on neural network models, it should be able to interpret and simulate the expert knowledge, extending to the "standard" forest technician the opportunity to perform such a kind of evaluation. The neural network training required the identification and characterization of explanatory variables related to both aspects, and the subsequent expert definition of the respective datasets of real classification examples. The descriptive variables were chosen considering the information availability and its compatibility with GIS techniques as well. Model performances have been validated by testing the whole procedure in two sites situated in Antrona valley (Piemonte and Acqualagna (Marche. The results are discussed in detail and put in evidence a good accordance with both field survey and general conceptual assumptions. Future developments will involve similar analysis and

  18. Service development success: a contingent approach by knowledge strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Chris; Frank M. Hull

    2010-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud – Contingency theory suggests that effective strategies and structures are not universal but dependant upon situational factors. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the way service firms compete acts as a strategic contingency, moderating the effect of a new service development (NSD) system on innovation performance. Two knowledge‐based strategies are tested as contingency factors. One strategy adds value for customers via the delivery of personalized knowledge‐based se...

  19. Risk sharing with the monarch: contingent debt and excusable defaults in the age of Philip II, 1556–1598

    OpenAIRE

    Drelichman, Mauricio; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Contingent sovereign debt can create important welfare gains. Nonetheless, there is almost no issuance today. Using hand-collected archival data, we examine the first known case of large-scale use of state-contingent sovereign debt in history. Philip II of Spain entered into hundreds of contracts whose value and due date depended on verifiable, exogenous events such as the arrival of silver fleets. We show that this allowed for effective risk-sharing between the king and his bankers. The exis...

  20. On Launching into Exigency Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael A.

    1978-01-01

    Faculty engaged in long-range planning for financial exigency, including the making of plans for faculty lay-off contingencies, must be aware of several problem areas arising from attitudes, assumptions, and intergroup relationships. Such problems and their implications are discussed, based on experiences at Bowling Green State University.…

  1. Drug Adverse Event Detection in Health Plan Data Using the Gamma Poisson Shrinker and Comparison to the Tree-based Scan Statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug adverse event (AE signal detection using the Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS is commonly applied in spontaneous reporting. AE signal detection using large observational health plan databases can expand medication safety surveillance. Methods: Using data from nine health plans, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the implementation and findings of the GPS approach for two antifungal drugs, terbinafine and itraconazole, and two diabetes drugs, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. We evaluated 1676 diagnosis codes grouped into 183 different clinical concepts and four levels of granularity. Several signaling thresholds were assessed. GPS results were compared to findings from a companion study using the identical analytic dataset but an alternative statistical method—the tree-based scan statistic (TreeScan. Results: We identified 71 statistical signals across two signaling thresholds and two methods, including closely-related signals of overlapping diagnosis definitions. Initial review found that most signals represented known adverse drug reactions or confounding. About 31% of signals met the highest signaling threshold. Conclusions: The GPS method was successfully applied to observational health plan data in a distributed data environment as a drug safety data mining method. There was substantial concordance between the GPS and TreeScan approaches. Key method implementation decisions relate to defining exposures and outcomes and informed choice of signaling thresholds.

  2. Automated Contingency Management for Advanced Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies LLC, in cooperation the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative Automated Contingency Management (ACM)...

  3. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    the surveyed persons agreed to disclosure of the event to a patient but this was the case in less than half of the occasions.Conclusions. The small number of reports of sentinel events, late or incomplete reporting of conducted analyses of root causes and plans for future prevention of these events and survey data showed the state of culture in the majority of hospitals. Fear of reporting and therefore, hiding of errors or ascribing errors to the »usual« complications of a disease or procedures, the reaction of leadership to quickly find a culprit for the event, disregarding a serious approach to analyze the event and taking measures for their future prevention leads to the culture of silence. Root cause analysis of the events showed that the reason frequently lies in systems and processes and not in individuals. Health care will never be without risks for patients. However, with an open approach without the blaming and shaming of individuals, implementation of reporting the events in hospitals and other health care facilities with clear goals of patient safety, standardization of equipment, materials, and processes and education on patient safety many sentinel events and medical errors could and should be prevented.

  4. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  5. Sustainability between Necessity, Contingency and Impossibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Bruckmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of natural resources seems necessary to maintain functions and services of eco- and social systems in the long run. Efforts in policy and science for sustainable development have shown the splintering of local, national and global strategies. Sustainability becomes contingent and insecure with the actors´ conflicting knowledge, interests and aims, and seems even impossible through the “rebound”-effect. To make short and long term requirements of sustainability coherent requires critical, comparative and theoretical analysis of the problems met. For this purpose important concepts and theories are discussed in this review of recent interdisciplinary literature about resource management.

  6. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Database Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Durfee, Justin David; Bandlow, Alisa; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool – Prototype (CCOT-P) database is used to store input and output data for the linear program model described in [1]. The database allows queries to retrieve this data and updating and inserting new input data.

  7. Contingency in the Cosmos and the Contingency of the Cosmos : Two Theological Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    Contingency in reality may be epistemic, due to incomplete knowledge or the intersection of unrelated causal trajectories. In quantum physics, it appears to be ontological. More fundamental and interesting is the limit-question ‘why is there something rather than nothing,’ pointing out the

  8. The Necessity of Contingency or Contingent Necessity: Meillassoux, Hegel, and the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Van Houdt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the relationship of contingency to necessity as developed by Quentin Meillassoux and G.W.F. Hegel. Meillassoux criticizes the restriction of possibility by modern philosophy to the conditions of the transcendental subject, which he calls ‘correlationism’, and opposes to this correlationism, mathematics as an absolute form of thought. The arch-figure of a metaphysical version of correlationism for Meillassoux is Hegel. This article argues that, while Meillassoux is right to criticize a version of correlationism for restricting the range of contingency, he overlooks Hegel’s unique contribution to this issue. Hegel provides us a version of necessity modeled on the mathematical proof which answers Meillassoux’s concerns about correlationist versions of necessity but does not altogether jettison the concept of the subject. Instead, the subject in Hegel is a contingent interruption which emerges from the breaks in the kinds of necessity we posit about the world. Hegel offers us a way of tying these two concepts together in what I call ‘contingent necessity’.

  9. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  10. Contingency Contracting Officer Proficiency Assessment Test Development for Construction, Architect-Engineer, and Contingency Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AT&L Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics AT&LDS Army Training and Leader Development Strategy CCO Contingency Contracting Officer CLP...DEFINITIONS AND EXAMPLES 4. ANALYZE 4.1 DIFFERENTIATING Discriminating Distinguishing Focusing Selecting 4.2 ORGANIZING Finding Coherence Intergrating ... Logistics (AT&L)]), exposed failures occurring in expeditionary contracting operations. In order to rectify difficulties in the acquisition

  11. Conditional Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has shown that Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) offers a solid foundation for automated planning under partial observability and non-determinism. Under such circumstances, a plan must branch if it is to guarantee achieving the goal under all contingencies (strong planning). Without...... branching, plans can offer only the possibility of achieving the goal (weak planning). We show how to formulate planning in uncertain domains using DEL and give a language of conditional plans. Translating this language to standard DEL gives verification of both strong and weak plans via model checking....... In addition to plan verification, we provide a tableau-inspired algorithm for synthesising plans, and show this algorithm to be terminating, sound and complete....

  12. Modeling HIVAIDS Variables, A Case Of Contingency Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Hypothesis testing may be performed on contingency tables in order to decide whether or not effects are present. Effects in a contingency table are defined as relationships or interactions between variables of interest. However, considering the number of adolescence patients diagnosed of. HIV/AIDS within ...

  13. Modeling HIVAIDS Variables, A Case Of Contingency Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypothesis testing may be performed on contingency tables in order to decide whether or not effects are present. Effects in a contingency table are defined as relationships or interactions between variables of interest. However, considering the number of adolescence patients diagnosed of HIV/AIDS within a short frame of ...

  14. An Experimental Test of the Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.; Skrzypek, George J.

    The present experiment provided a test of Fiedler's (1967) Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness, i.e., the relationship of leader style to group effectiveness is mediated by situational demands. Thirty-two 4 man task groups composed of military academy cadets were run in the experiment. In accordance with the Contingency Model, leaders…

  15. Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction managers in a bid to effectively manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of contingency sum as a risk management tool for construction projects in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The objectives are to establish ...

  16. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  17. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  18. Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper appraised performance of contingency allowance in addressing projects' cost risk. To achieve this aim, impact of contingency provision in some selected building projects were evaluated. Data for the study was collected by means of checklist from 40 completed projects' files. Furthermore, 100 questionnaires on ...

  19. Relative speed of processing determines color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2017-10-01

    In three experiments, we tested a relative-speed-of-processing account of color-word contingency learning, a phenomenon in which color identification responses to high-contingency stimuli (words that appear most often in particular colors) are faster than those to low-contingency stimuli. Experiment 1 showed equally large contingency-learning effects whether responding was to the colors or to the words, likely due to slow responding to both dimensions because of the unfamiliar mapping required by the key press responses. For Experiment 2, participants switched to vocal responding, in which reading words is considerably faster than naming colors, and we obtained a contingency-learning effect only for color naming, the slower dimension. In Experiment 3, previewing the color information resulted in a reduced contingency-learning effect for color naming, but it enhanced the contingency-learning effect for word reading. These results are all consistent with contingency learning influencing performance only when the nominally irrelevant feature is faster to process than the relevant feature, and therefore are entirely in accord with a relative-speed-of-processing explanation.

  20. A Test Based on the Contingency Model of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The contingency model of leadership was extended to investigate subordinate satisfaction. It was hypothesized that subordinate satisfaction with a leader would yield evidence of an interaction between leadership style and situational parameters. Results indicated moderate support for an extension of the contingency model formulation. (RC)

  1. EM Health and Safety Plan Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document contains information about the Health and Safety Plan Guidelines. Topics discussed include: Regulatory framework; key personnel; hazard assessment; training requirements; personal protective equipment; extreme temperature disorders or conditions; medical surveillance; exposure monitoring/air sampling; site control; decontamination; emergency response/contingency plan; emergency action plan; confined space entry; and spill containment.

  2. The Impact of the Contingency of Robot Feedback for HRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Lohan, Katrin Solveig; Saunders, Joe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact the contingency of robot feedback may have on the quality of verbal human-robot interaction. In order to assess not only what the effects are but also what they are caused by, we carried out experiments in which naïve participants instructed the humanoid...... robot iCub on a set of shapes and on a stacking task in two conditions, once with socially contingent, nonverbal feedback implemented in response to different gaze and looming behaviors of the human tutor, and once with non-contingent, saliency-based feedback. The results of the analysis of participants......’ linguistic behaviors in the two conditions show that contingency has an impact on the complexity and the pre-structuring of the task for the robot, i.e. on the participants’ tutoring behaviors. Contingency thus plays a considerable role for learning by demonstration....

  3. Combining contingency tables with missing dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, F

    2000-06-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the cell probabilities in a multiway contingency table by combining partial information from a number of studies when not all of the variables are recorded in all studies. We jointly model the full set of categorical variables recorded in at least one of the studies, and we treat the variables that are not reported as missing dimensions of the study-specific contingency table. For example, we might be interested in combining several cohort studies in which the incidence in the exposed and nonexposed groups is not reported for all risk factors in all studies while the overall numbers of cases and cohort size is always available. To account for study-to-study variability, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical model. At the first stage of the model, the observation stage, data are modeled by a multinomial distribution with fixed total number of observations. At the second stage, we use the logistic normal (LN) distribution to model variability in the study-specific cells' probabilities. Using this model and data augmentation techniques, we reconstruct the contingency table for each study regardless of which dimensions are missing, and we estimate population parameters of interest. Our hierarchical procedure borrows strength from all the studies and accounts for correlations among the cells' probabilities. The main difficulty in combining studies recording different variables is in maintaining a consistent interpretation of parameters across studies. The approach proposed here overcomes this difficulty and at the same time addresses the uncertainty arising from the missing dimensions. We apply our modeling strategy to analyze data on air pollution and mortality from 1987 to 1994 for six U.S. cities by combining six cross-classifications of low, medium, and high levels of mortality counts, particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide with the complication that four of the six cities do not report all the air pollution variables. Our

  4. Implementation of structure-mapping inference by event-file binding and action planning: a model of tool-improvisation analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Structure-mapping inferences are generally regarded as dependent upon relational concepts that are understood and expressible in language by subjects capable of analogical reasoning. However, tool-improvisation inferences are executed by members of a variety of non-human primate and other species. Tool improvisation requires correctly inferring the motion and force-transfer affordances of an object; hence tool improvisation requires structure mapping driven by relational properties. Observational and experimental evidence can be interpreted to indicate that structure-mapping analogies in tool improvisation are implemented by multi-step manipulation of event files by binding and action-planning mechanisms that act in a language-independent manner. A functional model of language-independent event-file manipulations that implement structure mapping in the tool-improvisation domain is developed. This model provides a mechanism by which motion and force representations commonly employed in tool-improvisation structure mappings may be sufficiently reinforced to be available to inwardly directed attention and hence conceptualization. Predictions and potential experimental tests of this model are outlined.

  5. 77 FR 62191 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Infrastructure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... promulgated the ``Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico,'' which includes contingency measures...; FRL-9740-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Infrastructure... New Mexico pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) that addresses the infrastructure elements...

  6. Tourism employment: contingent work or professional career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Andersen, Steen

    2001-01-01

    with a professional or vocational tourism education. Discusses the implications of the retention pattern, arguing that tourism shares its professional labour market with neighbouring sectors, and that the industry and educational support framework must therefore take account of this. However, there is a very real...... background does not give them any particular advantages vis-à-vis employees with less relevant qualifications. The retention of employees is a critical problem in Danish tourism, but while turnover is extremely high among the unskilled, significantly better retention rates are found among those...... risk of losing the competition for the best-qualified staff. Finally, it is postulated that tourism is a locus for new types of career concepts; however, we still lack a genuine understanding of the role of tourism for the contingent or boundaryless career....

  7. Historical contingency in fluviokarst landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-02-01

    Lateral and vertical erosion at meander bends in the Kentucky River gorge area has created a series of strath terraces on the interior of incised meander bends. These represent a chronosequence of fluviokarst landscape evolution from the youngest valley side transition zone near the valley bottom to the oldest upland surface. This five-part chronosequence (not including the active river channel and floodplain) was analyzed in terms of the landforms that occur at each stage or surface. These include dolines, uvalas, karst valleys, pocket valleys, unincised channels, incised channels, and cliffs (smaller features such as swallets and shafts also occur). Landform coincidence analysis shows higher coincidence indices (CI) than would be expected based on an idealized chronosequence. CI values indicate genetic relationships (common causality) among some landforms and unexpected persistence of some features on older surfaces. The idealized and two observed chronosequences were also represented as graphs and analyzed using algebraic graph theory. The two field sites yielded graphs more complex and with less historical contingency than the idealized sequence. Indeed, some of the spectral graph measures for the field sites more closely approximate a purely hypothetical no-historical-contingency benchmark graph. The deviations of observations from the idealized expectations, and the high levels of graph complexity both point to potential transitions among landform types as being the dominant phenomenon, rather than canalization along a particular evolutionary pathway. As the base level of both the fluvial and karst landforms is lowered as the meanders expand, both fluvial and karst denudation are rejuvenated, and landform transitions remain active.

  8. Contingency for Cost Control in Project Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Jackson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of the application of cost management techniques for project management of capital works within a major Australian electricity corporation. Historical data was collected from the corporation's archived files to establish the performance status of completed capital works projects. A survey of the corporation's project staff was also conducted to determine the current usage of cost management techniques and further explore the findings of the historical data search.The research indicates a reluctance to utilise formal cost management procedures on minor projects, estimated to cost less than $1 million. The time constraints allocated to project management planning and the perceived cost to implement procedures were identified as contributing to the limited use of formal cost management on minor projects.The paper concludes that increased risk of poor budget performance is inevitable if formal cost control is not applied to capital works projects, and recommends informal risk assessment and cost contingency measures to address this issue.

  9. Comparison of accuracy in predicting emotional instability from MMPI data: fisherian versus contingent probability statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.; Mathews, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The security plans of nuclear power plants generally require that all personnel who are to have access to protected areas or vital islands be screened for emotional stability. In virtually all instances, the screening involves the administration of one or more psychological tests, usually including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). At some plants, all employees receive a structured clinical interview after they have taken the MMPI and results have been obtained. At other plants, only those employees with dirty MMPI are interviewed. This latter protocol is referred to as interviews by exception. Behaviordyne Psychological Corp. has succeeded in removing some of the uncertainty associated with interview-by-exception protocols by developing an empirically based, predictive equation. This equation permits utility companies to make informed choices regarding the risks they are assuming. A conceptual problem exists with the predictive equation, however. Like most predictive equations currently in use, it is based on Fisherian statistics, involving least-squares analyses. Consequently, Behaviordyne Psychological Corp., in conjunction with T.W. Mathews and Associates, has just developed a second predictive equation, one based on contingent probability statistics. The particular technique used in the multi-contingent analysis of probability systems (MAPS) approach. The present paper presents a comparison of predictive accuracy of the two equations: the one derived using Fisherian techniques versus the one thing contingent probability techniques.

  10. The Creative Music Workshop: Event, Facilitation, Gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the desires and tensions inherent within the act of facilitating creative music-making workshops. Following the introduction, the article is divided into three sections: (1) a discussion of the workshop event as a contingent structure through which creative music-making may take place; (2) an exploration…

  11. Framework for modeling high-impact, low-frequency power grid events to support risk-informed decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramany, Arun; Unwin, Stephen D.; Coles, Garill A.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Millard, David W.; Yao, Juan; Glantz, Cliff S.; Gourisetti, Sri N. G.

    2016-06-25

    Natural and man-made hazardous events resulting in loss of grid infrastructure assets challenge the security and resilience of the electric power grid. However, the planning and allocation of appropriate contingency resources for such events requires an understanding of their likelihood and the extent of their potential impact. Where these events are of low likelihood, a risk-informed perspective on planning can be difficult, as the statistical basis needed to directly estimate the probabilities and consequences of their occurrence does not exist. Because risk-informed decisions rely on such knowledge, a basis for modeling the risk associated with high-impact, low-frequency events (HILFs) is essential. Insights from such a model indicate where resources are most rationally and effectively expended. A risk-informed realization of designing and maintaining a grid resilient to HILFs will demand consideration of a spectrum of hazards/threats to infrastructure integrity, an understanding of their likelihoods of occurrence, treatment of the fragilities of critical assets to the stressors induced by such events, and through modeling grid network topology, the extent of damage associated with these scenarios. The model resulting from integration of these elements will allow sensitivity assessments based on optional risk management strategies, such as alternative pooling, staging and logistic strategies, and emergency contingency planning. This study is focused on the development of an end-to-end HILF risk-assessment framework. Such a framework is intended to provide the conceptual and overarching technical basis for the development of HILF risk models that can inform decision-makers across numerous stakeholder groups in directing resources optimally towards the management of risks to operational continuity.

  12. Application of the IPEBS method to dynamic contingency analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, A.C.B. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A.S. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Dynamic contingency analysis is certainly a demanding task in the context of dynamic performance evaluation. This paper presents the results of a test for checking the contingency screening capability of the IPEBS method. A brazilian 1100-bus, 112-gen system was used in the test; the ranking of the contingencies based on critical clearing times obtained with IPEBS, was compared with the ranking derived from detailed time-domain simulation. The results of this comparison encourages us to recommended the use of the method in industry applications, in a complementary basis to the current method of time domain simulation. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel Research Plan Review for: The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a meeting with representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element and HRP management on February 3-4, 2014 in Houston, TX to review the updated Research Plan for the Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response in the HRP Integrated Research Plan. The SRP is impressed with the work the immune discipline has done since the 2012 SRP review and agrees with the new wording of the Gaps, no longer questions, now statements. The SRP also likes the addition of adding targets for closing the Gaps, but it is not clear how they got to some of the interim stages (interval percentages). A major concern that the SRP has mentioned since the initial 2009 SRP meeting is that there is still not enough emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspect of the immune risk associated with other risks (i.e., nutrition, radiation, etc.). The SRP recommends that a "translational SRP" or advisory group be developed that is composed of members from all of the HRP SRPs. The SRP also thinks that the immune discipline should consider a more systems biology approach. Lastly, the SRP is concerned that the risks observed in research from low Earth orbit (LEO) missions may not accurately reflect all the risks of longer duration flight beyond LEO. Also, there does not seem to be a concern for immune responses that may occur when someone is in space longer than six months, for example, a Mars mission would take three years. The absence of disease in past and current flight scenarios does not mean the risk may not be there in future flight settings.

  14. 40 CFR 300.205 - Planning and coordination structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and coordination structure. 300.205 Section 300.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.205 Planning and coordination structure. (a...

  15. A Contingent Valuation Study of Lost Passive Use Values Resulting From the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, R.T.; Mitchell, R.C.; Hanemann, W.M.; Kopp, R.J.; Presser, S.; Ruud, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the results of a large-scale contingent valuation (CV) study conducted after the Exxon Valdez oil spill to assess the harm caused by it. Among the issues considered are the design features of the CV survey, its administration to a national sample of U.S. households, estimation of household willingness to pay to prevent another Exxon Valdez type oil spill, and issues related to reliability and validity of the estimates obtained. Events influenced by the study’s release are also br...

  16. Skype me! Socially contingent interactions help toddlers learn language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Language learning takes place in the context of social interactions, yet the mechanisms that render social interactions useful for learning language remain unclear. This study focuses on whether social contingency might support word learning. Toddlers aged 24-30 months (N = 36) were exposed to novel verbs in one of three conditions: live interaction training, socially contingent video training over video chat, and noncontingent video training (yoked video). Results suggest that children only learned novel verbs in socially contingent interactions (live interactions and video chat). This study highlights the importance of social contingency in interactions for language learning and informs the literature on learning through screen media as the first study to examine word learning through video chat technology. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Self-Aware Aerospace Vehicle Contingency Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences, with Agent Oriented Software, proposes to develop a contingency management system that dynamically performs decision-making based on both...

  18. Order effects in contingency learning: the role of task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jessecae K; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2006-04-01

    Dennis and Ahn (2001) found that during contingency learning, initial evidence influences causal judgments more than does later evidence (a primacy effect), whereas López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) found the opposite (a recency effect). We propose that in contingency learning, people use initial evidence to develop an anchoring hypothesis that tends to be underadjusted by later evidence, resulting in a primacy effect. Thus, factors interfering with initial hypothesis development, such as simultaneously learning too many contingencies, as in López et al., would reduce the primacy effect. Experiment 1 showed a primacy effect with learning contingencies involving only one outcome but no primacy effect with two outcomes. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the magnitude of the primacy effect correlated with participants' verbal working memory capacity. It is concluded that a critical moderator for exhibition of the primacy effect is task complexity, presumably because it interferes with initial hypothesis development.

  19. Contingency Management and deliberative decision-making processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Regier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contingency Management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of Contingency Management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that Contingency Management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by Contingency Management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  20. Automated Contingency Management for Advanced Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated Contingency Management (ACM), or the ability to confidently and autonomously adapt to fault conditions with the goal of still achieving mission objectives,...

  1. Increased anticipatory contingent negative variation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, H.; Wang, L.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Zhang, K.; Wu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Altered anticipation processes are implicated across various clinical samples, but few studies focused on the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We measured contingent negative variation (CNV) in a choice reaction paradigm among 58 survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, including 28 individuals

  2. Contingency inferences driven by base rates: Valid by sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kutzner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiedler et al. (2009, reviewed evidence for the utilization of a contingency inference strategy termed pseudocontingencies (PCs. In PCs, the more frequent levels (and, by implication, the less frequent levels are assumed to be associated. PCs have been obtained using a wide range of task settings and dependent measures. Yet, the readiness with which decision makers rely on PCs is poorly understood. A computer simulation explored two potential sources of subjective validity of PCs. First, PCs are shown to perform above chance level when the task is to infer the sign of moderate to strong population contingencies from a sample of observations. Second, contingency inferences based on PCs and inferences based on cell frequencies are shown to partially agree across samples. Intriguingly, this criterion and convergent validity are by-products of random sampling error, highlighting the inductive nature of contingency inferences.

  3. Anarchy in the Streets: Restoring Public Security in Complex Contingencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castle, James

    1998-01-01

    When US military forces are performing public security functions during complex contingency operations, what conditions must they establish in order to transfer those functions successfully back to the host nation...

  4. Assessment of extreme flood events in a changing climate for a long-term planning of socio-economic infrastructure in the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevnina, Elena; Kourzeneva, Ekaterina; Kovalenko, Viktor; Vihma, Timo

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming has been more acute in the Arctic than at lower latitudes and this tendency is expected to continue. This generates major challenges for economic activity in the region. Among other issues is the long-term planning and development of socio-economic infrastructure (dams, bridges, roads, etc.), which require climate-based forecasts of the frequency and magnitude of detrimental flood events. To estimate the cost of the infrastructure and operational risk, a probabilistic form of long-term forecasting is preferable. In this study, a probabilistic model to simulate the parameters of the probability density function (PDF) for multi-year runoff based on a projected climatology is applied to evaluate changes in extreme floods for the territory of the Russian Arctic. The model is validated by cross-comparison of the modelled and empirical PDFs using observations from 23 sites located in northern Russia. The mean values and coefficients of variation (CVs) of the spring flood depth of runoff are evaluated under four climate scenarios, using simulations of six climate models for the period 2010-2039. Regions with substantial expected changes in the means and CVs of spring flood depth of runoff are outlined. For the sites located within such regions, it is suggested to account for the future climate change in calculating the maximal discharges of rare occurrence. An example of engineering calculations for maximal discharges with 1 % exceedance probability is provided for the Nadym River at Nadym.

  5. A dynamical systems account of sensorimotor contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor approach, perception is a form of embodied know-how, constituted by lawful regularities in the sensorimotor flow or in sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs) in an active and situated agent. Despite the attention that this approach has attracted, there have been few attempts to define its core concepts formally. In this paper, we examine the idea of SMCs and argue that its use involves notions that need to be distinguished. We introduce four distinct kinds of SMCs, which we define operationally. These are the notions of sensorimotor environment (open-loop motor-induced sensory variations), sensorimotor habitat (closed-loop sensorimotor trajectories), sensorimotor coordination (reliable sensorimotor patterns playing a functional role), and sensorimotor strategy (normative organization of sensorimotor coordinations). We make use of a minimal dynamical model of visually guided categorization to test the explanatory value of the different kinds of SMCs. Finally, we discuss the impact of our definitions on the conceptual development and empirical as well as model-based testing of the claims of the sensorimotor approach.

  6. Contingency and construction: from mimesis to postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zima

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the transition from literary realism (Balzac, George Eliot, Verga is described as a shift from mimesis to constructivism. It is indicated how the realist confidence in the ability of the writer to represent reality as such yields to a modernist skepticism which recognises the contingent character of all fictional constructs. In spite of this discovery, modernists such as Kafka, Proust and Sartre still believe in a meaningful search for reality, authenticity and truth. This belief seems to disappear in the works of postmodernist authors such as Robbe-Grillet, Eco or Fowles who tend to dissociate fiction from any kind of meaningful search, transforming it into a game: a gadget for the reader. The author, who adopts the perspective of Critical Theory, argues towards the end of the article that the latter is modernist insofar as it refuses to follow the postmodernists in their playful abandoning of key realist and modernist concepts such as truth, authenticity and critique.

  7. Distributed Contingency Analysis over Wide Area Network among Dispatch Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhengwei; CHEN, YING; Huang, Shaowei; Sheng, Shuang; Zheng, Huiping; Liu, Xinyuan

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, a regional dispatch center uses the equivalent method to deal with external grids, which fails to reflect the interactions among regions. This paper proposes a distributed N-1 contingency analysis (DCA) solution, where dispatch centers join a coordinated computation using their private data and computing resources. A distributed screening method is presented to determine the Critical Contingency Set (DCCS) in DCA. Then, the distributed power flow is formulated as a set of bound...

  8. Order effects in contingency learning: The role of task complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jessecae K.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2006-01-01

    Dennis and Ahn (2001) found that during contingency learning, initial evidence influences causal judgments more than does later evidence (a primacy effect), whereas López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) found the opposite (a recency effect). We propose that in contingency learning, people use initial evidence to develop an anchoring hypothesis that tends to be underadjusted by later evidence, resulting in a primacy effect. Thus, factors interfering with initial hypothesis development, ...

  9. The Indifference Curve, Motivation, and Morality in Contingent Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Hart; Uwe Latacz-Lohmann

    2001-01-01

    Contingent valuation surveys have tended to yield results that seem to go contrary to what is standardly seen as 'rational choice'. We argue that some of the inconsistencies arise because bids for public environmental goods in contingent valuation surveys are often (at least partly) motivated by moral considerations and ethical beliefs. We analyse the expected results of CV surveys given the existence of such ethical motivations, including the valuation of actions as well as states. It is fou...

  10. Orbitofrontal Cortex Signals Expected Outcomes with Predictive Codes When Stable Contingencies Promote the Integration of Reward History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riceberg, Justin S; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2017-02-22

    Memory can inform goal-directed behavior by linking current opportunities to past outcomes. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may guide value-based responses by integrating the history of stimulus-reward associations into expected outcomes, representations of predicted hedonic value and quality. Alternatively, the OFC may rapidly compute flexible "online" reward predictions by associating stimuli with the latest outcome. OFC neurons develop predictive codes when rats learn to associate arbitrary stimuli with outcomes, but the extent to which predictive coding depends on most recent events and the integrated history of rewards is unclear. To investigate how reward history modulates OFC activity, we recorded OFC ensembles as rats performed spatial discriminations that differed only in the number of rewarded trials between goal reversals. The firing rate of single OFC neurons distinguished identical behaviors guided by different goals. When >20 rewarded trials separated goal switches, OFC ensembles developed stable and anticorrelated population vectors that predicted overall choice accuracy and the goal selected in single trials. When rewarded trials separated goal switches, OFC population vectors decorrelated rapidly after each switch, but did not develop anticorrelated firing patterns or predict choice accuracy. The results show that, whereas OFC signals respond rapidly to contingency changes, they predict choices only when reward history is relatively stable, suggesting that consecutive rewarded episodes are needed for OFC computations that integrate reward history into expected outcomes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adapting to changing contingencies and making decisions engages the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Previous work shows that OFC function can either improve or impair learning depending on reward stability, suggesting that OFC guides behavior optimally when contingencies apply consistently. The mechanisms that link reward history to OFC computations remain obscure

  11. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  12. Handling Protest Responses in Contingent Valuation Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Gomes, Manuel; Donaldson, Cam

    2017-08-01

    Protest responses, whereby respondents refuse to state the value they place on the health gain, are commonly encountered in contingent valuation (CV) studies, and they tend to be excluded from analyses. Such an approach will be biased if protesters differ from non-protesters on characteristics that predict their responses. The Heckman selection model has been commonly used to adjust for protesters, but its underlying assumptions may be implausible in this context. We present a multiple imputation (MI) approach to appropriately address protest responses in CV studies, and compare it with the Heckman selection model. This study exploits data from the multinational EuroVaQ study, which surveyed respondents' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY). Here, our simulation study assesses the relative performance of MI and Heckman selection models across different realistic settings grounded in the EuroVaQ study, including scenarios with different proportions of missing data and non-response mechanisms. We then illustrate the methods in the EuroVaQ study for estimating mean WTP for a QALY gain. We find that MI provides lower bias and mean squared error compared with the Heckman approach across all considered scenarios. The simulations suggest that the Heckman approach can lead to considerable underestimation or overestimation of mean WTP due to violations in the normality assumption, even after log-transforming the WTP responses. The case study illustrates that protesters are associated with a lower mean WTP for a QALY gain compared with non-protesters, but that the results differ according to method for handling protesters. MI is an appropriate method for addressing protest responses in CV studies.

  13. Direct measurement of the system latency of gaze-contingent displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-contingent displays combine a display device with an eyetracking system to rapidly update an image on the basis of the measured eye position. All such systems have a delay, the system latency, between a change in gaze location and the related change in the display. The system latency is the result of the delays contributed by the eyetracker, the display computer, and the display, and it is affected by the properties of each component, which may include variability. We present a direct, simple, and low-cost method to measure the system latency. The technique uses a device to briefly blind the eyetracker system (e.g., for video-based eyetrackers, a device with infrared light-emitting diodes (LED)), creating an eyetracker event that triggers a change to the display monitor. The time between these two events, as captured by a relatively low-cost consumer camera with high-speed video capability (1,000 Hz), is an accurate measurement of the system latency. With multiple measurements, the distribution of system latencies can be characterized. The same approach can be used to synchronize the eye position time series and a video recording of the visual stimuli that would be displayed in a particular gaze-contingent experiment. We present system latency assessments for several popular types of displays and discuss what values are acceptable for different applications, as well as how system latencies might be improved. PMID:23949955

  14. Relating to the Experience of Contingency in Patients With Advanced Cancer: An Interview Study in U.S. Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruizinga, Renske; Jafari, Najmeh; Scherer-Rath, Michael; Schilderman, Hans; Bires, Jennifer; Puchalski, Christina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke

    2018-02-03

    Being diagnosed with incurable cancer can be a life-changing experience, evoking different spiritual questions and needs. Confronting a serious life-threatening event occurs not only often unexpected but also can disrupt a person's self-image and ideals of their personhood. This confrontation makes it difficult for people to integrate it into their personal life story-otherwise referred to as an experience of contingency. Different modes of relating to the contingent life event of having cancer have been studied in a Dutch patient population. Here we present an interview study in an U.S. population with advanced cancer patients. We included eight American patients with advanced cancer from the George Washington University Cancer Center. All patients were interviewed twice discussing their life events and life goals using a semistructured interview model. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed focusing on how patients described the way they related to the experience of having advanced cancer. The constant comparative method with a directed content analysis approach was used to code the themes in the interviews. The analyses show that the four modes of relating to contingency that we found in the Dutch study population can also be found in an American advanced cancer patient population. Differences were found in the extended way American patients described the fourth mode of "receiving." This study ensures a broader and deeper understanding of relating to the experience of contingency in having incurable cancer, which is crucial in developing accurate spiritual care in the palliative phase of patients. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 71550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado Second Ten-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... to approve the revised maintenance plan's 2021 transportation conformity motor vehicle emissions..., Monitoring Network/Verification of Continued Attainment, Contingency Plan, and Transportation Conformity..., PM 10 emission reduction potential, economic and social considerations, or other factors. We find...

  16. The acquisition of simple associations as observed in color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia Y-H; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the learning of simple associations in a color-word contingency task. Participants responded manually to the print colors of 3 words, with each word associated strongly to 1 of the 3 colors and weakly to the other 2 colors. Despite the words being irrelevant, response times to high-contingency stimuli and to low-contingency stimuli quickly diverged. This high-low difference remained quite constant over successive blocks of trials, evidence of stable contingency learning. Inclusion of a baseline condition-an item having no color-word contingency-permitted separation of the contingency learning effect into 2 components: a cost due to low contingency and a benefit due to high contingency. Both cost and benefit were quick to acquire, quick to extinguish, and quick to reacquire. The color-word contingency task provides a simple way to directly study the learning of associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek; Brown, Thomas C; Carvajal, Franklin

    2004-09-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately favorable latent dispositions. Instead, this hypothetical bias was explained by activation of more favorable beliefs and attitudes in the context of a hypothetical rather than a real referendum. A corrective entreaty was found to eliminate this bias by bringing beliefs, attitudes, and intentions in line with those in the real payment situation. As a result, the theory of planned behavior produced more accurate prediction of real payment when participants were exposed to the corrective entreaty.

  18. The Effectiveness of Gaze-Contingent Control in Computer Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Paul A; Apraksin, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology and gaze-contingent control in human-computer interaction have become an objective reality. This article reports on a series of eye-tracking experiments, in which we concentrated on one aspect of gaze-contingent interaction: Its effectiveness compared with mouse-based control in a computer strategy game. We propose a measure for evaluating the effectiveness of interaction based on "the time of recognition" the game unit. In this article, we use this measure to compare gaze- and mouse-contingent systems, and we present the analysis of the differences as a function of the number of game units. Our results indicate that performance of gaze-contingent interaction is typically higher than mouse manipulation in a visual searching task. When tested on 60 subjects, the results showed that the effectiveness of gaze-contingent systems over 1.5 times higher. In addition, we obtained that eye behavior stays quite stabile with or without mouse interaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Development of synchronous VHL syndrome tumors reveals contingencies and constraints to tumor evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Rosalie; Horswell, Stuart; Rowan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    with a germline VHL mutation. We report that tumors arising in this context are clonally independent and harbour distinct secondary events exemplified by loss of chromosome 3p, despite an identical genetic background and tissue microenvironment. We propose that divergent mutational and copy number anomalies......Background : Genomic analysis of multi-focal renal cell carcinomas from an individual with a germline VHL mutation offers a unique opportunity to study tumor evolution. Results : We perform whole exome sequencing on four clear cell renal cell carcinomas removed from both kidneys of a patient...... are contingent upon the nature of 3p loss of heterozygosity occurring early in tumorigenesis. However, despite distinct 3p events, genomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses reveal evidence for convergence upon the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. Four germline tumors in this young patient...

  20. Developing a General Contingency Planner, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    player boardgame of Othello) to an Army maneuver planning doin. 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 0...already teen supported this is a bad cluqe to be reosired later ; newturr, sets this variable to nil (elefvar unit actions nil) a variable used

  1. Contingency arrangements do not necessarily equal fraud and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, J W; Wolf, J D

    1998-07-01

    Many healthcare organizations avoid entering contingency-based arrangements with consulting firms that specialize in Medicare revenue optimization because they fear Federal investigation of such an arrangement might lead to a finding of fraud and abuse. A Medicare fraud alert issued by the HHS Office of the Inspector General (OIG) appears to justify that fear, suggesting that contingency arrangements are inherently unethical. Nonetheless, current Federal regulations clearly allow healthcare organizations to enter into contingency-based relationships with consulting firms to seek legitimate optimal payment. Healthcare organizations may do so without fear of Federal legal action if they ensure that the consultant is ethical and competent and that the DRG review process used is both legitimate and retrospective, subjecting all recommended changes to approval by both the healthcare organization and appropriate peer review organization.

  2. Contingency theory, climate change, and low-carbon operations management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan Matos Alves, Marcelo Wilson; Lopes de Sousa Jabbour, Ana Beatriz; Kannan, Devika

    2017-01-01

    seven leading companies located in Brazil. Findings: The authors present four primary results: a proposal of an original framework to understand the relationship between contingency theory, changes in organisational structure to embrace low-carbon management, adoption of low-carbon operations practices......Purpose: Drawing on the theory of contingency, the aim of this work is to understand how supply chain-related contingencies, arising from climate change, are related to changes in the organisational structure of firms. Further, the authors explore how this relationship influences the perception...... of sustainability managers on the adoption of low-carbon operations management practices and their related benefits. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, this research uses NVivo software to gather evidence from interviews conducted with ten high-level managers in sustainability and related areas from...

  3. Robustness and Contingent History: From Prisoner's Dilemma to Gaia Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Inman

    2018-01-01

    In both social systems and ecosystems there is a need to resolve potential conflicts between the interests of individuals and the collective interest of the community. The collective interests need to survive the turbulent dynamics of social and ecological interactions. To see how different systems with different sets of interactions have different degrees of robustness, we need to look at their different contingent histories. We analyze abstract artificial life models of such systems, and note that some prominent examples rely on explicitly ahistorical frameworks; we point out where analyses that ignore a contingent historical context can be fatally flawed. The mathematical foundations of Gaia theory are presented in a form whose very basic and general assumptions point to wide applicability across complex dynamical systems. This highlights surprising connections between robustness and accumulated contingent happenstance, regardless of whether Darwinian evolution is or is not implicated. Real-life studies highlight the role of history, and artificial life studies should do likewise.

  4. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  5. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  6. Contingent and Continuing Employment: Comparative National and Historical Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marens, Richard; Tackney, Charles T.

    This symposium focuses on the comparative impact of social institutions and labor laws on both contingent and continuing employment. Presenters will apply a wide range of analytical concepts to the history and culture of five individual nations. These concepts include a diverse set of theoretical...... wide-ranging coverage of the organizational meaning of contingent or continued employment for both formal and informal employment across a diverse group of nations, a group that includes Peru, Colombia, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States. Following the presentations, the presenters...

  7. A descriptive notation system for contingency diagramming in behavior analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Bram C.; Acker, Loren E.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a notation system for diagramming behavioral contingencies. The system is descriptive. Stimulus functions are not represented with special symbols, such as SR, SD, or UCS, but are simply described in terms of the relation between behavior and stimulus change, and the resulting outcome. The system is atheoretical, self-explanatory, and easy to use. Our goal is to provide an approach to contingency diagramming for the student that represents directly the exact relations and outcomes involved in operant and respondent processes. PMID:22478210

  8. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Testing contingency hypotheses in budgetary research: An evaluation of the use of moderated regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Frank G.H.; Moers, Frank

    1999-01-01

    In the contingency literature on the behavioral and organizational effects of budgeting, use of the Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA) technique is prevalent. This technique is used to test contingency hypotheses that predict interaction effects between budgetary and contextual variables. This

  10. Thoughts Without Content are Empty, Intuitions Without Concepts are Blind - Determinism and Contingency Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Was the emergence of life a predictable outcome of chemical evolution on earth? Could evolution produce life very different from ours? These are one of the oldest questions in the field of the origin of life that not only have broad philosophical implications but also impact how we approach the problem from the methodological standpoint. Framing the issue in terms of the dichotomy between contingency and determinism is not a fortunate because these two terms in their conventional meaning are neither mutually exclusive nor jointly exhaustive. Determinism, represented in natural sciences by Newtonian physics, relies on the assumption that every event is causally determined by a chain of previous events. In the context of the origin of life it means that once the initial conditions on the early earth have been specified further evolution follows inevitably. Considering uncertainties about conditions on the prebiotic earth, many plausible sets of initial conditions can be defined, each followed by a separate deterministic trajectory. This conventional understanding of determinism does not admit contingency. Further, it has no implications for evaluating how many sets of initial conditions lead to the emergence of life. It appears that a better framing of the problem is as follows: given plausible sets of initial conditions on the early earth how probable and broadly spread are evolutionary trajectories that lead to life? Instead of undertaking an impossible task of specifying microscopic initial conditions for all components of the system one uses a reduced representation of this system and specify only a small set of essential macroscopic parameters, values (or ranges of values) of which can be identified, inferred or estimated from experiment, theory or historical record. The following evolutionary trajectories are still governed by laws of physics and chemistry but become probabilistic and "contingency" is admitted as variations in other variables in the system. A

  11. Resilient planning for sporting mega-events: designing and managing safe and secure urban places for London 2012 and beyond Planejamento resiliente para megaeventos esportivos: planejando e gerindo lugares seguros para Londres 2012 e além

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Fussey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s both regeneration and security have been prominent themes in Olympic planning. However, this paper argues that the prominence given to post event “legacies” in London’s bid to host the 2012 Summer Games has fomented a merger of these hitherto distinct ambitions oriented around notions of “resilience”. In addition to identifying this merger, based on analysis of planning for the 2012 Games the paper sets out its component features and considers a range of key implications. These include the accommodation of Olympic security amid shifting national security arrangements and, at a local level, the impact and importance of the 2011 London riots on Olympic safety and security processes. Organised over four areas of discussion – the first three comprising of the coupling of spatial strategies of resilient planning and design with concerns for security; the temporal framework of such approaches; analysis of the altered physical and institutional landscape of London ahead of the 2012 Olympic Games – the paper concludes by identifying and discussing the ways in which urban rejuvenation and securitisation which are increasingly being combined into resilient designs and master plans in the Olympic context and, crucially, standardised, exported and transferred to new urban hosts of similar events.

  12. Organizational Learning in Rare Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly B.

    their intellectual property to court. We propose, that organizations can learn to litigate, although it is a rare event, by applying mechanisms in a current litigation case that have been successful in previous litigation cases. However, we also posit, that the usefulness of these learning mechanisms for a current......When organizations encounter rare events they often find it challenging to extract learning from the experience. We analyze opportunities for organizational learning in one such rare event, namely Intellectual Property (IP) litigation, i.e., when organizations take disputes regarding...... litigation case is contingent on the type of litigation, contract versus infringement cases. If the organization is involved in litigation based on a contract breach, we suggest that learning will be less useful because the contract preceding the litigation defines the modus operandi and leaves...

  13. Organizational learning in rare events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Beukel, Karin; Tyler, Beverly

    In this paper we build a theoretical framework for understanding whether and how firms learn from the rare event of litigating intellectual property cases. We draw on literature on organizational learning from rare events and examine the conditions under which firms can learn from rare events. We...... find that, when plaintiffs in IP litigation receive quick and clear positive feedback, this helps focus their attention on litigation feedback and motivates them to allocate resources that enhance learning. We explore the moderating effect of case type, finding that organizational learning is most...... applicable in cases without contractual constraints. In the setting studied, the learning effect of previous successes is contingent on case type, being less useful when firms litigate based on breach of contract....

  14. Relative changes from prior reward contingencies can constrain brain correlates of outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Stoet, Gijsbert; Bland, Amy Rachel; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that the affective value of an environment can be relative to whether it reflects an improvement or a worsening from a previous state. A potential explanation for this phenomenon suggests that relative changes from previous reward contingencies can constrain how brain monitoring systems form predictions about future events. In support of this idea, we found that changes per se relative to previous states of learned reward contingencies modulated the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN), a human brain potential known to index discrepancies between predictions and affective outcomes. Specifically, we observed that environments with a 50% reward probability yielded different FRN patterns according to whether they reflected an improvement or a worsening from a previous environment. Further, we also found that this pattern of results was driven mainly by variations in the amplitude of ERPs to positive outcomes. Overall, these results suggest that relative changes in reward probability from previous learned environments can constrain how neural systems of outcome monitoring formulate predictions about the likelihood of future rewards and nonrewards.

  15. Insensitivity to response-contingent feedback in adolescents with developmental language disorder (DLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joanna C

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficiency of the use of response-contingent feedback in adolescents with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) by using the balloon analogue risk task (BART). The BIS/BAS scales were also used to evaluate a participant's responses to reward- or punishment-related events in everyday situations. The results showed that adolescents with DLD performed on the BART at a suboptimal level due to inefficient use of response-contingent feedback. Findings of the BIS/BAS scales also generate a possible hypothesis of reduced motivational salience for larger monetary outcomes in DLD. Given that dopamine plays an important role in modulating BART responding through the corticostriatal pathways, these behavioral findings implicate an association between dopamine and individual differences in language, including DLD. Future studies are needed to directly test whether people with DLD have reduced level of dopamine in striatal neural synapses, leading to dopamine-dependent learning difficulty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative Changes from Prior Reward Contingencies Can Constrain Brain Correlates of Outcome Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Stoet, Gijsbert; Bland, Amy Rachel; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that the affective value of an environment can be relative to whether it reflects an improvement or a worsening from a previous state. A potential explanation for this phenomenon suggests that relative changes from previous reward contingencies can constrain how brain monitoring systems form predictions about future events. In support of this idea, we found that changes per se relative to previous states of learned reward contingencies modulated the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN), a human brain potential known to index discrepancies between predictions and affective outcomes. Specifically, we observed that environments with a 50% reward probability yielded different FRN patterns according to whether they reflected an improvement or a worsening from a previous environment. Further, we also found that this pattern of results was driven mainly by variations in the amplitude of ERPs to positive outcomes. Overall, these results suggest that relative changes in reward probability from previous learned environments can constrain how neural systems of outcome monitoring formulate predictions about the likelihood of future rewards and nonrewards. PMID:23840446

  17. Redesigning the United States Marine Corps contingency contracting process of knowledge sharing and tool usage

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Amador Rey

    2001-01-01

    Marine Corps contingency contracting is a critical function of supporting deployed Marine forces. Contingency contracting provides key logistical support for deployed operational forces when normal supply channels cannot. Characterized by a small number of contingency contracting officers, enlisted personnel and high turnover rates, the contingency contracting knowledge base is not being maintained. The purpose of this study is to design a knowledge management system that captures, retains an...

  18. Complexities and contingencies conceptualized: towards a model of reproductive navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Cohn, S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides sociocultural evidence for a different conceptualization of reproductive health behaviour. On the basis of long-term anthropological fieldwork in the East Province of Cameroon the author analyses of the social complexities and contingencies of local fertility-related decisions

  19. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to donn her helmet before being submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), communication carrier assembly (CCA) but no helmet.

  20. The Old Normal: Casualization and Contingency in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2015-01-01

    American higher education is in the midst of a staffing crisis. More than three quarters of faculty members work off the tenure track, often with no job security, low wages, and few prospects for advancement. While the contingent labor force is diversified--including highly qualified but part-time laborers piecing together positions at multiple…

  1. A dynamic dual model under state-contingent production uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, T.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we assess how production costs and capital accumulation patterns in agriculture have evolved over time, by paying special attention to the influence of risk. A dynamic state-contingent cost-minimisation approach is applied to assess production decisions in US agriculture over the last

  2. Application of the contingent valuation method to estimate a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Economics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa. Abstract. This paper assesses .... estuary are located within the town of Port Alfred. Road access to the estuary ..... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Panel on Contingent Valua- tion. Federal Register 58 ...

  3. School Management and Contingency Theory: An Emerging Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    An understanding of the "situational" characteristics of the organizational forces that influence the relationships between environmental, management, and performance variables is now coming to be seen as a key to understanding the management process itself. This paper is a synthesis of the contingency theory literature drawn from the…

  4. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  5. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    1986-01-01

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a r x s contingency table and for drawing marginal inferences about all parameters (e.g., interaction effects) in the model. The main approach is relevant whenever rs minus r minus s plus 1 is greater than or equal to 5. Military aptitude test data is used as illustration. (Author/LMO)

  6. The Impact of Contingent Employment on Organizational Citizenship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of contingent employment on organizational citizenship behaviour. Seven hundred and fifteen (715) participants, drawn from a commercial bank and an oil company in southwest, Nigeria, participated in the study. Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) was assessed with a 21-item ...

  7. Parental Educational Involvement Conceived as the Arrangement of Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C.; Moutavelis, Adrianos G.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the utility of a conception of parental educational involvement as the arrangement of contingency operations that normatively change: the frequency of children's school-related behaviour, the reinforcing potency of stimuli produced by studying, and children's tendencies to request parental intervention. A child-report measure…

  8. Sartre's Contingency of Being and Asouzu's Principle of Causality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He made use of his ideas such as mutual relations, ihedi nwere isi na odu and missing link to substantiate his point. This work therefore concludes that no contingent being can be in existence without a necessary being; and that this necessary being that causes the existence of other beings is God. In this way, one can say ...

  9. 41 Appraisal of the Performance of Contingency Cost Provision for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology, 4, (1), December 2011. 41. Appraisal of the Performance of ... To achieve this aim, impact of contingency provision in some selected building projects were evaluated. Data for the study was ... nature involves certain unavoidable risks that threaten achieving set objectives. To.

  10. Successful New Product Pricing Practices: A Contingency Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, R.T.; Ingenblee, P.T.M.; Debruyne, M.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the success of new product pricing practices and the conditions upon which success is contingent. We distinguish three different pricing practices that refer to the use of information on customer value, competition, and costs respectively. Following Monroe's

  11. Successful New Product Pricing Practices: A Contingency Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Debruyne, M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the success of new product pricing practices and the conditions upon which success is contingent. We distinguish three different pricing practices that refer to the use of information on customer value, competition, and costs respectively. Following

  12. The good, the bad and the ugly : Contingency deductions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The good, the bad and the ugly : Contingency deductions for remarriage in the light of Ongevallekommissaris v Santam. D. Van der Nest, A.G. Nienaber. Abstract. Where a claim for loss of support is instituted against a wrongdoer as a result of the wrongful death of a spouse who had a duty to support the surviving spouse, ...

  13. Contingencies and onus in the delictual law of damages | Steynberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    law the burden of proof rests upon the plaintiff and the expected measure of proof is a preponderance of probability. It has become clear that the terms 'burden of proof' and 'measure of proof' according to their strict evidentiary meaning, do not fit naturally into the theory of proof in the case of contingencies. If the amount of ...

  14. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  15. Implicit learning of spatiotemporal contingencies in spatial cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the role of implicit spatiotemporal learning in the Posner spatial cueing of attention task. During initial training, the proportion of different trial types was altered to produce a complex pattern of spatiotemporal contingencies between cues and targets. For example, in the short invalid and long valid condition, targets reliably appeared either at an uncued location after a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 100 ms) or at a cued location after a long SOA (350 ms). As revealed by postexperiment questioning, most participants were unaware of these manipulations. Whereas prior studies have examined reaction times during training, the current study examined the long-term effect of training on subsequent testing that removed these contingencies. An initial experiment found training effects only for the long SOAs that typically produce inhibition of return (IOR) effects. For instance, after short invalid and long valid training, there was a benefit at long SOAs rather than an IOR effect. A 2nd experiment ruled out target-cue overlap as an explanation of the difference between learning for long versus short SOAs. Rather than a mix of perfectly predictable spatiotemporal contingencies, Experiment 3 used only short SOA trials during training with a probabilistic spatial contingency. There was a smaller but reliable training effect in subsequent testing. These results demonstrate that implicit learning for specific combinations of location and SOA can affect behavior in spatial cueing paradigms, which is a necessary result if more generally spatial cueing reflects learned spatiotemporal regularities. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  17. Customer value in legal services : a contingency approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esther Verboon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Due to the recent economic crisis, competition has considerably increased in the legal profession in the Netherlands. However, marketing in legal services is mostly in its infancy and value research in this context is scarce. We therefore used a contingency approach in exploring the origin

  18. Effects of Individual and Group Contingency Interventions on Attendance in Adolescent Part-Time Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Shira Melody; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary contingencies on the attendance of adolescent part-time employees. Attendance increased in both individual and group contingency phases; however staff questionnaire responses indicated a preference for the individual contingencies. Future research should consider staff acceptability…

  19. A Review of the Use of Group Contingencies in Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these…

  20. Neural Substrates of Contingency Learning and Executive Control: Dissociating Physical, Valuative, and Behavioral Changes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman; Scott A Huettel

    2009-01-01

    Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative...

  1. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman; Scott A Huettel

    2009-01-01

    Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative...

  2. Colour-contingent after-effects are really wavelength-contingent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P; Latchford, G

    McCollough reported that following adaptation to (say) a red and black pattern of vertical stripes, alternating every few seconds with a green and black pattern of horizontal stripes, an orientation-contingent colour after-effect is observed when black and white gratings are viewed. Vertical gratings are tinged with green and horizontal gratings with pink. We have exploited colour constancy, the tendency for objects to appear constant in hue despite large changes in the spectral composition of the illuminant, to examine whether the colours observed on the McCollough effect test gratings are determined by the wavelength composition of the adaptation patterns or by their perceived colour. The key to this approach can be illustrated by Edwin Land's elegant demonstrations of colour constancy using 'Mondrian' displays. By embedding the adapting grating that is used to induce the McCollough effect within a Mondrian we show that the effect depends upon the wavelength of light coming from the grating, rather than the perceived colour.

  3. A modified prescription-event monitoring study to assess the introduction of Flixotide Evohaler into general practice in England: an example of pharmacovigilance planning and risk monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrio, Michael J; Wilton, Lynda V; Shakir, Saad A W

    2007-09-01

    A modified prescription-event monitoring (PEM) study was conducted to examine the safety of the introduction of the metered dose inhaler (MDI) Flixotide Evohaler (fluticasone with the propellant HFA 134a). Patients were identified from the first NHS prescriptions dispensed in England for Flixotide Evohaler. Postal questionnaires were sent to the prescribing doctor, requesting information including: demographic characteristics, severity of indication, concomitant medication, event data 3 months prior to and 3 months after the first prescription, and any reasons for stopping Flixotide. Pregnancies, deaths and selected events were followed up. Incidence density ratios (IDRs) were calculated to compare event rates 3 months before and 3 months after the introduction of Flixotide Evohaler. The cohort comprised 13 413 patients that were prescribed Flixotide Evohaler. The response rate was 64.0%. When the pre- and post-exposure periods were compared fewer patients had events in the post-exposure period, and there was no significant difference in the length of courses of oral steroid use. Eighteen patients experienced an event within 1 hour of using Flixotide Evohaler; these were minor with the exception of one case of angioneurotic facial oedema. Six of these events were assessed as possibly related to Flixotide Evohaler. During the study period there were an additional 13 patients with events assessed as possibly related to Flixotide Evohaler, including two reports of allergic reactions. The results suggest that the transition to Flixotide Evohaler was generally well tolerated. The modified methodology has contributed to the risk management of the introduction of this product. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  5. Detection costs and contingent attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, Josef G; Kerzel, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Peripheral cues reduce reaction times (RTs) to targets at the cued location with short cue-target SOAs (cueing benefits) but increase RTs at long SOAs (cueing costs or inhibition of return). In detection tasks, cueing costs occur at shorter SOAs and are larger compared with identification tasks. To account for effects of task, detection cost theory claims that the integration of cue and target into an object file makes it more difficult to detect the target as a new event, which is the principal task-requirement in detection tasks. The integration of cue and target is expected to increase when cue and target are similar. We provided evidence for detection cost theory in the modified spatial cueing paradigm. Two types of cues (onset, color) were paired with two types of targets (onset, color) in separate blocks of trials. In the identification task, we found cueing benefits with matching (i.e., similar) cue-target pairs (onset-onset, color-color) and no cueing effects with nonmatching cue-target pairs (onset-color, color-onset), which replicates previous work. In the detection task, cueing effects with matching cues were reduced and even turned into cueing costs for onset cues with onset targets, suggesting that cue-target integration made it more difficult to detect targets at the cued location as new events. In contrast, the results for nonmatching cue-target pairs were not affected by task. Furthermore, the pattern of false alarms in the detection task provides a measure of similarity that may explain the size of cueing benefits and costs.

  6. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, D J; Li, S; Jarvis, L A; Hartford, A C

    2011-07-01

    The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  7. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa.

  8. 77 FR 21911 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Arizona; Prevention of Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Air Pollution Emergency Episodes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... of Arizona to address the requirements regarding air pollution emergency episodes in Clean Air Act... air pollution emergency episodes and adequate contingency plans to implement such authority (Emergency...

  9. 76 FR 41698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Section 110(a)(2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... New Mexico SIP,'' found under 40 CFR 52.1620(e), by including an entry for New Mexico's Air Pollution...,'' found under 40 CFR 52.1620(e), by including an entry for New Mexico's Air Pollution Episode Contingency... end of the table a new entry for ``Air Pollution Episode Contingency Plan for New Mexico'' followed by...

  10. A study of the user's perception of economic value in nursing visits to primary care by the method of contingent valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde-López Juan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of the attribution of economic value that users of a health system assign to a health service could be useful in planning these services. The method of contingent valuation can provide information about the user's perception of value in monetary terms, and therefore comparable between services of a very different nature. This study attempts to extract the economic value that the subject, user of primary care nursing services in a public health system, attributes to this service by the method of contingent valuation, based on the perspectives of Willingness to Pay (WTP and Willingness to Accept [Compensation] (WTA. Methods/Design This is an economic study with a transversal design. The contingent valuation method will be used to estimate the user's willingness to pay (WTP for the care received from the primary care nurse and the willingness to accept [compensation] (WTA, were this service eliminated. A survey that meets the requisites of the contingent valuation method will be constructed and pilot-tested. Subsequently, 600 interviews will be performed with subjects chosen by systematic randomized sampling from among those who visit nursing at twenty health centers with different socioeconomic characteristics in the Community of Madrid. The characteristics of the subject and of the care received that can explain the variations in WTP, WTA and in the WTP/WTA ratio expressed will be studied. A theoretical validation of contingent valuation will be performed constructing two explanatory multivariate mixed models in which the dependent variable will be WTP, and the WTP/WTA relationship, respectively. Discussion The identification of the attribution of economic value to a health service that does not have a direct price at the time of use, such as a visit to primary care nursing, and the definition of a profile of "loss aversion" in reference to the service evaluated, can be relevant elements in planning

  11. Judgment of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: sadder but wiser?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y

    1979-12-01

    How are humans' subjective judgments of contingencies related to objective contingencies? Work in social psychology and human contingency learning predicts that the greater the frequency of desired outcomes, the greater people's judgments of contingency will be. Second, the learned helplessness theory of depression provides both a strong and a weak prediction concerning the linkage between subjective and objective contingencies. According to the strong prediction, depressed individuals should underestimate the degree of contingency between their responses and outcomes relative to the objective degree of contingency. According to the weak prediction, depressed individuals merely should judge that there is a smaller degree of contingency between their responses and outcomes than nondepressed individuals should. In addition, the present investigation deduced a new strong prediction from the helplessness theory: Nondepressed individuals should overestimate the degree of contingency between their responses and outcomes relative to the objective degree of contingency. In the experiments, depressed and nondepressed students were present with one of a series of problems varying in the actual degree of contingency. In each problem, subjects estimated the degree of contingency between their responses (pressing or not pressing a button) and an environmental outcome (onset of a green light). Performance on a behavioral task and estimates of the conditional probability of green light onset associated with the two response alternatives provided additional measures for assessing beliefs about contingencies. Depressed students' judgments of contingency were surprisingly accurate in all four experiments. Nondepressed students, on the other hand, overestimated the degree of contingency between their responses and outcomes when noncontingent outcomes were frequent and/or desired and underestimated the degree of contingency when contingent outcomes were undesired. Thus, predictions

  12. What constitutes vulnerable self-esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.

  13. The rejection-rage contingency in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Downey, Geraldine; Rafaeli, Eshkol; Coifman, Karin G; Paquin, Nina Leventhal

    2011-08-01

    Though long-standing clinical observation reflected in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) suggests that the rage characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) often appears in response to perceived rejection, the role of perceived rejection in triggering rage in BPD has never been empirically tested. Extending basic personality research on rejection sensitivity to a clinical sample, a priming-pronunciation experiment and a 21-day experience-sampling diary examined the contingent relationship between perceived rejection and rage in participants diagnosed with BPD compared with healthy controls. Despite the differences in these 2 assessment methods, the indices of rejection-contingent rage that they both produced were elevated in the BPD group and were strongly interrelated. They provide corroborating evidence that reactions to perceived rejection significantly explain the rage seen in BPD. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  14. Integrating Structural Health Management with Contingency Control for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Goebel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  15. Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Eyal M; Loschky, Lester C; McConkie, George W; Stampe, David M

    2003-01-01

    Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays (GCMRDs) center high-resolution information on the user's gaze position, matching the user's area of interest (AOI). Image resolution and details outside the AOI are reduced, lowering the requirements for processing resources and transmission bandwidth in demanding display and imaging applications. This review provides a general framework within which GCMRD research can be integrated, evaluated, and guided. GCMRDs (or "moving windows") are analyzed in terms of (a) the nature of their images (i.e., "multiresolution," "variable resolution," "space variant," or "level of detail"), and (b) the movement of the AOI (i.e., "gaze contingent," "foveated," or "eye slaved"). We also synthesize the known human factors research on GCMRDs and point out important questions for future research and development. Actual or potential applications of this research include flight, medical, and driving simulators; virtual reality; remote piloting and teleoperation; infrared and indirect vision; image transmission and retrieval; telemedicine; video teleconferencing; and artificial vision systems.

  16. Ordinal Log-Linear Models for Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezińska Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A log-linear analysis is a method providing a comprehensive scheme to describe the association for categorical variables in a contingency table. The log-linear model specifies how the expected counts depend on the levels of the categorical variables for these cells and provide detailed information on the associations. The aim of this paper is to present theoretical, as well as empirical, aspects of ordinal log-linear models used for contingency tables with ordinal variables. We introduce log-linear models for ordinal variables: linear-by-linear association, row effect model, column effect model and RC Goodman’s model. Algorithm, advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in the paper. An empirical analysis will be conducted with the use of R.

  17. Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seokhwa; Faraj, Samer; Sims, Henry P

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated leadership and effectiveness of teams operating in a high-velocity environment, specifically trauma resuscitation teams. On the basis of the literature and their own ethnographic work, the authors proposed and tested a contingency model in which the influence of leadership on team effectiveness during trauma resuscitation differs according to the situation. Results indicated that empowering leadership was more effective when trauma severity was low and when team experience was high. Directive leadership was more effective when trauma severity was high or when the team was inexperienced. Findings also suggested that an empowering leader provided more learning opportunities than did a directive leader. The major contribution of this article is the linkage of leadership to team effectiveness, as moderated by relatively specific situational contingencies. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An Investigation of Contingency Factors Influencing Intellectual Capital Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Soheily; Shahnaznayebzadeh; Ramin Abghari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contingency factors influencing the companies' intellectual capital information operating in Yazd industrial city. The study model was formed using intellectual capital as dependent variable and environmental uncertainty, technology advancement and business strategy as independent variables. For purpose of the present study, the applied and correlational methods were used. Data collection was conducted using questionnaires and survey methods. The...

  19. A CONTINGENCY MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF LEADER SHIP EFFECTIVENESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    past twelve years with ASo and LPC scores on 21 different types of groups. The model is predicated on the assumption that the type of leader ship...A model for the prediction of group performance is described which attempts an integration of the group effectiveness research conducted over the...behavior required for good group performance is contingent upon favorableness of the group task situation for the leader . Given the group’s classification

  20. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency.

  1. Spectral clustering and biclustering learning large graphs and contingency tables

    CERN Document Server

    Bolla, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Explores regular structures in graphs and contingency tables by spectral theory and statistical methods This book bridges the gap between graph theory and statistics by giving answers to the demanding questions which arise when statisticians are confronted with large weighted graphs or rectangular arrays. Classical and modern statistical methods applicable to biological, social, communication networks, or microarrays are presented together with the theoretical background and proofs. This book is suitable for a one-semester course for graduate students in data mining, mult

  2. Contingency Contracting Officers: Can They Adequately Support the Force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    ssociate Advisor David R. Whipple , Chairman Department of Administrative Sciences ii ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine whether the...less than optimal support of the deployed forces. If the Army had extended its "Continuation of the present ’ Hey , You’ method of selection in...for CCOs at unit level, the " Hey you" method of selection still exists during contingency deployments. In contrast to the majority of CCOs" responses

  3. A Behavioral Approach to Meeting Contingency Contracting Personnel Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    developed by Abraham Maslow. Major supporting theories will be the “Two-Factor Theory” of Frederick Herzberg , and Victor Vroom’s “Expectancy Theory...Gansler_Commission_Report_Final_071031.pdf, accessed November 2007. Herzberg , Frederick . The Motivation to Work, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1959. Maslow, Abraham. A Theory of Human...Civilian Contracting Cadre, DCCC, Virtual Contingency Contracting Cadre, VCCC, Gansler Report, recruitment, motivation, incentives, Maslow, Herzberg

  4. AN EXPERIMENT IN CONTINGENT VALUATION AND SOCIAL DESIRABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Laughland, Andrew S.; Musser, Wesley N.; Musser, Lynn M.

    1994-01-01

    Social desirability (SD) represents the problem of subjects responding with social norms rather than individual values. This paper briefly surveys the SD literature and considers its relevance for contingent valuation (CV) studies. In an empirical study, undergraduate students were administered the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, as well as CV questions. High SD scores were hypothesized to imply a greater likelihood of offering a protest reason for a zero bid and to increase bids fo...

  5. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection... limited to, site acquisition costs, construction contingency, general contractor's overhead and profit...

  6. Distinct Motivational Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Finzi, Rebecca Dawn; Drew, Daniel; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    When rewards are available, people expend more energy, increasing their motivational vigor. In theory, incentives might drive behavior for two distinct reasons: First, they increase expected reward; second, they increase the difference in subjective value between successful and unsuccessful performance, which increases contingency—the degree to which action determines outcome. Previous studies of motivational vigor have never compared these directly. Here, we indexed motivational vigor by measuring the speed of eye movements toward a target after participants heard a cue indicating how outcomes would be determined. Eye movements were faster when the cue indicated that monetary rewards would be contingent on performance than when the cue indicated that rewards would be random. But even when the cue indicated that a reward was guaranteed regardless of speed, movement was still faster than when no reward was available. Motivation by contingent and certain rewards was uncorrelated across individuals, which suggests that there are two separable, independent components of motivation. Contingent motivation generated autonomic arousal, and unlike noncontingent motivation, was effective with penalties as well as rewards. PMID:28488927

  7. Contingency table analysis methods and implementation using R

    CERN Document Server

    Kateri, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Combining theory and applications, this book presents models and methods for the analysis of two‐ and multi‐dimensional contingency tables. The author uses a threefold approach: fundamental models and related inferences are presented, their interpretational aspects are highlighted, and their practical usefulness is demonstrated. Throughout, practical guidance for using R is provided along with a comprehensive R-functions web-appendix.   Contingency tables arise in diverse fields, including the life, pedagogic, social and political sciences. They also play a prominent role in market research and opinion surveys. The analysis of contingency tables can provide insight into essential structures, relevant quantities and their interactions, and thus leads to improved decision-making.   Special features include:   ·         A motivating example for each topic ·         Applications and implementations in R for all models discussed ·         Emphasis on association and symmetry model...

  8. Management of construction cost contingency covering upside and downside risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Adel Eldosouky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many contractors are of the opinion that adding contingency funds to the tender price of a project may lead to loss of the tender. This research is a trial to put an end to this incorrect opinion. A more mature attitude to risk would recognize that contingency exists to be spent in order to avoid or minimize threats and to exploit or maximize opportunities. This research proposes an approach for determination and monitoring of Cost Contingency Reserve (CCR for a project. Control of CCR is interfaced with Earned Value Management. Application to a real project is carried out. Post-mitigation simulations show that value of CCR is 2.88% of project cost but there is a potential saving due to opportunities. The project is monitored after eight months from its assumed start date with one assumed emergent risk. The final results are as follows: CCR is enough to cover project current and residual threats and the contractor has a considerable amount of money that will be transferred to his margin at project closure assuming the project will not be exposed to additional emergent risks. A contractor can balance project upside risks and its downsides to increase his chance to win tender of the project.

  9. Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) analysis in support of environmental impact assessment offshore Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Mark; Ekrol, Narve; Rye, Henrik; Turner, Liam [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Environmental Engineering, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    The work reported here encompasses analyses of specific potential spill scenarios for oil exploration activity planned offshore of Namibia. The analyses are carried out with the SINTEF Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR) 3-dimensional model systems. A spill scenario using 150 m{sup 3} of marine diesel demonstrates the rapidity with which such a spill will dissipate naturally, even in light winds. Vertical and horizontal mixing bring subsurface hydrocarbon concentrations to background levels within a few days. A hypothetical 10 day blowout scenario releasing 11,000 bbl per day of light crude oil is investigated in terms of the potential for delivering oil to selected bird and marine mammal areas along the Namibian coast. Worst case scenarios are selected to investigate the potential mitigating effects of planned oil spill response actions. Mechanical recovery significantly reduces, and in some cases eliminates, potential environmental consequences of these worst case scenarios. Dispersant application from fixed wing aircraft further reduces the potential surface effects. The analysis supplies an objective basis for net environmental analysis of the planned response strategies. (Author)

  10. STRESS AT WORK, SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COMPANIONSHIP - TOWARDS AN EVENT-CONTINGENT RECORDING APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUUNK, BP; PEETERS, MCW

    1994-01-01

    After outlining a taxonomy of perspectives on social support, the literature on the direct and buffer effects of social support with respect to occupational stress is reviewed. It is noted that negative direct and buffer effects of support are frequently observed. Methodological and theoretical

  11. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  12. Design tool for offshore wind farm cluster planning: Paper presented at EWEA 2015, Europe's Premier Wind Energy Event, 17 - 20 November 2015, Paris, France

    OpenAIRE

    HASAGER, Charlotte Bay; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Giebel, Gregor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt S.; Badger, Jake; Pena, Alfredo; Volker, Patrick; Badger, Merete; Karagali, Ioanna; Cutulusis, Nicolaos; Maule, Petr; Schepers, Gerard; Wiggelinkhuizen, Edwin J.; Cantero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 project EERA DTOC: Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Cluster, a new software supporting the planning of offshore wind farms was developed, based on state-of-the-art approaches from large scale wind potential to economic benchmarking. The model portfolio includes WAsP, FUGA, WRF, Net-Op, LCoE model, CorWind, FarmFlow, EeFarm and grid code compliance calculations. The development is done by members from European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and guided by several ...

  13. 77 FR 22671 - Defense Support to Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ...) Provide other support of special events as directed. (i) The CJCS shall: (1) Provide planning guidance to.... (2) Planning. (i) The direction and focus of DoD special-event planning will depend on the nature of... event based upon a service-connected disability. (vi) Planning for DoD support to the Olympics and...

  14. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  15. Biophysical and socioeconomic characterization of a water-stressed area and simulating agri-production estimates and land use planning under normal and extreme climatic events: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manish; Kalra, N; Chakraborty, D; Kamble, K; Barman, D; Saha, S; Mittal, R B; Pandey, Suraj

    2008-07-01

    This study aims in linking the biophysical and socioeconomic data base layers with the technical coefficients or simulation models for agri-production estimates and land use planning under normal and extreme climatic events, and exploring the resource and inputs management options in village Shikohpur, Gurgaon district located in the northwest part of India. The socioeconomic profile of Shikohpur is highly skewed with mostly small and marginal farmers. Though the areas under wheat in Shikohpur are increasing, the productivity is declining or remaining stagnant over the years. Most of the area during kharif season (June-September) remains fallow. Pearl millet based cropping systems (pearl millet-mustard and pearl millet-wheat) are predominant. Soils are mostly loamy sand to sandy loam with average of 70-80% sand content. Organic C content in soil is less than 0.3%, due to high prevailing temperature with little rainfall and also intensive agriculture followed in this region. Though the annual average seasonal rainfall in Gurgaon did not have much variation over the years, occurrence of extreme climate events has increased in the last two decades. The crop intensity is low and the water table is declining. Water and nitrogen production functions were developed for the important crops of the region, for their subsequent use in scheduling of the inputs. InfoCrop, WTGROWS and technical coefficients were used for crop planning and resource management under climate change and its variability, extreme events, limited resource availability and crop intensification. These will help in disseminating necessary agro-advisories to the farmers so that they will be able to manipulate the inputs and agronomic management practices for sustained agricultural production under normal as well as extreme climatic conditions.

  16. Movement Anticipation and EEG: Implications for BCI-Contingent Robot Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sumner L.; Dennison, Mark; Wolbrecht, Eric; Cramer, Steven C.; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Reinkensmeyer, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Brain-computer interfacing is a technology that has the potential to improve patient engagement in robot-assisted rehabilitation therapy. For example, movement intention reduces mu (8-13 Hz) oscillation amplitude over the sensorimotor cortex, a phenomenon referred to as event-related desynchronization (ERD). In an ERD-contingent assistance paradigm, initial BCI-enhanced robotic therapy studies have used ERD to provide robotic assistance for movement. Here we investigated how ERD changed as a function of audio-visual stimuli, overt movement from the participant, and robotic assistance. Twelve unimpaired subjects played a computer game designed for rehabilitation therapy with their fingers using the FINGER robotic exoskeleton. In the game, the participant and robot matched movement timing to audio-visual stimuli in the form of notes approaching a target on the screen set to the consistent beat of popular music. The audio-visual stimulation of the game alone did not cause ERD, before or after training. In contrast, overt movement by the subject caused ERD, whether or not the robot assisted the finger movement. Notably, ERD was also present when the subjects remained passive and the robot moved their fingers to play the game. This ERD occurred in anticipation of the passive finger movement with similar onset timing as for the overt movement conditions. These results demonstrate that ERD can be contingent on expectation of robotic assistance; that is, the brain generates an anticipatory ERD in expectation of a robot-imposed but predictable movement. This is a caveat that should be considered in designing BCIs for enhancing patient effort in roboticallyassisted therapy. PMID:26891487

  17. 75 FR 36023 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... proposed SIP approvals of the maintenance plan, emissions inventory, and Owens Valley control measures... Coso Operating Company is a power generating company and the owner of the property upon which the Coso... for emissions inventories, ] reasonably available control measures, contingency measures and...

  18. An Improved On-line Contingency Screening for Power System Transient Stability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Glavic, Mevludin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a contingency screening method and a framework for its on-line implementation. The proposed method carries out contingency screening and on-line stability assessment with respect to first-swing transient stability. For that purpose, it utilizes the single machine equivalent...... method and aims at improving the prior developed contingency screening approaches. In order to determine vulnerability of the system with respect to a particular contingency, only one time-domain simulation needs to be performed. An early stop criteria is proposed so that in a majority of the cases...... the simulation can be terminated after a few hundred milliseconds of simulated system response. The method's outcome is an assessment of the system's stability and a classification of each considered contingency. The contingencies are categorized by exploiting parameters of an equivalent one machine infinite bus...

  19. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can......The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  20. Adaptive Contingency Control: Wind Turbine Operation Integrated with Blade Condition Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We report here on first steps towards integrating systems health monitoring with adaptive contingency controls. In the scenario considered, the adaptive controller...

  1. Electrophysiological brain indices of risk behavior modification induced by contingent feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Alberto; Torres, Miguel Angel; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio

    2018-01-09

    The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions. This behavioral modification implied a higher demand on cognitive control, reflected in a larger amplitude of the N400 component. Moreover, the contingent feedback, being predictable and entailing more informative value, gave rise to smaller SPN and larger FRN scores when compared with non-contingent feedback. Taken together, these findings provide a new and complex insight into the neurophysiological basis of the influence of feedback contingency on the processing of decision-making under risk. We suggest that response feedback, when contingent upon the risky behavior, appears to improve the functionality of the brain mechanism involved in decision-making and can be a powerful tool for reducing the tendency to choose risky options in risk-prone individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Expanding the Model of Organizational Learning: Scope, Contingencies, and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper seeks to contribute to the understanding of organizational learning by (a integrating existing models of organizational learning into a single model and (b expanding the model to include inter-organizational learning, adding key contingencies suggested by the growing literature on neuroleadership, and incorporating a process dimension to reflect the fact that organizational learning is continuous and dynamic. The resulting expanded model of organizational learning encompasses four levels on which learning can occur: individual, team, organizational, and inter-organizational. The overall validity of the model is illustrated by applying it to two knowledge-intensive Slovenian firms. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  4. Context, convergence and contingency: political leadership for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anne Marie; Traynor, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper attempts to illuminate some of the factors necessary to influence policy, using recent changes in the UK research policy as a case study. Changes in the UK research policy have shown how the profession can successfully influence a government agenda. The paper critically reviews recent UK research policy with relevance for nursing. Successful policy change in nursing requires a contingent alignment of professional and governmental agendas. Although nursing research has made significant gains over the last 10 years, there is need for the continued development of politically minded research leadership, lest these gains be lost.

  5. Hanford year 2000 Business Continuity Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGGENKAMP, S.L.

    1999-11-01

    The goal of Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Year 2000 (Y2K) effort is to ensure that the Hanford site successfully continues its mission as we approach and enter the 21th century. The Y2K Business Continuity Planning process provides a structured approach to identify Y2K risks to the site and to mitigate these risks through Y2K Contingency Planning, ''Zero-Day'' Transition Planning and Emergency Preparedness. This document defines the responsibilities, processes and plans for Hanford's Y2K Business Continuity. It identifies proposed business continuity drills, tentative schedule and milestones.

  6. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  7. Event visualization in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, R. M.; Boudreau, J.; Konstantinidis, N.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Moyse, E.; Thomas, J.; Waugh, B. M.; Yallup, D. P.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  8. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  9. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  10. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-12-03

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  11. Insights from complex systems: contingency and trinitarian divine action in creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin M. Gouw

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Divine action and the contingency of creation on God have been an ongoing topic of discussion between theologians and scientists. This paper begins with an introduction on contingency by presenting two models of contingency: topdown and bottom-up contingency models (section 1. I then proceeded to make the connection between contingency and causation (section 2. With the discourse of causation, contingency can be approached starting from either the cause or the effect. I propose to approach the issue by starting neither from the cause nor the effect, but from the system (section 3. This systems approach has the following logical flow. The first step is to consider the system in itself (section 4. There is a continuum of system complexity from simple to complex. The second step is to delineate the differences between simple and complex systems by considering four factors (section 5. Third is to locate the contingency of both systems (section 6. By using the cell as an example of a complex system, I demonstrated that modeling complex systems as a network is superior to the serial linearization method. Then I proceed to determine the nature of God based on this new proposed systemic relational contingency model (section 7. I find Lossky’s Essence-Energies Trinitarian formulation of divine action in creation is compatible with the quantum randomness contingency model and the relational systemic contingency model. Moreover, in comparing the Trinitarian doctrines of Lossky with Barth, I argue that Eastern Trinitarian model in general overcomes both theological and scientific problems better than Western Trinitarian models. In conclusion, I argue that the relational contingency model overcomes problems of the previous models, provides novel implications that fits with the eastern concept of trinitarian divine action, and is open to future theological and philosophical development.

  12. Mitigation Efforts in Rural Communities after Extreme Weather Events - New Insights for Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes are undoubtedly course of the increasing frequency of extreme whether events all over the world. Rural communities belong to the “group of victims” which is greatly jeopardized by consequences of the extreme weather events. Having in mind limited capacities for the preparedness, response and recovery after any kind of emergency it is clear that the rural community mostly needs external help. That is the point of this paper: to make new insights about this important issue, and to discuss: “how to provide adequate help in the rural communities and build adequate adaptive and response capacities”. In many countries agriculture and rural tourism are main economic activities in the rural area and its interruption could be the obstacle for implementation of sustainable development. Various stakeholders omit to be aware of this issue. Emergency agencies and many others have to make the comprehensive plan for rural communities (having in mind all its limitations. In the Republic of Serbia rural communities do not have enough capacity for recovery and usually it takes many years after an event. A minimum of an economic recovery standard has to be created for the rural community. It also has to be a specific contingency plan in the future reorganizations of emergency services in Serbia and at the Western Balkan region. It should be one of the priority issues for stakeholders in the near future in disaster risk reduction. Providing equal access to resources to population in the rural community after the extreme weather event has to be the priority task for policy makers and all actors in emergency management.

  13. Design Disruption in Contested, Contingent and Contradictory Future-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Akama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to problematize how we step into situations that are often contested, contingent and contradictory. In this context, how can we sharpen our sensitivity of the role design plays in generating understanding and future-making possibilities? Here, we employ the term disruption as a way to question our own knowledge construction and research practices in Design Anthropology and Participatory Design. We pursue disruption as a political and necessary consciousness when Design Anthropology meets Participatory Design and discuss the generative, reflexive and analytical dimensions of disruption through three vignettes. These vignettes raises questions of how we interrogate disruptions of power to consider different ways in which this manifests when entering into and participating in ongoing changing process. They also highlight the need to displace existing knowledge, rather than pursuing ‘mutual learning’ that had been a defining commitment of Participatory Design. Lastly, the vignettes reveal the need to disrupt the designer-researcher in order to surrender to contradiction and contingency as part of future-making.

  14. The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lydia

    2010-10-01

    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (John Wheeler’s “law without law”); laws are the preconditions of scientific experience (Kant); laws are theoretical abstractions which only apply in very limited circumstances (Nancy Cartwright). Whereas Cartwright’s approach is in tension with modern scientific methodology, the first three strategies count as illuminating, though partial answers. It is important for the empirical method of modern physics that these three strategies, even when taken together, do not provide a complete explanation of the order of nature. Thus the question of why laws are valid is still relevant. In the concluding section, I argue that the traditional answer, based on voluntary creation, provides the right balance of contingency and coherence which is in harmony with modern scientific method.

  15. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M.; Kornbrot, Diana E.; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not) values relevant to control—individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272) were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance. PMID:26483707

  16. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: Effects of individualist and collectivist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Msetfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not values relevant to control - individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N1 = 127, N2 = 324, N3 = 272 were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  17. The relationship between mood state and perceived control in contingency learning: effects of individualist and collectivist values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Kornbrot, Diana E; Matute, Helena; Murphy, Robin A

    2015-01-01

    Perceived control in contingency learning is linked to psychological wellbeing with low levels of perceived control thought to be a cause or consequence of depression and high levels of control considered to be the hallmark of mental healthiness. However, it is not clear whether this is a universal phenomenon or whether the value that people ascribe to control influences these relationships. Here we hypothesize that values affect learning about control contingencies and influence the relationship between perceived control and symptoms of mood disorders. We tested these hypotheses with European university samples who were categorized as endorsing (or not) values relevant to control-individualist and collectivist values. Three online experimental contingency learning studies (N 1 = 127, N 2 = 324, N 3 = 272) were carried out. Evidence suggested that individualist values influenced basic learning processes via an effect on learning about the context in which events took place. Participants who endorsed individualist values made control judgments that were more in line with an elemental associative learning model, whilst those who were ambivalent about individualist values made judgments that were more consistent with a configural process. High levels of perceived control and individualist values were directly associated with increased euphoric symptoms of bipolar disorder, and such values completely mediated the relation between perceived control and symptoms. The effect of low perceived control on depression was moderated by collectivist values. Anxiety created by dissonance between values and task may be a catalyst for developing mood symptoms. Conclusions are that values play a significant intermediary role in the relation between perceived control and symptoms of mood disturbance.

  18. Business continuity in blood services: two case studies from events with potentially catastrophic effect on the national provision of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S J; Rackham, R A; Penny, S; Lawson, J R; Walsh, R J; Ismay, S L

    2015-02-01

    NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) are national blood establishments providing blood components to England and North Wales, and Australia, respectively. In 2012, both services experienced potentially catastrophic challenges to key assets. NHSBT suffered a flood that closed the largest blood-manufacturing centre in Europe, whilst ARCBS experienced the failure of a data centre network switch that rendered the national blood management system inaccessible for 42 h. This paper describes both crisis events, including the immediate actions, recovery procedures and lessons learned. Both incidents triggered emergency response plans. These included hospital reprovisioning and recovery from the incident. Once normal services had been restored, both events were subjected to root cause analysis (RCA) and production of 'lessons learned' reports. In both scenarios, the key enablers of rapid recovery were established emergency plans, clear leadership and the support of a flexible workforce. Product issues to hospitals were unaffected, and there were no abnormal trends in hospital complaints. RCA identified the importance of risk mitigations that require co-operation with external organizations. Reviews of both events identified opportunities to enhance business resilience through prior identification of external risks and improvements to contingency plans, for example by implementing mass messaging to staff and other stakeholders. Blood establishment emergency plans tend to focus on responding to mass casualty events. However, consolidation of manufacturing to fewer sites combined with a reliance on national IT systems increases the impact of loss of function. Blood services should develop business continuity plans which include prevention of such losses, and the maintenance of services and disaster recovery. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  20. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Rosenwasser, Beth J.; Gardner, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine…

  1. Contingency Theory and Its Implications for the Structure of an Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert F., Jr.

    The theoretical basis for an organizational structure determined by external as well as internal factors--the contingency model--is presented through a consideration of two studies. The current research and speculation which have updated and augmented this theory are also included, and a contingency approach to library organization is justified.…

  2. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. Methodology Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Center reporting prior to 2013 focused primarily on descriptive statistics (frequencies and means) of student and faculty behaviors. The goal of the analyses reported here and in "Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus" is to understand the engagement of part-time or contingent faculty in various activities that…

  3. 28 CFR 51.15 - Enabling legislation and contingent or nonuniform requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enabling legislation and contingent or... Provisions § 51.15 Enabling legislation and contingent or nonuniform requirements. (a) With respect to legislation (1) that enables or permits the State or its political subunits to institute a voting change or (2...

  4. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  5. Contingencies of Self-Worth in Early Adolescence: The Antecedent Role of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Sofie; Doumen, Sarah; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Contingent self-esteem (i.e., the degree to which one's self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular conditions) has been shown to predict a wide range of psychosocial and academic problems. This study extends previous research on contingent self-esteem by examining the predictive role of perceived parenting dimensions in a sample of early…

  6. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  7. Frequency, Contingency and Online Processing of Multiword Sequences: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei; Lu, Shiyi; Ma, Guojie

    2017-01-01

    Frequency and contingency are two primary statistical factors that drive the acquisition and processing of language. This study explores the role of phrasal frequency and contingency (the co-occurrence probability/statistical association of the constituent words in multiword sequences) during online processing of multiword sequences. Meanwhile, it…

  8. Contingency and inevitability in science - Instruments, interfaces and the independent world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Mieke; Soler, L.; Trizio, E.; Pickering, A.

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that the meaning of inevitability and contingency depends on the position someone has in the realism/constructivism debate. Furthermore, it is argued that analyzing what we mean by inevitable versus contingent knowledge adds a new dimension to the realism/constructivism debate.

  9. Conditions for Contingent Instructors Engaged in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kloet, Marie; Frake-Mistak, Mandy; McGinn, Michelle K.; Caldecott, Marion; Aspenlieder, Erin D.; Beres, Jacqueline L.; Fukuzawa, Sherry; Cassidy, Alice; Gill, Apryl

    2017-01-01

    An increasingly large number of courses in Canadian postsecondary institutions are taught by contingent instructors who hold full- or part-time positions for contractually limited time periods. Despite strong commitments to advancing teaching and learning, the labour and employment conditions for contingent instructors affect the incentives and…

  10. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER–INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior (self-contingencies). Consistent with our optimum midrange model, maternal anxiety-related symptoms biased the interaction toward interactive contingencies that were both heightened (vigilant) in some modalities and lowered (withdrawn) in others; both may be efforts to adapt to stress. Infant self-contingency was lowered (“destabilized”) with maternal anxiety symptoms; however, maternal self-contingency was both lowered in some modalities and heightened (overly stable) in others. Interactive contingency patterns were characterized by intermodal discrepancies, confusing forms of communication. For example, mothers vigilantly monitored infants visually, but withdrew from contingently coordinating with infants emotionally, as if mothers were “looking through” them. This picture fits descriptions of mothers with anxiety symptoms as overaroused/fearful, leading to vigilance, but dealing with their fear through emotional distancing. Infants heightened facial affect coordination (vigilance), but dampened vocal affect coordination (withdrawal), with mother’s face—a pattern of conflict. The maternal and infant patterns together generated a mutual ambivalence. PMID:25983359

  11. MATERNAL ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AND MOTHER-INFANT SELF- AND INTERACTIVE CONTINGENCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother-infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother-infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability within an individual's own rhythms of behavior (self-contingencies). Consistent with our optimum midrange model, maternal anxiety-related symptoms biased the interaction toward interactive contingencies that were both heightened (vigilant) in some modalities and lowered (withdrawn) in others; both may be efforts to adapt to stress. Infant self-contingency was lowered ("destabilized") with maternal anxiety symptoms; however, maternal self-contingency was both lowered in some modalities and heightened (overly stable) in others. Interactive contingency patterns were characterized by intermodal discrepancies, confusing forms of communication. For example, mothers vigilantly monitored infants visually, but withdrew from contingently coordinating with infants emotionally, as if mothers were "looking through" them. This picture fits descriptions of mothers with anxiety symptoms as overaroused/fearful, leading to vigilance, but dealing with their fear through emotional distancing. Infants heightened facial affect coordination (vigilance), but dampened vocal affect coordination (withdrawal), with mother's face-a pattern of conflict. The maternal and infant patterns together generated a mutual ambivalence.

  12. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  13. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  14. Why Do Contractors Contract? The Experience of Highly Skilled Technical Professionals in a Contingent Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Gideon; Barley, Stephen R.; Evans, James

    2002-01-01

    A study of why 52 highly skilled technical contractors accepted contingent employment found that contracting paid better than permanent employment. However, they felt anxiety and estrangement; networks were developed to address needs such as training. Highly skilled contingent workers form a triad with employing companies and intermediaries such…

  15. Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge about environmental contingencies allows behavioral flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of experiential learning have focused on the relationship between actions and the values of associated outcomes. However, outcome values have often been confounded with the physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we dissociated contingency learning into valuative and non-valuative forms, using a novel version of the two-alternative choice task, while measuring the neural effects of contingency changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Changes in value-relevant contingencies evoked activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC, posterior parietal cortex (PPC, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC consistent with prior results (e.g., reversal-learning paradigms. Changes in physical contingencies unrelated to value or to action produced similar activations within the LPFC, indicating that LPFC may engage in generalized contingency learning that is not specific to valuation. In contrast, contingency changes that required behavioral shifts evoked activation localized to the DMPFC, supplementary motor, and precentral cortices, suggesting that these regions play more specific roles within the executive control of behavior.

  16. Fear expression and return of fear following threat instruction with or without direct contingency experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Gaetan; Kuhn, Manuel; Raes, An K.; Kalisch, Raffael; De Houwer, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research showed that mere instructions about the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) can generate fear reactions to the CS. Little is known, however, about the extent to which actual CS–US contingency experience adds anything beyond the effect of

  17. Generalities in grazing and browsing ecology : Using across-guild comparisons to control contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Toit, Johan T.; Olff, Han

    In community ecology, broad-scale spatial replication can accommodate contingencies in patterns within species groups, but contingencies in processes across species groups remain problematic. Here, based on a focused review of grazing and browsing by large mammals, we use one trophic guild as a

  18. A KBE genetic-causal cost modelling methodology for manufacturing cost contingency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Gilmour, M.; McAlleean, C.; Kelly, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides validated evidence of a robust methodology for the management of lean manufacturing cost contingency, with a particular focus on contingency regarding recurring work content. A truly concurrent engineering process is established by capturing a range of knowledge from the design,

  19. Work Group Communication Modes and the Assessment of Contingency and Situational Models of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stech, Ernest L.

    A study of coordination modes in work group communication was conducted to evaluate and expand leadership contingency models. A total of 106 people in classes and workshops on organizational communication completed seven questionnaires resulting in nine measures of six independent variables representing the following contingency factors from…

  20. The Effects of Leadership Training and Experience: A Contingency Model Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes recent studies based on the contingency model of leadership effectiveness, which suggest why research has failed to show that leadership training and experience increase organizational performance. The contingency model postulated that group performance depends on the match between situational favorableness, i.e., the leader's control…

  1. Relationship contingency and sexual motivation in women: implications for sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Moss-Racusin, Corinne A; Phelan, Julie E; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-02-01

    Deriving self-worth from romantic relationships (relationship contingency) may have implications for women's sexual motives in relationships. Because relationship contingency enhances motivation to sustain relationships to maintain positive self-worth, relationship contingent women may engage in sex to maintain and enhance their relationships (relational sex motives). Using structural equation modeling on Internet survey data from a convenience sample of 462 women in heterosexual and lesbian relationships, we found that greater relationship contingency predicted greater relational sex motives, which simultaneously predicted both sexual satisfaction and dissatisfaction via two distinct motivational states. Having sex to improve intimacy with one's partner was associated with greater sexual satisfaction and autonomy, while having sex to earn partner's approval was associated with sexual dissatisfaction and inhibition. While some differences exist between lesbian and heterosexual relationships, relationship contingency had sexual costs and benefits, regardless of relationship type.

  2. Construction of the contingent valuation market in health care: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D

    2003-08-01

    Contingent valuation (CV) has been criticised for being too hypothetical, with expressed values bearing little relation to actual values. The magnitude of this divergence, however, depends upon how realistic and believable the contingent market is. This paper presents an overview of five key aspects in the construction of the contingent market: (i) scenario development and presentation; (ii) payment vehicle; (iii) expression of risk; (iv) time period of valuation; and (v) survey administration. CV studies in health care since 1985, totalling 111, are critically reviewed with respect to these five aspects. It is concluded that CV studies in health care have performed poorly in the construction, specification and presentation of the contingent market, and that there has been little, if any, improvement in this respect over the last 15 years. Suggestions are made concerning why this may be the case, and how the construction of the contingent market may be improved in future. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fear expression and return of fear following threat instruction with or without direct contingency experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Gaëtan; Kuhn, Manuel; Raes, An K; Kalisch, Raffael; De Houwer, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-08-01

    Prior research showed that mere instructions about the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) can generate fear reactions to the CS. Little is known, however, about the extent to which actual CS-US contingency experience adds anything beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Our results extend previous studies on this topic in that it included fear potentiated startle as an additional dependent variable and examined return of fear (ROF) following reinstatement. We observed that CS-US pairings can enhance fear reactions beyond the effect of contingency instructions. Moreover, for all measures of fear, instructions elicited immediate fear reactions that could not be completely overridden by subsequent situational safety information. Finally, ROF following reinstatement for instructed CS+s was unaffected by actual experience. In summary, our results demonstrate the power of contingency instructions and reveal the additional impact of actual experience of CS-US pairings.

  4. Body Image Concerns and Contingent Self-Esteem in Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossbard, Joel R; Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E

    2009-02-01

    Body dissatisfaction in females, and to a lesser extent males, is associated with low self-esteem, depression, and eating disorders. This research examined gender as a moderator of the association between contingent self-esteem and body image concerns, including weight and muscularity. Participants included 359 (59.1% female) heavy drinking first-year U.S. undergraduate students who completed a survey assessing health-related risk behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine relations among gender, contingent self-esteem, and body image. Females reported higher levels of contingent self-esteem and greater concerns about their weight, although males reported a greater drive for muscularity. The relationship between contingent self-esteem and weight concerns was stronger among females, and for males, greater contingent self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for muscularity.

  5. Body Image Concerns and Contingent Self-Esteem in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction in females, and to a lesser extent males, is associated with low self-esteem, depression, and eating disorders. This research examined gender as a moderator of the association between contingent self-esteem and body image concerns, including weight and muscularity. Participants included 359 (59.1% female) heavy drinking first-year U.S. undergraduate students who completed a survey assessing health-related risk behaviors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine relations among gender, contingent self-esteem, and body image. Females reported higher levels of contingent self-esteem and greater concerns about their weight, although males reported a greater drive for muscularity. The relationship between contingent self-esteem and weight concerns was stronger among females, and for males, greater contingent self-esteem was associated with a greater drive for muscularity. PMID:28959088

  6. Hypersensitivity to Contingent Behavior in Paranoia: A New Virtual Reality Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam; Elenbaas, Maaike; Barker, Chris; Swapp, David; Navarro, Xavier; Rovira, Aitor; Sanahuja, Josep Maria Tomàs; Slater, Mel

    2016-02-01

    Contingency in interpersonal relationships is associated with the development of secure attachment and trust, whereas paranoia arises from the overattribution of negative intentions. We used a new virtual reality paradigm to experimentally investigate the impact of contingent behavior on trust along the paranoia continuum. Sixty-one healthy participants were randomly allocated to have a social interaction with a pleasant virtual human (avatar) programmed to be highly responsive or not (high/low contingency). Perceived trustworthiness and trusting behavior were assessed alongside control variables attachment and anxiety. Higher paranoia and dismissive attachment were associated with larger interpersonal distances. Unexpectedly, extremely paranoid individuals experienced the highly contingent avatar as more trustworthy than their low contingency counterpart. Higher dismissive attachment was also associated with more subjective trust in both conditions. Extreme paranoia is associated with hypersensitivity to noncontingent behavior, which might explain experiences of mistrust when others are not highly responsive in everyday social situations.

  7. Subclinical levels of maternal depression and infant sensitivity to social contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Siv; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Malde, Marian Kjellevold; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how young infants respond to contingent and non-contingent interaction in relation to maternal level of depressive symptoms in a non-clinical sample of mothers and infants. Two groups of three-month-olds interacted with their mother who was assessed as either non-depressed or sub-clinically depressed, based on self-reported scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The infants were presented with a continuous image and voice of their mother in a closed circuit computer system, using the double video procedure. The experiment comprised five sequences, alternating between contingent (Live) and non-contingent (Replay) maternal behaviur in a fixed Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3 sequence. The infants of the sub-clinically depressed mothers showed a high gaze focus at their mother independently of the quality of interaction, while the infants of the non-depressed mothers showed a preference for looking at the mother only when the interaction with their mother was contingent. Further, the infants of the sub-clinically depressed mothers showed no differentiation in affective expression between contingent and non-contingent interactions, while the infants of the non-depressed mothers expressed more positive affect than negative affect only when the interaction with their mother was contingent. Finally, there was a significant relation between the infant's preference for looking at the mother and the infant's amount of positive affect, but this was only found for the infants of the non-depressed. These results indicate that young infants' sensitivity to social contingency is related to maternal level of depression, even in a non-clinical sample. This expands the implications of earlier findings on the impact of maternal depression on infant sensitivity to social contingency, demonstrating that even sub-clinical levels of maternal depression may effect early interaction and child development. Copyright © 2013

  8. Mega-event effects on the housing market: Evidence from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiaohui; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mega-event regeneration involves extensive government funds and public participation; thus, this study emphasises the importance of verifying if these financial and human investments can be justified by the net effects of mega-event regeneration. Accordingly, the contingent valuation method is used to establish a framework to quantify the welfare effects of event regeneration from the economic, social and environmental perspectives. We proposed a theoretical framework that enables the ranking...

  9. Congestion Relief of Contingent Power Network with Evolutionary Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinandan De

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a differential evolution optimization technique based methodology for congestion management cost optimization of contingent power networks. In Deregulated systems, line congestion apart from causing stability problems can increase the cost of electricity. Restraining line flow to a particular level of congestion is quite imperative from stability as well as economy point of view. Employing Congestion Sensitivity Index proposed in this paper, the algorithm proposed can be adopted for selecting the congested lines in a power networks and then to search for a congestion constrained optimal generation schedule at the cost of a minimum congestion management charge without any load curtailment and installation of FACTS devices. It has been depicted that the methodology on application can provide better operating conditions in terms of improvement of bus voltage and loss profile of the system. The efficiency of the proposed methodology has been tested on an IEEE 30 bus benchmark system and the results look promising.

  10. Molecular Darwinism: the contingency of spontaneous genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The availability of spontaneously occurring genetic variants is an important driving force of biological evolution. Largely thanks to experimental investigations by microbial geneticists, we know today that several different molecular mechanisms contribute to the overall genetic variations. These mechanisms can be assigned to three natural strategies to generate genetic variants: 1) local sequence changes, 2) intragenomic reshuffling of DNA segments, and 3) acquisition of a segment of foreign DNA. In these processes, specific gene products are involved in cooperation with different nongenetic elements. Some genetic variations occur fully at random along the DNA filaments, others rather with a statistical reproducibility, although at many possible sites. We have to be aware that evolution in natural ecosystems is of higher complexity than under most laboratory conditions, not at least in view of symbiotic associations and the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer. The encountered contingency of genetic variation can possibly best ensure a long-term persistence of life under steadily changing living conditions.

  11. The emergence of contingent reciprocity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Contingent reciprocity is important in theories of the evolution of human cooperation, but it has been very little studied in ontogeny. We gave 2- and 3-year-old children the opportunity to either help or share with a partner after that partner either had or had not previously helped or shared with the children. Previous helping did not influence children's helping. In contrast, previous sharing by the partner led to greater sharing in 3-year-olds but not in 2-year-olds. These results do not support theories claiming either that reciprocity is fundamental to the origins of children's prosocial behavior or that it is irrelevant. Instead, they support an account in which children's prosocial behavior emerges spontaneously but is later mediated by reciprocity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wautersia: The Contingency Water Container Bacterial Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Labuda, Laura; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    The Orbiter delivers water to the International Space Station (ISS) in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) on each flight to the ISS. These CWCs are routinely sampled during each mission to verify the quality of the delivered water. Of the 5 samples returned on STS118/ 13A.1 in August 2007, two exhibited microbial growth exceeding potable water acceptability limits and historical data by orders of magnitude . The microbe was identified as Wautersia species and an investigation was launched to find the source of the contamination. Since then, samples collected on subsequent flights indicated additional CWCs had the same bacteria, as well as several on-orbit systems. An investigation was launched to try to find and address the source of the bacterial contamination. This paper will discuss how Wautersia was found, what Wautersia is, the investigation, and resolution.

  13. Contingency Factors Influencing Implementation of Physical Asset Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletič Damjan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the role of two contingency factors, i.e. uncertainty and competitiveness in relation to physical asset management (PAM practices as well as to maintenance key performance indicators. The research is based on a premise that PAM, which was defined by risk management practices, performance assessment practices, life cycle management practices, and policy & strategy practices, has become an indispensable element of strategic thinking of asset owners as well as maintenance and asset managers. The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of how organizations that face high or low level of uncertainty and competitiveness respond in terms of PAM deployment.

  14. Thévenin equivalent based static contingency assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for static security assessment of a power system and a real time static security assessment system for assessing a power system, the power system having a plurality of generators, the plurality of generators being represented in the network by a plurality...... of voltage controlled nodes, wherein the method for static security assessment of the power system comprises receiving information of a present state of the power system, determining a Thevenin equivalent for each voltage controlled node, determining for each voltage controlled node on basis......, and evaluating the voltage angles to determine whether the network having at least one contingency admit a steady state. Also a method of providing information on a real time static security assessment of a power system is disclosed....

  15. Nationwide dissemination of contingency management: the Veterans Administration initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; DePhilippis, Dominick; Rash, Carla J; Drapkin, Michelle; McKay, James R

    2014-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an empirically validated intervention but one not often applied in practice settings in the US. The aim of this article is to describe the Veterans Administration (VA) nationwide implementation of CM treatment. In 2011, the VA called for integration of CM in its intensive outpatient substance abuse treatment clinics. As part of this initiative, the VA funded training and ongoing implementation support, and it provided direct funds for reinforcers and other intervention costs. Over 100 clinics received this funding in 2011, and CM has been implemented in over 70 substance abuse treatment clinics since August 2011. This training and implementation experience has been highly successful and represents the largest scale training in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders in the VA health care system to date. This program may serve as a model for training in evidence-based treatments. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Comments on contingency management and conditional cash transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2010-10-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT.

  17. The Olympic and Paralympic Games 2012: literature review of the logistical planning and operational challenges for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enock, K E; Jacobs, J

    2008-11-01

    To undertake a review of the literature relating to public health planning and interventions at previous summer Olympic and Paralympic Games and other relevant major summer sporting events or mass gatherings, with a focus on official publications and peer-reviewed articles. Literature review. A literature review was undertaken using all biomedical databases and a freetext search using Google to widen the search beyond peer-reviewed publications. Search terms used were: Olympics; Paralympics; mass gatherings; mass gathering medicine; sporting events; weather; planning; and organisation. Citations within articles were searched to identify additional references that would inform this review. This literature review concentrates on the public health aspects of population care at mass gatherings, particularly the Olympic and Paralympic Games which are set over several weeks, focusing on surveillance, prevention and health service quality. The literature identified 10 areas of public health planning: public health command centre and communication; surveillance, assessment and control; environmental health and safety; infectious disease outbreaks; implications of weather conditions; health promotion; travel information; economic assessments; public transport and reduction of asthma events; and preparing athletes for potential allergies. The following themes emerged as crucial factors for the success of any public health interventions at Olympic and Paralympic Games: detailed planning of deliverables; pre-identification of critical success factors; management of risk; detailed contingency planning; and full testing of all plans prior to the event. The 2012 Olympic Games will provide an exciting challenge for public health providers and systems. Preparation requires early detailed planning of policies, procedures and on-site health promotion events, in addition to helping to set up the surveillance and monitoring systems that will capture public health activity alongside

  18. Tambora and the mackerel year: Phenology and fisheries during an extreme climate event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Karen E; Leavenworth, William B; Willis, Theodore V; Hall, Carolyn; Mattocks, Steven; Bittner, Steven M; Klein, Emily; Staudinger, Michelle; Bryan, Alexander; Rosset, Julianne; Carr, Benjamin H; Jordaan, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Global warming has increased the frequency of extreme climate events, yet responses of biological and human communities are poorly understood, particularly for aquatic ecosystems and fisheries. Retrospective analysis of known outcomes may provide insights into the nature of adaptations and trajectory of subsequent conditions. We consider the 1815 eruption of the Indonesian volcano Tambora and its impact on Gulf of Maine (GoM) coastal and riparian fisheries in 1816. Applying complex adaptive systems theory with historical methods, we analyzed fish export data and contemporary climate records to disclose human and piscine responses to Tambora's extreme weather at different spatial and temporal scales while also considering sociopolitical influences. Results identified a tipping point in GoM fisheries induced by concatenating social and biological responses to extreme weather. Abnormal daily temperatures selectively affected targeted fish species-alewives, shad, herring, and mackerel-according to their migration and spawning phenologies and temperature tolerances. First to arrive, alewives suffered the worst. Crop failure and incipient famine intensified fishing pressure, especially in heavily settled regions where dams already compromised watersheds. Insufficient alewife runs led fishers to target mackerel, the next species appearing in abundance along the coast; thus, 1816 became the "mackerel year." Critically, the shift from riparian to marine fisheries persisted and expanded after temperatures moderated and alewives recovered. We conclude that contingent human adaptations to extraordinary weather permanently altered this complex system. Understanding how adaptive responses to extreme events can trigger unintended consequences may advance long-term planning for resilience in an uncertain future.

  19. Affective facial expression in sub-clinically depressed and non-depressed mothers during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interactions with their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Skotheim, Siv; Høie, Kjartan; Markhus, Maria Wik; Kjellevold, Marian; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Berle, Jan Øystein; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2017-08-01

    Depression in the postpartum period involves feelings of sadness, anxiety and irritability, and attenuated feelings of pleasure and comfort with the infant. Even mild- to- moderate symptoms of depression seem to have an impact on caregivers affective availability and contingent responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate non-depressed and sub-clinically depressed mothers interest and affective expression during contingent and non-contingent face-to-face interaction with their infant. The study utilized a double video (DV) set-up. The mother and the infant were presented with live real-time video sequences, which allowed for mutually responsive interaction between the mother and the infant (Live contingent sequences), or replay sequences where the interaction was set out of phase (Replay non-contingent sequences). The DV set-up consisted of five sequences: Live1-Replay1-Live2-Replay2-Live3. Based on their scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the mothers were divided into a non-depressed and a sub-clinically depressed group (EPDS score≥6). A three-way split-plot ANOVA showed that the sub-clinically depressed mothers displayed the same amount of positive and negative facial affect independent of the quality of the interaction with the infants. The non-depressed mothers displayed more positive facial affect during the non-contingent than the contingent interaction sequences, while there was no such effect for negative facial affect. The results indicate that sub-clinically level depressive symptoms influence the mothers' affective facial expression during early face-to-face interaction with their infants. One of the clinical implications is to consider even sub-clinical depressive symptoms as a risk factor for mother-infant relationship disturbances. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. From anticipation to integration: the role of integrated action-effects in building sensorimotor contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Thomas; Hommel, Bernhard; Brunel, Lionel; Brouillet, Thibaut

    2017-05-23

    Ideomotor approaches to action control have provided evidence that the activation of an anticipatory image of previously learned action-effects plays a decisive role in action selection. This study sought for converging evidence by combining three previous experimental paradigms: the response-effect compatibility protocol introduced by Kunde (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(2), 387-394, 2001), the acquisition-test paradigm developed by Elsner and Hommel (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(1), 229, 2001), and the object-action compatibility manipulation of Tucker and Ellis (Visual Cognition, 8(6), 769-800, 2001). Three groups of participants first performed a response-effect compatibility task, in which they carried out power and precision grasps that produced either grasp-compatible or grasp-incompatible pictures, or no action effects. Performance was better in the compatible than in the incompatible group, which replicates previous observations and extends them to relationships between grasps and objects. Then, participants were to categorize object pictures by carrying out grasp responses. Apart from replicating previous findings of better performance in trials in which object size and grasp type was compatible, we found that this stimulus-response compatibility effect depended on previous response-effect learning. Taken together, these findings support the assumption that the experience of action-effect contingencies establishes durable event files that integrate representations of actions and their effects.