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Sample records for events bone mineral

  1. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  2. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  3. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  4. Measurements of bone mineral density. Mineral density in metabolic bone disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, M. [Klinicum Kassel, Kassel (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Raue, F. [Endocrine Practice, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Bone metabolism and thus bone remodelling and bone mineral content are profoundly influenced by many hormonal and metabolic factors. This review presents the state of the art procedures for bone mineral absorptiometry and examines the interactions of endocrine and metabolic diseases and bone mineral content. Preventive and therapeutic modalities of osteoporosis are discusses in this context.

  5. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... with BMD in the control group, whereas in the juvenile obese, only lean body mass was positively associated with BMD and smoking negatively associated with BMD. Our study supports that leptin is inversely associated with BMD and may play a direct role in the bone metabolism in nonobese and obese Danish...

  6. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  7. HIV and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Patrick W G

    2010-02-01

    This review details the clinical aspects and pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV, discusses broad management issues and outlines areas in which our understanding of this condition is incomplete. Low BMD is prevalent in HIV-infected patients, with traditional risk factors, HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy all contributing. The role of specific antiretrovirals in the development of low BMD remains controversial, but most changes arise at either antiretroviral therapy initiation or switch. Further research is needed to clarify mechanisms underlying low BMD in HIV, whether low BMD will translate to increased fractures and to determine the correct therapeutic approach to low BMD in HIV, particularly in younger HIV-infected patients.

  8. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI adverse events (AEs and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.5 had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p Conclusions Patients who were previously stable on doses of brand alendronate experienced an increase in AEs causing discontinuation after introduction of automatic substitution to generic alendronate. In addition, reductions in BMD were observed in some patients who had stable BMDs before January 2006. Given the substantial increase in AEs, generic alendronate may not be as well tolerated as brand alendronate.

  9. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  10. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  11. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  12. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... predicts increased fracture risk independently of BMD. To date, no studies have investigated TBS in MS patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess bone quality in MS patients by TBS and to evaluate potential risk factors that may affect BMD and TBS in patients with MS. METHODS: Two hundred sixty MS patients were...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...

  13. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  14. Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grund, Birgit; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Isaksson, Rachel L.; Shlay, Judith C.; Martinez, Esteban; Reiss, Peter; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Carr, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of anti retroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) Design: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) Setting: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain.

  15. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  16. [Bone Mineral Density in Yusho Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral density in Yusho patients. 460 subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone scans as part of the nationwide Yusho health examination in 2011. Serum levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were measured using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The average age was 64.0 years in women and 63.4 in men. About one-third (35%) of women (n = 89) had low bone mineral density (BMD), defined as a T-score less than 70, while only 4.9% of men (n = 10) had low BMD. Serum levels of several congeners were positively associated with Z-scores in simple regression analysis. Further multivariate linear regression analysis should be required in the future.

  17. A correlation exists between subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius and systemic bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung Hwan; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Intraarticular distal radius fractures are common and risk articular congruity owing to disruption of the subchondral bone. Studies regarding microstructure and mechanical properties of the distal radius, however, focus only on the cortical and trabecular bones in the metaphysis and not on the subchondral bone. This study was conducted to (1) quantify the regional bone mineral density of the subchondral plate in the distal radius; (2) analyze the topographic distribution pattern of the subchondral bone mineral density; and (3) evaluate the correlation between the subchondral bone mineral density and the potentially related clinical factors of age, height, weight, BMI, systemic bone mineral densities, socio-occupational classification, and hand osteoarthritis grading. Eighty postmenopausal women with a mean age of 68 years (range, 52-88 years) were enrolled in this study. Digital images of the distal radii of the subjects were scanned by conventional CT and processed to provide the regional bone mineral density of the subchondral plate using a CT osteoabsorptiometry technique. The estimated subchondral bone mineral density was analyzed to evaluate the topographic pattern and its correlation with various clinical factors, including age, height, weight, BMI, degree of hand osteoarthritis, socio-occupational class, and systemic bone mineral density measured in the lumbar spine and hip. During topographic analysis of a densitometric map, a bicentric distribution of the subchondral bone mineral density was found. Among the clinical factors, only the systemic bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in the femur neck and lumbar spine had a significant correlation with the subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius. Systemic bone mineral density correlates substantially with the subchondral bone mineral density of the distal radius as a constitutional factor, whereas other local factors arising from the gravitational load or joint

  18. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: Despite the high mortality and morbidity associated with abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism in haemodialysis patients, there is limited data on the pattern of mineral bone disorder in African CKD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of mineral ...

  19. BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

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    V. P. Buzulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD was estimated twice in 18 recipents of ortotopic liver transplantation. There was decreased BMD in axial so as in peripheral skeleton in early time and in vertebral or hip Ward triangle in late time following transplantation being lower in primary biliary cirrosis then in cirrosis following chronic virus hepatitis despite tacrolimus immunosupression without prednisolon. Tacrolimus immunosupression with prednisolon in primary biliary cirrosis patients in late postoperative time was associated with hard BMD lowering which correlated with glucocorticoid therapy duration and prednisolon cumulative dosis. 

  20. Distal femoral bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty: a comparison with general bone mineral density.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, C. van; Oyen, W.J.G.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of the distal femur may decrease after cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a result of the stress shielding effect of the femoral component. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in BMD of the distal femur compared with those of the femoral necks

  1. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  2. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D.; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component to study. A standard for bone mineral clearly is needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers throughout most of the bone, but enrichment in and thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. FE-SEM shows the rostrum to consist mostly of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ~962 Δcm−1 and weak bands at ~2940 Δcm−1. Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (~8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23586370

  3. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component of study. A standard for bone mineral is clearly needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is the documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers in most of the bone, but enrichment of thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy shows the rostrum mostly consists of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, i.e., Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ∼962 Δcm(-1) and weak bands at ∼2940 Δcm(-1). Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (∼8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral.

  4. Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone mineral density and menstrual function in adolescent female long-distance runners - A prospective comparative study of bone structure and menstrual function in adolescent female endurance athletes from five secondary schools in Pretoria.

  5. WNT16 influences bone mineral density, cortical bone thickness, bone strength, and osteoporotic fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); J.H. Tobias (Jon); E.L. Duncan (Emma); D.M. Evans (David); J. Eriksson (Joel); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); U. Bergström (Ulrica); M. Kähönen (Mika); P.J. Leo (Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); M. Laaksonen (Marika); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); J. Viikari (Jorma); M. Ladouceur (Martin); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); R.L. Prince (Richard); H. Sievanen (Harri); W.D. Leslie (William); D. Mellström (Dan); J.A. Eisman (John); S. Movérare-Skrtic (Sofia); D. Goltzman (David); G.E. Hanley (Gillian); G. Jones (Graeme); B. St Pourcain (Beate); Y. Xiao (Yanling); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; I.R. Reid (Ian); S.M. Ring (Susan); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); J.P. Kemp (John); P. Danoy (Patrick); I. Sayers (Ian); S.G. Wilson (Scott); M. Nethander (Maria); E.V. McCloskey (Eugene); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); R. Eastell (Richard); T. Idzenga (Tim); T.D. Spector (Timothy); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); R. Brommage (Robert); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); M.A. Brown (Matthew); C. Ohlsson (Claes); J.B. Richards (Brent); M. Lorentzon (Mattias)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising

  6. Bisphophonates in CKD Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chih Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD have a high risk of bone fracture because of low bone mineral density and poor bone quality. Osteoporosis also features low bone mass, disarranged microarchitecture, and skeletal fragility, and differentiating between osteoporosis and CKD-MBD in low bone mineral density is a challenge and usually achieved by bone biopsy. Bisphosphonates can be safe and beneficial for patients with a glomerular filtration rate of 30 mL/min or higher, but prescribing bisphosphonates in advanced CKD requires caution because of the increased possibility of low bone turnover disorders such as osteomalacia, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, and adynamic bone, even aggravating hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, bone biopsy in advanced CKD is an important consideration before prescribing bisphosphonates. Treatment also may induce hypocalcemia in CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, but vitamin D supplementation may ameliorate this effect. Bisphosphonate treatment can improve both bone mineral density and vascular calcification, but the latter becomes more unlikely in patients with stage 3-4 CKD with vascular calcification but no decreased bone mineral density. Using bisphosphonates requires considerable caution in advanced CKD, and the lack of adequate clinical investigation necessitates more studies regarding its effects on these patients.

  7. Derangements in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density in south Indian subjects on antiepileptic medications

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    George Koshy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are reports describing the association of alternations of bone and mineral metabolism in epileptic patients with long-term anticonvulsant therapy, there are only limited Indian studies which have looked at this aspect. Objectives: This study was done to compare the prevalence of changes in bone mineral parameters and bone mineral density (BMD in ambulant individuals on long-term anticonvulsant therapy with age- and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: There were 55 men (on medications for more than 6 months and age- and BMI-matched 53 controls. Drug history, dietary calcium intake (DCI, and duration of sunlight exposure were recorded. Bone mineral parameters and BMD were measured. Results: The control group had a significantly higher daily DCI with mean ± SD of 396 ± 91 mg versus 326 ± 101 mg (P = 0.007 and more sunlight exposure of 234 ± 81 vs 167 ± 69 min (P = 0.05. BMD at the femoral neck was significantly lower in cases (0.783 ± 0.105 g/cm 2 when compared to controls (0.819 ± 0.114 g/cm 2 . Majority of the patients (61% had low femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects with vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL between cases (n = 32 and controls (n = 37 (P = 0.234. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in both the groups in equal proportions, highlighting the existence of a high prevalence of this problem in India. Low femoral neck BMD found in cases may stress the need for supplementing calcium and treating vitamin D deficiency in this specific group. However, the benefit of such intervention has to be studied in a larger proportion of epileptic patients.

  8. Lifestyle correlates of low bone mineral density in Albanian women

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Kollcaku; Julia Kollcaku; Valbona Duraj; Teuta Backa; Argjend Tafaj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the association of lifestyle/behavioral factors with low bone mineral density in Albanian women, a transitional country in the Western Balkans. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tirana city in 2010 including a population-based sample of 549 women aged 35 years and above (response rate: 92%). Low bone mineral density (osteopenia and/or osteoporosis defined as a bone mineral density T-score less than -1) was assessed with a bone ultra...

  9. Relationship between Biochemical Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Phenylketonuria under Restricted Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Koura, Hala M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Ismail, Nagwa A.; Salama, Emad E.; El Lebedy, Dalia H.; Effat, Laila K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of phenylketonuria (PKU) develops bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density (BMD). Measurements of BMD re?ect only bone mineral status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Bone?markers?are a noninvasive tool useful for the assessment of bone formation and bone resorption processes. Our study was to assess the levels of bone markers in PKU in order to select a screen marker and detect the most specific marker which can be combined with BMD for appropriate follow u...

  10. Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Hüls, Matthias; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M.; Garbe-Schönberg, C.-Dieter; Hollund, Hege I.; Lotnyk, Andriy; Kienle, Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

  11. Tendon Gradient Mineralization for Tendon to Bone Interface Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a “bone-to-bone” interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into 5 groups: 1) normal FDP tendon, 2) CaP (Non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), 3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), 4) CaPFetuin (Non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and 5) CaPEXTFetuin (Extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 μm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction. PMID:23939935

  12. Evaluation of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in children with multiple bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałus, Izabela; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta; Rusińska, Agnieszka; Jakubowska-Pietkiewicz, Elzbieta; Kulińska-Szukalska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out a comprehensive analysis of determinants of multiple bone fractures in children with regard to densitometric indices and markers of bone metabolism. The study involved 112 children aged 5-18 years, including 81 patients with a history of at least 3 bone fractures and 31 healthy patients in a control group. Total body and spinal DXA densitometry of the skeleton (DPX-L apparatus, Lunar) was carried out in all children. Laboratory assays comprised the determination of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium (in the serum and 24-hour urine collection), parathormone, liver metabolite of vitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of collagen type I (NTx). Mean values of DXA Z-score, both in total body and in spinal scans, were significantly lower in children with multiple fractures as compared to controls. In children with multiple fractures, there was a higher prevalence of hypercalciuria, hypermagnesuria and hyperphosphaturia. Decreased levels of the liver metabolite of vitamin D were observed in 20/81 (24.7%) patients in this group and in 6/31 controls. Other findings included a higher level of NTx in 38/75 (50.7%) patients with fractures, an increased activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in 29, and of osteocalcin in 12 patients. In this group, there was a significant negative correlation between biochemical bone turnover markers and low bone mass. Also, lower DXA Z-scores were found in children with higher urinary calcium excretion. 1. Decreased bone mineral density was the most frequent risk factor for bone fractures in children; it was found in about 2/3 of the patients with multiple bone fractures. 2. Accelerated bone turnover, and, particularly, increased bone resorption, indicates a derangement of bone metabolism in children with multiple fractures. 3. Repeated fractures during the body growth period are an indication for a quantitative evaluation of bone mass, calcium

  13. Tracking circadian rhythms of bone mineral deposition in murine calvarial organ cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElderry, John-David P; Zhao, Guisheng; Khmaladze, Alexander; Wilson, Christopher G; Franceschi, Renny T; Morris, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    Osteoblasts, which orchestrate the deposition of small apatite crystals through the expression of nucleating proteins, have been shown to also express clock genes associated with the circadian signaling pathway. We hypothesized that protein-mediated bone mineralization may be linked to circadian oscillator mechanisms functioning in peripheral bone tissue. In this study, Per1 expression in ex vivo neonatal murine calvaria organ cultures was monitored for 6 days using a Per1-luciferase transgene as a bioluminescent indicator of clock function. Fluctuations in Per1 expression had a period of 25 ± 4 hours (n = 14) with early expression at CT09:59 ± 03:37 (CT = circadian time). We also established the kinetics of mineral deposition in developing bone by using noninvasive Raman microscopy to track mineral accumulation in calvarial tissue. The content and quality of newly deposited mineral was continually examined at the interparietal bone/fontanel boundary for a period of 6 days with 1-hour temporal resolution. Using this approach, mineralization over time exhibited bursts of mineral deposition followed by little or no deposition, which was recurrent with a periodicity of 26.8 ± 9.6 hours. As many as six near-daily mineralization events were observed in the calvaria before deposition ceased. Earliest mineralization events occurred at CT16:51 ± 03:45, which is 6 hours behind Per1 expression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that mineralization in developing bone tissue is regulated by a local circadian oscillator mechanism. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Bone Mineral Density in Men - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Geler Külcü

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in men who attend to Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation outpatient clinic. Patients and Medhods: 42 men were included into the study. They were evaluated in 3 groups according to their age (30-75; age between 30-45, 45-60 and over 60 yrs. BMD of lumbar spine (L2-L4 and femur neck were evaluated by using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Serum paratiroid hormone, osteocalcin, 25 (OH D3 vitamine levels and urinary deoxypridinoline levels were evaluated. Results: Mean age of the patients were 51.24±12.23 yrs in femur neck and in lumbar region, 70% and 15% of the patients between 60-75 yrs, 53% and 7% of the patients between 45-60 yrs and 23% and 8% of the patients between 30-45 yrs have osteoporosis, respectively. Between the groups femur neck BMD and L2-L4 BMD were significantly different (p=0.043 and p=0.008, respectively. Serum PTH levels were high and serum 25(OHD3 levels were low in all groups. There were no significant difference between the groups regarding bone turnover markers. Seven patients had osteoporotic fractures (6 vertebral, 1 hip. Correlation was found between fractures and L2-L4 BMD ( r=-0.322, p=0.043. Conclusion: Osteoporosis is common also in men, particularly in the middle and old ages. Routine analysis of blood biochemistry and DXA should be performed in adult men. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:1-5

  15. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  16. Bone Mineral Density in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Çakmak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS, a chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. One of the most frequent and important complications in these patients is osteoporosis. There are controversial studies on the correlation of osteoporosis and disease duration, activity and functional status. Twenty-one male and five female patients diagnosed as AS according to Modified New York, ESSG( European Spondyloartropaties Study Group and Amor criteria were included in this study. Disease duration and age-sex of the patients was assessed. Patients with ankylosed lumbar spine in late stages of the disease were excluded. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by DEXA( Hologic at lumbar and femoral neck regions. BASDAI was used for evaluation of disease activity and BASFI index for functional status evaluation.Correlation of BMD with disease duration, BASDAI and BASFI indexes was assessed. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck regions was found to be osteoporotic in 11,5 % of the patients. In the lumbar region there was no correlation between BMD and disease duration, BASFI and BASDAI indexes. BMD values of femoral neck showed a weak inverse correlation with disease duration, while no correlation was found between BMD and BASFI and BASDAI. As a conclusion in AS patients osteoporosis besides the disease itself many secondarily influence disease prognosis and complications. Therefore osteoporosis should be evaluated in the management and follow-up of AS patients.

  17. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA...

  18. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female swimmers during the time of peak bone mass attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Długołęcka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral content and bone mineral density in girls practising swimming in the period of peak bone mass attainment in comparison to girls at the same age who are not actively involved in sports. This study involved girls from sports school specialising in swimming (n=41 aged 11-15 years, practising swimming (non-weight bearing activities, and girls at the same age not actively involved in sports (n=45. The current condition of bones was assessed based on the method of densitometry DEXA (lumbar spine L2-L4. Data on sports careers, including the length of training and training load, and hormonal status were collected using a diagnostic survey with an especially developed questionnaire. The quantitative composition of diet was determined based on 3 individual interviews on dietary intake in the last 24 hours preceding the test. Analysis of the results showed that the average values of the measured bone parameters were not different between the groups. However, we observed a trend of higher values in the control group. In the assessment of diet, we observed in both groups a deficiency in average calcium intake. Based on the results it can be concluded that the tested female swimmers were not at increased risk of developing osteopenia, when compared to girls not actively involved in sports.

  19. Biochemical markers of mineral bone disorder in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–OH vitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were strong predictors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism. Keywords: Biochemical markers, guidelines, mineral bone disorder, haemodialysis.

  20. Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram Tejwani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD. CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD.

  1. Bone mineral density in mucopolysaccharidosis IVB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyne Kubaski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, the only published reports of bone mineral density (BMD in MPS IV involve patients with MPS IVA; no reports exist describing BMD for MPS IVB. In this prospective study of BMD in three patients with MPS IVB, BMD was acquired by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at whole body (WB, lumbar spine (LS, and lateral distal femur (LDF. Functional abilities, ambulatory status, medical history, and height z-score were evaluated. Three patients with MPS IVB (two females, aged 17.7, 31.4 and 31.7 years, were evaluated. Every patient was ambulatory and one sustained two fractures caused by trauma. Whole body and hip DXA scans were technically invalid in every patient due to the presence of prosthetic hip hardware. Lumbar spine was valid in only 1 patient due skeletal abnormalities, and was normal (Z-score of −0.8. The LDF was valid in every patient and was low at all three regions of interest: average LDF z-scores were −3.1 (range, −2.9 to −3.6, −2.3 (range, −2.0 to −2.5, and −2.1 (range, −2.0 to −2.3 for region 1–region 3, respectively. Patients with MPS IVB have low BMD of the lower extremities even with full-time ambulation. Routine body sites to measure by DXA were problematic; hip and WB were invalid due to artifact, and LS had limited utility. The LDF was the only body site consistently available on all patients. Patients did not experience low-energy fractures despite low BMD.

  2. Bone mineral metabolism, bone mineral density, and body composition in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Anne Birgitte; Rosenfalck, A M; Hansen, B

    2000-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis seem to be abnormal in patients with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction resulting from cystic fibrosis. Only a few studies have evaluated and described bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic insufficiency....

  3. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  4. A porcelain gallbladder affecting the assessment of bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, J; Pouliart, C; Raeman, F; Williame, L; Vandevivere, J

    1990-10-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry is a reliable method for the assessment of bone mineral content (BMC). The presence of focal bone disease, degenerative joint disease, or aortic calcifications may complicate the evaluation of BMC and may lead to erroneous findings. The misleading effect of a porcelain gallbladder is described.

  5. [Adipokines, body composition and bone mineral density in underweight children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Rowicka, Grazna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Gajewska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    One of the important factors affecting bone health is body weight. Underweight children are predisposed to disturbances in bone metabolism, which may result in osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between adipokines, bone metabolism, and anthropometric parameters in underweight prepubertal children. The study included 60 children aged 5-10 years. Among them, there were: 30 underweight children (BMI z-score ≤-1) and 30 normal-weight children (BMI z-score ). Body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, bone mass) and bone mineral density examination were performed by densitometry. Serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers and adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. In underweight children we observed significantly lower fat mass (pbone mineral content (pbone mineral density both the total body (pbone resorption marker (CTX) was significantly higher than in normal-weight children (2.006±0.649 vs. 1.624±0.492 ng/ml, pbone turnover markers (OC, CTX) and between adiponectin and CTX. However, there was no correlation between fat mass and leptin concentration in this group of children. Low body weight in prepubertal period is related with an alteration in the adipokines profile and bone metabolism markers, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  6. Interaction of Pu and Am with bone mineral in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Lindhorst, P.S.; Hanlon, L.L

    1998-07-01

    Soluble forms of actinides such as Pu or Am that reach the blood deposit in significant quantity on bone surfaces and remain attached in the absence of bone remodelling. Removal of Pu or Am bone deposits with chelating agents such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is ineffective, and the search for better therapeutic approaches is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which transuranic elements bind to constituents of bone. Hypothesising that transuranics primarily bind with mineralised bone surfaces, specifically to bone hydroxyphosphates, an in vitro model comprising synthetic Ca hydroxyapatite (HAP) and other Ca phosphates, buffered at pH 7.2, was used to study the affinity of Pu and Am binding, and the effect of DTPA on binding to bone mineral. Samples containing 10 mg of bone mineral were equilibrated for 24 h in 0.1 M HEPES buffer and the pH adjusted to 7.2 {+-} 0.1. Either {sup 238}Pu-citrate or {sup 241}Am-citrate was added, and the suspension was sampled sequentially to determine the fractions of mineral-bound and unbound actinide using a centrifugal ultrafiltration system. From these experiments, it was determined that adding Na{sub 3}ZnDTPA at physiologically relevant concentrations to suspensions in which Pu or Am were allowed to bind resulted in little or no removal of Pu, but a slight concentration- and time-dependent removal of Am from the bone mineral (maximum of 10% ultrafilterable in 24 h). In contrast, by using Na{sub 5}DTPA, about 40% of the Pu and 60% of the Am were ultrafilterable at 48 h of incubation, suggesting that prior complexation of DTPA with Zn{sup +2} prevented complexation with mineral-bound actinide. This has been attributed to steric hindrance. When Pu-DTPA or Am-DTPA was mixed with bone mineral, 40% of the Pu was dissociated from the DTPA and bound to the bone mineral; with Am, no dissociation was observed. These data indicate that the relative stability of binding of Am-DTPA was significantly

  7. Technical aspects and clinical interpretation of bone mineral measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahner, H

    1989-01-01

    Four procedures--single photon absorptiometry, dual photon absorptiometry, dual energy radiography, and quantitative computed tomography--allow nontraumatic measurement of bone mineral, with high accuracy and precision, under conditions generally encountered in patient care situations. By using these procedures, almost any part of the skeleton is accessible to such measurements. Total bone is measured by the absorptiometry procedures, trabecular bone by quantitative computed tomography. Sever...

  8. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Leite de Negreiros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF. It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD with a T-score 61 years.

  9. Coffee Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Methods Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measu...

  10. Limited Associations between Keel Bone Damage and Bone Properties Measured with Computer Tomography, Three-Point Bending Test, and Analysis of Minerals in Swiss Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine G. Gebhardt-Henrich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage is a wide-spread welfare problem in laying hens. It is unclear so far whether bone quality relates to keel bone damage. The goal of the present study was to detect possible associations between keel bone damage and bone properties of intact and damaged keel bones and of tibias in end-of-lay hens raised in loose housing systems. Bones were palpated and examined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (PQCT, a three-point bending test, and analyses of bone ash. Contrary to our expectations, PQCT revealed higher cortical and trabecular contents in fractured than in intact keel bones. This might be due to structural bone repair after fractures. Density measurements of cortical and trabecular tissues of keel bones did not differ between individuals with and without fractures. In the three-point bending test of the tibias, ultimate shear strength was significantly higher in birds with intact vs. fractured keel bones. Likewise, birds with intact or slightly deviated keel bones had higher mineral and calcium contents of the keel bone than birds with fractured keel bones. Calcium content in keel bones was correlated with calcium content in tibias. Although there were some associations between bone traits related to bone strength and keel bone damage, other factors such as stochastic events related to housing such as falls and collisions seem to be at least as important for the prevalence of keel bone damage.

  11. Limited Associations between Keel Bone Damage and Bone Properties Measured with Computer Tomography, Three-Point Bending Test, and Analysis of Minerals in Swiss Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Pfulg, Andreas; Fröhlich, Ernst K F; Käppeli, Susanna; Guggisberg, Dominik; Liesegang, Annette; Stoffel, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    Keel bone damage is a wide-spread welfare problem in laying hens. It is unclear so far whether bone quality relates to keel bone damage. The goal of the present study was to detect possible associations between keel bone damage and bone properties of intact and damaged keel bones and of tibias in end-of-lay hens raised in loose housing systems. Bones were palpated and examined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (PQCT), a three-point bending test, and analyses of bone ash. Contrary to our expectations, PQCT revealed higher cortical and trabecular contents in fractured than in intact keel bones. This might be due to structural bone repair after fractures. Density measurements of cortical and trabecular tissues of keel bones did not differ between individuals with and without fractures. In the three-point bending test of the tibias, ultimate shear strength was significantly higher in birds with intact vs. fractured keel bones. Likewise, birds with intact or slightly deviated keel bones had higher mineral and calcium contents of the keel bone than birds with fractured keel bones. Calcium content in keel bones was correlated with calcium content in tibias. Although there were some associations between bone traits related to bone strength and keel bone damage, other factors such as stochastic events related to housing such as falls and collisions seem to be at least as important for the prevalence of keel bone damage.

  12. Measurement of bone mineral in vivo: an improved method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Cameron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral content of bone can be determined by measuring the absorption by bone of a monochromatic, low-energy photon beam which originates in a radioactive source (iodine-125 at 27.3 kev or americium-241 at 59.6 kev. The intensity of the beam transmitted by the bone is measured by counting with a scintillation detector. Since the photon source and detector are well collimated, errors resulting from scattered radiation are reduced. From measurements of the intensity of the transmitted beam, made at intervals across the bone, the total mineral content of the bone can be determined. The results are accurate and reproducible to within about 3 percent.

  13. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus

    2015-01-01

    and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We...... compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone...... mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen...

  14. Recreational football improves bone mineral density and bone turnover marker profile in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recreational football and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in elderly men. Twenty-six healthy sedentary men (age 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized into three groups: football (F; n = 9) and resistance training (R; n...... training had no effect. The anabolic response may be due to increased bone turnover, especially improved bone formation....

  15. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per ... It forms part of the hip joint (at the acetabulum) and part of the knee joint, which is located above. There are four eminences, or protuberances, in the human ...

  16. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P children with rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  17. Bone composition and bone mineral density of long bones of free-living raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Schuhmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone composition and bone mineral density (BMD of long bones of two raptor and one owl species were assessed. Right humerus and tibiotarsus of 40 common buzzards, 13 white-tailed sea eagles and 9 barn owls were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed for influence of species, age, gender and nutritional status. The BMD ranged from 1.8 g/cm3 (common buzzards to 2.0 g/cm3 (white-tailed sea eagles. Dry matter was 87.0% (buzzards to 89.5% (sea eagles. Percentage of bone ash was lower in sea eagles than in buzzards and owls. Content of crude fat was lower than 2% of the dry matter in all bones. In humeri lower calcium values (220 g/kg fat free dry matter were detected in sea eagles than in barn owls (246 g/kg, in tibiotarsi no species differences were observed. Phosphorus levels were lowest in sea eagles (humeri 104 g/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 102 g/kg and highest in barn owls. Calcium-phosphorus ratio was about 2:1 in all species. Magnesium content was lower in sea eagles (humeri 2590 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 2510 mg/kg than in buzzards and owls. Bones of barn owls contained more copper (humeri 8.7 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 12.7 mg/kg than in the Accipitridae. Zinc content was highest in sea eagles (humeri 278 mg/kg fat free dry matter, tibiotarsi 273 mg/kg and lowest in barn owls (humeri 185 mg/kg, tibiotarsi 199 mg/kg. The present study shows that bone characteristics can be considered as species specific in raptors.

  18. Coeliac disease and bone mineral density in adult female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorius, L R; Sweidan, W H; Purdie, D W; Steel, S A; Howey, S; Bennett, J R; Sutton, D R

    1995-11-01

    A cross sectional study was undertaken to examine the relationship between coeliac disease and bone mineral density. The 135 female coeliac patients registered on the database of the Department of Gastroenterology at Hull Royal Infirmary were approached by letter, advising them of a potential risk of osteoporosis and inviting them to undergo bone densitometry. A total of 81 registered women (60%) attended the Osteoporosis Laboratory, Princess Royal Hospital and underwent dual energy x ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck. Historical data relating to the time of diagnosis and adherence to a gluten free diet were obtained. A control group was selected from the local normal population and was first matched for height, weight, and menopausal status. Postmenopausal patients were then further matched to controls of equivalent menopausal age. In coeliac patients, bone mineral density expressed in g/cm2 as mean (SD) was significantly lower at the lumbar spine (1.076 (0.186)) than in the control group (1.155 (0.143), p coeliac patients were stratified by menopausal status, it was found that femoral neck bone mineral density was significantly below control values in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Spinal bone mineral density exhibited a significant decrement only in the postmenopausal group. The age at diagnosis of coeliac disease and adherence to a gluten free diet did not influence bone mineral density at either hip or spine. These results confirm coeliac patients' higher risk of osteopenia. Coeliac disease should be added to the list of medical conditions which constitute an indication for bone densitometry in order that the individual risk of osteoporosis related fracture may be determined.

  19. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  20. Bone mineral measurements of subchondral and trabecular bone in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, S [Universidad Autonoma, Rheumatology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Largo, R.; Marcos, M.E.; Herrero-Beaumont, G. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [Universidad Autonoma, Inflammation Research Unit, Rheumatology Department, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Salvanes, F. [Universidad Autonoma, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Diaz-Curiel, M. [Universidad Autonoma, Department of Internal Medicine, Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-01

    Experimental models of osteoporosis in rabbits are useful to investigate anabolic agents because this animal has a fast bone turnover with predominant remodelling over the modelling processes. For that purpose, it is necessary to characterize the densitometric values of each type of bony tissue. To determine areal bone mass measurement in the spine and in trabecular, cortical and subchondral bone of the knee in healthy and osteoporotic rabbits. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density were measured in lumbar spine, global knee, and subchondral and cortical bone of the knee with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Hologic QDR-1000/W densitometer in 29 skeletally mature female healthy New Zealand rabbits. Ten rabbits underwent triplicate scans for evaluation of the effect of repositioning. Osteoporosis was experimentally induced in 15 rabbits by bilateral ovariectomy and postoperative corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Identical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies were performed thereafter. Mean values of bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, global knee, subchondral bone and cortical tibial metaphysis were: 1934{+-}217 mg, 878{+-}83 mg, 149{+-}14 mg and 29{+-}7.0 mg, respectively. The mean values of bone mineral density at the same regions were: 298{+-}24 mg/cm{sup 2}, 455{+-}32 mg/cm{sup 2}, 617{+-}60 mg/cm{sup 2} and 678{+-}163 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Bone mass and mineral metabolism in HIV+ postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Michael; Dobkin, Jay; Brudney, Karen; Becker, Carolyn; Zadel, Janis L.; Manandhar, Monica; Addesso, Vicki; Shane, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for osteoporosis in HIV+ postmenopausal women. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and biochemical indices of mineral metabolism were measured in 31 Hispanic and African American HIV+ postmenopausal women. BMD was compared with 186 historical controls, matched for age, ethnicity and postmenopausal status. Mean BMD was significantly lower at the lumbar spine and total...

  2. Determinants of bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Miller, Karen K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, obesity has been thought to protect against osteoporosis. However, recent studies have demonstrated a differential impact of specific fat compartments on bone mineral density (BMD) with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) having potential detrimental effects on BMD. Visceral obesity is also associated with dysregulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to evalu...

  3. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Florez, N. (Naiara); Garcia-Tunon, E; Mukadam, Q.; Saiz, E.; Oldknow, K. J.; Farquharson, C.; Millán, J L; Boyde, A.; Shefelbine, S J

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse pheno...

  4. Tooth dentin defects reflect genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, S. Opsahl; Gaucher, C.; Bardet, C.; Rowe, P.S.; George, A.; Linglart, A.; Chaussain, C.

    2012-01-01

    Several genetic disorders affecting bone mineralization may manifest during dentin mineralization. Dentin and bone are similar in several aspects, especially pertaining to the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) which is secreted by well-differentiated odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. However, unlike bone, dentin is not remodelled and is not involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. In contrast to bone, teeth are accessible tissues with the shedding of deciduous teeth and the extractions of premolars and third molars for orthodontic treatment. The feasibility of obtaining dentin makes this a good model to study biomineralization in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we focus on two genetic diseases that disrupt both bone and dentin mineralization. Hypophosphatemic rickets is related to abnormal secretory proteins involved in the ECM organization of both bone and dentin, as well as in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. Osteogenesis imperfecta affects proteins involved in the local organization of the ECM. In addition, dentin examination permits evaluation of the effects of the systemic treatment prescribed to hypophosphatemic patients during growth. In conclusion, dentin constitutes a valuable tool for better understanding of the pathological processes affecting biomineralization. PMID:22296718

  5. A postmenopausal osteoporotic woman losing bone mineral density despite bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai PSM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogues, with a strong affinity for bones. They inhibit bone resorption and are currently the first choice of treatment for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates should be taken in a specific manner and for at least one year to be effective in the maintenance and improvement of bone mineral density (BMD, as well as for protection against fractures. We report a case of a postmenospausal osteoporotic woman who lost BMD despite being on bisphosphonate therapy for eight years, highlighting issues that a primary care doctor needs to address before deciding on the next best option.

  6. Bone mineral density measurement over the shoulder region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1). establish a method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) over the shoulder region; (2). compare the relationship between shoulder BMD levels with hip BMD and body mass index (BMI); and (3). discuss the relevance of the shoulder scan as an early indicator...... to the least relative influence of weight and stress loading because of migration of calcium to weight and stress-bearing areas. Since the effect of this migration could mask local osteoporotic bone loss, shoulder BMD measurement is likely to minimize false indicators of healthy bone in women with high BMI...

  7. Life cycle changes in bone mineralization and bone size traits of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, P N; Katanbaf, M N; Hester, P Y

    2009-05-01

    Life cycle changes in bone mineralization and bone size traits of the tibia and humerus were evaluated in commercial male and female broilers using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Experiment 1 evaluated weekly changes in bone traits from 2 to 7 wk of age, whereas experiment 2 compared the bone traits of 4 strains of commercial meat-type chickens from 4 to 8 wk of age. Birds were restrained without anesthesia, and the humerus and tibia were scanned in vivo. After each scan, individual BW was determined. From the DEXA scans, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), as well as bone length, width, and area were determined. Bone mineralization and size traits were analyzed as an analysis of covariance with BW as the covariate. If BW was NS as a covariate, then an ANOVA was used. The BMD reached its peak at 4 wk of age. The BMC of the humerus changed little from 2 to 8 wk of age, whereas tibial BMC increased as the birds aged, especially in males (P < 0.0001). In experiment 1, bone length, width, and area also increased with age (P < 0.0001), with the tibia growing in length at a faster rate than the humerus. In experiment 2, the BMD did not differ among the 4 strains of commercial broilers. Interactions with strain of chicken were also NS, indicating that all strains of chickens responded similarly with respect to age (4, 6, and 8 wk of age), sex, and type of bone (humerus vs. tibia). Coefficients of variation for BMD ranged from 15 to 16%, indicating a potential use of DEXA for selection to improve skeletal integrity. In conclusion, the tibia continued to grow, especially after the initiation of the growth spurt at 3 to 4 wk of age, as indicated by bone length, width, and BMC, but it did not become denser in mineral after 4 wk of age as its surface area increased.

  8. Somatic maturation and the relationship between bone mineral variables and types of sports among adolescents: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Ito, Igor Hideki; Kemper, Han; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Rodrigues-Júnior, Mário Antônio; Luiz-de-Marco, Rafael; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Peak height velocity (PHV) is an important maturational event during adolescence that affects skeleton size. The objective here was to compare bone variables in adolescents who practiced different types of sports, and to identify whether differences in bone variables attributed to sports practice were dependent on somatic maturation status. Cross-sectional study, São Paulo State University (UNESP). The study was composed of 93 adolescents (12 to 16.5 years old), divided into three groups: no-sport group (n = 42), soccer/basketball group (n = 26) and swimming group (n = 25). Bone mineral density and content were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and somatic maturation was estimated through using peak height velocity. Data on training load were provided by the coaches. Adolescents whose PHV occurred at an older age presented higher bone mineral density in their upper limbs (P = 0.018). After adjustments for confounders, such as somatic maturation, the swimmers presented lower values for bone mineral density in their lower limbs, spine and whole body. Only the bone mineral density in the upper limbs was similar between the groups. There was a negative relationship between whole-body bone mineral content and the weekly training hours (β: -1563.967; 95% confidence interval, CI: -2916.484 to -211.450). The differences in bone variables attributed to sport practice occurred independently of maturation, while high training load in situations of hypogravity seemed to be related to lower bone mass in swimmers.

  9. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide. Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty ...

  10. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and inflammatory cytokines in ... Methods: Eighty obese asthmatic patients of both sexes, their age ranged from 41 to 53 years. Subjects were divided into two equal groups: training group (group A) received aerobic exercise training on ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  11. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  12. Serum Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in Hemodialysis Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure. Our aim was to evaluate serum leptin level in hemodialysis (HD) patients with or without chronic liver disease (CLD) and study the relationship between serum leptin level and bone mineral ...

  13. Treadmill walking exercise modulates bone mineral status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity and asthma are an important public health problem in Saudi Arabia. An increasing body of data supports the hypothesis that obesity is a risk factor for asthma. Asthma appears to be associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) due to long-term use of corticosteroids. Studies recently showed that ...

  14. Bone mineral density among elderly patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is one of the major extra-pulmonary manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which limits the physical activity. The present study was undertaken to study the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in the elderly COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a ...

  15. Adipocytokines and bone mineral density in adolescent female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruodytė, R; Jürimäe, J; Cicchella, A; Stefanelli, C; Passariello, C; Jürimäe, T

    2010-12-01

     To evaluate the relationships of visfatin, adiponectin and leptin with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescent female athletes with different training patterns. This study involved 170 healthy 13-15-year-old girls divided into six groups based on activity: sport games (i.e. basketball, volleyball, badminton) (n=49), track sprint (n=24), rhythmic gymnastics (n=23), swimming (n=24), cross-country skiing (n=17) and sedentary controls (n=33). BMD and BMC at femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, insulin and glucose were measured, and the insulin resistance index was calculated using homeostasis model assessment. There were no relationships found between visfatin concentrations and bone mineral parameters in adolescent female athletes or controls. Adiponectin was inversely correlated to BMD and BMC of femoral neck and lumbar spine (r=-0.47-0.62) in the swimmer group only, but after adjustments for age, height and body mass these associations disappeared. Leptin concentrations correlated with bone mineral parameters even after adjusting for age, height and body mass (r=0.42-0.63) in the gymnast group only. We may conclude that after adjustment, leptin is the only adipokine of those measured that correlates to femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD and femoral neck BMC in the rhythmic gymnast group. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  17. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty postmenopausal women, who received raloxifene 60 mg with calcium 500 mg and 200 IU Vitamin D daily for 2 ...

  18. Probing carbonate in bone forming minerals on the nanometre scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Michał M; Friederichs, Robert J; Nichol, Robert; Antolin, Nikolas; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Windl, Wolfgang; Best, Serena M; Shefelbine, Sandra J; McComb, David W; Porter, Alexandra E

    2015-07-01

    To devise new strategies to treat bone disease in an ageing society, a more detailed characterisation of the process by which bone mineralises is needed. In vitro studies have suggested that carbonated mineral might be a precursor for deposition of bone apatite. Increased carbonate content in bone may also have significant implications in altering the mechanical properties, for example in diseased bone. However, information about the chemistry and coordination environment of bone mineral, and their spatial distribution within healthy and diseased tissues, is lacking. Spatially resolved analytical transmission electron microscopy is the only method available to probe this information at the length scale of the collagen fibrils in bone. In this study, scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (STEM-EELS) was used to differentiate between calcium-containing biominerals (hydroxyapatite, carbonated hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate and calcite). A carbon K-edge peak at 290 eV is a direct marker of the presence of carbonate. We found that the oxygen K-edge structure changed most significantly between minerals allowing discrimination between calcium phosphates and calcium carbonates. The presence of carbonate in carbonated HA (CHA) was confirmed by the formation of peak at 533 eV in the oxygen K-edge. These observations were confirmed by simulations using density functional theory. Finally, we show that this method can be utilised to map carbonate from the crystallites in bone. We propose that our calibration library of EELS spectra could be extended to provide spatially resolved information about the coordination environment within bioceramic implants to stimulate the development of structural biomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuhada Zakaria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I control group; (II alcohol (3 g/kg + normal saline; (III alcohol (3 g/kg + olive oil; (IV alcohol (3 g/kg + alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg and (V alcohol (3 g/kg + palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg. The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement. Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium compared to control group (P

  20. The Evolving World of Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bellasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro and animal models suggest that phosphorous, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D abnormalities, mediate the cardiovascular and bone diseases that characterise CKD-MBD and increase the risk of death. Currently, mineral abnormalities are corrected through phosphorous restriction, phosphate binders, calcimimetics and vitamin D administration. Nonetheless, data in humans that support the use of these compounds are still scarce, mainly based on observational studies. Thus, a considerable number of doubts and questions still challenge clinicians dealing with CKD patients and mineral metabolism imbalances. We herein critically review clinical evidence that support the use of different drugs in CKD-MBD.

  1. Relation between bone mineral density and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Tohodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are the two important life threatening factors that cause morbidity and mortality. Previous studies had showed that bone mineral density is decreased with progression of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease is more common in the osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density and coronary artery stenosis in patients who underwent coronary angiography . Materials and Methods: In this study 197 patients (111female and 86 male that underwent coronary angiography and bone mineral densitometry were evaluated. According to angiographic data ,patients were divided to two group :first group had coronary stenosis in ≥50% in one or more major coronary arteries and second group with normal coronary artery or stenosis -1 as normal , T-score -1 to -2.5 as osteopenia, and T-score <-2.5 as osteoporosis were described. Finally the relationship between coronary artery stenosis and bone mineral density was evaluated by SPSS statistical software version 15 with using suitable statistical test. Results: The mean age of sample was 57±11.32. 33% of patients had osteoporosis in lumbar spine and 24.2% of them in femoral neck.Significant coronary artery stenosis were seen in 67.9% of patients. There were no significant difference between lumbar and hip bone mineral density in patients with significant coronary disease and subjects without coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There were no associations between coronary artery disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of this relationship.

  2. Bone mineral density in diabetes mellitus patients with and without a Charcot foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tomas M; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA).......To measure bone mineral density in patients with diabetes mellitus and the complication Charcot osteoarthropathy (CA)....

  3. Validation of quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of bone mineral density of several CT scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Steven L.; Stockham, Charles D.

    1992-06-01

    We have validated a pre-existing model for QCT evaluation of bone mineral density by scanning a commercial bone mineral density phantom on several CT scanners and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility of bone mineral density measurements on each. The model assumes that bone mineral density is a linear function of CT number of bone. Rather than imaging bone mineral density standards for calibration, we computed an `equivalent bone mineral density' for fat and muscle from the known linear relationship between bone mineral density and CT number to remove the dependence of bone mineral density on field non- uniformities caused by beam hardening and scattered radiation, positioning errors and quality control. The `equivalent bone mineral density' for fat and muscle were computed from spectral data and atomic composition of fat and tissue for a GE 9800 scanner. These were used to establish the true bone mineral density of two reference BMD standards used in the phantom and these in turn were used to measure the `equivalent bone mineral density' of fat and muscle on other CT scanners. Phantom measurements on several other CT scanners were used to compute the `equivalent bone mineral density' of the phantom inserts for those systems. Results from the Picker 1200, the Philips LX and the Siemens Somatom DR/H were compared with the results of the GE 9800.

  4. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7±3.8 years KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the bone transmission time (BTT. Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p<0.005 and BTT (p<0.0005 z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p<0.0001 and significantly lower 25(OHD (p<0.0001, osteocalcin (p<0.05, and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p<0.005. Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages.

  5. Molecular nanomechanics of nascent bone: fibrillar toughening by mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Markus J [Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room 1-272, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2007-07-25

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are highly conserved nanostructural building blocks of bone. By a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical analysis it is shown that the characteristic nanostructure of mineralized collagen fibrils is vital for its high strength and its ability to sustain large deformation, as is relevant to the physiological role of bone, creating a strong and tough material. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of protein and mineral phases under large deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils reveals a fibrillar toughening mechanism that leads to a manifold increase of energy dissipation compared to fibrils without mineral phase. This fibrillar toughening mechanism increases the resistance to fracture by forming large local yield regions around crack-like defects, a mechanism that protects the integrity of the entire structure by allowing for localized failure. As a consequence, mineralized collagen fibrils are able to tolerate microcracks of the order of several hundred micrometres in size without causing any macroscopic failure of the tissue, which may be essential to enable bone remodelling. The analysis proves that adding nanoscopic small platelets to collagen fibrils increases their Young's modulus and yield strength as well as their fracture strength. We find that mineralized collagen fibrils have a Young's modulus of 6.23 GPa (versus 4.59 GPa for the collagen fibril), yield at a tensile strain of 6.7% (versus 5% for the collagen fibril) and feature a fracture stress of 0.6 GPa (versus 0.3 GPa for the collagen fibril)

  6. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelack Kathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence, in this sport that emphasizes leanness. Although, these athletes apparently have sufficient osteogenic stimuli to mitigate the effects of possible low energy availability on bone health, the extent or magnitude of bone accrual also varies with training effects, which differ among skater disciplines. Purpose We studied differences in total and regional bone mineral density in 36 nationally ranked skaters among 3 skater disciplines: single, pairs, and dancers. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD of the total body and its regions was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Values for total body, spine, pelvis and leg were entered into a statistical mixed regression model to identify the effect of skater discipline on bone mineralization while controlling for energy, vitamin D, and calcium intake. Results The skaters had a mean body mass index of 19.8 ± 2.1 and % fat mass of 19.2 ± 5.8. After controlling for dietary intakes of energy, calcium, and vitamin D, there was a significant relationship between skater discipline and BMD (p = 0.002, with single skaters having greater BMD in the total body, legs, and pelvis than ice dancers (p  Conclusions Single and pair skaters have greater BMD than ice dancers. The osteogenic effect of physical training is most apparent in single skaters, particularly in the bone loading sites of the leg and pelvis.

  7. Relationship between Biochemical Bone Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Phenylketonuria under Restricted Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hala M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Ismail, Nagwa A.; Salama, Emad E.; El Lebedy, Dalia H.; Effat, Laila K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Most of phenylketonuria (PKU) develops bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density (BMD). Measurements of BMD reflect only bone mineral status but not the dynamics of bone turnover. Bone markers are a noninvasive tool useful for the assessment of bone formation and bone resorption processes. Our study was to assess the levels of bone markers in PKU in order to select a screen marker and detect the most specific marker which can be combined with BMD for appropriate follow up. Methods: Thirty three classic PKU patients were studied. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured. Total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) and Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) were measured. Findings : Nineteen (57.6%) male and fourteen (42.4 %) female PKU patients were involved in the current study. Their mean age was 8.4±4.6 yrs and the age range 3-19 yrs. The control group consisted of twenty two (52.4%) males and twenty (47.6%) females. Their mean age was 8.5±3.3 yrs and th age range 2-17 yrs. Using the Z score values, there was a significant decrease of total BMC (TBMC-Z), BMD of the femoral neck BMD-FN-Z, BMD of lumbar vertebrae (BMD-L-Z), BMD-FN and DPD while RANKL increased. There was a negative correlation between CICP and TBMC and between CICP and BMD-L in these patients. Also, a negative correlation between ALP and TBMC and between ALP and BMD-L was observed. It was concluded that the ALP provides a good impression of the new bone formation in the PKU patients and it has a highly significant negative correlation with the many parameters of the bone mineral status beside the wide availability of inexpensive and simple methods. So a screening test and/or follow up for the PKU patients using ALP would be available. Once the level of ALP decrease is detected, one can combine it with BMD to explore the bone mineral

  8. Bone mineral loss during pregnancy: is tennis protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Mina; Khoury, Jane; Tsang, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    Pregnancy may stress calcium economy in women through fetal calcium requirements, and increasing maternal body weight. Bone is stimulated by compression forces. Playing tennis may decrease bone resorption through intermittent mechanical loading. This study tests the thesis that maternal bone mineral changes during pregnancy in women who play tennis are less compromised compared with nontennis playing controls. This is a prospective cohort study, a pilot study of 18 healthy pregnant women: 8 tennis players and 10 controls, ages 18 to 39 years. Calcanei bone mineral density (BMD) and ultrasound (Stiffness Index (SI)) measurements, were made at 12 weeks gestation and 2 to 4 weeks postpartum. SI was also measured at 20 to 24, and 33 to 36 weeks gestation. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and covariance. Age, height, and weight at study entry were not different between tennis players and controls. At 12 weeks, BMD was higher in tennis players versus controls 0.57 +/- 0.02, 0.43 +/- 0.03 g/cm squared, (P = .003); but not postpartum. SI Z-scores fell significantly during pregnancy in both groups, but were consistently higher in tennis players. Bone measures dropped overall during pregnancy, but were significantly higher in tennis players versus controls at 12 weeks and through gestation.

  9. The significance of HIV to bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria; Weis, Nina; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2017-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry scan should be considered in HIV-infected men ≥ 50 years and postmenopausal women. In case of osteoporosis, bisphosphonate treatment should follow guidelines for the general population. Future research should focus on pathogenesis and prevention of bone density loss in HIV.......The life expectancy in well-treated HIV-infected persons approaches that of the general population, but HIV-infected persons have a greater incidence of fractures and osteoporosis. A decrease in bone mineral density is observed primarily during the first 1-2 years of antiretroviral therapy. Dual X...

  10. Bone mineral density in adult coeliac disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: coeliac disease (CD affects around 1-2 % of the world population. Most patients are now diagnosed when adults, suffering the consequences of an impaired bone mineralization. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis, and CD. Methods: a PubMed search restricted to the last 15 years was conducted. Sources cited in the results were also reviewed to identify potential sources of information. Results: low BMD affects up to 75 % of celiac patients, and can be found at any age, independently of positive serological markers and presence of digestive symptoms. The prevalence of CD among osteoporotic patients is also significantly increased. Two theories try to explain this origin of low BMD: Micronutrients malabsorption (including calcium and vitamin D determined by villous atrophy has been related to secondary hyperparathyroidism and incapacity to achieve the potential bone mass peak; chronic inflammation was also related with RANKL secretion, osteoclasts activation and increased bone resorption. As a consequence, celiac patients have a risk for bone fractures that exceed 40 % that of matched non-affected population. Treatment of low BMD in CD comprises gluten-free diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and biphosphonates, although its effects on CD have not been specifically assessed. Conclusions: up to 75 % of celiac patients and 40 % of that diagnosed in adulthood present a low BMD and a variable increase in the risk of bone fractures. Epidemiological changes in CD make bone density scans more relevant for adult coeliacs.

  11. The pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol: Beyond bone-mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone mineral density in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

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    El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hawy, Mahmoud Ahmed; El-Hefnawy, Sally Mohamed; Mohamed, Sanaa Mansour

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) and normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional case-control study carried out on 50 children: 25 cases of NS (16 steroid-sensitive [SSNS] and nine steroid-resistant [SRNS] under follow up in the pediatric nephrology unit of Menoufia University Hospital, which is tertiary care center, were compared to 25 healthy controls with matched age and sex. All of the participants were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations (serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen [BUN], phosphorus [P], total and ionized calcium [Ca], parathyroid hormone [PTH], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]). Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spinal region (L2-L4) in patients group using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and ionized Ca were significantly lower while, serum P, ALP, and PTH were higher in SSNS and SRNS cases than the controls. Osteopenia was documented by DXA scan in 11 patients (44%) and osteoporosis in two patients (8%). Fracture risk was mild in six (24%), moderate in two (8%), and marked in three (12%) of patients. Bone mineralization was negatively affected by steroid treatment in children with NS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

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    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  14. The Relationship Between Osteoporotic Risk Factors and Bone Mineral Density

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    Şule Şahin Onat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since osteoporosis is a preventable disease to some extent, risk factor determination and if possible modification is very important. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between ostoporotic risk factors and bone mineral density results and emphasize the importance of risk factors. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 103 postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Demographic characteristics, osteoporortic risk factors, lumbar vertebrae and femur neck T scores were recorded. Relationships between lumbar vertebra and femur neck T scores and risk factors were statistically studied. Results: Advanced age, low physical activity status, inadequte dietary calcium intake and vertebral compression fractures were found to be associated with low bone mineral density results in postmenopausal osteoporotic women whereas marital status, occupation, education level and familial fracture history were not. Furthermore early menopause was found to be associated with low femoral T scores and smoking with low lumbar T scores. Tendency to fall and number of chronic diseases were irrelevant to bone mineral density. Conclusions: Risk factor assesment is still important for osteoporosis prevention. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19:74-80

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea and bone mineral density in obese patients

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    Mariani S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stefania Mariani,1 Daniela Fiore,1 Laura Varone,2 Sabrina Basciani,1 Agnese Persichetti,1 Mikiko Watanabe,1 Maurizio Saponara,3 Giovanni Spera,1 Costanzo Moretti,4 Lucio Gnessi11Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Physiopathology and Endocrinology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Audiology and Phonation, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of System Medicine, Section of Reproductive Endocrinology University of TorVergata, Fatebenefratelli Hospital "San Giovanni Calibita" Rome, ItalyContext: Obesity and its co-morbidities may adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a major complication of obesity. To date, the effects of OSA on BMD in obese patients have been poorly studied.Objective: To examine whether the severity of OSA independently correlates with BMD in obese patients.Methods: One hundred and fifteen obese subjects with OSA (Apnea/Hypopnea Index [AHI] ≥5 events per hour were included in the study. BMD was measured at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body mass index, lean mass, and representative measures of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammation (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen were also evaluated.Results: BMD did not differ among obese individuals regardless of OSA severity. Correlation coefficient analysis for all the covariates showed a lack of association between AHI and BMD that was strongly influenced by age and weight.Conclusion: Our study does not support an independent association between AHI and BMD in obese patients. Controlled studies involving a greater number of patients are warranted.Keywords: obesity, polysomnography, metabolic syndrome

  16. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in korean premenopausal women.

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    Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Kyae-Hyung; Koh, Young-Jin; Lee, Jee-Sun; Lee, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    Although Asian people are known to have lower bone mass than that of Caucasians, little is known about coffee-associated bone health in Asian. This study aimed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean premenopausal women. Data were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009. The study population consisted of 1,761 Korean premenopausal women (mean age 36 years) who were measured for lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and who completed a standardized questionnaire about coffee intake frequency. We excluded the participants who took hormone replacement therapy or medication for osteoporosis. The cross-sectional relationship between coffee consumption and impaired bone health (osteopenia or osteoporosis) was investigated by bone densitometry. Coffee consumption showed no significant association with BMD of either femoral neck or lumbar spine, independent of other factors. The adjusted odds ratios for BMD for those who consumed once in a day, twice a day and three times a day were 0.94 (0.70-1.26), 0.93 (0.67-1.28), and 1.02 (0.69-1.50), respectively (P for trend = 0.927). This study does not support the idea that coffee is a risk factor for impaired bone health in Korean premenopausal women.

  17. Asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreiros, Caio Cesar Leite de; Berigo, Marina Guareschi; Dominoni, Robson Luiz; Vargas, Deisi Maria

    2016-04-01

    Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a test technique that can be used to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures (AVF). It uses dual energy X-ray bsorptiometry (DXA) and can be performed concurrently with bone densitometry. This study aims to assess the prevalence of AVF in patients with low bone mass. Cross-sectional study including 135 individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD) with a T-score physical examination. Densitometric variables were obtained by bone mineral densitometry and VFA (Explorer, Hollogic®). Vertebral fractures were classified according to the Genant criteria. Student's t, chi-square and logistic regression were performed for statistical analysis. AVFs occurred in 24.4% of the subjects. They were older compared to those without AVF (65±9.25 versus 60.1±8.66; p=0.005), and had a history of lowimpact fractures (38.24% versus 19.8%; OR 2.5; p=0.03). Half of the patients that reported steroid therapy had AVFs, compared to one fifth of those who did not use steroids (50% versus 21.49%; OR 3.6; p=0.01). Asymptomatic vertebral fractures were present in approximately one fourth of patients. The risk factors associated were history of low-impact fracture, use of steroids and age > 61 years.

  18. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  19. Bone mineral density in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Castro T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated spine bone mineral density (BMD in Brazilian children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE in order to detect potential predictors of reduction in bone mass. A cross-sectional study of BMD at the lumbar spine level (L2-L4 was conducted on 16 female JSLE patients aged 6-17 years. Thirty-two age-matched healthy girls were used as control. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Weight, height and pubertal Tanner stage were determined in patients and controls. Disease duration, mean daily steroid doses, mean cumulative steroid doses and JSLE activity measured by the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI were determined for all JSLE patients based on their medical charts. All parameters were used as potential determinant factors for bone loss. Lumbar BMD tended to be lower in the JSLE patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.10. No significant correlation was observed in JSLE girls between BMD and age, height, Tanner stage, disease duration, corticosteroid use or disease activity. We found a weak correlation between BMD and weight (r = 0.672. In the JSLE group we found no significant parameters to correlate with reduced bone mass. Disease activity and mean cumulative steroid doses were not related to BMD values. We did not observe reduced bone mass in female JSLE.

  20. Alcoholic liver disease and changes in bone mineral density

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    Germán López-Larramona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and osteopenia are alterations in bone mineral density (BMD that frequently occur in the context of chronic liver disease (CLD. These alterations have been studied predominantly in chronic cholestatic disease and cirrhosis of the liver. Alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for the onset of osteoporosis, whose estimated prevalence in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD ranges between 5 % and 40 %. The loss of BMD in ALD is the result of an imbalance between bone formation and resorption. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes the toxic effects of alcohol on bone and endocrine and nutritional disorders secondary to alcoholism and a deficiency of osteocalcin, vitamin D and insulin growth factor-1. The diagnosis of BMD alterations in ALD is based on its measurement using bone densitometry. Treatment includes smoking and alcohol cessation and general measures such as changes in nutrition and exercise. Calcium and vitamin D supplements are recommended in all patients with ALD and osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the specific treatment of this condition. Alternatives include raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and calcitonin. This review will address the most important aspects involved in the clinical management of abnormal BMD in the context of ALD, including its prevalence, pathogenesis and diagnosis. We will also review the treatment of osteoporosis in CLD in general, focusing on specific aspects related to bone loss in ALD.

  1. Measurement of bone mineral density via light scattering

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    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen John; Attenburrow, Don P [Biomedical Physics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-07

    In this study we have investigated the potential of optical techniques to monitor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) via changes in scattering coefficient. For each of five bone samples, diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients were measured over the wavelength range 520-960 nm using an integrating sphere and CCD spectrometer. These were converted into optical absorption and scattering coefficients using a Monte Carlo inversion procedure. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time in order to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. After full demineralization, the optical scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. From the observed degree of fluctuation of the measurements, we estimate that BMD could be measured with an accuracy of 7% if optical scattering can be measured with an accuracy of 10%. We also report preliminary measurements of bone scattering using optical coherence tomography (OCT). An inter-side variability of 3% is obtained on dry samples with and without overlying periosteum. These results suggest that minimally invasive techniques for measuring optical scattering, such as OCT, may have a role in monitoring regional changes in BMD. This could be an important advance in our understanding of bone remodelling and its relationship to osteoarthritis. Both the integrating sphere and OCT measurements also suggest that light transport in bone is spatially anisotropic. OCT was used to assess probability of obtaining results in vivo.

  2. Interactions between Clinically Used Bisphosphonates and Bone Mineral: from Coordination Chemistry to Biomedical Applications and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęzowska, Joanna

    2018-02-20

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are well-established, widely used first-choice drugs for bone-related diseases and are one of the few classes of molecules for selective bone targeting. Their binding to calcium cations within hydroxyapatite (HA) is a key physicochemical event that takes place on the bone surface. It is the starting point for a cascade of biochemical reactions and cellular effects that lead to the pharmacological activity of BPs. The phenomenon has been known for years, yet its physicochemical nature is still not fully understood. In particular, the adsorption/release processes and structure-function relationships of BPs remain to be clarified. These are elementary, yet crucial factors, which should influence the design and development of new delivery tools or drugs with improved characteristics. This review summarizes the current understanding of the chemical interactions between clinically used BPs and bone mineral, starting from basic Ca 2+ coordination chemistry through to interactions with hydroxyapatite, nanocrystalline apatites, and natural bone mineral. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  4. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijbrandts, C.A.; Klaasen, R.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.W.; Gerlag, D.M.; van Eck-Smit, B.L.; Tak, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of anti-TNFalpha antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: /B> 50 patients with active RA (DAS28 >/= 3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously / 2 weeks) were

  5. Bone Mineral Density and Biochemical Markers of Bone Metabolism in Women Engaging in Recreational Horseback Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Alicja; Leszczynski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    An increased occurrence of lifestyle-related diseases such as osteoporosis indicates the necessity for taking preventive action, including regularly engaging in physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone turnover markers levels in young adult women engaging in recreational horseback riding and to determine the relationship between training characteristics and bone metabolism indices. The study involved 43 women: 23 equestrians and 20 age- and body mass index-matched controls. The hip and spine aBMD and serum levels of the bone turnover markers: osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide were measured. No significant differences were found in somatic features, concentrations of bone turnover markers, or bone mass variables. Correlation analysis of the equestrian participants showed significant relationship between body mass and BMDL1-L4 (P bone mass and levels of bone metabolic indices between groups of women practicing horseback riding at the recreational level and subjects who do not participate in frequent systematic physical activity. No relationship between training characteristics and bone turnover markers were found.

  6. Bone mineral density in children with recurrent bronchitis

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    Vertegel A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define the L1-L4 lumbar spine and hips bone mineral density (BMD parameters in children with recurrent bronchitis (RB through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Materials and methods. The study involved 45 children with RB, aged 6 to 10 years, boys — 20, girls — 25. To measure used L1-L4 lumbar spine and hips bone mineral density (BMD with the assessment Z-score. The Z-score level in the range of 0.05, except for more frequent registration decreasing of the L4 lumbar spine BMD in boys than in girls (р<0.05. The average number of reduced BMD loci was higher among boys (р<0.05. Indicators DXA in 10 children who had clinically significant fracture history, characterized by a relative increase in the number of BMD reduced sites. In boys reducing of the BMD odds ratio was higher than girls in all areas of study, particularly from the L1-L4 spine. Conclusions. Children with RB, aged 6 to 10 years have a reduction of the L1-L4 lumbar spine and hips BMD without clinical manifestations of bone deficiency.

  7. Determination of radial bone mineral content in low birth weight infants by photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, F.R.

    1988-07-01

    Studies at the University of Wisconsin have demonstrated that photon absorptiometry is a precise, accurate, and reproducible technique for measuring bone mineral content in premature infants and can be used to establish an intrauterine curve of bone mineralization in the fetus. Photon absorptiometry can also be used to measure bone width, thereby documenting appositional bone growth. The bone mineral content/bone width ratio may be helpful in identifying disorders of bone mineral metabolism in premature infants. The technique has been used to demonstrate that relatively poor bone mineralization (compared with the intrauterine curve) occurs in very low birth weight infants after birth, regardless of the type of feeding or the presence or absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 31 references.

  8. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy.

  9. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  10. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

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    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  11. Bone mineral density in healthy female adolescents according to age, bone age and pubertal breast stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto de Oliveria, Maria Regina; Cristiane da Silva, Carla; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Teixeira Fortes, Cristina Maria; Campos Capela, Renata; Santos Teixeira, Altamir; Carlos Dalmas, José; Lederer Goldberg, Tamara Beres

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner's criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe's test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. BMD (g·cm(-2)) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry.

  12. Serum osteocalcin and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

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    Lie T. Merijanti Susanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since high bone turnover is associated with decreased bone mass, biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as serum osteocalcin, may be used to assess osteoporosis and to predict fractures in elderly women, particulary those involving trabecular bone, and use of a combination of bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical markers may improve fracture prediction. The serum levels of osteocalcin constitute a specific biochemical parameter of bone formation. Compared to imaging techniques, assays for osteocalcin are safe, noninvasive and easily performed. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of serum osteocalcin and BMD in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women in South Jakarta from February to April 2010. The subjects were assessed for anthropometric characteristics, serum osteocalcin levels and BMD. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, right femoral neck and at the left distal radius by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean serum osteocalcin was 28.99 ± 10.02 ng/ml. The Pearson correlation test on all subjects indicated a significant inverse correlation between serum osteocalcin and femoral neck BMD (r = - 0.29; p=0.034. By arranging the data into tertiles, a significant association was found in non-obese subjects between mean femoral neck BMD and serum osteocalcin (p=0.036. The Tukey posthoc multiple comparison test showed a significant mean difference in femoral neck BMD between the lowest and the highest tertiles of osteocalcin serum concentrations (p=0.028. Maintenance of body weight is important for maintaining BMD in postmenopausal women.

  13. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  14. Early postmenopausal diminution of forearm and spinal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, K; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1995-01-01

    ) and anteroposterior (AP) projections, and in the distal third of the forearm. The postmenopausal diminution of BMD was best described by an exponential fit. The initial rate of postmenopausal diminution of BMD was highest in the most trabecular sites (LAT > AP > forearm), but 10-year diminution was similar at all...... sites (12%-13%, corresponding to about 1.0-1.5 SD), and extrapolation suggested reverse order of the rates of diminution thereafter (forearm > AP > LAT). When bone mineral content of the entire L3 vertebra (tBMC) was measured in vivo, AP tBMC could account for only 67% of the variation in LAT t...

  15. The Assessment of Bone Regulatory Pathways, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mineral Density in Vegetarian and Omnivorous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Rowicka, Grażyna; Klemarczyk, Witold; Strucińska, Małgorzata; Gajewska, Joanna

    2018-02-07

    Vegetarian diets contain many beneficial properties as well as carry a risk of inadequate intakes of several nutrients important to bone health. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum levels of bone metabolism markers and to analyze the relationships between biochemical bone markers and anthropometric parameters in children on vegetarian and omnivorous diets. The study included 70 prepubertal children on a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and 60 omnivorous children. Body composition, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers-bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteoprotegerin (OPG), nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), sclerostin, and Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk-1)-were measured using immunoenzymatic assays. In vegetarians, we observed a significantly higher level of BALP ( p = 0.002) and CTX-I ( p = 0.027), and slightly lower spine BMC ( p = 0.067) and BMD ( p = 0.060) than in omnivores. Concentrations of OPG, RANKL, sclerostin, and Dkk-1 were comparable in both groups of children. We found that CTX-I was positively correlated with BMC, total BMD, and lumbar spine BMD in vegetarians, but not in omnivores. A well-planned vegetarian diet with proper dairy and egg intake does not lead to significantly lower bone mass; however, children following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet had a higher rate of bone turnover and subtle changes in bone regulatory markers. CTX-I might be an important marker for the protection of vegetarians from bone abnormalities.

  16. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta model, oim(-/-) , mice have a defect in the collagen, which leads to brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants, Phospho1(-/-) , have ductile bone resulting from altered mineralization. Oim(-/-) and Phospho1(-/-) were compared with their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Results revealed that although both pathology models had extremely different whole-bone mechanics, they both had smaller apatite crystals, lower bulk mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. In contrast, the degree of mineralization of bone matrix was different for each strain: brittle oim(-/-) were hypermineralized, whereas ductile Phospho1(-/-) were hypomineralized. Despite differences in the mineralization, nanoscale alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results indicated that alterations from normal crystal size

  17. Low Bone Mineral Mass Is Associated with Decreased Bone Formation and Diet in Females with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Barrish, Judy O.; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize biomarkers of bone turnover and their relation with bone mineral mass in a cross-sectional cohort of females with Rett syndrome (RTT) and to examine the role of dietary, biochemical, hormonal, and inflammatory factors on bone mineral mass and bone biomarkers in this disorder. Methods Total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary nutrient intakes were determined from 3-day food records. Biomarkers of bone turnover, bone metabolites, vitamin D metabolites, hormones, and inflammatory markers were measured by standard clinical laboratory methods. Results Serum osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and C-telopeptide showed significant inverse relations with age in the RTT cohort. Mean osteocalcin concentrations were significantly lower and mean bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations were significantly higher for individual age groups in the RTT cohort than mean values for their respective age ranges in the reference population. Significant inverse associations were identified between urinary calcium losses, expressed as calcium:creatinine ratios, and total body BMC and BMD z-scores. Dietary protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes, expressed as a proportion of Dietary Reference Intakes for age and gender, showed significant positive associations with total body BMD z-scores. Conclusion This study suggests decreased bone formation rather than increased bone resorption may explain in part the deficits in bone mineral mass in RTT and that attention to the adequacy of dietary protein, calcium and phosphorus intakes may offer an opportunity to improve bone health in RTT. PMID:25144778

  18. Bone mass and mineral metabolism in Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Mastrogiacomo, I; Bonanni, G; Pozzan, G; Botteon, S; Tizian, L; Galuppo, P

    1995-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is frequently observed in hypogonadal males; however, very little is known on bone and mineral metabolism in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS). In this study 32 XXY KS patients and 24 healthy age-matched male controls were examined. Serum total and free testosterone (TT and FT) were significantly lower in patients than in controls (TT in KS, 15.1 +/- 7.8 nmol/l; controls, 30.4 +/- 9.1; p < 0.001. FT in KS, 81.8 +/- 24.9 pmol/l; controls, 135.7 +/- 16.4; p < 0.001). 17 beta-Estradiol was slightly higher in KS patients (KS, 49.0 +/- 27.1 pg/ml; controls, 39.3 +/- 16.4 pg/ml), but the difference was not significant. BMD, measured at the spine (L2-4) and at the proximal epiphysis of the left femur, was similar in patients and in the control group (spine: KS, 1.016 +/- 0.142; controls, 1.085 +/- 0.144 g/cm2; p = not significant. Femoral neck: KS, 0.926 +/- 0.149; controls, 0.926 +/- 0.122 g/cm2; p = not significant). Bone GLA protein (BGP) was significantly higher in the KS group (12.7 +/- 4.8 vs 8.9 +/- 5.2 ng/ml; p < 0.02), while serum calcium, serum phosphate, calciotrophic hormones and the fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (OHP/Creat) were similar in the two groups. A positive relationship between FT and both spine and femoral BMD was found in KS patients. Furthermore, OHP/Creat ratio was inversely related to BMD at the femur, and positively related to BGP in KS patients, but not in normal subjects. These findings suggest that (1) KS patients have normal bone mass, most probably because the hypogonadism is moderate; and (2) patients with lower bone mass appear to have higher bone turnover.

  19. Loss of PiT-2 results in abnormal bone development and decreased bone mineral density and length in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Wallingford, Mary C; Borgeia, Suhaib; Cox, Timothy C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2018-01-01

    Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated. In order to decipher the role of PiT-2 in bone, we examined normal bone development, growth, and mineralization in global PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 deficiency resulted in reduced vertebral column, femur, and tibia length as well as mandibular dimensions. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed that bone mineral density in the mandible, femur, and tibia were decreased, indicating that maintenance of bone function and structure is impaired in both craniofacial and long bones of PiT-2 deficient mice. Both cortical and trabecular thickness and mineral density were reduced in PiT-2 homozygous knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that PiT-2 is involved in normal bone development and growth and plays roles in cortical and trabecular bone metabolism feasibly by regulating local phosphate transport and mineralization processes in the bone. Further studies that evaluate bone cell-specific loss of PiT-2 are now warranted and may yield insight into complex mechanisms of bone development and growth, leading to identification of new therapeutic options for patients with bone diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFECTS OF RUN TRAINING ON BONE DEVELOPMENT AND BONE MINERALIZATION IN GROWING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We planned to study the body weights, bone sizes and bone mineral (Ca, Mg, Zn contents of growing mice subjected to treadmill training. Twelve 4-week-old male Swiss Albino mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The mice were trained by running exercise on a flat bed treadmill with 15 m/min, 30 min/day motion, throughout 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The body weight of animals, and length, fat-free dry weight and Ca, Mg, and Zn contents of bones were measured in both groups. Body weights of animals, and lengths and wet and dry weights of the femur and the tibia were significantly higher in the exercised group. Also, the Zn, Mg and Ca mineral contents of bones in the group that underwent exercise were higher than in the other group. Running exercise with a flat bed treadmill performed by the growing mice is an effective exercise mode, especially for bone morphology.

  1. A long-term study of bone mineral density in patients with phenylketonuria under diet therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Koura, Hala M.; Abdallah Ismail, Nagwa; Kamel, Ashraf F.; Ahmed, Azza M.; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Effat, Laila K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dietary control of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) needs restriction of natural proteins; adequate protein intake is achieved by adding low phenylalanine (phe) formulae. The adequacy of this diet for normal bone mineralization had not been sufficiently evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate and follow up bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with PKU within a 2-year time interval to assess the adequacy of a phenylalanine restricted diet for bone mineralization and to s...

  2. Bioinspired, biomimetic, double-enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone regeneration with calcium carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Heredia, Marco A.; Łapa, Agata; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels are popular materials for tissue regeneration. Incorporation of biologically active substances, e.g. enzymes, is straightforward. Hydrogel mineralization is desirable for bone regeneration. Here, hydrogels of Gellan Gum (GG), a biocompatible polysaccharide, were mineralized biomimetically...

  3. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMIassociated with LS BMD and FN BMC changes. This study suggests detrimental associations between protein intake and bone health. However, these negative associations maybe counteracted by BMI>30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  4. Do bone mineral density, bone geometry and the functional muscle-bone unit explain bone fractures in healthy children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccard, Ralf; Land, Christof; Semler, Oliver; Fricke, Oliver; Remer, Thomas; Stabrey, Angelika; Schoenau, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    Because the increasing fracture incidence has not been understood, the present study compares variables of the muscle-bone interaction to examine the hypothesis that an impaired adaptation of bone strength to muscle forces explains this phenomenon. The forearm of 220 individuals (mean age 11.1 ± 3.2 years; range 5.5-17.4 years) was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density, periosteal circumference, cortical area, strength strain index (SSI) and muscle area (MA) were measured at the distal and proximal radius of the non-dominant forearm. Maximum isometric grip force was measured by a dynamometer. The fracture history was evaluated by a questionnaire after a period of 5 ± 1.7 years. During the observational period at least one fracture appeared in 78 children and adolescents (35.5%). Individuals with and without fractures were not different in age, height, weight, and body mass index. Variables of bone mineral density, bone geometry and muscle force were not different between both groups. BMC, MA and SSI were dependent on age and sex. Fracture risk in healthy children and adolescents is not sufficiently explained by volumetric bone mineral density, the skeletal phenotype and indices of the functional muscle-bone unit. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Determination of bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body using photon absorptiometry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanpalmer, Janos; Kullenberg, Ragnar [Departments of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, (Sweden); Hansson, Tommy [Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg, (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    Dual-photon absorptiometry and triple-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to investigate the total bone mineral content and density as well as the trabecular bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. Both anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) measurements were performed. By combining the two projections it was found that the mean trabecular bone mineral density for all 202 subjects included in the study was 52% (SD{+-}20%) of the total bone mineral density in the third lumbar vertebral body. The mean trabecular bone mineral density as a fraction of the total vertebral body bone mineral density decreased as a function of age. The relative annual change in this fraction differed between males and females. It was also found that neither trabecular nor total bone mineral density differed significantly between male and female subjects aged 25-35 years, and bone mineral density (BMD), expressed in g/cm{sup 3}, showed no correlation to subject height, body weight or body mass index (BMI). Male and female individuals showed different rates of change of trabecular bone mineral density with age.

  6. Accelerated growth plate mineralization and foreshortened proximal limb bones in fetuin-A knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seto

    Full Text Available The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix--a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth.

  7. Accelerated Growth Plate Mineralization and Foreshortened Proximal Limb Bones in Fetuin-A Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W. C.; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix - a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth. PMID:23091616

  8. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  9. Bone mineral content (bmc and bone mineral density (bmd in postmenopausal women formerly practising kayaking and fencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raczyńska

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was aimed at answering the following questions: 1 Can a prolonged career in sports associated with considerable training loads, in conjunction with other osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present, affect the bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD of the former female athletes in their postmenopausal period of life?, and 2 How does the present lifestyle of the tested women, including physical activity and diet (calcium intake, influence the preservation of the optimal bone mass in these subjects? The postmenopausal subjects recruited to the present study included 15 former athletes (ten kayakers and five fencers and 11 women who never actively engaged in sports (control group. BMC (g and BMD (g/cm2 were densitometrically determined in the lumbar segment (L2-L4 of the spine, and the bone stiffness coefficient was ultrasonically determined in calcaneus. The effects of the osteoporosis risk factors (both past and present were estimated from individual replies to the questionnaire inquiries about the past career in sports, present physical activity, gonadal dysfunctions (dysmenorrhoea during the career and the present need for hormonal supplementary treatment, and the current dietary patterns. The results indicate that mean BMC and BMD values detected in the former athletes did not differ significant from those obtained in the non-athlete, control women: the BMC values equalled to 54.5±10.5, 52.6±14.6, and 46.5±3.2 g in the kayakers, the fencers, and the control women, respectively, while the respective BMD values were 1.05±0.45, 0.96±0.66, and 1.08±0.58 g/cm2. The questionnaire-based studies showed that neither the former female athletes nor the non-athlete controls exhibited in the past longer (i.e., lasting more than three months periods of hormonal disorders (amenorrhoea. As assessed from the dietary intake, only in the former fencers the diet covered the demand for calcium in 100%. In conclusion

  10. Association of Bone Mineral Density with the Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kam, Shin [Dept. of Preventtive MedicinE, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and the metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1204 adults(males: 364 females: 840) in a general hospital health promotion center. They were grouped into the normal and lower BMD group according to bone loss(osteopenia, osteoporosis), as determined by duel energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA). We analyzed the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for age, weight, alcohol intake, smoking, regular exercise, regular intake of meals, and menopausal status, odds ratios for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by gender were calculated for lower BMD. After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with bone loss in men (p<0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the lower BMD group is 3.07 (95% CI=1.83-5.16). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome was significantly decreased in High BMI, Low HDL in men and in High BMI in women (p<0.05). This study shows that BMD was associated with metabolic syndrome. Further studies needed to obtain evidence concerning the association between BMD and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiss, J J; Waltman, N; Ott, C D; Gross, G J; Lindsey, A M; Moore, T E

    2001-06-01

    The overall purpose of this longitudinal 18-month study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this article is to describe the baseline bone mineral density (BMD) findings for 30 postmenopausal women and to compare these BMD findings to time since menopause, body mass index, and tamoxifen use. Baseline data of BMD findings for 30 postmenopausal women, who have had a variety of treatments including surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and or tamoxifen, and are enrolled in the 18-month longitudinal study. A demographic questionnaire and a three day dietary record were used to collect baseline data. Eighty percent of the women with breast cancer history had abnormal BMDs at baseline (t-scores below -1.00 SD). Thinner women showed a greater risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss at the spine and hip. These findings suggest the need for early BMD assessments and for aggressive health promotion intervention strategies that include a multifaceted protocol of drug therapy for bone remodeling, 1500 mg of daily calcium, 400 IU vitamin D and a strength weight training program that is implemented immediately following chemotherapy treatment and menopause in this high risk population of women.

  12. The effect of chronic alcohol administration on bone mineral content and bone strength in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulík, P D; Vondrová, J; Růzicka, P; Sedlácek, R; Zíma, T

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Eight male Wistar rats at two months of age were alcoho-fed (7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. per day) to evaluate the effects of long-term administration (three months) of alcohol in drinking water. We have used a dose which is considered to be comparable to a dose of 1 liter of wine or 2.5 liters of 12(°) beer used in male adults daily. The bones were tested mechanically by a three-point bending test in a Mini Bionix (MTS) testing system. The bones from alcohol-fed rats were characterized by a reduction in bone density as well as in ash, calcium and phosphate content. In alcohol-fed rats the reduction in bone mineral density (10 %) was reflected by about 12 % reduction of mechanical strength of femur (158+/-5.5 vs. 178+/-3.2 N/mm(2)). Alcohol significantly altered femoral cortical thickness. In our experiment alcohol itself did not exert any antiandrogenic effect and it did not produce changes in the weight of seminal vesicles. Liver function test (GGT, ALP, AST) did not differ between alcohol-fed rats and control rats. Alcohol-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These results document the efficacy of alcohol at the dose of 7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. to cause bone loss and loss of bone mechanical strength in intact rats. The results of the present study may be interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of alcohol as a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  13. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Kang-hua; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Hong; Luo, Wei; Xu, Wen-shuo; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-hua

    2011-06-11

    Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  14. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  15. Does vitamin D supplementation of healthy Danish Caucasian girls affect bone turnover and bone mineralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molgaard, C.; Larnkjaer, A.; Cashman, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    of VDR and ER genotype on the effect of the supplementation. Methods: The girls (n = 221) were randomized to receive either 5 mu g or 10 mu g vitamin D-3 supplementation per day or placebo for 12 months. Whole body and lumbar spine bone mass measured by DXA and pubertal status were determined at baseline...... density (BMD) (p = 0.007) and bone mineral content (BMC) (p = 0.048) in the FF VDR genotype but not in the Ff or ff VDR genotypes. Conclusion: Supplementation with vitamin D (5 or 10 mu g/day) over 12 months increased the S-25OHD concentration but there was no effect on indices of bone health...... in the entire group of girls. However, there was an effect on BMD for a subgroup with the FF VDR genotype indicating an influence of genotype....

  16. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Yarasheski, Kevin; Powderly, William G; Whyte, Michael; Claxton, Sherry; DeMarco, Debra; Hoffmann, Mary; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-02-15

    The underlying mechanisms of several bone disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons and any relation to antiretroviral therapy have yet to be defined. A longitudinal study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons; to assess bone mineralization, metabolism, and histomorphometry over time; and to evaluate predisposing factors. A total of 128 patients enrolled the study, and 93 were observed for 72 weeks. "Classic" risk factors (low body mass index, history of weight loss, steroid use, and smoking) for low bone mineral density (BMD) and duration of HIV infection were strongly associated with osteopenia. There was a weak association between low BMD and receipt of treatment with protease inhibitors; this association disappeared after controlling for the above factors. Markers of bone turnover tended to be elevated in the whole cohort but were not associated with low BMD. BMD increased slightly during follow-up. Traditional risk factors and advanced HIV infection play a more significant pathogenic role in the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis associated with HIV infection than do treatment-associated factors.

  17. Risk factors for developing mineral bone disease in phenylketonuric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirás, Alicia; Bóveda, M Dolores; Leis, María R; Mera, Antonio; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luís; Fernández-Lorenzo, José R; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2013-03-01

    There is a compromised bone mass in phenylketonuria patients compared with normal population, but the mechanisms responsible are still a matter of investigation. In addition, tetrahydrobiopterin therapy is a new option for a significant proportion of these patients and the prevalence of mineral bone disease (MBD) in these patients is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study including 43 phenylketonuric patients. Bone densitometry, nutritional assessment, physical activity questionnaire, biochemical parameters, and molecular study were performed in all patients. Patients were stratified by phenotype, age and type of treatment. The MBD prevalence in phenylketonuria was 14%. Osteopenic and osteoporotic (n=6 patients) had an average daily natural protein intake significantly lower than the remaining (n=37) patients with PKU (14.33 ± 8.95 g vs 21.25 ± 20.85 g). Besides, a lower body mass index was found. There were no statistical differences in physical activity level, calcium, phosphorus and fat intake, and in phenylalanine, vitamin D, paratohormone, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid blood levels. Mutational spectrum was found in up to 30 different PAH genotypes and no relationship was established among genotype and development of MBD. None of the twelve phenylketonuric patients treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (27.9%), for an average of 7.1 years, developed MBD. Natural protein intake and blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid were significantly higher while calcium intake was lower in these patients. This study shows that the decrease in natural protein intake can play an important role in MBD development in phenylketonuric patients. Therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin allows a more relaxed protein diet, which is associated with better bone mass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroid function and bone mineral density among Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Thyroid hormones affect bone remodeling in patients with thyroid disease by acting directly or indirectly on bone cells. In view of limited information on correlation of thyroid function with bone mineral density (BMD in euthyroid subjects, we undertook this study to evaluate the correlation between thyroid function with BMD in subjects with normal thyroid function and subclinical hypothyroidism. Material and Methods : A total of 1290 subjects included in this cross sectional study, were divided in Group-1 with normal thyroid function and Group-2 with subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the estimation of serum 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. BMD at lumbar spine, femur, and forearm was measured. Results : BMD at all sites (radius, femur, and spine were comparable in both groups. There was no difference in BMD when subjects were divided in tertiles of TSH in either group. In group-1, FT4 and TSH were positively associated with BMD at 33% radius whereas FT3 was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck in multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, 25(OHD and PTH levels. In group-2, there was no association observed between TSH and BMD at any site. Amongst all study subjects FT4 and FT3 were positively correlated with BMD at lumbar spine and radius respectively among all subjects. Conclusion: TSH does not affect BMD in euthyroid subjects and subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormones appear to have more pronounced positive effect on cortical than trabecular bone in euthyroid subjects.

  19. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  20. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Perimenopausal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Shariati-Sarabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The menopausal transition called perimenopause, happens after the reproductive years, and isspecified with irregular menstrual cycles, perimenopause symptoms and hormonal changes. Women going throughperi menopausal period are vulnerable to bone loss.Osteoporosis is one of the most common debilitating metabolic bone diseases ,especially in the women almostaround 50 years .This study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis amongstasymptomatic individuals during the menopause transition period.Methods: A total of 714 asymptomatic peri-menopausal female volunteers were recruited through a billboard invitationfor participation in the study. The subjects were selected based on already defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.The project, which was conducted between 2010 and 2014 was affiliated to the Educational and Therapeutic Center,Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Bone Mineral Densitometry (BMD measured by DEXA (dual-energy X-rayabsorptiometry was carried out on two distinct sites, the proximal femur and the lumbar vertebrae from L1 to L4.Pertained data were analyzed.Results: The mean age of the subjects was 49.7±2.years. The overall prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosisin these peri-menopausal individuals were 37.6 % and 10% respectively. Thirty five point two percent of 714 womenpresented with osteopenia and eight percent of them have osteoporosis in the femoral neck, respectively. Nonetheless,BMD values at the lumbar spine indicated 41.6% and 12% of individual participants being affected by osteopenia andosteoporosis.Conclusion: In general osteopenia or osteoporosis, occurred in 48% of this study population, implying that specialattention is required for the bone health status of Iranian women who undergo menopause.

  1. bone mineral densities and mechanical properties of retrieved femoral bone samples in relation to bone mineral densities measured in the respective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Skripitz, Ralf; Lindner, Tobias; Köckerling, Martin; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The bone mineral density (BMD) of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (E(s)) and ultimate compression strength (σ(max)) of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016 ± 166 mg/cm(2) to 1376 ± 404 mg/cm(2). BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315 ± 199 mg/cm(2) and 347 ± 113 mg/cm(3), respectively. E(s) and σ(max) amounted to 232 ± 151 N/mm(2) and 6.4 ± 3.7 N/mm(2). Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r = 0.85 and 0.79, resp.). E(s) correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r = 0.79, r = 0.82, and r = 0.8, resp.).

  2. Bone Mineral Densities and Mechanical Properties of Retrieved Femoral Bone Samples in relation to Bone Mineral Densities Measured in the Respective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Haba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bone mineral density (BMD of retrieved cancellous bone samples is compared to the BMD measured in vivo in the respective osteoarthritic patients. Furthermore, mechanical properties, in terms of structural modulus (Es and ultimate compression strength (σmax of the bone samples, are correlated to BMD data. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 13 osteoarthritic patients undergoing total hip replacement. Subsequently, the BMD of each bone sample was analysed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA as well as ashing. Furthermore, BMDs of the proximal femur were analysed preoperatively in the respective patients by DXA. BMDs of the femoral neck and head showed a wide variation, from 1016±166 mg/cm2 to 1376±404 mg/cm2. BMDs of the bone samples measured by DXA and ashing yielded values of 315±199 mg/cm2 and 347±113 mg/cm3, respectively. Es and σmax amounted to 232±151 N/mm2 and 6.4±3.7 N/mm2. Significant correlation was found between the DXA and ashing data on the bone samples and the DXA data from the patients at the femoral head (r=0.85 and 0.79, resp.. Es correlated significantly with BMD in the patients and bone samples as well as the ashing data (r=0.79, r=0.82, and r=0.8, resp..

  3. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-scoreexercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  4. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  5. Gonadal steroid-dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M; Goldstein, David W; Hahn, Christopher W; Hirsch, Sarah C; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B; Taylor, Alexander P; Webb, Matthew L; Youngner, Jonathan M; Yu, Elaine W

    2016-03-01

    Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20-50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114. AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, NIH.

  6. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  7. Factors affecting bone mineral density in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-12-01

    To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (pbasic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP.

  8. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  9. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  10. Seasonal variations in indices of bone formation precede appropriate bone mineral changes in normal men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyldstrup, L.; McNair, P.; Jensen, G.F.; Transbol, I.

    1986-01-01

    In 10 normal males aged 23-50 years measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase (s-AP) and the 24-h whole body retention of 99mTc-diphosphonate (WBR), as indices of bone formation, and the fasting urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio (OHPr:Cr), as an index of bone resorption, were performed monthly from January 1983 to May 1984. Bone mineral content of the distal forearm (BMC) was measured in the middle of each quarter. From January to May BMC exhibited a reproducible, significant average increase of 2.5%, returning to baseline level between May and August. During the first quarter of both 1983 and 1984 a significant increase in s-AP and WBR was seen. Subsequently, during the second quarter of 1983, these variables fell below the mean of the year. Confirming their interrelationship, the deviations of s-AP and WBR were positively correlated throughout the study period (r = 0.51, P less than 0.05). Since the urinary OHPr:Cr ratio remained constant, the reported seasonal changes in bone mass of normal, adult males appear to result from primary changes in bone formation.

  11. Bone regeneration in minipigs by intrafibrillarly-mineralized collagen loaded with autologous periodontal ligament stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ci; Yan, Boxi; Cui, Zhen; Cui, Shengjie; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xuedong; Liu, Dawei; Yang, Ruli; Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Yanheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Biomimetic intrafibrillarly-mineralized collagen (IMC) is a promising scaffold for bone regeneration because of its structural and functional similarity to natural bone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration potential of IMC loaded with autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in large bone defects in minipigs. A macroporous IMC with a bone-like subfibrillar nanostructure was fabricated using a biomimetic bottom-up approach. Non-healing full thickness de...

  12. Effect of Bone Regeneration with Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix for Implant Placement in Aesthetic Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Amine, Khadija; Gharibi, Amina; Hsaine, Azeddine; Kissa, Jamila

    2017-01-01

    Bone volume is one of the key factors to be considered when evaluating implant placement. When the bone volume is insufficient, implant placement could be conditioned by the necessity of preforming bone grafting procedures to compensate bone loss. Various grafting procedures can be used with different bone substitute. Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix (MPM) is one of these grafting materials, used to maintain or regenerate the socket’s volume. In MPM, the autologous blood products highly concentra...

  13. Is bone mineral composition disrupted by organochlorines in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) in skulls of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) (n = 139) from East Greenland sampled during 1892-2002. Our primary goal was to detect possible changes in bone mineral content (osteopenia) due to elevated exposure to organochlorine [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs.......04) and SigmaCHL (p polar...... bears may have been caused by organochlorine exposure. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Dec...

  14. Bone mineral density, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures: a genome-wide association study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Richards (Brent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); M. Inouye (Michael); T. Pastinen; N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.G. Wilson (Scott); T. Andrew (Toby); M. Falchi (Mario); R. Gwilliam (Rhian); K.R. Ahmadi (Kourosh); A.M. Valdes; P.P. Arp (Pascal); P. Whittaker; D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); M. Jhamai (Mila); V. Kumanduri; M.J. Moorhouse (Michael); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); D.J. Hart; G. Zhai (Guangju); B.S. Kato; B.H. Mullin (Benjamin); F. Zhang (Feng); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Osteoporosis is diagnosed by the measurement of bone mineral density, which is a highly heritable and multifactorial trait. We aimed to identify genetic loci that are associated with bone mineral density. Methods: In this genome-wide association study, we identified the most

  15. Alteration in Bone Mineral Metabolism in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL: A Review

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    Chowdhury Yakub Jamal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant increase in event free survival (EFS and overall survival in children with cancer. As survival rates for childhood cancer have radically improved, late effects associated with the successful but highly intensive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have dramatically increased. Many possible late effects of cancer treatment are recognized in pediatric cancer patients as infertility, endocrine deficiency, renal failure, pulmonary and cardiac toxicity, obesity and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Decreased bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism disturbances have been recognized and reported in literature. Osteopenia/osteoporosis skeletal abnormalities, osteonecrosis and pathological fractures are known to occur frequently in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis, during and after treatment with chemotherapy. Various studies have revealed different metabolic alterations related to ALL. Some suggestions have been made about their relationship with the disease process. Various metabolic abnormalities may be encountered in the newly diagnosed ALL patients. It includes decreased and increased serum levels of calcium and phosphate. Hypercalcemia may result from leukemic infiltrations of bone and release of parathormone like substance from lymphoblast. Elevated serum phosphate can occur as a result of leukemic cell lysis and may induce hypocalcemia. It has been postulated by other authors that leukemic cells may directly infiltrate bone and produce parathroid hormone related peptides, prostaglandin E and osteoblast inhibiting factors. Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidisum have been demonstrated in patients with ALL. Some patients may have poor nutrition and decreased physical activities during treatment. However postulations have also been made that chemotherapy may play a role in creating metabolic alterations in children with ALL. Corticosteroid, methotraxate and cranial irradiations

  16. Bone mineral density and trabecular bone tissue quality in obese men

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    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are the two metabolic dise­ases with increased prevalence over last decades and a strong impact on the global morbidity and mortality have gained a status of major health threats worldwide. There is evidence that the higher body mass index (BMI values are associated with greater bone mineral density (BMD resulting in a site-specific protective effect for fragility fractures. On the other hand, higher BMI values increases incidence of falls and is associated with worse fractures consolidation. However, trabecular bone score (TBS indirectly explores bone quali­ty, independently of BMD. The aim of the study was to determine the connection between the BMD and TBS parameters in Ukrainian men suffering from obesity. Methods. We examined 396 men aged 40–89 years, by the BMI all the subjects were divided into 2 groups: Group A — with obesity and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (n = 129 and Group B — without obesity and BMI < 30 kg/m2 (n = 267. The BMD of total body, lumbar spine at the site L1–L4, femur and forearm were measured by DXA (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. The TBS of L1–L4 was assessed by means of TBS iNsight (Med-Imaps, Pessac, France. Results. In general, obese men had a significantly higher BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, total body and ultradistal forearm (p < 0.001 in comparison with men without obesity. The TBS of L1–L4 was significantly lower in obese men compared to non-obese men (p < 0.001. The significant positive correlation between the fat mass and the BMD at different sites was observed. The correlation between the fat mass and TBS of L1–L4 was also significant, but negative. Conclusions. Obesity negatively affects the quality of trabecular bone, while bone mineral density was significantly higher.

  17. Bone mineral density in Brazilian men 50 years and older

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    C.A.F. Zerbini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone mineral density (BMD in the lumbar spine (LSBMD, femoral neck (FNBMD and whole body (WBBMD and whole body tissue composition were evaluated in 288 Brazilian men 50 years and older, 80% white and 20% Mulattoes. Age was inversely correlated with WBBMD (r = -0.20 and FNBMD (r = -0.21 but not with LSBMD (r = 0.03. Body mass index and weight showed a strong positive correlation with WBBMD (r = 0.48 and 0.54, LSBMD (r = 0.37 and 0.45 and FNBMD (r = 0.42 and 0.48. Correlation with height was positive but weaker. No significant bone loss at the lumbar spine level was observed as the population aged. FNBMD and WBBMD decreased significantly only in the last decade (age 70-79 studied. BMD was higher for Brazilian men as compared to Brazilian women at all sites. No significant differences were observed between Brazilian and the US/European male population for BMD in the femoral neck. BMD measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in South American men is reported here for the first time. A decrease in FNBMD was detected only later in life, with a pattern similar to that described for the US/European male population.

  18. Bone mineral density in adults with Down`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelopoulou, N.; Souftas, V.; Mandroukas, K. [Ergophysiology Lab., Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sakadamis, A. [Medical School, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-05-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate if individuals with Down`s syndrome (DS) are likely to experience an increased risk of osteoporosis with advancing age, in addition to precocious aging and their skeletal anomalies. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 22 home-reared adults (9 males and 13 females; age 26.22 {+-} 4.45 and 23.65 {+-} 3.23 years, respectively) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The BMD of the second to fourth lumbar vertebrae was measured in posteroanterior projection and the mean density expressed as grams per square centimetre. The BMD of DS individuals was compared with 27 control subjects (12 males and 15 females) of the same age (age 24.16 {+-} 3.46 and 23.86 {+-} 2.92 years, respectively). The results showed that the BMD of the lumbar spine in the males as well as in the females with DS was significantly lower than that in their control counterparts (p < 0.001). Comparing the DS males with the females, the BMD was lower in the males at a level of 9 %. Factors that contribute to this disorder may be mainly the muscular hypotonia, the sedentary lifestyle and the accompanying diseases which frequently observed in the syndrome. Future studies must be focused on the biochemistry of bone metabolism, the evaluation of gonadal, thyroid and parathyroid function, and the genes of the extra chromosome 21. (orig.) With 1 tab., 21 refs.

  19. Bone mineral density change during adjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Ahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeOsteoporosis is currently receiving particular attention as a sequela in survivors of childhood osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD changes during methotrexate-based chemotherapy in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma.MethodsNine patients with osteosarcoma were included in this retrospective study and compared with eight healthy controls. BMD of the lumbar spine and unaffected femur neck of patients was serially measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA before and just after chemotherapy and compared with controls.ResultsFour patients (44% showed decreased lumbar spine BMD and seven patients (78% showed decreased femur neck BMD, while all controls showed increased lumbar and femur BMD (P=0.024 and P=0.023. The femur neck BMD z-scores decreased from -0.49±1.14 to -1.63±1.50 (P=0.032. At the end of therapy, five patients (56% showed femur neck BMD z-scores below -2.0.ConclusionThe bone metabolism is disturbed during therapy in children with osteosarcoma, resulting in a reduced BMD with respect to healthy controls. Since a reduced BMD predisposes to osteoporosis, specific attention and therapeutic interventions should be considered.

  20. [Bone mineral density in juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña Simón, E; Bueno Lozano, G; Armadá Maresca, M I; Ruibal Francisco, J L; Fernández Pérez, C; Lozano Tonkin, C; Casado de Frías, E

    2000-06-01

    To determine bone mineral density (BMD) at axial and appendicular sites in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and evaluate its relationship with metabolic control and disease duration. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000) in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at the distal third forearm in 246 healthy non-diabetic children and adolescents (111 boys, 135 girls, aged 2.8-20.8 years) and in 45 diabetic patients (18 boys, 27 girls, aged 5.2-19.4 years). The results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. The differences were tested by analysis of variance or Students t-test, as appropriate. The relationship between BMD and the remaining variables was studied by simple Pearsons coefficient and partial correlation coefficient. Significance was defined as p pubertal spurt. The greatest differences were found in males and in the trabecular bone. No relationship was found between metabolic control (mean glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin requirement) and duration of diabetes and the BMD in any region studied (p > 0.05). Pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus appear to constitute a population at risk of osteoporosis in adult-hood. Diagnosis of osteopenia diagnosis should be established according to densitometric criteria. In this study, metabolic control parameters and duration of diabetes did not enable predetermination of diabetic patients at risk of osteoporosis in adulthood.

  1. Bone mineral density (BMD) in obesity effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossain, V V; Rao, D S; Carella, M J; Divine, G; Rovner, D R

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that bone mineral density (BMD) is increased in obese subjects, but the effect of weight loss on BMD has not been well studied. Therefore, we evaluated BMD among 11 obese women (mean age 45.5 +/- 14.2 years) before and after weight loss achieved by ingesting an 800 calorie diet for 12 weeks. BMD measurements were made at baseline, 6 months and 1 year intervals. Urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine (H:Cr), calcium:creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratios were measured as indices of bone turnover. Mean weight at baseline was 103.8 +/- 15.8 kg and decreased to 83.2 +/- 12.2 at six months and was 85.8 +/- 14.2 kg at one year. Total body, hip and lumbar spine BMD were 1.12 +/- 0.07, .87 +/- 0.11, and 1.02 +/- 0.12 gm/cm2, respectively. Total body BMD was significantly lower at 12 months compared to baseline. No significant change was observed in BMD of the lumbar spine. There was also a significant decrease in hip BMD at six months and 12 months compared to baseline. H:Cr and Ca:Cr ratios did not change over time. We conclude that weight loss achieved by VLCD is accompanied by a statistically significant change in BMD, but the BMD remained in the normal range.

  2. Relationships between bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture of the distal radius and tibia with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccou, Julien; Edwards, Mark Hiley; Ward, Kate; Jameson, Karen; Moon, Rebecca; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus

    2015-09-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is associated with bone density loss and increased fracture risk, while low levels of alcohol consumption have been reported as beneficial in some studies. However, studies relating alcohol consumption to bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture, as assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), are lacking. Here we report an analysis from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, in which we studied associations between HR-pQCT measures at the distal radius and tibia and alcohol consumption in 376 participants (198 men and 178 women) aged 72.1-81.4 years. A total of 30 (15.2%), 90 (45.5%) and 78 (39.4%) men drank minimal/none (tibia. However, women that drank moderate/high alcohol had significantly higher trabecular vBMD (p=0.007), trabecular thickness (p=0.026), and trabecular number (p=0.042) and higher trabecular separation (p=0.026) at the distal radius than those that drank low alcohol. Our results suggest that alcohol consumption (low and moderate/high) may have a detrimental impact on bone health in men in both the cortical and trabecular compartments at the distal radius with similar results in women in the trabecular compartment between none/minimal alcohol and low alcohol at the distal tibia suggesting that avoidance of alcohol may be beneficial for bone health. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, A.Z., E-mail: pollacka@mail.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mumford, S.L. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wactawski-Wende, J. [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F. [Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  4. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  5. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Tânia; Wyon, Matthew; Maia, José; Machado, José Carlos; Marques, Franklim; Metsios, George S; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2015-02-01

    While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords "dance", "ballet", "BMD", "bone density", "osteoporosis" and "female athlete triad syndrome". A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers' information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies. Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as

  6. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Children with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fragile bones develop due to various factors in thalassemic patients. Even with optimum management, osteoporosis occurs, contributing to morbidity in majority of patients with thalassemia major (TM. Our aim was to evaluate bone health of thalassemic children using biochemical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD, and to emphasize the precautionary measures and early diagnosis of osteoporosis. Material and Methods: Thirteen children (5 females, 8 males, age <18 years with TM were included in the study. Age, duration, weight, height, transfusion frequency, medication use were recorded. Following laboratory analysis were obtained: Whole blood count, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxin, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. BMD was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA from femur and lumbar vertebrae. Patients with DXA Z-score <-2 was defined as osteoporotic. Results: The mean age was 7.85±3.17 years and body mass index (BMI was 14.68±1.93 kg/m2. The rest of the results were as follows: Lumbar BMD 0.464±0.108 g/cm2; total femur BMD 0.581± 0.114 g/cm2; lumbar DEXA Z-score 2.44±1.60; total femur DEXA -0.93±1.19. Osteoporosis ratio was determined as 69% in the lumbar vertebrae and 10% in the femur. A significant positive correlation was found between lumbar-femoral BMD and BMI, and a significant negative correlation was observed between femoral BMD and iPTH. Conclusion: BMD is low in thalassemic children. Despite regular transfusions and chelation therapy, osteoporosis starts early in life. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18: 72-7

  7. Effect of rhythmic gymnastics on volumetric bone mineral density and bone geometry in premenarcheal female athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournis, S; Michopoulou, E; Fatouros, I G; Paspati, I; Michalopoulou, M; Raptou, P; Leontsini, D; Avloniti, A; Krekoukia, M; Zouvelou, V; Galanos, A; Aggelousis, N; Kambas, A; Douroudos, I; Lyritis, G P; Taxildaris, K; Pappaioannou, N

    2010-06-01

    Weight-bearing exercise during growth exerts positive effects on the skeleton. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that long-term elite rhythmic gymnastics exerts positive effects on volumetric bone mineral density and geometry and to determine whether exercise-induced bone adaptation is associated with increased periosteal bone formation or medullary contraction using tibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography and bone turnover markers. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a tertiary center. We studied 26 elite premenarcheal female rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and 23 female controls, aged 9-13 yr. We measured bone age, volumetric bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), cortical thickness, cortical and trabecular area, and polar stress strength index (SSIp) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the left tibia proximal to the distal metaphysis (trabecular) at 14, 38 (cortical), and 66% (muscle mass) from the distal end and bone turnover markers. The two groups were comparable according to height and chronological and bone age. After weight adjustment, cortical BMC, area, and thickness at 38% were significantly higher in RG (P < 0.005-0.001). Periosteal circumference, SSIp, and muscle area were higher in RG (P < 0.01-0.001). Muscle area was significantly associated with cortical BMC, area, and SSIp, whereas years of training showed positive association with cortical BMC, area, and thickness independent of chronological age. RG in premenarcheal girls may induce positive adaptations on the skeleton, especially in cortical bone. Increased duration of exercise is associated with a positive response of bone geometry.

  8. Greater lean tissue and skeletal muscle mass are associated with higher bone mineral content in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton John C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with bone mineral content in an ethnically diverse group of 6 to 18 year old boys and girls. Methods 175 healthy children (103 boys; 72 girls had assessments of body mass, height, and Tanner stage. Whole body bone mineral content, non-bone lean body mass (nbLBM, skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Muscle mass was estimated from an equation using appendicular lean soft tissue measured by DXA, weight and height. Estimates of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue were also assessed by whole body multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Linear regression was used to determine whether skeletal muscle mass assessed by DXA or by MRI were better predictors of bone mineral content compared with nbLBM after adjusting for sex, age, race or ethnicity, and Tanner stage. Results Greater skeletal muscle mass was associated with greater bone mineral content (p 2 statistic compared with assessment by DXA for predicting bone mineral content. The proportion of skeletal muscle mass in nbLBM was significantly associated with greater bone mineral content adjusted for total nbLBM. Conclusions This study is among the first to describe and compare the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone using both MRI and DXA estimates. The results demonstrate that the use of MRI provides a modestly better fitting model for the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone compared with DXA. Skeletal muscle had an impact on bone mineral content independent of total non-bone lean body mass. In addition, Hispanics had greater bone mineral content compared to other race and ethnic groups after adjusting for sex, age, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle mass, and height.

  9. International conference on bone mineral measurement, October 12--13, 1973, Chicago, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-12-31

    From international conference on bone mineral measurement; Chicago, Illinois, USA (12 Oct 1973). Abstracts of papers presented at the international conference on bone mineral measurement are presented. The papers were grouped into two sessions: a physical session including papers on measuring techniques, errors, interpretation and correlations, dual photon techniques, and data handling and exchange; a biomedical session including papers on bone disease, osteoporosis, normative data, non-disease influences, renal, and activity and inactivity. (ERB)

  10. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...

  11. Osteoclast-like cells on deproteinized bovine bone mineral and biphasic calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Gruber, Reinhard; Buser, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    commercially available calcium phosphate bone substitute materials retrieved from bone defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six defects were prepared bilaterally in the mandibular body of three mini pigs. The defects were randomly grafted with either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) or biphasic calcium...

  12. Low bone mineral density and high bone metabolism turnover in premenopausal women with unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijević, Milan; Petronijević, Natasa; Ivković, Maja; Stefanović, Dusan; Radonjić, Nevena; Glisić, Branislava; Ristić, Gorica; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Paunović, Vladimir

    2008-03-01

    The majority of studies reporting decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with unipolar depression neglected sex and age differences and menopause as the most important risk factor for osteoporosis. We presumed that physically healthy premenopausal women with unipolar depression have decreased BMD and altered bone cell metabolism. BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry, bone alkaline phosphatase sera activity, 5b-tartarate resistant acid phosphatase sera activity and urine N-terminal telopeptide were measured in 73 premenopausal women with unipolar depression and compared with 47 healthy, age- and osteoporosis risk factors-matched premenopausal women. The duration and severity of depression, hormonal status (cortisol, prolactin, parathormone, oestradiol), antidepressive treatment, and physical activity through whole and modified QUALEFFO-41 questionnaire were evaluated. The results were statistically elaborated by the chi-square test, Student's t-test for independent samples, one-way analysis of variance - ANOVA, one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Correlations were assessed by means of Pearson's coefficient. Patients with unipolar depression had significantly lower BMD, the decrease of which correlated only with the duration of depression. High bone metabolism turnover was found with a predomination of osteoresorption which, but not osteosynthesis, correlated with the severity of depression, estimated through Hamilton depression scores. Despite higher but not significant levels of cortisol in women with unipolar depression, the BMD decrease and high bone turnover seem not to be the consequence of hormonal changes or medical treatment. The significant correlations between physical activity and osteoresorption markers were found indicating possible underlying mechanism. Premenopausal women with unipolar depression have significantly lower BMD because of stimulated bone cell metabolism with predomination of osteoresorption process

  13. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  14. A contribution with review to the description of mineralization of bone and other calcified tissues in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, J.; Landis, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    This manuscript considers certain aspects of mineral deposition in bone and other vertebrate calcifying tissues in order to examine physical, chemical, and biological factors important in the mineralization process. The paper in a discussion format principally presents a new data and the formulation of concepts based on such data as well as a summary of background material as necessary review. Mineralization is found to occur at spatially independent sites throughout the organic extracellular tissue matrices. Matrix vesicles and collagen fibrils each may serve as independent nucleation centers for mineral with vesicle mineralization being local and collagen mineralization dominating the tissues as a whole. Collagen fibril organization is suggested to be such that hole zones are aligned in three dimensions, creating extensive channels for mineral accommodation. Nucleation occurs initially in hole zones and crystal growth leads to the development of plate-like mineral particles whose orientation, disposition, and sizes within fibrils are detailed. Effects of diffusion, crystallinity, and critical nucleation and growth events are described with respect to their influence on mineral deposition in bulk and local regions of tissue matrices.

  15. Serum leptin, bone mineral density and the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Linjuan; Pan, Zhanpeng; Zeng, Yanjun

    2015-11-16

    Previously reported fracture rates in patients with spinal cord injury range from 1% to 20%. However, the exact role of spinal cord injury in bone metabolism has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effects of serum leptin and bone mineral density on the healing of long bone fractures in men with spinal cord injury, 15 male SCI patients and 15 matched controls were involved in our study. The outcome indicated that at 4 and 8 weeks after bone fracture, callus production in patients with spinal cord injury was lower than that in controls. Besides, bone mineral density was significantly reduced at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, it was found that at each time point, patients with spinal cord injury had significantly higher serum leptin levels than controls and no association was found between serum leptin level and bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae. Moreover, bone mineral density was positively correlated with bone formation in both of the groups. These findings suggest that in early phases i.e. week 4 and 8, fracture healing was impaired in patients with spinal cord injury and that various factors participated in the complicated healing process, such as hormonal and mechanical factors.

  16. Automated determination of bone age and bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Anink (Janneke); C.M. Nusman (Charlotte M.); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); R.R. van Rijn (Rick); M. Maas (Mario); M.A.J. van Rossum (Marion)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Chronic inflammation combined with glucocorticoid treatment and immobilization puts juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients at risk of impaired growth and reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Conventional methods for evaluating bone age and BMD are time-consuming or

  17. Bone geometry, bone mineral density, and micro-architecture in patients with myelofibrosis: a cross-sectional study using DXA, HR-pQCT, and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sarah; Vestergaard, Hanne; Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, Vikram Vinod; Shanbhoque, Vikram Vinod; Stahlberg, Claudia Irene; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (MF) is a severe chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm, progressing towards a terminal stage with insufficient haematopoiesis and osteosclerotic manifestations. Whilst densitometry studies have showed MF patients to have elevated bone mineral density, data on bone geometry and micro-structure assessed with non-invasive methods are lacking. We measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone geometry, volumetric BMD, and micro-architecture were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We compared the structural parameters of bones by comparing 18 patients with MF and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and height. Blood was analysed for biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with MF. There were no significant differences in measurements of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density, and micro-structure between MF patients and matched controls. Estimated bone stiffness and bone strength were similar between MF patients and controls. The level of pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP) was significantly increased in MF, which may indicate extensive collagen synthesis, one of the major diagnostic criteria in MF. We conclude that bone mineral density, geometry, and micro-architecture in this cohort of MF patients are comparable with those in healthy individuals.

  18. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients related to worse lung function, low weight and decreased fat-free mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieze, A; de Greef, M.H.G.; Wijkstra, P.J.; Wempe, J

    Low bone mineral density is frequently seen in COPD patients. Advanced COPD, low BMI and muscle depletion are risk factors for developing low bone mineral density (BMD). Low bone mineral density is seen in 75% of the GOLD stage IV patients. Introduction We set out to investigate the prevalence of

  19. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have lower bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amarante

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in a sample of 32 patients with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (POI in comparison to reference groups of 25 pre- and 55 postmenopausal women. Hip (lumbar and spinal bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the three groups. The median age of POI patients at the time of diagnosis was 35 years (interquartile range: 27-37 years. The mean ± SD age of postmenopausal reference women (52.16 ± 3.65 years was higher than that of POI (46.28 ± 10.38 years and premenopausal women (43.96 ± 7.08; P = 0.001 at the time of BMD measurement. Twenty-seven (84.4% POI women were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT at the time of the study. In the postmenopausal reference group, 30.4% were current users of HRT. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the POI group (1.050 ± 0.17 g/cm² compared to the age-matched premenopausal reference group (1.136 ± 0.12 g/cm²; P = 0.040. Moreover, 22 (68.7% POI women had low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis by World Health Organization criteria versus 47.3% of the postmenopausal reference group (P = 0.042. In conclusion, the present data indicate that BMD is significantly lower in patients with POI than in age-matched premenopausal women. Also, the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis is higher in POI women than in women after natural menopause. Early medical interventions are necessary to ensure that women with POI will maintain their bonemass.

  1. A study of bone mineral density in adults with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eimear M; Comiskey, Catherine M; Carroll, Aine M

    2009-07-01

    To examine prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among adults with disability, using World Health Organization diagnostic categories. Cross-sectional study. National Rehabilitation Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Patients (N=255; 178 men, 77 women) who were disabled for at least 3 months because of acquired brain injury, spinal cord injury, other neurologic condition, or lower-limb amputation. None. Laboratory investigations including intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), and sex hormones; and BMD of lumbar spine and at least 1 hip, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as T scores and z scores. Mean age +/- SD of participants was 48.7+/-15.6 years. Vitamin D deficiency, 25-OHD level 50 nmol/L or less, occurred in 154 (62.9%); insufficiency, a level between 51 and 72 nmol/L, occurred in 36 (14.7%). Based on T scores, 108 participants (42.4%) had osteopenia, and 60 (23.5%) had osteoporosis. A z score of -1 or less but more than -2 occurred in 76 (29.8%); a further 52 (20.4%) had a z score of -2 or less. On multiple linear regression analysis, ambulatory status and duration of disability were independent predictors of BMD at neck of femur (beta=.152, P=.007; beta=-.191, P=.001, respectively) and total proximal femur (beta=.170, P=.001; beta=-.216, Pdisability participating in rehabilitation, compared with the general young adult population. Duration since onset of disability and mobility status are independent predictors of BMD at the hip. Bone health monitoring should form part of the long-term follow-up in adults with newly acquired disabilities.

  2. Low bone mineral density in achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Kadono, Izumi; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH) are the most common form of short-limb skeletal dysplasias caused by activated fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling. Although decreased bone mass was reported in gain-of-function mutation in Fgfr3 mice, both disorders have never been described as osteoporotic. In the present study, we evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) in ACH and HCH patients. We measured spinal BMD (L1-L4) in 18 ACH and four HCH patients with an average age of 19.8 ± 7.5 years (range, 10-33 years). BMD Z-score in each individual was calculated for normalizing age and gender. Correlation between body mass index (BMI) and BMD was analyzed. Moreover, BMD and Z-score were compared between ACH patients and HCH patients. The average BMD of ACH/HCH patients was 0.805 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) (range, 0.554-1.056 g/cm(2) ), resulting in an average Z-score of -1.1 ± 0.8 (range, -2.4 to 0.6) of the standard value. A slightly positive correlation was observed between BMI and BMD (r = 0.45; P = 0.13). There was no significant difference in BMD and Z-score between ACH and HCH patients. Spinal BMD was reduced in ACH/HCH patients, and was mildly correlated with individual BMI. We should carefully monitor BMD and examine osteoporosis-related symptoms in adolescent and adult ACH/HCH patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  4. A comparative study of zwitterionic ligands-mediated mineralization and the potential of mineralized zwitterionic matrices for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pingsheng; Emmons, Erin; Song, Jie

    2014-11-21

    Cationic and anionic residues of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of bone play synergistic roles in recruiting precursor ions and templating the nucleation, growth and crystalline transformations of calcium apatite in natural biomineralization. We previously reported that zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands can template extensive 3-dimensional (3-D) hydroxyapaptite (HA)-mineralization of photo-crosslinked polymethacrylatehydrogels. Here, we compared the potency of two other major zwitterionic ligands, phosphobetaine and carboxybetaine, with that of the sulfobetaine in mediating 3-D mineralization using the crosslinked polymethacrylate hydrogel platform. We confirmed that all three zwitterionic hydrogels were able to effectively template 3-D mineralization, supporting the general ability of zwitterions to mediate templated mineralization. Among them, however, sulfobetaine and phosphobetaine hydrogels templated denser 3-D mineralizationthan the carboxybetaine hydrogel, likely due to their higher free water fractions and better maintenance of zwitterionic nature throughout the pH-changes during the in vitro mineralization process. We further demonstrated that the extensively mineralized zwitterionic hydrogels could be exploited for efficient retention (e.g. 99% retention after 24-h incubation in PBS) of osteogenic growth factor recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and subsequent sustained local release with retained bioactivity. Combined with the excellent cytocompatibility of all three zwitterionic hydrogels and the significantly improved cell adhesive properties of their mineralized matrices, these materials could find promising applications in bone tissue engineering.

  5. Assessing total body protein, mineral, and bone mineral content from total body water and body density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, S F; Gretebeck, R J; Wong, W W

    1995-11-01

    We hypothesized that investigators could assess bone mineral content (BMC), total body mineral (M), and protein (P) from body water (W) and density (DB) based on the theory of W. E. Siri (Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, 1956, p. 239-280 and Techniques for Measuring Body Composition, 1961, p. 223-224) for body composition analysis. Siri used one or more of the body components and the densities of the body, fat (F), W, M, and P to estimate one of the remaining fractional masses. We compared M, BMC, P. F, and fat-free mass (FFM) in 31 subjects (15 women and 16 men) computed from measurements of W and DB with [4-compartment (4C) model] and without [3-compartment (3C) model] BMC (from dual X-ray absorptiometry). 4C model P was calculated by difference (P = FFM - W - M). Mean difference (P > 0.05) ranged from 0.1 to 0.8%. Correlations [+/- standard error of estimate (%)] between 4C and 3C model values were significant (r = 0.907 +/- 8.8, 0.907 +/- 8.7, 0.969 +/- 6.6, 0.998 +/- 2.0, and 0.999 +/- 0.7% for M, BMC, P, F, and FFM, respectively). We concluded that investigators can assess M, BMC, and P from W and DB.

  6. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  7. The rate of bone mineralization in birds is directly related to alkaline phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgar, Vallo; Kilgas, Priit; Viitak, Anu; Reynolds, S James

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a biochemical marker, plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), can be used as a general indicator of skeletal development in vertebrate animals. In birds, age-related variation in ALP activity, presumably due to bone formation processes, has been demonstrated, but to date, a direct connection between bone mineralization and enzyme activity has been elusive. In this study, we show that the activity of a bone isoform of ALP (bone ALP) is closely related to the overall rate of skeletal mineralization in nestlings of a small passerine bird, the great tit (Parus major L). Moreover, bone ALP activity predicted the rate of mineralization of leg and wing bones but not that of the skull. Liver isoform of ALP was only marginally related to the overall rate of skeletal mineralization, while no association with the mineralization of long bones was found. We conclude that bone ALP activity in the blood plasma is a reliable biomarker for skeletal mineralization in birds. This marker enables detection of subtle developmental differences between chicks of similar structural size, potentially facilitating the prediction of offspring mid- and long-term survival.

  8. CD38 is associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2012-02-03

    One goal of osteoporosis research is to identify the genes and environmental factors that contribute to low bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture. Linkage analyses have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), however, the genes contributing to low BMD are largely unknown. We examined the potential association of an intronic polymorphism in CD38 with BMD and postmenopausal bone loss. CD38 resides in 4p15, where a QTL for BMD has been described. CD38-\\/- mice display an osteoporotic phenotype at 3 months, with normalization of BMD by 5 months. The CD38 polymorphism was identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 457 postmenopausal and 173 premenopausal Caucasian women whose spine and hip BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Influence of the CD38 polymorphism on bone loss was analyzed in 273 postmenopausal women over a follow-up of 2.94 +\\/- 1.50 years. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with premenopausal and postmenopausal (P = 0.001) lumbar spine BMD. Women homozygous for the G allele had >14% lower spinal BMD than women with GC\\/CC genotypes. An allele dose effect was observed at the spine in premenopausal (P = 0.002) and postmenopausal (P < 0.001) cohorts. The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in pre- and postmenopausal women (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). However, significance was lost following adjustment of hip BMD for covariates in the postmenopausal cohort (P = 0.081). The CD38-PvuII polymorphism was weakly associated with bone loss at the spine (P = 0.024), in postmenopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. We suggest that the CD38-PvuII polymorphism may influence the attainment and maintenance of peak BMD and postmenopausal bone loss.

  9. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels, bone geometry, and bone mineral density in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Marco; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Sarti, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Bolzetta, Francesco; Imoscopi, Alessandra; Rinaldi, Giulia; Perissinotto, Egle; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    The association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D values and cortical/trabecular bone parameters in older adults has been incompletely explored. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone parameters for the tibia and radius using peripheral quantitative computed tomography in free-living healthy older adults. The study involved 134 older adults attending a twice-weekly low-intensity fitness program. In addition to clinical history and serum parameters, we assessed fat-free mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, total bone and cortical bone cross-sectional areas, and trabecular and cortical bone mineral density for the tibia and radius by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After applying multivariate linear regression models, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, and creatinine, the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone parameters was significant for total bone and cortical bone cross-sectional areas in the radius (partial R (2) = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively) and for trabecular bone mineral density and cortical bone cross-sectional area in the tibia (partial R (2) = 0.11 and 0.02, respectively). These findings support the idea that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone parameters are linked in older adults. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D levels over time are associated with changes in these parameters.

  10. Bone mineral density in patients with treated Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, G D; Joyce, M; Evans, M; Clearwater, J; Reid, I R

    1999-01-01

    Some studies have reported low bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with Addison's disease, whereas others have found BMD to be normal. It is possible that over-replacement of corticosteroids and adrenal androgen deficiency may contribute to a reduction in BMD in these patients. The aims of this study were to examine BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with treated Addison's disease at multiple skeletal sites and to investigate the relationships between these measurements and corticosteroid dose. Nineteen men, 3 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal women with Addison's disease were studied and data from these patients were analyzed separately and as a group. The mean SEM age and duration of Addison's disease of the men were 44 +/- 3.8 years and 15 +/- 2.2 years, in the premenopausal women 40 +/- 2 years and 5 +/- 2.4 years, and in the postmenopausal women 68 +/- 4 years and 20 +/- 5 years, respectively. Eight men were unexpectedly hypogonadal (serum testosterone <13 nmol/l). BMD was expressed as a percent of values in normal controls (n = 418) adjusted for age, sex, ethnic origin, menopausal status and body weight. In the whole group (n = 29), mean BMD of the patients with Addison's disease was not different from normal at any site [mean (+/- SEM) lumbar spine 99.5% +/- 2.9%; femoral neck 99.3% +/- 2.5%; Ward's triangle 96.2% +/- 3.5%; trochanter 99.2% +/- 2.9%; radius 99.8% +/- 2.1%; total body 98.5% +/- 1.4%]. However, there was a wide range of bone densities, with some patients having a low BMD at multiple sites. Bone density was negatively correlated with current and cumulative corticosteroid dose per kilogram body weight and duration of Addison's disease. In conclusion, BMD in patients with Addison's disease is little different from normal, but may be lower in patients with disease of long duration and a high cumulative corticosteroid dose. Unexpected hypogonadism in men with Addison's disease is common.

  11. Distinct tissue mineral density in plate and rod-like trabeculae of human trabecular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J.; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X. Tony; Guo, X. Edward

    2015-01-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various ...

  12. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  13. Increase in physical activity after resurfacing hip arthroplasty is associated with calcar and acetabular bone mineral density changes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhardt, D.M.; Hannink, G.J.; Rijnders, T.; Susante, J.L. van

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bone preservation is an important advantage of the resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA) concept. We hypothesised that patients' increase in physical activity level after RHA would positively relate with periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) changes and thus facilitate bone preservation.

  14. Guided bone regeneration using resorbable membrane and different bone substitutes: Early histological and molecular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgali, Ibrahim; Turri, Alberto; Xia, Wei; Norlindh, Birgitta; Johansson, Anna; Dahlin, Christer; Thomsen, Peter; Omar, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Bone insufficiency remains a major challenge for bone-anchored implants. The combination of guided bone regeneration (GBR) and bone augmentation is an established procedure to restore the bone. However, a proper understanding of the interactions between the bone substitute and GBR membrane materials and the bone-healing environment is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the early events of bone healing and the cellular activities in response to a combination of GBR membrane and different calcium phosphate (CaP) materials. Defects were created in the trabecular region of rat femurs, and filled with deproteinized bovine bone (DBB), hydroxyapatite (HA) or strontium-doped HA (SrHA) or left empty (sham). All the defects were covered with an extracellular matrix membrane. Defects were harvested after 12h, 3d and 6d for histology/histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analyses. Histology revealed new bone, at 6d, in all the defects. Larger amount of bone was observed in the SrHA-filled defect. This was in parallel with the reduced expression of osteoclastic genes (CR and CatK) and the osteoblast-osteoclast coupling gene (RANKL) in the SrHA defects. Immunohistochemistry indicated fewer osteoclasts in the SrHA defects. The observations of CD68 and periostin-expressing cells in the membrane per se indicated that the membrane may contribute to the healing process in the defect. It is concluded that the bone-promoting effects of Sr in vivo are mediated by a reduction in catabolic and osteoblast-osteoclast coupling processes. The combination of a bioactive membrane and CaP bone substitute material doped with Sr may produce early synergistic effects during GBR. The study provides novel molecular, cellular and structural evidence on the promotion of early bone regeneration in response to synthetic strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrHA) substitute, in combination with a resorbable, guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane. The prevailing view, based

  15. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. The Effect of Osteoporosis Risk Factors on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate whether osteoporosis (OP risk factors have any effect on bone mineral density in patients receiving OP treatment. Material and method: The study included 73 postmenopausal women with OP who had been using bisphosphonate treatment for one year, with at least one of either total lumbar or femoral neck T-score still <-2.5 and whose total lumbar and/or femoral neck T-scores showed no improvement compared to one year earlier. Demographic characteristics and OP risk factors were recorded. Mini-mental test (MMT, Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales were used in the evaluation of the cognitive status of patients. The assessed parameters of patients were compared with the current total lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results: Being underweight, illiteracy, high gravidity, inadequate calcium intake, and cognitive dysfunction were found to be effective on lumbar and femoral neck T- scores, while tea and coffee consumption, smoking status and the presence of additional comorbidity and drug use were found to be effective on femoral neck T-scores. Conclusion: Some OP risk factors may contribute to the ineffectiveness in patients receiving regular OP treatment who fail to show adequate response. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2011;17:44-50

  17. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phantom studies of triple photon absorptiometry and bone mineral measurement at a hip prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, T.J.; Webber, C.E. (Chedoke McMaster Hospitals, Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-03-01

    The feasibility of using triple photon absorptiometry (TPA) for the measurement of bone mineral mass about a hip prosthesis was examined. A theoretical expression describing the variance of TPA measurements was verified using a triple photon source and phantom materials which simulate the soft tissue-bone mineral-metal prosthesis system. The expression for the variance was used to determine an optimized set of photon energies. It was shown that a precision of 3% could be obtained for reasonable measurement times using this optimized set of energies and that TPA should be a feasible approach for measurement of bone mineral about a hip prosthesis. (orig.).

  19. Impact of pioglitazone on bone mineral density and bone marrow fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, L M; Lingvay, I; Yuan, Q; Li, X; Adams-Huet, B; Maalouf, N M

    2017-11-01

    Pioglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of fractures. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, pioglitazone use for 12 months was associated with a significant increase in bone marrow fat content at the femoral neck, accompanied by a significant decrease in total hip bone mineral density. The change in bone marrow fat with pioglitazone use was predominantly observed in female vs. male participants. Use of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone is associated with greater fracture incidence, although the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of pioglitazone treatment on femoral neck bone marrow (BM) fat content and on bone mineral density (BMD), and to establish if any correlation exists between the changes in these parameters. In this double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 42 obese volunteers with metabolic syndrome were randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/day) or matching placebo for 1 year. The following measurements were conducted at baseline and during the treatment: liver, pancreas, and femoral neck BM fat content (by magnetic resonance spectroscopy), BMD by DXA, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, and beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Results were available for 37 subjects who completed the baseline and 1-year evaluations. At 12 months, BM fat increased with pioglitazone (absolute change, +4.1%, p = 0.03), whereas BM fat content in the placebo group decreased non-significantly (-3.1%, p = 0.08) (p = 0.007 for the pioglitazone-placebo response difference). Total hip BMD declined in the pioglitazone group (-1.4%) and increased by 0.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.03 between groups). The change in total hip BMD was inversely and significantly correlated with the change in BM fat content (Spearman rho = -0.56, p = 0.01) in the pioglitazone group, but not within the placebo group (rho = -0.29, p = 0.24). Changes in BM fat with pioglitazone were predominantly

  20. Bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis patients 1 year after adalimumab therapy: arrest of bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijbrandts, C A; Klaasen, R; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Gerlag, D M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; Tak, P P

    2009-03-01

    To explore the effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha antibody therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femur neck in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 50 patients with active RA (DAS28> or =3.2) who started adalimumab (40 mg subcutaneously/2 weeks) were included in an open label prospective study. All patients used stable methotrexate and were allowed to use prednisone (< or =10 mg/day). The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck was measured before and 1 year after start of treatment. Disease activity at baseline (28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)) and disease duration were inversely correlated with femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD (p<0.05). Mean BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck remained unchanged after 1 year of adalimumab therapy (+0.3% and +0.3%, respectively). Of interest, a beneficial effect of prednisone on change in femur neck BMD was observed with a relative increase with prednisone use (+2.5%) compared to no concomitant prednisone use (-0.7%), (p = 0.015). In contrast to the progressive bone loss observed after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy, TNF blockade may result in an arrest of general bone loss. Consistent with previous observations, the data also suggest that the net effect of low-dose corticosteroids on BMD in RA may be beneficial, possibly resulting from their anti-inflammatory effects.

  1. Increased calcium content and inhomogeneity of mineralization render bone toughness in osteoporosis: mineralization, morphology and biomechanics of human single trabeculae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Soltau, Markus; Zustin, Jozef; Püschel, Klaus; Duda, Georg N; Amling, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The differentiation and degree of the effects of mineral content and/or morphology on bone quality remain, to a large extent, unanswered due to several microarchitectural particularities in spatial measuring fields (e.g., force transfer, trajectories, microcalli). Therefore, as the smallest basic component of cancellous bone, we focused on single trabeculae to investigate the effects of mineralization and structure, both independently and in superposition. Transiliac Bordier bone cores and T12 vertebrae were obtained from 20 females at autopsy for specimen preparation, enabling radiographical analyses, histomorphometry, Bone Mineral Density Distribution (BMDD) analyses, and trabecular singularization to be performed. Evaluated contact X-rays and histomorphometric limits from cases with osteoporotic vertebral fractures generated two subdivisions, osteoporotic (n=12, Ø 78 years) and non-osteoporotic (n=8, Ø 49 years) cases, based on fracture appearance and bone volume (BV/TV). Measurements of trabecular number (Tb.N.), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp.), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th.), trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf) and eroded surface (ES/BS) were carried out to provide detailed structural properties of the investigated groups. The mechanical properties of 400 rod-like single vertebral trabeculae, assessed by three-point bending, were matched with mineral properties as quantified by BMDD analyses of cross-sectioned rod-like and plate-like trabeculae, both in superposition and independently. Non-osteoporotic iliac crests and vertebrae displayed linear dependency on structure parameters, whereas osteoporotic compartments proved to be non-correlated with bone structure. Independent of trabecular thickness, osteoporotic rod-like trabeculae showed decreases in Young's modulus, fracture load, yield strength, ultimate stress, work to failure and bending stiffness, along with significantly increased mean calcium content and calcium width. Non-osteoporotic trabeculae

  2. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the impact of antiepileptic therapy on bone mineral density of epileptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zhidkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs may have a negative effect on bone tissue, by increasing the risk of fractures in epileptic patients compared to the general population. Many investigations have shown lower bone mineral density and a higher risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients taking traditional and novel AEDs. Multidrug therapy and the duration of AED intake are associated with the most significant risk for lower bone mineral density. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of action of different AEDs on bone tissue remain little studied.

  3. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  4. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  5. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  6. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian [Division de Investigacion y Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n., C.P. 76010, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G. [Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria en Materiales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Av. Universidad 3000, C.P. 04510, Coyoacan, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, C.P. 76230, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I. [Posgrado en Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, C.P. 76230, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  7. Changes of mineralization of free autogenous bone grafts used for sinus floor elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan; Wiltfang, Jörg; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Rupprecht, Stephan; Thorwarth, Michael

    2006-12-01

    For augmentations before implant placement in areas of minor bone quantity, autogenous bone is considered the reference to all bone substitutes used alternatively. Autogenous bone transplants originate from various donor areas and can be prepared in different ways before augmentation. They may either be used as block grafts or may be milled to granules that can be used solitarily or in combination with a bone substitute. In a prospective study, 61 patients of the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of our University receiving two-stage sinus floor elevation because of insufficient bone supply were randomly selected. At first-stage surgery, the local augmentation procedure, monocortical probes were obtained on the site of bone harvesting. At second-stage surgery, the implant insertion 6 months after the elevation procedure, bone cores were harvested in the areas of implant placement. Donor regions were the following three areas: the posterior (N=28) and anterior pelvic region (N=15) and the chin region (N=18). The implanted bone in all three groups was particulated to granules of 2-3 mm(2) using a bone mill. All biopsies were analyzed by means of microradiography. The anterior pelvic bone grafts showed a mineralized tissue grade of 35.1+/-7.6% before milling and augmentation. The posterior pelvic bone grafts exhibited a mineralization of 30.7+/-9.5% and the chin bone grafts 74.6+/-8.6%. At second-stage surgery after 6 months, the mineralization was 36.1+/-7.59% in the areas where bone grafts from the anterior pelvic crest were used. Probes harvested from sites with posterior pelvic bone augmentations showed a mineralization rate of 34.5+/-6.5%, and sites were chin bone grafts were applied expressed a mineralization of 54+/-8.6% (P=0.003 compared with the pre-operative value). The comparison of the microradiographical results demonstrated significant differences in the mineralization grades depending on the origin of the graft. The origin of the grafts and their

  8. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......-deficient and healthy males, indicating identical bone turnover. The GH-deficient females, however, had significantly lower levels of bone markers compared to healthy females, indicating a reduced bone turnover. Oestrogen substitution of the GH-deficient females could explain this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  9. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Growth Hormone Deficiency - Does a Gender Difference Exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, PC

    2006-01-01

    identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium......-deficient and healthy males, indicating identical bone turnover. The GH-deficient females, however, had significantly lower levels of bone markers compared to healthy females, indicating a reduced bone turnover. Oestrogen substitution of the GH-deficient females could explain this difference. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  10. The early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation; Measurement of bone mineral density in lumbar vertebra by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Katsuyuki; Hori, Reiko; Shigekawa, Koji; Matsubara, Keiichi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Shunpei; Kataoka, Masaaki; Kawamura, Masashi (Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    Osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis and compression fracture are commonly observed several years after radiation. Since lumbago usually occurs several months after radiation, the possibility that bone mineral metabolism is disturbed during and immediately after radiation cannot be ruled out. However, there have been no reports concerning early changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density was measured by QCT (Quantitative Computed Tomography) in 30 normal non-radiated cases and 14 radiated cases to investigate the changes in bone mineral metabolism due to radiation. The bone mineral density (QCT-Value: QCT-V) in the 3rd lumbar vertebra (L3) of normal non-radiated subjects decreased linearly with age (Y=291.114447-3.01473X). The QCT-V of the 5th lumbar vertebra (L5) of normal cases also decreased linearly with age (Y=309.641397-3.03986X), resembling that of L3. The ratio of the QCT-V of L5 to L3 (L5/L3, expressed as a parcentage) definitely increased with age (Y=86.5657441+0.58885064X). In radiated cases, the QCT-V of L3 in the non-radiated field did not change appreciably. The QCT-V of L5 in the radiated field was decreased from 20 Gy and reached 53.08+-17.37% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. The L5/L3 ratio was also decreased from 20 Gy and reached 55.47+-15.32% of the pre-radiation value after 50 Gy. It becomes apparent that the QCT-V of the radiated lumbar vertebra is decreased during radiation. It is suggested that bone mineral metabolism may be disturbed in the early phase of radiation. (author).

  11. Alterations of bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with various grades of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S T W; Stracke, H; Lange, U; Klör, H U; Teichmann, J

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis to determine if increased severity of the disease would correlate with increased bone loss. Between October 1999 and September 2000, we investigated 42 patients with an average age of approximately 53 years suffering from chronic pancreatitis, as well as 20 healthy male controls with an average age of 49 years. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed on patients and controls, and serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (CICP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and 25(OH) vitamin D(3), as well as fecal elastase 1 were also determined. The severity of chronic pancreatitis in patients was determined via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and assigned to 1 of 3 grades based on the Cambridge classification. BMD of patients with chronic pancreatitis was markedly decreased compared to controls (means in patients: DEXA lumbar vertebra anterior/posterior (LV ap) 96.8% +/- 4.2%, DEXA Ward's triangle (WARD) 92.2% +/- 5.2%; controls: DEXA LV ap 98.7% +/- 3.7%, DEXA WARD 97.1% +/- 3.1%; P vitmain D(3) and decreased BMD. This supports a connection between the inflammatory destruction of the pancreas (Cambridge classification), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (fecal elastase 1), altered levels of vitamin D metabolites, and loss of skeletal mass. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jixing; Li, Ning; Gong, Xiaofeng; He, Liang

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D and bone turnover markers (BTMs) might have an effect on the occurrence of acute hip fracture, while the current results are conflicting. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between serum 25(OH)D, bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fracture. A total of 277 patients with hip fractures and 272 patients without fractures were included in this study. The serum 25(OH)D, bone formation markers, including N-terminal extension propeptide of type-I collagen (P1NP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin(OC), bone resorption markers, including C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX-1), and bone mineral density were collected and analyzed. Women with hip fractures had significantly lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, higher concentrations of serum CTX-1, P1NP and OC, lower concentrations of femoral neck and total hip bone mineral density (Phip BMD (OR=0.141, 95%CI=0.034-0.577, P=0.006) were independent risk factors for hip fractures in postmenopausal women. The receiver operating characteristics curves showed that serum 25(OH)D had a good AUC value (0.830). In this study, lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D and total hip bone mineral density were widely existed in Chinese postmenopausal women with hip fractures. Furthermore, bone resorption was more active than bone formation in senile postmenopausal women. Therefore, monitoring the alteration of serum CTX-1 in clinically might be useful for fracture prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An update on childhood bone health: mineral accrual, assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Aviva B; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E

    2015-02-01

    To update the reader's knowledge about the factors that influence bone mineral accrual and to review the advances in the assessment of bone health and treatment of bone disorders. Maternal vitamin D status influences neonatal calcium levels, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size. In turn, BMD z-score tends to track in childhood. These factors highlight the importance of bone health as early as fetal life. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is the mainstay of clinical bone health assessment in this population because of the availability of appropriate reference data. Recently, more information has become available about the assessment and treatment of bone disease in chronically ill pediatric patients. Bone health must become a health focus starting prenatally in order to maximize peak bone mass and to prevent osteoporosis-related bone disease in adulthood. Vitamin D, calcium and weight-bearing activity are the factors of key importance throughout childhood in achieving optimal bone health as BMD z-score tracks through childhood and into adulthood. Recent updates of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry focus on the appropriate use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in children of all ages, including children with chronic disease, and on the treatment of pediatric bone disease.

  14. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mansouri Laila

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD and bone-turn over markers. Methods It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN. For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX. Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Results Mean age of patients was 58.7 ± 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2% were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. Conclusion In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for

  15. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichchou, Linda; Allali, Fadoua; Rostom, Samira; Bennani, Loubna; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Abourazzak, Fatima Z; Khazzani, Hamza; El Mansouri, Laila; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2010-08-08

    Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone-turn over markers. It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN). For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Mean age of patients was 58.7 +/- 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2%) were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for the assessment of osteoporosis in the spine in patients with

  16. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  17. Association between bone mineral density and lumbar disc degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Sami; Leinonen, Ville; Rikkonen, Toni; Vainio, Pauli; Marttila, Jarkko; Honkanen, Risto; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Kröger, Heikki; Sirola, Joonas

    2014-12-01

    Higher vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) has been found to be related with lumbar disc degeneration (LDD), while relationship between femoral neck BMD and LDD remains controversial. The aim of our research was to study the relationship between LDD and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. The study population consisted of 168 postmenopausal women (aged 63.3-75.0 years, mean 68.6 years) from the prospective OSTPRE and OSTPRE-FPS study cohorts. The severity of LDD was graded from T2-weighted MRI images using the five-grade Pfirrmann classification. Four vertebral levels (L1-L4) were studied (total 672 discs). The association between lumbar BMD and Z-score and the severity of LDD was studied separately for each vertebral level with AN(C)OVA analysis, using potential confounders as covariates. Higher lumbar BMD and Z-score were associated with more severe LDD at all studied levels (L1-L4): between L4-L5 disc and L4 BMD (p=0.044) and L4 Z-score (p=0.052), between L2-L3 disc and L3 BMD (p=0.001) and at all other levels (p<0.001). The mean degeneration grade of the studied discs was associated with the mean L1-L4 BMD and Z-score (p<0.001). Statistical significance of any result did not alter after controlling for confounding factors. There was no significant association between femoral neck BMD and LDD. Higher lumbar BMD/Z-score were associated with more severe LDD. There was no significant association between femoral neck BMD and disc degeneration. Femoral neck BMD may be a more reliable measurement for diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with degenerative changes in the lumbar spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone mineral density and inflammatory bowel disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. In this study, the association between disease severity and BMD in patients with IBD was evaluated. Associations between BMD and the Montreal classification, disease activity and drug therapy were also tested. A cross-sectional prevalence study with a comparison group was conducted. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were evaluated: 68 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC, and 60 with Crohn's disease (CD. The control group consisted of 67 healthy subjects. All patients and controls had BMD measured and in IBD patients, current medications, hospitalization, and disease location, extent and phenotype, according to the Montreal classification, were recorded. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate categorical variables. In the CD group, most patients were diagnosed between 17–40 years of age. Ileocolonic and non-stricturing non-penetrating disease were the most frequent disease location and behavior, respectively. In UC patients, extensive colitis was the most frequent disease location. UC and CD patients were more likely to have osteopenia than controls (OR=14.93/OR=24.38, respectively. In the CD group, male patients, perianal disease, penetrating behavior and age at diagnosis >40 years were associated with low BMD. Taking azathioprine and infliximab also seemed to be associated with osteopenia. In the UC group, we observed an association between low BMD and male patients, left colitis, corticosteroid use and hospitalization. Disease activity was not associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis in CD and UC patients. Disease severity seems to be associated with osteopenia in IBD patients.

  19. Bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease: review of its pathophysiology and morbimortality

    OpenAIRE

    Bernuy, Jeanette; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia y Facultad de Medicina Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral Bone Disorder (MBD) is a broad term that includes abnormal serum calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, parathyroidhormone, growth abnormalities, bone mineralization and/or extraskeletal calcifications in patients with chronic kidneydisease (CKD ). It is present in almost all patients on dialysis and may not always improve with a kidney transplant. Newfactors and hormones have been identified, such as Klotho and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) that interact withvitamin D and the parathy...

  20. [Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa Junior, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  2. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12?17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determ...

  3. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hideki Ito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art. Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063], while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223] and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]. Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents.

  4. Epidemiologic studies on bone mineral density and fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Burger (Huibert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is currently defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectnral deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. The burden of fractures is substantial, both in terms of

  5. Evaluation of bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cemlyn-Jones

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF have an increasing life span and osteoporosis has become a more recognised problem in these patients. The pathogenesis of low bone mineral density (BMD in CF seems to be multifactorial and the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low BMD in a group of CF outpatients and to relate the findings with the variables studied.The study included 22 patients aged between 14 and 45 years (mean age 26.3. Two of the subjects were lung transplant patients. BMD was assessed by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN. This data was correlated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD levels, BMI and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1.BMD (Z-score and T-score ranged from 0.6 to -6 and from 0.5 to -6.7 at LS; at FN the scores ranged from 0.6 to -3.9 and from 0.6 to -4.1. The mean serum 25-OHD concentration (12,57 ng/ml was at the low end of the normal range (10-60 ng/ml. On average patients did not present with malnutrition, however BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.7 kg/m2. Lung function status was assessed by FEV1; 64% of patients had FEV1 below 80% and within this group four patients had a FEV1 under 40%.There was a positive correlation between low BMD and 25-OHD concentrations and also between BMD and FEV1. There was no linear correlation between BMD and BMI. Resumo: A esperança de vida dos doentes com fibrose quística (FQ tem vindo a aumentar, sendo mais frequente a identificação de osteoporose. A patogénese de uma baixa densidade mineral óssea (DMO na FQ parece ser multifactorial e o objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de baixa DMO num grupo de doentes com FQ e a sua correlação com outros parâmetros avaliados.O estudo incluiu 22 doentes com FQ com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 45 anos (média 26,3, dois dos quais transplantados pulmonares. A DMO foi avaliada por densitometria óssea ao nível da coluna lombar e do colo do f

  6. Degenerative lumbar listhesis and bone mineral density in elderly women. The study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M T; Rubin, D A; San Valentin, R; Palermo, L; Kang, J D; Donaldson, W F; Nevitt, M; Cauley, J A

    1999-12-01

    A cross-sectional and prospective study. To investigate the association between lumbar listhesis in elderly white women and bone mineral density at the spine, hip, radius, and calcaneus. Several types of degenerative spinal changes have been found to be associated with high bone mineral density at the spine and other body sites. Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine for 1400 elderly women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures were digitized. Listhesis (antero and retro) was assessed at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1. Bone mineral density was measured at the spine, hip, calcaneus, and the distal and proximal radius. After adjusting the data for age and body mass index, retrolisthesis at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 was associated with mean spinal bone mineral density levels that were 9% to 13% higher compared with those levels in women with no listhesis (P anterolisthesis at L3-L4 was 12% higher (P anterolisthesis at that level. This study suggests that retrolisthesis, like other spinal degenerative diseases, is associated with increased spinal bone mineral density. Anterolisthesis, however, may involve a different etiology, because its association with bone mineral density varies by spinal level.

  7. Bone Geometry, Volumetric Bone Mineral Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in Caucasian Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. A Cross-Sectional Study Using HR-pQCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Gudex, Claire; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of fracture. We used high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical and trabecular microarchitecture and estimated bone strength...... by finite element analysis (FEA) at the distal radius and tibia to assess bone characteristics beyond BMD that may contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-three Caucasian women with SLE (median age 48, range 21-64 years) and 99 controls (median age 45, range 21-64 years) were studied. Groups.......01), cortical area (-14 %, p bone volume fraction [(BV/TV); -17 %, p

  8. Effect of underground working on vitamin D levels and bone mineral densities in coal miners: a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Mungan, A.G.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U.; Guven, B.; Begendik, F. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of underground working on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) values in coal miners. Fifty coal miners working underground and 50 surface workers as controls, matched for age and body mass index, from Zonguldak, Turkey, were recruited to the study. Levels of 25-OHD, biochemical bone markers, and lumbar spine and femur BMD values were measured in all study participants. Lumbar spine and femur BMD values were significantly higher in underground workers compared with surface workers, but there was no significant difference in 25-OHD levels between the two groups. Duration of underground working, age, 25-OHD levels, cigarette consumption and dietary calcium intake were not correlated with BMD values. Underground physical working does not seem to be a significant risk factor for low 25-OHD levels or low BMD values.

  9. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Mølgaard, Christian; Husby, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Area (BA) accretion. Methods This longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline and after two years follows up. BMC, BMD, and BA were measured. The total body less head (TBLH) values were used......Background Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone...... between the categories of physical activity and bone traits. Results Of 800 invited children, 742 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow up. Complete datasets were obtained in 602/742 (81%) children. Mean (range) of age was 11.5 years (9.7-13.9). PA at different...

  10. Enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone tissue engineering by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Messersmith, P.B.; Chasan, S.; Mikos, A.G.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Dickson, G.; Schaubroeck, D.; Balcaen, L.; Vanhaecke, F.; Dubruel, P.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone, is incorporated into three hydrogel biomaterials to induce their mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). These are collagen type I, a mussel-protein-inspired adhesive consisting of PEG substituted with catechol groups,

  11. A novel 3-D mineralized tumor model to study breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth P Pathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic bone disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with advanced breast cancer, but the role of the bone mineral hydroxyapatite (HA in this process remains unclear. We have developed a novel mineralized 3-D tumor model and have employed this culture system to systematically investigate the pro-metastatic role of HA under physiologically relevant conditions in vitro.MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were cultured within non-mineralized or mineralized polymeric scaffolds fabricated by a gas foaming-particulate leaching technique. Tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of pro-osteoclastic interleukin-8 (IL-8 was increased in mineralized tumor models as compared to non-mineralized tumor models, and IL-8 secretion was more pronounced for bone-specific MDA-MB231 subpopulations relative to lung-specific breast cancer cells. These differences were pathologically significant as conditioned media collected from mineralized tumor models promoted osteoclastogenesis in an IL-8 dependent manner. Finally, drug testing and signaling studies with transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta confirmed the clinical relevance of our culture system and revealed that breast cancer cell behavior is broadly affected by HA.Our results indicate that HA promotes features associated with the neoplastic and metastatic growth of breast carcinoma cells in bone and that IL-8 may play an important role in this process. The developed mineralized tumor models may help to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may ultimately enable more efficacious therapy of patients with advanced breast cancer.

  12. The effect of a 12-week exercise programme on bone mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longer lifespan has increased the emphasis on bone health, which is often compromised with age. Studies have shown that exercise yields a positive influence on bone mineral density (BMD), especially when done during the early years of life (second to third decades). A 12-week study was undertaken using ...

  13. Mineralization and bone regeneration using a bioactive elastin-like recombinamer membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejeda-Montes, E.; Klymov, A.; Nejadnik, M.R.; Alonso, M.; Rodriguez-Cabello, J.C.; Walboomers, X.F.; Mata, A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for alternative therapies to improve bone regeneration continues to be a major challenge for the medical community. Here we report on the enhanced mineralization, osteogenesis, and in vivo bone regeneration properties of a bioactive elastin-like recombinamer (ELR) membrane. Three

  14. Mineralization behavior and interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composite implants in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yanxuan; Zheng Yudong; Huang Xiaoshan; Xi Tingfei; Han Dongfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin Xiaodan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Song Wenhui, E-mail: zhengyudong@mater.ustb.edu.c, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.u [Wolfson Center for Materials Processing, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Due to the non-bioactivity and poor conjunction performance of present cartilage prostheses, the main work here is to develop the bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel articular cartilage/bone (BG-PVA/bone) composite implants. The essential criterion for a biomaterial to bond with living bone is well-matched mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility and bioactivity. In vitro studies on the formation of a surface layer of carbonate hydroxyl apatite (HCA) and the corresponding variation of the properties of biomaterials are imperative for their clinical application. In this paper, the mineralization behavior and variation of the interface properties of BG-PVA/bone composites were studied in vitro by using simulated body fluid (SBF). The mineralization and HCA layer formed on the interface between the BG-PVA hydrogel and bone in SBF could provide the composites with bioactivity and firmer combination. The compression property, shear strength and interface morphology of BG-PVA/bone composite implants varying with the immersion time in SBF were characterized. Also, the influence laws of the immersion time, content of BG in the composites and aperture of bones to the mineralization behavior and interface properties were investigated. The good mineralization behavior and enhanced conjunction performance of BG-PVA/bone composites demonstrated that this kind of composite implant might be more appropriate cartilage replacements.

  15. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ...

  16. LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN BRAZILIAN PATIENTS AT DIAGNOSIS OF CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Timmermans Pires da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow bone mineral density is considered an extra-intestinal manifestation of celiac disease with reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and risk of fractures. Celiac disease is considered a condition at high risk for secondary osteoporosis and the evaluation of bone density is very important in the clinical management of these patients.ObjectiveThe present study aimed to investigate bone alterations in celiac patients from Curitiba, South Region of Brazil at diagnosis, correlating the findings with age and gender.MethodsPatients who were included in the study were attended to in a private office of the same physician from January 2009 to December 2013. The diagnosis of celiac disease was done through clinical, serological and histological findings. All data were collected from the medical charts of the patients. After the diagnosis of celiac disease, evaluation for low bone mineral density was requested by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. DEXA bone densitometer was used to estimate low bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femur.ResultsA total of 101 patients, 82 (81.2% female and 19 (18.8% male subjects, with mean age of 39.0±3.03 years were included. At celiac disease diagnosis, 36 (35.6% were younger than 30 years, 41 (40.6% were between 31 and 50 years, and 24 (23.8% were older than 50 years. Among the evaluated patients, 69 (68.3% presented low bone mineral density, being 47% with osteopenia and 32% with osteoporosis. Patients who were older than 51 years and diagnosed with celiac disease presented low bone mineral density in 83.3% (20/24 of the cases. As expected, age influenced significantly the low bone mineral density findings. Among women, low bone mineral density was present with high frequency (60% from 30 to 50 years. In patients diagnosed older than 60 years (n=8, all the women (n=5 and two of the three men had osteoporosis.ConclusionThis study demonstrated that 69% of Brazilian patients with celiac

  17. LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN BRAZILIAN PATIENTS AT DIAGNOSIS OF CELIAC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joyce Timmermans Pires da; Nisihara, Renato M; Kotze, Luís Roberto; Olandoski, Márcia; Kotze, Lorete Maria da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Low bone mineral density is considered an extra-intestinal manifestation of celiac disease with reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and risk of fractures. Celiac disease is considered a condition at high risk for secondary osteoporosis and the evaluation of bone density is very important in the clinical management of these patients. The present study aimed to investigate bone alterations in celiac patients from Curitiba, South Region of Brazil at diagnosis, correlating the findings with age and gender. Patients who were included in the study were attended to in a private office of the same physician from January 2009 to December 2013. The diagnosis of celiac disease was done through clinical, serological and histological findings. All data were collected from the medical charts of the patients. After the diagnosis of celiac disease, evaluation for low bone mineral density was requested by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). DEXA bone densitometer was used to estimate low bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femur. A total of 101 patients, 82 (81.2%) female and 19 (18.8%) male subjects, with mean age of 39.0±3.03 years were included. At celiac disease diagnosis, 36 (35.6%) were younger than 30 years, 41 (40.6%) were between 31 and 50 years, and 24 (23.8%) were older than 50 years. Among the evaluated patients, 69 (68.3%) presented low bone mineral density, being 47% with osteopenia and 32% with osteoporosis. Patients who were older than 51 years and diagnosed with celiac disease presented low bone mineral density in 83.3% (20/24) of the cases. As expected, age influenced significantly the low bone mineral density findings. Among women, low bone mineral density was present with high frequency (60%) from 30 to 50 years. In patients diagnosed older than 60 years (n=8), all the women (n=5) and two of the three men had osteoporosis. This study demonstrated that 69% of Brazilian patients with celiac disease at diagnosis had low bone mineral density

  18. The effect of enamel matrix proteins and deproteinized bovine bone mineral on heterotopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos; Kostopoulos, Lambros; Tonetti, Maurizio; Karring, Thorkild; Lang, Niklaus P

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the osteoinductive potential of deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in the muscle of rats. Sixteen rats were used in this study. The animals were divided in three groups. Group A: a pouch was created in one of the pectoralis profundis muscles of the thorax of the rats and DBBM particles (Bio-Oss) were placed into the pouch. Healing: 60 days. Group B: a small pouch was created on both pectoralis profundis muscles at each side of the thorax midline. In one side, a mixture of EMD (Emdogain) mixed with DBBM was placed into one of the pouches, whereas in the contralateral side of the thorax the pouch was implanted with DBBM mixed with the propylene glycol alginate (PGA--carrier for enamel matrix proteins of EMD). Healing: 60 days. Group C: the same procedure as group B, but with a healing period of 120 days. Qualitative histological analysis of the results was performed. At 60 days, the histological appearance of the DBBM particles implanted alone was similar to that of the particles implanted together with EMD or PGA at both 60 and 120 days. The DBBM particles were encapsulated into a connective tissue stroma and an inflammatory infiltrate. At 120 days, the DBBM particles implanted together with EMD or PGA exhibited the presence of resorption lacunae in some cases. Intramuscular bone formation was not encountered in any group. The implantation of DBBM particles alone, combined with EMD or its carrier (PGA) failed to exhibit extraskeletal, bone-inductive properties.

  19. Distinct Tissue Mineral Density in Plate- and Rod-like Trabeculae of Human Trabecular Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X Tony; Guo, X Edward

    2015-09-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in micro-computed tomography (μCT) images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro-finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate- and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone but

  20. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D' Haese, Patrick C. [Faculty of Medicine, Antwerp University (Belgium); Van Hoof, Viviane O. [Department of Biochemistry, Antwerp University Hospital (Belgium); Bohic, Sylvain [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l{sup -1} in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  1. Effect of Bone Regeneration with Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix for Implant Placement in Aesthetic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Amine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone volume is one of the key factors to be considered when evaluating implant placement. When the bone volume is insufficient, implant placement could be conditioned by the necessity of preforming bone grafting procedures to compensate bone loss. Various grafting procedures can be used with different bone substitute. Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix (MPM is one of these grafting materials, used to maintain or regenerate the socket’s volume. In MPM, the autologous blood products highly concentrated in platelets and fibrin in a liquid state are combined with a bone substitute. The fibrin can become bound to bone particles. The filling material is easy to shape and a PRF-type membrane is also generated. In the present case we report the application of MPM in two sites presenting bone crest defects when placing implant in those areas.

  2. Effect of Bone Regeneration with Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix for Implant Placement in Aesthetic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khadija; Gharibi, Amina; Hsaine, Azeddine; Kissa, Jamila

    2017-01-01

    Bone volume is one of the key factors to be considered when evaluating implant placement. When the bone volume is insufficient, implant placement could be conditioned by the necessity of preforming bone grafting procedures to compensate bone loss. Various grafting procedures can be used with different bone substitute. Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix (MPM) is one of these grafting materials, used to maintain or regenerate the socket's volume. In MPM, the autologous blood products highly concentrated in platelets and fibrin in a liquid state are combined with a bone substitute. The fibrin can become bound to bone particles. The filling material is easy to shape and a PRF-type membrane is also generated. In the present case we report the application of MPM in two sites presenting bone crest defects when placing implant in those areas.

  3. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  4. Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; FRANCIS, KIMBERLY; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Game...

  5. Associations of sex steroids with bone maturation, bone mineral density, bone geometry, and body composition: a cross-sectional study in healthy male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, S; Taes, Y; Fiers, T; Toye, K; Van Caenegem, E; Roggen, I; De Schepper, J; Kaufman, J-M

    2014-07-01

    Although both testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) are considered essential in the regulation of the male skeleton, there are few data concerning the relative contribution of T and E2 on bone mineral density (BMD), bone geometry, and bone maturation in healthy boys. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between T and E2 and BMD, bone geometry, skeletal maturation, and body composition. This is a cross-sectional study in 199 healthy boys (aged 6-19 y). T and E2 were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Whole-body and lumbar areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone area, lean mass, and fat mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular (distal site) and cortical (proximal site) volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone geometry were assessed at the nondominant forearm and leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Skeletal age was determined by an X-ray of the left hand. T was positively associated with lean mass (P bone area (P bone age advancement (P bone maturation and aBMD and vBMD and negatively with endosteal circumference in healthy boys, whereas T is a determinant of lean mass and bone size. These findings underscore the important role of E2 in skeletal development in boys.

  6. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  7. Total body bone area, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density for individuals aged 8 years and over: United States, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, Anne C; Borrud, Lori G; Hughes, Jeffery P; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Sherman, Mary

    2013-08-01

    This report presents bone measurement data from total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for 28,454 persons aged 8 years and over who participated in the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample consisted of 22,667 respondents with valid data, and 5,787 with missing data that were successfully multiply imputed (i.e., not highly variable). Bone area, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (BMD) are presented for the total body, the total body minus the head (e.g., subtotal), and 10 subregions of the body. Means, standard deviations, and selected percentiles were calculated for the total body, total body minus head (subtotal), and 10 body subregions by sex, race and ethnicity, and age. Smoothed mean total body BMD was plotted by age, sex, and race and ethnicity. Multiple regression was used to evaluate differences in mean total body BMD by age, sex, and race and ethnicity. After adjusting for race and ethnicity, total body BMD among those under age 20 was significantly higher in respondents aged 12-19 than in those aged 8-11 in both sexes. Among adults of both sexes, total body BMD in persons aged 20-49 was significantly higher than in those aged 50-79, and significantly lower in persons aged 80 and over than in those aged 50-79, after adjusting for race and ethnicity. After adjusting for age, total body BMD was significantly higher in non-Hispanic black persons than in non-Hispanic white persons, regardless of age or sex. However, the pattern differed by age when Mexican-American persons were compared with non-Hispanic white persons: Age-adjusted total body BMD was significantly lower among Mexican-American males aged 8-19, was similar in Mexican-American females aged 8-19, and was significantly lower in Mexican-American men and women aged 20 and over. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  8. Participation in road cycling vs running is associated with lower bone mineral density in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, R Scott; Rogers, Robert; Ruebel, Meghan; Hinton, Pamela S

    2008-02-01

    The effects of regular non-weight-bearing (NWB) exercise on bone health are largely unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of participation in NWB sports on bone health in adult male recreational athletes. Male cyclists (NWB; n = 27) and runners (weight-bearing [WB]; n = 16) aged 20 to 59 years were recruited from the community. Whole-body and regional bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), and body composition were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation and resorption markers, and hormones were measured in serum. Bone-loading history was estimated from a sports participation history questionnaire. Nutrient intake and current physical activity were estimated from 7-day written logs. The NWB athletes had significantly lower BMD of the whole body and spine than the WB athletes, despite having similar age, weight, body mass index, body composition, hormonal status, current activity level, and nutrient intakes. Sixty-three percent of NWB athletes had osteopenia of the spine or hip, compared with 19% of WB athletes. Cyclists were 7 times more likely to have osteopenia of the spine than runners, controlling for age, body weight, and bone-loading history. There were no group differences in serum markers of bone turnover. Based on the results of this study, current bone loading is an important determinant of whole-body and lumbar spine BMD. Therefore, bone-loading activity should be sustained during adulthood to maintain bone mass.

  9. Sedentary time has a negative influence on bone mineral parameters in peripubertal boys: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivuškāns, Artūrs; Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    One of the key determinants of adult skeletal health is the maximization of bone mass during the growth period. Physical activity (PA) in combination with lean mass and fat mass contribute to a great extent to bone mineral accrual; however, PA changes significantly during puberty. The aim of the present study was to examine PA exposure relative to bone mass acquisition during a longer observation period. Daily PA was measured with 7-day accelerometry and bone mineral parameters by DXA in 11- to 13-year-old peripubertal boys (n = 169). Similar testing was done after 1 calendar year. Changes in sedentary time were negatively related to changes in whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC), lumbar spine bone area (BA), femoral neck (FN) BMD, and FN BMC (r > -0.157; p bone mineral acquisition during a 12-month period in peripubertal boys.

  10. Bone mineral loss at the proximal femur in acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W B; Schnitzer, T J; Troy, K L

    2013-09-01

    This study used quantitative computed tomography to assess changes in bone mineral at the proximal femur after acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Individuals with acute SCI experienced a marked loss of bone mineral from a combination of trabecular and endocortical resorption. Targeted therapeutic interventions are thus warranted in this population. SCI is associated with a rapid loss of bone mineral and an increased rate of fragility fracture. Some 10 to 20% of these fractures occur at the proximal femur. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes to bone mineral, geometry, and measures of strength at the proximal femur in acute SCI. Quantitative computed tomography analysis was performed on 13 subjects with acute SCI at serial time points separated by a mean of 3.5 months (range, 2.6-4.8 months). Changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) were quantified for integral, trabecular, and cortical bone at the femoral neck, trochanteric, and total proximal femur regions. Changes in bone volumes, cross-sectional areas, and surrogate measures of compressive and bending strength were also determined. During the acute period of SCI, subjects experienced a 2.7-3.3%/month reduction in integral BMC (p < 0.001) and a 2.5-3.1 %/month reduction in integral vBMD (p < 0.001). Trabecular BMC decreased by 3.1-4.7 %/month (p < 0.001) and trabecular vBMD by 2.8-4.4 %/month (p < 0.001). A 3.9-4.0 %/month reduction was observed for cortical BMC (p < 0.001), while the reduction in cortical vBMD was noticeably lower (0.8-1.0 %/month; p ≤ 0.01). Changes in bone volume and cross-sectional area suggested that cortical bone loss occurred primarily through endosteal resorption. Declines in bone mineral were associated with a 4.9-5.9 %/month reduction in surrogate measures of strength. These data highlight the need for therapeutic interventions in this population that target both trabecular and endocortical bone mineral

  11. Interactions between breast, bone and brain regulate mineral and skeletal metabolism during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysolmerski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproduction requires that nursing mothers transfer large amounts of calcium to their offspring through milk. As a result, lactation is associated with dramatic alterations in bone and mineral metabolism, including reversible bone loss. One theme that has emerged from recent studies examining these adaptations is that the lactating breast actively participates in regulating bone and mineral metabolism. This review will detail our current knowledge of interactions between the breast, skeleton and hypothalamus during lactation and will consider implications that this reproductive physiology has for the pathophysiology of osteoporosis and breast cancer. PMID:20392232

  12. DOES BONE MINERAL DENSITY CHANGE IN EARLY AXIAL SPONDYLOARTHRITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Gubar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of osteoporosis (OP and the mechanism  of its development in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and other spondyloarthrititides (SpA have not been sufficiently investigated. Steady-state  inflammatory disease activity is anticipated  to be the leading factor of OP in AS.Objective: to investigate lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN  bone mineral density (BMD  in patients with early axial SpA (axSpA and to reveal its association with inflammatory disease activity.Subjects and methods. A total of 150 patients (59 men and 91 women aged 18 to 45 years with inflammatory back pain for ≥3 months and ≤5 years were examined. The diagnosis of axSpA was established in accordance  with the 2009 ASAS criteria. BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP were used to assess activity and functional status was evaluated with BASFI. The examination  included determination of HLA-B27, X-ray of the pelvis and LS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI  of the sacroiliac joints, LS, and hip joints (in the presence of clinical signs of their involvement,  and densitometry of LS (LI–IV  and FN. By taking into account the patients’ young age, the Z score was used to estimate BMD. The Z-score -2 SD or lower in at the least one of the regions examined is considered to be diminished BMD. Results and discussion. The median Z-score was -0.7 [-1.3; -0.2] SD for FN and -0.9 [-1.6; -0.6] SD for LS. Reduced BMD in at the least one of the regions examined was diagnosed in 27 (18.0% patients. There was lower BMD in LS in 21 (14.0% patients and in FN in 8 (5.3%. Two (1.3% patients were diagnosed as having osteopenia in the two examined regions. There was no association between diminished BMD and age, gender, disease activity assessed with BASDAI, ASDAS-СRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. An association was found between inflammatory LS changes, as evidenced by MRI (MRI spondylitis, and reduced BMD in at least one of the examined regions. MRI

  13. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  14. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Młot-Michalska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The influence of ingested coffee on bone mineral density (BMD) and the related risk of pathologic fractures is controversial. We decided to check if dialysis patients drinking coffee may have a BMD different from that of non coffee drinkers. We studied 30 dialysis patients (26 on hemodialysis, 4 on peritoneal dialysis). Group I (n = 11, 5 women) included patients who regularly drank at least 1 cup of coffee daily [dialysis duration: 29.1 months (range: 8.7- 59.6 months); age: 56.0 +/- 14.6 years]. Group II (n = 19, 13 women) consisted of patients who said that they were nondrinkers of coffee [dialysis duration: 15.2 months (range: 6.3 - 45.4 months); age: 56.3 +/- 19.8 years]. We examined BMD in all subjects in two sites (femoral neck and L2 - L4 lumbar region) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum parathyroid hormone, calcium-phosphate balance parameters, blood pH, serum markers of inflammation, bioimpedance records of body composition, and markers of nutrition were simultaneously evaluated. Compared with group II, group I showed significantly lower L2 -L4 parameters: BMD (0.906 +/- 0.236 g/cm2 vs. 1.172 +/- 0.227 g/cm2, p = 0.005), percent of peak BMD (78.4% +/- 18.9% vs. 98.4% +/- 17.0%, p = 0.006), percent of age norm (82.7% +/- 18.2% vs. 105.9% +/- 17.7% p = 0.002), T-score [-2.07 (range: -3.95 to 2.02) vs. -0.51 (range: -2.29 to 4.07), p = 0.020], and Z-score [-1.25 (range: -4.41 to 1.90) vs. 0.26 (range: -1.48 to 4.49), p = 0.006]. Serum albumin concentration was higher in group I [4.0 g/dL (range: 3.1 - 4.3 g/dL) vs. 3.3 g/dL (range: 2.9 - 4.4 g/dL), p = 0.020]. Our results suggest that regular coffee consumption may contribute to BMD loss in dialysis patients.

  15. Recommendations for bone mineral density reporting in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoski, Kerry; Leslie, William D; Frame, Heather; Hodsman, Anthony; Josse, Robert G; Khan, Aliya; Lentle, Brian C; Lévesque, Jacques; Lyons, David J; Tarulli, Giuseppe; Brown, Jacques P

    2005-06-01

    To propose a set of recommendations for optimal bone mineral density (BMD) reporting in postmenopausal women and older men and to provide clinicians with both a BMD diagnostic category and a useful tool to assess an individual's risk of osteoporotic fracture. The current methods of BMD reporting were reviewed. In this document, we propose that an individual's 10-year absolute fracture risk, rather than BMD alone, be used for fracture risk categorization. Consequently, age, sex, BMD, fragility fracture history, and glucocorticoid use are the basis for the approach outlined in this document. An optimal BMD report as proposed in this document will provide clinicians with both a BMD diagnostic category and a useful tool to assess an individual's risk of osteoporotic fracture. A BMD report format, a checklist, and a patient questionnaire are meant to further encourage its use. All recommendations were developed using a consensus from clinicians and experts in the field of BMD testing and a standard method for the evaluation and citation of the supporting evidence. These recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group under the auspices of the Scientific Advisory Council of the Osteoporosis Society of Canada and the Canadian Association of Radiologists. BENEFITS, HARM, AND COSTS: Optimal BMD reports help the practitioner to assess an individual's risk for osteoporotic fracture and to decide whether medical therapy is warranted. The BMD report should include: patient identifiers. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner identifier. BMD results expressed in absolute values (g/cm2; 3 decimal places) and T-score (1 decimal place) for lumbar spine; proximal femur (total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter); and an alternate site (forearm BMD preferred: 1/3 radius, 33% radius or proximal radius) if either hip or spine is not valid. A statement about any limitations due to artifacts, if present. The fracture risk category (low, moderate, or high) as

  16. Age-related changes in collagen properties and mineralization in cancellous and cortical bone in the porcine mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, N.M.B.K.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Everts, V.; Mulder, L.; Grünheid, T.; Bank, R.A.; Zentner, A.; van Eijden, T.M.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Collagen is an important constituent of bone, and it has been suggested that changes in collagen and mineral properties of bone are interrelated during growth. The aim of this study was to quantify age-related changes in collagen properties and the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). The DMB in

  17. A Piece of the Puzzle: The Bone Health Index of the BoneXpert Software Reflects Cortical Bone Mineral Density in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schündeln, Michael M; Marschke, Laura; Bauer, Jens J; Hauffa, Pia K; Schweiger, Bernd; Führer-Sakel, Dagmar; Lahner, Harald; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Kiewert, Cordula; Hauffa, Berthold P; Grasemann, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Suspected osteopathology in chronically ill children often necessitates the assessment of bone mineral density. The most frequently used methods are dual-energy X-ray-absorption (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). The BoneXpert software provides an automated radiogrammatic method to assess skeletal age from digitalized X-rays of the left hand. Furthermore, the program calculates the Bone Health Index (BHI), a measure of cortical thickness and mineralization, which is obtained from indices of three metacarpal bones. In our study, we analyzed the manner in which BHI information provided by BoneXpert compares with DXA or pQCT measurements in youths. The BHI was retrospectively obtained using digitalized X-rays of the left hand and compared with the results of 203 corresponding DXA readings (Lunar Prodigy, GE Healthcare) of the lumbar vertebrae and femur as well as 117 pQCT readings (XCT 900, Stratec) of the distal radius. The BHI values showed a strong positive correlation with the DXA readings at each and all lumbar vertebrae (L1 -L4: r = 0.73; P bone mineral density, as assessed via pQCT, also positively correlated with the BHI (r = 0.39; P bone health in children in most cases. This technique provides observer-independent information on cortical thickness and mineralization based on X-ray imaging of the hands.

  18. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  19. Alterations to bone mineral composition as an early indication of osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A; Esmonde-White, Francis W L; Holmes, Crystal M; Morris, Michael D; Roessler, Blake J

    2013-11-01

    Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot is a major risk factor for amputation, but there is a limited understanding of early-stage infection, impeding limb-preserving diagnoses. We hypothesized that bone composition measurements provide insight into the early pathophysiology of diabetic osteomyelitis. Compositional analysis by Raman spectroscopy was performed on bone specimens from patients with a clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis in the foot requiring surgical intervention as either a biopsy (n = 6) or an amputation (n = 11). An unexpected result was the discovery of pathological calcium phosphate minerals in addition to normal bone mineral. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, also called brushite, and uncarbonated apatite were found to be exclusively associated with infected bone. Compositional measurements provided a unique insight into the pathophysiology of osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcers. At-patient identification of pathological minerals by Raman spectroscopy may serve as an early-stage diagnostic approach.

  20. Zinc deficiency reduces bone mineral density in the spine of young adult rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryz, Natasha R; Weiler, Hope A; Taylor, Carla G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc deficiency initiated during adolescence on skeletal densitometry, serum markers of bone metabolism, femur minerals and morphometry in young adult rats. Ten-week-old male rats were fed a bone mineral density, serum osteocalcin and C-terminal peptides of type I collagen, serum zinc, femur zinc, calcium and phosphorus, and femur morphometry. Bone mineral density was 14% lower in the spine of 9ZD, but was not altered in the whole body, tibia or femur, or in any of the aforementioned sites in 9MZD, compared to 9CTL. When adjusted for size, spine bone mineral apparent density was still 8% lower in 9ZD than 9CTL. Serum osteocalcin, a marker for bone formation, was approximately 33% lower in 9ZD compared to both 9MZD and 9CTL. The 9ZD and 9MZD had 57% lower femur zinc and 56-88% lower serum zinc concentrations compared to 9CTL. These findings indicate that severe zinc deficiency initiated during adolescence may have important implications for future bone health, especially with regards to bone consolidation in the spine. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Changes in spinal and femoral bone mineral density due to pelvic irradiation following oophorectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Hirai, Yasuo; Seimiya, Yumiko; Hasumi, Katsuhiko; Masubuchi, Kazumasa (Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital); Shiraki, Masataka

    1991-10-01

    Since radiation therapy has been known to be a cause of bone atrophy (radiation osteopathy), it could be important whether postoperative radiotherapy in patients who have undergone oophorectomy further promotes bone mineral loss or not. Nineteen patients with stage Ib to IIb cervical cancer were studied. Eleven of the 19 patients received only surgical treatment and 8 received postoperative radiotherapy (50 Gy to the pelvis and 40 Gy to the lumber spine), because of the presence of advanced lesions or positive lymphnodes. A significant increase in FSH and decrease in E{sub 2} (p<0.01) compared to before treatment were observed in both groups. A significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activities (p<0.01), urine-calcium/creatinine ratio (p<0.05) and urine-hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p<0.01), which indicated high bone turnover, compared to before treatment in both groups also appeared. Although these chemical parameters in both groups changed coincidentally, the decline in spinal bone mineral density in the irradiated group was delayed at 12 months after the treatment. On the other hand, there was no difference in the changes in femoral bone mineral density in the two groups. These results suggest that radiotherapy might inhibit the bone mineral loss at the irradiated bone site even when there was an estrogen lack. (author).

  2. The Rare Bone Disease Working Group: report from the 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Annual Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew T; Collins, Michael T; Hsiao, Edward C

    2017-09-01

    A working group on rare bone diseases was held in Atlanta, Georgia as part of the 2016 annual meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The meeting was organized by Matthew Drake. Given recent advances in our understanding of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), the initial portion of the program was devoted to basic, translational, and clinical aspects of FOP. The remainder of the program was divided into updates on an array of rare bone diseases as detailed below. In total, there were more than 120 scientists from academia and industry in attendance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Different supplementation of minerals in bats and the consequences on bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    Liesegang, A.; Firzlaff, U.; Kiefer, B.; Streich, W J; Clauss, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of mineral supplementation of mealworms at a facility where mustached bats (Pteronotus parnellii rubiginosus) from Trinidad were kept for experimental purposes. For 11 months after capture from the wild, the animals were constantly housed indoors and fed a diet of mealworms without mineral supplementation. After several animals died with skulls soft at palpation, this diet was suspected to be mineral deficient. From then on, mealworms were placed on a mineral ...

  4. Maxillary sinus floor elevation with bovine bone mineral combined with either autogenous bone or autogenous stem cells : a prospective randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Sauerbier, S.; Nagursky, H.; Menne, D.; Vissink, A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    Aim To assess whether differences occur in bone formation after maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone or autogenous stem cells. The primary endpoint was the percentage of new bone three months after the elevation procedure. Material

  5. Bone Marrow Concentrate and Bovine Bone Mineral for Sinus Floor Augmentation : A Controlled, Randomized, Single-Blinded Clinical and Histological Trial-Per-Protocol Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Rickert, Daniela; Gutwald, Ralf; Nagursky, Heiner; Oshima, Toshiyuki; Xavier, Samuel P.; Christmann, Johannes; Kurz, Patrick; Menne, Dieter; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Wagner, Wilfried; Koch, Felix P.

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of substituting autogenous bone (AB) by bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC). Both AB and BMAC were tested in combination with a bovine bone mineral (BBM) for their ability of new bone formation (NBF) in a multicentric, randomized,

  6. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  7. Bone mineral density in developing children with osteogenesis imperfecta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Dieke H. J.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.; Pruijs, Hans E. H.; Joosse, Pieter; Castelein, René M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose - Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder of connective tissue caused by a defect in collagen type I synthesis. For bone, this includes fragility, low bone mass, and progressive skeletal deformities, which can result in various degrees of short stature. The

  8. Bone mineral density is reduced by telmisartan in male spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birocale, Antonio Marcos; Medeiros, Ana Raquel Santos; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; Takayama, Liliam; de Oliveira, José Martins; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-12-01

    Telmisartan, an angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, and treadmill running were compared for their effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical properties of male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It was hypothesized that running (18m/min/60min/d) and telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) would have a positive effect on bone parameters. Three-month-old male SHRs were divided into three groups: sedentary (S), telmisartan (T), and exercise (E). At the end of an 8-week protocol, femur and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for bone mineral density and by the three-point bending test for biomechanical properties. Blood pressure in all groups was measured by a tail-cuff manometer. Telmisartan and treadmill running reduced blood pressure when compared to the sedentary group; however, telmisartan did not improve bone characteristics. Instead, it reduced BMD of femur total and lumbar vertebrae and worsened bone biomechanic properties. Treadmill running maintained bone characteristics and hence was effective in maintaining bone health. Results showed that telmisartan negatively affected bones suggesting that caution should be taken in possible therapeutic applications for protecting bone health in hypertensive conditions. More studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms through which telmisartan favors bone loss in this model. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory...... of glucocorticoid on cortical bone. Thus, changes in cortical bone beyond cancellous bone might further increase fracture risk. Key works: glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis; microarchitecture; mechanical property; collagen and mineral; sheep cortical bone; tissue engineering......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...

  10. Clinical study evaluating bone mineral mass in the radius during skeletal growth. Single photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Using 125-I single photon absorptiometry, bone mineral measurements were performed on 206 healthy Japanese children (2 to 19 years of age). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone width (BW) and BMC/BW values were determined for the radius at distal 1/6 site (metaphysis) and distal 1/3 site (diaphysis). BMC/BW values at both sites correlated well with body height and weight. Bone mass in the diaphysis (distal 1/3 site) increased linearly during the 2-19 years of skeletal growth, but bone mass in the metaphysis (1/6 site) increased steeply during the pubertal period. In children receiving glucocorticoid therapy, bone mass was reduced in proportion to the duration of drug administration. In children under anticonvulsant therapy, the yearly increse in bone mass was significantly low especially in those patients with poor physical activity levels. Bone mineral decrease in the radius occurred in the children with hypopituitalism, hypothyroidism (cretinism), hyperthyroidism and Turner's syndrome.

  11. The Chicxulub event - sulfur-bearing minerals and lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-04-01

    Evaporates form a major target lithology at the Chicxulub impact site. One of the postulated effects of the impact event at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is the impact-induced dissociation of anhydrite to form sulfur-oxides and a solid residue; large isotope fractionation effects in sulfur should accompany this process. We have analyzed the sulfur isotope composition of (i) annealed anhydrite clasts in impact melt breccias of PEMEX core Yucatan-6 N 19, (ii) unshocked anhydrite from the CSDP well Yaxcopoil-1, which belong to the megabreccia below the suevite layer (YAX-1 1369, and 1376 m depth), and (iii) sulfide grains of hydrothermal origin in a finest-grained breccia, which transects a large limestone block of this megabreccia at a depth of 1369 m. Samples of groups (i) and (ii) yielded δ34S values between 18.0 and 19.8 ppm CDT (unweighted mean is 18.3 ppm, n=7), with one slightly lower value of 15.3 ppm for an anhydrite clast in Y-6 N19/Part 6. These data are in agreement with the δ34S value for the Late Cretaceous seawater (Strauss 1999). The δ34S obviously remained unchanged despite the fact that textural features indicate a severe annealing of the clasts in the impact melt. Sulfides of group (iii) show δ34S values around 41 ppm CDT (n=7), which are quite unusual values if these minerals are of non-biogenic origin. In contrast, δ34S for the yellow glass from the K/T boundary at Haiti range from 1.5 to 13.2 ppm (Chaussidon et al. 1996). Using this preliminary evidence, we conclude that only distant ejecta lithologies, and probably secondary material inside the crater, may display impact-related fractionation of sulfur isotopes. This observation is consistent with petrologic data, modeling results as well as of shock recovery and annealing experiments: anhydrite obviously is quite resistant to shock-related dissociation.

  12. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture.

  13. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  14. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...... are used to obtain a BMD estimate of the distal forearm, referred to as BMDDXR (from digital X-ray radiogrammetry, DXR). The measured dimensions for each bone are the cortical thickness and the outer width, in combination with an stimate of the cortical porosity. The short-term in vivo precision of BMDDXR...

  15. The relationship between bone mineral density and adipose tissue of postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, HwaMyeong Iisin christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Im, In Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dong Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and obesity due to changes in hormones. The relationship between osteoporosis and body weight is known, and its relation with body fat mass is discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density(BMD) changes of epicardial adipose tissue(EAT) and abdominal subcutaneous fat. The subjects of this study were 160 postmenopausal women who underwent BMD and echocardiography. The thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue was measured in three sections and the BMD were meassured according to the diagnostic criteria. The results of this study that age increase the risk of osteoporosis increases, and as the weight and BMI decrease, the risk of osteoporosis increases(p<0.05). The relationship between changes in bone mineral density and adipose tissue in postmenopausal women, increased epicardial adipose tissue was negatively correlated with the bone mineral density(p<0.05). conversely, increased abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness was positively correlated with bone mineral density(p<0.05). In other words, the effect of bone mineral density on the location of adipose tissue was different. If Echocardiography is used to periodically examine changes in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue, it may be prevented before proceeding to osteoporosis.

  16. A long-term study of bone mineral density in patients with phenylketonuria under diet therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hala M.; Abdallah Ismail, Nagwa; Kamel, Ashraf F.; Ahmed, Azza M; Saad-Hussein, Amal; Effat, Laila K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dietary control of classic phenylketonuria (PKU) needs restriction of natural proteins; adequate protein intake is achieved by adding low phenylalanine (phe) formulae. The adequacy of this diet for normal bone mineralization had not been sufficiently evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate and follow up bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents with PKU within a 2-year time interval to assess the adequacy of a phenylalanine restricted diet for bone mineralization and to search for a possible relationship between BMD, dietary control and blood phenylalanine (phe) concentrations. Material and methods Thirty-two patients with classic PKU (3-19 years) were evaluated for their bone mineral status using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) both at the beginning (baseline) and the end (follow-up) of the study. Results Low BMD was detected in 31.25% at the start and in 6.25% of patients after 2 years follows-up. No relationship was found between BMD and the duration of diet compliance and phe level as well. Conclusions In this study the low BMD detected in our patients was both at baseline and follow-up independent of diet restriction. A yearly DEXA would be highly beneficial for early detection and treatment, thus preventing osteoporosis and decreasing the risk of fractures. We also suggest the importance of searching for new emerging therapies such as enzyme substitution or gene therapy as low protein diet compliance was not enough to maintain normal bone mineral density. PMID:22295034

  17. Impact of Phosphorus-Based Food Additives on Bone and Mineral Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Luzuriaga-McPherson, Alexandra; Lin, Yiming; Gilbert, Linda C; Ha, Shin-Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus-based food additives can substantially increase total phosphorus intake per day, but the effect of these additives on endocrine factors regulating bone and mineral metabolism is unclear. This study aimed to examine the effect of phosphorus additives on markers of bone and mineral metabolism. Design and Setting, and Participants: This was a feeding study of 10 healthy individuals fed a diet providing ∼1000 mg of phosphorus/d using foods known to be free of phosphorus additives for 1 week (low-additive diet), immediately followed by a diet containing identical food items; however, the foods contained phosphorus additives (additive-enhanced diet). Parallel studies were conducted in animals fed low- (0.2%) and high- (1.8%) phosphorus diets for 5 or 15 weeks. The changes in markers of mineral metabolism after each diet period were measured. Participants were 32 ± 8 years old, 30% male, and 70% black. The measured phosphorus content of the additive-enhanced diet was 606 ± 125 mg higher than the low-additive diet (P bone mineral density (P bone and mineral metabolism in humans. The results of the animal studies suggest that this may compromise bone health.

  18. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  19. Distinct tissue mineral density in plate and rod-like trabeculae of human trabecular bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Kazakia, Galateia J.; Zhou, Bin; Shi, X. Tony

    2015-01-01

    Trabecular bone quality includes both microstructural and intrinsic tissue mineralization properties. However, the tissue mineralization in individual trabeculae of different trabecular types and orientations has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to develop an individual trabecula mineralization (ITM) analysis technique to determine tissue mineral density (TMD) distributions in plate- and rod-like trabeculae, respectively, and to compare the TMD of trabeculae along various orientations in μCT images of trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck, greater trochanter, and proximal tibia. ITM analyses indicated that trabecular plates, on average, had significantly higher TMD than trabecular rods. In addition, the distribution of TMD in trabecular plates depended on trabecular orientation with the lowest TMD in longitudinal plates and the highest TMD in transverse plates. Conversely, there was a relatively uniform distribution of TMD among trabecular rods, with respect to trabecular orientation. Further analyses of TMD distribution revealed that trabecular plates had higher mean and peak TMD, whereas trabecular rods had a wider TMD distribution and a larger portion of low mineralized trabeculae. Comparison of apparent Young's moduli derived from micro finite element models with and without heterogeneous TMD demonstrated that heterogeneous TMD in trabecular plates had a significant influence on the elastic mechanical property of trabecular bone. In conclusion, this study revealed differences in TMD between plate and rod-like trabeculae and among various trabecular orientations. The observation of less mineralized longitudinal trabecular plates suggests interesting implications of these load-bearing plates in bone remodeling. The newly developed ITM analysis can be a valuable technique to assess the influence of metabolic bone diseases and their pharmaceutical treatments on not only microstructure of trabecular bone, but also the microarchitectural

  20. Electromagnetic field versus circuit weight training on bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsisi HF

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hany Farid Eid Morsy Elsisi,1 Gihan Samir Mohamed Mousa,1 Mohamed Taher Mahmoud ELdesoky2 1Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, 2Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background and purpose: Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder with costly complications and a global health problem and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Magnetic field therapy and physical activity have been proven as beneficial interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD in elderly women to either low-frequency low-intensity pulsed magnetic field (LFLIPMF or circuit weight training (CWT on short-run basis (after 12 weeks. Patients and methods: Thirty elderly women, aged 60–70 years, were randomly assigned into two groups (magnetic field and CWT (n=15 each group. The session was performed three times per week for magnetic field and CWT groups, for 12 weeks. BMD and bone mineral content of lumbar spine (L2–L4 and femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward’s triangle were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results: Both magnetic field and CWT for 12 weeks in elderly women seem to yield beneficial and statistically significant increasing effect on BMD and bone mineral content (P<0.05. But magnetic field seems to have more beneficially and statistically significant effect than does CWT. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that LFLIPMF and CWT programs are effective modalities in increasing BMD but LFLIPMF is more effective in elderly women. Keywords: magnetic field, circuit weight training, bone mineral density, elderly women, bone mineral content, bone mass

  1. Bone mineral density and fracture risk in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botushanov, Nikolay P; Orbetzova, Maria M

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes affects an estimated 6-8% of the population worldwide. This widespread disorder is often associated with changes in bone health which are still little studied. To date, there has been no generally accepted definition of diabetic osteopathy. The changes in the bone mineral density, the bone turnover markers and frequency and type of fractures that occur in the two major clinical types of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) differ because they are associated with different pathogenetic mechanisms inducing these disorders. While it is reduction of the bone mineral density that most often occurs in type 1 diabetes, in type 2 diabetes various studies diagnose either a normal, reduced or increased bone mineral density in comparison with that of healthy controls. Both vertebral and non-vertebral fractures are found to have increased incidence in both types of diabetes which is attributed to, in addition to the changes in the mineral density of bones, a number of concomitant factors such as visual impairment, diabetic neuropathy, etc. There are studies demonstrating that women with type 1 diabetes are at a significantly higher risk of hip fractures (relative risk [RR]: 8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-64.4]) and for those with type 2 diabetes: (RR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.12-1.35]). The mortality rate in the first year after a patient sustains a fracture of the neck of the femur in men is about 36%, and in women--about 21%. The changes in the bone mineral density in diabetes are caused by a number of disorders--negative calcium balance, hypoinsulinemia, deteriorated renal function, increased production of advanced glycation end products, low peak bone mass, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, etc. Although there are differences in the quantitative changes of bone mineral density, patients with diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of sustaining specific types of fractures. It can be partially accounted for by the greater propensity to falling, as well as to the

  2. The Kidney-Vascular-Bone Axis in the Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Michael E; Hruska, Keith A

    2016-03-01

    The last 25 years have been characterized by dramatic improvements in short-term patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Long-term patient and allograft survival remains limited by cardiovascular disease and chronic allograft injury, among other factors. Cardiovascular disease remains a significant contributor to mortality in native chronic kidney disease as well as cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease more than doubles that of the general population. The chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral bone disorder (MBD) is a syndrome recently coined to embody the biochemical, skeletal, and cardiovascular pathophysiology that results from disrupting the complex systems biology between the kidney, skeleton, and cardiovascular system in native and transplant kidney disease. The CKD-MBD is a unique kidney disease-specific syndrome containing novel cardiovascular risk factors, with an impact reaching far beyond traditional notions of renal osteodystrophy and hyperparathyroidism. This overview reviews current knowledge of the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including emerging concepts surrounding the importance of circulating pathogenic factors released from the injured kidney that directly cause cardiovascular disease in native and transplant chronic kidney disease, with potential application to mechanisms of chronic allograft injury and vasculopathy.

  3. Decreased Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in the Tibial Trabecular Bone Is Associated with Per2 Gene by 405 nm Laser Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Min Yoo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy/treatment (LLLT using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS might enhance bone formation and suppress bone resorption. In this study, the use of 405 nm LLLT led to decreases in bone volume and bone mineral density (BMD of tibial trabecular bone in wild-type (WT and Per2 knockout (KO mice. Bone volume and bone mineral density of tibial trabecular bone was decreased by 405 nm LLLT in Per2 KO compared to WT mice at two and four weeks. To determine the reduction in tibial bone, mRNA expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Per2 were investigated at four weeks after 405 nm laser stimulation using MILNS. ALP gene expression was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone of WT and Per2 KO mice compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. Per2 mRNA expression in WT mice was significantly reduced in the LLLT-stimulated right tibial bone compared to the non-irradiated left tibia (p < 0.001. To identify the decrease in tibial bone mediated by the Per2 gene, levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 and ALP mRNAs were determined in non-irradiated WT and Per2 KO mice. These results demonstrated significant downregulation of Runx2 and ALP mRNA levels in Per2 KO mice (p < 0.001. Therefore, the reduction in tibial trabecular bone resulting from 405 nm LLLT using MILNS might be associated with Per2 gene expression.

  4. Relationship between chronological and bone ages and pubertal stage of breasts with bone biomarkers and bone mineral density in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Silva, Carla Cristiani; Moretto, Maria Regina; Biason, Talita Poli; Teixeira, Altamir Santos; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    To study bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent females according to five groups of chronological age (CA), bone age (BA), and breast development stage (B), and to correlate these parameters with plasma bone biomarkers (BB). This was a cross-sectional study performed in 101 healthy adolescent females between 10 and 20 years old. The study variables were: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), CA, B, BA, calcium intake, BMD, and BB. Osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide (S-CTx) were evaluated for BB. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD in lumbar spine, proximal femur, and total body increased with age, and the respective observed averages were: in CA1 (10 years old), 0.631, 0.692, 0.798 g/cm(2); in CA2 (11 to 12 years old), 0.698, 0.763, 0.840 g/cm(2); in CA3 (13 to 14 years old), 0.865, 0.889, 0.972 g/cm(2); in CA4 (15 to 16 years old), 0.902, 0.922, 1.013 g/cm(2); and in CA5 (17 to 19 years old), 0.944, 0.929, 1.35 g/cm(2). These results showed significant differences between 13 and 14 years of age (CA3) or when girls reached the B3 stage (0.709, 0.832, 0.867 g/cm(2)). The highest median concentrations of BB were between 10 and 12 years of age when adolescents were in the B2-B3 (p<0.001). Median BB concentrations decreased in advanced BA and B. BB concentrations were positively correlated with the peak height velocity and negatively correlated with BMD in the study sites. Increased BMD and BB concentrations were observed in B3. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma adiponectin concentration in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: relationship with body composition, bone mineral, and metabolic variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaak Jürimäe; Toivo Jürimäe

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to determine the possible relationships of fasting adiponectin level with body composition, bone mineral, insulin sensitivity, leptin, and cardiorespiratory...

  6. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  7. The potential use of antisclerostin therapy in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Aline G; Bilezikian, John P; Lewiecki, E Michael

    2015-07-01

    Sclerostin is a regulator of the osteoanabolic canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and thus helps to govern rates of bone formation. The Wnt pathway is also recognized as playing an important role in the pathophysiology of the chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). It also may serve as an interface between bone and the vascular system. Pharmacological inhibition of sclerostin has shown promise as an osteoanabolic approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. Inhibition of sclerostin is a potentially useful but unproven strategy in the management of CKD-MBD. Clinical trials with humanized monoclonal sclerostin antibodies (Scl-Ab) have shown a rapid initial increase in bone formation and a marked increase in bone mineral density. Although clinical data, to this point, in CKD are not available, animal models of low bone turnover CKD show that Scl-Ab improves trabecular bone volume and mineralization without affecting biochemical indices. Targeted clinical trials are needed to evaluate the potential effectiveness of Scl-Ab in CKD. Based upon the available data, there is potential not only for this new therapeutic class to improve skeletal health but perhaps also to have substantial cardiovascular benefits in CKD.

  8. Relationship of focal erosions, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Maurizio; Bagnato, Gianfilippo; Frediani, Bruno; Iagnocco, Annamaria; LA Montagna, Giovanni; Minisola, Giovanni; Caminiti, Maurizio; Varenna, Massimo; Adami, Silvano

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relationship among focal bone erosions and bone mineral density (BMD), 25(OH) vitamin D (25OHD), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study included 1191 RA patients (1014 women, 177 men, mean age 58.9 ± 11.1 yrs) participating in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Radiographic evidence of typical bony erosions on hands or forefeet was found in 64.1% of patients. In those with bone erosions as compared to those without, mean BMD Z score values were significantly lower at both the spine (-0.74 ± 1.19 vs -0.46 ± 1.31; p = 0.05) and the hip (-0.72 ± 1.07 vs -0.15 ± 1.23; p mineral metabolism factors (i.e., age, sex, menopause, disease duration, Disease Activity Score 28-joint count, Health Assessment Questionnaire, activities of daily living, Steinbrocker functional state, glucocorticoid therapy, body weight, and bisphosphonate treatment). Our results suggest that the presence of bone erosions in RA correlates with low BMD levels and high PTH levels, and that these associations are independent of the degree of functional impairment and other common determinants of bone mass and mineral metabolism in adults with RA. These findings suggest that treatments to prevent bone loss or suppress PTH levels might positively affect the progression of bone erosions in RA.

  9. Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Marios; Müller, Ralph; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Bone's remarkable mechanical properties are a result of its hierarchical structure. The mineralized collagen fibrils, made up of collagen fibrils and crystal platelets, are bone's building blocks at an ultrastructural level. The organization of bone's ultrastructure with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils has been the matter of numerous studies based on a variety of imaging techniques in the past decades. These techniques either exploit physical principles, such as polarization, diffraction or scattering to examine bone ultrastructure orientation and arrangement, or directly image the fibrils at the sub-micrometre scale. They make use of diverse probes such as visible light, X-rays and electrons at different scales, from centimetres down to nanometres. They allow imaging of bone sections or surfaces in two dimensions or investigating bone tissue truly in three dimensions, in vivo or ex vivo, and sometimes in combination with in situ mechanical experiments. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss this broad range of imaging techniques and the different modalities of their use, in order to discuss their advantages and limitations for the assessment of bone ultrastructure organization with respect to the orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils. PMID:27335222

  10. Guided bone regeneration of non-contained mandibular buccal bone defects using deproteinized bovine bone mineral and a collagen membrane: an experimental in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Mariano; Ferrantino, Luca; Vignoletti, Fabio; de Sanctis, Massimo; Berglundh, Tord

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this pre-clinical in vivo study was to analyse different stages of wound healing after guided bone regeneration in non-contained mandibular buccal bone defects. Eighteen female beagle dogs, between 1.5 and 2 years old, were used. Buccal bone defects were created in the mandible following extraction of the mesial roots of M1, P4, the distal root of P3 and booth roots of P2. Augmentation procedures of the healed defects were performed 3 months later using a bone replacement graft (T1), an absorbable collagen membrane (T2) or a combination of both procedures (T3). Using a randomized block study design, four stages of healing in two groups of dogs were examined (4 days, 2, 6 weeks and 3 months). The animals were euthanized, and biopsies obtained at the end of each of the study periods were prepared for histological examination. The different reconstructive procedures resulted in regenerated tissue compartments of varying size that contained newly formed bone, non-mineralized tissue and bone augmentation biomaterial when a bone replacement graft was used. While the proportions of mineralized tissue increased and non-mineralized tissue decreased over time in the three groups, the changes in proportions of the DBBM material were small. Initial defect depth, healing time and treatment group significantly influenced the percentage of mineralized tissue obtained. The multivariate multilevel analysis showed that significantly larger area proportions of mineralized tissue were obtained when the T2 sites were compared with T1 and T3 sites, what highlights the importance of the barrier membrane effect for attaining new bone formation. Only in the larger size defects (M1) total ROI at T3 and T1 sites was significantly larger than at T2, what highlights the importance of using a bone replacement graft as a space maintenance scaffold. It is suggested that healing following augmentation of non-contained buccal bone defects was characterized by a gradual shift in the

  11. Relationship of changing social atmosphere, lifestyle and bone mineral density in college students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja; Ko, Yo Han; Kim, Chung Kyung; Kim, Hee Sol; Park, Da Jeong; Yoon, Hyeo Min; Jeong, Yu Jin [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health college, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The decrease of bone mineral density gives rise to the outbreak of osteopenia and makes the possibility of a bone fracture. It makes health problems in society. It's very important to prevent osteopenia in advance. Also it's critical to prevent and take care of it in adolescent because it's the most developing period comparing to middle ages because that bone mineral density decreases. There are genetic, physical and environmental factors that affect bone mineral density. Recently, a lifestyle and eating habits are also changing as the society atmosphere is gradually doing. This study have shown that 134 women and 75 men was chosen and responded to the survey of measuring bone mineral density and investigating a lifestyle. The measure of bone mineral density is to use Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DEXA) and check femoral neck and lumbar spine. Also questionaries was required to pre-made survey about their lifestyles. Analysis of data was done with SPSS program. Multiple regression analysis was used for the relation of bone mineral density, the heigths and BMI. The sample of Groups are checked for drinking, smoking or excercising about differences by t-test. The results of the experiments were; first, there is statistically significant differences in the comparisons between BMD and BMD. But there isn't any special correlation between drinking, smoking and BMD. Secondly, bone mineral density becomes low related to an intake of caffeine. Particularly, this is statically significant on women. Also there is statically significant correlation between femoral neck and quantity of motion for both men and women. Third, there is significant relation between eating habits and bone mineral density on women's lumbar spine. However, there is no significant relation between men's lumbar spine and women's one. Therefore, to prevent osteopenia, it's good to abstain from intaking caffeine within an hour after a meal. In addition, it

  12. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes with Stress Level, Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okbay Güneş, Aslı; Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Şen Demirdöğen, Ezgi; Erginöz, Ethem; Demir, Türkay; Kucur, Mine; Ercan, Oya

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of stress caused by disordered eating attitudes on bone health in obese adolescents. A cross-sectional study comprising 80 obese adolescents was performed from November 2013 to September 2014. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol levels were measured as a biological marker of stress. Bone turnover was evaluated using bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations. Bone mineral density was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used to assess eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. Psychiatric examinations were performed for binge eating disorders. In the Pearson's correlation test, a positive correlation was found between the 24-hour urinary cortisol level and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores (pEating Behavior Questionnaire total and restrained eating subscale scores were found to be significant contributors for urinary cortisol level (β=1.008, p=0.035; β=2.296, p=0.014, respectively). The femoral neck areal bone mineral density was found to be significantly higher in subjects who had binge eating disorder compared with those without binge eating disorder (p=0.049). Despite the lack of apparent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in our obese adolescents at the time of the study, our results suggest that disordered eating attitudes, and especially restrained eating attitudes, might be a source of stress. Therefore, studies in this area should continue.

  13. Running exercise for short duration increases bone mineral density of loaded long bones in young growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Yoshinobu; Nakajima, Arata; Fukuda, Satoshi; Goto, Sumio; Iida, Haruzo; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2009-10-01

    Running exercise is an effective therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis; however, appropriate duration of exercise has not been determined. We therefore investigated the effect of exercise duration on bone mineral density (BMD) and systemic bone metabolism using young growing rats. Fifteen 8-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups according to running load: control group (no running), short duration (30 min/day) and long duration (180 min/day), and animals ran on a treadmill 5 days per week over an 8-week period. BMD of the tibia was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and serum levels of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a bone resorption marker and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a bone formation marker were measured to know whether the treadmill exercise would affect systemic bone metabolism. Short-duration running exercise (30 min/day) caused a significant increase in BMD of the metaphyseal trabecula (p exercise (180 min/day) significantly reduced BMD of the diaphyseal and metaphyseal cortex and that of the diaphyseal trabecula with a significant reduction of serum ALP levels and a significant increase in serum phosphorus. These findings suggest that short-duration exercise may increase BMD through suppression of bone resorption, whereas long-duration exercise may reduce BMD through suppression of bone formation. Exercising for short duration but not prolonged exercise is recommended to increase BMD of loaded long bones.

  14. Bone regeneration in minipigs by intrafibrillarly-mineralized collagen loaded with autologous periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ci; Yan, Boxi; Cui, Zhen; Cui, Shengjie; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xuedong; Liu, Dawei; Yang, Ruli; Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Yanheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-09-05

    Biomimetic intrafibrillarly-mineralized collagen (IMC) is a promising scaffold for bone regeneration because of its structural and functional similarity to natural bone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration potential of IMC loaded with autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in large bone defects in minipigs. A macroporous IMC with a bone-like subfibrillar nanostructure was fabricated using a biomimetic bottom-up approach. Non-healing full thickness defects were established on the cranial bone in minipigs, and IMC and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds seeded with autologous PDLSCs were implanted into these defects. Computed tomographic imaging, histology staining, and atomic force microscopy were applied to evaluate to the quantity, micro/nano structures, and mechanical performance of the neo-bone after 12 weeks of implantation. Compared with HA, IMC showed superior regeneration properties characterized by the profuse deposition of new bony structures with a normal architecture and vascularization. Immunohistochemistry showed that the runt-related transcription factor 2 and transcription factor Osterix were highly expressed in the neo-bone formed by IMC. Furthermore, the nanostructure and nanomechanics of the neo-bone formed by IMC were similar to that of natural bone. This study provides strong evidence for the future clinical applications of the IMC-based bone grafts.

  15. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  16. [Assessment of mineral density of bone tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using ultrasonic osteometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskina, T A; Ushakov, A V

    2003-01-01

    To examine bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using echoosteometry (EOM), to analyze the speed of ultrasound bone conduction in patients with different variants of RA. The study included 122 patients with verified RA diagnosis (ARA, 1987) who had not previously taken glucocorticosteroids, basic drugs or antiosteoporosis therapy. Group 1 consisted of 48 women of reproductive age, group 2--of 46 postmenopausal women and group 3 of 28 male patients. EOM measured the speed of ultrasonic conduction in collar-bones and radii (Echoosteometer EOM-02). The speed of ultrasound conduction in collar-bones and radii in RA patients is slower than control. This shows bone density loss. EOM demonstrated correlations between ultrasound bone conduction and RA patients age, RA duration and x-ray stage of the disease.

  17. Bone mineral density in postmenarchal adolescent girls in the United States: associated biopsychosocial variables and bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Zeev; Gold, Melanie; Cromer, Barbara; Bruner, Ann; Stager, Margaret; Bachrach, Laura; Wolter, Kevin; Reid, Carol; Hertweck, Paige; Nelson, Anita; Nelson, Dorothy; Coupey, Susan; Johnson, Christine; Burkman, Ronald; Bone, Henry

    2007-01-01

    During adolescence, bone formation prevails over resorption, resulting in accumulation of 40% of peak bone mass throughout this time period. Although multiple studies have explored bone mass accrual during the early stages of puberty, less is known about factors that may influence bone accrual during later years of adolescence. In the present cross-sectional study we examined relationships among bone mineral density (BMD) and demographic factors, behavioral variables, and bone metabolism markers in postmenarchal adolescent girls. The population was comprised of 389 healthy postmenarchal adolescent girls aged 11-18 years, who were recruited into a prospective study of the effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on bone health in adolescents. At the baseline visit, investigators collected demographic, reproductive health, and lifestyle data, and performed a complete physical examination. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Before study initiation, BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and markers of bone metabolism (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BAP], serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide [uNTX]) were measured. The baseline data from this study were analyzed to evaluate possible correlates of BMD in postmenarchal adolescent girls. Potential associations between BMD values and other parameters were assessed by analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Participants enrolled in the study had a mean (+/- SD) chronological age of 14.9 +/-1.7 years (range 11-18), mean gynecologic age of 39.9 +/-23.0 months (range 1-120) postmenarche, and mean BMI of 23.5 +/-4.6 kg/m(2) (range 16.0-42.2). Racial/ethnic distribution was 46% African American, 35% Caucasian, and 19% other races; 9% had previously been pregnant. Positive correlations were observed between lumbar spine BMD and chronological age (r = .301, p Bone accretion in the postmenarchal years continues

  18. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  19. Bone mineral density in patients with growth hormone deficiency: does a gender difference exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to clarify whether a gender difference exists with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: A case-control design. METHODS: Blood sampling for measurements of calcium...... to healthy control subjects GH-deficient males had, in contrast to GH-deficient females, significantly reduced BMD and BMC. This obvious gender difference seems to be caused by the oestrogen substitution given to the females, compensating for the lack of GH, an effect testosterone does not seem to possess...... identical BMD values at all regions. This gender difference was even more obvious when BMD values were expressed as Z-scores or as three-dimensional BMD of the total body. The bone formation and bone resorption markers, as well as calcium and vitamin D, were all at the same levels in GH...

  20. Bone mineral disorder in chronic kidney disease: Klotho and FGF23; cardiovascular implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova Villanueva, Laura; Sánchez González, Carmen; Sánchez Tomero, José Antonio; Aguilera, Abelardo; Ortega Junco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular factors are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Bone mineral metabolism disorders and inflammation are pathological conditions that involve increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease. The cardiovascular risk involvement of bone mineral metabolism classical biochemical parameters such as phosphorus, calcium, vitamin D and PTH is well known. The newest markers, FGF23 and klotho, could also be implicated in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Girls' Calcium Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Content During Middle Childhood1

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, Laura M.; MITCHELL, DIANE C.; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. Intakes of dairy, energy, and calcium were assessed using three 24-h dietary recalls in girls at ages 5, 7, 9, and 11 y. We assessed their total-body bone mineral content with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 9 and11 y. Dairy foods comprised the major contributor (70%) to calcium intake over the 6-y period; 28% of calcium came from other foods,...

  2. Relationships between serum Omentin-1 levels and bone mineral density in older men with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between serum Omentin-1 levels and the presence of osteoporosis in older men. Methods: Serum Omentin-1, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD were determined in 45 older men with osteoporosis or 45 older men without osteoporosis (65–70 years old. Results: Omentin-1 levels were increased in older men with osteoporosis, and the differences remained significant after controlling for fat mass. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMD. In a multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, Omentin-1, lean mass, but not fat mass, were independent predictors of BMD for the combined group. Significant negative correlations between Omentin-1 and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and bone cross-linked N-telopeptides of type Ⅰ collagen (NTX were found. Omentin-1 was also independently associated with BMD and bone turnover markers in older men with osteoporosis and control groups that were considered separately. Conclusions: Omentin-1 is an independent predictor of BMD in older men with osteoporosis, and it is negatively correlated with bone turnover biochemical markers. It is suggested that Omentin-1 may exert a negative effect on bone mass through the regulation of the osteoblast differentiation in the older men with osteoporosis. Keywords: Omentin-1, Bone mineral density, Osteoporosis

  3. Bio-inspired mineralization of hydroxyapatite in 3D silk fibroin hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yashi; Kundu, Banani; Cai, Yurong; Kundu, Subhas C; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-01

    To fabricate hard tissue implants with bone-like structure using a biomimetic mineralization method is drawing much more attentions in bone tissue engineering. The present work focuses in designing 3D silk fibroin hydrogel to modulate the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals via a simple ion diffusion method. The study indicates that Ca(2+) incorporation within the hydrogel provides the nucleation sites for hydroxyapatite crystals and subsequently regulates their oriented growth. The mineralization process is regulated in a Ca(2+) concentration- and minerlization time-dependent way. Further, the compressive strength of the mineralized hydrogels is directly proportional with the mineral content in hydrogel. The orchestrated organic/inorganic composite supports well the viability and proliferation of human osteoblast cells; improved cyto-compatibility with increased mineral content. Together, the present investigation reports a simple and biomimetic process to fabricate 3D bone-like biomaterial with desired efficacy to repair bone defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Periodontitis and bone mineral density among pre and post menopausal women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Snophia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between bone mineral density and periodontitis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the age group of 45-55 years were selected for this study. Ten premenopausal women with healthy periodontium constituted the control group and 10 postmenopausal women with ≥2mm of clinical attachment loss in> 30% of sites constituted the study group. All patients were assessed for plaque index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss. Radiographs (six IOPA and two posterior bitewing were taken and assessed for interproximal alveolar bone loss. The patients were scanned to assess the bone mineral density of lumbar spine (L2 and femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The bone mineral densities of lumbar spine (L2 and femur were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. Osteopenia of the lumbar spine and femur was observed in 60% whereas osteoporosis of lumbar spine was observed in 30% of cases in study group. Conclusion: Increased proportion of osteopenia and osteoporosis cases of lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with periodontitis suggests that there is association between bone mineral density and periodontitis.

  5. Reduced quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cournil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone status in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART is poorly documented in resource-limited settings. We compared bone mineral density between HIV-infected patients and control subjects from Dakar, Senegal. METHODS: A total of 207 (134 women and 73 men HIV-infected patients from an observational cohort in Dakar (ANRS 1215 and 207 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population were enrolled. Bone mineral density was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus, an alternative to the reference method (i.e. dual X-absorptiometry, often not available in resource-limited countries. RESULTS: Mean age was 47.0 (±8.5 years. Patients had received ART for a median duration of 8.8 years; 45% received a protease inhibitor and 27% tenofovir; 84% had undetectable viral load. Patients had lower body mass index (BMI than controls (23 versus 26 kg/m(2, P<0.001. In unadjusted analysis, QUS bone mineral density was lower in HIV-infected patients than in controls (difference: -0.36 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.59;-0.12, P = 0.003. Adjusting for BMI, physical activity, smoking and calcium intake attenuated the difference (-0.27, CI: -0.53;-0.002, P = 0.05. Differences in BMI between patients and controls explained a third of the difference in QUS bone mineral density. Among patients, BMI was independently associated with QUS bone mineral density (P<0.001. An association between undetectable viral load and QUS bone density was also suggested (β = 0.48, CI: 0.02;0.93; P = 0.04. No association between protease inhibitor or tenofovir use and QUS bone mineral density was found. CONCLUSION: Senegalese HIV-infected patients had reduced QUS bone mineral density in comparison with control subjects, in part related to their lower BMI. Further investigation is needed to clarify the clinical significance of these observations.

  6. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P bone density changes in the control and experimental groups of men failed to demonstrate significant differences. It was concluded that the level of mineralization of bone tissues decreased under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements. Experimental studies of hypokinetic physiology are generally based on the assumption that diminished muscular activity (progressive reduction of number of steps per day) is detrimental to animal and human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  7. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Amiri; Abbasali Keshtkar; Hamidreza Aghaie-Meybodi; Bagher Larijan; Iraj Nabipoor; Ramin Heshmat; Sara Madani; Arash Hossein-Nejad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study i...

  8. OSTEOPOROSIS HEALTH BELIEF, KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND RISK FACTORS IN INDIVIDUALS WHOSE BONE MINERAL DENSITY WAS REQUIRED

    OpenAIRE

    Gulpinar ASLAN; Dilek KILIC

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This descriptive-relational study aims to identify osteoporosıs health belief, knowledge level and risk factors in individuals whose bone mineral density was required. Method: Target population of the study was 110 men and 126 women aged 35 and over, who applied to Atatürk University Aziziye - Yakutiye Research Hospital Nuclear Medicine Center Bone Densitometer Unit between January 2010 and October 2010. No sampling was performed, the whole target population was involved in the study...

  9. Relation between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density and Vertebral Fractures in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyong-chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study...

  10. Association of Circulating Renin and Aldosterone With Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density in African Ancestry Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Kammerer, Candace M; Pratt, J Howard; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is associated with accelerated bone loss, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a key regulator of blood pressure. Although components of this system are expressed in human bone cells, studies in humans are sparse. Thus, we studied the association of circulating renin and aldosterone with osteocalcin and bone mineral density. We recruited 373 African ancestry family members without regard to health status from 6 probands (mean family size: 62 and relative pairs: 1687). Participants underwent a clinical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomographic scans. Renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and osteocalcin were measured in fasting blood samples. Aldosterone/renin ratio was calculated as aldosterone concentration/renin activity. All models were analyzed using pedigree-based variance components methods. Full models included adjustment for age, sex, body composition, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication. Higher renin activity was significantly associated with lower total osteocalcin and with higher trabecular bone mineral density (both Prenin activity and whole-body bone mineral density. There were no associations with aldosterone concentration in any model and results for aldosterone/renin ratio were similar to those for renin activity. This is the first study to report a significant association between renin activity and a marker of bone turnover and bone mineral density in generally healthy individuals. Also, there is evidence for significant genetic pleiotropy and, thus, there may be a shared biological mechanism underlying both the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and bone metabolism that is independent of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, subjects were excluded from the study if they had conditions affecting bone metabolism. Different biochemical parameters were assayed: Testosterone, Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, Osteocalcin, vitamin D, crosslaps, intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  12. A Rapid Clinical Perspective on Bone-Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce intestinal calcium absorption, increase RANKL and. CSF-1 production,18 decrease IGF-1 production, and diminish the osteoblastic cell population.19. • Thyroid hormone: Important for cartilage formation, especially during childhood. Also bolsters bone resorption and collagenase production during adulthood.20.

  13. Does walking exercise improve bone mineral density of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before and after the training program both groups had anthropometric measurements and blood analysis. Bone mass density also was evaluated by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) .Each walking session was 30 min walking between 50-75% of maximal age adjusted heart rate, 3 days per week for 2 months.

  14. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the occurrence of traditional risk factors associated with decreased BMD in the above populations (oral corticosteroid use, smoking, alcohol, previous bone fracture, body mass index and physical inactivity). Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative group descriptive study of HIV positive adult patients on ...

  15. Prior ankle fractures in postmenopausal women are associated with low areal bone mineral density and bone microstructure alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier, C; Chevalley, T; Herrmann, F R; Ferrari, S; Rizzoli, R

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis in postmenopausal women, prior ankle fractures were associated with lower areal bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone alterations compared to no fracture history. Compared to women with forearm fractures, microstructure alterations were of lower magnitude. These data suggest that ankle fractures are another manifestation of bone fragility. Whether ankle fractures represent fragility fractures associated with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and/or bone microstructure alterations remains unclear, in contrast to the well-recognised association between forearm fractures and osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate aBMD, vBMD and bone microstructure in postmenopausal women with prior ankle fracture in adulthood, compared with women without prior fracture or with women with prior forearm fractures, considered as typically of osteoporotic origin. In a cross-sectional analysis in the Geneva Retirees Cohort study, 63 women with ankle fracture and 59 with forearm fracture were compared to 433 women without fracture (mean age, 65 ± 1 years). aBMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; distal radius and tibia vBMD and bone microstructure were measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Compared with women without fracture, those with ankle fractures had lower aBMD, radius vBMD (-7.9%), trabecular density (-10.7%), number (-7.3%) and thickness (-4.6%) and higher trabecular spacing (+14.5%) (P Tibia trabecular variables were also altered. For 1 standard deviation decrease in total hip aBMD or radius trabecular density, odds ratios for ankle fractures were 2.2 and 1.6, respectively, vs 2.2 and 2.7 for forearm fracture, respectively (P ≤ 0.001 for all). Compared to women with forearm fractures, those with ankle fractures had similar spine and hip aBMD, but microstructure alterations of lower magnitude. Women with ankle

  16. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  17. Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Lee, Ching Ming; Conti, María Inés; Terrizzi, Antonela Romina; González-López, Santiago; Martínez, María Pilar

    2017-02-15

    Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca2++Mg2++ Na+)/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fat mass is negatively associated with bone mineral content in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Choi, H J; Kim, M J; Shin, C S; Cho, N H

    2012-07-01

    Although obesity and osteoporosis are important public health problems, the effect of fat mass on bone mass remains controversial. This study demonstrated that fat mass was inversely related to bone mineral content, and abdominal obesity was significantly associated with bone mineral content independent of total fat mass. Obesity and osteoporosis, two disorders of body composition, have become increasingly important public health problems throughout the world. However, the effect of fat mass on bone mass remains controversial. This study investigates the effect of fat mass and regional fat distribution on bone mass within a community-dwelling cohort. A total of 3,042 subjects (1,284 men, 362 premenopausal women, and 1,396 postmenopausal women) were studied. Fat mass, percent fat mass, lean mass, percent lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fat mass and percent fat mass decreased significantly across increasing tertiles of BMC in all three subgroups (men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women). In contrast, lean mass and percent lean mass increased significantly across tertiles of BMC in men, and a similar trend was also identified in postmenopausal women. Interestingly, although correlation analysis showed a positive association between fat mass and BMC (p obesity is associated with BMC independent of total fat mass. This study demonstrated that fat mass was inversely related to BMC after removing the mechanical loading effect in Korean men and women. Moreover, abdominal obesity as measured by WC was significantly associated with BMC independent of total fat mass.

  19. Altered auditory and vestibular functioning in individuals with low bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Jha, Raghav Hira; Gargeshwari, Aditi; Kumar, Prawin

    2018-01-01

    Alteration in the process of bone remodelling is associated with falls and fractures due to increased bone fragility and altered calcium functioning. The auditory system consists of skeletal structures and is, therefore, prone to getting affected by altered bone remodelling. In addition, the vestibule consists of huge volumes of calcium (CaCO3) in the form of otoconia crystals and alteration in functioning calcium levels could, therefore, result in vestibular symptoms. Thus, the present study aimed at compiling information from various studies on assessment of auditory or vestibular systems in individuals with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 1977 articles were searched using various databases and 19 full-length articles which reported auditory and vestibular outcomes in persons with low BMD were reviewed. An intricate relationship between altered BMD and audio-vestibular function was evident from the studies; nonetheless, how one aspect of hearing or balance affects the other is not clear. Significant effect of reduced bone mineral density could probably be due to the metabolic changes at the level of cochlea, secondary to alterations in BMD. One could also conclude that sympathetic remodelling is associated with vestibular problems in individual; however, whether vestibular problems lead to altered BMD cannot be ascertained with confidence. The studies reviewed in the article provide an evidence of possible involvement of hearing and vestibular system abnormalities in individuals with reduced bone mineral density. Hence, the assessment protocol for these individuals must include hearing and balance evaluation as mandatory for planning appropriate management.

  20. Relation of bone mineral density and content to mineral content and density of the fat-free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E M; Prior, B M; Arngrimsson, S A; Modlesky, C M; Cureton, K J

    2001-11-01

    Differences in the mineral fraction of the fat-free mass (M(FFM)) and in the density of the FFM (D(FFM)) are often inferred from measures of bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). We studied the relation of BMC and BMD to the M(FFM) and D(FFM) in a heterogeneous sample of 216 young men (n = 115) and women (n = 101), which included whites (n = 155) and blacks (n = 61) and collegiate athletes ( n = 132) and nonathletes (n = 84). Whole body BMC and BMD were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Hologic QDR-1000W, enhanced whole body analysis software, version 5.71). FFM was estimated using a four-component model from measures of body density by hydrostatic weighing, body water by deuterium dilution, and bone mineral by DXA. There was no significant relation of BMD to M(FFM) (r = 0.01) or D(FFM) (r = -0.06) or of BMC to M(FFM) (r = -0.11) and a significant, weak negative relation of BMC to D(FFM) (r = -0.14, P = 0.04) in all subjects. Significant low to moderate relationships of BMD or BMC to M(FFM) or D(FFM) were found within some gender-race-athletic status subgroups or when the effects of gender, race, and athletic status were held constant using multiple regression, but BMD and BMC explained only 10-17% of the variance in M(FFM) and 0-2% of the variance in D(FFM) in addition to that explained by the demographic variables. We conclude that there is not a significant positive relation of BMD and BMC to M(FFM) or D(FFM) in young adults and that BMC and BMD should not be used to infer differences in M(FFM) or D(FFM).

  1. Automated measurement of bone-mineral-density (BMD) values of vertebral bones based on X-ray torso CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Hayashi, T; Chen, H; Hara, T; Yokoyama, R; Kanematsu, M; Hoshi, H; Fujita, H

    2009-01-01

    Bone is one of the most important anatomical structures in humans and osteoporosis is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Osteoporosis is a main target disease of bone, which can be detected by medical image techniques. The purpose of this study is to develop a fully automated computer scheme to measure bone-mineral-density (BMD) values for vertebral trabecular bones. This scheme will aid osteoporosis diagnosis performed using computer tomography (CT) images. This scheme includes the following processing steps: segmentation of the bone region, recognition of the skeletal structures and measurement of the BMD value in vertebral trabecular bone of each vertebral body. The proposed scheme was applied to 20 X-ray torso CT cases to measure the BMD values for vertebral trabecular bones. The experimental results show that the mean and standard deviation of the difference between the BMD values measured by using the proposed method and those measured using a manual segmentation method were 6.93 mg/cm(3) and 6.82 mg/cm(3) respectively. The accuracy of the proposed scheme satisfied the requirement for a computer-aided system used in osteoporosis diagnosis.

  2. Mechanical Properties and Cytocompatibility Improvement of Vertebroplasty PMMA Bone Cements by Incorporating Mineralized Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jiang Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA bone cement is a commonly used bone adhesive and filling material in percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty surgeries. However, PMMA bone cements have been reported to cause some severe complications, such as secondary fracture of adjacent vertebral bodies, and loosening or even dislodgement of the set PMMA bone cement, due to the over-high elastic modulus and poor osteointegration ability of the PMMA. In this study, mineralized collagen (MC with biomimetic microstructure and good osteogenic activity was added to commercially available PMMA bone cement products, in order to improve both the mechanical properties and the cytocompatibility. As the compressive strength of the modified bone cements remained well, the compressive elastic modulus could be significantly down-regulated by the MC, so as to reduce the pressure on the adjacent vertebral bodies. Meanwhile, the adhesion and proliferation of pre-osteoblasts on the modified bone cements were improved compared with cells on those unmodified, such result is beneficial for a good osteointegration formation between the bone cement and the host bone tissue in clinical applications. Moreover, the modification of the PMMA bone cements by adding MC did not significantly influence the injectability and processing times of the cement.

  3. Technical Note: Bone mineral density measurements of strontium-rich trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms using quantitative ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Bisma; Da Silva, Eric; Slatkovska, Luba; Cheung, Angela M; Tavakkoli, Jahan; Pejović-Milić, Ana

    2016-11-01

    Bone quantity, as determined by the current gold standard, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), through measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD), is subject to positive biases if bone strontium levels are high. This is of particular concern for populations administered strontium-based compounds for the treatment of osteoporosis. This study investigated the dependence of bone mineral density (BMD) determinations, and associated ultrasound-determined indices, obtained by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), on bone strontium content using a new generation of trabecular bone-mimicking phantoms. A new generation of bone-mimicking phantoms, consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatin, was developed. Castor oil layers were included in these phantoms to create a multilayer bone-mimicking phantom. These phantoms were prepared using a bone mineral fraction consisting of varying strontium concentrations in the range of 0-2.5% mol/mol as strontium-substituted HA. The effect of varying bone strontium content on determined quality indices was evaluated based on determined speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and determined quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) for phantoms with varying BMD values and varying strontium concentration using two QUS systems: a clinical Sahara® system and an in-house research system with two identical transducers with center frequency of 1 MHz. The two QUS systems were also compared through a Bland-Altman analysis. Both the clinical system and the research QUS systems showed a strong dependency between BMD and BUA, indicating a potential for QUS to be used as a means of estimating BMD (p = 0.001). SOS was found to have no correlation to BMD (p = 0.546). There was no correlation observed between BUA and increasing bone strontium concentrations for the research (p = 0.749) and clinical (p = 0.609) QUS systems. Similarly, no dependency was observed between the SOS and bone strontium levels up to 2.5 mol/mol [Sr/(Sr+Ca)]% for

  4. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  5. Change in bone mineral density during adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carina Ørts; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Frøslev, Trine

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy has been associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) either as a direct effect or due to glucocorticoids used as supportive care medication. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate changes in BMD from baseline to right after completion...... % CI -3.3; -0.1, p = 0.04) compared to never/former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant chemotherapy supplemented with prednisolone was not associated with loss of BMD. Postmenopausal women gained bone mass, whereas current smokers lost bone mass....

  6. The Soy Isoflavones to Reduce Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: Three Year Effects on pQCT Bone Mineral Density and Strength Measures in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy isoflavones exert inconsistent bone density preserving effects, but the bone strength preserving effects in humans are unknown. Our double-blind randomized controlled trial examined 2 soy isoflavone doses (80 or 120 mg/d) vs placebo tablets on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and strength ...

  7. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  8. Fat mass increase in 7-year-old children: more bone area but lower bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Magnusson, Kristjan Th; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2013-07-01

    The main aims of this study were, to evaluate what effect a change in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) has on bone parameters over 2 years' time, in 7-year-old school children and to see what effect fitness had on bone parameters in these children. A repeated-measures design study was conducted where children born in 1999 from six elementary schools in Reykjavik, Iceland were measured twice. All children attending second grade in these six schools were invited to participate. Three hundred twenty-one children were invited, 211 underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans at the age of seven, and 164 (78 %) of the 211 had DXA scans again 2 years later. Increase in both FM and LBM was associated with increased total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA). An increase in FM was more strongly positively associated with BA while an increase in LBM was more strongly associated with an increase in BMC. An increase in FM was negatively associated with change in bone mineral density (BMD), but an increase in LBM was positively associated with change in BMD. Fitness was positively associated with bone parameters when weight, height and sex were accounted for. The present results suggest that an increase in fat mass over 2 years is associated with an increase in BA and BMC, but a decrease in BMD in the whole body. An increase in LBM accrual, on the other hand, is positively associated with all bone parameters in the body. Fitness is associated with both BMC and BMD but not BA.

  9. [Body composition and bone mineral density of prepubertal boys involved in different kinesiologic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Borislav; Madić, Dejan; Milosević, Zoran; Maksimović, Nebojsa; Mikalacki, Milena; Kovacev-Zavisić, Branka

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on the bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. The type, frequency, intensity, and duration of activity that best produce the desired increases in mass and strength of human bones have not yet been well determined. To examine the influence of different kinesiological treatments on body composition and bone mineral density we studied a group of prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. 90 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. The sport group consisted of 28 swimmers (aged 10.80.8) and 32 soccer players (aged 10.70.5), who had been training their chosen high-level sport activity for at least 1 year (8-12 h per week for swimmers, 10-15 h per week for soccer players). 30 boys (aged 11.2 +/- 0.7) doing 1.5 h per week of physical activity in school served as a control group. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and right calcaneus were done by ultrasound densitometer "Sahara". The body composition was assessed by Body Fat Analyser "BES 200 Z". There were significant differences between soccer players and control group as regards fat mass and bone mineral density (p<.01). Besides, significant differences were determined between a group of swimmers and control group as regads fat mass (p<.03), while the differences in bone mineral density were not very obvious (p<.67).

  10. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  11. Calcium intake and bone mineral density as an example of non-linearity and threshold analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, L P

    2015-04-01

    Non-linearity is a likely phenomenon in bone metabolism, but is often ignored in pertinent epidemiological studies. Using NHANES III data on calcium intake and bone mineral density, the most important non-linear methods are introduced and discussed. The results should motivate researchers to consider non-linearity in this field more frequently. Many relationships in bone metabolism and homeostasis are likely to follow non-linear patterns. Detailed dose-response analyses allowing for non-linear associations nonetheless remain scarce in this field. A detailed analysis of NHANES III data on dietary calcium intake and bone mineral density was used to demonstrate the application and some of the challenges of the most important dose-response methods, including LOESS, categorical analysis, fractional polynomials, restricted cubic splines, and segmented regression. The spline estimate suggested increasing bone mineral density up to a calcium intake of about 1 g/day and a plateau thereafter. In segmented regression, the break-point marking the beginning of the plateau was placed at an intake of 0.58 (95 % confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.82) g/day. Sensitivity analyses suggested a less curved dose-response in women. Knowing about the possibilities and limitations of non-linear dose-response approaches should encourage researchers to consider these methods more frequently in studies on bone health and disease. The example analysis suggested bone mineral density to reach a plateau slightly below current calcium intake recommendations, with fairly pronounced differences of the dose-response shape by sex and menopausal status.

  12. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD. The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we determined whether serum leptin levels were associated with whole-body BMD and bone mineral content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, after adjusting for confounders including body fat distribution. We found an inverse association between leptin and bone density in those with peripheral lipoatrophy, defined objectively as 3 kg appendicular fat. This result suggests that fat distribution may modify the relationship between leptin and bone density.

  13. Detection of hydroxyl ions in bone mineral by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyunggoo; Wu, Yaotang; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2003-05-16

    Previous measurements of the hydroxyl (OH-) ion content of the calcium phosphate crystals of bone mineral have indicated a substantial depletion or near-absence of OH-, despite its presumed status as a constituent of the hydroxyapatite lattice. Analytical methods for determining bone crystal OH- content have depended on procedures or assumptions that may have biased the results, such as chemical pretreatment to eliminate interference from the organic matrix. We demonstrate a two-dimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy technique that detects the proton spectrum of bone crystals while suppressing the interfering matrix signals, eliminating the need for specimen pretreatment other than cryogenic grinding. Results on fresh-frozen and ground whole bone of several mammalian species show that the bone crystal OH- is readily detectable; a rough estimate yields an OH- content of human cortical bone of about 20% of the amount expected in stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. This finding sheds light on the biochemical processes underlying normal and abnormal bone mineral metabolism.

  14. GENETIC MARKERS OF LOW BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Jakovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: failure to maintain bone mass density is a major problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. CF is due to mutations in the CFTR gene and other genes may contribute to modifying the disease. Genetic and environmental factors may play a role in determining the variability of bone mass. Aim of the study: to analyse the association between polymorphic variants of genes considered to be risk factors of bone metabolism disturbances and decreased bone mineral density (BMD in children and adults with CF in R. Macedonia. Materials and methods: the study included 80 clinically stable CF patients (age range 5-36y, who regularly attended the CF center at the Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, Macedonia. Three candidate genes likely associated with BMD variability were studied: the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene, the estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 and the type I alpha I collagen (COLIA1 gene. A complete bone and CF evaluation was obtained for all patients: 55 had normal BMD (group 1, 17 were osteopenic (group 2 and 8 were osteoporotic (group 3. Results: Low bone mineral density (Z score < -1SD was found in 31.25% patients and in 10% of them BMD was below -2SD. Patients with low BMD had worse BMI, FEV1 and more severe symptoms of CF. No significant correlation was found between COLIA1 and VDR polymorphisms and BMD. Conclusion: There was no evidence that the genes under study may modulate bone phenotype in CF.

  15. Bone mineral density, growth, pubertal development and other parameters in Brazilian children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwes, M.; Souza de Carvalho, T. F.; Cipolotti, R.; Gurgel, R. Q.; Ferrão, T. O.; Peters, M.; Agyemang, C.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratorial characteristics in children and young adults with sickle cell anaemia living in Northeast-Brazil, and to assess the role of radiography in diagnosing low BMD. Bone mineral density of

  16. Densidade mineral óssea de adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade Bone mineral density in overweight and obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobayashi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a densidade óssea como fator concomitante da obesidade em adolescentes pós-púberes, controlando outras variáveis que possam interferir nessa relação. MÉTODOS: Estudo com 83 sobrepesos e obesos (IMC > P85 e 89 não obesos (P5 OBJECTIVE: to study bone density as a concomitant factor for obesity in post-pubertal adolescents, controlling for other variables that may interfere in such a relation. METHODS: Study comprising 83 overweight and obese adolescents (BMI > P85 and 89 non obese ones (P5 < BMI < P85. Cases and controls were selected out of 1,420 students (aged 14-19 from a public school in the city of São Paulo. The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-L4 in g/cm² was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR™ DPX-L. The variable bone density was dichotomized using 1.194 g/cm² as cutoff point. Bivariate analyses were conducted considering the prevalence of overweight and obesity followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression according to a hierarchical conceptual model. RESULTS: The prevalence of bone density above the median was twice more frequent among cases (69.3% than among controls (32.1%. In the bivariate analysis such prevalence resulted in an odds ratio (OR of 4.78. The logistic regression model showed that the association between obesity and mineral density is yet more intense with an OR of 6.65 after the control of variables related to sedentary lifestyle and intake of milk and dairy products. CONCLUSION: Obese and overweight adolescents in the final stages of sexual maturity presented higher bone mineral density in relation to their normal-weight counterparts; however, cohort studies will be necessary to evaluate the influence of such characteristic on bone resistance in adulthood and, consequently, on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis at older ages.

  17. The diabetic paradox: Bone mineral density and fracture in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Martínez, Sonsoles; Varo Cenarruzabeitia, Nerea; Escalada San Martin, Javier; Calleja Canelas, Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence and morbidity are increasing. Osteoporotic fractures are among the 'non-classical' complications of diabetes and been overlooked for a long time, maybe because of their complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The usual tools for preventing fragility fractures (such as the fracture risk assessment tool and bone densitometry) underestimate risk of fractures in type2 diabetic patients. New techniques, such as trabecular bone score or bone turnover markers, could be useful, but greater scientific evidence is required to recommend their use in clinical practice. The special characteristics of their pathophysiology result in decreased bone remodeling with normal or even increased bone mineral density, but with low quality. These changes lead to the occurrence of osteoporotic fractures without evidence of densitometric changes, which could be called 'the diabetic paradox'. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  19. Caffeine enhances osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow hematopoietic cells and reduces bone mineral density in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing Hwa; Chen, Chinliang; Yang, Rong Sen; Yen, Yuan Peng; Yang, Ya Ting; Tsai, Chingmin

    2011-06-01

    Caffeine-containing beverage consumption has been associated with low bone mass and increased fracture risk in some, but not most, observational studies. The effects of caffeine on bone metabolism are still controversial. We investigated the effects of caffeine on the differentiation of bone progenitor cells and bone mineral density (BMD) by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Low-concentration caffeine (0.005-0.1 mM) did not affect the bone marrow cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity during osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells, but it effectively enhanced the osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow hematopoietic cells and the bone resorption activity by pit formation assay. Moreover, caffeine effectively enhanced the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), but reduced the osteoprotegerin protein expressions in osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Caffeine could also increase the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression and prostaglandin (PG)E(2) production in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae. In animal study, BMD in lumbar vertebra, femur, or tibia was significantly lowered in growing rats supplemented with 0.2% caffeine in diets for 20 weeks compared with the control group. The calcium contents in tibia and femur of caffeine-treated rats were also lower than that in the control group. The osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells isolated from caffeine-treated rats was markedly enhanced as compared with the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that caffeine may reduce BMD in growing rats through the enhancement in osteoclastogenesis. Caffeine may possess the ability to enhance a COX-2/PGE(2) -regulated RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Bone Mineral Density in Boys Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Kelly; Ramirez, Lucas; Gutierrez, Alan; Richardson, Wendy; Marti, C. Nathan; Potts, Amy; Shearer, Rebeca; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), nutritional status, biochemical markers, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in 4-8 year old boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with a group of age-matched, healthy boys without ASD. Boys with ASD had significantly lower spine BMD…

  1. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents: relation to puberty, calcium intake, and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe association of height, weight, pubertal stage, calcium intake, and physical activity with bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in 500 children and adolescents (205 boys and 295 girls), aged 4-20 yr. The BMD (grams per cm2) of lumbar spine and total

  2. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  3. Changes in hand and generalised bone mineral density in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guler-Yuksel, M.; Allaart, C.F.; Goekoop-Ruiterman, Y.P.; Bouwstra, J.K.; Groenendael, J.H.L.M.; Mallee, C.; Bois, de M.H.W.; Breedveld, F.C.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Lems, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the hands, hip and spine after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, in relation to antirheumatic and antiresorptive therapies and disease and demographic variables in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis ( RA). Methods: Changes in

  4. Bone mineral density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with budesonide Turbuhaler (R)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnell, O; Pauwels, R; Lofdahl, CG; Laitinen, LA; Postma, DS; Pride, NB; Ohlsson, SV

    There is a need for studying the effects of long-term inhaled corticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebral fracture rates in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients (n=912, mean age 52 yrs) with mild COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in one

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: a Bridge Between Bone Minerals and Renal Volume Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, Jelmer Kor

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis addresses the interaction between the phosphate-regulating hormone Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF-23) as key player in bone-mineral homeostasis and renal volume handling, mainly in the context of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). First, we elaborate on the

  6. Effects of bone graft materials on the microhardness of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Erick Y; Svec, Timothy; Whitten, Brian; Sedgley, Christine M

    2012-05-01

    Large through-and-through lesions have been reported to heal faster and better when filled with bone graft material at the time of an apicoectomy. It is unknown what effect these have on retrograde filling materials such as white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA). In this study, the null hypothesis was tested that the presence of bone graft materials does not affect the microhardness of WMTA. Freshly mixed WMTA was condensed into acrylic cylinders and preincubated aerobically at 37°C for 1 hour. Cylinders were immersed in simulated body fluid in close proximity to graft materials: xenograft (Bio-Oss, n = 60), freeze-dried bone allograft (MinerOss, n = 60), demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (OraGraft, n = 40), and allograft (Puros, n = 60). Knoop microhardness of half the samples in each group was evaluated after 2 weeks of incubation and the remainder at 4 weeks. The values for each group were then compared with 2-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests. WMTA microhardness values for Bio-Oss, MinerOss, and Puros groups were lower than those for OraGraft and control groups regardless of incubation period (P Microhardness values were higher at 4 weeks compared with 2 weeks for MinerOss (P materials appear to have a differential effect on the microhardness of WMTA. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Bone Mineral Density, Regardless of HIV Status, in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.N.M.; Stolte, I.G.; Prins, M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Reiss, P.; Prins, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among men with primary or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain further insight into the contribution of HIV infection, we compared the BMD of 41 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary HIV infection,

  8. Evaluation of periprosthetic bone mineral density and postoperative migration of humeral head resurfacing implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Klebe, Thomas Martin; Døssing, Kaj Verner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implant migration, bone mineral density (BMD), length of glenohumeral offset (LGHO), and clinical results were compared for the Copeland (Biomet Inc, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Global C.A.P. (DePuy Int, Warsaw, IN, USA) humeral head resurfacing implants (HHRIs). METHODS: The study...

  9. Low bone mineral density, regardless of HIV status, in men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, Marlous L.; Vrouenraets, Saskia M. E.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Prins, Maria; Lips, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Prins, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported among men with primary or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain further insight into the contribution of HIV infection, we compared the BMD of 41 men who have sex with men (MSM) with primary HIV infection,

  10. Effects of mometasone, fluticasone, and montelukast on bone mineral density in adults with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maspero, Jorge; Backer, Vibeke; Yao, Ruji

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with bone mineral density (BMD) loss have not been characterized consistently. OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study assessed effects of mometasone furoate (MF) administered via dry powder inhaler on BMD of patients with persistent...

  11. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...

  12. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  13. Hyperinsulinemia and bone mineral density in an elderly population : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; VanDaele, PLA; Pols, HAP; Burger, H; Hofman, A; Birkenhager, JC; Lamberts, SWJ; Grobbee, DE

    We studied the association between insulin and glucose levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a population based study of 5931 elderly men and women, Serum insulin was measured 2 h after a nonfasting oral glucose load in subjects not using antidiabetes medication, BMD was measured by dual-energy

  14. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  15. Selenium status is positively associated with bone mineral density in healthy aging European men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Beukhof (Carolien); M. Medici (Marco); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); Birgit Hollenbach (B.); A. Hoeg (Antonia); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); T.J. Visser (Theo); L. Schomburg (Lutz); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status

  16. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  17. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  18. Greater yogurt consumption is associated with increased bone mineral density and physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, E; Molloy, A M; McNulty, H; Ward, M; McCarroll, K; Hoey, L; Hughes, C F; Cunningham, C; Strain, J J; Casey, M C

    2017-08-01

    In this cohort of community dwelling older adults (>60 years), we observed significant positive associations between the frequencies of yogurt intake with measures of bone density, bone biomarkers, and indicators of physical function. Improving yogurt intakes could be a valuable health strategy for maintaining bone health in older adults. The associations of yogurt intakes with bone health and frailty in older adults are not well documented. The aim was to investigate the association of yogurt intakes with bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomarkers, and physical function in 4310 Irish adults from the Trinity, Ulster, Department of Agriculture aging cohort study (TUDA). Bone measures included total hip, femoral neck, and vertebral BMD with bone biochemical markers. Physical function measures included Timed Up and Go (TUG), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. Total hip and femoral neck BMD in females were 3.1-3.9% higher among those with the highest yogurt intakes (n = 970) compared to the lowest (n = 1109; P function scores. These results suggest that improving yogurt intakes could be a valuable public health strategy for maintaining bone health in older adults.

  19. Bone mineral densitometry substantially influences health-related behaviors of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marci, C D; Anderson, W B; Viechnicki, M B; Greenspan, S L

    2000-02-01

    Although bone mineral density measurements are helpful in predicting future risk for osteoporotic fractures, there is limited information available on how the results of bone densitometry influence a woman's use of therapeutic alternatives. To assess the role of bone mineral densitometry in influencing postmenopausal women to change health behaviors associated with osteoporosis, we prospectively followed, for an average of 2.9 years, 701 postmenopausal women over 50 years of age referred to an osteoporosis prevention program in a large metropolitan area. Assessments included bone mineral densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (with classification of skeletal health), medical history, use of hormone replacement therapy, calcium intake, caffeine intake, exercise, smoking habits, and fall precaution measures. Women classified at baseline with moderate low bone mass were twice as likely (33%), and women with severe low bone mass more than three times as likely (47%) to start hormone replacement therapy compared with women with a normal result (13%, P osteoporosis or fracture, and medical condition related to osteoporosis. Women with moderate or severe low bone mass were also much more likely to start calcium supplements (81-90% versus 67%), increase dietary calcium (71-82% versus 60%), decrease use of caffeine (44-60% versus 34%), start exercising (61-76% versus 52%), and quit smoking (22-24% versus 11%) relative to their behaviors prior to testing (P < 0.01). In conclusion, postmenopausal women report that the results of bone densitometry substantially influence the decision to begin hormone replacement therapy and calcium supplements, increase dietary calcium, decrease caffeine, increase exercise, decrease smoking, and take precautions to prevent falls. More studies are needed to measure the long-term effects of this influence.

  20. Zoledronic acid initiated during the first year of androgen deprivation therapy increases bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher W; Huo, Dezheng; Demers, Laurence M; Beer, Tomasz M; Lacerna, Leo V

    2006-09-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. Zoledronic acid protects against bone mineral density loss when initiated concurrently with androgen deprivation therapy. We evaluated the effect of zoledronic acid initiated subsequent to androgen deprivation therapy on bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover. Patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases who had received androgen deprivation therapy for 12 months or less were randomized to 4 mg zoledronic acid or placebo intravenously every 3 months for 1 year. Patients were stratified according to androgen deprivation therapy duration (less than 6 vs 6 to 12 months). The primary end point was the change in femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density in the 2 groups. The secondary end point was the change in serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urine N-telopeptide levels. Total hip bone mineral density was also measured. The 120 patients with prostate cancer received zoledronic acid (61) or placebo (59). Compared with placebo, zoledronic acid increased femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density yearly by 3.6% (p = 0.0004), 3.8% (p bone mineral density at these 3 sites were not differentiated according to androgen deprivation therapy duration. Additionally, mean bone specific alkaline phosphatase and N-telopeptide levels were decreased in the zoledronic acid group (each p bone mineral density and suppressed bone turnover markers in patients with prostate cancer without bone metastases when initiated during year 1 of androgen deprivation therapy.

  1. Impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Gawad Soma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by osteoporosis with higher incidence of fracture rates. The present work aimed to study bone status in hyperthyroidism and to elucidate the impact of severity, duration, and etiology of hyperthyroidism on biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD. Methods Fifty-two male patients with hyperthyroidism, 31 with Graves' disease (GD and 21 with toxic multinodular goiter (TNG, with an age ranging from 23 to 65 years were included, together with 25 healthy euthyroid men with matched age as a control group. In addition to full clinical examination, patients and controls were subjected to measurement of BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometery scanning of the lower half of the left radius. Also, some biochemical markers of bone turnover were done for all patients and controls. Results Biochemical markers of bone turnover: included serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, carboxy terminal telopeptide of type l collagen also, urinary deoxypyridinoline cross-links (DXP, urinary DXP/urinary creatinine ratio and urinary calcium/urinary creatinine ratio were significantly higher in patients with GD and TNG compared to controls (P 0.05. BMD was significantly lower in GD and TNG compared to controls, but the Z-score of BMD at the lower half of the left radius in patients with GD (-1.7 ± 0.5 SD was not significantly different from those with TNG (-1.6 ± 0.6 SD (>0.05. There was significant positive correlation between free T3 and free T4 with biochemical markers of bone turnover, but negative correlation between TSH and those biochemical markers of bone turnover. The duration of the thyrotoxic state positively correlated with the assessed bone turnover markers, but it is negatively correlated with the Z-score of BMD in the studied hyperthyroid patients (r = -0.68, P Conclusion Men with hyperthyroidism have significant bone loss with higher biochemical markers of bone

  2. Age dependent mineral density in the bones of inhabitants of Karelia

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    I. G. Pashkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the age changes of mineral density in the lumbar vertebrae was carried out in 929 people (740 women and 189 men at the age of 20 to 87 years, living in Karelia. Bone mineral density was evaluated by dual xray absorptiometry. In the women and in the men the spine bone mineralization peak was seen at the age of 22. The peak mineral density values were 5 % lower in the men and 1.6 % in the women in comparison with the data of the densitometer base. Considerable decrease of the bone mineral density in the vertebrae in the women began at the age of 41–45 years, and in the men – at the age of 51–55 years. Demineralization of the vertebrae in 75 year old women was 20 %, in the men it was 11.1 %, and in 81–87 year old women – 25.2 %.

  3. Physical evidence for a glue holding mineralized collagen fibrils together in bone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, P.

    2005-03-01

    Evidence from Atomic Force Microscope indentation, pulling and imaging, and macroscopic testing and enzymatic digestion, suggests that collagen fibrils and mineral plates are not the only components of bone with mechanical roles. A ``glue'' appears to bind mineralized collagen fibrils together. Order of magnitude calculations show that less than 1% by weight of this ``glue'' profoundly affects bone fracture resistance, as it involves a remarkable natural toughening and strengthening system: sacrificial bonds and hidden length. This system dissipates large amounts of work against entropic forces while stretching out the hidden length that is exposed when sacrificial bonds break. This appears to occur when mineralized collagen fibrils are torn apart or slid against each other during bone fracture. In bone, this system depends on multivalent positive ions such as calcium ions, which allows us to follow its influence up to macroscopic fracture testing levels. Many bone matrix proteoglycans and glycoproteins have negatively charged groups at physiological pHs that could be bound together into sacrificial bonds by multivalent positive ions, and are thus natural candidates for this ``glue.'' We cannot rule out a possible involvement of nonfibrillar collagen. Precisely which candidates are involved is yet to be determined. *NSF MRL DMR00-80034, NIH GM65354, NASA BiMAT URETI NCC-1-02037 (00000532), Veeco, USARL ARO DAAD19-03-D-0004

  4. Discriminative ability of total body bone-mineral measured by dual photon absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotfredsen, A.; Poedenphant, J.; Nilas, L.; Christiansen, C. (Glostrup Sygehus, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-04-01

    We investigated the descriminative ability of total body bone-mineral expressed as the total body bone-density (TBBD) measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in 79 healthy premenopausal women, 27 healthy postmenopausal women, and 120 female osteoporotic fracture patients presenting with either Colles' fracture, vertebral fracture or femoral neck-fracture. TBBD was compared to the bone-mineral density of the lumbar spine (BMD{sub spine}) also measured by DPA, and to the bone-mineral content of the forearms (BMC{sub forearm}) measured by single photon absorptiometry (SPA). TBBD, BMD{sub spine} and BMC{sub forearm} showed that all the fracture patient groups had significantly reduced bone-mass. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we found that TBBD had a tendency towards better discriminative ability than BMD{sub spine} or BMC{sub forearm} with regard to the discrimination between healthy premenopausal women and the three types of osteoporotic fractures. BMC{sub forearm} had an intermediate position, whereas BMD{sub spine} had the smallest discriminative ability. TBBD also discriminated better between healthy postmenopausal women and hip-fracture patients than BMD{sub spine} or BMC {sub forearm}, whereas there was no significant difference between the three methods regarding the discrimination between the healthy postmenopausal women and the Colles' and spinal fracture patients. We conclude that the TBBD measurement by DPA has a discriminative potential which is better than the local spine or forearm measurements. (author).

  5. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  6. VARIANTS OF SPINE OSTEOSYNTESIS AT LOW MINERAL DENSITY OF BONE

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    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of transpedicular screw fixation in the treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was done. In the first group (N=27 the polysegmental transpedicular screw fixation was applied. In the second group (N=20 we used short-level stabilization with additional augmentation of transpedicular screws by bone cement. The spinal stability, restoration of function, correction of spine's deformation and pain relief was same in both groups. But in the second group the results was achieved with less traumatization and time of rehabilitation of the patients.

  7. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....... a DEXA scanner. The RSF subjects showed significantly lower L2-L4 BMD: RSF: 1.22+/-0.05 g cm(-2) (mean+/-SEM) (median 1.19 g cm(-2), range 1.02-1.37 g cm(-2)) compared to C: 140+/-0.04 g cm(-2) (median 1.41 g cm(-2), range 1.27-1.57 g cm(-2)) (P=0.028). The present results suggest that low bone mineral...

  8. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates an association between phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) and self-reported passive smoking using data on 15,038 persons (aged 18-95 years), who underwent a BMD scan in the Danish KRAM study. BMD was significantly lower in persons exposed to long-term passive smoking...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...... and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...

  9. Osteoprotegerin autoantibodies do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri-Sani, Fariba; Brundin, Charlotte; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with osteoporosis. The aim was to develop an immunoassay for OPG autoantibodies and test their diagnostic usefulness of identifying women general population with low bone mineral density. Included were 698 women at mean age 55.1 years (range 50.4-60.6) randomly selected from the general population. Measurement of wrist bone mineral density (g/cm 2 ) was performed of the non-dominant wrist by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A T-score density. Measurements of OPG autoantibodies were carried by radiobinding assays. Cut-off levels for a positive value were determined from the deviation from normality in the distribution of 398 healthy blood donors representing the 99.7th percentile. Forty-five of the 698 (6.6%) women were IgG-OPG positive compared with 2 of 398 (0.5%) controls ( p  density between IgG-OPG positive (median 0.439 (range 0.315-0.547) g/cm 2 ) women and IgG-OPG negative (median 0.435 (range 0.176-0.652) g/cm 2 ) women ( p  = 0.3956). Furthermore, there was neither a correlation between IgG-OPG levels and bone mineral density (r s  = 0.1896; p  = 0.2068) nor T-score (r s  = 0.1889; p  = 0.2086). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of IgG-OPG for low bone mineral density were 5.7% and 92.9%, and positive and negative predictive values were 7.4% and 90.8%, respectively. Elevated OPG autoantibody levels do not predict low bone mineral density in middle-aged women selected from the general population.

  10. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  11. Effects of obesity treatments on bone mineral density, bone turnover and fracture risk in adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Claudia; Pattinson, Andrea L; Fernando, Hamish A; Zibellini, Jessica; Seimon, Radhika V; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1.5% of pre-treatment values). Weight loss pharmaceuticals (orlistat or the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide) induced no greater changes from pre-treatment values than control, despite greater weight loss. There is suggestive evidence that liraglutide may increase bone mineral content (BMC) - but not BMD - and reduce fracture risk, but more research is required to clarify this. All three obesity treatments have variable effects on spine BMD, probably due to greater measurement error at this site in obesity, suggesting that future research in this field could focus on hip rather than spine BMD. Various mechanisms have been proposed for BMD loss with obesity treatments, notably reduced nutritional intake/absorption and insufficient exercise, and these are potential avenues for protection against bone loss. However, a pressing outstanding question is whether this BMD reduction contributes to increased fracture risk, as has been observed after RYGB, and whether any such increase in fracture risk outweighs the risks of staying obese (unlikely).

  12. Soft tissues, areal bone mineral density and hip geometry estimates in active young boys: the PRO-BONE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Kelly; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Klentrou, Panagiota; Ubago-Guisado, Esther; De Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Barker, Alan R; Williams, Craig A; Moreno, Luis A; Gracia-Marco, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Soft tissues, such as fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), play an important role in bone development but this is poorly understood in highly active youths. The objective of this study was to determine whether FM or LM is a stronger predictor of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and hip geometry estimates in a group of physically active boys after adjusting for height, chronological age, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), FM, and LM. Participants included 121 boys (13.1 ± 1.0 years) from the PRO-BONE study. Bone mineral content (BMC) and aBMD were measured at total body, femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and hip structural analysis was used to estimate bone geometry at the femoral neck. Body composition was assessed using DXA. The relationships of FM and LM with bone outcomes were analysed using simple and multiple linear regression analyses. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that total body (less head) aBMD was significantly correlated with LM but not FM. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that FM, after accounting for height, age, MVPA and LM had no significant relationship with aBMD or hip geometry estimates, except for arms aBMD. By contrast, there were positive associations between LM and most aBMD and hip geometry estimates, after accounting height, age, MVPA and FM. The results of this study suggest that LM, and not FM, is the stronger predictor of aBMD and hip geometry estimates in physically active boys. ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN17982776.

  13. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  14. Physical activity and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The estrogen defi ciency after menopause leads to accelerated loss of bone mass. The aim of this study was to examine influence of physical activity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: This prospective study included 100 postmenopausal women, ages between 50 and 65, living in Sarajevo area without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. The women in the examination group had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbar spine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. To assess level of physical activity an International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long Form was used.Results: In the examination group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen deficit, level of physical activity was low in 52.00% female, and in 48.00% women level of physical activity was moderate. In the control group of women who had no history of menstrual estrogen defi cit in 10.00% female level of physical activity was low, and in 90.00% female level of physical activity was moderate. The difference in levels of physical activity between the two groups was statistically significant, X2 test = 20.6, p <0.005.Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that moderate physical activity has positive impact on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women without estrogen defi ciency in menstrual history and has the potential to reduce rapid bone loss after menopause.

  15. Guided bone regeneration with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 loaded on either deproteinized bovine bone mineral or a collagen barrier membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulacic, Nikola; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 9 (rhBMP9) has been considered the most osteoinductive growth factor of the BMP-family and has much translation potential for guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures. The aim of this study was to compare bone formation using rhBMP9 loaded with different carrier systems including deprotenized bovine bone mineral (BioOss, BO) or collagen barrier membranes (BioGide, BG) in a rabbit GBR model. rhBMP9 was loaded either on BO; named BO/BMP9, or BG; named BG/BMP9 to investigate the better carrier system for rhBMP9. New bone formation was quantified in a rabbit calvarial defect model using four groups; (1) control (empty, n = 9), (2) BO + BG (n = 9), (3) BO/BMP9 + BG (n = 9; BMP9 loaded onto BO), and (4) BO + BG/BMP9 (n = 9; BMP9 loaded onto BG) by radiographically and histologically at 8 weeks post-surgery. Both BO/BMP9 + BG and BO + BG/BMP9 samples significantly promoted new bone formation when compared to BO + BG samples based on parameters including mineralized tissue volume by microCT analysis, as well as new bone height and new bone area by histomorphometry. Interestingly, BO + BG/BMP9 samples but not BO/BMP9 + BG achieved near perfect horizontal bone defect closure, while demonstrating new bone layers in the defect areas implanted with BG materials and bone formation around BO materials. Both BO and BG positively induced bone formation with rhBMP9 in an experimental rabbit GBR model when compared to BO + BG alone. This study revealed that BG-loaded with rhBMP9 promoted better wound closure when compared to BO-loaded with rhBMP9. GBR procedures with growth factors may thus benefit from loading rhBMP9 onto BG-collagen barrier membranes when compared to BO-bone grafting particles. Future large animal studies with different types of bone grafts and barrier membranes are needed to further investigate these trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bone mineral density and calcium metabolism in adolescents with beta-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Azza A; El Kholy, Mohamed; Moustafa, Tarek; Elsedfy, Heba H

    2008-10-01

    Bone disease in thalassemia in the form of low bone mass remains a frequent, debilitating and poorly understood problem, even among well transfused and chelated pre-pubertal and adult patients. In this work we attempted to delineate calcium status and bone mineral density in a group of transfusion dependent thalassemic adolescents of both sexes. Bone mineral density (BMD) at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured in 40 adolescents with beta thalassemia major (TM) by DXA scanning and correlated to biochemical parameters including calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-OH vitamin D as well as vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms at exon 2 (Fok1). Z-score of BMD at the lumbar spine (-3.3, +/-1.4) was significantly lower than at the femoral neck (-0.68, -/+1.3), (p=0.001). Serum ferritin and VDR genotype were related to BMD only at the femoral neck indicating that the factors determining the BMD at these 2 sites might be different. Seventy-five percent of patients had a low calcium level and hypoparathyroidism was present in 72.5% of patients. The low calcium level was probably caused by a combination of hypoparathyroidism and osteomalacia evidenced by elevated bone alkaline phosphatase presumably resulting from deficient calcium intake. To optimize BMD in TM, it is important to ensure adequate iron chelation and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.

  17. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, M.A.; Ribeiro, H.J.; Valverde, T.M.; Sousa, B.R.; Martins-Júnior, P.A.; Mendes, R.M.; Ladeira, L.O.; Resende, R.R.; Kitten, G.T.; Ferreira, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs) on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction). We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26648087

  18. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate enhance bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (HY, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and HY-functionalized SWCNTs (HY-SWCNTs on the behavior of primary osteoblasts, as well as to investigate the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with these biocomposites. Primary osteoblasts were obtained from the calvarial bones of male newborn Wistar rats (5 rats for each cell extraction. We assessed cell viability using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and by double-staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst. We also assessed the formation of mineralized bone nodules by von Kossa staining, the mRNA expression of bone repair proteins, and the deposition of inorganic crystals on titanium surfaces coated with HY, SWCNTs, or HY-SWCNTs. The results showed that treatment with these biocomposites did not alter the viability of primary osteoblasts. Furthermore, deposition of mineralized bone nodules was significantly increased by cells treated with HY and HY-SWCNTs. This can be partly explained by an increase in the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen, osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Additionally, the titanium surface treated with HY-SWCNTs showed a significant increase in the deposition of inorganic crystals. Thus, our data indicate that HY, SWCNTs, and HY-SWCNTs are potentially useful for the development of new strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Milk basic protein increases ghrelin secretion and bone mineral density in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chacrabati, Rakhi; Ono-Ohmachi, Aiko; Gong, Zhi; Ikenoya, Chika; Aizawa, Sayaka; Nara, Takayuki Y; Morita, Yoshikazu; Kato, Ken; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    Milk basic protein (MBP), a mixture of proteins isolated from bovine milk, is known to increase bone formation. Ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide hormone, also has been reported to stimulate osteoblast formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether MBP-induced bone formation is mediated via ghrelin. MBP was chronically administered to mice in their drinking water for 3 wk, and body weight, water intake, and bone mineral density were measured. Additionally, plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b, and ghrelin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To examine the direct effect of MBP on ghrelin secretion, gastric tissue culture and primary mucosal cells were stimulated by MBP. The in vivo study of young, growing mice showed that chronic MBP intake for 3 wk increased the plasma ghrelin concentration and bone mineral density of the hind limb tibia. In vitro studies using minced rat gastric mucosa tissues and primary murine isolated gastric mucosal cells revealed that MBP stimulated ghrelin release in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MBP-induced ghrelin secretion was partly inhibited by adrenergic blockers. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which MBP directly acts on ghrelin secretion. Additionally, the elevated ghrelin level induced by MBP may act as a mediator for bone formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in bone mineral density, body composition, and lipid metabolism during growth hormone (GH) treatment in children with GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); M.A. Engels (Melanie); G.J.M. Boerma (Geert); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAdults with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced bone mass, increased fat mass, and disorders of lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition, and lipid metabolism in

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  2. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: An Uncommon Secondary Event in Calcaneal Chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sandip; Diwaker, Preeti; Bansal, Divya; Wadhwa, Neelam; Singh, Gurvinder

    2016-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign bone tumour, involvement of epiphysis of long bones is typical. Chondroblastoma of the calcaneum is uncommon and its association with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst is even rarer. Only two cases of calcaneal chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst have been reported till date. A 22-year-old male presented to the department of orthopaedics with complains of pain and swelling in the left heel since the last 10 months. On clinico-radiological grounds differentials considered were giant cell tumour of bone and aneurysmal bone cyst. In view of the histopathological findings of bone curettage and results of special stain and immunohistochemical marker, final diagnosis of chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst, left calcaneum was rendered. Although rare, chondroblastoma should always be considered in osteolytic lesions of calcaneum. The identification of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst component is important as it has higher chances of recurrence than usual chondroblastoma.

  3. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity.

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    Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Borislav; Smajić, Miroslav; Obradović, Jelena; Marić, Dusan; Bosković, Ksenija

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 +/- 0.5 years), who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week). The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 +/- 0.7 years) doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer "BES 200 Z". Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer "Sahara" (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA). There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01). Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01). The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  4. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  5. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipokines may mediate the relationship between resting metabolic rates and bone mineral densities in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, S; Mirzaei, K; Abdurahman, A A; Keshavarz, S A

    2017-05-01

    The researchers sought to test the possible link between resting metabolic rate and bone mineral density through four adipokines. Participants with lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) per kilogram demonstrated higher total bone mineral density (BMD), total T-score, and total Z-score. Omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR/kg of body weight and bone parameters. The previous results of studies regarding the links between obesity and bone health are controversial. For this reason, the researchers sought to test the possible link between RMR and BMD through the following four adipokines: vaspin, retinol binding protein 4, angiopoietin-like 6 (ANGPL6), and omentin-1. We enrolled 312 obese Iranian women (30 ≤ body mass index BMD, the participants were grouped based on RMR per body weight. Body composition, dietary intake, bone mineral density, and resting metabolic rate were assessed in all participants. Serum adipokine levels were quantified by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Low levels of RMR/kg were strongly associated with higher weight, body mass index, fat mass, and visceral fat levels. In fact, participants with an RMR/kg of body weight obese (p BMD, total T-score, and total Z-score. Our results showed that omentin-1 had a mediatory effect on the relationship between RMR per kilogram of body weight and bone parameters (p BMD (p > 0.05). The inhibitory effect of omentin-1 on TNF-alpha seems to be able to reduce the amount of circulating leptin as adipokine, affecting energy expenditure and improving bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and controlled effect of RMR on BMD.

  7. Interest of Mineralized Plasmatic Matrix in Secondary Autogenous Bone Graft for the Treatment of Alveolar Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Florian; Chaput, Benoit; Périssé, Jean; de Bérail, Ambre; Lauwers, Frédéric; Lopez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    The authors describe a new material termed mineralized plasmatic matrix (MPM), a combination of platelets, fibrin concentrate, and autogenous bone to repair alveolar cleft defects. Autogenous cancellous bone is widely used to this end because such bone affords the functionalities (osteogenesis, osteoinduction, and osteoconduction) required for successful outcomes. To optimize these features, autologous blood products high in platelet concentrations have recently been developed. On the basis of our experience with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) and PRF (platelet-rich fibrin), we developed MPM, which contains platelets and fibrin concentrate in a liquid state; these materials can become bound to bone particles. The filling material is easy to shape and a PRF-type membrane is also generated. Ten patients with cleft lips and alveoli, with or without cleft palates (median, or uni- or bilateral) benefited from secondary bone grafts placed using our new material. We transferred autogenous bone from the iliac crest, an abundant source of cancellous bone associated with a high success rate. The 6-month outcomes of all patients were excellent in terms of both bone graft stability and closure of the oronasal fistulae. The preparation procedure is simple and the technical requirements minimal. Upon further optimization, MPM may serve as a third-generation platelet concentrate with potential applications in various fields.

  8. Efficacy and safety of medical therapy for low bone mineral density in patients with Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Changcheng; Chen, Han; Ma, Jingjing; Zhu, Yunjuan; Wang, Peixue; Zhang, Yi; Ma, Haiqin; Zhang, Hongjie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly in patients with Crohn disease (CD). The aim of our study is to determine the efficacy and safety of different drugs used to treat low BMD in patients with CD. Methods: PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for eligible studies. A random-effects model within a Bayesian framework was applied to compare treatment effects as standardized mean difference (SMD) with their corresponding 95% credible interval (CrI), while odds ratio (OR) was applied to compare adverse events with 95% CrI. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) was calculated to make the ranking of the treatments for outcomes. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. Compared with placebo, zoledronate (SMDs 2.74, 95% CrI 1.36–4.11) and sodium-fluoride (SMDs 1.23, 95% CrI 0.19–2.26) revealed statistical significance in increasing lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD). According to SUCRA ranking, zoledronate (SUCRA = 2.5%) might have the highest probability to be the best treatment for increasing LSBMD in CD patients among all agents, followed by sodium-fluoride (27%). For safety assessment, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) demonstrated no statistical difference between agents and placebo. The corresponding SUCRA values indicated that risedronate (SUCRA = 77%) might be the most safe medicine for low BMD in CD patients and alendronate ranked the worst (SUCRA = 16%). Conclusions: Zoledronate might have the highest probability to be the best therapeutic strategy for increasing LSBMD. For the safety assessment, risedronate showed the greatest trend to decrease the risk of AEs. In the future, more RCTs with higher qualities are needed to make head-to-head comparison between 2 or more treatments. PMID:28296781

  9. An Increase in Forearm Cortical Bone Size After Menopause May Influence the Estimated Bone Mineral Loss--A 28-Year Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Ahlborg, Henrik G; Svejme, Ola; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-01-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) is the most common estimate of bone mass, incorporated in the World Health Organization definition of osteoporosis. However, aBMD depends on not only the amount of mineral but also the bone size. The estimated postmenopausal decline in aBMD could because of this be influenced by changes in bone size.We measured bone mineral content (BMC; mg), aBMD (mg/cm2), and bone width (mm) by single-photon absorptiometry at the cortical site of the forearm in a population-based sample of 105 Caucasian women. We conducted 12 measurements during a 28-yr period from mean 5 yr (range: 2-9) before menopause to mean 24 yr (range: 18-28) after menopause. We calculated individual slopes for changes in the periods before menopause, 0-bone width 0.4% (-1.2, 1.9), 0.7% (0.5, 0.9), 0.1% (-0.2, 0.4), and 0.1% (-0.2, 0.4). BMC loss was similar in all periods, whereas the increase in bone width was higher in the first postmenopausal period than in the second (p=0.003) and the third (p=0.01) postmenopausal periods. Menopause is followed by a transient increase in forearm bone size that will influence the by aBMD estimated cortical loss in bone minerals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Positive effects of a chicken eggshell powder-enriched vitamin-mineral supplement on femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy late post-menopausal Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Hofstede, GJH; Pakan, [No Value; van der Veer, E

    Although bone metabolism is largely under genetic control, the role of nutrition is considerable. The present study evaluates the effects of chicken eggshell powder, a new source of dietary Ca, and purified CaCO3 on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and hip. Besides BMD we also looked

  11. Timing of low bone mineral density and predictors of bone mineral density trajectory in children on long-term warfarin: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, M L; Pullenayegum, E; Williams, S; Shammas, A; Stimec, J; Sochett, E; Marr, K; Brandão, L R

    2016-04-01

    We studied bone mineral density (BMD) of children exposed to long-term warfarin. BMD Z-scores ≤ -2.0 were estimated to occur in less than one fifth of the patients after 10 years of warfarin exposure, and BMI and growth hormone deficiency predicted BMD changes over time. These predictors can help identify high-risk patients. Children with chronic diseases are at increased risk of developing thrombosis, which may require long-term warfarin therapy. Warfarin could further jeopardize the bone health of a population already at risk for bone fragility. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence and timing of low bone mineral density (BMD) and the predictors that influence BMD trajectory in children receiving warfarin for >1 year. We analyzed the results of an institutional protocol that includes dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, with or without spinal X-rays and laboratory biomarkers, as required. Low BMD (age, sex, race, and height-for-age-Z-score adjusted BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0) was detected in 13 % (9/70) of the patients at some point during their follow-up; these patients were more likely to have complex underlying medical conditions and low body mass index (BMI) percentile. BMD Z-scores remained within normal range in 87 % of children. Survival analysis showed that the estimated 10-year abnormal BMD-free rate for the entire group was 81 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 69 to 93 %). Trajectory analysis revealed that BMI percentiles at baseline and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) were associated with lower BMD Z-scores at the first assessment, whereas baseline BMI percentile was the only predictor of BMD Z-score over time. Our findings identified BMI and GHD as risk factors influencing BMD in children exposed to long-term warfarin, creating an opportunity for early detection and intervention in these patients.

  12. Estimation of bone mineral density by digital X-ray radiogrammetry: theoretical background and clinical testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, A; Hyldstrup, L; Backsgaard, L

    2002-01-01

    A new automated radiogrammetric method to estimate bone mineral density (BMD) from a single radiograph of the hand and forearm is described. Five regions of interest in radius, ulna and the three middle metacarpal bones are identified and approximately 1800 geometrical measurements from these bones...... are used to obtain a BMD estimate of the distal forearm, referred to as BMDDXR (from digital X-ray radiogrammetry, DXR). The measured dimensions for each bone are the cortical thickness and the outer width, in combination with an stimate of the cortical porosity. The short-term in vivo precision of BMDDXR...... was observed to be 0.60% in a clinical study of 24 women and the in vitro variation over 12 different radiological clinics was found to be 1% of the young normal BMDDXR level. In a cohort of 416 women BMDDXR was found to be closely correlated with BMD at the distal forearm measured by dual-energy X...

  13. Bone mineral density and microarchitecture in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Shanbhogue, V V; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study of 45 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, we found no evidence of secondary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of fractures but the underlying mechanisms have not been...... strength measures were highly similar in the two groups. Levels of bone turnover markers were within reference values in patients. CONCLUSION: These results reveal no evidence of secondary osteoporosis among patients with ET or PV. The mechanism behind the increased fracture risk in ET or PV patients...... settled. We conducted a study to assess bone mineral density, microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and global bone turnover in 45 patients with ET or PV. METHODS: Patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the hip and spine; high...

  14. Digestibility, Determination of Metabolizable Energy and Bone Mineralization of Broilers Fed with Nutritionally Valued Phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Litz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using exoenzyme phytase in broiler's diets on digestibility of nutrients, feed energy and tibia bone mineralization. A completely randomized design was used, with the following treatments: sorghum with dicalcium phosphate (SDP, corn with dicalcium phosphate (CDP, sorghum with meat and bone meal (SMBM, sorghum with valued phytase (SVP and sorghum with phytase without valued (SPWV. For digestibility analysis, eighty 15 day old broilers were used, a total of 1400 male Hubbard Flex chickens, which were submitted to total excreta collection to obtain the percentages of food digestibility, crude protein, ether extract, apparent metabolizable energy, calcium and phosphorus while for tibias mineralization. Six birds per treatment were used, where determination of mineral matter, calcium and phosphorus were performed. Metabolizable energy (ME and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn of the feed were also calculated. Data were subjected to variation analysis and the average compared by 5% Tukey test. There was no difference between treatments for the digestibility at 15-20 day old as well as for the feed energy values, but the diets with phytase had higher phosphorous percentage values for tibia bone mineralization, demonstrating that exogenous phytase enzyme is able to hydrolyze phytate origininated from plant and release the phosphorus for assimilation by animals, acting as a substitute for phosphorus plant sources.

  15. The relationships of irisin with bone mineral density and body composition in PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Cheng, Yan; Zhao, Lingling; Chen, Yuxin; Liu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Our study aims to assay the irisin level and investigate the relationships of irisin level with body mass index (BMI), body composition and bone metabolism in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women. Fifty two PCOS and 39 control women were recruited. Serum sex hormone, fasting insulin and C-peptide were tested. Fasting serum irisin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition and bone mineral density were assayed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Polycystic ovary syndrome women showed different body compositions compared with controls. Serum irisin level of PCOS did not show significant difference compared with controls although it was decreased. The level of adiponectin in PCOS patients was significantly reduced. BMI had no correlation with irisin level. It indicated a positive correlation between serum irisin levels and bone mineral density in the control group and a negative correlation in the PCOS group after BMI and age adjusted. Furthermore, total lean mass has a significant effect on irisin concentration in the PCOS group. There are no correlations between adiponection and body compositions and bone mineral density in both groups. The abnormal body composition in PCOS may contribute to the circulation irisin. The crosstalk of irisin in different organs was found and may be related to disease development in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations and neonatal bone mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina N; Moon, Rebecca J.; Titcombe, Philip

    2016-01-01

    the associations between maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations during late pregnancy and offspring bone mineralization assessed at birth with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DESIGN: In the Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring birth cohort, maternal health, lifestyle, and diet...... were assessed prepregnancy and at 11 and 34 wk of gestation. In late pregnancy, maternal serum retinol and β-carotene concentrations were measured. Offspring total body bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) were measured within 2 wk after birth. RESULTS: In total......, 520 and 446 mother-offspring pairs had measurements of maternal serum retinol and β-carotene, respectively. Higher maternal serum retinol in late pregnancy was associated with lower offspring total body BMC (β = -0.10 SD/SD; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.02; P = 0.020) and BA (β = -0.12 SD/SD; 95% CI: -0.20, -0...

  17. Quantitative bone mineral analysis using computed tomography with the new calibration phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Shigeru (Saint Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    There are several problems in quantitative bone mineral analysis using computed tomography. Recently, CaCO[sub 3] phantom (B-MAS) has been widely used to measure the bone mineral content, although B-MAS has two problems. Firstly, the characteristics of X-ray absorption of CaCO[sub 3] are different from those of hydroxyapatite which is the main component of bone tissue. Secondly, in small patients, the phantom does not fit the body well due to its large (300 mm) width. This discrepancy between patient and phantom leads to inexact CT-number measurement of the most lateral chambers on both sides. To solve these problems, a new calibration phantom containing known concentrations of hydroxyapatite (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mm/cm[sup 3]) as a standard substance was developed, and the width of the phantom was reduced from 300 mm to 200 mm. Clinically, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the third lumbar vertebral body was performed with this new phantom in 178 cases and compared with those of the B-MAS phantom. The correlations between the concentration of the standard substance and CT-number were significantly higher in the new phantom than in the B-MAS. Based on these results, we consider the new calibration phantom useful for bone-mineral measurement by QCT. (author).

  18. Deproteinized bovine bone mineral particles and osseointegration of implants without primary bone contact: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivolella, Stefano; Bressan, Eriberto; Salata, Luiz A; Quiñones, Maria E; Lang, Niklaus P; Botticelli, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the influence on osseointegration of Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) particles used to fill defects of at least 1 mm around implants having no primary contact with bone. Premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally from the mandible of six Labrador dogs. After 3 months of healing, mucoperiosteal full-thickness flaps were elevated, and one recipient site was prepared in the molar region of each hemi-mandible to place implants. These were installed with a deliberate circumferential and periapical space to the bone walls of 1.2 mm. All implants were stabilized with passive fixation plates to maintain the implants in situ and without any contact with the implant bed. The control sites were left to be filled with coagulum, while at the test sites, the residual gap was filled with DBBM. After 3 months of submerged healing, the animals were sacrificed. Ground sections were prepared and analyzed histomorphometrically. Mineralized bone-to-implant contact was 4.0% and 3.9% for control and test sites, respectively. The width of the residual defects was 0.48 mm and 0.88 mm at the control and test sites, respectively. The percentage of implant surface covered by a layer of dense connective tissue of 0.12 mm of width on average was 84.9% and 88.5% at the control and test sites, respectively. A minor and not predictable degree of contact or distance osteogenesis was obtained on the implant surface when primary contact of the implant surface with the implant bed had deliberately been avoided. DBBM grafting of the artificial gap did not favor osseointegration. Neither did it enhance the ability to bridge the gap with newly formed bone in an artificial defect wider than 1 mm. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Bone attenuation on routine chest CT correlates with bone mineral density on DXA in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romme, Elisabeth A P M; Murchison, John T; Phang, Kee F; Jansen, Frits H; Rutten, Erica P A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Smeenk, Frank W J M; Van Beek, Edwin J R; Macnee, William

    2012-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although primarily a disease of the lungs, is associated with extrapulmonary effects such as muscle weakness and osteoporosis. Fractures owing to osteoporosis cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with COPD. To prevent osteoporotic fractures, it is important to diagnose osteoporosis in an early stage and to start anti-osteoporotic therapy in at-risk patients. Because routine chest computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to assess the extent of emphysema and airways disease in patients with COPD, we investigated whether simple attenuation measurement of the thoracic spine on routine chest CT may provide useful information on bone health in patients with COPD. Fifty-eight patients with moderate to very severe COPD were included in our study. The average attenuation of thoracic vertebrae 4, 7, and 10 on chest CT was correlated with the lowest bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip and lumbar spine (L(1) to L(4)) on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients with COPD. The inter- and intra-observer variabilities of the attenuation measurements were low as shown by Bland-Altman plots. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the average attenuation of the three thoracic vertebrae and the lowest BMD of the hip and lumbar spine was high (r = 0.827, p bone attenuation measured on routine chest CT correlated strongly with BMD assessed on DXA in patients with COPD. Routine chest CT may provide useful information on bone health in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE WOMEN ASSESSED BY ULTRASOUND DESINTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marijanac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. Physical activity has a positive effect on bone tissue, and it is recommended to prevent bone loss which comes with age. Methods: In purpose of determining bone mineral density in women who are physically active we examined 35 women divided into two groups – subjects who are premenopausal (n=20, 43.52 ± 7.56 years, and subjects who are postmenopausal (n=15, 55.89 ± 5.48. The subjects exercised Pilates method twice a week for one hour. Bone mineral density measurements were done by ultrasound densitometer „Sahara“ through the calcaneus. We get the data of the estimated bone density and T-score for right and left foot separate. Results: According to results premenopausal women have normal bone density, and postmenopausal values represent osteopenia, according to the WHO. There is no subjects who established osteoporosis. Discussion: Previous investigations have confirmed that physical activity is important for the preservation of the bone quality. Increasing steps, using simple everyday tasks, can prevent decrease in BMD in postmenopausal women (Muir et al., 2013, Ashe et al, 2008. There’s difference in the density of the calcaneus between physically active and those who are not, measured by ultrasound densitometry (Vainionpää et al, 2005. We use quantitative ultrasound densitometry to describe BMI of women who exercise Pilates and support the finding that physical activity is one of the ways that may prevent the BMD loss. These research was done as a part of long-term project entitled „Impact of physical activity of the working population“ which is co-financed by Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development.

  1. Bone Collagen: New Clues to its Mineralization Mechanism From Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, David R.; Ann Weis, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Until 2006 the only mutations known to cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) were in the two genes coding for type I collagen chains. These dominant mutations affecting the expression or primary sequence of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) chains account for over 90% of OI cases. Since then a growing list of mutant genes causing the 5–10% of recessive cases has rapidly emerged. They include CRTAP, LEPRE1 and PPIB, which encode three proteins forming the prolyl 3-hydroxylase complex; PLOD2 and FKBP10, which encode respectively lysyl hydroxylase 2 and a foldase required for its activity in forming mature cross-links in bone collagen; SERPIN H1, which encodes the collagen chaperone HSP47; SERPIN F1, which encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor required for osteoid mineralization; and BMP1, which encodes the type I procollagen C-propeptidase. All cause fragile bone in infancy, which can include over-mineralization or under-mineralization defects as well as abnormal collagen post-translational modifications. Consistently both dominant and recessive variants lead to abnormal cross-linking chemistry in bone collagen. These recent discoveries strengthen the potential for a common pathogenic mechanism of misassembled collagen fibrils. Of the new genes identified, eight encode proteins required for collagen post-translational modification, chaperoning of newly synthesized collagen chains into native molecules or transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi for polymerization, cross-linking and mineralization. In reviewing these findings, we conclude that a common theme is emerging in the pathogenesis of brittle bone disease of mishandled collagen assembly with important insights on post-translational features of bone collagen that have evolved to optimize it as a biomineral template. PMID:23508630

  2. Bone mineral density in partially recovered early onset anorexic patients - a follow-up investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims There still is a lack of prospective studies on bone mineral development in patients with a history of early onset Anorexia nervosa (AN. Therefore we assessed associations between bone mass accrual and clinical outcomes in a former clinical sample. In addition to an expected influence of regular physical activity and hormone replacement therapy, we explored correlations with nutritionally dependent hormones. Methods 3-9 years (mean 5.2 ± 1.7 after hospital discharge, we re-investigated 52 female subjects with a history of early onset AN. By means of a standardized approach, we evaluated the general outcome of AN. Moreover, bone mineral content (BMC and bone mineral density (BMD as well as lean and fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. In a substudy, we measured the serum concentrations of leptin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Results The general outcome of anorexia nervosa was good in 50% of the subjects (BMI ≥ 17.5 kg/m2, resumption of menses. Clinical improvement was correlated with BMC and BMD accrual (χ2 = 5.62/χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.06 / p = 0.036. The duration of amenorrhea had a negative correlation with BMD (r = -.362; p th percentile. IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the general outcome of AN. By contrast, leptin serum concentrations showed great variability. They correlated with BMC and current body composition parameters. Conclusions Our results from the main study indicate a certain adaptability of bone mineral accrual which is dependent on a speedy and ongoing recovery. While leptin levels in the substudy tended to respond immediately to current nutritional status, IGF-I serum concentrations corresponded to the individual's age and general outcome of AN.

  3. Exstrophy bladder: Effect of sigmoid colocystoplasty on physical growth and bone mineral density

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    M Ragavan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims : Introduction of intestinal tissue in the urinary tract results in numerous metabolic changes. This study investigates the effects of augmentation sigmoid colocystoplasty on the physical growth and bone mineralization in bladder exstrophy patients. Materials and Methods : Physical growth, serum biochemistry and bone mineral density were assessed pre and post augmentation in 34 of 54 patients who were treated by staged sigmoid colocystoplasty for classical bladder exstrophy during the period 1985-2007. Physical growth was determined by comparing the height and weight for age with standard growth charts. Serum biochemistry included calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels. Bone mineral density (BMD was determined at the femoral head using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan at 15 ± 4.5 months after the augmentation. The DEXA scan findings were compared with 22 normal Indian children who served as controls and 18 unaugmented patients with bladder exstrophy. In 13 augmented patients, the DEXA scan could be repeated after an interval of six months. Results : The mean percentile height and weight were comparable in the pre and post-augmentation period with no statistically significant difference (P=0.135 for height and P=0.232 for weight. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism also did not show any statistically significant changes after colocystoplasty. The BMD was 0.665 ± 0.062 g/cm 2 in the controls and 0.612 ± 0.10 g/cm 2 in the unaugmented bladder exstrophy patients. In the augmented patients, the BMD was 0.645 ± 0.175 g/cm 2 and six months later it was 0.657 ± 0.158 g/cm 2 . These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: In our study, no significant effects on the physical growth and bone mineral metabolism were observed in exstrophy bladder patients following sigmoid colocystoplasty.

  4. Predicting bone mineral acquisition during puberty: data from a 3-year follow-up study in Hamamatsu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ohara, Kumiko; Nakamura, Harunobu; Fujita, Yuki; Iki, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Although most adult bone mass is acquired before adolescence, only a few studies have assessed bone turnover markers in children. Thus, the utility of bone markers to evaluate and predict bone mineral accrual in children is unclear. The present study assessed the association between serum bone markers at 11 years of age and subsequent changes in bone gain. Information on bone minerals and bone markers at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up were obtained from 121 children who registered as fifth-grade students in 2010, in Hamamatsu, Japan. Whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC) and whole-body bone mineral density (WBBMD) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Boys showed significant (P < 0.05) positive relationships between intact osteocalcin at baseline and WBBMC at follow-up (β = 0.24), between tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoenzyme 5b (TRAP5b) and WBBMC (β = 0.34), and between TRAP5b and WBBMD (β = 0.34), after adjusting for potential confounding factors. In girls, adjusted means of 3-year gain in both WBBMC and WBBMD significantly increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of type 1 collagen cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide. In boys, adjusted means of 3-year gain in both WBBMC and WBBMD significantly increased from the lowest to highest quartiles of TRAP5b. Children with a high concentration of bone turnover markers tended to exhibit substantial accrual of bone minerals. These results suggest that serum levels of circulating biomarkers at age 11 predict subsequent bone mineral accrual.

  5. Effect of HIP/Ribosomal Protein L29 Deficiency on Mineral Properties of Murine Bones and Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloofman, Laura G.; Verdelis, Kostas; Spevak, Lyudmila; Zayzafoon, Majd; Yamauchi, Mistuo; Opdenaker, Lynn M.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Boskey, Adele L.; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Mice lacking HIP/RPL29, a component of the ribosomal machinery, display increased bone fragility. To understand the effect of sub-efficient protein synthetic rates on mineralized tissue quality, we performed dynamic and static histomorphometry and examined the mineral properties of both bones and teeth in HIP/RPL29 knock-out mice using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). While loss of HIP/RPL29 consistently reduced total bone size, decreased mineral apposition rates were not significant, indicating that short stature is not primarily due to impaired osteoblast function. Interestingly, our microspectroscopic studies showed that a significant decrease in collagen crosslinking during maturation of HIP/RPL29-null bone precedes an overall enhancement in the relative extent of mineralization of both trabecular and cortical adult bones. This report provides strong genetic evidence that ribosomal insufficiency induces subtle organic matrix deficiencies which elevates calcification. Consistent with the HIP/RPL29-null bone phenotype, HIP/RPL29-deficient teeth also showed reduced geometric properties accompanied with relative increased mineral densities of both dentin and enamel. Increased mineralization associated with enhanced tissue fragility related to imperfection in organic phase microstructure evokes defects seen in matrix protein-related bone and tooth diseases. Thus, HIP/RPL29 mice constitute a new genetic model for studying the contribution of global protein synthesis in the establishment of organic and inorganic phases in mineral tissues. PMID:20362701

  6. ASSOCIATION OF MENSTRUAL FUNCTION WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY AMONGST PUNJABI UNIVERSITY FEMALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Kaushal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation being an inevitable part of a girl’s life and more so, an important indicator of normal physical, physiological and functional well-being. Female athlete who engages in high-intensity exercise is at risk as a consequence of the hormonal change, which results in menstrual dysfunction, subsequently; the athlete is at risk for compromised skeletal integrity. The objective of the study is to find the prevalence of menstrual dysfunction among female athletes of Punjabi University, Patiala, to assess the bone mineral density in female athletes and to examine the relationship of Bone Mineral Density with Menstrual dysfunction in female athletes. Methods: The present study evaluated the menstrual status and its association with Bone Mineral Density in 76 adolescent female athletes. Convenient random sampling was adopted to recruit athletes by inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: The percentile analysis of menstrual dysfunction is found to be 59.3% Out of 59.3% population with menstrual dysfunction, 55.5 % have oligomenorrhea, 28.9% have amenorrhea, and 15.5% have polymenorrhea. In this study population, the mean age of menarche is 13.81. Out of 76 female athletes, 35 have normal BMD ranges whereas 41 are having lower BMD ranges. The association of bone mineral density was found to be non-significant with both stress fracture (X2 = 4.38, p= 0.3570, and epimenorrhea (X2 = 4.49, p = 0.3437. The analysis of Pearson's correlation coefficient (r suggested a negative association between menstrual function with Bone Mineral Density (-0.06292 at 0.05 levels. The result found to be statistically non-significant; therefore, any change in menstrual function is not associated with Bone mineral density. Conclusion: Common menstrual dysfunctions reported were: oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, amenorrhea, and amenorrhea. However, pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS and dysmenorrhea were specifically found to be very high in prevalence i.e. 94

  7. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

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    María D. Cuenca-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group, hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct. During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5. Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT, histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70% than for mineral scaffold alone (22% and hybrid constructs (35%. The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft. Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored

  8. Mineral density and bone remodelling markers in patients with calcium lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; de Haro-Munoz, Tomas; Lopez-Leon, Victor M; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Ochoa-Hortal, Miguel Angel; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; Lahoz-Garcia, Clara; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Hypercalciuria is related with bone mineral density loss. This study demonstrates the relationship between recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis and bone mineral density loss and their correlation with bone markers. • To show that a relationship exists between the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium renal lithiasis and that bone remodelling markers correlate with changes in BMD. • It is possible that many cases hypercalciuria are related to the increase of bone turnover and the predominance of bone resorption phenomena. • The present study comprised a transversal investigation in three groups: group O, without lithiasis; group A, with a single episode of lithiasis; and group B, with relapsed calcium renal lithiasis. • An analysis was made of body mass index; abdominal X-ray and/or urography and renal ultrasonography; osteocalcin and β-crosslaps bone markers; calcium and citrate concentrations in the urine; and femur and spinal column bone densitometry. • The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. • Patients with relapsed calcium renal lithiasis present a greater BMD loss than those in the O or A groups. • Densitometry: T-score femur -0.2 group O, -0.5 group A, -1.2 group B (P= 0.001); T-score column -0.6 group O, -0.6 group A, -1.3 group B (P= 0.05). • A statistically significant negative correlation exists between values of β-crosslaps and T-score femur (R=-0.251; P= 0.009) and T-score column (R=-0.324; P= 0.001); thus, a higher concentration of β-crosslaps was accompanied by a lower value of the T-score and a greater loss of BMD. • A positive relationship is observed between β-crosslaps and osteocalcin (R= 0.611; P lithiasis. • Determination of bone remodelling markers (i.e. osteocalcin and β-crosslaps) facilitates the diagnosis of osteopaenia/osteoporosis in these patients. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  9. Evaluation of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion in Sheep Using Mineral Scaffolds Seeded with Cultured Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-López, María D.; Andrades, José A.; Gómez, Santiago; Zamora-Navas, Plácido; Guerado, Enrique; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jerónimo; Becerra, José

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of hybrid constructs in comparison to bone grafts (autograft and allograft) for posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in sheep, instrumented with transpedicular screws and bars. Hybrid constructs using cultured bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in several bone healing models. In particular, hybrid constructs made by calcium phosphate-enriched cells have had similar fusion rates to bone autografts in posterolateral lumbar fusion in sheep. In our study, four experimental spinal fusions in two animal groups were compared in sheep: autograft and allograft (reference group), hydroxyapatite scaffold, and hydroxyapatite scaffold seeded with cultured and osteoinduced bone marrow MSCs (hybrid construct). During the last three days of culture, dexamethasone (dex) and beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP) were added to potentiate osteoinduction. The two experimental situations of each group were tested in the same spinal segment (L4–L5). Spinal fusion and bone formation were studied by clinical observation, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), histology, and histomorphometry. Lumbar fusion rates assessed by CT scan and histology were higher for autograft and allograft (70%) than for mineral scaffold alone (22%) and hybrid constructs (35%). The quantity of new bone formation was also higher for the reference group, quite similar in both (autograft and allograft). Although the hybrid scaffold group had a better fusion rate than the non-hybrid scaffold group, the histological analysis revealed no significant differences between them in terms of quantity of bone formation. The histology results suggested that mineral scaffolds were partly resorbed in an early phase, and included in callus tissues. Far from the callus area the hydroxyapatite alone did not generate bone around it, but the hybrid scaffold did. In nude mice, labeled cells were induced to differentiate in vivo and monitored by

  10. Bone Mineralization in Rhythmic Gymnasts Entering Puberty: Associations with Jumping Performance and Body Composition Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna-Liisa; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    This study examined bone mineral density (BMD) accrual in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition over the 3-year period. Whole body (WB) and femoral neck (FN) BMD, WB fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), countermovement jump (CMJ) and rebound jumps for 15 s (RJ15s) were assessed in 25 rhythmic gymnasts and 25 untrained controls at baseline and after 3-year period. The changes over this period were calculated (Δ scores). Pubertal maturation over the 3-year period was slower in rhythmic gymnasts compared to untrained controls, while no difference in bone age development was seen. WB BMD increased similarly in both groups, while the increase in FN BMD was higher in rhythmic gymnasts compared with untrained controls. In rhythmic gymnasts, baseline FFM was the most significant predictor of ΔWB BMD explaining 19.2% of the variability, while baseline RJ15s was the most significant predictor of ΔFN BMD explaining 18.5% of the variability. In untrained controls, baseline FM explained 51.8 and 18.9% of the variability in ΔWB BMD and ΔFN BMD, respectively. In conclusion, mechanical loading of high-intensity athletic activity had beneficial effect on BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts and may have counterbalanced such negative factors on bone development as slower pubertal maturation and lower body FM. Baseline FFM and repeated jumps test performance were related to BMD accrual in rhythmic gymnasts, while baseline FM was related to BMD accrual in untrained controls. Key points Sudy examined bone mineralization in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts entering puberty and their age-matched untrained control girls, and associations with baseline jumping performance and body composition. Jumping performance and fat free mass values predicted bone mineral accrual in rhythmic gymnasts. Fat mass predicted bone mineral accrual in untrained control girls

  11. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

  12. GIS-based rare events logistic regression for mineral prospectivity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2018-02-01

    Mineralization is a special type of singularity event, and can be considered as a rare event, because within a specific study area the number of prospective locations (1s) are considerably fewer than the number of non-prospective locations (0s). In this study, GIS-based rare events logistic regression (RELR) was used to map the mineral prospectivity in the southwestern Fujian Province, China. An odds ratio was used to measure the relative importance of the evidence variables with respect to mineralization. The results suggest that formations, granites, and skarn alterations, followed by faults and aeromagnetic anomaly are the most important indicators for the formation of Fe-related mineralization in the study area. The prediction rate and the area under the curve (AUC) values show that areas with higher probability have a strong spatial relationship with the known mineral deposits. Comparing the results with original logistic regression (OLR) demonstrates that the GIS-based RELR performs better than OLR. The prospectivity map obtained in this study benefits the search for skarn Fe-related mineralization in the study area.

  13. Bone computed tomography mineral content evaluation in chickens: effects of substances in homeopathic concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Sergio; Gasparini, Gabriele; Luisetto, Patrizio; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Pomerri, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Ninety-six cobb race chickens were equally divided in 4 groups and randomly assigned to receive a standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Symphytum (S.) officinalis (9CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Tricalcarea (4CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Calcarea (C.) carbonica (30CH) or a placebo (the same feed but without any homeopathic compound) in order to assess the ability of the homeopathic compounds to increase the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue. We measured the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue of all chickens by means of a computed tomography (CT). 30%, 36% and 63% increase of sternum spongy-bone mineralization was observed after a 2 years period in the treatment groups with S. officinalis (9CH), Tricalcarea (4CH) (*P < 0.05) and C. carbonica (30CH) (***P < 0.001) respectively. Bone mineralization is usually low in battery chickens reared in commercial poultry-sheds, creating a weakness of the whole animal supporting apparatus. Homeopathic preparations with bone-tissue tropism may improve their health quality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Age dynamics of bone mineral density and of morphometric data in the lumbar spine by results of densitometrical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Pashkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric parameters and the mineral density of lumbar spine were studied in 929 people (740 women and 189 men aged 20 - 87 years, living in Karelia. The mineral density of bone was estimated by a method of a two-power x-ray absorptiometriy. The maximum decrease in a mineralization is revealed in the second lumbar vertebra. Decrease in mineral density was accompanied by increase in width of vertebra more at men than at women.

  15. The effect of long-term acidifying feeding on digesta organic acids, mineral balance, and bone mineralization in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Højberg, Ole; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    carbonate (CaCO3) was added to provide equimolar levels of Ca. The pigs were fed the diets from 36 kg until slaughter at 113 kg BW, and they were housed in balance cages for 12 d from 60 to 66 kg BW. Supplementation of BA and/or CaCl2 had only minor effect on accumulation of digesta organic acids (acetate......Acidification of slurry through dietary manipulation of urinary pH is a means of mitigating nitrogen emission from pig production, but long-term effects of diet acidification on bone mineralization and mineral balance is less investigated. The objective was therefore to study the long-term effects...... of feeding benzoic acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the mineral balance and microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Four diets containing the combinations of 0 or 10 g/kg BA and 0 or 20 g/kg CaCl2 were fed to 24 pigs in a factorial design. For the diets without CaCl2, calcium...

  16. Metabolic-mineral study in patients with renal calcium lithiasis, severe lithogenic activity and loss of bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Garrido-Gomez, Juan; De Haro-Muñoz, Tomas De; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia in patients with severe lithogenic activity and compared their metabolisms with those in patients without lithiasis or with mild lithogenic activity. From a sample of 182 patients, those with osteopenia/osteoporosis at the hip and lumbar spine were studied separately in a two-pronged study. 66 patients with bone mineral densities (BMDs) lithiasis (n = 15); group A2 with lithiasis and mild lithogenic activity (n = 22); and group A3 with lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity (n = 29). Similarly, 86 patients with BMDs lithiasis (n = 15); group B2 with lithiasis and mild lithogenic activity (n = 29); and group B3 with lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity (n = 42). Patients from group A3 exhibited significantly higher levels of bone remodelling markers as compared to groups A1 and A2. Urinalysis also revealed higher excretion of calcium in 24-hour assessments in this group. Patients from group B3 differed from groups B1 and B2 mainly in bone remodelling markers and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, which were significantly elevated in patients from group B3. Patients with calcium lithiasis and severe lithogenic activity in addition to osteopenia/osteoporosis present with higher levels of hypercalciuria and negative osseous balance, which possibly perpetuate and favour lithiasic activity.

  17. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  18. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

  19. Assessment of bone mineral density in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional long-term followup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Hassager, C; Lovell, D J

    1999-01-01

    To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD.......To assess bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in adults with a history of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) or persistent JCA, and to identify predictors of reduced BMD....

  20. Bone Mineral Densitometry Findings of Children with Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease

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    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The effect of Celiac Disease (CD on children’s bone is the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD. Osteoporosis is a consequence of this decrease and usually manifests in adult ages. Studies in CD patients generally show that bone density of these patients can be different at the same ages for the same duration of disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age and bone mineral density of CD patients at first diagnosis. Material and Methods: Ninety one patients (M/F: 36/55; age range: 3-16; mean age: 9.6±3.5 with diagnosis of CD were included in the study. BMD survey from L1-L4 lumbar spine and total hip of the patients was evaluated at presentation. We evaluated the patients in 3 groups according to their ages: Group 1: pre-school (3-7 years old, Group 2: elementary school (8-11 years old and Group 3: adolescent (12-16 years old. Results were compared using Student’s t test and correlation analysis. Results: The mean disease duration of the patients was 16.4±16.3 months. Mean height and weight of the patients were 124.8±17.9 cm and 27±9.3 kg, respectively and height and weight of 37 patients were in ≤ 3. percentile according to age. The BMD values of both lumbar spine and total hip and Z-scores of lumbar region were in mild correlation with age (r>0.5. There was significant difference between mean ages of patients with low bone mass for chronological age and normal bone densitometry values (p<0.05. There were 27, 36 and 28 patients in Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. The difference between mean BMD values of these groups were statistically significant (p<0.05. The mean values of lumbar Z- scores of patients were -1.08±1.27, -1.42±1, -1.86±1.14, respectively for these three groups. Conclusion: Bone mineral densities of CD patients in childhood were lower in elder children at the time of diagnosis. This confirms the opinion that the diagnosis at earlier age results better treatment

  1. Bone Mineral Density Changes after Total Knee Replacement in Women Over the Age of 65

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Myung Hoon; Won, Ye Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few reports on bone mineral density (BMD) changes of axial bones after total knee replacement (TKR) due to severe osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint and its results are controversial. The purpose of our study was to measure the BMD changes of hip and spine in patients receiving TKR due to severe OA and to identify clinical factors relating BMD changes. Methods Among 66 female patients above 65 years old who underwent TKR due to severe OA and checked preoperative BMD, 5...

  2. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and B...

  3. Change of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density with Age, and Correlation among Them in Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 勝紀

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the tendency of change of body composition and bone mineral density with age is imortant to evaluate health of adult female.Many croll-sectional studies have been carried out examining the change of body composition and bone mineral density with age.Few cross-sectional studies were reported statistically the tendency of change of them with age.Physique, body composition and bone mineral density (Speed of Sound:SOS) were measured in71 healthy Japanese women...

  4. Does bone mineralization reflect economic conditions? An examination using a national US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Diane S; Rathouz, Paul J

    2003-01-01

    Bone density is the most important determinant of osteoporotic fractures, which lead to significant morbidity, disability and mortality for older persons, particularly women. Sensitive periods for bone mineralization in infancy, childhood and adolescence overlap with those for height attainment. After peak density is reached in early adulthood, there is age-related decline. We ask whether bone density, as height, reflects economic conditions. Using the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a probability sample of the US population which over-sampled Blacks and Mexican Americans, we examine the associations between adult bone mineral content (BMC) adjusted for bone and body size and three economic indicators: education, height and the poverty income ratio (PIR). We compare four groups: US-born Whites, Blacks and Mexican Americans and Mexican-born Mexican Americans. Education is positively associated with BMC only for White women, although there are similar, non-significant associations for Black women and White and Black men. For women, BMC is more strongly associated with height for Mexican Americans, especially the Mexican-born, than for Whites. For men, the only significant association is a negative one with education for men born in Mexico. PIR is not significantly associated with BMC, although there is pattern of lower income being associated with lower BMC for Whites and Blacks and higher BMC for Mexican Americans. Bone density does not reflect economic conditions as strongly or consistently as does physical stature. However, for women there is evidence that lower economic status in childhood or adolescence is associated with lower bone density.

  5. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  6. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women.

  7. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    = 0.02 and treated +1.6 (-0.2 to +2.4), p = 0.01) was significantly increased, all expressed as standard deviation scores. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD; untreated -0.4 (-3.1 to +0.9) and treated +1.0 (-1.4 to +3.0)) and whole body BMC (untreated +0.1 (-1.8 to +3.3) and treated +1.5 (-1.1 to +2......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS...

  8. Analysis of Bone Mineral Density According to the Biochemical Variable Markers in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Radiology, Woosuk University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol; Song, Woon Heung [Shinheung College University, Uijungbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers. We evaluated the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar spines of 998(male 568, female 430) persons who took a regular health screening in Woosuk University Hospital from September 2007 to March 2008 by dual energy bone mineral densitometry. Results of BMD are different in terms of biochemical markers. Especially aged people showed osteoporotic change progressively. Degree of osteoporosis increases with age. A steep decrease of BMD can be found in postmenopausal women who have low level of female hormone. More persistent effort is needed to find out the factors that can reduce BMD values for prevention of problems by osteoporosis. In essence, research on factors related to other biochemical markers must be studied continuously.

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder in the Elderly Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heaf, James Goya

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to review the literature concerning the treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in the elderly peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient. ♦ RESULTS: Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder is a major problem in the elderly PD patient...... important differences. Avoidance of hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperparathyroidism is important, as in other CKD groups, and is generally easier to attain. Calcium-free phosphate binders are recommended for normocalcemic and hypercalcemic patients. Normalization of vitamin D levels to > 75 nmol......) are important. Hypomagnesemia is common in PD and can be treated with magnesium supplements. Vitamin K deficiency is also common and has been identified as a cause of vascular calcification. Accordingly, warfarin treatment for this age group is problematic. ♦ CONCLUSION: While treatment principles are similar...

  10. Cardiorenal Syndrome and the Role of the Bone-Mineral Axis and Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charytan, David M; Fishbane, Steven; Malyszko, Jolanta; McCullough, Peter A; Goldsmith, David

    2015-08-01

    The association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, and there is mounting evidence of interorgan cross talk that may accelerate pathologic processes and the progression of organ dysfunction in both systems. This process, termed cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative, is considered a major health problem: patients with CKD and CVD are at much higher risk of mortality than patients with either condition alone. To date, the majority of CRS research has focused on neurohormonal mechanisms and hemodynamic alterations. However, mounting evidence suggests that abnormalities in the normal pathophysiology of the bone-mineral axis, iron, and erythropoietin play a role in accelerating CKD and CVD. The goal of this article is to review the role and interrelated effects of the bone-mineral axis and anemia in the pathogenesis of chronic CRS. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of insertion torques with bone mineral density from dental quantitative CT in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andreas; Gahleitner, André; Holm, Anders; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Homolka, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between bone mineral density measured preoperatively with dental computed tomography (CT), and insertion torque of screw-shaped dental implants. In eight human mandibles obtained postmortem, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with dental quantitative CT (DQCT) and correlated with insertion torque values at 45 implant sites during insertion of screw-shaped dental implants (Brånemark System MKIII, Nobel Biocare, AB, Göteborg, Sweden). A significant correlation (r=0.86, Pbone height or position. The noninvasive assessment of BMD using a DQCT scan employing a low-dose protocol may be used to estimate expected primary stability depending on BMD, implant type and preparation procedure. These data may therefore help the surgeon to select the optimum implant position, implant type and operation technique.

  12. Role of Fat and Bone Biomarkers in the Relationship Between Ethnicity and Bone Mineral Density in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace M F; Riandini, Tessa; Ng, Sheryl Hui Xian; Goh, Su Yen; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Duque, Gustavo; Ng, Alvin Choon-Meng; Venkataraman, Kavita

    2017-10-20

    Osteoporosis is an important health issue for older adults, and has been relatively understudied in older men. This study aimed to examine ethnic differences in bone mineral density (BMD), and elucidate the role of bone turnover markers (BTMs), fat and fat biomarkers on these ethnic differences. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, marrow fat at femoral neck, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, bone and fat biomarkers were evaluated in 120 healthy men aged ≥ 60 years. Indians had higher BMD values compared to Chinese at the lumbar spine (β = 20.336, SE = 4.749, p fat composition and lifestyle choices. Marrow fat, VAT and adiponectin were independent predictors of BMD. However, these factors did not explain the lower BMD observed in older Chinese men. Our findings suggest that older Chinese men are at significant risk of osteoporotic fractures due to lower BMD. Fat appears to be a key factor associated with lower BMD, and warrants further longitudinal studies to elucidate the complex interactions between adipose tissue and bone strength.

  13. Serum sclerostin levels associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Shen, Lin; Yang, Yan-ping; Lu, Fu-rong; Zhu, Rui; Shuai, Bo; Li, Cheng-gang; Wu, Man-xiang

    2013-07-01

    Sclerostin, expressed exclusively by osteocytes, is a negative regulator of bone formation. To gain insights into the action of sclerostin in postmenopausal osteoporosis, we evaluated serum sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women and investigated its possible associations with bone turnover markers in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. We detected serum sclerostin, and measured lumbar spine bone mineral density in 650 Chinese postmenopausal women. We also assessed serum levels of β-isomerized C-terminal crosslinking of type I collagen, intact N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen, N-mid fragment of osteocalcin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol. Serum sclerostin levels were lower in postmenopausal osteoporotic women compared with non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ((38.79 ± 7.43) vs. (52.86 ± 6.69) pmol/L, P osteoporosis. There was no significant association of serum sclerostin with age, body mass index, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and estradiol (r = -0.004, P = 0.926; r = 0.067, P = 0.143; r = 0.063, P = 0.165; r = -0.045, P = 0.324; respectively). Sclerostin may be involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis and may play a role in bone turnover.

  14. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    ) for a median of 287 weeks. In 38% of castration compared with 17% of bicalutamide patients, femoral neck Z-scores were risk of fracture) and T-scores were osteoporosis in white......The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8...

  15. Genetically Determined Later Puberty Impacts Lowered Bone Mineral Density in Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousminer, Diana L; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Chesi, Alessandra; Roy, Sani M; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Kelly, Andrea; McCormack, Shana E; Voight, Benjamin F; Zemel, Babette S; Grant, Struan Fa

    2017-10-25

    Later puberty associates with lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and both are risk factors for osteoporosis. However, the association between puberty timing-associated genetic variants and aBMD during development, and the causal relationship between puberty timing and aBMD, remain uncharacterized. We constructed sex-specific polygenic risk scores (GRS) consisting of 333 genetic variants associated with later puberty in European-descent children in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS), consisting of a longitudinal cohort with up to seven assessments (n = 933) and a cross-sectional cohort (n = 486). These GRS were tested for associations with age- and sex-specific aBMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), total hip, and distal radius, accounting for clinical covariates using sex-stratified linear mixed models. The causal relationship between puberty timing and aBMD was tested in the BMDCS and in publicly available adult data (GEFOS consortium) using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). The puberty-delaying GRS was associated with later puberty and lower LS-aBMD in the BMDCS in both sexes (combined beta ± SE = -0.078 ± 0.024; p = 0.0010). In the MR framework, the puberty-delaying genetic instrument also supported a causal association with lower LS-aBMD and FN-aBMD in adults of both sexes. Our results suggest that pubertal timing is causal for diminished aBMD in a skeletal site- and sex-specific manner that tracks throughout life, potentially impacting later risk for osteoporosis, which should be tested in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Calcium intake and bone mineral density: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Vicky; Leung, William; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R; Mark J Bolland

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. Design Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches were undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled tria...

  17. [Comparative analysis of bone mineral composition in human archeological material taken from different regions of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noceń, I

    1999-01-01

    The actual paper presents the method and results of studies covering the mineral composition of the skulls of humans in the archaeological material stemming from different regions of Poland. The concentration of fluoride, zinc, iron, manganese, lead, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus was determined in 248 skulls. Distribution of individual burial sites providing the study material is presented in Fig. 1. The material was divided into four groups in relation to the place of deposition and in relation to the soil composition. Macro-, microelements determined by the method of atom absorption, phosphate by colourometric method, fluoride by potentiometric method. It has been disclosed that the bony material at the burial site is subjected to processes of fossilisation--replacing the organic matter by mineral one under definite soil conditions. The soil composition is the factor that influences the mineral composition of the bones in case of the following elements: zinc, manganese, lead, magnesium (Tab. 1). No influence was exerted by components contained in the soil on the determined concentrations of fluoride and iron in bones being explored from human skulls originating from archaeological excavation, undergo dynamic transformations in their mineral composition during their deposition in the soil. With the lapse of the time the content of fluoride (Tab. 2), magnesium (Tab. 7), calcium (Tab. 8), phosphate (Tab. 9) increases, while that of zinc (Tab. 3), iron (Tab. 4), manganese (Tab. 5) and lead (Tab. 6) decreases. The end concentration of elements in the archaeological bony material results from the following processes, namely: Cumulation, the example of which is the change in the concentration of fluoride, washing out the components of bone into the soil, to which the compounds of iron and manganese are subjected, compensations of concentrations of the bone soil border. That process took place in the case involving the changes in concentration of zinc, lead

  18. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P

    2003-01-01

    The impact of bicalutamide (Casodex) monotherapy on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. BMD was assessed after treatment with bicalutamide 150 mg daily ( n=21) or by medical castration (goserelin acetate 3.6 mg every 28 days) ( n=8......) for a median of 287 weeks. In 38% of castration compared with 17% of bicalutamide patients, femoral neck Z-scores were Health Organization definition of osteoporosis in white...

  19. Evaluation of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeed, Osama; Mohammed, Ahmed; Azizieh, Fawaz; Gupta, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Study Design This was designed as a retrospective study. Purpose We investigated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and chronic lower back pain (LBP). Overview of Literature In spite of a large number of epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of LBP and BMD measurements completed separately in the general population, the relationship between the two has not been well documented. Methods The study included 171 patients with chronic LBP who underwent the BMD study. The contr...

  20. Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation in whole blood with bone mineral density

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Morris; Tsai, Pei‐Chien; Joehanes, Roby; Zheng, Jie; Trajanoska, Katerina; Soerensen, Mette; Forgetta, Vincenzo; Castillo‐Fernandez, Juan Edgar; Frost, Morten; Spector, Tim D.; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and environmental determinants of skeletal phenotypes such as bone mineral density (BMD) may converge through the epigenome, providing a tool to better understand osteoporosis pathophysiology. As the epigenetics of BMD have been largely unexplored in humans, we performed an epigenome wide association study (EWAS) of BMD. We undertook a large-scale BMD EWAS using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to measure site-specific DNA methylation in up to 5,515 European descent individuals ...

  1. Bone mineral and stiffness loss at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W B; Schnitzer, T J; Troy, K L

    2014-03-01

    Computed tomography and finite element modeling were used to assess bone mineral and stiffness loss at the knee following acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Marked bone mineral loss was observed from a combination of trabecular and endocortical resorption. Reductions in stiffness were 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. SCI is associated with a rapid loss of bone mineral and an increased rate of fragility fracture. The large majority of these fractures occur around regions of the knee. Our purpose was to quantify changes to bone mineral, geometry, strength indices, and stiffness at the distal femur and proximal tibia in acute SCI. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and patient-specific finite element analysis were performed on 13 subjects with acute SCI at serial time points separated by a mean of 3.5 months (range 2.6-4.8 months). Changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) were quantified for integral, trabecular, and cortical bone at epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia. Changes in bone volumes, cross-sectional areas, strength indices and stiffness were also determined. Bone mineral loss was similar in magnitude at the distal femur and proximal tibia. Reductions were most pronounced at epiphyseal regions, ranging from 3.0 % to 3.6 % per month for integral BMC (p < 0.001) and from 2.8 % to 3.4 % per month (p < 0.001) for integral vBMC. Trabecular BMC decreased by 3.1-4.4 %/month (p < 0.001) and trabecular vBMD by 2.7-4.7 %/month (p < 0.001). A 3.8-5.4 %/month reduction was observed for cortical BMC (p < 0.001); the reduction in cortical vBMD was noticeably lower (0.6-0.8 %/month; p ≤ 0.01). The cortical bone loss occurred primarily through endosteal resorption, and reductions in strength indices and stiffness were some 2-fold greater than reductions in integral bone mineral. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic

  2. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Tellez

    Full Text Available Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group. At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d. After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05 intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed

  3. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Hargis, Billy M; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (pintestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  4. Genetic determinism of bone and mineral metabolism in meat-type chickens: A QTL mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Chabault-Dhuit, Marie; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Narcy, Agnès

    2016-12-01

    Skeletal integrity in meat-type chickens is affected by many factors including rapid growth rate, nutrition and genetics. To investigate the genetic basis of bone and mineral metabolism, a QTL detection study was conducted in an intercross between two lines of meat-type chickens divergently selected for their high (D +) or low (D -) digestive efficiency. Tibia size (length, diameter, volume) and ash content were determined at 3 weeks of age as well as phosphorus (P) retention and plasma concentration. Heritability of these traits and their genetic correlations with digestive efficiency were estimated. A QTL mapping study was performed using 3379 SNP markers. Tibia size, weight, ash content and breaking strength were highly heritable (0.42 to 0.61). Relative tibia diameter and volume as well as P retention were strongly and positively genetically correlated with digestive efficiency (0.57 to 0.80). A total of 35 QTL were identified (9 for tibia weight, 13 for tibia size, 5 for bone strength, 5 for bone mineralization, 2 for plasma P concentration and 1 for P retention). Six QTL were genome-wide significant, and 3 QTL for tibia relative volume, weight and ash weight on chromosome 6 were fixed, the positive allele coming from the D-line. For two QTL for ash content on chromosome 18 and relative tibia length on chromosome 26, the confidence intervals were small enough to identify potential candidate genes. These findings support the evidence of multiple genetic loci controlling bone and mineral metabolism. The identification of candidate genes may provide new perspectives in the understanding of bone regulation, even beyond avian species.

  5. Relation between obesity and bone mineral density and vertebral fractures in Korean postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Chol; Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Sei-Young; Im, Jee-Aee; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2010-11-01

    The traditional belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has been questioned. Recent epidemiologic studies show that body fat itself may be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic syndrome and the individual components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are also risk factors for low bone mineral density. Using a cross sectional study design, we evaluated the associations between obesity or metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density (BMD) or vertebral fracture. A total of 907 postmenopausal healthy female subjects, aged 60-79 years, were recruited from woman hospitals in Seoul, South Korea. BMD, vetebral fracture, bone markers, and body composition including body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, and waist circumference were measured. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total calcium intake, and total energy intake, waist circumference was negatively related to BMD of all sites (lumbar BMD p = 0.037, all sites of femur BMD p BMD of all sites (p BMD (p = 0.016), femoral neck BMD (p = 0.0335), and femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0082). Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was positively related to femoral trochanter BMD (p = 0.0366) and was lower in the control group than the fracture group (p = 0.011). In contrast to the effect favorable body weight on bone mineral density, high percentage body fat and waist circumference are related to low BMD and a vertebral fracture. Some components of metabolic syndrome were related to BMD and a vertebral fracture.

  6. Bone mineral and body composition alterations in paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reix, Philippe; Bellon, Gabriel [Hopital Femme Mere Enfant, Service de Pediatrie, Pneumologie, Allergologie, Mucoviscidose, Bron (France); Braillon, Pierre [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Service d' Imagerie Foetale et Pediatrique, Bron (France)

    2010-03-15

    With the increased life span of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related bone diseases could have an increased prevalence and morbidity in this group. In children, previous retrospective and prospective studies have yielded conflicting results on bone mineralization. To monitor body composition and bone mineral status of children with CF. We reviewed the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data of 161 children with CF (age 10 {+-} 4.8 years). Total body bone mineral content (BMCt), total lean tissue mass (LTMt) and total fat mass (FMt) were measured and compared to expected data calculated from ideal weight for height (Wi; e.g. BMCti, LTMti, FMti). The bt (BMCt/BMCti), lt (LTMt/LTMti) and ft (FMt/FMti) ratios were used as quantitative variables. Low bt ratio was found at all ages (mean bt ratio 0.94{+-}0.10; P<0.001), even in children <6 years of age. However, the children's BMCt was satisfactorily adapted to their weight. lt and ft ratios were not constant across age groups. Children <10 years had 8% reduction of their lt ratio, maintaining normal levels thereafter. The opposite trend was found for ft ratio. Poor clinical, nutritional status and vitamin A levels were correlated with bt and lt ratios. Our results indicate that children with CF could have early alterations in their bone status and that lt and ft ratios did not have constant values across ages. Interpreting DXA data using this approach is suitable in children with CF. (orig.)

  7. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnagöl Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare whole and segmental body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players by playing positions. Forty collegiate American football players voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were categorized by playing positions into one of five categories i.e., defensive linemen, offensive linemen, defensive secondary players, offensive secondary players and receivers. Whole body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Offensive and defensive linemen had higher body mass, a body mass index, lean mass and a fat mass index compared to the remaining three positions and a higher lean mass index compared to offensive secondary players and receivers. Offensive linemen had a higher body fat percentage and lower values of upper to lower lean mass than offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers, and higher total mass to the lean mass ratio and fat mass to the lean mass ratio compared to the other players. Offensive linemen had a higher fat mass index and fat mass to the lean mass ratio than defensive linemen. However, in all other measures they were similar. Offensive and defensive secondary players and receivers were similar with respect to the measured variables. Bone mineral density of the players was within the normal range and no difference in lean mass was observed between the legs. In conclusion, findings of this study showed that the total and segmental body composition profile of collegiate American football players reflected the demands of particular playing positions.

  8. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  9. Discerning the subfibrillar structure of mineralized collagen fibrils: a model for the ultrastructure of bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Li

    Full Text Available Biomineralization templated by organic molecules to produce inorganic-organic nanocomposites is a fascinating example of nature using bottom-up strategies at nanoscale to accomplish highly ordered multifunctional materials. One such nanocomposite is bone, composed primarily of hydroxyapatite (HA nanocrystals that are embedded within collagen fibrils with their c-axes arranged roughly parallel to the long axis of the fibrils. Here we discern the ultra-structure of biomimetic mineralized collagen fibrils (MCFs as consisting of bundles of subfibrils with approximately 10 nm diameter; each one with an organic-inorganic core-shell structure. Through an amorphous calcium phosphate precursor phase the HA nanocrystals were specifically grown along the longitudinal direction of the collagen microfibrils and encapsulated them within the crystal lattice. They intercalated throughout the collagen fibrils such that the mineral phase surrounded the surface of collagen microfibrils forming an interdigitated network. It appears that this arrangement of collagen microfibrils in collagen fibrils is responsible for the observed ultrastructure. Such a subfibrillar nanostructure in MCFs was identified in both synthetic and natural bone, suggesting this is the basic building block of collagen-based hard tissues. Insights into the ultrastructure of mineralized collagen fibrils have the potential to advance our understanding on the biomineralization principles and the relationship between bone's structure and mechanical properties, including fracture toughness mechanisms. We anticipate that these principles from biological systems can be applied to the rational design of new nanocomposites with improved performance.

  10. Evaluation of Clinical Decision Rules for Bone Mineral Density Testing among White Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is a devastating, insidious disease that causes skeletal fragility. Half of women will suffer osteoporotic fractures during their lifetimes. Many fractures occur needlessly, because of inattentiveness to assessment, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. Study Purpose. Study Purpose. To evaluate the discriminatory performance of clinical decision rules to determine the need to undergo bone mineral density testing. Methods. A nationally representative sample from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey consisted of 14,060 subjects who completed surveys, physical examinations, laboratory tests, and bone mineral density exams. Multivariable linear regression tested the correlation of covariates that composed the clinical decision rules with bone mineral density. Results. Increased age and decreased weight were variables in the final regression models for each gender and race/ethnicity. Among the indices, the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, which is composed of age and weight, performed best for White women. Study Implications. These results have implications for the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool performed best and is inexpensive and the least time consuming to implement.

  11. Community water fluoridation, bone mineral density, and fractures: prospective study of effects in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Orwoll, Eric S; Mason, Jill D; Cauley, Jane A

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine whether fluoridation influences bone mineral density and fractures in older women. Design Multicentre prospective study on risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. Setting Four community based centres in the United States. Participants 9704 ambulatory women without bilateral hip replacements enrolled during 1986-8; 7129 provided information on exposure to fluoride. Main outcome measures Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, radius, and calcaneus plus incident fractures (fractures that occurred during the study) of vertebrae, hip, wrist, and humerus. Results Women were classified as exposed or not exposed or having unknown exposure to fluoride for each year from 1950 to 1994. Outcomes were compared in women with continuous exposure to fluoridated water for the past 20 years (n=3218) and women with no exposure during the past 20 years (n=2563). In women with continuous exposure mean bone mineral density was 2.6% higher at the femoral neck (0.017 g/cm2, Pfluoridated drinking water does not increase the risk of fracture. PMID:11021862

  12. A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viljakainen, H.T.; Palssa, A.; Karkkainen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones to growing skeleton has not been established. We studied whether there exists a seasonal variation in calcitropic hormones, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone remodelling markers in early puberty girls. One hundred and ninety...

  13. Influence of Particle Size of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on New Bone Formation and Implant Stability after Simultaneous Sinus Floor Elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon S; Aaboe, Merete; Janner, Simone F M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) is one of the best-documented bone substitute materials for sinus floor elevation (SFE). PURPOSE: DBBM is available in two particle sizes. Large particles are believed to facilitate improved neoangiogenesis compared with small ones. However, th...

  14. Prevention of glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis with alendronate or alfacalcidol: relations of change in bone mineral density, bone markers, and calcium homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.W.; Nijs, R.N. de; Lems, W.F.; Geusens, P.P.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Huisman, A.M.; Algra, A.; Buskens, E.; Hofbauer, L.C.; Oostveen, A.C.; Bruyn, G.A.W.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of changes in measures of bone turnover and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and total hip over 18 months in a double-blinded, randomized trial, comparing the effect of alfacalcidol (101 patients) versus alendronate (100 patients) on BMD in

  15. Can Hip Fracture Prediction in Women be Estimated beyond Bone Mineral Density Measurement Alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusens, Piet; van Geel, Tineke; van den Bergh, Joop

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of hip fractures is multifactorial and includes bone and fall-related factors. Low bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD-related and BMD-independent geometric components of bone strength, evaluated by hip strength analysis (HSA) and finite element analysis analyses on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images, and ultrasound parameters are related to the presence and incidence of hip fracture. In addition, clinical risk factors contribute to the risk of hip fractures, independent of BMD. They are included in the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) case finding algorithm to estimate in the individual patient the 10-year risk of hip fracture, with and without BMD. Fall risks are not included in FRAX, but are included in other case finding tools, such as the Garvan algorithm, to predict the 5- and 10-year hip fracture risk. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors, markers of bone resorption and genetic background have been related to hip fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic worldwide and low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] predict hip fracture risk. In the context of hip fracture prevention calculation of absolute fracture risk using clinical risks, BMD, bone geometry and fall-related risks is feasible, but needs further refinement by integrating bone and fall-related risk factors into a single case finding algorithm for clinical use. PMID:22870438

  16. Lycopene intake facilitates the increase of bone mineral density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Takeda, Satoko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Intake of the antioxidant lycopene has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and have beneficial effects on bone health. However, few in vivo studies have addressed these beneficial effects in growing female rodents or young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene intake on bone metabolism through circulating oxidative stress in growing female rats. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the lycopene content in their diet: 0, 50, and 100 ppm. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the tibial proximal metaphysis increased with lycopene content in a dose-dependent manner; the BMD in 100 ppm group was significantly higher than in the 0 ppm group. The urine deoxypyridinoline concentrations were significantly lower in the 50 and 100 ppm groups than in the 0 ppm group, and the serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in 100 ppm group than in the 0 ppm group. No difference in systemic oxidative stress level was observed; however, the oxidative stress level inversely correlated with the tibial BMD. Our findings suggested that lycopene intake facilitates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption, leading to an increase of BMD in growing female rats.

  17. Site-Specific Variations in Bone Mineral Density under Systemic Conditions Inducing Osteoporosis in Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Matthias C; Kowald, Jan; Estenfelder, Sven; Jung, Roland; Kuhlisch, Eberhard; Eckelt, Uwe; Mai, Ronald; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Stroszczynski, Christian; Stadlinger, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. There is conflicting opinion about whether osteoporosis affects the alveolar bone of the jaws and whether it poses a risk to the osseointegration of dental implants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of systemic glucocorticoid administration on the jaw bone density of minipigs. Thirty-seven adult female minipigs were randomly divided into two groups. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) was used to assess bone mineral density BMD of the lumbar spine as well as the mandible and maxilla, and blood was drawn. One group of minipigs initially received 1.0 mg prednisolone per kg body weight daily for 2 months. The dose was tapered to 0.5 mg per kg body weight per day thereafter. The animals in the other group served as controls and received placebo. QCT and blood analysis were repeated after 6 and 9 months. BMD was compared between the two groups by measuring Hounsfield units, and serum levels of several bone metabolic markers were also assessed. A decrease in BMD was observed in the jaws from baseline to 9 months. This was more pronounced in the prednisolone group. Statistically significant differences were reached for the mandible ( p < 0.001) and the maxilla ( p < 0.001). The administration of glucocorticoids reduced the BMD in the jaws of minipigs. The described model shows promise in the evaluation of osseointegration of dental implants in bone that is compromised by osteoporosis.

  18. Bones of Contention: Bone Mineral Density Recovery in Celiac Disease—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grace-Farfaglia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease is a frequen