Full Text Available Establishing associations between pieces of information is related to the medial temporal lobe (MTL. However, it remains unclear how emotions affect memory for associations and, consequently, MTL activity. Thus, this event-related fMRI study attempted to identify neural correlates of the influence of positive and negative emotions on associative memory. Twenty-five participants were instructed to memorize 90 pairs of standardized pictures during a scanned encoding phase. Each pair was composed of a scene and an unrelated object. Trials were neutral, positive, or negative as a function of the emotional valence of the scene. At the behavioral level, participants exhibited better memory retrieval for both emotional conditions relative to neutral trials. Within the right MTL, a functional dissociation was observed, with entorhinal activation elicited by emotional associations, posterior parahippocampal activation elicited by neutral associations, and hippocampal activation elicited by both emotional and neutral associations. In addition, emotional associations induced greater activation than neutral trials in the right amygdala. This fMRI study shows that emotions are associated with the performance improvement of associative memory, by enhancing activity in the right amygdala and the right entorhinal cortex. It also provides evidence for a rostrocaudal specialization within the MTL regarding the emotional valence of associations.
Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.
In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior tem...
Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John
In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation.
Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Panwar, Puja; Buchanan, Laura C; Caballero-Gaudes, Cesar; Handwerker, Daniel A; Jangraw, David C; Zachariou, Valentinos; Inati, Souheil; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Derbyshire, John A; Bandettini, Peter A
Multi-echo fMRI, particularly the multi-echo independent component analysis (ME-ICA) algorithm, has previously proven useful for increasing the sensitivity and reducing false positives for functional MRI (fMRI) based resting state connectivity studies. Less is known about its efficacy for task-based fMRI, especially at the single subject level. This work, which focuses exclusively on individual subject results, compares ME-ICA to single-echo fMRI and a voxel-wise T2(⁎) weighted combination of multi-echo data for task-based fMRI under the following scenarios: cardiac-gated block designs, constant repetition time (TR) block designs, and constant TR rapid event-related designs. Performance is evaluated primarily in terms of sensitivity (i.e., activation extent, activation magnitude, percent detected trials and effect size estimates) using five different tasks expected to evoke neuronal activity in a distributed set of regions. The ME-ICA algorithm significantly outperformed all other evaluated processing alternatives in all scenarios. Largest improvements were observed for the cardiac-gated dataset, where ME-ICA was able to reliably detect and remove non-neural T1 signal fluctuations caused by non-constant repetition times. Although ME-ICA also outperformed the other options in terms of percent detection of individual trials for rapid event-related experiments, only 46% of all events were detected after ME-ICA; suggesting additional improvements in sensitivity are required to reliably detect individual short event occurrences. We conclude the manuscript with a detailed evaluation of ME-ICA outcomes and a discussion of how the ME-ICA algorithm could be further improved. Overall, our results suggest that ME-ICA constitutes a versatile, powerful approach for advanced denoising of task-based fMRI, not just resting-state data. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Osaka, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko
Animated movements of simple geometric shapes can readily be interpreted as depicting social events in which animate agents are engaged in intentional activity. However, the brain regions associated with such intention have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, intentional bias was manipulated using shape and pattern animations while measuring associated brain activity using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-five higher-intention involved and twenty-five lower-intention involved animations were presented to participants. Behavioral results showed that the degree of agency attribution of the mental state increased as intentional involvement increased. fMRI results revealed that the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), premotor, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule (SPL) were activated while participants viewed the high-intention animations. In contrast, occipital, lingual, and middle frontal gyri were activated while the participants viewed the low-intention animations. These findings suggest that as agent attribution increases, the visual brain changes its functional role to the intentional brain and becomes a flexible network for processing information about social interaction. PMID:23155450
Song, Sutao; Huang, Yuxia; Long, Zhiying; Zhang, Jiacai; Chen, Gongxiang; Wang, Shuqing
Recently, several studies have successfully applied multivariate pattern analysis methods to predict the categories of emotions. These studies are mainly focused on self-experienced emotions, such as the emotional states elicited by music or movie. In fact, most of our social interactions involve perception of emotional information from the expressions of other people, and it is an important basic skill for humans to recognize the emotional facial expressions of other people in a short time. In this study, we aimed to determine the discriminability of perceived emotional facial expressions. In a rapid event-related fMRI design, subjects were instructed to classify four categories of facial expressions (happy, disgust, angry and neutral) by pressing different buttons, and each facial expression stimulus lasted for 2s. All participants performed 5 fMRI runs. One multivariate pattern analysis method, support vector machine was trained to predict the categories of facial expressions. For feature selection, ninety masks defined from anatomical automatic labeling (AAL) atlas were firstly generated and each were treated as the input of the classifier; then, the most stable AAL areas were selected according to prediction accuracies, and comprised the final feature sets. Results showed that: for the 6 pair-wise classification conditions, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were all above chance prediction, among which, happy vs. neutral , angry vs. disgust achieved the lowest results. These results suggested that specific neural signatures of perceived emotional facial expressions may exist, and happy vs. neutral, angry vs. disgust might be more similar in information representation in the brain.
Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.
In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior temporal cortex, as well as inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, whereas neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation whereas in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which may be a form of compensatory neural activity. PMID:23102512
Sozda, Christopher N; Larson, Michael J; Kaufman, David A S; Schmalfuss, Ilona M; Perlstein, William M
Continuous monitoring of one's performance is invaluable for guiding behavior towards successful goal attainment by identifying deficits and strategically adjusting responses when performance is inadequate. In the present study, we exploited the advantages of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activity associated with error-related processing after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). fMRI and behavioral data were acquired while 10 sTBI participants and 12 neurologically-healthy controls performed a task-switching cued-Stroop task. fMRI data were analyzed using a random-effects whole-brain voxel-wise general linear model and planned linear contrasts. Behaviorally, sTBI patients showed greater error-rate interference than neurologically-normal controls. fMRI data revealed that, compared to controls, sTBI patients showed greater magnitude error-related activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and an increase in the overall spatial extent of error-related activation across cortical and subcortical regions. Implications for future research and potential limitations in conducting fMRI research in neurologically-impaired populations are discussed, as well as some potential benefits of employing multimodal imaging (e.g., fMRI and event-related potentials) of cognitive control processes in TBI. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abnormal prefrontal functioning plays a central role in the working memory (WM deficits of schizophrenic patients, but the nature of the relationship between WM and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Using two functional neuroimaging methods, we investigated the neural correlates of remembering and forgetting in schizophrenic and healthy participants. We focused on the brain activation during WM maintenance phase with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We also examined oxygenated hemoglobin changes in relation to memory performance with the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS using the same spatial WM task. Distinct types of correct and error trials were segregated for analysis. fMRI data indicated that prefrontal activation was increased during WM maintenance on correct trials in both schizophrenic and healthy subjects. However, a significant difference was observed in the functional asymmetry of frontal activation pattern. Healthy subjects showed increased activation in the right frontal, temporal and cingulate regions. Schizophrenic patients showed greater activation compared with control subjects in left frontal, temporal and parietal regions as well as in right frontal regions. We also observed increased 'false memory' errors in schizophrenic patients, associated with increased prefrontal activation and resembling the activation pattern observed on the correct trials. NIRS data replicated the fMRI results. Thus, increased frontal activity was correlated with the accuracy of WM in both healthy control and schizophrenic participants. The major difference between the two groups concerned functional asymmetry; healthy subjects recruited right frontal regions during spatial WM maintenance whereas schizophrenic subjects recruited a wider network in both hemispheres to achieve the same level of memory performance. Increased "false memory" errors and accompanying bilateral prefrontal activation in schizophrenia suggest
Full Text Available Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI provides high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we combined EEG and fMRI to investigate the structures involved in the processing of different sound pressure levels (SPLs.EEG data were recorded simultaneously with fMRI from 16 healthy volunteers using MR compatible devices at 3 T. Tones with different SPLs were delivered to the volunteers and the N1/P2 amplitudes were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis in order to compare the structures activated with high and low SPLs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and ROI analysis were also performed. Additionally, source localisation analysis was performed on the EEG data.The integration of averaged ERP parameters into the fMRI analysis showed an extended map of areas exhibiting covariation with the BOLD signal related to the auditory stimuli. The ANOVA and ROI analyses also revealed additional brain areas other than the primary auditory cortex (PAC which were active with the auditory stimulation at different SPLs. The source localisation analyses showed additional sources apart from the PAC which were active with the high SPLs.The PAC and the insula play an important role in the processing of different SPLs. In the fMRI analysis, additional activation was found in the anterior cingulate cortex, opercular and orbito-frontal cortices with high SPLs. A strong response of the visual cortex was also found with the high SPLs, suggesting the presence of cross-modal effects.
Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); K.U.Leuven, Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [K.U.Leuven, Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)
It is known that taste is centrally represented in the insula, frontal and parietal operculum, as well as in the orbitofrontal cortex (secondary gustatory cortex). In functional MRI (fMRI) experiments activation in the insula has been confirmed, but activation in the orbitofrontal cortex is only infrequently found, especially at higher field strengths (3 T). Due to large susceptibility artefacts, the orbitofrontal cortex is a difficult region to examine with fMRI. Our aim was to localize taste in the human cortex at 3 T, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the primary gustatory cortex. Event-related fMRI was performed at 3 T in seven healthy volunteers. Taste stimuli consisted of lemon juice and chocolate. To visualize activation in the orbitofrontal cortex a dedicated 3D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence was used, in addition to a 2D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence for imaging the entire brain. Data were analyzed using a perception-based model. The dedicated 3D SENSE EPI sequence successfully reduced susceptibility artefacts in the orbitofrontal area. Significant taste-related activation was found in the orbitofrontal and insular cortices. fMRI of the orbitofrontal cortex is feasible at 3 T, using a dedicated sequence. Our results corroborate findings from previous studies. (orig.)
Daselaar, S.M.; Fleck, M.S.; Dobbins, I.G.; Madden, D.J.; Cabeza, R.
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions. Memory for past events can be based on retrieval accompanied by specific contextual details (recollection) or on the feeling that an event is old or new
Qin, S.; Piekema, C.; Petersson, K.M.; Han, B.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.
Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we identified brain regions involved in storing associations of events discontinuous in time into long-term memory. Participants were scanned while memorizing item-triplets including simultaneous and discontinuous associations. Subsequent
Berger, Philipp; Bitsch, Florian; Nagels, Arne; Straube, Benjamin; Falkenberg, Irina
Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons. In order to isolate the specific effects of humor appreciation, subjective funniness ratings, collected during the scanning procedure, were implemented in the analysis as parametric modulation. Two distinct clusters in the right amygdala and the left insula were identified. Seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis investigating the effects of personality on inter-individual differences in functional connectivity revealed that amygdala and insula connectivity with brain areas previously related to humor comprehension (e.g. middle temporal gyrus) and appreciation (e.g. caudate nucleus) were significantly modulated by personality dimensions. These results underscore the sensitivity of humor processing to moderating influences, such as personality, and call attention to the importance of brain connectivity measures for the investigation of inter-individual differences in the processing of humor.
Yokoyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Jobu; Iwata, Kazuki; Ikuta, Naho; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Miyamoto, Tadao; Nakamura, Wataru; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ryuta
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether activation in Broca's area is greater during the processing of passive versus active sentences in the brains of healthy subjects. Twenty Japanese native speakers performed a visual sentence comprehension task in which they were asked to read a visually presented sentence…
Bohlhalter, S; Hattori, N; Wheaton, L; Fridman, E; Shamim, E A; Garraux, G; Hallett, M
Ideomotor apraxia is a disorder mainly of praxis planning, and the deficit is typically more evident in pantomiming transitive (tool related) than intransitive (communicative) gestures. The goal of the present study was to assess differential hemispheric lateralization of praxis production using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based analysis demonstrated significant activations in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and premotor cortex (PMC) association areas, which were predominantly left hemispheric, regardless of whether planning occurred for right or left hand transitive or intransitive pantomimes. Furthermore, region of interest-based calculation of mean laterality index (LI) revealed a significantly stronger left lateralization in PPC/PMC clusters for planning intransitive (LI = -0.49 + 0.10, mean + standard deviation [SD]) than transitive gestures (-0.37 + 0.08, P = 0.02, paired t-tests) irrespective of the hand involved. This differential left lateralization for planning remained significant in PMC (LI = -0.47 + 0.14 and -0.36 + 0.13, mean + SD, P = 0.04), but not in PPC (-0.56 + 0.11 and -0.45 + 0.12, P = 0.11), when both regions were analyzed separately. In conclusion, the findings point to a left-hemispheric specialization for praxis planning, being more pronounced for intransitive gestures in PMC, possibly due to their communicative nature.
Habeck, Christian; Hilton, H John; Zarahn, Eric; Flynn, Joseph; Moeller, James; Stern, Yaakov
Cognitive reserve (CR) has been established as a mechanism that can explain individual differences in the clinical manifestation of neural changes associated with aging or neurodegenerative diseases. CR may represent individual differences in how tasks are processed (i.e., differences in the component processes), or in the underlying neural circuitry (of the component processes). CR may be a function of innate differences or differential life experiences. To investigate to what extent CR can account for individual differences in brain activation and task performance, we used fMRI to image healthy young individuals while performing a nonverbal memory task. We used IQ estimates as a proxy for CR. During both study and test phase of the task, we identified regional covariance patterns whose change in subject expression across two task conditions correlated with performance and CR. Common brain regions in both activation patterns were suggestive of a brain network previously found to underlie overt and covert shifts of spatial attention. After partialing out the influence of task performance variables, this network still showed an association with the CR, i.e., there were reserve-related physiological differences that presumably would persist were there no subject differences in task performance. This suggests that this network may represent a neural correlate of CR.
Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser, Ralf G M
Planning abilities are essential for the successful management of everyday life activities. Although several neuroimaging studies provide evidence that the prefrontal cortex is crucially involved in planning, the differential roles of its subregions are still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of planning by focusing on the functional differentiation between the dorsolateral and rostrolateral prefrontal cortex using the Tower of London (ToL) task and a parametric event-related functional MRI design. In order to control for activations unspecific to planning, two control conditions were presented, which were matched for the length of single events in the ToL task. Seventeen right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. All statistics were reported with corrections for multiple comparisons (p planning levels, which could not be observed in the control conditions. Hence, current findings suggest that planning involves an extensive fronto-parieto-thalamic network. Within this network, the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to be the only region that is exclusively reactive to planning specific processes, which we described in terms of simultaneous monitoring of internally generated and externally presented information.
Lee, Dongha; Yun, Sungjae; Jang, Changwon; Park, Hae-Jeong
This study proposes a method for classifying event-related fMRI responses in a specialized setting of many known but few unknown stimuli presented in a rapid event-related design. Compared to block design fMRI signals, classification of the response to a single or a few stimulus trial(s) is not a trivial problem due to contamination by preceding events as well as the low signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome such problems, we proposed a single trial-based classification method of rapid event-related fMRI signals utilizing sparse multivariate Bayesian decoding of spatio-temporal fMRI responses. We applied the proposed method to classification of memory retrieval processes for two different classes of episodic memories: a voluntarily conducted experience and a passive experience induced by watching a video of others' actions. A cross-validation showed higher classification performance of the proposed method compared to that of a support vector machine or of a classifier based on the general linear model. Evaluation of classification performances for one, two, and three stimuli from the same class and a correlation analysis between classification accuracy and target stimulus positions among trials suggest that presenting two target stimuli at longer inter-stimulus intervals is optimal in the design of classification experiments to identify the target stimuli. The proposed method for decoding subject-specific memory retrieval of voluntary behavior using fMRI would be useful in forensic applications in a natural environment, where many known trials can be extracted from a simulation of everyday tasks and few target stimuli from a crime scene.
Full Text Available This study proposes a method for classifying event-related fMRI responses in a specialized setting of many known but few unknown stimuli presented in a rapid event-related design. Compared to block design fMRI signals, classification of the response to a single or a few stimulus trial(s is not a trivial problem due to contamination by preceding events as well as the low signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome such problems, we proposed a single trial-based classification method of rapid event-related fMRI signals utilizing sparse multivariate Bayesian decoding of spatio-temporal fMRI responses. We applied the proposed method to classification of memory retrieval processes for two different classes of episodic memories: a voluntarily conducted experience and a passive experience induced by watching a video of others' actions. A cross-validation showed higher classification performance of the proposed method compared to that of a support vector machine or of a classifier based on the general linear model. Evaluation of classification performances for one, two, and three stimuli from the same class and a correlation analysis between classification accuracy and target stimulus positions among trials suggest that presenting two target stimuli at longer inter-stimulus intervals is optimal in the design of classification experiments to identify the target stimuli. The proposed method for decoding subject-specific memory retrieval of voluntary behavior using fMRI would be useful in forensic applications in a natural environment, where many known trials can be extracted from a simulation of everyday tasks and few target stimuli from a crime scene.
Yarkoni, Tal; Speer, Nicole K; Balota, David A; McAvoy, Mark P; Zacks, Jeffrey M
Reading is one of the most important skills human beings can acquire, but has proven difficult to study naturalistically using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We introduce a novel Event-Related Reading (ERR) fMRI approach that enables reliable estimation of the neural correlates of single-word processing during reading of rapidly presented narrative text (200-300 ms/word). Application to an fMRI experiment in which subjects read coherent narratives and made no overt responses revealed widespread effects of orthographic, phonological, contextual, and semantic variables on brain activation. Word-level variables predicted activity in classical language areas as well as the inferotemporal visual word form area, specifically supporting a role for the latter in mapping visual forms onto articulatory or acoustic representations. Additional analyses demonstrated that ERR results replicate across experiments and predict reading comprehension. The ERR approach represents a powerful and extremely flexible new approach for studying reading and language behavior with fMRI.
Jansma, J Martijn; de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H; Drevets, Wayne C; Furey, Maura L
Technical developments in MRI have improved signal to noise, allowing use of analysis methods such as Finite impulse response (FIR) of rapid event related functional MRI (er-fMRI). FIR is one of the most informative analysis methods as it determines onset and full shape of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) without any a priori assumptions. FIR is however vulnerable to multicollinearity, which is directly related to the distribution of stimuli over time. Efficiency can be optimized by simplifying a design, and restricting stimuli distribution to specific sequences, while more design flexibility necessarily reduces efficiency. However, the actual effect of efficiency on fMRI results has never been tested in vivo. Thus, it is currently difficult to make an informed choice between protocol flexibility and statistical efficiency. The main goal of this study was to assign concrete fMRI signal to noise values to the abstract scale of FIR statistical efficiency. Ten subjects repeated a perception task with five random and m-sequence based protocol, with varying but, according to literature, acceptable levels of multicollinearity. Results indicated substantial differences in signal standard deviation, while the level was a function of multicollinearity. Experiment protocols varied up to 55.4% in standard deviation. Results confirm that quality of fMRI in an FIR analysis can significantly and substantially vary with statistical efficiency. Our in vivo measurements can be used to aid in making an informed decision between freedom in protocol design and statistical efficiency. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Brain state decoding or “mind reading” via multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA has become a popular focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. In brain decoding, stimulus presentation rate is increased as fast as possible to collect many training samples and obtain an effective and reliable classifier or computational model. However, for extremely rapid event-related experiments, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signals evoked by adjacent trials are heavily overlapped in the time domain. Thus, identifying trial-specific BOLD responses is difficult. In addition, voxel-specific hemodynamic response function (HRF, which is useful in MVPA, should be used in estimation to decrease the loss of weak information across voxels and obtain fine-grained spatial information. Regularization methods have been widely used to increase the efficiency of HRF estimates. In this study, we propose a regularization framework called mixed L2 norm regularization. This framework involves Tikhonov regularization and an additional L2 norm regularization term to calculate reliable HRF estimates. This technique improves the accuracy of HRF estimates and significantly increases the classification accuracy of the brain decoding task when applied to a rapid event-related four-category object classification experiment. At last, some essential issues such as the impact of low-frequency fluctuation (LFF and the influence of smoothing are discussed for rapid event-related experiments.
Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Renken, Remco; Hoeks, John C. J.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Stowe, Laurie A.
Lexical semantic ambiguity is the phenomenon when a word has multiple meanings (e.g. 'bank'). The aim of this event-related functional MRI study was to identify those brain areas, which are involved in contextually driven ambiguity resolution. Ambiguous words were selected which have a most
Li, Yuezhi; Wang, Li-Qun; Hu, Yong
To assess the effects of stimulus context on the P300 component, an eight-orientation Landolt ring task was introduced. As the stimulus context of this task differs from the traditional two-stimulus oddball paradigm, the purpose here was to apply EEG/fMRI integration to investigate the localization and activities of the P300 generators involved with this task. Ten healthy subjects performed the visual P300 task while fMRI and 64-channel ERP data were acquired. The voltage topographical maps of the P300 component were calculated and analyzed for the main activation foci. Furthermore, constraints from fMRI were used to identify the source activities of visual P300 ERP. Analysis of the hemodynamic response to the visual target stimuli revealed a distributed network of neural sources in the bilateral parietal lobules, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, precentral and postcentral cortex, and anterior cingulate gyrus. The analysis particularly showed preponderant activations of the bilateral superior parietal lobules. In this target detection design, two distinct P300 peaks were observed in the dipole waveforms, the bilateral prefrontal and the right inferior parietal dipole waveforms displayed the higher peak at short latency, while the four parietal, the anterior cingulate, and the temporal dipole waveforms had the higher peak at long latency. Compared with the classical oddball paradigm, the amplitude decreased in this study, which might be related to its particular stimulus context. The source technique was utilized to yield a realistic 11-dipole model and distinguish the anatomical generators of early and late components of the P300 response.
Studying overt word reading and speech production with event-related fMRI: a method for detecting, assessing, and correcting articulation-induced signal changes and for measuring onset time and duration of articulation.
Huang, Jie; Francis, Andrea P; Carr, Thomas H
A quantitative method is introduced for detecting and correcting artifactual signal changes in BOLD time series data arising from the magnetic field warping caused by motion of the articulatory apparatus when speaking aloud, with extensions to detection of subvocal articulatory activity during silent reading. Whole-head images allow the large, spike-like signal changes from the moving tongue and other components of the articulatory apparatus to be detected and localized in time, providing a measure of the time of vocalization onset, the vocalization duration, and also an estimate of the magnitude and shape of the signal change resulting from motion. Data from brain voxels are then examined during the vocalization period, and statistical outliers corresponding to contamination from articulatory motion are removed and replaced by linear interpolation from adjacent, uncontaminated data points. This quantitative approach to cleansing brain time series data of articulatory-motion-induced artifact is combined with a pre-scanning training regimen that reduces gross head movement during reading aloud to the levels observed during reading silently, which can be corrected with available image registration techniques. The combination of quantitative analysis of articulatory motion artifacts and pre-scanning training makes possible a much wider range of tasks involving overt speech than are currently being used in fMRI studies of language and cognition, as well as characterization of subvocal movements of the articulatory apparatus that are relevant to theories of reading skill, verbal rehearsal in working memory, and problem solving.
Visser, Renée M; de Haan, Michelle I C; Beemsterboer, Tinka; Haver, Pia; Kindt, Merel; Scholte, H Steven
Single-trial analysis is particularly useful for assessing cognitive processes that are intrinsically dynamic, such as learning. Studying these processes with fMRI is problematic, as the low signal-to-noise ratio of fMRI requires the averaging over multiple trials, obscuring trial-by-trial changes in neural activation. The superior sensitivity of multivoxel pattern analysis over univariate analyses has opened up new possibilities for single-trial analysis, but this may require different fMRI designs. Here, we measured fMRI and pupil dilation responses during discriminant aversive conditioning, to assess associative learning in a trial-by-trial manner. The impact of design choices was examined by varying trial spacing and trial order in a series of five experiments (total n = 66), while keeping stimulus duration constant (4.5 s). Our outcome measure was the change in similarity between neural response patterns related to two consecutive presentations of the same stimulus (within-stimulus) and between patterns related to pairs of different stimuli (between-stimulus) that shared a specific outcome (electric stimulation vs. no consequence). This trial-by-trial similarity analysis revealed clear single-trial learning curves in conditions with intermediate (8.1-12.6 s) and long (16.5-18.4 s) intervals, with effects being strongest in designs with long intervals and counterbalanced stimulus presentation. No learning curves were observed in designs with shorter intervals (1.6-6.1 s), indicating that rapid event-related designs-at present, the most common designs in fMRI research-are not suited for single-trial pattern analysis. These findings emphasize the importance of deciding on the type of analysis prior to data collection. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin
Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered.
Browndyke, Jeffrey N.; Paskavitz, James; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Tucker, Karen A.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Burke, James R.; Schmechel, Donald E.
Primary objective Event-related, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired in healthy participants during purposefully malingered and normal recognition memory performances to evaluate the neural substrates of feigned memory impairment. Methods and procedures Pairwise, between-condition contrasts of neural activity associated with discrete recognition memory responses were conducted to isolate dissociable neural activity between normal and malingered responding while simultaneously controlling for shared stimulus familiarity and novelty effects. Response timing characteristics were also examined for any association with observed between-condition activity differences. Outcomes and results Malingered recognition memory errors, regardless of type, were associated with inferior parietal and superior temporal activity relative to normal performance, while feigned recognition target misses produced additional dorsomedial frontal activation and feigned foil false alarms activated bilateral ventrolateral frontal regions. Malingered response times were associated with activity in the dorsomedial frontal, temporal, and inferior parietal regions. Normal memory responses were associated with greater inferior occipitotemporal and dorsomedial parietal activity, suggesting greater reliance upon visual/attentional networks for proper task performance. Conclusions The neural substrates subserving feigned recognition memory deficits are influenced by response demand and error type, producing differential activation of cortical regions important to complex visual processing, executive control, response planning, and working memory processes. PMID:18465389
Köhler, Stefan; Danckert, Stacey; Gati, Joseph S; Menon, Ravi S
We conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments that examined novelty responses in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) to determine whether the hippocampus makes contributions to memory processing that differ from those of structures in the adjacent parahippocampal region. In light of proposals that such differential contributions may pertain to relational processing demands, we assessed event-related fMRI responses in the MTL for novel single objects and for novel spatial and non-spatial object relationships; subjects were asked to detect these different types of novelties among previously studied items, and they successfully performed this task during scanning. A double dissociation that emerged from the response pattern of regions in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex provided the strongest support for functional specialization in the MTL. A region in the right middle hippocampus responded to the novelty of spatial and non-spatial relationships but not to the novelty of individual objects. By contrast, a region in right perirhinal cortex, situated in the anterior collateral sulcus, responded to the novelty of individual objects but not to that of either type of relationship. Other MTL regions that responded to novelty in the present study showed no reliable difference in their response to the various novelty types; these regions included anterior parts of the hippocampus and posterior aspects of parahippocampal cortex. Together, our findings indicate that relational processing demands are a critical determinant of functional specialization in the human MTL. They also suggest, however, that a neuroanatomical framework that only distinguishes between the hippocampus and the parahippocampal region is not sufficiently refined to account for all functional differences and similarities observed with respect to relational processes in the human MTL. (c)2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
We propose an efficient numerical technique for calibrating the mathematical model that describes the singleevent related brain response when fMRI measurements are given. This method employs a regularized Newton technique in conjunction with a Kalman filtering procedure. We have applied this method to estimate the biophysiological parameters of the Balloon model that describes the hemodynamic brain responses. Illustrative results obtained with both synthetic and real fMRI measurements are presented. © 2014 IEEE.
Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei
Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360ms and 410-460ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561
Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei
Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.
Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.
The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.
Coulson, Seana; Van Petten, Cyma
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 18 normal adults as they read sentences that ended with words used literally, metaphorically, or in an intermediate literal mapping condition. In the latter condition, the literal sense of the word was used in a way that prompted readers to map conceptual structure from a different domain. ERPs measured from 300 to 500 msec after the onset of the sentence-final words differed as a function of metaphoricity: Literal endings elicited the smallest N400, metaphors the largest N400, whereas literal mappings elicited an N400 of intermediate amplitude. Metaphoric endings also elicited a larger posterior positivity than did either literal or literal mapping words. Consistent with conceptual blending theory, the results suggest that the demands of conceptual integration affect the difficulty of both literal and metaphorical language.
Full Text Available A fundamental question in the emotional memory literature is why emotion enhances memory in some conditions but disrupts memory in other conditions. For example, separate studies have shown that emotional stimuli tend to be better remembered in long-term episodic memory (EM, whereas emotional distracters tend to impair working memory (WM maintenance. The first goal of this study was to directly compare the neural correlates of EM enhancement (EME and WM impairing (WMI effects, and the second goal was to explore individual differences in these mechanisms. During event-related fMRI, participants maintained faces in WM while being distracted by emotional or neutral pictures presented during the delay period. EM for the distracting pictures was tested after scanning and was used to identify successful encoding activity for the picture distracters. The first goal yielded two findings: (1 Emotional pictures that disrupted face WM but enhanced subsequent EM were associated with increased amygdala and hippocampal activity (ventral system coupled with reduced dorsolateral PFC activity (dorsal system; (2 Trials in which emotion enhanced EM without disrupting WM were associated with increased ventrolateral PFC activity. The ventral-dorsal switch can explain EME and WMI, while the ventrolateral PFC effect suggests a coping mechanism. The second goal yielded two additional findings: (3 Participants who were more susceptible to WMI showed greater amygdala increases and PFC reductions; (4 Amygdala activity increased and dlPFC activity decreased with measures of impulsivity. Taken together, the results clarify the mechanisms linking the enhancing and impairing effects of emotion on memory.
Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Ortigue, Stephanie
Functional neuroimaging demonstrates a combined role of central and peripheral mechanisms in human sexual response. Nevertheless, inter-individual subjective differences remain unresolved. Since Freud, controversy remains regarding the similarity of each type of partnered sexual pleasure experience. The authors hypothesized that the neural networks sustaining the memory of all types of subjective partnered sexual pleasure experiences might interact with the insula, a key brain area for integrating somatic experiences. Using a 3T Phillips MRI scanner, brain activity elicited when 29 healthy female volunteers were exposed to subliminal presentation of their sexual partner's names, an approach to investigating the brain network sustaining the mental representation of their partner, was assessed. This brain activity was compared with scores from the Female Sexual Functioning Index on satisfaction and the typologies of their partnered orgasmic experiences. No orgasmic responses were recorded during fMRI. This approach allowed the investigation of the memory of the different types of stored partnered orgasmic experiences. The memory of partnered pleasure obtained by clitoral stimulation correlated with brain responses in the left insula only, while that of partnered pleasure by sexual intercourse correlated with the left insula and also with the right superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, and right inferior prefrontal gyrus. The results suggest that the memory of sexual experiences is integrated a posteriori at different levels (i.e. by different neural networks) in a woman's brain. The authors believe these findings will open a new avenue towards understanding inter- and intra-individual differences in woman's sexual mind.
D. S. Fahmeed Hyder
Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast is an important tool for mapping brain activity. Interest in quantitative fMRI has renewed awareness in importance of oxidative neuroenergetics, as reflected by cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2, for supporting brain function. Relationships between BOLD signal and the underlying neurophysiological parameters have been elucidated to allow determination of dynamic changes in CMRO2 by “calibrated fMRI”, which require multi-modal measurements of BOLD signal along with cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV. But how do CMRO2 changes, steady-state or transient, derived from calibrated fMRI compare with neural activity recordings of local field potential (LFP and/or multi-unit activity (MUA? Here we discuss recent findings primarily from animal studies which allow high magnetic fields studies for superior BOLD sensitivity as well as multi-modal CBV and CBF measurements in conjunction with LFP and MUA recordings from activated sites. A key observation is that while relationships between neural activity and sensory stimulus features range from linear to non-linear, associations between hyperemic components (BOLD, CBF, CBV and neural activity (LFP, MUA are almost always linear. More importantly, the results demonstrate good agreement between the changes in CMRO2 and independent measures of LFP or MUA. The tight neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings, observed from steady-state conditions to events separated by <200 ms, suggest rapid oxygen equilibration between blood and tissue pools and thus calibrated fMRI at high magnetic fields can provide high spatiotemporal mapping of CMRO2 changes.
Hyder, Fahmeed; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Herman, Peter; Coman, Daniel; Maandag, Natasja J. G.; Behar, Kevin L.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Rothman, Douglas L.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is an important tool for mapping brain activity. Interest in quantitative fMRI has renewed awareness in importance of oxidative neuroenergetics, as reflected by cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption(CMRO2), for supporting brain function. Relationships between BOLD signal and the underlying neurophysiological parameters have been elucidated to allow determination of dynamic changes inCMRO2 by “calibrated fMRI,” which require multi-modal measurements of BOLD signal along with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV). But how doCMRO2 changes, steady-state or transient, derived from calibrated fMRI compare with neural activity recordings of local field potential (LFP) and/or multi-unit activity (MUA)? Here we discuss recent findings primarily from animal studies which allow high magnetic fields studies for superior BOLD sensitivity as well as multi-modal CBV and CBF measurements in conjunction with LFP and MUA recordings from activated sites. A key observation is that while relationships between neural activity and sensory stimulus features range from linear to non-linear, associations between hyperemic components (BOLD, CBF, CBV) and neural activity (LFP, MUA) are almost always linear. More importantly, the results demonstrate good agreement between the changes inCMRO2 and independent measures of LFP or MUA. The tight neurovascular and neurometabolic couplings, observed from steady-state conditions to events separated by <200 ms, suggest rapid oxygen equilibration between blood and tissue pools and thus calibrated fMRI at high magnetic fields can provide high spatiotemporal mapping ofCMRO2 changes. PMID:20838476
Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.
Bruin, KJ; Kenemans, JL; Verbaten, MN; Van der Heijden, AHC
The goal of this study was to investigate habituation processes in the brain, and in particular, to identify the brain structures involved in these processes. Therefore, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to a series of repeated, task-irrelevant, salient stimuli presented
J.W. van Strien (Jan); L.A. Isbell (Lynne A.)
textabstractStudies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to
Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang
The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison…
Klaver, P.; Fell, J.; Weis, S.; Greiff, A. de; Ruhlmann, J.; Reul, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.
Our event-related functional MRI (efMRI) study investigates whether visual advance information (AI) affects rather perceptual or central response-related processing areas. Twelve subjects were required to make a go/no-go decision to a conjunction of a specific color and motion direction. The stimuli
Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Debruille, J. Bruno; Renoult, Louis; Prevost, Marie; Dionne-Dostie, Emmanuelle; Buchy, Lisa; Lepage, Martin
The present study was carried out to examine how the event-related potentials to fragmentation predict recognition success. Stimuli were abstract meaningless figures that were either complete or fragmented to various extents but still recoverable. Stimuli were first encoded as part of a symmetry discrimination task. In a subsequent recognition…
Claudio Portella; Sergio Machado; Oscar Arias-Carrión; Sack, Alexander T.; Julio Guilherme Silva; Marco Orsini; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite; Adriana Cardoso Silva; Nardi, Antonio E.; Mauricio Cagy; Roberto Piedade; Pedro Ribeiro
The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a vis...
Jan Van den Stock
Full Text Available Many people experience transient difficulties in recognizing faces but only a small number of them cannot recognize their family members when meeting them unexpectedly. Such face blindness is associated with serious problems in everyday life. A better understanding of the neuro-functional basis of impaired face recognition may be achieved by a careful comparison with an equally unique object category and by a adding a more realistic setting involving neutral faces as well facial expressions. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the neuro-functional basis of perceiving faces and bodies in three developmental prosopagnosics (DP and matched healthy controls. Our approach involved materials consisting of neutral faces and bodies as well as faces and bodies expressing fear or happiness. The first main result is that the presence of emotional information has a different effect in the patient vs. the control group in the fusiform face area (FFA. Neutral faces trigger lower activation in the DP group, compared to the control group, while activation for facial expressions is the same in both groups. The second main result is that compared to controls, DPs have increased activation for bodies in the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG and for neutral faces in the extrastriate body area (EBA, indicating that body and face sensitive processes are less categorically segregated in DP. Taken together our study shows the importance of using naturalistic emotional stimuli for a better understanding of developmental face deficits.
Besle, Julien; Sánchez-Panchuelo, Rosa-Maria; Bowtell, Richard; Francis, Susan; Schluppeck, Denis
A desirable goal of functional MRI (fMRI), both clinically and for basic research, is to produce detailed maps of cortical function in individual subjects. Single-subject mapping of the somatotopic hand representation in the human primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has been performed using both phase-encoding and block/event-related designs. Here, we review the theoretical strengths and limits of each method and empirically compare high-resolution (1.5 mm isotropic) somatotopic maps obtained using fMRI at ultrahigh magnetic field (7 T) with phase-encoding and event-related designs in six subjects in response to vibrotactile stimulation of the five fingertips. Results show that the phase-encoding design is more efficient than the event-related design for mapping fingertip-specific responses and in particular allows us to describe a new additional somatotopic representation of fingertips on the precentral gyrus. However, with sufficient data, both designs yield very similar fingertip-specific maps in S1, which confirms that the assumption of local representational continuity underlying phase-encoding designs is largely valid at the level of the fingertips in S1. In addition, it is shown that the event-related design allows the mapping of overlapping cortical representations that are difficult to estimate using the phase-encoding design. The event-related data show a complex pattern of overlapping cortical representations for different fingertips within S1 and demonstrate that regions of S1 responding to several adjacent fingertips can incorrectly be identified as responding preferentially to one fingertip in the phase-encoding data.
Trimmel, Karin; Sachsenweger, Jens; Lindinger, Gerald; Auff, Eduard; Zimprich, Fritz; Pataraia, Ekaterina
Language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents the clinical standard for language lateralization assessment in presurgical epilepsy evaluation, but still many patients experience postoperative language deficits. Event-related potentials (ERPs), especially the negative component around and after 400ms, are related to language processing and could therefore represent a complementary method of language lateralization assessment. Scalp EEG was recorded from 64 locations in 36 epilepsy patients and 37 controls during three visually presented language tasks: A short-term language memory task (differentiation memorized vs. unknown words), a phonological task (detection of rhymes in word pairs), and a semantic decision task (differentiation words vs. pseudowords). ERPs were analyzed in the 300ms-800ms epoch. Language fMRI was routinely obtained in patients. ERPs were significantly more negative over the left compared to the right hemisphere in all three tasks in patients and controls. Laterality indices showed highest concordance with fMRI for the Word/Pseudoword Task. ERPs of language processing were lateralized to the left hemisphere in the majority of epilepsy patients and controls. In patients, single-subject laterality indices showed high concordance with fMRI results. Results indicate that scalp-derived ERPs are a promising tool to investigate lateralization of language function in epilepsy patients. Copyright Â© 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bourisly, Ali K; Pothen, Annie
The primary objective of this study was to further characterize the role of sex, if any, in event-related potentials (ERPs). More specifically, we aimed to investigate sex sensitivity with respect to the P300 ERP. Each female and male study participant underwent an oddball paradigm electroencephalography ERP session. ERP data were subjected to preprocessing and postprocessing, as well as statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that men had larger P300 amplitudes on average for both low-probability and high-probability stimuli compared with women (PP300 latencies on average than did women (PP300 ERP, which may be because of men eliciting higher response inhibition compared with women.
Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.
Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan
To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.
Full Text Available Using a crossmodal priming paradigm, this study investigated how the brain bound the spatial and semantic features in multisensory processing. The visual stimuli (pictures of animals were presented after the auditory stimuli (sounds of animals, and the stimuli from different modalities may match spatially (or semantically or not. Participants were required to detect the head orientation of the visual target (an oddball paradigm. The event-related potentials (ERPs to the visual stimuli was enhanced by spatial attention (150–170 ms irrespectively of semantic information. The early crossmodal attention effect for the visual stimuli was more negative in the spatial-congruent condition than in the spatial-incongruent condition. By contrast, the later effects of spatial ERPs were significant only for the semantic- congruent condition (250–300 ms. These findings indicated that spatial attention modulated early visual processing, and semantic and spatial features were simultaneously used to orient attention and modulate later processing stages.
Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang
This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yu, Luodi; Fan, Yuebo; Deng, Zhizhou; Huang, Dan; Wang, Suiping; Zhang, Yang
The present study investigated pitch processing in Mandarin-speaking children with autism using event-related potential measures. Two experiments were designed to test how acoustic, phonetic and semantic properties of the stimuli contributed to the neural responses for pitch change detection and involuntary attentional orienting. In comparison with age-matched (6-12 years) typically developing controls (16 participants in Experiment 1, 18 in Experiment 2), children with autism (18 participants in Experiment 1, 16 in Experiment 2) showed enhanced neural discriminatory sensitivity in the nonspeech conditions but not for speech stimuli. The results indicate domain specificity of enhanced pitch processing in autism, which may interfere with lexical tone acquisition and language development for children who speak a tonal language.
Wang, Enguo; Qin, Shutao; Chang, MengYan; Zhu, Xiangru
This study reports the neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of digital memory encoding features in Chinese individuals with and without dyscalculia. Eighteen children with dyscalculia (ages 11.5-13.5) and 18 matched controls were tested, and their event-related potentials (ERPs) were digitally recorded simultaneously with behavioral measures. The results showed that both groups had a significant Dm effect, and this effect was greater in the control group. In the 300-400-ms, 400-500-ms, and 600-700-ms processing stages, both groups showed significant differences of digital memory encoding in the frontal, central, and parietal regions. In the 500-600-ms period, the Dm effect in the control group was significantly greater than that in the dyscalculia group only in the parietal region. These results suggest that individuals with dyscalculia exhibit impaired digital memory encoding and deficits in psychological resource allocation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu
In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.
Atchley, Rachel; Ellingson, Roger; Klee, Daniel; Memmott, Tabatha; Oken, Barry
In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST. EEG was recorded to assess feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the magnitude of the stress response through autonomic nervous system activity and salivary cortisol. Physiological measures other than EEG included heart rate, respiration rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and salivary cortisol. These measures were collected at several time points throughout the task. Feedback-related negativity evoked-potential responses were elicited and they significantly differed depending on whether positive or negative feedback was received. The PAST also increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability and respiration rates compared to a control condition attentional task. These preliminary results suggest that the PAST is an effective cognitive stressor. Successful measurement of the feedback-related negativity suggests that the PAST is conducive to EEG and time-sensitive ERP experiments. Moreover, the physiological findings support the PAST as a potent method for inducing stress in older adult participants. Further research is needed to confirm these results, but the PAST shows promise as a tool for cognitive stress induction for time-locked event-related potential experiments.
Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is associated with deficits in social communication and avoidance of social contact. It has been hypothesized that people with IAD may have an impaired capacity for empathy. The purpose of the current study was to examine the processing of empathy for others’ pain in IADs. Event-related potentials produced in response to pictures showing others in painful and non-painful situations were recorded in 16 IAD subjects and 16 healthy controls (HCs. The N1, P2, N2, P3, and late positive potential components were compared between the two groups. Robust picture × group interactions were observed for N2 and P3. The painful pictures elicited larger N2 and P3 amplitudes than the non-painful pictures did only in the HC group but not in the IAD group. The results of this study suggest that both of the early automatic and of the later cognitive processes of pain empathy may be impaired in IADs. This study provides psychophysical evidence of empathy deficits in association with IAD. Further studies combining multidimensional measurements of empathy are needed to confirm these findings.
Leen eVan Beek
Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.
Kim, Sung Min; Choi, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chany; Lee, Byeong Uk; Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Jung, Ki-Young
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a working memory (WM) deficit in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients, by studying the Sternberg WM task of event-related potential (ERP). Thirteen drug-naive RLS patients and 13 healthy age-matched controls with no sleep disturbances participated in the present study. P300 ERP was recorded during Sternberg WM task using digits as mnemonic items. P300 amplitudes and reaction times were compared between groups (RLS vs. control) considering brain regions (frontal, central, and parietal) and memory load sizes (two, three, and four) as within-subject factors. Clinical and sleep-related variables were correlated with P300 amplitude. The reaction time in RLS patients was significantly longer than controls over all memory load sizes. The P300 amplitude at parietal regions in RLS patients was significantly lower than in controls regardless of memory load sizes, which was significantly negatively correlated with duration of RLS history in RLS patients. Our study suggests that patients with severe RLS have WM deficits. Furthermore, negative correlation of P300 amplitudes with the duration of RLS illness suggests that cerebral cortical dysfunction in RLS patients results from repeated RLS symptom attacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Suárez-Pellicioni, M; Núñez-Peña, M I; Colomé, A
This study uses event-related brain potentials to investigate the difficulties that high math anxious individuals face when processing dramatically incorrect solutions to simple arithmetical problems. To this end, thirteen high math-anxious (HMA) and thirteen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with simple addition problems in a verification task. The proposed solution could be correct, incorrect but very close to the correct one (small-split), or dramatically incorrect (large-split). The two groups did not differ in mathematical ability or trait anxiety. We reproduced previous results for flawed scores suggesting HMA difficulties in processing large-split solutions. Moreover, large-split solutions elicited a late positive component (P600/P3b) which was more enhanced and delayed in the HMA group. Our study proposes that the pattern of flawed scores found by previous studies (and that we replicate) has to do with HMA individuals'difficulties in inhibiting an extended processing of irrelevant information (large-split solutions). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gibb, Brandon E; Pollak, Seth D; Hajcak, Greg; Owens, Max
Although a number of studies have reported that children of depressed, compared to nondepressed, parents exhibit biased attention to sad facial stimuli, the direction of this bias remains unclear; some studies find evidence of preferential attention toward sad faces whereas others find evidence of attention avoidance. In the current study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess children's attention to emotional stimuli using a spatial cueing task. Across all indices of attention bias (N2pc and sustained posterior contralateral negativity [SPCN] time locked to face onset, P3b time locked to probe onset, reaction times [RTs] to probes), children of mothers with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the child's life exhibited less attention to sad faces than children of never depressed mothers. For two of these indices (SPCN and RTs), the attention biases for the offspring of depressed mothers was not specific to sadness and was observed for all emotional expressions. Group differences in the ERP indices were maintained when controlling for the influence of mothers' and children's current symptoms of depression and anxiety, mothers' history of anxiety disorders, and children's history of MDD and anxiety disorders, suggesting that the results are specific to mothers' history of MDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Raz, Sivan; Dan, Orrie; Arad, Hen; Zysberg, Leehu
The present study was aimed at identifying potential behavioral and neural correlates of emotional intelligence (EI) by using scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). EI levels were defined according to both self-report questionnaire and a performance-based test. We identified ERP correlates of emotional processing by comparing ERPs elicited in trials using pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. The effects of these emotion-inducing pictures were then compared across groups with low and high EI levels. Behavioral results revealed a significant valence×EI group interaction effect since valence ratings were lower for unpleasant pictures and higher for pleasant pictures in the high EI group compared with the low EI group. The groups did not differ with respect to neutral picture ratings. The ERP results indicate that participants with high EI exhibited significantly greater mean amplitudes of the P2 (200-300ms post-stimulus) and P3 (310-450ms post-stimulus) ERP components in response to emotional and neutral pictures, at posterior-parietal as well as at frontal scalp locations. This may suggest greater recruitment of resources to process all emotional and non-emotional stimuli at early and late processing stages among individuals with higher EI. The present study also underscores the usefulness of ERP methodology as a sensitive measure for the study of emotional stimuli processing in the research field of EI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, T; Liu, X; Xiao, T; Shi, J
The relationship between recognition memory and cognitive control is an important research topic. The current study investigated how conflict control influences an individual's emotional memory. During the encoding phase, participants were required to judge the affective valence of a Chinese Chengyu word (either positive or negative) in a modified Simon paradigm and to remember the word. Half of the words were presented in the congruent condition and the other half were displayed in the incongruent condition. During the retrieval phase, participants were instructed to make an 'old/new judgment' and decide whether the word had been presented previously. Electrophysiological responses were recorded using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The behavioral results of retrieval processes showed that participants remembered more positive than negative words when they were encoded in the congruent condition. The electrophysiological results revealed that the retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition elicited less negative frontal negativity (FN) and early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes than those encoded in the congruent condition. The retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition induced greater late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes, relative to those encoded in the congruent condition on the left hemisphere. It was also observed that the recognition of positive words induced faster LPC responses than negative words when they were encoded in the incongruent condition. The present electrophysiological study illustrates that emotional memory processes may be affected by conflict control. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.
Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376
Greer, Joanna M. H.; Hamilton, Colin; Riby, Leigh M.
The primary aim of the current study was to employ event-related potentials (ERPs) methodology to disentangle the mechanisms related to inhibitory control in older adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Eleven older adults with WS (mean age 42), 16 typically developing adults (mean age 42) and 13 typically developing children (mean age 12) participated in the study. ERPs were recorded during a three-stimulus visual oddball task, during which participants were required to make a response to a rare target stimulus embedded in a train of frequent non-target stimuli. A task-irrelevant infrequent stimulus was also present at randomised intervals during the session. The P3a latency data response related to task-irrelevant stimulus processing was delayed in WS. In addition, the early perceptual N2 amplitude was attenuated. These data are indicative of compromised early monitoring of perceptual input, accompanied by appropriate orientation of responses to task-irrelevant stimuli. However, the P3a delay suggests inefficient evaluation of the task-irrelevant stimuli. These data are discussed in terms of deficits in the disengagement of attentional processes, and the regulation of monitoring processes required for successful inhibition. PMID:28187205
Wang, Cuicui; Jin, Jia; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo
Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI. Moreover, only for positive ROI, the amplitudes of FRN and P300 were modulated by two kinds of behaviors. We suggested that individuals making antiherd decisions were more confident with their own ability and choices, which reduced the positive outcome prediction error and gave more mental resources to evaluate positive outcome. However, negative outcomes evoked no different motivational meaning and negative emotion for individuals between herding and antiherding. The study may provide new insights into neurocognitive processes of herding and antiherding in financial market.
Ma, Yujun; Wang, Enguo; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Guo Xiang
As the reading process is inseparable from working memory, inhibition, and other higher cognitive processes, the deep cognitive processing defects that are associated with dyslexia may be due to defective distraction inhibition systems. In this study, we used event-related potential technology to explore the source of negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia and in a group of healthy children for comparison. We found that the changes in the average response times in the negative priming and control conditions were consistent across the two groups, while the negative priming effects differed significantly between the groups. The magnitude of the negative priming effect was significantly different between the two groups, with the magnitude being significantly higher in the control group than it was in the developmental dyslexia group. These results indicate that there are deficits in distraction inhibition in children with developmental dyslexia. In terms of the time course of processing, inhibition deficits in the dyslexia group appeared during early-stage cognition selection and lasted through the response selection phase. Regarding the cerebral cortex locations, early-stage cognition selection was mainly located in the parietal region, while late-stage response selection was mainly located in the frontal and central regions. The results of our study may help further our understanding of the intrinsic causes of developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto; Smith, Cybelle; Pozo, Miguel A; Hinojosa, José A; Moreno, Eva M
Previous event-related potential studies have demonstrated the online generation of inferences during reading for comprehension tasks. The present study contrasted the brainwave patterns of activity to the fulfilment or violation of various types of inferences (causal, emotional, locative). Relative to inference congruent sentence endings, a typical centro-parietal N400 was elicited for the violation of causal and locative inferences. This N400 effect was initially absent for emotional inferences, most likely due to their lower cloze probability. Between 500 and 750ms, a larger frontal positivity (pN400FP) was elicited by inference incongruent sentence endings in the causal condition. In emotional sentences, both inference congruent and incongruent endings exerted this frontally distributed late positivity. For the violation of locative inferences, the larger positivity was only marginally significant over left posterior scalp locations. Thus, not all inference eliciting sentences evoked a similar pattern of ERP responses. We interpret and discuss our results in line with recent views on what the N400, the P600 and the pN400FP brainwave potentials index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The selection of task-relevant information requires both the focalization of attention on the task and resistance to interference from irrelevant stimuli. A previous study using the P3 component of the event-related potentials suggested that a reduced ability to resist interference could be responsible for attention disorders at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD, with a possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC.Our objective was to better determine the origin of this impairment, by studying an earlier ERP component, the N2, and its subcomponents, as they reflect early inhibition processes and as they are known to have sources in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, which is involved together with the DLPFC in inhibition processes. Fifteen early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs performed a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm, consisting in detecting target inputs amongst standard stimuli, while resisting interference from distracter ones. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and the generators of the N2 subcomponents were identified using standardized weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA.PD patients displayed fewer N2 generators than HCs in both the DLPFC and the ACC, for all types of stimuli. In contrast to controls, PD patients did not show any differences between their generators for different N2 subcomponents.Our data suggest that impaired inhibition in PD results from dysfunction of the DLPFC and the ACC during the early stages of attentional processes.
Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.
Yih-Choung Yu; Sicheng Wang; Gabel, Lisa A
The use of an individual's neural response to stimuli (the event-related potential or ERP) has potential as a biometric because it is highly resistant to fraud relative to other conventional authentication systems. P300 is an ERP in human electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs in response to an oddball stimulus when an individual is actively engaged in a target detection task. Because P300 is consistently detectable from almost every subject, it is considered a potential signal for biometric applications. This paper presents a feasibility study of using topological plots of P300 as a biometric in subject authentication. The variation in latency and location of P300 response of 24 participants performing the P300Speller task were studied. Data sets from four participants were used for algorithm training; data from the other 20 participants were used as imposters for algorithm validation. The result showed that the algorithm was able to correctly identify three out of these four participants. Validation test also proved that the algorithm was able to reject 95% of the imposters for those three authenticated participants.
Xu, Kepeng; Li, Shifeng; Ren, Deyun; Xia, Ruixue; Xue, Hong; Zhou, Aibao; Xu, Yan
A growing number of studies have demonstrated preferential processing of self-related information. However, previous research has been limited in examining the distinction between processes related to the self and those related to the non-self, it remains unclear how self-related information with differing levels of importance is processed within the self. The present study examined how the importance of self-related content affects the neural activity involved in self-referential processing. The behavioral results showed that the participants had faster responses to more important self-related content. The event-related potential (ERP) results showed that early attention resources were diverted to the identification of highly important self-related content compared with minimally important self-related content, as reflected by the enhanced P200. Furthermore, the N200 amplitude for highly important self-related content was smaller than for moderately important self-related content which, in turn, were smaller than minimally important self-related content. Moreover, the P300 amplitudes were modulated by the degree of importance of self-related content, whereby a higher importance of self-related content led to larger P300 amplitudes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effect of the degree of importance of the self-related content at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels.
Full Text Available A growing number of studies have demonstrated preferential processing of self-related information. However, previous research has been limited in examining the distinction between processes related to the self and those related to the non-self, it remains unclear how self-related information with differing levels of importance is processed within the self. The present study examined how the importance of self-related content affects the neural activity involved in self-referential processing. The behavioral results showed that the participants had faster responses to more important self-related content. The event-related potential (ERP results showed that early attention resources were diverted to the identification of highly important self-related content compared with minimally important self-related content, as reflected by the enhanced P200. Furthermore, the N200 amplitude for highly important self-related content was smaller than for moderately important self-related content which, in turn, were smaller than minimally important self-related content. Moreover, the P300 amplitudes were modulated by the degree of importance of self-related content, whereby a higher importance of self-related content led to larger P300 amplitudes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an effect of the degree of importance of the self-related content at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels.
Hinojosa, José A; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Folgueiras, Uxía; Santaniello, Gerardo; López-Bachiller, Cristina; Sebastián, Manuel; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J; Pozo, Miguel A
Previous research on emotion in language has mainly concerned the impact of emotional information on several aspects of lexico-semantic analyses of single words. However, affective influences on morphosyntactic processing are less understood. In the present study, we focused on the impact of negative valence in the processing of gender agreement relations. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read three-word phrases and performed a syntactic judgment task. Negative and neutral adjectives could agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. At an electrophysiological level, the amplitude of a left anterior negativity (LAN) to gender agreement mismatches decreased in negative words, relative to neutral words. The behavioral data suggested that LAN amplitudes might be indexing the processing costs associated with the detection of gender agreement errors, since the detection of gender mismatches resulted in faster and more accurate responses than did the detection of correct gender agreement relations. According to this view, it seems that negative content facilitated the processes implicated in the early detection of gender agreement mismatches. However, gender agreement violations in negative words triggered processes involved in the reanalysis and repair of the syntactic structure, as reflected in larger P600 amplitudes to incorrect than to correct phrases, irrespective of their emotional valence.
Timmers, Inge; Gentile, Francesco; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Jansma, Bernadette M
During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology) of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards"), to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards"), to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square."). Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W') and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity). In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'). The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.
Laudien, Joachim H; Wencker, Sonja; Ferstl, Roman; Pause, Bettina M
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of cognitive/emotional bias on central nervous odor processing. Forty-five female participants were divided into three groups and were either led to believe the odor was a natural, healthy extract (positive bias), potentially hazardous (negative bias), or a common test odorant (control). The odor (isobornyl acetate) was presented via a constant-flow olfactometer and the EEG was recorded from 60 scalp locations. In the negative bias condition, participants reported reduced well-being and judged the odor as less pleasant. However, neither the thresholds nor the intensity ratings were changed by the context condition. Chemosensory event-related potential (CSERP) analysis revealed that the latencies of the N1 and P2 components were prolonged in the negative bias condition and shortened in the positive bias condition. Current source densities were most prominent in the frontal lobe in negatively biased participants. The findings show that expecting to perceive an emotionally significant odor affects the early encoding of odors.
Lin, Ming-Huang; Wang, Ching-yi; Cheng, Shih-kuen; Cheng, Shih-hung
This study investigates how semantic networks represent different artistic furniture. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants made style-match judgments for table and chair sets. All of the tables were in the Normal style, whereas the chairs were in the Normal, Minimal, ReadyMade, or Deconstruction styles. The Normal and Minimal chairs had the same rates of "match" responses, which were both higher than the rates for the ReadyMade and Deconstruction chairs. Compared with Normal chairs, the ERPs elicited by both ReadyMade chairs and Deconstruction chairs exhibited reliable N400 effects, which suggests that these two design styles were unlike the Normal design style. However, Minimal chairs evoked ERPs that were similar to the ERPs of Normal chairs. Furthermore, the N400 effects elicited by ReadyMade and Deconstruction chairs showed different scalp distributions. These findings reveal that semantic networks represent different design styles for items of the same category. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Portella, Claudio; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Sack, Alexander T.; Silva, Julio Guilherme; Orsini, Marco; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro
The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP) components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP) and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2), N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) and the reaction time (RT). In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2), PMP (electrode C3), P300 (electrode PZ) was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency) occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency), motor response processing (PMP latency), reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency), and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude). PMID:23355929
Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan
This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Jie-Li; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tzeng, Ovid J-L
In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace the temporal dynamics of phonological consistency and phonetic combinability in the reading of Chinese phonograms. The data showed a significant consistency-by-combinability interaction at N170. High phonetic combinability characters elicited greater negativity at N170 than did low phonetic combinability characters, and the combinability effect was only found in the reading of high consistency characters. The results support the phonological mapping hypothesis of the reading-related N170 effect and suggest that the earlier stages of visual word recognition are shaped by the mapping of orthography to phonology even in Chinese. Moreover, our data revealed both consistency and combinability effects at P200 and N400, accounted for by the two-stage framework for visual word recognition. That is, characters with high combinability or high consistency facilitated the earlier stages of orthographic or phonological processing which were due to increased activation at the perceptual level; consequently, less positive P200 was demonstrated. In the later stages, high combinability or high consistency characters were associated with a larger semantic neighborhood, which increased semantic competition and exaggerated the N400 effect. These data support the assumption of radical-based inputs proposed by the lexical constituent model. However, the phonetic consistency effects found at N170 and P200 cannot be reconciled with the current framework of the lexical constituent model. A possible revision will be discussed.
Wu, Qiuyan; Deng, Yuan
In the current study, we explored the effects of ERPs (event-related potentials), related to the cross-modal transfer from visual input to phonological retrieval. Using Chinese single-character words, participants were asked to make orthographic (intra-modal) and phonological (cross-modal) responses to visually presented words. By comparing the cross-modal and intra-modal tasks, we found that both tasks evoke similar activity in the early stage of lexical processing, showing the same pattern of N2 effect (a negative component peaking around 220 ms) and P2 effect (a positive component peaking around 270 ms). However, the effect of the task was significant in the 300-700 ms time window, consisting of a frontal-based N400 effect and a parietal based late positive component (LPC) effect. These findings suggest that the frontal-based N400 is associated with orthography-to-phonology mapping in Chinese, and the LPC reflects greater requirement of maintaining retrieved information in working memory for the cross-modal processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sakamoto, Kiwako; Nakata, Hiroki; Yumoto, Masato; Sadato, Norihiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of mastication on Go/No-go decisional processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirteen normal subjects underwent seven sessions of a somatosensory Go/No-go paradigm for approximately 4min; Pre, and Post 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The Control condition included the same seven sessions. The RT and standard deviation were recorded, and the peak amplitude and latency of the N140 and P300 components were analyzed. The RT was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 1-3 and 4-6. The peak latency of N140 was earlier in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The latency of N140 was shortened by repeated sessions in Mastication, but not by those in Control. The peak latency of P300 was significantly shorter in Mastication than in Control at Post 4-6. The peak latency of P300 was significantly longer in Control with repeated sessions, but not in Mastication. These results suggest that mastication may influence response execution processing in Go trials, as well as response inhibition processing in No-go trials. Mastication accelerated Go/No-go decisional processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present research investigated metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli and its psychophysiological correlates. We used a backward masking task presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces. We asked participants for face discrimination and then probed their metacognitive awareness with confidence rating (CR and post-decision wagering (PDW scales. We also analysed psychophysiological correlates of awareness with event-related potential (ERP components: P1, N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and P3. We have not observed any differences between PDW and CR conditions in the emotion identification task. However, the "aware" ratings were associated with increased accuracy performance. This effect was more pronounced in PDW, especially for fearful faces, suggesting that emotional stimuli awareness may be enhanced by monetary incentives. EEG analysis showed larger N170, EPN and P3 amplitudes in aware compared to unaware trials. It also appeared that both EPN and P3 ERP components were more pronounced in the PDW condition, especially when emotional faces were presented. Taken together, our ERP findings suggest that metacognitive awareness of emotional stimuli depends on the effectiveness of both early and late visual information processing. Our study also indicates that awareness of emotional stimuli can be enhanced by the motivation induced by wagering.
Xuan, Dong; Wang, Suhong; Yang, Yilin; Meng, Ping; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wen; Sheng, Wei; Yang, Yuxia
In this study, we investigated the age difference in numeral recognition and calculation in one group of school-aged children (n = 38) and one of undergraduate students (n = 26) using the event-related potential (ERP) methods. Consistent with previous reports, the age difference was significant in behavioral results. Both numeral recognition and calculation elicited a negativity peaking at about 170-280 ms (N2) and a positivity peaking at 200-470 ms (pSW) in raw ERPs, and a difference potential (dN3) between 360 and 450 ms. The difference between the two age groups indicated that more attention resources were devoted to arithmetical tasks in school-aged children, and that school-aged children and undergraduate students appear to use different strategies to solve arithmetical problems. The analysis of frontal negativity suggested that numeral recognition and mental calculation impose greater load on working memory and executive function in schoolchildren than in undergraduate students. The topography data determined that the parietal regions were responsible for arithmetical function in humans, and there was an age-related difference in the area of cerebral activation.
Danckert, James; Ferber, Susanne; Goodale, Melvyn A
Exposure to prisms has long been used to explore the control of visually guided actions primarily because adaptation requires the recalibration of misaligned reference frames due to perturbed visual input (i.e. eye-in-head and hand-centered reference frames must be realigned). To date, the only neuroimaging study to explore the direct effects of prisms on pointing used positron emission tomography and found increased activation only in right parietal cortex. We used event-related functional MRI to examine the effects of prisms on visuomanual pointing. Results demonstrated changes in activity in the anterior cingulate, the anterior intraparietal region and in a medial region of the right cerebellum. Specifically, activity in these regions was higher for the first few pointing trials made while viewing targets through prisms when directly contrasted to the last few trials. These results highlight that a more extensive network of cortical and cerebellar regions is involved in recalibrating visuomotor commands in the face of perturbed visual input.
Full Text Available People have different motivations to get along with others in different sociality mental modes (i.e., communal mode and market mode, which might affect social decision-making. The present study examined how these two types of sociality mental modes affect the processing of advice-giving using the event-related potentials (ERPs. After primed with the communal mode and market mode, participants were instructed to decide whether or not give an advice (profitable or damnous to a stranger without any feedback. The behavioral results showed that participants preferred to give the profitable advice to the stranger more slowly compared with the damnous advice, but this difference was only observed in the market mode condition. The ERP results indicated that participants demonstrated more negative N1 amplitude for the damnous advice compared with the profitable advice, and larger P300 was elicited in the market mode relative to both the communal mode and the control group. More importantly, participants in the market mode demonstrated larger P300 for the profitable advice than the damnous advice, whereas this difference was not observed at the communal mode and the control group. These findings are consistent with the dual-process system during decision-making and suggest that market mode may lead to deliberate calculation for costs and benefits when giving the profitable advice to others.
Yang, Shuo; Qiao, Yanyun; Wang, Lei; Hao, Pengru
Mental fatigue caused by continuous cognitive tasks represents one of the most worrying modern health problems. Event Related Potential (ERP) P300 is thought to be associated with cognitive function. This study aimed at characterizing the neural activity correlated with the attentional processes and exploring a novelty method which combine the magnetic stimulation and acupoint to relieve mental fatigue caused by continuous cognitive tasks. P300 (P3a and P3b) were extracted at three points: when subjects felt relaxed, at the point of mental fatigue, and after the subjects were stimulated at acupoints. The amplitudes and latencies of P3a and P3b were analyzed statistically. Among the four features (P3a amplitude, P3a latency, P3b amplitude, and P3b latency), only P3b amplitude was found to have a significant difference between the resting state and the mental fatigue state. And P3b amplitude significantly increased after magnetic stimulation at the acupoints. Subjects experiencing mental fatigue demonstrated a significant decrease in P3b amplitude in the parietal region, suggesting attenuation of resource allocation for selective attention. P3b amplitude significantly increased after magnetic stimulation at acupoints indicating that this strategy can be used to improve selective attention and relieve mental fatigue.
Full Text Available The brain is capable of elaborating and executing different stages of information processing. However, exactly how these stages are processed in the brain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the possible correlation between early and late stages of information processing by assessing the latency to, and amplitude of, early and late event-related potential (ERP components, including P200, N200, premotor potential (PMP and P300, in healthy participants in the context of a visual oddball paradigm. We found a moderate positive correlation among the latency of P200 (electrode O2, N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ and the reaction time (RT. In addition, moderate negative correlation between the amplitude of P200 and the latencies of N200 (electrode O2, PMP (electrode C3, P300 (electrode PZ was found. Therefore, we propose that if the secondary processing of visual input (P200 latency occurs faster, the following will also happen sooner: discrimination and classification process of this input (N200 latency, motor response processing (PMP latency, reorganization of attention and working memory update (P300 latency, and RT. N200, PMP, and P300 latencies are also anticipated when higher activation level of occipital areas involved in the secondary processing of visual input rise (P200 amplitude.
Littel, Marianne; van den Berg, Ivo; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Antonius J; Keemink, Lianne; Franken, Ingmar H A
Excessive computer gaming has recently been proposed as a possible pathological illness. However, research on this topic is still in its infancy and underlying neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. The determination of underlying mechanisms of excessive gaming might be useful for the identification of those at risk, a better understanding of the behavior and the development of interventions. Excessive gaming has been often compared with pathological gambling and substance use disorder. Both disorders are characterized by high levels of impulsivity, which incorporates deficits in error processing and response inhibition. The present study aimed to investigate error processing and response inhibition in excessive gamers and controls using a Go/NoGo paradigm combined with event-related potential recordings. Results indicated that excessive gamers show reduced error-related negativity amplitudes in response to incorrect trials relative to correct trials, implying poor error processing in this population. Furthermore, excessive gamers display higher levels of self-reported impulsivity as well as more impulsive responding as reflected by less behavioral inhibition on the Go/NoGo task. The present study indicates that excessive gaming partly parallels impulse control and substance use disorders regarding impulsivity measured on the self-reported, behavioral and electrophysiological level. Although the present study does not allow drawing firm conclusions on causality, it might be that trait impulsivity, poor error processing and diminished behavioral response inhibition underlie the excessive gaming patterns observed in certain individuals. They might be less sensitive to negative consequences of gaming and therefore continue their behavior despite adverse consequences. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Cermolacce, Michel; Faugère, Mélanie; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Belzeaux, Raoul; Maurel, Muriel; Naudin, Jean; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Vion-Dury, Jean
Thought and language disturbances are crucial clinical features in Bipolar Disorders (BD), and constitute a fundamental basis for social cognition. In BD, clinical manifestations such as disorganization and formal thought disorders may play a role in communication disturbances. However, only few studies have explored language disturbances in BD at a neurophysiological level. Two main Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) have been used in language comprehension research: the N400 component, elicited by incongruous word with the preceding semantic context, and the Late Positive Component (LPC), associated with non-specifically semantic and more general cognitive processes. Previous studies provided contradictory results regarding N400 in mood disorders, showing either preserved N400 in depression or dysthymia, or altered N400 in BD during semantic priming paradigm. The aim of our study was to explore N400 and LPC among patients with BD in natural speech conditions. ERPs from 19 bipolar type I patients with manic or hypomanic symptomatology and 19 healthy controls were recorded. Participants were asked to listen to congruous and incongruous complete sentences and to judge the match between the final word and the sentence context. Behavioral results and ERPs data were analyzed. At the behavioral level, patients with BD show worst performances than healthy participants. At the electrophysiological level, our results show preserved N400 component in BD. LPC elicited under natural speech conditions shows preserved amplitude but delayed latency in difference waves. Small size of samples, absence of schizophrenic group and medication status. In contrast with the only previous N400 study in BD that uses written semantic priming, our results show a preserved N400 component in ecological and natural speech conditions among patients with BD. Possible implications in terms of clinical specificity are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Razavipour, Fatemeh; Sameni, Reza
Event related potentials (ERP) are time-locked electrical activities of the brain in direct response to a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor stimulus. ERP components, such as the P300 wave, which are involved in the process of decision-making, help scientists diagnose specific cognitive disabilities. In this study, we utilize the angles between multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) subspaces in different frequency bands, as a similarity factor for studying the spatial coherency between ERP frequency responses. A matched filter is used to enhance the ERP from background EEG. While previous researches have focused on frequencies below 10 Hz, as the major frequency band of ERP, it is shown that by using the proposed method, significant ERP-related information can also be found in the 25-40 Hz band. These frequency bands are selected by calculating the correlation coefficient between P300 response segments and synthetic EEG, and ERP segments without P300 waves, and by rejecting the bands having the most association with background EEG and non-P300 components. The significance of the results is assessed by real EEG acquired in brain computer interface experiments versus synthetic EEG produced by existing methods in the literature, to assure that the results are not systematic side effects of the proposed framework. The overall results show that the equivalent dipoles corresponding to narrow-band events in the brain are spatially coherent within different (not necessarily adjacent) frequency bands. The results of this study can lead into novel perspectives in ERP studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klaver, P; Smid, HGOM; Heinze, HJ
Behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 12 subjects while performing three delayed matching-to-sample tasks. The task instructions indicated whether stimulus locations, shapes or conjunctions of locations and shapes had to be memorized and matched against a probe.
Peer, J.M. van; Roelofs, K.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijk, J.G. van; Spinhoven, P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.
We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of
Batty, Magali; Meaux, Emilie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Roge, Bernadette; Taylor, Margot J.
Social deficits are one of the most striking manifestations of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these social deficits, the recognition and understanding of emotional facial expressions has been widely reported to be affected in ASDs. We investigated emotional face processing in children with and without autism using event-related potentials…
Riby, Leigh Martin; Smallwood, Jonathan; Gunn, Valerie P
The present study investigated the effects of mind wandering (task-unrelated thought) on the subcomponents of episodic memory as reflected by event-related potentials (ERPs). Specifically, individual differences in the pattern of ERP episodic 'old/new' effects (left-parietal, right-frontal and central-negativity effects) were examined across groups of participants experiencing either high or low frequencies of task-unrelated thought during encoding. Twenty participants studied lists of words and line drawings in one of two contexts (red versus green coloured boxes). At test, participants discriminated between target (old words or line drawings presented in one colour) and nontargets (old items from the other colour and new items). On completion of the memory task, participants completed the 'thinking' component of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire to provide a retrospective measure of task-unrelated thought. Behavioural data indicated that irrespective of the presence of task-unrelated thought, participants were able to complete the memory task equally well. However, an analysis of ERPs across High and Low task-unrelated thought groups revealed differences in retrieval strategy. Those individuals with infrequent episodes of task-unrelated thought at study used a 'pure' recollection strategy (left-parietal effect only). Conversely, those participants experiencing frequent episodes of task-unrelated thought were unable to recollect the stimuli with ease, as indexed by a diminished parietal effect. As a consequence, these participants employed additional strategic processes for task completion, as indexed by an elevated amplitude of central negativity effects. These data are consistent with the decoupling hypothesis of mind wandering which suggests impaired recollection when attention becomes directed away from the task.
Liu, Tongran; Xiao, Tong; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jiannong
The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2), and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8) and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2). Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms), the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms), the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.
Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Yuan, Ruixian; Zhang, Wuke
Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people’s involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs) to examine people’s attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), which was a questionnaire used to explore people’s attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity’s photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement. PMID:26057891
Schefter, Maria; Werheid, Katja; Almkvist, Ove; Lönnqvist-Akenine, Ulrika; Kathmann, Norbert; Winblad, Bengt
This study examined the temporal course of emotional face recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Patients and healthy controls (HC) performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces displaying a negative or neutral expression. In aMCI patients, recognition accuracy was preserved for negative faces. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed disease-related changes in early perceptual components but not in ERP indices of explicit recognition. Specifically, aMCI patients showed impaired recognition effects for negative faces on the amplitudes of N170 and P2, suggesting deficient memory-related processing of negative faces at the stage of structural encoding and during an early recognition stage at which faces are individuated, respectively. Moreover, while a right-lateralized emotion effect specifically observed for correctly recognized faces on the amplitude of N170 was absent in aMCI, a similar emotion effect for successfully recognized faces on P2 was preserved in the patients, albeit with a different distribution. This suggests that in aMCI facilitated processing of successfully recognized emotional faces starts later in the processing sequence. Nonetheless, an early frontal old/new effect confined to negative faces and a parietal old/new effect unaffected by facial emotion were observed in both groups. This indicates that familiarity and conceptual priming processes may specifically contribute to recognition of negative faces in older adults and that aMCI patients can recruit the same retrieval mechanisms as controls, despite disease-related changes on early perceptual ERP components.
Full Text Available The relationship between human fluid intelligence and social-emotional abilities has been a topic of considerable interest. The current study investigated whether adolescents with different intellectual levels had different automatic neural processing of facial expressions. Two groups of adolescent males were enrolled: a high IQ group and an average IQ group. Age and parental socioeconomic status were matched between the two groups. Participants counted the numbers of the central cross changes while paired facial expressions were presented bilaterally in an oddball paradigm. There were two experimental conditions: a happy condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and happy expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2, and a fearful condition, in which neutral expressions were standard stimuli (p = 0.8 and fearful expressions were deviant stimuli (p = 0.2. Participants were required to concentrate on the primary task of counting the central cross changes and to ignore the expressions to ensure that facial expression processing was automatic. Event-related potentials (ERPs were obtained during the tasks. The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN components were analyzed to index the automatic neural processing of facial expressions. For the early vMMN (50-130 ms, the high IQ group showed more negative vMMN amplitudes than the average IQ group in the happy condition. For the late vMMN (320-450 ms, the high IQ group had greater vMMN responses than the average IQ group over frontal and occipito-temporal areas in the fearful condition, and the average IQ group evoked larger vMMN amplitudes than the high IQ group over occipito-temporal areas in the happy condition. The present study elucidated the close relationships between fluid intelligence and pre-attentive change detection on social-emotional information.
Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Yuan, Ruixian; Zhang, Wuke
Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs) to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.
Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Han, Li; Najam Ul Hasan, Abbasi; Chen, Hong
The Chinese Wenchuan earthquake, which happened on the 28th of May in 2008, may leave deep invisible scars in individuals. China has a large number of children and adolescents, who tend to be most vulnerable because they are in an early stage of human development and possible post-traumatic psychological distress may have a life-long consequence. Trauma survivors without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received little attention in previous studies, especially in event-related potential (ERP) studies. We compared the attention bias to threat stimuli between the earthquake-exposed group and the control group in a masked version of the dot probe task. The target probe presented at the same space location consistent with earthquake-related words was the congruent trial, while in the space location of neutral words was the incongruent trial. Thirteen earthquake-exposed middle school students without PTSD and 13 matched controls were included in this investigation. The earthquake-exposed group showed significantly faster RTs to congruent trials than to incongruent trials. The earthquake-exposed group produced significantly shorter C1 and P1 latencies and larger C1, P1 and P2 amplitudes than the control group. In particular, enhanced P1 amplitude to threat stimuli was observed in the earthquake-exposed group. These findings are in agreement with the prediction that earthquake-exposed survivors have an attention bias to threat stimuli. The traumatic event had a much greater effect on earthquake-exposed survivors even if they showed no PTSD symptoms than individuals in the controls. These results will provide neurobiological evidences for effective intervention and prevention to post-traumatic mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fans of celebrities commonly exist in modern society. Researchers from social science have been concerned with this problem for years. Furthermore, such researchers have attempted to measure people's involvement with celebrities in various ways. However, no study measured the degree of addiction to a specific celebrity at the neurological level. Therefore, the current study employed visually evoked event related potentials (ERPs to examine people's attitude toward celebrities by comparing different brain activities of fans and non-fans when they were shown a set of photos. These photos include a specific celebrity, a familiar person, a stranger and a butterfly. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the detected neural index, we also investigated the correlation between brain activity and the score of the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS, which was a questionnaire used to explore people's attitude toward celebrities at behavioral level. Two groups of subjects were asked to complete an implicit task, i.e., to press a button when a picture of a butterfly appeared. Results revealed that fans showed significant positive N2 and P300 deflection when viewing the photos of their favorite celebrity, whereas in the non-fan group, the subjects only showed larger P300 amplitude as a response to the celebrity's photos. Furthermore, a positive correlation between P300 amplitude elicited by the stimuli of a celebrity face and CAS scores was also observed. These findings indicated fan attitude to a specific celebrity can also be observed at the neurological level and suggested the potential utility of using ERP component as an index of fandom involvement.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal meningitis (PM is a severe and life-threatening disease that is associated with cognitive impairment including learning difficulties, cognitive slowness, short-term memory deficits and poor academic performance. There are limited data on cognitive outcomes following exposure to PM from Africa mainly due to lack of culturally appropriate tools. We report cognitive processes of exposed children as measured by auditory and visual event-related potentials. Methods Sixty-five children (32 male, mean 8.4 years, SD 3.0 years aged between 4-15 years with a history of PM and an age-matched control group of 93 children (46 male; mean 8.4 years, SD 2.7 years were recruited from a well-demarcated study area in Kilifi. In the present study, both baseline to peak and peak-to-peak amplitude differences are reported. Results Children with a history of pneumococcal meningitis had significantly longer auditory P1 and P3a latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes compared to unexposed children. In the visual paradigm, children with PM seemingly lacked a novelty P3a component around 350 ms where control children had a maximum, and showed a lack of stimulus differentiation at Nc. Further, children with exposure to PM had smaller peak to peak amplitude (N2-P1 compared to unexposed children. Conclusion The results suggest that children with a history of PM process novelty differently than do unexposed children, with slower latencies and reduced or absent components. This pattern suggests poorer auditory attention and/or cognitive slowness and poorer visual attention orienting, possibly due to disruption in the functions of the lateral prefrontal and superior temporal cortices. ERPs may be useful for assessment of the development of perceptual-cognitive functions in post brain-injury in African children by providing an alternate way of assessing cognitive development in patient groups for whom more typical standardized neuropsychological
Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T
Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.
Campanella, Salvatore; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Peigneux, Philippe; Metens, Thierry; Nouali, Mustapha; Goldman, Serge; Verbanck, Paul; De Tiège, Xavier
Faces are multi-dimensional stimuli conveying parallel information about identity and emotion. Although event-related potential (ERP) studies have disclosed a P300 component in oddball responses to both deviant identity and emotional target faces, it is hypothesized that partially different neural processes should subtend emotion vs. identity within the core network of face processing. In the present study, we used simultaneous ERP-fMRI recordings and ERP-informed analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to evidence the specific neural networks underlying P300 generation in response to different deviant emotional vs. identity faces. 18 participants were scanned during a visual oddball task in which they had to detect 3 types of deviant faces representing a change in emotion-fear or happiness-or in identity, within a series of frequent neutral ones. Amplitude and latency parameters of the P300 component, recorded for each type of deviant faces, were used to constrain fMRI analyses. Analysis of fMRI data informed by single-trial parameters of the P300 component disclosed specific activation patterns for fearful, happy and identity deviant faces. For fearful faces, P300 amplitudes were associated with BOLD changes in the left fusiform gyrus whereas latencies were linked to left superior orbito-frontal and right fusiform activations. P300 amplitude modulations for happy deviant faces involved the left posterior cingulate gyrus and right parahippocampal regions whereas P300 latencies related to the right insula and left caudate regions. Finally, identity deviant faces were associated with widespread activities involving cortical and subcortical regions when P300 amplitudes were considered, and P300 latencies were associated with activity in right hippocampal/parahippocampal regions. Our results suggest the existence of differential cerebral functional processes involved in the responses to deviant face stimuli, depending on the quality of the
René eSan Martín
Full Text Available In order to control behavior in an adaptive manner the brain has to learn how some situations and actions predict positive or negative outcomes. During the last decade cognitive neuroscientists have shown that the brain is able to evaluate and learn from outcomes within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. This research has been primarily focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P3, two event-related potential (ERP components that are elicited by outcomes. The FRN is a frontally distributed negative-polarity ERP component that typically reaches its maximal amplitude 250 ms after outcome presentation and tends to be larger for negative than for positive outcomes. The FRN has been associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. The P3 (~300-600 ms is a parietally distributed positive-polarity ERP component that tends to be larger for large magnitude than for small magnitude outcomes. The neural sources of the P3 are probably distributed over different regions of the cortex. This paper examines the theories that have been proposed to explain the functional role of these two ERP components during outcome processing. Special attention is paid to extant literature addressing how these ERP components are modulated by outcome valence (negative vs. positive, outcome magnitude (large vs. small, outcome probability (unlikely vs. likely and behavioral adjustment. The literature offers few generalizable conclusions, but is beset with a number of inconsistencies across studies. This paper discusses the potential reasons for these inconsistencies and points out some challenges that will shape the field over the next decade.
Full Text Available During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards", to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards", to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square.". Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W' and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity. In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'. The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.
Sha Sha Song; Guang Jie Zhao
The emotional and psychological activities associated with the visual perception of macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of wood were investigated. The macroscopic and microscopic structure patterns of 18 different timber tree species of northeast China were selected as the research objects, and these were divided into eight categories for event-related potential analysis. The 30 effective subjects’ tasks were to watch the wood structure stimuli patterns and evaluate them on a 7-poi...
Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui
Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.
Ueno, Tomoyuki; Hada, Yasushi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Yamada, Thoru
The somatosensory event-related potential N140 is thought to be related to selective attention. This study aimed to compare the somatosensory event-related potential N140 in healthy subjects to that in patients with stroke to determine whether N140 and attentiveness are associated in patients with stroke with or without hemispatial agnosia. Normal somatosensory event-related potential N140 values were determined using data from ten healthy subjects. Fifteen patients with stroke were divided into two groups based on the presence of hemispatial neglect. Somatosensory event-related potential N140 components were compared between the two groups. Stimulation of the affected limb in the hemispatial agnosia group resulted in significantly longer N140 latency at the contralateral vs. the ipsilateral electrode. This was the inverse of the relationship observed in normal subjects, with stimulation of the intact side in patients with hemispatial agnosia, and with stimulation of both the intact and affected sides in patients without agnosia. In the hemispatial agnosia group, the peak latency of N140 following stimulation of the affected side was significantly longer than it was following stimulation of the intact side and when compared to that in patients without agnosia. In addition, abnormal N140 peak latencies were observed at the Cz and ipsilateral electrodes in patients with hemispatial agnosia following stimulation of the intact side. These findings suggest that somatosensory event-related potential N140 is independently generated in each hemisphere and may reflect cognitive attention.
Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana
Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts
Full Text Available As social primates, one of the most important cognitive tasks we conduct, dozens of times a day, is to look at a face and extract the person's identity. During the last decade, the neural basis of face processing has been extensively investigated in humans with event-related potential (ERP and functional MRI (fMRI. These two methods provide complementary information about the temporal and spatial aspects of the neural response, with ERPs allowing high temporal resolution of milliseconds but low spatial resolution of the neural generator and fMRI displaying a slow hemodynamic response but better spatial localization of the activated regions. Despite the extensive fMRI and ERP research of faces, only a few studies have assessed the relationship between the two methods and no study to date have collected simultaneous ERP and fMRI responses to face stimuli. In the current paper we will try to assess the spatial and temporal aspects of the neural response to faces by simultaneously collecting functional MRI and event-related potentials (ERP to face stimuli. Our goals are twofold: 1 ERP and fMRI show a robust selective response to faces. In particular, two well-established face-specific phenomena, the RH superiority and the inversion effect are robustly found with both ERP and fMRI. Despite the extensive research of these effects with ERP and fMRI, it is still unknown to what extent their spatial (fMRI and temporal (ERP aspects are associated. In Study 1 we will employ an individual differences approach, to assess the relationship between these ERP and fMRI face-specific responses. 2 Face processing involves several stages starting from structural encoding of the face image through identity processing to storage for later retrieval. This representation undergoes several manipulations that take place at different time points and in different brain regions before the final percept is generated. By simultaneously recording ERP and fMRI we hope to gain a
Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.
Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 1...
Coch, Donna; Maron, Leeza; Wolf, Maryanne; Holcomb, Phillip J
In an investigation of the N400 component, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by 4 types of word stimuli (real words, pseudowords, random letter strings, and false fonts) and 3 types of picture stimuli (real pictures, pseudopictures, and picture parts) presented in separate lists were recorded from 10- and 11-year-old children. All types of word stimuli elicited an anteriorly distributed negativity peaking at about 400 msec (antN400). Words and pseudowords elicited similar ERPs, whereas ERPs to letter strings differed from those to both pseudowords and false fonts. All types of picture stimuli elicited dual anterior negativities (N350 and N430). Real pictures and pseudopictures elicited similar ERPs, whereas pseudopictures and picture parts elicited asymmetrical processing. The results are discussed in terms of increased sensitivity to and dependence on context in children.
Braverman, Ami; Berger, Andrea; Meiran, Nachshon
According to "hierarchical" multi-step theories, response selection is preceded by a decision regarding which task rule should be executed. Other theories assume a "flat" single-step architecture in which task information and stimulus information are simultaneously considered. Using task switching, the authors independently manipulated two kinds of conflict: task conflict (with information that potentially triggers the relevant or the competing task rule/identity) and response conflict (with information that potentially triggers the relevant or the competing response code/motor response). Event related potentials indicated that the task conflict effect began before the response conflict effect and carried on in parallel with it. These results are more in line with the hierarchical view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kipp, Kerstin H; Mecklinger, Axel; Brunnemann, Nicole; Shamdeen, Mohammed G; Meng-Hentschel, Juliane; Gortner, Ludwig
Prematurity may cause hippocampal compromise. Therefore, hippocampus-dependent memory processes (recollection-based retrieval) may be more impaired than hippocampus-independent processes (familiarity-based retrieval). The memory of 18 children born preterm with reduced hippocampal volumes, without neonatal complications (weeks of gestation < 34, weight < 1,600 g), and 15 controls (8-10 years) was tested using an item recognition task. While groups were equal in memory performance, dissociation was found: The event-related potential (ERP) correlate of familiarity was intact in the preterm group, whereas the correlate of recollection was attenuated. A follow-up experiment ruled out that this was due to general cognitive deficits. Furthermore, gestational age correlated with the ERP index of recollection. Thus, recognition memory in preterm children may be characterized by a compensation of attenuated recollection by familiarity. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Green, Jessica J; McDonald, John J
We conducted two audiovisual experiments to determine whether event-related potential (ERP) components elicited by attention-directing cues reflect supramodal attentional control. Symbolic visual cues were used to direct attention prior to auditory targets in Experiment 1, and symbolic auditory cues were used to direct attention prior to visual targets in Experiment 2. Different patterns of cue ERPs were found in the two experiments. A frontal negativity called the ADAN was absent in Experiment 2, which indicates that this component does not reflect supramodal attentional control. A posterior positivity called the LDAP was observed in both experiments but was focused more posteriorly over the occipital scalp in Experiment 2. This component appears to reflect multiple processes, including visual processes involved in location marking and target preparation as well as supramodal processes involved in attentional control.
Bachiller, Alejandro; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Suazo, Vanessa; Hornero, Roberto
Objective. The aim of this research is to explore the coupling patterns of brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). Approach. Event-related electroencephalographic (ERP) activity was recorded from 20 SCH patients and 20 healthy controls. The coupling changes between auditory response and pre-stimulus baseline were calculated in conventional EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma), using three coupling measures: coherence, phase-locking value and Euclidean distance. Main results. Our results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to response in theta coupling and a statistically significant decrease in beta-2 coupling in controls. No statistically significant changes were observed in SCH patients. Significance. Our findings support the aberrant salience hypothesis, since SCH patients failed to change their coupling dynamics between stimulus response and baseline when performing an auditory cognitive task. This result may reflect an impaired communication among neural areas, which may be related to abnormal cognitive functions.
Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin
Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Lili; Fu, Shimin; Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Wenbo; Zhu, Xiangru; Luo, Yue-jia
To investigate whether the non-conscious processing of fearful faces exist in unattended condition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a facial expression detection task. Participants were asked to discriminate the facial expressions (fearful or neutral) at the attended location. Unattended faces were associated with a response that was either congruent or in conflict with the response to the attended face. ERP results showed that the trials with response conflict between attended and unattended faces enhanced the amplitude of the P3 component when the neutral face was presented at attended location and the fearful face was presented at the unattended location. Our findings imply that the non-conscious fearful faces can be processed in the unattended condition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gibbons, Henning; Rammsayer, Thomas H; Stahl, Jutta
Event-related potential correlates of positive priming (PP) and negative priming (NP) were investigated in order to further elucidate the cognitive mechanisms involved. Thirty-six participants performed both an identity- and a location-based priming task. Repeating the target stimulus/location from the immediately preceding display produced behavioral PP. With localization, but not with identification, behavioral NP was observed when the target stimulus/location matched the preceding distractor stimulus/location. Smaller P300 amplitude accompanied identity-based PP, suggesting persisting target-specific activation. The lateralized readiness potential, an index of correct/incorrect response activation, indicated persisting central motor activation as another source of PP. Both location-based PP and NP were accompanied by reduced P1/N1 and P300 amplitudes, pointing to the involvement of inhibition of return in location-based priming. The results support the view that multiple brain processes underlie behavioral priming.
Ni, W; Constable, R T; Mencl, W E; Pugh, K R; Fulbright, R K; Shaywitz, S E; Shaywitz, B A; Gore, J C; Shankweiler, D
Two coordinated experiments using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) investigated whether the brain represents language form (grammatical structure) separately from its meaning content (semantics). While in the scanner, 14 young, unimpaired adults listened to simple sentences that were either nonanomalous or contained a grammatical error (for example, *Trees can grew.), or a semantic anomaly (for example, *Trees can eat.). A same⁄different tone pitch judgment task provided a baseline that isolated brain activity associated with linguistic processing from background activity generated by attention to the task and analysis of the auditory input. Sites selectively activated by sentence processing were found in both hemispheres in inferior frontal, middle, and superior frontal, superior temporal, and temporo-parietal regions. Effects of syntactic and semantic anomalies were differentiated by some nonoverlapping areas of activation: Syntactic anomaly triggered significantly increased activity in and around Broca's area, whereas semantic anomaly activated several other sites anteriorly and posteriorly, among them Wernicke's area. These dissociations occurred when listeners were not required to attend to the anomaly. The results confirm that linguistic operations in sentence processing can be isolated from nonlinguistic operations and support the hypothesis of a specialization for syntactic processing.
Coch, Donna; Sanders, Lisa D; Neville, Helen J
In a dichotic listening paradigm, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to linguistic and nonlinguistic probe stimuli embedded in 2 different narrative contexts as they were either attended or unattended. In adults, the typical N1 attention effect was observed for both types of probes: Probes superimposed on the attended narrative elicited an enhanced negativity compared to the same probes when unattended. Overall, this sustained attention effect was greater over medial and left lateral sites, but was more posteriorly distributed and of longer duration for linguistic as compared to nonlinguistic probes. In contrast, in 6- to 8-year-old children the ERPs were morphologically dissimilar to those elicited in adults and children displayed a greater positivity to both types of probe stimuli when embedded in the attended as compared to the unattended narrative. Although both adults and children showed attention effects beginning at about 100 msec, only adults displayed left-lateralized attention effects and a distinct, posterior distribution for linguistic probes. These results suggest that the attentional networks indexed by this task continue to develop beyond the age of 8 years.
Fosi, Tangunu; Werner, Klaus; Boyd, Stewart G; De Haan, Michelle; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G
To investigate acoustic auditory processing in patients with recent infantile spasms (IS). Patients (n = 22; 12 female; median age 8 months; range 5-11 months) had normal preceding development, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurometabolic testing (West syndrome of unknown cause, uWS). Controls were healthy babies (n = 22; 11 female; median age 6 months; range 3-12 months). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and psychometry (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, BSID-II) took place at a month following IS remission. Following a repeated pure tone, uWS patients showed less suppression of the N100 at the mid-temporal electrodes (p = 0.006), and a prolonged response latency (p = 0.019). Their novelty P300 amplitude over the mid-temporal electrodes was halved (p = 0.001). The peak of the novelty P300 to environmental broadband sounds emerged later over the left temporal lobe in patients (p = 0.015), the lag correlating with duration of spasms (r = 0.547, p = 0.015). BSID-II scores were lower in patients (p < 0.001), with no correlation to ERP. Complex acoustic information is processed poorly following IS. This would impair language. Treatment did not reverse this phenomenon, but may have limited its severity. The data are most consistent with altered connectivity of the cortical acoustic processing areas induced by IS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Tang, Alva; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schmidt, Louis A
Shyness and sociability are independent personality dimensions, each with distinct behavioral and psychophysiological correlates that are conserved across development, culture, and phylogeny. However, relatively little is known regarding how shyness and sociability are instantiated in the brain, particularly during childhood and during the processing of nonsocial stimuli. Using a three-stimulus auditory oddball task, we examined whether variations in shyness and sociability were related to the N200 and P300 event-related potential (ERP) brain responses to processing task-relevant, novel, and standard auditory tones in 53 typically developing 10-year-old children. ERP amplitudes were measured at four midline scalp sites: Fz, FCz, Cz, and Pz. We found that increases in shyness were correlated with increases in target P300 amplitudes across all four head sites, increases in standard P300 amplitudes, and decreases in target P300 latencies in anterior sites. No relations were found for sociability and P300 responses. We also found that P300 amplitude in the frontal region to standard tones mediated the relation between conflicted shyness (i.e., high shyness and high sociability) and emotional instability. These results suggest that shyness and sociability are distinguishable on neurocognitive measures and that these neurocognitive measures may be putative mechanisms in understanding risk for emotional instability and a broad range of dysregulated behavioral problems observed in individuals characterized by conflicted shyness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tang, Alva; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schulkin, Jay; Schmidt, Louis A
Shyness and sociability are orthogonal personality dimensions, but little is known about how the two traits are instantiated in the brain and body. Using a 3-stimulus auditory oddball task, we examined whether shyness and sociability were distinguishable on P300 event-related potentials (ERPs) in processing task-relevant, novel, and standard auditory tones in 48 young adults. ERP amplitudes were measured at four midline scalp sites (Fz, FCz, Cz, Pz). We found that shyness, but not sociability, was related to reduced frontal novelty P300 amplitudes and to high emotionality. We also found that low baseline salivary cortisol levels mediated the relation between: (a) high shyness and reduced frontal P300 amplitudes to novel tones, and (b) high shyness and high scores of emotionality. We speculate that low baseline cortisol may serve as a putative mechanism influencing central attentional states of avoidance to threat and novelty and emotional arousal in adults who are shy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Oruç, Ipek; Rubino, Cristina; Zhu, Maria; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S
Face perception models propose that different facial attributes are processed by anatomically distinct neural pathways that partially overlap. Whether these attributes interact functionally is an open question. Our goal was to determine if there are interactions between age and ethnicity processing and, if so, at what temporal epoch these interactions are evident. We monitored event-related potentials on electroencephalography while subjects categorized faces by age or ethnicity in two conditions: a baseline in which the other of these two properties not being categorized was held constant and an interference condition in which it also varied, as modelled after the Garner interference paradigm. We found that, when participants were categorizing faces by age, variations in ethnicity increased the amplitude of the right face-selective N170 component. When subjects were categorizing faces by ethnicity, variations in age did not alter the N170. We concluded that there is an asymmetric pattern of influence between age and ethnicity on early face-specific stages of visual processing, which has parallels with behavioural evidence of asymmetric interactions between identity and expression processing of faces.
Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong
Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620
Anthony J Angwin
Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.
Troup, Lucy J.; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T.; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A.; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S.
The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention. PMID:26926868
Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong
Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.
Full Text Available The neural correlates of rejection in bargaining situations when proposing a fair or unfair offer are not yet well understood. We measured neural responses to rejection and acceptance of monetary offers with event-related potentials (ERPs in mid-adolescents (14-17 years and early adults (19-24 years. Participants played multiple rounds of the Ultimatum Game as proposers, dividing coins between themselves and a second player (responder by making a choice between an unfair distribution (7 coins for proposer and 3 for responder; 7/3 and one of two alternatives: a fair distribution (5/5 or a hyperfair distribution (3/7. Participants mostly made fair offers (5/5 when the alternative was unfair (7/3, but made mostly unfair offers (7/3 when the alternative was hyperfair (3/7. When participants' fair offers (5/5; alternative was 7/3 were rejected this was associated with a larger Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN compared to acceptance of fair offers and rejection of unfair offers (7/3; alternative was 3/7. Also, the MFN was smaller after acceptance of unfair offers (7/3 compared to rejection. These neural responses did not differ between adults and mid-adolescents, suggesting that the MFN reacts as a neural alarm system to social prediction errors which is already prevalent during adolescence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed an electroencephalogram-based brain computer interface system to modulate functional electrical stimulation (FES to the affected tibialis anterior muscle in a stroke patient. The intensity of FES current increased in a stepwise manner when the event-related desynchronization (ERD reflecting motor intent was continuously detected from the primary cortical motor area. Methods We tested the feasibility of the ERD-modulated FES system in comparison with FES without ERD modulation. The stroke patient who presented with severe hemiparesis attempted to perform dorsiflexion of the paralyzed ankle during which FES was applied either with or without ERD modulation. Results After 20 minutes of training, the range of movement at the ankle joint and the electromyography amplitude of the affected tibialis anterior muscle were significantly increased following the ERD-modulated FES compared with the FES alone. Conclusions The proposed rehabilitation technique using ERD-modulated FES for stroke patients was feasible. The system holds potentials to improve the limb function and to benefit stroke patients.
Lucy J Troup
Full Text Available The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs. ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 minutes, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT, which is based on Taylor’s Aggression Paradigm and measures both reaction time and noise intensity preference as indices of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT (noise intensity preference. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.
Münte, Thomas F; Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Schrader, Christoph; Dengler, Reinhard; Heldmann, Marcus
The generation of random sequences is considered to tax executive functions and has been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) previously. To assess the neurophysiological markers of random number generation in PD. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded in 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched normal controls (NC) while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus at a rate of 1 tone every 1800 ms. As a secondary task subjects had to monitor the tone-sequence for a particular target tone to which the number "0" key had to be pressed. This target tone occurred randomly and infrequently, thus creating a secondary oddball task. Behaviorally, PD patients showed an increased tendency to count in steps of one as well as a tendency towards repetition avoidance. Electrophysiologically, the amplitude of the P3 component of the ERP to the target tone of the secondary task was reduced during RNG in PD but not in NC. The behavioral findings indicate less random behavior in PD while the ERP findings suggest that this impairment comes about, because attentional resources are depleted in PD.
Zhong, Jun; Liu, Yongfang; Zhang, Entao; Luo, Junlong; Chen, Jie
Individuals may pay more attention to information about envied targets. Thus, we further investigate the neural correlates underlying the cognitive processing of envy-related stimuli. Participants read information about target persons characterized by two domains: levels of possession and self-relevance of comparison. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were then recorded for three target names (high-envy, moderate-envy, and low-envy) while participants performed a three-stimulus oddball task. The results showed that high- and moderate-envy target names elicited larger P300 amplitudes than did low-envy target names. Specifically, high-envy target names elicited larger P300 amplitudes than did low-envy target names at the left, central, and right sites; in contrast, moderate-envy target names elicited larger P300 amplitudes than did low-envy target names only at central sites. P300 amplitudes did not differ between high- and moderate-envy target names. Thus, we extend previous behavioral findings by showing that people preferentially attend toward envy-related stimuli, as reflected by enhanced P300 amplitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available How we compute time is not fully understood. Questions include whether an automatic brain mechanism is engaged in temporally regular environmental structure in order to anticipate events, and whether this can be dissociated from task-related processes, including response preparation, selection and execution. To investigate these issues, a passive temporal oddball task requiring neither time-based motor response nor explicit decision was specifically designed and delivered to participants during high-density, event-related potentials recording. Participants were presented with pairs of audiovisual stimuli (S1 and S2 interspersed with an Inter-Stimulus Interval (ISI that was manipulated according to an oddball probabilistic distribution. In the standard condition (70% of trials, the ISI lasted 1,500 ms, while in the two alternative, deviant conditions (15% each, it lasted 2,500 and 3,000 ms. The passive over-exposition to the standard ISI drove participants to automatically and progressively create an implicit temporal expectation of S2 onset, reflected by the time course of the Contingent Negative Variation response, which always peaked in correspondence to the point of S2 maximum expectation and afterwards inverted in polarity towards the baseline. Brain source analysis of S1- and ISI-related ERP activity revealed activation of sensorial cortical areas and the supplementary motor area (SMA, respectively. In particular, since the SMA time course synchronised with standard ISI, we suggest that this area is the major cortical generator of the temporal CNV reflecting an automatic, action-independent mechanism underlying temporal expectancy.
Zhang, Songyan; Du, Xue; Wu, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Meng; Qiu, Jiang
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the electrophysiological correlates of the visual illusion effect in the Müller-Lyer illusion tasks. The participants were presented with the context of a horizontal line with two symmetric inward-pointing arrowheads or outward-pointing arrowheads, and then, they were asked to indicate whether they perceived an increase or a decrease in the line length. The behavioral results showed that there were significant differences among the four types of tasks, which meant that participants could understand different mean illusion magnitudes. The ERP results showed that both the illusion-45 and the illusion-135 elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N180-280) than did the illusion-225 and illusion-315 between 180 and 280 ms. In addition, the strong illusion stimuli elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P280-450) than did the weak illusion stimuli between 280 and 450 ms after the onset of the stimuli. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (illusion-135-illusion-225) indicated that one generator localized in the left lateral occipital cortex and the difference wave (illusion-45-illusion-135) indicated that one generator localized in the left lingual gyrus. Our results led us to conclude that the ERP deflection in the different illusory strength might be related to the theory of attention resource distribution or because of the inverse optics problem. Then, the early visual areas lateral occipital cortex and the lingual gyrus near to the visual cortex could contribute to integrated processing in the illusory contours and top-down control processing because of the visual experiences.
Wang, Lin-Jie; Wei, Jin-he; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei-jun; Guo, Jian-ping; Hu, Mao-qi
To explore the dynamic change of the late attentional selection process under linearly varied vestibular stimuli using event-related potentials (ERPs) technique. Thirty-three subjects participated in the experiment. They were exposed to vestibular stimulation of constant angular velocity rotation (10 degrees/s) and four levels of constant angular acceleration rotation, the acceleration was 0.6 degrees/s2, 0.8 degrees/s2, 1.0 degrees/s2, 1.2 degrees/s2 respectively. The same auditory go/no-go cognitive task was done during the stimulation. The task involved verbally given Chinese digit number from two to nine with 1000 ms random interval. Subjects were asked to push the button for the odd numbers (target) and withhold to the even numbers (non-target). Compared with control and different level of constant angular acceleration rotation, the N2 amplitude of non-target ERPs (NT-ERPs) decreased significantly over anterior-central scalp during 10 degrees/s constant rotation, but the N2 amplitude of target ERPs (T-ERPs) reduced significantly only at F4, F(Z) and T4 sites. The P3 latency of T-ERPs decreased significantly in 10 degrees/s constant rotation in contrast with control. Under four different acceleration level, the P3 latency of T-ERPs was relatively longer in 0.8 degrees/s2 and 1.0 degrees/s2, but shorter in 0.6 degrees/s2 and 1.2 degrees/s2. Constant angular velocity rotation had an activating effect on late attentional selection process. In contrast to the activation effect of constant angular velocity rotation, constant angular acceleration had an inhibition effect on the cognitive processes and this inhibition effect may have several levels.
Bastuji, Hélène; Perrin, Fabien; Garcia-Larrea, Luis
Sleep propensity and sleep inertia were assessed in 43 patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and 21 sleep-deprived controls, using a forced awakening test under continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were first obtained in waking, while participants performed a target detection auditory task. Subjects were then allowed to take a nap with lights off and sleep latency was calculated. After 3 min of continuous sleep, frequent and rare tones were suddenly presented again (and ERPs recorded) in a forced awakening condition, which was repeated a second time if patients fell asleep. ERPs in pre-nap wakefulness did not differ in patients and controls. On forced awakening, almost half (48%) of EDS patients retained morphologically normal ERPs, but showed a significant delay of P300 relative to waking. In the other half of the patients (and none of the controls), the N200/P300 complex to targets was replaced on forced awakening by high-amplitude negative waves ('sleep negativities'). Single subject analysis showed that 65% of patients had abnormal responses during forced awakening (significant P3 delay or sleep negativities), while only three of them (7%) had abnormal ERPs on wakefulness. The presence of sleep negativities was associated with shorter sleep latencies and increased target detection errors on forced awakening. Sleep negativities were more prevalent in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia than in EDS associated to psychiatric disorders. By combining sleep latency and ERP measures, the forced awakening test provided a robust and relatively rapid tool (45-60 min) to evaluate both sleep propensity and sleep inertia within a single recording session. The test allows each subject to act as his/her own control, thus increasing sensitivity. In the present series, it proved to be much more discriminative than waking ERPs alone to demonstrate specific abnormalities in patients complaining of excessive daytime
Full Text Available The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD is predicted to increase rapidly in the coming decade, highlighting the importance of early detection and intervention in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Recently, remarkable advances have been made in the application of neuroimaging techniques in investigations of AD and MCI. Among the various neuroimaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has many potential advantages, noninvasively detecting alterations in brain function that may be present very early in the course of AD and MCI. In this paper, we first review task-related and resting-state fMRI studies on AD and MCI. We then present our recent fMRI studies with additional event-related potential (ERP experiments during a motion perception task in MCI. Our results indicate that fMRI, especially when combined with ERP recording, can be useful for detecting spatiotemporal functional changes in AD and MCI patients.
Jingwei eChen; Yunsi eLiang; Chunmiao eMai; Xiyun eZhong; Chen eQu
With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs) to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal us...
Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen
With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal ...
Bhatt, S.; Mbwana, J.; Adeyemo, A.; Sawyer, A.; Hailu, A.; VanMeter, J.
Novel deception detection techniques have been in creation for centuries. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroscience technology that non-invasively measures brain activity associated with behavior and cognition. A number of investigators have explored the utilization and efficiency of fMRI in deception detection. In this study,…
Salo, Ruth; Fassbender, Catherine; Buonocore, Michael H.; Ursu, Stefan
Background The goal of this study was to extend our previous findings of abnormal prefrontal function in methamphetamine (MA) abusers and controls and to link the imaging data to behavioral, demographic and drug use variables. Methods We employed a fast-event related fMRI design to examine trial to trial reaction time (RT) adjustments in 30 MA abusers and 30 controls. A variant of the Stroop task was employed to measure influence of response conflict on RT, including the level of trial-to-trial RT adjustments seen after conflict trials. Results Compared to control subjects, MA abusers exhibited reduced RT adjustments and reduced activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) after conflict trials. RT adjustment correlated negatively with PFC brain activity in the MA group, while a trend for a positive correlation was observed in controls. No correlations were observed between task performance or brain activity and age, education or drug use variables. Conclusions These data support our previous findings that the ability to adapt a behavioral response based on prior experience is compromised in MA abusers. Interestingly, these impairments do not appear to be linked to drug use patterns or to educational levels. PMID:23149023
Tanaka, Motoshi; Miyashita, Takayuki; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu
As a fundamental study on the objective evaluation of TV picture degradation by electromagnetic noise with visual physiological information, the electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was measured when a still TV picture was degraded by the burst noise whose rms and duration were changed. A degradation was subjectively evaluated by three-grade impairment scale of “Not Annoying”, “Slightly Annoying”, and “Annoying”. Measured EEGs were analyzed by an averaging technique. In the results, the amplitude of the event related potential P300 becomes larger when the subjects feel the noise “Annoying”.
de Ruiter, MB; Snel, J; Lorist, MM; Ruijter, J
Objectives: Following the indications of previous studies that caffeine might have a specific effect on the processing of spatial information compared with other types of information, the present study investigated the influence of caffeine on an often used spatial-selective attention task. Methods:
Pinheiro, Ana P.; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Rauber, Andreia; Sampaio, Adriana; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Goncalves, Oscar F.
Williams syndrome (WS), a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder due to a microdeletion in chromosome 7, is described as displaying an intriguing socio-cognitive phenotype. Deficits in prosody production and comprehension have been consistently reported in behavioral studies. It remains, however, to be clarified the neurobiological processes…
Teuscher, Ursina; Brang, David; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Coulson, Seana
Some people report that they consistently and involuntarily associate time events, such as months of the year, with specific spatial locations; a condition referred to as time-space synesthesia. The present study investigated the manner in which such synesthetic time-space associations affect visuo-spatial attention via an endogenous cuing…
A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)
textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method
Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus
In this event-related fMRI study we investigated the effect of 5 days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the fMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45) and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32). Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference fMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these fMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax) in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.
Full Text Available In this event-related FMRI study we investigated the effect of five days of implicit acquisition on preference classification by means of an artificial grammar learning (AGL paradigm based on the structural mere-exposure effect and preference classification using a simple right-linear unification grammar. This allowed us to investigate implicit AGL in a proper learning design by including baseline measurements prior to grammar exposure. After 5 days of implicit acquisition, the FMRI results showed activations in a network of brain regions including the inferior frontal (centered on BA 44/45 and the medial prefrontal regions (centered on BA 8/32. Importantly, and central to this study, the inclusion of a naive preference FMRI baseline measurement allowed us to conclude that these FMRI findings were the intrinsic outcomes of the learning process itself and not a reflection of a preexisting functionality recruited during classification, independent of acquisition. Support for the implicit nature of the knowledge utilized during preference classification on day 5 come from the fact that the basal ganglia, associated with implicit procedural learning, were activated during classification, while the medial temporal lobe system, associated with explicit declarative memory, was consistently deactivated. Thus, preference classification in combination with structural mere-exposure can be used to investigate structural sequence processing (syntax in unsupervised AGL paradigms with proper learning designs.
Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Mancini, Patrizia; Fioretti, Alessandra; Greco, Antonio; De Vincentiis, Marco; Fattapposta, Francesco
Tinnitus is an auditory phantom sensation experienced in the absence of a sound source. Cognitive dysfunctions, especially in working memory and attention, are frequently reported to be associated with tinnitus. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with chronic tinnitus using ERPs, and in particular the P300 components. We studied 20 patients with chronic tinnitus and 20 healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task. P3a amplitude was significantly lower in tinnitus subjects than in controls. P3a latency was comparable in patients and controls. The P3b parameters were similar in the two groups. N1 latency for all the stimuli was significantly longer in tinnitus subjects than in controls. These results point to a general slowing in early stimulus perception in tinnitus subjects. Moreover, a specific difficulty emerged in attentional switching to unexpected events during an orienting response, probably owing to a dysfunction in the ventral attention network. Psychophysiological approach reveals selective attentional impairment and could provide useful data for rehabilitative strategies in chronic tinnitus. Copyright Â© 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Guangheng Dong1, Shenglan Lu21Department of Psychology, 2Department of International Education, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, ChinaAbstract: The present study investigates the relationship of expression recognition and affective experience during facial expression processing by event-related potentials (ERP. Facial expressions used in the present study can be divided into three categories: positive (happy, neutral (neutral, and negative (angry. Participants were asked to finish two kinds of facial recognition tasks: one was easy, and the other was difficult. In the easy task, significant main effects were found for different valence conditions, meaning that emotions were evoked effectively when participants recognized the expressions in facial expression processing. However, no difference was found in the difficult task, meaning that even if participants had identified the expressions correctly, no relevant emotion was evoked during the process. The findings suggest that emotional experience was not simultaneous with expression identification in facial expression processing, and the affective experience process could be suppressed in challenging cognitive tasks. The results indicate that we should pay attention to the level of cognitive load when using facial expressions as emotion-eliciting materials in emotion studies; otherwise, the emotion may not be evoked effectively.Keywords: affective experience, expression recognition, cognitive load, event-related potential
Lâle Battal Merlet
Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.
Davidson, Douglas J; Indefrey, Peter
Based on recent findings showing electrophysiological changes in adult language learners after relatively short periods of training, we hypothesized that adult Dutch learners of German would show responses to German gender and adjective declension violations after brief instruction. Adjective declension in German differs from previously studied morphosyntactic regularities in that the required suffixes depend not only on the syntactic case, gender, and number features to be expressed, but also on whether or not these features are already expressed on linearly preceding elements in the noun phrase. Violation phrases and matched controls were presented over three test phases (pretest and training on the first day, and a posttest one week later). During the pretest, no electrophysiological differences were observed between violation and control conditions, and participants' classification performance was near chance. During the training and posttest phases, classification improved, and there was a P600-like violation response to declension but not gender violations. An error-related response during training was associated with improvement in grammatical discrimination from pretest to posttest. The results show that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a complex morphosyntactic rule, and also that error-related electrophysiological responses may relate to grammar acquisition.
Language impairments are a well established finding in patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at-risk for psychosis. A growing body of research has revealed shared risk factors between individuals with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) from the general population and patients with schizophrenia. In particular, adolescents with PLEs have been shown to be at an increased risk for later psychosis. However, to date there has been little information published on electrophysiological correlates of language comprehension in this at-risk group. A 64 channel EEG recorded electrical activity while 37 (16 At-Risk; 21 Controls) participants completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II) receptive vocabulary task. The P300 component was examined as a function of language comprehension. The at-risk group were impaired behaviourally on receptive language and were characterised by a reduction in P300 amplitude relative to the control group. The results of this study reveal electrophysiological evidence for receptive language deficits in adolescents with PLEs, suggesting that the earliest neurobiological changes underlying psychosis may be apparent in the adolescent period.
Murphy, Jennifer; Blanchard, Mathieu M; Rawdon, Caroline; Kavanagh, Fergal; Kelleher, Ian; Clarke, Mary C; Roche, Richard A P; Cannon, Mary
Language impairments are a well established finding in patients with schizophrenia and in individuals at-risk for psychosis. A growing body of research has revealed shared risk factors between individuals with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) from the general population and patients with schizophrenia. In particular, adolescents with PLEs have been shown to be at an increased risk for later psychosis. However, to date there has been little information published on electrophysiological correlates of language comprehension in this at-risk group. A 64 channel EEG recorded electrical activity while 37 (16 At-Risk; 21 Controls) participants completed the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II) receptive vocabulary task. The P300 component was examined as a function of language comprehension. The at-risk group were impaired behaviourally on receptive language and were characterised by a reduction in P300 amplitude relative to the control group. The results of this study reveal electrophysiological evidence for receptive language deficits in adolescents with PLEs, suggesting that the earliest neurobiological changes underlying psychosis may be apparent in the adolescent period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Davis, Tara M; Hill, Benjamin D; Evans, Kelli J; Tiffin, Shelby; Stanley, Nicholas; Fields, Kelly; Russ, Katherine; Bindele, Huybrechts Frazier; Gordon-Hickey, Susan
To measure the effect of traumatic brain injury on the cognitive processing of words, as measured by the P300, in a semantic categorization task. Eight adults with a history of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and 8 age- and gender-matched controls. A pilot study measuring cognitive event-related potentials in response to word pairs that were either in same or different semantic categories. The P300 (P3b) component of the auditory event-related potential and neuropsychological assessment. Two patterns of P300 amplitude related to brain injury were observed. Participants with poorer performance on neuropsychological tests exhibited reduced P300 amplitude as compared to controls but showed the typical P300 parietal scalp distribution. In contrast, better performing participants demonstrated robust P300 amplitude but a substantially altered scalp distribution, characterized by the recruitment of anterior brain regions in addition to parietal activation. The recruitment of frontal areas after traumatic brain injury may represent compensatory neural mechanisms utilized to successfully maximize task performance. The P300 in a semantic processing paradigm may be a sensitive marker of neural plasticity that could be used to improve functional outcomes in cognitive remediation paradigms.
Spapé, M M; Harjunen, Ville; Ravaja, N
Being touched is known to affect emotion, and even a casual touch can elicit positive feelings and affinity. Psychophysiological studies have recently shown that tactile primes affect visual evoked potentials to emotional stimuli, suggesting altered affective stimulus processing. As, however, these studies approached emotion from a purely unidimensional perspective, it remains unclear whether touch biases emotional evaluation or a more general feature such as salience. Here, we investigated how simple tactile primes modulate event related potentials (ERPs), facial EMG and cardiac response to pictures of facial expressions of emotion. All measures replicated known effects of emotional face processing: Disgust and fear modulated early ERPs, anger increased the cardiac orienting response, and expressions elicited emotion-congruent facial EMG activity. Tactile primes also affected these measures, but priming never interacted with the type of emotional expression. Thus, touch may additively affect general stimulus processing, but it does not bias or modulate immediate affective evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1 Koji Okada,2 Naoko Kishimoto,1 Toyosaku Ota,1 Junzo Iida,3 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Jingumaecocorono-Clinic, 3Faculty of Nursing, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aim: Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits.Methods: The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured.Results: Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment.Conclusion: ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, event-related potentials, P300, mismatch negativity, improvement
Akimoto, Yoritaka; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Gunji, Atsuko; Kaneko, Yuu; Asano, Michiko; Matsuo, Junko; Ota, Miho; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Hanakawa, Takashi; Mazuka, Reiko; Kamio, Yoko
Irony comprehension requires integration of social contextual information. Previous studies have investigated temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to 900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which social situational contexts activated ironic representation. We found that the right anterior temporal lobe, which is involved in processing social knowledge and evaluating others' intentions, exhibited stronger alpha ERD following an ironic statement than following a literal statement. We also found that alpha power in the left anterior temporal lobe correlated with the participants' communication abilities. These results elucidate the temporospatial neural mechanisms of language comprehension in social contexts, including non-literal processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferstl, E.C.; Rinck, M.; Cramon, D.Y. von
Language comprehension in everyday life requires the continuous integration of prior discourse context and general world knowledge with the current utterance or sentence. In the neurolinguistic literature, these so-called situation model building processes have been ascribed to the prefrontal cortex
Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Okada, Koji; Kishimoto, Naoko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi
Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured. Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment. ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD.
Thepsatitporn, Sarawin; Pichitpornchai, Chailerd
The validity of learning styles needs supports of additional objective evidence. The identification of learning styles using subjective evidence from VARK questionnaires (where V is visual, A is auditory, R is read/write, and K is kinesthetic) combined with objective evidence from visual event-related potential (vERP) studies has never been investigated. It is questionable whether picture superiority effects exist in V learners and R learners. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether vERP could show the relationship between vERP components and VARK learning styles and to identify the existence of picture superiority effects in V learners and R learners. Thirty medical students (15 V learners and 15 R learners) performed recognition tasks with vERP and an intermediate-term memory (ITM) test. The results of within-group comparisons showed that pictures elicited larger P200 amplitudes than words at the occipital 2 site (P VARK questionnaire study. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Montalan, Benoît; Boitout, Alexis; Veujoz, Mathieu; Leleu, Arnaud; Germain, Raymonde; Personnaz, Bernard; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed
Research has demonstrated that people readily pay more attention to negative than to positive and/or neutral stimuli. However, evidence from recent studies indicated that such an attention bias to negative information is not obligatory but sensitive to various factors. Two experiments using intergroup evaluative tasks (Study 1: a gender-related groups evaluative task and Study 2: a minimal-related groups evaluative task) was conducted to determine whether motivation to strive for a positive social identity - a part of one's self-concept - drives attention toward affective stimuli. Using the P1 component of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as a neural index of attention, we confirmed that attention bias toward negative stimuli is not mandatory but it can depend on a motivational focus on affective outcomes. Results showed that social identity-based motivation is likely to bias attention toward affectively incongruent information. Thereby, early onset processes - reflected by the P1 component - appeared susceptible to top-down attentional influences induced by the individual's motivation to strive for a positive social identity.
Full Text Available ERP is common abbreviation for event-related brain potentials, which are measured and used in clinical practice as well as in research practice. Contemporary studies of placebo effect are often based on functional neuromagnetic resonance (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and event related potentials (ERP. This paper considers an ERP instrumentation system used in experimental researches of placebo effect. This instrumentation system can be divided into four modules: electrodes and cables, conditioning module, digital measurement module, and PC module for stimulations, presentations, acquisition and data processing. The experimental oddball paradigm is supported by the software of the instrumentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019 and Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia under research grant No. 114-451-2723
Chien-Heng Chu; Kao-Teng Kao; Tai-Fen Song; Jing-Hao Liu; Tsung-Min Hung; Yu-Kai Chang
The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, w...
Casper H. van Heck
Full Text Available Empathy describes the ability to understand another person’s feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to investigate pain empathy and pain sensitivity by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs extracted from the ongoing EEG in an interactive setup. Each participant fulfilled subsequently the role of “villain” and “victim”. In addition, mode of control was modulated resulting in four different conditions; passive villain, active villain, active victim and passive victim. Response-, visual- and pain ERPs were compared between the four conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychopathic traits in these outcomes was investigated. Our findings suggested that people experience more conflict when hurting someone else than hurting themselves. Furthermore, our results indicated that self-controlled pain was experienced as more painful than uncontrolled pain. People that scored high on psychopathic traits seemed to process and experience pain differently. According to the results of the current study, social context, attention and personality traits seem to modulate pain processing and the empathic response to pain in self and others. The within-subject experimental design described here provides an excellent approach to further unravel the influence of social context and personality traits on social cognition.
Full Text Available With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral and smartphone-related, the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology (event-related potentials, ERPs to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use.
Chen, Jingwei; Liang, Yunsi; Mai, Chunmiao; Zhong, Xiyun; Qu, Chen
With the popularity of smartphones, the problem of excessive use has drawn increasing attention. However, it is not clear whether there is an inhibitory deficit in excessive smartphone users. Using a modified Go/NoGo task with three types of context (blank, neutral, and smartphone-related), the present study combined measures of behavior and electrophysiology [event-related potentials (ERPs)] to examine general and specific inhibitory control in an excessive smartphone use group and a normal use group. Results showed that participants in both groups had larger amplitude of N2 and P3 on NoGo trials than Go trials. NoGo N2, an ERP component associated with inhibitory control, was more negative in the excessive smartphone use group than the normal use group. These results suggest that in the early stage of inhibition processing, excessive smartphone users experience more conflicts and show a general deficit that does not depend on smartphone-related cues. Moreover, the study provides further neuroscience evidence of the physiological correlates of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27148120
Full Text Available Evaluating subjective judgment for visual information by event-related potential (ERP quantitatively was studied. Pictures of food were displayed as visual information. And P300 component of the ERP was focused. The P300 is related to cognition and/or judgment, and has the latency in the range from 250 to 500 ms. As a fundamental study, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging food and its appearance by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. And bottles which had almost the same shape without labels, but the colors were different, were used for an opinion test of the food appearance. Five pictures for each food were chosen by subjects before measurements. And no food which the subjects disliked was chosen because almost the same P300 amplitude appeared in both cases where the subjects judged as “like” and “dislike”. In results, the P300 amplitude by each subject's opinion was different, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500 ms became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”. These results indicate the feasibility of quantitative evaluation of subjective judgment by the ERP.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia
This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Kostova, M; Passerieux, C; Laurent, J P; Saint-Georges, C; Hardy-Baylé, M C
Schizophrenic patients exhibit a deficit in the semantic context processing strategies which might be responsible for the language and communication disorders that are characteristic of this condition. The aim of our study was to identify the nature of the contextualization processes which are lacking in schizophrenic patients, by distinguishing between processes for the generation of expectations and processes of semantic integration. Thirteen schizophrenic patients and 12 healthy controls performed two tasks: (a) a lexical decision task (LDT) with a highly structured sentence context and whose experimental characteristics made it possible to call strongly on predictive strategies, and (b) a LDT with classic semantic priming (the context being reduced to a single word). In this latter task, the small number of related words did not prompt the generation of expectations but instead called on the postlexical integration process. The event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded during the administration of the task. In the sentence task, we observed a modulation in the N400 amplitude due to the presence of expectations both in the schizophrenic and control participants: predictable words evoked a small N400 amplitude compared to the non-predictable words. In contrast, in the simple (priming) task, the semantic link evoked an N400 amplitude modulation in the control group exclusively. Our results indicate that schizophrenics could be able to use context to activate expectations for the most highly predictable item, and that their deficit appears when the processing strategy is based on the integration of the context stored in working memory.
Moussard, Aline; Bermudez, Patrick; Alain, Claude; Tays, William; Moreno, Sylvain
Recent research has indicated that music practice can influence cognitive processing across the lifespan. Although extensive musical experience may have a mitigating effect on cognitive decline in older adults, the nature of changes to brain functions underlying performance benefits remains underexplored. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms that may support apparent beneficial effects of life-long musical practice on cognition. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in older musicians (N=17; average age=69.2) and non-musicians (N=17; average age=69.9), matched for age and education, while they completed an executive control task (visual go/no-go). Whereas both groups showed similar response speed and accuracy on go trials, older musicians showed fewer no-go errors. ERP recordings revealed the typical N2/P3 complex, but the nature of these responses differed between groups in that (1) older musicians showed larger N2 and P3 effects ('no-go minus go' amplitude), with the N2 amplitude being correlated with behavioral accuracy for no-go trials and (2) the topography of the P3 response was more anterior in musicians. Moreover, P3 amplitude was correlated with measures of musical experience in musicians. In our discussion of these results, we propose that music practice may have conferred an executive control advantage for musicians in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liang, Jiafeng; Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Li, Xu; Liang, Hongyu; Zheng, Xue
Existing literature on the mini-ultimatum game indicates that counterfactual comparison between chosen and unchosen alternatives is of great importance for individual's fairness consideration. However, it is still unclear how counterfactual comparison influences the electrophysiological responses to unfair chosen offers. In conjunction with event-related potentials' (ERPs) technique, the current study aimed to explore the issue by employing a modified version of the mini-ultimatum game where a fixed set of two alternatives (unfair offer vs. fair alternative, unfair vs. hyperfair alternative, unfair offer vs. hyperunfair alternative) was presented before the chosen offer. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to accept unfair chosen offers when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. The ERPs results showed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by unfair chosen offers was insensitive to the type of unchosen alternative when correcting for possible overlap with other components. In contrast, unfair chosen offers elicited larger P300 amplitudes when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. These findings suggest that counterfactual comparison may take effect at later stages of fairness consideration as reflected by the P300. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sessa, Paola; Dalmaso, Mario
Humans are amazingly experts at processing and recognizing faces, however there are moderating factors of this ability. In the present study, we used the event-related potential technique to investigate the influence of both race and gaze direction on visual working memory (i.e., VWM) face representations. In a change detection task, we orthogonally manipulated race (own-race vs. other-race faces) and eye-gaze direction (direct gaze vs. averted gaze). Participants were required to encode identities of these faces. We quantified the amount of information encoded in VWM by monitoring the amplitude of the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) time-locked to the faces. Notably, race and eye-gaze direction differently modulated SPCN amplitude such that other-race faces elicited reduced SPCN amplitudes compared with own-race faces only when displaying a direct gaze. On the other hand, faces displaying averted gaze, independently of their race, elicited increased SPCN amplitudes compared with faces displaying direct gaze. We interpret these findings as denoting that race and eye-gaze direction affect different face processing stages.
Sokka, Laura; Leinikka, Marianne; Korpela, Jussi; Henelius, Andreas; Lukander, Jani; Pakarinen, Satu; Alho, Kimmo; Huotilainen, Minna
Individuals with prolonged occupational stress often report difficulties in concentration. Work tasks often require the ability to switch back and forth between different contexts. Here, we studied the association between job burnout and task switching by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) time-locked to stimulus onset during a task with simultaneous cue-target presentation and unpredictable switches in the task. Participants were currently working people with severe, mild, or no burnout symptoms. In all groups, task performance was substantially slower immediately after task switch than during task repetition. However, the error rates were higher in the severe burnout group than in the mild burnout and control groups. Electrophysiological data revealed an increased parietal P3 response for the switch trials relative to repetition trials. Notably, the response was smaller in amplitude in the severe burnout group than in the other groups. The results suggest that severe burnout is associated with inadequate processing when rapid shifting of attention between tasks is required resulting in less accurate performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hinojosa, J A; Fernández-Folgueiras, U; Albert, J; Santaniello, G; Pozo, M A; Capilla, A
The present event-related potentials (ERPs) study investigated the effects of mood on phonological encoding processes involved in word generation. For this purpose, negative, positive and neutral affective states were induced in participants during three different recording sessions using short film clips. After the mood induction procedure, participants performed a covert picture naming task in which they searched letters. The negative compared to the neutral mood condition elicited more negative amplitudes in a component peaking around 290ms. Furthermore, results from source localization analyses suggested that this activity was potentially generated in the left prefrontal cortex. In contrast, no differences were found in the comparison between positive and neutral moods. Overall, current data suggest that processes involved in the retrieval of phonological information during speech generation are impaired when participants are in a negative mood. The mechanisms underlying these effects were discussed in relation to linguistic and attentional processes, as well as in terms of the use of heuristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feig, Emily H; Winter, Samantha R; Kounios, John; Erickson, Brian; Berkowitz, Staci A; Lowe, Michael R
A history of dieting to lose weight has been shown to be a robust predictor of future weight gain. A potential factor in propensity towards weight gain is the nature of people's reactions to the abundance of highly palatable food cues in the environment. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have revealed differences in how the brain processes food cues between obese and normal weight individuals, as well as between restrained and unrestrained eaters. However, comparisons by weight status are not informative regarding whether differences predate or follow weight gain in obese individuals and restrained eating has not consistently been found to predict future weight gain. The present study compared ERP responses to food cues in non-obese historic dieters (HDs) to non-obese never dieters (NDs). HDs showed a blunted N1 component relative to NDs overall, and delayed N1 and P2 components compared to NDs in the hungry state, suggesting that early, perceptual processing of food cues differs between these groups, especially when food-deprived. HDs also showed a more hunger-dependent sustained ERP (LPP) compared to NDs. Future research should test ERP-based food cue responsivity as a mediator between dieting history and future weight gain to better identify those most at risk for weight gain as well as the nature of their vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nieuwland, Mante S; Kuperberg, Gina R
Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like not. However, studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is a natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than did true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., "In moderation, drinking red wine isn't bad/good..."), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., "A baby bunny's fur isn't very hard/soft..."). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true.
Kotlewska, Ilona; Nowicka, Anna
A growing body of evidence suggests that information regarding the past self and other people is processed similarly. However, there is not much evidence supporting this notion at the neural level. In this event-related potential (ERP) study we examined processing of one's own marital and family name (i.e., present and past self-name, respectively) and images of present and past self-face in comparison to names and faces of others (the close-other, famous and unknown person). Amplitudes of P300 (a late ERP component associated with attention, emotion, and autobiographical memory) to self-face and self-name, either present or past, was enhanced in comparison to famous and unknown faces and names. No differences, however, were observed between the past and present self-names as well as between past and present self-faces. Moreover, P300 amplitude to the past self-face was enhanced in the right hemisphere in comparison to the close-other's face, whereas P300 amplitudes to the past self-name and the close-other's name did not differ. Thus, our results indicated that information related to non-physical aspects of the past self were processed similarly to the close-other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gérard N; Goh, Joshua O; Park, Denise C
In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded "living/nonliving" classification task with 3 repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidenced repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle, and inferior temporal cortex, and inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, and neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation and in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which might be a form of compensatory neural activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Posner Michael I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tasks involving conflict are widely used to study executive attention. In the flanker task, a target stimulus is surrounded by distracting information that can be congruent or incongruent with the correct response. Developmental differences in the time course of brain activations involved in conflict processing were examined for 22 four year old children and 18 adults. Subjects performed a child-friendly flanker task while their brain activity was registered using a high-density electroencephalography system. Results General differences were found in the amplitude and time course of event-related potentials (ERPs between children and adults that are consistent with their differences in reaction time. In addition, the congruency of flankers affected both the amplitude and latency of some of the ERP components. These effects were delayed and sustained for longer periods of time in the children compared to the adults. Conclusions These differences constitute neural correlates of children's greater difficulty in monitoring and resolving conflict in this and similar tasks.
Rigoulot, Simon; Fish, Karyn; Pell, Marc D
During social interactions, listeners weigh the importance of linguistic and extra-linguistic speech cues (prosody) to infer the true intentions of the speaker in reference to what is actually said. In this study, we investigated what brain processes allow listeners to detect when a spoken compliment is meant to be sincere (true compliment) or not ("white lie"). Electroencephalograms of 29 participants were recorded while they listened to Question-Response pairs, where the response was expressed in either a sincere or insincere tone (e.g., "So, what did you think of my presentation?"/"I found it really interesting."). Participants judged whether the response was sincere or not. Behavioral results showed that prosody could be effectively used to discern the intended sincerity of compliments. Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of event-related potentials (P200, N400, P600) uncovered significant effects of prosody on P600 amplitudes, which were greater in response to sincere versus insincere compliments. Using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA), we determined that the anatomical sources of this activity were likely located in the (left) insula, consistent with previous reports of insular activity in the perception of lies and concealments. These data extend knowledge of the neurocognitive mechanisms that permit context-appropriate inferences about speaker feelings and intentions during interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marangolo, Paolo; Rizzi, Christina; Peran, Patrice; Piras, Fabrizio; Sabatini, Umberto
In bilingual aphasics, the neural correlates of rehabilitation benefits and their generalization across languages are still scarcely understood. The authors present the case of a highly proficient bilingual woman (Flemish, L1/Italian, L2) with chronic aphasia who, in the presence of the same pattern of impairment in both languages, showed parallel recovery in both languages after long-term rehabilitation therapy in L2. The authors postulated that this recovery was due to the engagement of the same neural substrates. To confirm this the authors used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to explore cortical activation during an overt picture naming task, performed in both Flemish and Italian once before and once after 2 weeks of training in L2. Behaviorally, the patient showed complete recovery of both languages. The fMRI results indicated that the same cerebral regions were recruited for both languages before and after training. Increasing activations were observed perilesionally and in homologous contralesional areas. Our data, in agreement with previous results of fMRI studies in healthy bilinguals, indicate a promising direction for future research on the neural mechanisms associated with recovery in bilingual aphasics.
deRegnier, Raye-Ann; Long, Jeffrey D.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Nelson, Charles A.
Proper prenatal and postnatal nutrition is essential for optimal brain development and function. The early use of event-related potentials enables neuroscientists to study the development of cognitive function from birth and to evaluate the role of specific nutrients in development. Perinatal iron deficiency occurs in severely affected infants of diabetic mothers. In animal models, severe perinatal iron deficiency targets the explicit memory system of the brain. Cross-sectional ERP studies have shown that infants of diabetic mothers have impairments in recognition memory from birth through 8 months of age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal development of recognition memory using ERPs in infants of diabetic mothers compared with control infants. Infants of diabetic mothers were divided into high and low risk status based upon their birthweights and iron status and compared with healthy control infants. Infants were tested in the newborn period for auditory recognition memory, at 6 months for visual recognition memory and at 8 months for cross modal memory. ERPs were evaluated for developmental changes in the slow waves that are thought to reflect memory and the Nc component that is thought to reflect attention. The results of the study showed differences in development between the IDMs and control infants in the development of the slow waves over the left anterior temporal leads and age-related patterns of development in the NC component. These results are consistent with animal models showing that perinatal iron deficiency affects the development of the memory networks of the brain. This study highlights the value of using ERPs to translate basic science information obtained from animal models to the development of the human infant. PMID:17559331
Mobascher, A; Brinkmeyer, J; Warbrick, T; Wels, C; Wagner, M; Gründer, G; Spreckelmeyer, K N; Wienker, T; Diaz Lacava, A; Dahmen, N; Böttcher, M; Thuerauf, N; Clepce, M; Kiefer, F; De Millas, W; Gallinat, J; Winterer, G
A better understanding of the factors underlying habitual tobacco smoking may further new strategies to go about this major health problem. The P300 event-related potential (ERP) has emerged as a valuable (endo)phenotype in neuropsychiatric research. Previous studies suggested the P300 ERP to be reduced in smokers. The main purpose of the present study was to provide an in-depth description of smoking-related behavioral, biological and electrophysiological phenotypes with an emphasis on the P300 ERP and its mutual relationship with other smoking-related parameters. In this case-control study N=1318 participants (smokers and never-smoking controls) were investigated at 6 German academic institutions. Study participants were randomly selected from the general population. Subjects with mental disorders including alcoholism and drug abuse were excluded. The main outcome measure was the P300 global field power (GFP). We found a lower P300 GFP in current smokers compared to never-smoking controls. Furthermore a correlation between measures of smoking severity and P300 GFP reduction was found. Non-addicted smokers exhibited normal P300 ERP measures. This study provides further evidence that the P300 ERP is reduced in current smokers even in the absence of potentially confounding psychiatric comorbidity. Thus, P300 amplitude reduction clearly is part of the electrophysiological phenotype of smokers. Our results provide the phenotypical groundwork for future multidimensional analyses of genotype-phenotype relationships in the field of smoking and nicotine dependence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wijers, AA; Boksem, MAS
We recorded event-related potentials in an illusory conjunction task, in which subjects were cued on each trial to search for a particular colored letter in a subsequently presented test array, consisting of three different letters in three different colors. In a proportion of trials the target
Smid, HGOM; Jakob, A; Heinze, HJ
What cognitive processes underlie event-related brain potential (ERP) effects related to visual multidimensional selective attention and how are these processes organized? We recorded ERPs when participants attended to one conjunction of color, global shape and local shape and ignored other
van Setten, Ellie R. H.; Martinez-Ferreiro, Silvia; Maurits, Natasha M.; Maassen, Ben A. M.
Despite their ample reading experience, higher education students with dyslexia still show deficits in reading and reading-related skills. Lateralized print tuning, the early sensitivity to print of the left parietal cortex signalled by the N1 event-related potential (ERP) component, differs between
Moriya, Hiroki; Nittono, Hiroshi
In order to determine the processing stage that is responsible for the effect of mood states on the breadth of attentional focus, we recorded event-related potentials from 18 students who performed a flanker task involving adjacent letters. To induce a specific mood state, positive, neutral, or negative affective pictures were presented repeatedly…
Wronka, E.A.; Kaiser, J.; Coenen, A.M.L.
Relationship between psychometric intelligence measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) and event-related potentials (ERP) was examined using 3-stimulus oddball task. Subjects who had scored higher on RAPM exhibited larger amplitude of P3a component. Additional analysis using the
Yi, Aiwen; Chen, Zhuoming; Chang, Yanqun; Zhou, Shu; Wu, Limei; Liu, Yaozhong; Zhang, Guoxiong
The present study adopted a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the bidialectal (bilingual) representation of speakers with different native dialects by event-related potential (ERP) technique. Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectals participated in the study. They were required to judge whether a word was a biological word or not, when the words (target word) were represented under four types of repetition priming conditions: Mandarin (prime)-Mandarin (target), Mandarin (prime)-Cantonese (target), Cantonese (prime)-Cantonese (target) and Cantonese (prime)-Mandarin (target). Results of reaction time and accuracy primarily indicated larger repetition priming effects in Mandarin-Mandarin and Cantonese-Cantonese (within-language) conditions than that in Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin (between-language) conditions. But more importantly, P200 and N400 mean amplitudes revealed distinct repetition priming effects between two types of participants. Specifically, both P200 and N400 indicated that the repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Mandarin condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Cantonese condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, whereas it was opposite for Cantonese-Mandarin participants. In addition, P200 also suggested opposite patterns of repetition priming effects in between-language priming conditions for two groups of participants. The repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Cantonese condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Mandarin condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, while for Cantonese-Mandarin participants, it was opposite (Mandarin-Cantonese < Cantonese-Mandarin). The results implied a clear asymmetric representation of two dialects for proficient bidialectals. They were further discussed in light of native dialect and language use frequency.
Tailby, Chris; Rayner, Genevieve; Wilson, Sarah; Jackson, Graeme
Higher cognitive functions depend upon dynamically unfolding brain network interactions. Autobiographical recollection - the autonoetic re-experiencing of context rich, emotionally laden, personally experienced episodes - is an excellent example of such a process. Autobiographical recollection unfolds over time, with different cognitive processes engaged at different times throughout. In this paper we apply a recently developed analysis technique - event related independent components analysis (eICA) - to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural activity supporting autobiographical recollection. Participants completed an in-scanner autobiographical recollection paradigm in which the recalled episodes varied in chronological age and emotional content. By combining eICA with these cognitive manipulations we show that the brain-wide response to autobiographical recollection comprises brain networks with (i) different sensitivities to psychological aspects of the to-be-recollected material and (ii) distinct temporal profiles of activity during recollection. We identified networks with transient activations (in language and cognitive control related regions) and deactivations (in auditory and sensorimotor regions) to each autobiographical probe question, as well as networks with responses that are sustained over the course of the recollection period. These latter networks together overlapped spatially with the broader default mode network (DMN), indicating subspecialisation within the DMN. The vividness of participants' recollection was associated with the magnitude of activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and deactivation in visual association cortices. We interpret our results in the context of current theories of the spatial and temporal organisation of the human autobiographical memory system. Our findings demonstrate the utility of eICA as a tool for studying higher cognitive functions. The application of eICA to high spatial and temporal resolution
Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; Kutas, Marta
Despite indications in the split-brain and lesion literatures that the right hemisphere is capable of some syntactic analysis, few studies have investigated right hemisphere contributions to syntactic processing in people with intact brains. Here we used the visual half-field paradigm in healthy adults to examine each hemisphere's processing of correct and incorrect grammatical number agreement marked either lexically, e.g., antecedent/reflexive pronoun ("The grateful niece asked herself/*themselves…") or morphologically, e.g., subject/verb ("Industrial scientists develop/*develops…"). For reflexives, response times and accuracy of grammaticality decisions suggested similar processing regardless of visual field of presentation. In the subject/verb condition, we observed similar response times and accuracies for central and right visual field (RVF) presentations. For left visual field (LVF) presentation, response times were longer and accuracy rates were reduced relative to RVF presentation. An event-related brain potential (ERP) study using the same materials revealed similar ERP responses to the reflexive pronouns in the two visual fields, but very different ERP effects to the subject/verb violations. For lexically marked violations on reflexives, P600 was elicited by stimuli in both the LVF and RVF; for morphologically marked violations on verbs, P600 was elicited only by RVF stimuli. These data suggest that both hemispheres can process lexically marked pronoun agreement violations, and do so in a similar fashion. Morphologically marked subject/verb agreement errors, however, showed a distinct LH advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K; Chorlian, David B; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T; Anokhin, Andrey P; Bauer, Lance O; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Schuckit, Marc A; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Porjesz, Bernice
Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12-25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders.
Full Text Available Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs have been used to effectively measure brain (dysfunction during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism.EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT in 12-25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48% from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534 and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287 from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA. Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups.HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects.As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders.
Full Text Available To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS.Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1 baseline, (2 after 12 h of TSD, (3 after 24 h of TSD, (4 after 36 h of TSD, and (5 following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components.Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD.TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels.Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.
Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven
Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The
Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Qi, Jianlin; Wang, Lubin; Lei, Yu; Chen, Pinhong; Mi, Guiyun; Zou, Feng; Shao, Yongcong; Yang, Zheng
To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD) and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS). Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1) baseline, (2) after 12 h of TSD, (3) after 24 h of TSD, (4) after 36 h of TSD, and (5) following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components. Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD. TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels. Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.
Schmitt, Hannah; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Kray, Jutta
Recent evidence has indicated that neuronal activity related to reward anticipation benefits subsequent stimulus processing, but the effect of penalties remains largely unknown. Since the dual-mechanisms-of-control theory (DMC; Braver & Barch, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 809-81, 2002) assumes that temporal differences in context updating underlie age differences in cognitive control, in this study we investigated whether motivational cues (signaling the chance to win or the risk to lose money, relative to neutral cues) preceding context information in a modified AX-CPT paradigm influence the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. In the behavioral data, younger adults benefited from gain cues, evident in their enhanced context updating, whereas older adults exhibited slowed responding after motivational cues, irrespective of valence. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the enhanced processing of motivational cues in the P2 and P3b was mainly age-invariant, whereas age-differential effects were found for the ERP correlates of context processing. Younger adults showed improved context maintenance (i.e., a larger negative-going CNV), as well as increased conflict detection (larger N450) and resolution (indicated by a sustained positivity), whenever incorrect responding would lead to a monetary loss. In contrast, motivationally salient cues benefited context representations (in cue-locked P3b amplitudes), but increased working memory demands during response preparation (via a temporally prolonged P3b) in older adults. In sum, motivational valence and salience effects differentially modulated the temporal stages of context processing in younger and older adults. These results are discussed in terms of the DMC theory, recent findings of emotion regulation in old age, and the relationship between cognitive and affective processing.
Sam C.C. Chan
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the neural processes associated with the generalization of the effect of context-specific (CS training to noncontextual situations among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Fourteen and 16 participants with MCI were randomly allocated to a Chinese calligraphy writing (CW training or a control group, respectively. The CW participants learned how to write Chinese strokes in a semicursive style to construct characters, tapping on working memory functions. The control group, on the other hand, learned how to use a tablet computer without emphasis on working memory functions. They then performed two 2-back tasks with CS semicursive strokes and non-context-specific (NCS digits. Event-related electroencephalogram signals were concurrently recorded. Results: The CW participants had a significantly shorter reaction time in the CS than in the NCS task (p < 0.05. They showed significantly longer latency in working memory updating (N200; t11 = 4.70, p = 0.05 and shorter latency in the evaluation of visual representation (P300; t12 = 4.67; p = 0.05 than the control group when performing the 2-back CS task. Shorter P300 latency was also revealed in the 2-back NCS task (t12 = 5.15, p = 0.041, suggesting a possible generalization of the training effect among the CW participants. Conclusion: The results suggest that CS working memory is likely to be generalized to NCS domains among individuals with MCI. Future research should extend the scope of the generalization and apply it beyond experimental conditions.
Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.
Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich
In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.
Chen, Mingliang; Ma, Qingguo; Li, Minle; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi; Shu, Liangchao
In this study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the neural and psychological bases of consumer herding decision in purchasing books online. Sixteen participants were asked to decide as quickly as possible whether to buy a book on the basis of its title keywords and the numbers of positive and negative reviews in stimulus. The given title keywords were very similar, and participants did not have special preference for any particular one. Hence, they were forced to adopt the strategy of herding decision: choosing to buy the book when there were consistent positive reviews, choosing not to buy when there were consistent negative reviews, randomly choosing to buy or not to buy when there were no consistent reviews. The herding decision triggers a categorical processing of the consistency level of customer reviews. Remarkable late positive potential (LPP), a component of ERP sensitive to categorization processes, was elicited. The LPP amplitudes varied as a function of review consistency. The LPP amplitudes for three categories of review consistency were significantly different, and their order is such that absolute consistent review was greater than relative consistent review, which was greater than inconsistent review. In addition, behavioral data revealed that the higher the consistency of the customer reviews, the higher the herd rate. It is possible that customer reviews with higher consistency let participants make herding decisions more resolutely. The present results suggest that the LPP may be regarded as an endogenous neural signal of the herding mechanism in a sense and that the LPP amplitude is potentially a measure of consumers' herd tendency in purchase decisions.
Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs provide an exquisite means to measure the extent of processing of external stimuli during the sleep period. This study examines ERPs elicited by stimuli with physical characteristics akin to environmental noise encountered during sleep. Brief duration 40, 60 or 80 dB sound pressure level (SPL tones were presented either rapidly (on average every two seconds or slowly (on average every 10 seconds. The rates of presentation and intensity of the stimuli were similar to those observed in environmental studies of noise. ERPs were recorded from nine young adults during sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the amplitude of an early negative ERP, N1, systematically increased as intensity level increased. A later positivity, the P3a, was apparent following the loudest 80 dB stimulus regardless of the rate of stimulus presentation; it was also apparent following the 60 dB stimulus, when stimuli were presented slowly. The appearance of the N1-P3a deflections suggests that operations of the central executive controlling ongoing cognitive activity was interrupted, forcing subjects to become aware of the obtrusive task-irrelevant stimuli. The auditory stimuli elicited very different ERP patterns during sleep. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, the ERP was characterized by an enhanced (relative to wakefulness early positivity, P2, followed by a very prominent negativity, the N350. Both deflections systematically varied in amplitude with stimulus intensity level; in addition, N350 was much larger when stimuli were presented at slow rates. The N350, a sleep-specific ERP, is thought to reflect the inhibition of processing of potentially sleep-disrupting stimulus input. During rapid eye movement (REM sleep, a small amplitude N1 was apparent in the ERP, but only for the loudest, 80 dB stimulus. A small (nonsignificant P3a-like deflection was also visible following the 80 dB stimulus, but only when stimuli were presented
Friston, K.J; Stephan, K.E; Ellegaard Lund, Torben
This note concerns mixed-effect (MFX) analyses in multisession functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. It clarifies the relationship between mixed-effect analyses and the two-stage 'summary statistics' procedure (Holmes, A.P., Friston, K.J., 1998. Generalisability, random effects...... and population inference. NeuroImage 7, S754) that has been adopted widely for analyses of fMRI data at the group level. We describe a simple procedure, based on restricted maximum likelihood (ReML) estimates of covariance components, that enables full mixed-effects analyses in the context of statistical...
Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Fernandez, Thalia
Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP) are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention) are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes) analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT) and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows) where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right) required a motor response (i.e., target). CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200) as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus) and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate Gyrus) lobes
Full Text Available Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right required a motor response (i.e., target. CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200 as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate
Bersani, Francesco S; Minichino, Amedeo; Fattapposta, Francesco; Mannarelli, Daniela; Pauletti, Caterina; Imperatori, Claudio; Spagnoli, Francesco; Biondi, Massimo; Delle Chiaie, Roberto
The aim of the present study was to investigate P300 event-related potential components in euthymic bipolar disorder type I (BDI) and bipolar disorder type II (BDII) patients and matched controls. A total of 10 BDI patients, 10 BDII patients and 10 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Event-related potential data were collected according to a standard auditory 'oddball' paradigm. A significant groups effect in both the peak amplitude (Ppotential role of cognitive interventions in the treatment of BD.
Tylén, Kristian; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas
Human communicational interaction can be mediated by a host of expressive means from words in a natural language to gestures and material symbols. Given the proper contextual setting even an everyday object can gain a mediating function in a communicational situation. In this study we used event......-related fMRI to study the brain activity caused by everyday material objects when they are perceived as signals. We found that comprehension of material signals activates bilaterally areas of the ventral stream and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal cortex, that is, areas traditionally associated...... with verbal language and semantics. In addition, we found that right-hemisphere inferior frontal cortex is recruited as a function of the increasing unconventionality of communicative objects. Together these findings support an interpretation of the traditional language areas as playing a more general role...
Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao
Mental rotation of body parts involves sequential cognitive processes, including visual processing, categorization and the mental rotation process itself. However, how these processes are affected by the amputation of a limb is still unclear. Twenty-five right upper-limb amputees and the same number of matched healthy controls participated in a hand mental rotation task. Thirty-two-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and the event-related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed. In the early visual processing phase, amputees and controls showed a similar P100. During the categorization phase, the amputees exhibited a decreased N200 compared with controls, and the decline was positively correlated with the time since amputation. In the mental rotation phase, controls had a larger ERP for the right upright hand than for the left upright hand, while amputees had a larger ERP for the left (intact) upright hand than for the right (affected) upright hand. Early visual processing was not affected by limb amputation. However, the perceptual salience of hand pictures decreased and the intact hand gained more significance in the amputees. Event-related potentials had the capability of showing the differences in categorization and mental rotation phases between amputees and controls. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bennett, David S.; Mohamed, Feroze B.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Patel, Sunil; Khorrami, Maryam; Faro, Scott H.; Lewis, Michael
Children prenatally exposed to tobacco have been found to exhibit increased rates of behavior problems related to response inhibition deficits. The present study compared the brain function of tobacco-exposed (n = 7) and unexposed (n = 11) 12-year-olds during a Go/No-Go response inhibition task using an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) design. Prenatal alcohol exposure, neonatal medical problems, environmental risk, IQ, current environmental smoke exposure, and handedness were statistically controlled. Tobacco-exposed children showed greater activation in a relatively large and diverse set of regions, including left frontal, right occipital, and bilateral temporal, and parietal regions. In contrast, unexposed but not exposed children showed activation in the cerebellum, which prior research has indicated is important for attention and motor preparation. The diversity of regions showing greater activation among tobacco-exposed children suggests that their brain function is characterized by an inefficient recruitment of regions required for response inhibition. PMID:19351556
Woodman, Geoffrey F
Because of the precise temporal resolution of electrophysiological recordings, the event-related potential (ERP) technique has proven particularly valuable for testing theories of perception and attention. Here, I provide a brief tutorial on the ERP technique for consumers of such research and those considering the use of human electrophysiology in their own work. My discussion begins with the basics regarding what brain activity ERPs measure and why they are well suited to reveal critical aspects of perceptual processing, attentional selection, and cognition, which are unobservable with behavioral methods alone. I then review a number of important methodological issues and often-forgotten facts that should be considered when evaluating or planning ERP experiments.
Woodman, Geoffrey F.
Due to the precise temporal resolution of electrophysiological recordings, the event-related potential (ERP) technique has proven particularly valuable for testing theories of perception and attention. Here, I provide a brief tutorial of the ERP technique for consumers of such research and those considering the use of human electrophysiology in their own work. My discussion begins with the basics regarding what brain activity ERPs measure and why they are well suited to reveal critical aspects of perceptual processing, attentional selection, and cognition that are unobservable with behavioral methods alone. I then review a number of important methodological issues and often forgotten facts that should be considered when evaluating or planning ERP experiments. PMID:21097848
Cherniawsky, Avital S; Holroyd, Clay B
Impulsivity is characterized in part by heightened sensitivity to immediate relative to future rewards. Although previous research has suggested that "high discounters" in intertemporal choice tasks tend to prefer immediate over future rewards because they devalue the latter, it remains possible that they instead overvalue immediate rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded the reward positivity, a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with reward processing, with participants engaged in a task in which they received both immediate and future rewards and nonrewards. The participants also completed a temporal discounting task without ERP recording. We found that immediate but not future rewards elicited the reward positivity. High discounters also produced larger reward positivities to immediate rewards than did low discounters, indicating that high discounters relatively overvalued immediate rewards. These findings suggest that high discounters may be more motivated than low discounters to work for monetary rewards, irrespective of the time of arrival of the incentives.
Babiloni, Claudio; Brancucci, Alfredo; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Babiloni, Fabio; Capotosto, Paolo; Carducci, Filippo; Cincotti, Febo; Romano, Lara; Chen, Andrew C N; Rossini, Paolo Maria
The authors delineated the time evolution of alpha event-related desynchronization over human frontal, parietal, and primary sensorimotor areas during the expectancy of a go/no-go task. The main issue under investigation was whether anticipatory processes impinged upon cortical areas in sequential or parallel mode. Compared with the control condition, in the experimental condition there was an Alpha 1 desynchronization over the central midline, an Alpha 2 desynchronization increasing over primary sensorimotor areas, and an Alpha 3 desynchronization increasing in parallel over bilateral primary sensorimotor areas. These processes had different temporal features. Results disclose an anticipatory activity of central midline areas and primary sensorimotor areas in both parallel and sequential modes. This reflects an adaptive, energy-consuming strategy rather than an economic waiting for the go stimulus.
Full Text Available Responding to others’ emotional body expressions is an essential social skill in humans. Adults readily detect emotions from body postures, but it is unclear whether infants are sensitive to emotional body postures. We examined 8-month-old infants’ brain responses to emotional body postures by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs to happy and fearful bodies. Our results revealed two emotion-sensitive ERP components: body postures evoked an early N290 at occipital electrodes and a later Nc at fronto-central electrodes that were enhanced in response to fearful (relative to happy expressions. These findings demonstrate that, (a 8-month-old infants discriminate between static emotional body postures, and (b similar to infant emotional face perception, the sensitivity to emotional body postures is reflected in early perceptual (N290 and later attentional (Nc neural processes. This provides evidence for an early developmental emergence of the neural processes involved in the discrimination of emotional body postures.
Meadows, Caroline C; Gable, Philip A; Lohse, Keith R; Miller, Matthew W
From a neurobiological and motivational perspective, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and reward positivity (RewP) event-related potential (ERP) components should increase with reward magnitude (reward associated with valence (success/failure) feedback). To test this hypothesis, we recorded participants' electroencephalograms while presenting them with potential monetary rewards ($0.00-$4.96) pre-trial for each trial of a reaction time task and presenting them with valence feedback post-trial. Averaged ERPs time-locked to valence feedback were extracted, and results revealed a valence by magnitude interaction for neural activity in the FRN/RewP time window. This interaction was driven by magnitude affecting RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Moreover, single trial ERP analyses revealed a reliable correlation between magnitude and RewP, but not FRN, amplitude. Finally, P3b and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes were affected by magnitude. Results partly support the neurobiological (dopamine) account of the FRN/RewP and suggest motivation affects feedback processing, as indicated by multiple ERP components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Song, Bo-Yeon; Kim, Bit-Na; Kim, Myung-Sun
The explicit and implicit memory of nonclinical individuals with schizotypal traits was investigated using event-related potentials. Explicit and implicit memory was measured with continuous recognition and categorization tasks, respectively. On the recognition task, the control group demonstrated a greater old/new effect in response to the old than to the new words during the 250-750 ms post-stimulus period, whereas schizotypal trait group did not exhibit an old/new effect during the 550-650 ms period. The control group demonstrated faster response times to the old than to the new words, whereas the schizotypal group demonstrated longer response times to the old than to the new words. On the categorization task, both groups showed old/new effects during the 250-550 ms after stimulus onset and responded more rapidly and with fewer errors to the old than to the new words. These results suggest that individuals with schizotypal traits have impaired explicit but preserved implicit memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buodo, Giulia; Sarlo, Michela; Mento, Giovanni; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Palomba, Daniela
Threat stimuli typically elicit a psychophysiological response pattern supporting the organism's preparation for active defence. Differently, blood stimuli prompt a distinctive autonomic response pattern and sustained processing, which do not call for clear-cut mobilisation for action. However, the contribution of motor disposition in these response patterns remains unclear. One way to address this issue is to investigate whether threat and blood stimuli differentially affect the active suppression of an ongoing motor activity. Thirty-two undergraduates were presented with threat, mutilation, pleasant, and neutral pictures in an emotional Go/NoGo task. The amplitudes of the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 components of the event-related potentials were analysed as indices of conflict monitoring and inhibition of motor response, respectively. Reaction times to Go trials were significantly faster for threat than for mutilations. The NoGo-N2 was significantly larger to threat than to mutilations, whereas the NoGo-P3amplitude did not differ between the two conditions. These findings suggest that threat stimuli facilitated the execution of a prepotent response and enhanced conflict monitoring when action must be withheld. In contrast, blood stimuli did not either promote action in the Go trials or increase conflict in the NoGo condition, suggesting a response pattern compatible with defensive immobility.
Hinault, Thomas; Dufau, Stéphane; Lemaire, Patrick
When participants accomplish cognitive tasks, they obtain poorer performance if asked to execute a poorer strategy than a better strategy on a given problem. These poorer-strategy effects are smaller following execution of a poorer strategy relative to following a better strategy. To investigate ERP correlates of sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects, we asked participants (n=20) to accomplish a computational estimation task (i.e., provide approximate products to two-digit multiplication problems like 38×74). For each problem, they were cued to execute a better versus a poorer strategy. We found event-related potentials signatures of sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects in two crucial windows (i.e., between 200 and 550 ms and between 850 and 1250 ms) associated with executive control mechanisms and allowing conflict monitoring between the better and the cued strategy. These results have important implications on theories of strategies as they suggest that sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects involve earlier as well as later mechanisms of cognitive control during strategy execution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.
Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD are associated with varied executive function (EF difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD + ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3, inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3 and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2. In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Hirata, K; Hozumi, A; Tanaka, H; Kubo, J; Zeng, X H; Yamazaki, K; Asahi, K; Nakano, T
Electrical field changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 26 patients with dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) and 12 age-matched normal subjects. The patients were assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating and Mini-Mental State. Each patient selected had only mild to moderate mental disability. Auditory oddball stimulation was presented at 1.5 s intervals and 1,000 Hz for the nontarget and 2,000 Hz for the target tones, both at 85 dB. The target tones were 20% of all the tones. The reference-independent data (latency, global field power: GFP, dissimilarity index: DISS and location of centroids) were obtained and analyzed for each ERP component. The momentary electric strength or 'hilliness' of the ERPs landscape was indicated by GFP. The patients showed prolonged latencies and decreased P300 GFP amplitudes and of N100 GFP. These findings suggest that the abnormal electrical field of ERP may reflect abnormal information processing following the attentional process for target stimuli in DAT patients.
Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J
To investigate whether the latent neural correlates of incentive processing differ between problem gamblers (PGs) and healthy controls (HCs). Event-related potential (ERP) data were derived while 16 PGs and 20 HCs played a computer electronic gaming machine (EGM) task. Psychophysiological responses to outcomes commonly encountered during EGM gambling, including Large wins, Small wins, Near-wins, and Losses, were examined using a spatiotemporal principal components analysis (PCA). Subjects also completed questionnaires that assessed their levels of impulsivity, attraction to appetitive stimuli, and avoidance of aversive stimuli. Losses elicited a feedback-related negativity (FRN), whereas wins elicited a feedback-related positivity (FRP) at the same latency and topography. PGs exhibited both attenuated FRN amplitudes following Losses and FRP amplitudes following Wins. Greater P3b amplitudes were found following Wins compared to Losses. FRN amplitudes following Near-wins were significantly reduced compared to Losses for both PGs and HCs. Trends for reduced P3b amplitudes following all outcome types, and for similar P3b amplitudes following Large and Small wins, were found for the PG group. We provide evidence that PGs are hyposensitive to both positive and negative outcomes. The finding that PGs are hyposensitive to reward and punishment provides valuable insight into the nature of deficit in this disorder, and provides a foundation for future research and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bennys, Karim; Gabelle, Audrey; Berr, Claudine; De Verbizier, Delphine; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno; Touchon, Jacques
By analyzing brain synaptic function, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) could provide powerful and innovative tools for early Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. We investigated the relevance of the ERP-P300 component as a potential diagnosis marker in elderly subjects at risk of developing AD. ERP-P300 was analyzed on 85 subjects recruited from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). PET-AV45 brain imaging was available from 36 subjects. Two ERP-P300 subgroups were identified according to their PET-AV45 status: PET-Aβ positive (n = 15) and PET-Aβ negative (n = 21). In the amyloid positive group, we observed a highly significant increase in P3b latency in parietal brain regions (p = 0.0052). P3b in parietal regions correctly categorized 69.4% elderly subjects from the P300-PET Aβ positive group. Combined analysis of parietal P3b latencies and category fluency correctly classified 75% subjects from the P300-PET Aβ positive group. The P300 ERP presents good predictive measure of brain amyloid load and has the potential to be used as a screening instrument for preclinical AD. The incorporation of P3b latency may be used as an adjunctive tool with neuropsychological assessment (i.e., verbal category fluency) as a specific and sensitive method for preclinical assessment of AD.
Full Text Available Disgust, an emotion motivating withdrawal from offensive stimuli, protects us from the risk of biological pathogens and sociomoral violations. Homogeneity of its two types, namely, core and moral disgust has been under intensive debate. To examine the dynamic relationship between them, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs for core disgust, moral disgust and neutral pictures while participants performed a modified oddball task. ERP analysis revealed that N1 and P2 amplitudes were largest for the core disgust pictures, indicating automatic processing of the core disgust-evoking pictures. N2 amplitudes were higher for pictures evoking moral disgust relative to core disgust and neutral pictures, reflecting a violation of social norms. The core disgust pictures elicited larger P3 and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes in comparison with the moral disgust pictures which, in turn, elicited larger P3 and LPP amplitudes when compared to the neutral pictures. Taken together, these findings indicated that core and moral disgust pictures elicited different neural activities at various stages of information processing, which provided supporting evidence for the heterogeneity of disgust.
Full Text Available To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD patients.An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups.We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the 'freeze response' to fear (periaqueductal grey matter, and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area.In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization. Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD.
Justus, Timothy; Larsen, Jary; Yang, Jennifer; Davies, Paul de Mornay; Dronkers, Nina; Swick, Diane
It has been suggested that damage to anterior regions of the left hemisphere results in a dissociation in the perception and lexical activation of past-tense forms. Specifically, in a lexical-decision task in which past-tense primes immediately precede present-tense targets, such patients demonstrate significant priming for irregular verbs (spoke-speak), but, unlike control participants, fail to do so for regular verbs (looked-look). Here, this behavioral dissociation was first confirmed in a group of eleven patients with damage to the pars opercularis (BA 44) and pars triangularis (BA 45) of the left inferior frontal gyrus (i.e., Broca's area). Two conditions containing word-onset orthographic-phonological overlap (bead-bee, barge-bar) demonstrated that the disrupted regular-verb priming was accompanied by, and covaried with, disrupted ortho-phonological priming, regardless of whether prime stimuli contained the regular inflectional rhyme pattern. Further, the dissociation between impaired regular-verb and preserved irregular-verb priming was shown to be continuous rather than categorical; priming for weak-irregular verbs (spent-spend) was intermediate in size between that of regular verbs and strong verbs. Such continuous dissociations grounded in ortho-phonological relationships between present- and past-tense forms are predicted by single-system, connectionist approaches to inflectional morphology and not predicted by current dual-system, rule-based models. Event-related potential data demonstrated that N400 priming effects were intact for both regular and irregular verbs, suggesting that the absence of significant regular-verb priming in the response time data did not result from a disruption of lexical access, and may have stemmed instead from post-lexical events such as covert articulation, segmentation strategies, and/or cognitive control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neil Richard Harrison
Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.
Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael
The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.
Power, Jonathan D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E
In recent years, some substantial advances in understanding human (and nonhuman) brain organization have emerged from a relatively unusual approach: the observation of spontaneous activity, and correlated patterns in spontaneous activity, in the "resting" brain. Most commonly, spontaneous neural activity is measured indirectly via fMRI signal in subjects who are lying quietly in the scanner, the so-called "resting state." This Primer introduces the fMRI-based study of spontaneous brain activity, some of the methodological issues active in the field, and some ways in which resting-state fMRI has been used to delineate aspects of area-level and supra-areal brain organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang
Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the
Bhaganagarapu, Kaushik; Jackson, Graeme D; Abbott, David F
Event-related ICA (eICA) is a partially data-driven analysis method for event-related fMRI that is particularly suited to analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI of patients with epilepsy. EEG-fMRI studies in epileptic patients are typically analyzed using the general linear model (GLM), often with assumption that the onset and offset of neuronal activity match EEG event onset and offset, the neuronal activation is sustained at a constant level throughout the epileptiform event and that associated fMRI signal changes follow the canonical HRF. The eICA method allows for less constrained analyses capable of detecting early, non-canonical responses. A key step of eICA is the initial deconvolution which can be confounded by various sources of structured noise present in the fMRI signal. To help overcome this, we have extend the eICA procedure by utilizing a fully standalone and automated fMRI de-noising procedure to process the fMRI data from an EEG-fMRI acquisition prior to running eICA. Specifically we first apply ICA to the entire fMRI time-series and use a classifier to remove noise-related components. The automated objective de-noiser, "Spatially Organized Component Klassificator" (SOCK) is used; it has previously been shown to distinguish a substantial fraction of noise from true activation, without rejecting the latter, in resting-state fMRI. A second ICA is then performed, this time on the event-related response estimates derived from the denoised data (according to the usual eICA procedure). We hypothesize that SOCK + eICA has the potential to be more sensitive than eICA alone. We test the effectiveness of SOCK by comparing activation obtained in an eICA analysis of EEG-fMRI data with and without the use of SOCK for 14 patients with rolandic epilepsy who exhibited stereotypical IEDs arising from a focus in the rolandic fissure.
Full Text Available Event-related ICA (eICA is a partially data-driven analysis method for event-related fMRI that is particularly suited to analysis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI of patients with epilepsy. EEG-fMRI studies in epileptic patients are typically analyzed using the general linear model (GLM, often with assumption that the onset and o□set of neuronal activity match EEG event onset and o□set, the neuronal activation is sustained at a constant level throughout the epileptiform event and that associated fMRI signal changes follow the canonical HRF. The eICA method allows for less constrained analyses capable of detecting early, non-canonical responses. A key step of eICA is the initial deconvolution which can be confounded by various sources of structured noise present in the fMRI signal. To help overcome this, we have extend the eICA procedure by utilizing a fully standalone and automated fMRI de-noising procedure to process the fMRI data from an EEG-fMRI acquisition prior to running eICA. Specifically we first apply ICA to the entire fMRI time-series and use a classifier to remove noise-related components. The automated objective de-noiser, Spatially Organised Component Klassificator (SOCK is used; it has previously been shown to distinguish a substantial fraction of noise from true activation, without rejecting the latter, in resting-state fMRI. A second ICA is then performed, this time on the event-related response estimates derived from the denoised data (according to the usual eICA procedure. We hypothesize that SOCK + eICA has the potential to be more sensitive than eICA alone. We test the e□effectiveness of SOCK by comparing activation obtained in an eICA analysis of EEG-fMRI data with and without the use of SOCK for 14 patients with rolandic epilepsy who exhibited stereotypical IEDs arising from a focus in the rolandic fissure.
Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Chen, Zhanghua; Mezher, Adam; Vetter, Nora C
Great advances have been made in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies, including the use of longitudinal design to more accurately identify changes in brain development across childhood and adolescence. While longitudinal fMRI studies are necessary for our understanding of typical and atypical patterns of brain development, the variability observed in fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal and its test-retest reliability in developing populations remain a concern. Here we review the current state of test-retest reliability for child and adolescent fMRI studies (ages 5-18 years) as indexed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). In addition to highlighting ways to improve fMRI test-retest reliability in developmental cognitive neuroscience research, we hope to open a platform for dialogue regarding longitudinal fMRI study designs, analyses, and reporting of results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Pasaye, E H; Gutiérrez, R A; Alcauter, S; Mercadillo, R E; Aguilar-Castañeda, E; De Iturbe, M; Romero-Romo, J; Barrios, F A
The phantom limb phenomenon has been used in amputee patients as a paradigm to study plasticity, mainly of the sensorimotor cortex. Nevertheless, most functional studies have been done in upper limb amputee patients using magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance image imaging (fMRI). In addition, the actual experience of phantom limb sensation has not been widely used to study the neural mechanism of the human brain as a conscious knowledge of the phantom limb perception like the integration of the body image in amputee patients. fMRI studies of patients with lower limb amputation have recently been published, but none of these used an event-related design to try to observe only the stimulus application, correlating images with the subject's indication of phantom perception and discarding images with no phantom perception. In this work, we used the event-related fMRI design in two right-handed patients with identical right, transfemoral amputations, performing the same sensitive stimulation in a 3.0 T MR scanner. For comparison, we applied the same paradigm to six control subjects to compare the resulting functional maps. We found areas with statistical significance in the sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the site of stimulation, in the parietal lobe in Brodmann areas 3 in both cases (Patients and Control Subjects), but we also found activation in the Brodmann areas 6, 40, and 5 with stimulation of the stump. We observed a specific activation of the frontoparietal circuit during phantom limb perception in both amputee patients.
Shen, Zih-Yu; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lee, Chia-Lin
The present study investigates whether an individual’s mental imagery ability, in addition to metaphor familiarity, affects the degree of sensory-motor involvement during action metaphor comprehension...
Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirila, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J.
This study evaluated the brain activation state during error making in youth with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group while carrying out a stimulus recognition task. The key question was whether patients were detecting their own errors and subsequently improving their performance in
Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen
The vast majority of word meanings are learned simply by extracting them from context rather than by rote memorization or explicit instruction. Although this skill is remarkable, little is known about the brain mechanisms involved. In the present study, ERPs were recorded as participants read stories in which pseudowords were presented multiple…
Tendolkar, I.; Arnold, J.F.; Petersson, K.M.; Weis, S.; Eijndhoven, P. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is crucial for declarative memory formation, but the function of its subcomponents in associative memory formation remains controversial. Most functional imaging studies on this topic are based on a stepwise approach comparing a condition with and one without
De Paula, Débora Holanda Gonçalves; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz
Objective The goal of this prospective observational study was to identify adverse events (AEs) related to the use of intravenous access sites used for infective endocarditis (IE) treatment in a tertiary care hospital. Design This is an observational, analytical and prospective study on AEs resulting from the use of intravenous access sites in patients under antimicrobial treatment for IE. Patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) study had their peripheral, short-term central catheters (CVC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) monitored for AEs. Setting Tertiary care hospital for cardiac surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients Patients over 14 years of age, hospitalised in 2009 and 2010 with possible or definite criteria for IE by the modified Duke criteria were included. Main outcome measures AEs related to intravenous catheters: erythema and infiltration, fever, obstruction, externalisation and blood stream infection. Results Thirty-seven episodes of IE in 35 patients were studied. Mean patient age was 44.32±15.2 years; 22 (63%) were men. The number of vascular catheters studied were 253, 148 of which were peripheral, 85 CVC (21 of which for haemodialysis) and 20 PICC. The most frequent AEs were ‘erythema’ and ‘infiltration’ for peripheral catheters, ‘fever’ for CVCs and ‘obstruction’ and ‘externalisation’ for PICCs. The number of catheter-days was 360 for peripheral catheters, 1.156 for CVC and 420 for PICC. Kaplan-Meier curves for CVC and PICC showed statistical difference for obstruction (p<0.001) in PICCs. More bacteraemia occurred in CVC compared with PICC. Conclusions The choice of intravenous access sites is critical in the treatment of IE. Close observation for AEs and stricter implementation of infection control measures and better manipulation of catheters are suggested. PMID:23103604
Kirihara, Kenji; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Uetsuki, Miki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Hata, Akinobu; Rogers, Mark A; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto
Thought disorder is considered as one of the core features of schizophrenia and several research groups previously reported an association between P300 (P3b) amplitude and thought disorder in schizophrenia. However, previous studies have not evaluated two P300 subcomponents (P3a and P3b) to investigate whether the relationship with thought disorder was specific to P3b. In this study, we measured P3b and thought disorder of 60 patients with schizophrenia. We also measured P3a of 36 patients out of this sample. We replicated correlation between P3b amplitude and thought disorder and extended this finding by observing that this correlation was not present for the P3a subcomponent. These results suggest that specific electrophysiological abnormalities associated with context updating may underlie thought disorder in schizophrenia.
Botelho, Stephanie Ferreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Vieira, Liliana Batista; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira
This study investigated postmarketing safety events (PMSEs) for new drugs approved in Brazil and evaluated whether a range of drug characteristics influenced the time between approval and the first PMSE. This retrospective study included new drugs registered between 2003 and 2013 by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), which is responsible for medicines approval in Brazil. PMSEs were defined as any drug safety alert or drug withdrawal from the market. The existence of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Brazil were recorded. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve of the period between the date of ANVISA registration and the PMSE was calculated. We found a statistically significant difference between the time to PMSE for drugs with an FDA REMS compared with those without a REMS, with a log rank value (Mantel Cox) of 0.002. There was no association between the time to PMSE and the other drug characteristics investigated. This study demonstrated that the frequency of PMSEs for new drugs approved by ANVISA was statistically associated with the existence of an FDA REMS. The time between approval and first PMSE was shorter for drugs with an FDA REMS, and this finding may contribute to improved awareness of the risk/benefit balance required to ensure continued safe and effective use of new drugs. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Hannah L Pincham
Full Text Available Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32 or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32 passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images. Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.
Pincham, Hannah L; Bryce, Donna; Kokorikou, Danae; Fonagy, Peter; Fearon, R M Pasco
Emotion processing is vital for healthy adolescent development, and impaired emotional responses are associated with a number of psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether observed differences between psychiatric populations and healthy controls reflect modifiable variations in functioning (and thus could be sensitive to changes resulting from intervention) or stable, non-modifiable, individual differences. The current study therefore investigated whether the Late Positive Potential (LPP; a neural index of emotion processing) can be used as a marker of therapeutic change following psycho-social intervention. At-risk male adolescents who had received less than four months intervention (minimal-intervention, N = 32) or more than nine months intervention (extended-intervention, N = 32) passively viewed emotional images whilst neural activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Significant differences in emotion processing, indicated by the LPP, were found between the two groups: the LPP did not differ according to valence in the minimal-intervention group, whereas the extended-intervention participants showed emotion processing in line with low risk populations (enhanced LPP for unpleasant images versus other images). Further, an inverse relationship between emotional reactivity (measured via the LPP) and antisocial behaviour was observed in minimal-intervention participants only. The data therefore provide preliminary cross-sectional evidence that abnormal neural responses to emotional information may be normalised following psychosocial intervention. Importantly, this study uniquely suggests that, in future randomised control trials, the LPP may be a useful biomarker to measure development and therapeutic change.
Murty, Vishnu P; Ritchey, Maureen; Adcock, R Alison; LaBar, Kevin S
Over the past decade, fMRI techniques have been increasingly used to interrogate the neural correlates of successful emotional memory encoding. These investigations have typically aimed to either characterize the contributions of the amygdala and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, replicating results in animals, or delineate the neural correlates of specific behavioral phenomena. It has remained difficult, however, to synthesize these findings into a systems neuroscience account of how networks across the whole-brain support the enhancing effects of emotion on memory encoding. To this end, the present study employed a meta-analytic approach using activation likelihood estimates to assess the anatomical specificity and reliability of event-related fMRI activations related to successful memory encoding for emotional versus neutral information. The meta-analysis revealed consistent clusters within bilateral amygdala, anterior hippocampus, anterior and posterior parahippocampal gyrus, the ventral visual stream, left lateral prefrontal cortex and right ventral parietal cortex. The results within the amygdala and MTL support a wealth of findings from the animal literature linking these regions to arousal-mediated memory effects. The consistency of findings in cortical targets, including the visual, prefrontal, and parietal cortices, underscores the importance of generating hypotheses regarding their participation in emotional memory formation. In particular, we propose that the amygdala interacts with these structures to promote enhancements in perceptual processing, semantic elaboration, and attention, which serve to benefit subsequent memory for emotional material. These findings may motivate future research on emotional modulation of widespread neural systems and the implications of this modulation for cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaan, Edith; Barkley, Christopher M; Bao, Mingzhen; Wayland, Ratree
Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch) to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN) in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones). In addition, native speakers of a non-tone language (English
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones. In
Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.
Horan, William P; Wynn, Jonathan K; Hajcak, Greg; Altshuler, Lori; Green, Michael F
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with different clinical profiles of disturbances in motivation, yet few studies have compared the neurophysiological correlates of such disturbances. Outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 34), or bipolar disorder I (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 31) completed a task in which the late positive potential (LPP), an index of motivated attention, was assessed along motivational gradients determined by apparent distance from potential rewards or punishments. Sequences of cues signaling possible monetary gains or losses appeared to loom progressively closer to the viewer; a reaction time (RT) task after the final cue determined the outcome. Controls showed the expected pattern with LPPs for appetitive and aversive cues that were initially elevated, smaller during intermediate positions, and escalated just prior to the RT task. The clinical groups showed different patterns in the final positions just prior to the RT task: the bipolar group's LPPs to both types of cues peaked relatively early during looming sequences and subsequently decreased, whereas the schizophrenia group showed relatively small LPP escalations, particularly for aversive cues. These distinct patterns suggest that the temporal unfolding of attentional resource allocation for motivationally significant events may qualitatively differ between these disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gonçalves, Sonia Ferreira; Machado, Bárbara César; Martins, Carla
The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of eating problems in bulimia nervosa patients. A case-control design was used involving the comparison of 60 female subjects who meet DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa with 60 healthy control subjects and 60 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. The RFI (Fairburn et al., 1998) subset of factors that represent exposure to life events in the 12 months immediately before the development of eating problems was used. Women with bulimia nervosa reported higher rates of major stress, criticism about eating, weight and shape and also a great number of antecedent life events during the year preceding the development of eating problems than the healthy control group. However, when compared with the general psychiatric control group only the exposure to critical comments about weight, shape, or eating emerged as a specific trigger for bulimia nervosa. Our findings support the fact that eating and shape/weight criticism in the year preceding the development of eating disturbance seems to be specifically related to bulimia nervosa.
Nasr, Shahin; Esteky, Hossein
Face perception relies on activation of a complex set of different neural modules. In this study, we assessed the stimulus selectivity of the occipitotemporal N250 ERP component and the possible link between its neural substrates and modules underlying preceding (N170/VPP) and following (P400) category selective ERPs. We recorded N250 during face and leaf detection tasks while we varied stimulus visibility from trial to trial by using a backward masking paradigm. Our results revealed that N250, but not the other tested potentials, was exclusively sensitive to the visibility of faces even when the non-face stimuli served as the task target. We also found a correlation between evoked N170 and N250, in response to face stimuli and to a lesser extent in response to other non-face objects, irrespective of the subjects' task. Besides N250, P400 also showed a strong correlation with N170, but here, the amount of correlation was not affected by stimulus category. Interestingly, despite N250 and N400 correlation with N170, we did not find any correlation between N250 and P400, suggesting that modules underlying these ERP components belong to two different face-processing pathways. We suggest that N250 is initiated by N170 and indexes processes exclusively responsible for encoding faces.
Uther, Maria; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Iverson, Paul
The finding that hyperarticulation of vowel sounds occurs in certain speech registers (e.g., infant- and foreigner-directed speech) suggests that hyperarticulation may have a didactic function in facilitating acquisition of new phonetic categories in language learners. This event-related potential study tested whether hyperarticulation of vowels elicits larger phonetic change responses, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and tested native and non-native speakers of English. Data from 11 native English-speaking and 10 native Greek-speaking participants showed that Greek speakers in general had smaller MMNs compared to English speakers, confirming previous studies demonstrating sensitivity of the MMN to language background. In terms of the effect of hyperarticulation, hyperarticulated stimuli elicited larger MMNs for both language groups, suggesting vowel space expansion does elicit larger pre-attentive phonetic change responses. Interestingly Greek native speakers showed some P3a activity that was not present in the English native speakers, raising the possibility that additional attentional switch mechanisms are activated in non-native speakers compared to native speakers. These results give general support for models of speech learning such as Kuhl's Native Language Magnet enhanced (NLM-e) theory. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bourisly, Ali K
The aim of this study was to identify age-related changes of P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency between closely separated nonsenile age groups (late young-aged adults and early middle-aged adults) and to investigate whether or not P300 has the potential to be used as a measure of cognitive aging even among nonsenile age groups. Twenty-eight adults (25-55 years old) completed an event-related potential oddball task. The elicitation of both P300 peak amplitude and P300 latency indicated age-related changes of P300. The results of the study showed that the P300 target peak amplitude was significantly larger in late young age compared with early middle age and that P300 target latency was also significantly delayed in early middle age compared with late young age. The results of this work contribute toward research efforts on a consensus on how aging affects event-related potential and/or P300. The main conclusions are that there exist significant age-related P300 changes even between closely separated, relatively younger, and nonsenile age groups, and that P300 has the potential to be used as a measure for cognitive aging even in nonsenile adults.
Full Text Available Although intrusive memories are characteristic of many psychological disorders, the neurobiological underpinning of these involuntary recollections are largely unknown. In this study we used functional magentic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify the neural networks associated with encoding of negative stimuli that are subsequently experienced as intrusive memories. Healthy partipants (N = 42 viewed negative and neutral images during a visual/verbal processing task in an fMRI context. Two days later they were assessed on the Impact of Event Scale for occurrence of intrusive memories of the encoded images. A sub-group of participants who reported significant intrusions (n = 13 demonstrated stronger activation in the amygdala, bilateral ACC and parahippocampal gyrus during verbal encoding relative to a group who reported no intrusions (n = 13. Within-group analyses also revealed that the high intrusion group showed greater activity in the dorsomedial (dmPFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, inferior frontal gyrus and occipital regions during negative verbal processing compared to neutral verbal processing. These results do not accord with models of intrusions that emphasise visual processing of information at encoding but are consistent with models that highlight the role of inhibitory and suppression processes in the formation of subsequent intrusive memories.
Full Text Available The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977 were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.
Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai
The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.
Winkler, István; Czigler, István
Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Singh, Shubh M; Basu, Debasish
The concept of endophenotypes has gained popularity in recent years. This is because of the potential that endophenotypes provide of measuring objective trait markers that are simpler to access and assess than complex behavioral disease phenotypes themselves. The simplicity, ease of measurement and the putative links to the etiology of the disease in the study of an endophenotype has the potential promise of unraveling the genetic basis of the disease in question. Of the various proposed endophenotypes, the P300 component of the event-related potential has been used in studies on alcoholism, schizophrenia and externalizing disorders. The current state of knowledge regarding the concept of endophenotypes, P300 and the validity of P300 as an endophenotype with special reference to substance use disorders is discussed in this review. The implications of the above are discussed.
Full Text Available Xiaoli He,1 Ni Zhang2 1Department of Psychology, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, 2Center of Mental Health Education for College Students, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China Objectives: Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known.Materials and methods: A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals. Event-related potential technology was used to study the combinatorial effects of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflict of interest.Results: We found that under the influence of a positive emotion, both low- and high-empathy groups exhibited lower rejection rates. In the context of conflict, individuals in the high-empathy group showed fewer refusals under positive emotion. In the low-empathy group, there was no significant difference between responses to different emotions, but conflicting proposals induced more negative medial frontal negativity than nonconflicting proposals. Individuals in the low-empathy group showed different late positive potentials when responding to different types of proposals under both neutral and negative emotions, whereas those in the high-empathy group only showed different late positive potentials responding to different types of proposals under negative emotion.Conclusion: Our results indicate that under positive emotion, individuals with low empathy show less difference in processing either conflicting or nonconflicting proposals, whereas under negative emotion, individuals with high empathy show enhanced motivation toward nonconflicting proposals. Keywords: empathy, conflicts of interest, emotion, event-related potential, late
Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirilä, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; Meere, Jaap J van der
The study investigated stimulus evaluation time, event preparation, and motor action planning of patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group in the age range of 9 to 18 years. To this end, participants were carrying out a stimulus recognition task. Findings indicated an overall slowness and inaccurate reaction time performance of the patient group. An event-related potential analysis revealed that the stimulus evaluation processing, indexed by the parietal P300, was intact in the group of patients. Also event preparation and action planning, indexed by respectively the frontal late contingent negative variation and the frontal P2, were intact in the group of patients. It was concluded that patients' motor slowness reflected poor motor execution processes.
Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad
The classical approach for extracting event-related potentials (ERPs) from the brain is ensemble averaging. For long latency ERPs this is not optimal, partly due to the time-delay in obtaining a response and partly because the latency and amplitude for the ERP components, like the P300......, are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... in the P300 component and in a considerably higher robustness towards suboptimal settings. The latter is of great importance in a clinical setting where the optimal setting cannot be determined....
Chumbley, J. R.; Flandin, G.; Bach, D. R.; Daunizeau, J.; Fehr, E.; Dolan, R. J.; Friston, K. J.
Adaptive behavior often exploits generalizations from past experience by applying them judiciously in new situations. This requires a means of quantifying the relative importance of prior experience and current information, so they can be balanced optimally. In this study, we ask whether the brain generalizes in an optimal way. Specifically, we used Bayesian learning theory and fMRI to test whether neuronal responses reflect context-sensitive changes in ambiguity or uncertainty about experience-dependent beliefs. We found that the hippocampus expresses clear ambiguity-dependent responses that are associated with an augmented rate of learning. These findings suggest candidate neuronal systems that may be involved in aberrations of generalization, such as over-confidence. PMID:22275857
Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain
The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.
Capsalis Christos N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research recognizes the association between handedness, linguistic processes and cerebral networks subserving executive functioning, but the nature of this association remains unclear. Since the P50 event related potential (ERP is considered to reflect thalamocortical processes in association with working memory (WM operation the present study focuses on P50 patterns elicited during the performance of a linguistic related executive functioning test in right- and left-handers. Methods In 64 young adults with a high educational level (33 left-handed the P50 event-related potential was recorded while performing the initiation and inhibition condition of a modified version of the Hayling Sentence Completion test adjusted to induce WM. The manual preference of the participants was evaluated with the use of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI. Results P50 showed greater amplitudes in left- than in right-handers, mainly in frontal leads, in the initiation condition. Reduced amplitudes in inhibition compared to initiation condition were observed in left-handers. Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA analysis showed lower frontal lobe activation in the inhibition than in the initiation condition in both right- and left-handers. Also, LORETA yielded that right-handers exhibited greater activation in the inhibition condition than left-handers. Additionally, LORETA showed assymetrical hemispheric activation patterns in right-handers, in contrast to symmetrical patterns observed in left-handers. Higher P50 amplitudes were recorded in right-hemisphere of right-handers in the initiation condition. Conclusion Brain activation, especially the one closely related to thalamocortical function, elicited during WM operation involving initiation and inhibition processes appears to be related to handedness.
Enzinger, Christian; Pinter, Daniela; Rocca, Maria A; De Luca, John; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Audoin, Bertrand; Filippi, Massimo
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has greatly advanced our understanding of cerebral functional changes occurring in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, most of our knowledge regarding brain plasticity and repair in MS as evidenced by fMRI has been extrapolated from cross-sectional studies across different phenotypes of the disease. This topical review provides an overview of this research, but also highlights limitations of existing fMRI studies with cross-sectional design. We then review the few existing longitudinal fMRI studies and discuss the feasibility and constraints of serial fMRI in individuals with MS. We further emphasize the potential to track fMRI changes in evolving disease and the insights this may give in terms of mechanisms of adaptation and repair, focusing on serial fMRI to monitor response to disease-modifying therapies or rehabilitation interventions. Finally, we offer recommendations for designing future research studies to overcome previous methodological shortcomings. © The Author(s), 2015.
He, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ni
Objectives Studies have found that empathy is important in moral development and violence suppression, and emotion also affects empathy. However, the combinatorial effect of emotion and empathy on the processing of conflicts is not known. Materials and methods A total of 44 undergraduate students (23 in low-empathy group and 21 in high-empathy group) were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to positive, negative, and neutral emotion evoking, as well as conflicting or nonconflicting proposals. Event-related potential technology was used to study the combinatorial effects of empathy and emotion on the processing of conflict of interest. Results We found that under the influence of a positive emotion, both low- and high-empathy groups exhibited lower rejection rates. In the context of conflict, individuals in the high-empathy group showed fewer refusals under positive emotion. In the low-empathy group, there was no significant difference between responses to different emotions, but conflicting proposals induced more negative medial frontal negativity than nonconflicting proposals. Individuals in the low-empathy group showed different late positive potentials when responding to different types of proposals under both neutral and negative emotions, whereas those in the high-empathy group only showed different late positive potentials responding to different types of proposals under negative emotion. Conclusion Our results indicate that under positive emotion, individuals with low empathy show less difference in processing either conflicting or nonconflicting proposals, whereas under negative emotion, individuals with high empathy show enhanced motivation toward nonconflicting proposals. PMID:28721052
Menon, Samir; Brantner, Gerald; Aholt, Chris; Kay, Kendrick; Khatib, Oussama
A challenging problem in motor control neuroimaging studies is the inability to perform complex human motor tasks given the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner's disruptive magnetic fields and confined workspace. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental platform that combines Functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging, haptic virtual simulation environments, and an fMRI-compatible haptic device for real-time haptic interaction across the scanner workspace (above torso ∼ .65×.40×.20m(3)). We implement this Haptic fMRI platform with a novel haptic device, the Haptic fMRI Interface (HFI), and demonstrate its suitability for motor neuroimaging studies. HFI has three degrees-of-freedom (DOF), uses electromagnetic motors to enable high-fidelity haptic rendering (>350Hz), integrates radio frequency (RF) shields to prevent electromagnetic interference with fMRI (temporal SNR >100), and is kinematically designed to minimize currents induced by the MRI scanner's magnetic field during motor displacement (Tesla fMRI scanner's baseline noise variation (∼.85±.1%). Finally, HFI is haptically transparent and does not interfere with human motor tasks (tested for .4m reaches). By allowing fMRI experiments involving complex three-dimensional manipulation with haptic interaction, Haptic fMRI enables-for the first time-non-invasive neuroscience experiments involving interactive motor tasks, object manipulation, tactile perception, and visuo-motor integration.
Christina M. Karns
Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults. Using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, we characterized the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages.
Karns, Christina M.; Isbell, Elif; Giuliano, Ryan J.; Neville, Helen J.
Auditory selective attention is a critical skill for goal-directed behavior, especially where noisy distractions may impede focusing attention. To better understand the developmental trajectory of auditory spatial selective attention in an acoustically complex environment, in the current study we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in human children across five age groups: 3–5 years; 10 years; 13 years; 16 years; and young adults using a naturalistic dichotic listening paradigm, characterizing the ERP morphology for nonlinguistic and linguistic auditory probes embedded in attended and unattended stories. We documented robust maturational changes in auditory evoked potentials that were specific to the types of probes. Furthermore, we found a remarkable interplay between age and attention-modulation of auditory evoked potentials in terms of morphology and latency from the early years of childhood through young adulthood. The results are consistent with the view that attention can operate across age groups by modulating the amplitude of maturing auditory early-latency evoked potentials or by invoking later endogenous attention processes. Development of these processes is not uniform for probes with different acoustic properties within our acoustically dense speech-based dichotic listening task. In light of the developmental differences we demonstrate, researchers conducting future attention studies of children and adolescents should be wary of combining analyses across diverse ages. PMID:26002721
Ye, Peng; Wu, Xiang; Gao, Dingguo; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; She, Juncong; Chen, Jun
The horizontal binocular disparity is a critical factor for the visual fatigue induced by watching stereoscopic TVs. Stereoscopic images that possess the disparity within the ‘comfort zones’ and remain still in the depth direction are considered comfortable to the viewers as 2D images. However, the difference in brain activities between processing such comfortable stereoscopic images and 2D images is still less studied. The DP3 (differential P3) signal refers to an event-related potential (ERP) component indicating attentional processes, which is typically evoked by odd target stimuli among standard stimuli in an oddball task. The present study found that the DP3 signal elicited by the comfortable 3D images exhibits the delayed peak latency and enhanced peak amplitude over the anterior and central scalp regions compared to the 2D images. The finding suggests that compared to the processing of the 2D images, more attentional resources are involved in the processing of the stereoscopic images even though they are subjectively comfortable.
Kim, Seulki; Kim, Myung-Sun
This study investigated verbal working memory in college students with traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related potentials and the 2-back task. Based on scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale, participants were assigned to the normal control (n=28) or ADHD-trait (n=29) group. The 2-back task, which was administered to evaluate working memory, consists of a congruent condition, under which the current stimulus is the same as the one presented two trials earlier, and an incongruent condition, under which the current stimulus is not the same as the one presented two trials earlier. The numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used as stimuli. On the 2-back task, the ADHD-trait group committed significantly more errors in response to congruent stimuli and showed a smaller P300 amplitude than did the control group. These results indicate that college students with ADHD traits have deficits in verbal working memory, possibly due to difficulties in memory updating or attentional allocation.
The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The study tested whether the vMMN was observable when the visual input is restricted to one visual hemifield and, with this, only para-foveal input to one of the two primary sensory cortices in the visual system is available for stimulus processing. The vMMN was elicited by the stimulation restricted to a small portion of the visual field. This demonstrates that in general vMMN elicitation is not confined to stimulations covering a broad range of the visual field or to the propagation of sensory information to both sensory visual cortices. In addition, the vMMN amplitudes showed a high variability between the different conditions, including non-significant vMMN amplitudes. This suggests that pronounced vMMNs observed in experimental settings relies on salient visual stimuli covering different channels of sensory information in vision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nieuwland, Mante S.; Kuperberg, Gina R.
Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like ‘not’. However, research studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth-value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., “In moderation, drinking red wine isn’t bad/good…”), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., “A baby bunny’s fur isn’t very hard/soft…”). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true. PMID:19121125
Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Naoko; Nakanishi, Yoko; Matsuura, Hiroki; Uratani, Mitsuhiro; Okazaki, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Toshifumi
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behaviors, involving specific cognition and/or information processing disorders. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are commonly used as physiological measures of cognitive function. In conscious patients, ERPs are easily and non-invasively measured. Previous ERP studies have revealed differences between OCD patients and control subjects. Whether ERPs reflect the pharmacological effects of OCD treatment, particularly in treatment-naïve pediatric patients, remains unknown. We used the Child's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) to evaluate the symptomatic severity of 12 treatment-naïve pediatric OCD patients. Comparisons were made with 12 age-, sex-, and intelligence-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN) components were measured during an auditory odd-ball task at baseline in both groups and after the 3-year serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in OCD patients. Compared with controls, P300 amplitudes were smaller n the OCD group at Fz, Cz, Pz, C3, and C4. After SSRI treatment, P300 amplitudes increased partly at Fz and C4 in association with symptomatic improvements. We found a significant positive correlation between P300 amplitude in C4 and CY-BOCS scores. Our findings confirm the utility of SSRIs in pediatric OCD, and suggest the utility of ERPs for evaluating pharmacological effects in treatment-naïve pediatric OCD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amin, Hafeezullah; Malik, Aamir S
...) in cognitive and neuroscience research. This study reviews previous research reported for human memory processes, particularly brain behavior in memory retention and recall processes with the use of EEG and fMRI...
Kleint, Nina I; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lueken, Ulrike
.... This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at determining whether listening to heartbeats is accompanied by activation in brain areas associated with interoception, particularly the insular cortex...
Riccardo eDalla Volta
Full Text Available An observation/execution matching system for walking has not been assessed yet. The present fMRI study was aimed at assessing whether, as for object-directed actions, an observation/execution matching system is active for walking and whether the spatial context of walking (open or narrow space recruits different neural correlates. Two experimental conditions were employed. In the execution condition, while being scanned, participants performed walking on a rolling cylinder located just outside the scanner. The same action was performed also while observing a video presenting either an open space (a country field or a narrow space (a corridor. In the observation condition, participants observed a video presenting an individual walking on the same cylinder on which the actual action was executed, the open space video and the narrow space video, respectively. Results showed common bilateral activations in the dorsal premotor/supplementary motor areas and in the posterior parietal lobe for both execution and observation of walking, thus supporting a matching system for this action. Moreover, specific sectors of the occipital-temporal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus were consistently active when processing a narrow space versus an open one, thus suggesting their involvement in the visuo-motor transformation required when walking in a narrow space. We forward that the present findings may have implications for rehabilitation of gait and sport training.
Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schulze, Katrin; Alsop, David; Schlaug, Gottfried
The present study investigates the functional neuroanatomy of music perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Three different subject groups were investigated to examine developmental aspects and effects of musical training: 10-year-old children with varying degrees of musical training, adults without formal musical training (nonmusicians), and adult musicians. Subjects made judgements on sequences that ended on chords that were music-syntactically either regular or irregular. In adults, irregular chords activated the inferior frontal gyrus, orbital frontolateral cortex, the anterior insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, anterior and posterior areas of the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These structures presumably form different networks mediating cognitive aspects of music processing (such as processing of musical syntax and musical meaning, as well as auditory working memory), and possibly emotional aspects of music processing. In the right hemisphere, the activation pattern of children was similar to that of adults. In the left hemisphere, adults showed larger activations than children in prefrontal areas, in the supramarginal gyrus, and in temporal areas. In both adults and children, musical training was correlated with stronger activations in the frontal operculum and the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus.
Wagner, Monica; Shafer, Valerie L.; Martin, Brett; Steinschneider, Mitchell
The effect of exposure to the contextual features of the /pt/ cluster was investigated in native-English and native-Polish listeners using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) methodology. Both groups experience the /pt/ cluster in their languages, but only the Polish group experiences the cluster in the context of word onset examined in…
Monnart, Aurore; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore
Major depression is a serious disorder of impaired emotion regulation. Emotion hyperactivity leads to excessive negative ruminations that daily hijack the patient's mental life, impacting their mood. Evidence from past researches suggest that depressive patients present several cognitive impairments in attention and working memory, leading to a more acute selective attention for negative stimuli and a greater accessibility of negative memories. Recently, is has been proposed that impaired inhibitory functioning with regard to emotional information processing might be one of the mechanisms of ruminations linking memory, attention and depression. It seems that inhibition deficit is present at both the input level (i.e., the ability to reduce the interference from emotional distracters) and the higher level (i.e., the ability to direct the attention away from emotional material that has already been processed) of emotional information processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) have widely been used to study inhibition in adults suffering from various psychopathological states. In particular, depressive disorder has been linked to ERPs modulations, at early as well as at latter stages of the information-processing stream, when processing affective material. For instance, deficits in inhibiting negative information have been indexed by changes in the parameters (amplitudes and latencies) of early P2, P1 and N1 components while other ERP studies have shown an ability to differentiate depressed patients from normal controls based upon response inhibition difficulties in go-nogo tasks, indexed by later NoGo P3 differences. In this review, we will focus on results of ERP studies investigating inhibition and its interaction with emotional related cue processing in depressive populations. Implications for future research and theoretical perspectives will be discussed within the framework of current models of depressive disorder, based upon the hypothesis that negative
Defenderfer, Jessica; Kerr-German, Anastasia; Hedrick, Mark; Buss, Aaron T
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a safe, non-invasive, relatively quiet imaging technique that is tolerant of movement artifact making it uniquely ideal for the assessment of hearing mechanisms. Previous research demonstrates the capacity for fNIRS to detect cortical changes to varying speech intelligibility, revealing a positive relationship between cortical activation amplitude and speech perception score. In the present study, we use an event-related design to investigate the hemodynamic response in the temporal lobe across different listening conditions. We presented participants with a speech recognition task using sentences in quiet, sentences in noise, and vocoded sentences. Hemodynamic responses were examined across conditions and then compared when speech perception was accurate compared to when speech perception was inaccurate in the context of noisy speech. Repeated measures, two-way ANOVAs revealed that the speech in noise condition (-2.8dB signal-to-noise ratio/SNR) demonstrated significantly greater activation than the easier listening conditions on multiple channels bilaterally. Further analyses comparing correct recognition trials to incorrect recognition trials (during the presentation phase of the trial) revealed that activation was significantly greater during correct trials. Lastly, during the repetition phase of the trial, where participants correctly repeated the sentence, the hemodynamic response demonstrated significantly higher deoxyhemoglobin than oxyhemoglobin, indicating a difference between the effects of perception and production on the cortical response. Using fNIRS, the present study adds meaningful evidence to the body of knowledge that describes the brain/behavior relationship related to speech perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten; Drewes, Asbjørn M.; Graversen, Carina; Sørensen, Helge B. D.; Bastlund, Jesper F.
Objective. Active auditory oddball paradigms are simple tone discrimination tasks used to study the P300 deflection of event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs may be quantified by time-frequency analysis. As auditory stimuli cause early high frequency and late low frequency ERP oscillations, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is often chosen for decomposition due to its multi-resolution properties. However, as the conventional CWT traditionally applies only one mother wavelet to represent the entire spectrum, the time-frequency resolution is not optimal across all scales. To account for this, we developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests superior performance of the aCWT over the CWT in terms of detailed quantification of time-frequency properties of ERPs. Our methodological investigation indicates that accurate and complete assessment of time-frequency components of short-time neural signals is feasible with the novel analysis approach which may be advantageous for characterisation of several types of evoked potentials in particularly rodents.
Maus, Barbel; van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Goebel, Rainer; Berger, Martijn P. F.
Blocked designs in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are useful to localize functional brain areas. A blocked design consists of different blocks of trials of the same stimulus type and is characterized by three factors: the length of blocks, i.e., number of trials per blocks, the ordering of task and rest blocks, and the time between…
Newman, Sharlene D.; Pruce, Benjamin; Rusia, Akash; Burns, Thomas, Jr.
fMRI was used to examine the differential effect of two problem-solving strategies. Participants were trained to use both a pictorial/spatial and a symbolic/algebraic strategy to solve word problems. While these two strategies activated similar cortical regions, a number of differences were noted in the level of activation. These differences…
Burda, Zdzislaw; Kornelsen, Jennifer; Nowak, Maciej A.; Porebski, Bartosz; Sboto-Frankenstein, Uta; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Tyburczyk, Jacek
We study collective behavior of Brodmann regions of human cerebral cortex using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). The raw fMRI data is mapped onto the cortex regions corresponding to the Brodmann areas with the aid of the Talairach coordinates. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the Pearson correlation matrix for 41 different Brodmann regions is carried out to determine their collective activity in the idle state and in the active state stimulated...
Krakowski, Menahem I; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Foxe, John J; Hoptman, Matthew J; Nolan, Karen; Kamiel, Stephanie; Czobor, Pal
Increased susceptibility to emotional triggers and poor response inhibition are important in the etiology of violence in schizophrenia. Our goal was to evaluate abnormalities in neurophysiological mechanisms underlying response inhibition and emotional processing in violent patients with schizophrenia (VS) and 3 different comparison groups: nonviolent patients (NV), healthy controls (HC) and nonpsychotic violent subjects (NPV). We recorded high-density Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses during an Emotional Go/NoGo Task in 35 VS, 24 NV, 28 HC and 31 NPV subjects. We also evaluated psychiatric symptoms and impulsivity. The neural and behavioral deficits in violent patients were most pronounced when they were presented with negative emotional stimuli: They responded more quickly than NV when they made commission errors (ie, failure of inhibition), and evidenced N2 increases and P3 decreases. In contrast, NVs showed little change in reaction time or ERP amplitude with emotional stimuli. These N2 and P3 amplitude changes in VSs showed a strong association with greater impulsivity. Besides these group specific changes, VSs shared deficits with NV, mostly N2 reduction, and with violent nonpsychotic subjects, particularly P3 reduction. Negative affective triggers have a strong impact on violent patients with schizophrenia which may have both behavioral and neural manifestations. The resulting activation could interfere with response inhibition. The affective disruption of response inhibition, identified in this study, may index an important pathway to violence in schizophrenia and suggest new modes of treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Winneke, Axel H; Phillips, Natalie A
The current study addressed the question whether audiovisual (AV) speech can improve speech perception in older and younger adults in a noisy environment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to investigate age-related differences in the processes underlying AV speech perception. Participants performed an object categorization task in three conditions, namely auditory-only (A), visual-only (V), and AVspeech. Both age groups revealed an equivalent behavioral AVspeech benefit over unisensory trials. ERP analyses revealed an amplitude reduction of the auditory P1 and N1 on AVspeech trials relative to the summed unisensory (A + V) response in both age groups. These amplitude reductions are interpreted as an indication of multisensory efficiency as fewer neural resources were recruited to achieve better performance. Of interest, the observed P1 amplitude reduction was larger in older adults. Younger and older adults also showed an earlier auditory N1 in AVspeech relative to A and A + V trials, an effect that was again greater in the older adults. The degree of multisensory latency shift was predicted by basic auditory functioning (i.e., higher hearing thresholds were associated with larger latency shifts) in both age groups. Together, the results show that AV speech processing is not only intact in older adults, but that the facilitation of neural responses occurs earlier in and to a greater extent than in younger adults. Thus, older adults appear to benefit more from additional visual speech cues than younger adults, possibly to compensate for more impoverished unisensory inputs because of sensory aging. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.
Sheu, Lei K; Jennings, J Richard; Gianaros, Peter J
We examined the reliability of measures of fMRI, subjective, and cardiovascular reactions to standardized versions of a Stroop color-word task and a multisource interference task. A sample of 14 men and 12 women (30-49 years old) completed the tasks on two occasions, separated by a median of 88 days. The reliability of fMRI BOLD signal changes in brain areas engaged by the tasks was moderate, and aggregating fMRI BOLD signal changes across the tasks improved test-retest reliability metrics. These metrics included voxel-wise intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and overlap ratio statistics. Task-aggregated ratings of subjective arousal, valence, and control, as well as cardiovascular reactions evoked by the tasks showed ICCs of 0.57 to 0.87 (ps reliability. These findings support using these tasks as a battery for fMRI studies of cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Schaeffer, James D; Yennu, Amarnath S; Gandy, Kellen C; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli; Park, Heekyeong
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures hemodynamic changes at the cortical level. The use of fNIRS is growing in popularity for studying cognitive neuroscience in which event-related designs are widely used with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the applicability of event-related designs with fNIRS has not been fully understood. Therefore, the present study employed fNIRS with a rapid-presentation event-related design for investigating prefrontal cortical activity during complex associative recognition. Participants studied a list of word pairs and were later given an associative recognition test. Throughout the experiment, each event was presented rapidly (∼4s). Data were sorted based on accuracy of associative memory judgments and analyzed using the general linear model (GLM) with an event-related design. During retrieval, significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations were observed in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal regions for successful associative recognition. When comparing retrieval to encoding, significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations were also observed in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The current fNIRS results corroborate previous fMRI findings that have demonstrated the involvement of dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in associative recognition. Therefore, the present study validates versatile use of fNIRS with a rapid-presentation event-related design in the investigation of neural mechanisms of associative memory. The findings of this study provide evidence that fNIRS can be a viable research method for investigating complex cognitive processes commonly of interest in cognitive neuroscience. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fNIRS can be a cost-effective and accessible experimental tool for cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Seong-Gi; Ye, Jong Chul
Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique known as gradient-recalled echo (GRE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) is sensitive to image distortion and degradation caused by local magnetic field inhomogeneity at high magnetic fields. Non-EPI sequences such as spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) have been proposed as an alternative high-resolution fMRI technique; however, the temporal resolution of these sequences is lower than the typically used GRE-EPI fMRI. One potential approach to improve the temporal resolution is to use compressed sensing (CS). In this study, we tested the feasibility of k-t FOCUSS—one of the high performance CS algorithms for dynamic MRI—for non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T using the model of rat somatosensory stimulation. To optimize the performance of CS reconstruction, different sampling patterns and k-t FOCUSS variations were investigated. Experimental results show that an optimized k-t FOCUSS algorithm with acceleration by a factor of 4 works well for non-EPI fMRI at high field under various statistical criteria, which confirms that a combination of CS and a non-EPI sequence may be a good solution for high-resolution fMRI at high fields. PMID:26413503
Paul Kyu Han
Full Text Available Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique known as gradient-recalled echo (GRE echo-planar imaging (EPI is sensitive to image distortion and degradation caused by local magnetic field inhomogeneity at high magnetic fields. Non-EPI sequences such as spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP have been proposed as an alternative high-resolution fMRI technique; however, the temporal resolution of these sequences is lower than the typically used GRE-EPI fMRI. One potential approach to improve the temporal resolution is to use compressed sensing (CS. In this study, we tested the feasibility of k-t FOCUSS—one of the high performance CS algorithms for dynamic MRI—for non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T using the model of rat somatosensory stimulation. To optimize the performance of CS reconstruction, different sampling patterns and k-t FOCUSS variations were investigated. Experimental results show that an optimized k-t FOCUSS algorithm with acceleration by a factor of 4 works well for non-EPI fMRI at high field under various statistical criteria, which confirms that a combination of CS and a non-EPI sequence may be a good solution for high-resolution fMRI at high fields.
Wang, Li-qun; Wang, Mingshi; Mizuhara, Hiroaki
In this study, P300 that induced by visual stimuli was examined with simultaneous EEG/fMRI. For the purpose of combine the best temporary resolution with the best special resolution together to estimate the brain function, event-related analysis contributed to this methodological trial. A 64 channel MRT-compatible MR EEG amplifier (BrainAmp: made of Brain Production GmbH, Gennany) was used in the measurement simultaneously with fMRI scanning. The reference channel is between Fz, Cz and Pz. Sampling rate of raw EEG was 5 kHz, and the MRT noise reduction was performed. EEG recording synchronized with MRI scan by our original stimulus system, and an oddball paradigm (four-oriented Landolt Ring presentation) was performed in the official manner. After P300 segmentation, the timing of P300 was exported to event-related analysis of fMRI data with SPM99 software. In single subject study, the significant activations appear in the left superior frontal, Broca's area and on both sides of the parietal lobule when P300 occurred. It is suggest that P300 may be an integration carried out by top-down signal from frontal to the parietal lobule, which regulates an Attention-Logical Judgment process. Compared with other current methods, the event related analysis by simultaneous EEG/IMRI is excellent in the point that can describe the cognitive process with reality unifying further temporary and spatial information. It is expected that examination and demonstration of the obtained result will supply with the promotion of this powerful methods.
Nambu, Isao; Ozawa, Takuya; Sato, Takanori; Aihara, Takatsugu; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Otaka, Yohei; Osu, Rieko; Izawa, Jun; Wada, Yasuhiro
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a widely utilized neuroimaging tool in fundamental neuroscience research and clinical investigation. Previous research has revealed that task-evoked systemic artifacts mainly originating from the superficial-tissue may preclude the identification of cerebral activation during a given task. We examined the influence of such artifacts on event-related brain activity during a brisk squeezing movement. We estimated task-evoked superficial-tissue hemodynamics from short source-detector distance channels (15 mm) by applying principal component analysis. The estimated superficial-tissue hemodynamics exhibited temporal profiles similar to the canonical cerebral hemodynamic model. Importantly, this task-evoked profile was also observed in data from a block design motor experiment, suggesting a transient increase in superficial-tissue hemodynamics occurs following motor behavior, irrespective of task design. We also confirmed that estimation of event-related cerebral hemodynamics was improved by a simple superficial-tissue hemodynamic artifact removal process using 15-mm short distance channels, compared to the results when no artifact removal was applied. Thus, our results elucidate task design-independent characteristics of superficial-tissue hemodynamics and highlight the need for the application of superficial-tissue hemodynamic artifact removal methods when analyzing fNIRS data obtained during event-related motor tasks.
Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), and high-risk behaviors. Despite the epidemiological data available, the mechanisms underlying these maladaptive outcomes remain poorly understood. We examined whether a history of CSA, particularly in conjunction with a past episode of MDD, is associated with behavioral and neural dysfunction in reinforcement learning, and whether such dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavior. Participants completed a clinical evaluation and a probabilistic reinforcement task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Academic setting; participants recruited from the community. Fifteen women with a history of CSA and remitted MDD (CSA + rMDD), 16 women with remitted MDD with no history of CSA (rMDD), and 18 healthy women (controls). Three or more episodes of coerced sexual contact (mean [SD] duration, 3.00 [2.20] years) between the ages of 7 and 12 years by at least 1 male perpetrator. Participants' preference for choosing the most rewarded stimulus and avoiding the most punished stimulus was evaluated. The feedback-related negativity and error-related negativity-hypothesized to reflect activation in the anterior cingulate cortex-were used as electrophysiological indices of reinforcement learning. No group differences emerged in the acquisition of reinforcement contingencies. In trials requiring participants to rely partially or exclusively on previously rewarded information, the CSA + rMDD group showed (1) lower accuracy (relative to both controls and the rMDD group), (2) blunted electrophysiological differentiation between correct and incorrect responses (relative to controls), and (3) increased activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (relative to the rMDD group). A history of CSA was not associated with impairments in avoiding the most punished stimulus. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors correlated with poorer performance of
Anne L. Høyland
Full Text Available Executive functions are often affected in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The underlying biology is however not well known. In the DSM-5, ASD is characterized by difficulties in two domains: Social Interaction and Repetitive and Restricted Behavior, RRB. Insistence of Sameness is part of RRB and has been reported related to executive functions. We aimed to identify differences between ASD and typically developing (TD adolescents in Event Related Potentials (ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring and response inhibition using a cued Go-NoGo paradigm. We also studied the effect of age and emotional content of paradigm related to these ERPs. We investigated 49 individuals with ASD and 49 TD aged 12–21 years, split into two groups below (young and above (old 16 years of age. ASD characteristics were quantified by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ and executive functions were assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF, both parent-rated. Behavioral performance and ERPs were recorded during a cued visual Go-NoGo task which included neutral pictures (VCPT and pictures of emotional faces (ECPT. The amplitudes of ERPs associated with response preparation, conflict monitoring, and response inhibition were analyzed. The ASD group showed markedly higher scores than TD in both SCQ and BRIEF. Behavioral data showed no case-control differences in either the VCPT or ECPT in the whole group. While there were no significant case-control differences in ERPs from the combined VCPT and ECPT in the whole sample, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV was significantly enhanced in the old ASD group (p = 0.017. When excluding ASD with comorbid ADHD we found a significantly increased N2 NoGo (p = 0.016 and N2-effect (p = 0.023 for the whole group. We found no case-control differences in the P3-components. Our findings suggest increased response preparation in adolescents with ASD older than 16 years and
Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory
Rocca, Maria A; Valsasina, Paola; Hulst, Hanneke E; Abdel-Aziz, Khaled; Enzinger, Christian; Gallo, Antonio; Pareto, Debora; Riccitelli, Gianna; Muhlert, Nils; Ciccarelli, Olga; Barkhof, Frederik; Fazekas, Franz; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Arévalo, Maria J; Filippi, Massimo
In this multicenter study, we applied functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to define the functional correlates of cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). fMRI scans during the performance of the N-back task were acquired from 42 right-handed relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients and 52 sex-matched right-handed healthy controls, studied at six European sites using 3.0 Tesla scanners. Patients with at least two abnormal (function of increasing task difficulty, CI MS patients had reduced activations of several areas located in the fronto-parieto-temporal lobes as well as reduced deactivations of regions which are part of the default mode network compared to the other two groups. Significant correlations were found between abnormal fMRI patterns of activations and deactivations and behavioral measures, cognitive performance, and brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes. This multicenter study supports the theory that a preserved fMRI activity of the frontal lobe is associated with a better cognitive profile in MS patients. It also indicates the feasibility of fMRI to monitor disease evolution and treatment effects in future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available In brain-computer interface (BCI applications the detection of neural processing as revealed by event-related potentials (ERPs is a frequently used approach to regain communication for people unable to interact through any peripheral muscle control. However, the commonly used electroencephalography (EEG provides signals of low signal-to-noise ratio, making the systems slow and inaccurate. As an alternative noninvasive recording technique, the magnetoencephalography (MEG could provide more advantageous electrophysiological signals due to a higher number of sensors and the magnetic fields not being influenced by volume conduction. We investigated whether MEG provides higher accuracy in detecting event-related fields (ERFs compared to detecting ERPs in simultaneously recorded EEG, both evoked by a covert attention task, and whether a combination of the modalities is advantageous. In our approach, a detection algorithm based on spatial filtering is used to identify ERP/ERF components in a data-driven manner. We found that MEG achieves higher decoding accuracy (DA compared to EEG and that the combination of both further improves the performance significantly. However, MEG data showed poor performance in cross-subject classification, indicating that the algorithm's ability for transfer learning across subjects is better in EEG. Here we show that BCI control by covert attention is feasible with EEG and MEG using a data-driven spatial filter approach with a clear advantage of the MEG regarding DA but with a better transfer learning in EEG.
Reichert, Christoph; Dürschmid, Stefan; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hinrichs, Hermann
In brain-computer interface (BCI) applications the detection of neural processing as revealed by event-related potentials (ERPs) is a frequently used approach to regain communication for people unable to interact through any peripheral muscle control. However, the commonly used electroencephalography (EEG) provides signals of low signal-to-noise ratio, making the systems slow and inaccurate. As an alternative noninvasive recording technique, the magnetoencephalography (MEG) could provide more advantageous electrophysiological signals due to a higher number of sensors and the magnetic fields not being influenced by volume conduction. We investigated whether MEG provides higher accuracy in detecting event-related fields (ERFs) compared to detecting ERPs in simultaneously recorded EEG, both evoked by a covert attention task, and whether a combination of the modalities is advantageous. In our approach, a detection algorithm based on spatial filtering is used to identify ERP/ERF components in a data-driven manner. We found that MEG achieves higher decoding accuracy (DA) compared to EEG and that the combination of both further improves the performance significantly. However, MEG data showed poor performance in cross-subject classification, indicating that the algorithm's ability for transfer learning across subjects is better in EEG. Here we show that BCI control by covert attention is feasible with EEG and MEG using a data-driven spatial filter approach with a clear advantage of the MEG regarding DA but with a better transfer learning in EEG.
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential (ERP P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD. Methods A total of 183 elderly patients with cSVD were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to brain MRI: lacunar infarct (LACI group (N = 62, white matter hyperintensity (WMH group (N = 60 and LACI + WMH group (N = 61. A total of 50 brain MRI normal persons were selected as control group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Chinese version was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the amplitude and latency of P300 were measured in each group. Results Compared with control group, the MoCA total score in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly lower (P = 0.042, 0.015, 0.000, and the score in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.001, 0.042. In the eight cognitive domains of MoCA scale, the visual space and executive function (P = 0.006, 0.041, 0.035, delayed memory (P = 0.006, 0.012, 0.048, language (P = 0.001, 0.032, 0.047 and calculation (P = 0.009, 0.001, 0.003 in LACI + WMH group were significantly lower than those in control, LACI and WMH groups. The delayed memory in LACI group was significantly lower than that in control group (P = 0.037. The delayed memory (P = 0.005 and language (P = 0.047 in WMH group were significantly lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, the amplitudes of P300 (P = 0.025, 0.033, 0.000 in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly decreased, and the latencies (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000 were significantly prolonged. The amplitude of P300 in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.041, 0.018, and the latency was significantly prolonged (P = 0.000, 0.022. Conclusions Elderly patients of cSVD all suffer from different degrees of cognitive impairment
MacNamara, Annmarie; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg
The delineation of specific versus overlapping mechanisms in GAD and MDD could shed light on the integrity of these diagnostic categories. For example, negative emotion generation is one mechanism that may be especially relevant to both disorders. Emotional processing abnormalities were examined among 97 outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) and 25 healthy adults, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is larger for emotional versus neutral stimuli. GAD and MDD were also assessed dimensionally across all participants. Both MDD diagnosis and dimensional depression scores were associated with reduced ΔLPP. When controlling for MDD diagnosis/dimension, both the diagnosis and dimension of GAD were associated with increased ΔLPP. Both MDD and GAD dimensions, but not diagnoses, were associated with increased ΔRT to targets that followed emotional pictures. Therefore, MDD and GAD have distinguishable and opposing features evident in neural measures of emotion processing.
Amin, Hafeezullah; Malik, Aamir S
Human memory is an important concept in cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Our brain is actively engaged in functions of learning and memorization. Generally, human memory has been classified into 2 groups: short-term/working memory, and long-term memory. Using different memory paradigms and brain mapping techniques, psychologists and neuroscientists have identified 3 memory processes: encoding, retention, and recall. These processes have been studied using EEG and functional MRI (fMRI) in cognitive and neuroscience research. This study reviews previous research reported for human memory processes, particularly brain behavior in memory retention and recall processes with the use of EEG and fMRI. We discuss issues and challenges related to memory research with EEG and fMRI techniques.
Lemieux, Louis; Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Lund, Torben E
-positive activation. Head motion can lead to severe image degradation and result in false-positive activation and is usually worse in patients than in healthy subjects. We performed general linear model fMRI data analysis on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquired in 34 cases with focal epilepsy. Signal changes......EEG-correlated fMRI can provide localisation information on the generators of epileptiform discharges in patients with focal epilepsy. To increase the technique's clinical potential, it is important to consider ways of optimising the yield of each experiment while minimizing the risk of false......% of cases, there was a significant effect of motion in 50% of the brain or greater; for the scan nulling effect, the proportion was 36%; this effect was predominantly in the neocortex. We conclude that careful consideration of the motion-related effects in fMRI studies of patients with epilepsy is essential...
Toronov, Vladislav; Webb, Andrew; Walker, Scott; Gupta, Rajarsi; Choi, Jee H.; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis M.
In order to study the behavior of cerebral physiological parameters and to further the understanding of the fMRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect, we have recorded simultaneously multi-source frequency-domain near-infrared and BOLD fMRI signals during motor functional activation in humans. From the near-infrared data we obtained information on the changes in cerebral blood volume and oxygenation. In order to relate our observations to changes in cerebral blood flow we employed the "balloon" model of cerebral perfusion. Our data showed that the deoxyhemoglobin concentration is the major factor determining the time course of the BOLD signal.
Kawamoto, Taishi; Onoda, Keiichi; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro
People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an "overinclusion" condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.
Lee, Tatia M. C.; Au, Ricky K. C.; Liu, Ho-Ling; Ting, K. H.; Huang, Chih-Mao; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.
Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural activity associated with truthful recall, with false memory, and with feigned memory impairment are different from one another. Here, we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that addressed an important but yet unanswered question: Is the neural activity associated…
Masson, Steve; Potvin, Patrice; Riopel, Martin; Foisy, Lorie-Marlene Brault; Lafortune, Stephanie
Although the use of brain imaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly common in educational research, only a few studies regarding science learning have so far taken advantage of this technology. This paper aims to facilitate the design and implementation of brain imaging studies relating to science…
Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram
Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a grou...
Kirk, Ulrich; Skov, Martin; Christensen, Mark Schram; Nygaard, Niels
Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a group of non-architects. This design allowed us to test…
Chun, Eunjin; Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Junsoo
We investigated the relative efficacy of extensive reading (ER) and paired-associate learning (PAL) in the ability of second language (L2) learners to retain new vocabulary words. To that end, we combined behavioral measures (i.e., vocabulary tests) and an event-related potential (ERP) investigation with a focus on the N400 ERP component to track short- and long-term vocabulary retention as a consequence of the two different approaches. Behavioral results indicated that both ER and PAL led to substantial short-term retention of the target words. In contrast, on a long-term basis, ER was more effective than PAL to a considerable degree as indicated by a large-size effect (d=1.35). Evidence from the N400 effects (d=1.70) observed in the parietal electrode group (P3, Pz, P4) provided further support for the superior effects of ER over PAL on long-term vocabulary retention. The converging evidence challenges the assumptions of some L2 researchers and makes a significant contribution to the literature of vocabulary acquisition, because it provides the first ERP evidence that ER is more conducive to long-term vocabulary retention than PAL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Houdayer, E; Degardin, A; Salleron, J; Bourriez, J L; Defebvre, L; Cassim, F; Derambure, P
We sought to characterize cortical activity related to motor control in patients presenting with isolated cortical tremor, in order to determine whether or not myoclonus-related impairments are a source of event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) disruption. Nine patients presenting with isolated cortical tremor were compared with controls. Mu and beta ERD/ERS were computed over the scalp and brain surfaces using 128-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) recording during voluntary and passive finger extensions. We recorded somatosensory-evoked potentials following median nerve stimulation and performed myoclonic jerk-locked back-averaging of EEG activity. Back-averaging revealed a cortical premyoclonic spike in all patients. Five of the nine patients had exaggerated SEPs. The amplitude of mu ERD was greater in patients. Beta ERD/ERS did not differ from that seen in controls. Localizations of mu and beta ERD/ERS did not differ from controls and were identified in pre- and post-central sensorimotor cortical areas. The present results suggest a hyperexcitability of the cortico-subcortical loops responsible for movement preparation and execution. Post-movement inhibition related to cortical processing of afferent input is unaffected in isolated cortical myoclonus. Intracortical abnormalities can differ in patients suffering from cortical myoclonus, according to whether or not the individuals have associated epileptic symptoms. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.
Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas
The mental organization of linguistic knowledge and its involvement in speech processing can be investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential. A contradiction arises, however, between the technical need for strict control of acoustic stimulus properties and the quest for naturalness and acoustic variability of the stimuli. Here, two methods of preparing speech stimulus material were compared. Focussing on the automatic processing of a phonotactic restriction in German, two corresponding sets of various vowel-fricative syllables were used as stimuli. The former syllables were naturally spoken while the latter ones were created by means of cross-splicing. Phonetically, natural and spliced syllables differed with respect to the appropriateness of coarticulatory information about the forthcoming fricative within the vowels. Spliced syllables containing clearly misleading phonetic information were found to elicit larger N2 responses compared to their natural counterparts. Furthermore, MMN results found for the natural syllables could not be replicated with these spliced stimuli. These findings indicate that the automatic processing of the stimuli was considerably affected by the stimulus preparation method. Thus, in spite of its unquestioned benefits for MMN experiments, the splicing technique may lead to interference effects on the linguistic factors under investigation.
Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na
Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.
Li, Bingbing; Zhang, Meng; Luo, Junlong; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun
High-density, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore differences in spatiotemporal dynamics between modus ponens (MP) and modus tollens (MT) in the Wason selection task. Results showed that MP elicits a more positive P3b-like component than MT from 400 to 800 ms. MP appeared to occur earlier than MT in various stages of proposition testing, such as stimulus processing and response selection. ERP results showed that MT has a longer duration and more negative later negative component (LNC) than MP at 2,000 ms. This result suggests that MT occupies more cognitive resources than MP in the final stages of proposition testing. The short and small left frontal LNC obtained by MP implies examination of the expectable conclusion, whereas the long and large left frontal LNC elicited by MT may be involved in the retention operation of the card in working memory from the monitoring and inspecting putative conclusion in the later stages of proposition testing. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steinbrink, Claudia; Groth, Katarina; Lachmann, Thomas; Riecker, Axel
This fMRI study investigated phonological vs. auditory temporal processing in developmental dyslexia by means of a German vowel length discrimination paradigm (Groth, Lachmann, Riecker, Muthmann, & Steinbrink, 2011). Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from dyslexics and controls while performing same-different judgments of vowel duration in…
Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…
Rama, Pia; Relander-Syrjanen, Kristiina; Carlson, Synnove; Salonen, Oili; Kujala, Teija
This fMRI study was conducted to investigate whether language semantics is processed even when attention is not explicitly directed to word meanings. In the "unattended" condition, the subjects performed a visual detection task while hearing semantically related and unrelated word pairs. In the "phoneme" condition, the subjects made phoneme…
van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Renken, Remco; de Jong, Bauke M.; Hoogduin, Johannes M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Maurits, Natasha M.
The goal of the present validation study is to show that continuous surface EMG recorded simultaneously with 3T fMRI can be used to identify local brain activity related to (1) motor tasks, and to (2) muscle activity independently of a specific motor task, i.e. spontaneous (abnormal) movements. Five
Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Haverkort, Marco; Renken, Remco; Stowe, Laurie A.
The goal of the current study was to identify the neural substrate of idiom comprehension using fMRI. Idioms are familiar, fixed expressions whose meaning is not dependent on the literal interpretation of the component words. We presented literally plausible idioms in a sentence forcing a figurative
Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)
Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)
Polosan, M.; Baciu, M.; Cousin, E.; Perrone, M.; Pichat, C.; Bougerol, T.
Social interaction requires the ability to infer another person's mental state (Theory of Mind, ToM) and also executive functions. This fMRI study aimed to identify the cerebral correlates activated by ToM during a specific social interaction, the human-human competition. In this framework, we tested a conflict resolution task (Stroop) adapted to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load. Processing of novel sounds were measured with reaction times, hit rates and the auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs Mismatch Negativity (MMN, P3a, Reorienting Negativity (RON and visual P3b. Results In both memory load conditions novels impaired task performance in adults whereas they improved performance in children. Auditory ERPs reflect age-related differences in the time-window of the MMN as children showed a positive ERP deflection to novels whereas adults lack an MMN. The attention switch towards the task irrelevant novel (reflected by P3a was comparable between the age groups. Adults showed more efficient reallocation of attention (reflected by RON under load condition than children. Finally, the P3b elicited by the visual target stimuli was reduced in both age groups when the preceding sound was a novel. Conclusion Our results give new insights in the development of novelty processing as they (1 reveal that task-irrelevant novel sounds can result in contrary effects on the performance in a visual primary task in children and adults, (2 show a positive ERP deflection to novels rather than an MMN in children, and (3 reveal effects of auditory novels on visual target processing.
Stange, Jonathan P; MacNamara, Annmarie; Kennedy, Amy E; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K Luan; Klumpp, Heide
Single-trial-level analyses afford the ability to link neural indices of elaborative attention (such as the late positive potential [LPP], an event-related potential) with downstream markers of attentional processing (such as reaction time [RT]). This approach can provide useful information about individual differences in information processing, such as the ability to adapt behavior based on attentional demands ("brain-behavioral adaptability"). Anxiety and depression are associated with maladaptive information processing implicating aberrant cognition-emotion interactions, but whether brain-behavioral adaptability predicts response to psychotherapy is not known. We used a novel person-centered, trial-level analysis approach to link neural indices of stimulus processing to behavioral responses and to predict treatment outcome. Thirty-nine patients with anxiety and/or depression received 12 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Prior to treatment, patients performed a speeded reaction-time task involving briefly-presented pairs of aversive and neutral pictures while electroencephalography was recorded. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that larger LPPs predicted slower responses on subsequent trials, suggesting that increased attention to the task-irrelevant nature of pictures interfered with reaction time on subsequent trials. Whereas using LPP and RT averages did not distinguish CBT responders from nonresponders, in trial-level analyses individuals who demonstrated greater ability to benefit behaviorally (i.e., faster RT) from smaller LPPs on the previous trial (greater brain-behavioral adaptability) were more likely to respond to treatment and showed greater improvements in depressive symptoms. These results highlight the utility of trial-level analyses to elucidate variability in within-subjects, brain-behavioral attentional coupling in the context of emotion processing, in predicting response to CBT for emotional disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Mullally, Sinéad L; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Maguire, Eleanor A
Amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal damage sustained in adulthood are generally unable to construct scenes in their imagination. By contrast, patients with developmental amnesia (DA), where hippocampal damage was acquired early in life, have preserved performance on this task, although the reason for this sparing is unclear. One possibility is that residual function in remnant hippocampal tissue is sufficient to support basic scene construction in DA. Such a situation was found in the one amnesic patient with adult-acquired hippocampal damage (P01) who could also construct scenes. Alternatively, DA patients' scene construction might not depend on the hippocampus, perhaps being instead reliant on non-hippocampal regions and mediated by semantic knowledge. To adjudicate between these two possibilities, we examined scene construction during functional MRI (fMRI) in Jon, a well-characterised patient with DA who has previously been shown to have preserved scene construction. We found that when Jon constructed scenes he activated many of the regions known to be associated with imagining scenes in control participants including ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, retrosplenial and posterior parietal cortices. Critically, however, activity was not increased in Jon's remnant hippocampal tissue. Direct comparisons with a group of control participants and patient P01, confirmed that they activated their right hippocampus more than Jon. Our results show that a type of non-hippocampal dependent scene construction is possible and occurs in DA, perhaps mediated by semantic memory, which does not appear to involve the vivid visualisation of imagined scenes. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Michelle E Costanzo
Full Text Available The relationships between the anatomical representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain and the timing of neurophysiological mechanisms involved in manipulating such information remain unclear. This is the case for superordinate semantic categorization – the extraction of general features shared by broad classes of exemplars (e.g. living vs. non-living semantic categories. We proposed that, because of the abstract nature, of this information, input from diverse input modalities (visual or auditory, lexical or non-lexical should converge and be processed in the same regions of the brain, at similar time scales during superordinate categorization - specifically in a network of heteromodal regions, and late in the course of the categorization process. In order to test this hypothesis, we utilized electroencephalography and event related potentials (EEG/ERP with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to characterize subjects’ responses as they made superordinate categorical decisions (living vs. nonliving about objects presented as visual pictures or auditory words. Our results reveal that, consistent with our hypothesis, during the course of superordinate categorization, information provided by these diverse inputs appears to converge in both time and space: fMRI showed that heteromodal areas of the parietal and temporal cortices are active during categorization of both classes of stimuli. The ERP results suggest that superordinate categorization is reflected as a late positive component (LPC with a parietal distribution and long latencies for both stimulus types. Within the areas and times in which modality independent responses were identified, some differences between living and non-living categories were observed, with a more widespread spatial extent and longer latency responses for categorization of non-living items.
Redcay, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Daniel P; Courchesne, Eric
Many techniques to study early functional brain development lack the whole-brain spatial resolution that is available with fMRI. We utilized a relatively novel method in which fMRI data were collected from children during natural sleep. Stimulus-evoked responses to auditory and visual stimuli as well as stimulus-independent functional networks were examined in typically developing 2-4-year-old children. Reliable fMRI data were collected from 13 children during presentation of auditory stimuli (tones, vocal sounds, and nonvocal sounds) in a block design. Twelve children were presented with visual flashing lights at 2.5 Hz. When analyses combined all three types of auditory stimulus conditions as compared to rest, activation included bilateral superior temporal gyri/sulci (STG/S) and right cerebellum. Direct comparisons between conditions revealed significantly greater responses to nonvocal sounds and tones than to vocal sounds in a number of brain regions including superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, medial frontal cortex and right lateral cerebellum. The response to visual stimuli was localized to occipital cortex. Furthermore, stimulus-independent functional connectivity MRI analyses (fcMRI) revealed functional connectivity between STG and other temporal regions (including contralateral STG) and medial and lateral prefrontal regions. Functional connectivity with an occipital seed was localized to occipital and parietal cortex. In sum, 2-4 year olds showed a differential fMRI response both between stimulus modalities and between stimuli in the auditory modality. Furthermore, superior temporal regions showed functional connectivity with numerous higher-order regions during sleep. We conclude that the use of sleep fMRI may be a valuable tool for examining functional brain organization in young children.
Ping Wang; Ping Wang; Xing-Ting Zhu; Xing-Ting Zhu; Zhigang Qi; Zhigang Qi; Silin Huang; Hui-Jie Li; Hui-Jie Li
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60...
Brendel, Bettina; Erb, Michael; Riecker, Axel; Grodd, Wolfgang; Ackermann, Hermann; Ziegler, Wolfram
The present study combines functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reaction time (RT) measurements to further elucidate the influence of syllable frequency and complexity on speech motor control processes, i.e., overt reading of pseudowords. Tying in with a recent fMRI-study of our group we focused on the concept of a mental syllabary housing syllable sized ready-made motor plans for high- (HF), but not low-frequency (LF) syllables. The RT-analysis disclosed a frequency effect weakened by a simultaneous complexity effect for HF-syllables. In contrast, the fMRI data revealed no effect of syllable frequency, but point to an impact of syllable structure: Compared with CV-items, syllables with a complex onset (CCV) yielded higher hemodynamic activation in motor "execution" areas (left sensorimotor cortex, right inferior cerebellum), which is at least partially compatible with our previous study. We discuss the role of the syllable in speech motor control.
Isabel C Bohrn
Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.
Nagels, Arne; Kauschke, Christina; Schrauf, Judith; Whitney, Carin; Straube, Benjamin; Kircher, Tilo
Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g., "He smokes like a chimney!") occurring in a short story. Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences (CS). The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility, and comprehensibility. Similes contrasted with CS resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG) and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete CS as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG). Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions.
Full Text Available Many figurative expressions are fully conventionalized in everyday speech. Regarding the neural basis of figurative language processing, research has predominantly focused on metaphoric expressions in minimal semantic context. It remains unclear in how far metaphoric expressions during continuous text comprehension activate similar neural networks as isolated metaphors. We therefore investigated the processing of similes (figurative language, e.g. He smokes like a chimney! occurring in a short story.Sixteen healthy, male, native German speakers listened to similes that came about naturally in a short story, while blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. For the event-related analysis, similes were contrasted with non-figurative control sentences. The stimuli differed with respect to figurativeness, while they were matched for frequency of words, number of syllables, plausibility and comprehensibility.Similes contrasted with control sentences resulted in enhanced BOLD responses in the left inferior (IFG and adjacent middle frontal gyrus. Concrete control sentences as compared to similes activated the bilateral middle temporal gyri as well as the right precuneus and the left middle frontal gyrus.Activation of the left IFG for similes in a short story is consistent with results on single sentence metaphor processing. The findings strengthen the importance of the left inferior frontal region in the processing of abstract figurative speech during continuous, ecologically-valid speech comprehension; the processing of concrete semantic contents goes along with a down-regulation of bilateral temporal regions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human emotional expressions serve an important communicatory role allowing the rapid transmission of valence information among individuals. We aimed at exploring the neural networks mediating the recognition of and empathy with human facial expressions of emotion. Methods A principal component analysis was applied to event-related functional magnetic imaging (fMRI data of 14 right-handed healthy volunteers (29 +/- 6 years. During scanning, subjects viewed happy, sad and neutral face expressions in the following conditions: emotion recognition, empathizing with emotion, and a control condition of simple object detection. Functionally relevant principal components (PCs were identified by planned comparisons at an alpha level of p Results Four PCs revealed significant differences in variance patterns of the conditions, thereby revealing distinct neural networks: mediating facial identification (PC 1, identification of an expressed emotion (PC 2, attention to an expressed emotion (PC 12, and sense of an emotional state (PC 27. Conclusion Our findings further the notion that the appraisal of human facial expressions involves multiple neural circuits that process highly differentiated cognitive aspects of emotion.
Bellace, Matthew; Williams, Joseph Michael; Mohamed, Feroze B; Faro, Scott H
The current study examined the role of the hippocampus in emotional memory encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present study examined the activation patterns of 12 healthy participants who were associated with memory for words and pictures with moderately high emotional tone. Results revealed significant activation in the temporal and frontal lobes for emotional and neutral stimuli. There was greater activation in the left hippocampus for emotional words and the right hippocampus for emotional pictures. However, a separate analysis of gender suggested that the emotional responses of the women accounted for the activation of the hippocampus; men did not have a pattern of hippocampus activation consistent with the type of stimuli. These findings have important implications for the design of a clinical memory assessment using fMRI.
Schlösser, Ralf G M; Gesierich, Thomas; Wagner, Gerd; Bolz, Matthias; Gründer, Gerhard; Dielentheis, Thomas F; Scherb, Claudius; Stoeter, Peter
Previous studies suggested altered sensitivity of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor system in alcoholic patients. Expanding on these findings, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to assess whether a differential modulation of cognitive brain activation by an acute GABAergic drug challenge could be detected in patients with alcoholism. Eight detoxified male patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and nine healthy male control subjects were studied with fMRI while performing a 2-back working memory task. The fMRI scans were performed 1 h after intravenous administration of saline and again 1 h after 0.03 mg/kg lorazepam I.V. After saline, a task x group interaction effect with higher task activation in alcoholic patients in the left cerebellum and the right prefrontal cortex emerged. Additionally, a differential task x drug x group interaction was identified in the right cerebellum with more pronounced reduction in cognitive activation after lorazepam in the patient group. A significant correlation between lorazepam sensitivity and duration of alcohol dependence was detected. The present findings are in line with previous studies suggesting disrupted prefrontal-cerebellar activation with potential compensatory hyperactivation of the compromised brain networks in alcoholism. Moreover, the results suggest enhanced responsivity to an acute GABAergic challenge in the right cerebellum with disease-related disruption of cerebellar functional integrity.
Taylor, M J; Donner, E J; Pang, E W
The tremendous changes in brain structure over childhood are critical to the development of cognitive functions. Neuroimaging provides a means of linking these brain-behaviour relations, as task protocols can be adapted for use with young children to assess the development of cognitive functions in both typical and atypical populations. This paper reviews some of our research using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) in the study of cognitive development, with a focus on frontal lobe functions. Working memory for complex abstract patterns showed clear development in terms of the recruitment of frontal regions, seen with fMRI, with indications of strategy differences across the age range, from 6 to 35 years of age. Right hippocampal involvement was also evident in these n-back tasks, demonstrating its involvement in recognition in simple working memory protocols. Children born very preterm (7 to 9 years of age) showed reduced fMRI activation particularly in the precuneus and right hippocampal regions relative to control children. In a large normative n-back study (n=90) with upright and inverted faces, MEG data also showed right hippocampal activation that was present across the age range; frontal sources were evident only from 10 years of age. Other studies have investigated the development of set shifting, an executive function that is often deficit in atypical populations. fMRI showed recruitment of frontal areas, including the insula, that have significantly different patterns in children (7 to 14 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children, indicating that successful performance implicated differing strategies in these two groups of children. These types of studies will help our understanding of both normal brain-behaviour development and cognitive dysfunction in atypically developing populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bak, Nikolaj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill
). No difference was found between the EEG setting and the concurrent EEG and fMRI setting. P50 suppression was, in both settings, found only in the 500 ms trials, not in the 1000 ms trials. EEG-dipole modeling resulted in 4 sources located in the medial frontal gyrus, the insula, the hippocampus, and primary...... somatosensory cortex. These sources corresponded to significant fMRI clusters located in the medial frontal gyrus, the insula, the claustrum, and the hippocampus. Activity in the hippocampus and the claustrum was higher in the trials with suppression, suggesting that these brain areas are involved...... in the inhibitory processes of P50 suppression. The opposite was found for activity in the medial frontal gyrus and the insula, suggesting that these brain areas are involved in the generation of the P50 amplitude. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that P50 suppression can be reliably assessed...
Bernal, Byron; Guillen, Magno; Marquez, Juan Camilo
The brain activation associated with the Spinning Dancer Illusion, a cognitive visual illusion, is not entirely known. Inferences from other study modalities point to the involvement of the dorso-parieto-occipital areas in the spontaneous switchings of perception in other bistable non-kinetic illusions. fMRI is a mature technique used to investigate the brain responses associated with mental changes. Resting-state fMRI is a novel technique that may help ascertain the effects of spontaneous brain changes in the top-down regulation of visual perception. The purpose of this report is to describe the brain activation associated with the subjective illusory changes of perception of a kinetic bistable stimulus. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the perception phases with the very slow cortical spontaneous fluctuations, recently described. A single normal subject who was trained to produce voluntarily perception phase switches underwent a series of fMRI studies whose blocks were either defined post-hoc or accordingly with a predefined timeline to assess spontaneous and voluntarily evoked visual perception switches, respectively. Correlation of findings with resting-state fMRI and independent component analysis of the task series was sought. Phases of the rotation direction were found associated with right parietal activity. Independent component analysis of the task series and their comparison with basal resting-state components suggest that this activity is related to one of the very slow spontaneous brain fluctuations. The spontaneous fluctuations of the cortical activity may explain the subjective changes in perception of direction of the Spinning Dancer Illusion. This observation is a proof-of-principle, suggesting that the spontaneous brain oscillations may influence top-down sensory regulation.
Yau, Shu Hui; Brock, Jon; McArthur, Genevieve
It has been proposed that language impairments in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) stem from atypical neural processing of speech and/or nonspeech sounds. However, the strength of this proposal is compromised by the unreliable outcomes of previous studies of speech and nonspeech processing in ASD. The aim of this study was to…
Friedman, Lee; Stern, Hal; Brown, Gregory G.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Turner, Jessica; Glover, Gary H.; Gollub, Randy L.; Lauriello, John; Lim, Kelvin O.; Cannon, Tyrone; Greve, Douglas N.; Bockholt, Henry Jeremy; Belger, Aysenil; Mueller, Bryon; Doty, Michael J.; He, Jianchun; Wells, William; Smyth, Padhraic; Pieper, Steve; Kim, Seyoung; Kubicki, Marek; Vangel, Mark; Potkin, Steven G.
In the present report, estimates of test–retest and between-site reliability of fMRI assessments were produced in the context of a multicenter fMRI reliability study (FBIRN Phase 1, www.nbirn.net). Five subjects were scanned on 10 MRI scanners on two occasions. The fMRI task was a simple block design sensorimotor task. The impulse response functions to the stimulation block were derived using an FIR-deconvolution analysis with FMRISTAT. Six functionally-derived ROIs covering the visual, auditory and motor cortices, created from a prior analysis, were used. Two dependent variables were compared: percent signal change and contrast-to-noise-ratio. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients derived from a variance components analysis. Test–retest reliability was high, but initially, between-site reliability was low, indicating a strong contribution from site and site-by-subject variance. However, a number of factors that can markedly improve between-site reliability were uncovered, including increasing the size of the ROIs, adjusting for smoothness differences, and inclusion of additional runs. By employing multiple steps, between-site reliability for 3T scanners was increased by 123%. Dropping one site at a time and assessing reliability can be a useful method of assessing the sensitivity of the results to particular sites. These findings should provide guidance to others on the best practices for future multicenter studies. PMID:17636563
Friedman, Lee; Stern, Hal; Brown, Gregory G; Mathalon, Daniel H; Turner, Jessica; Glover, Gary H; Gollub, Randy L; Lauriello, John; Lim, Kelvin O; Cannon, Tyrone; Greve, Douglas N; Bockholt, Henry Jeremy; Belger, Aysenil; Mueller, Bryon; Doty, Michael J; He, Jianchun; Wells, William; Smyth, Padhraic; Pieper, Steve; Kim, Seyoung; Kubicki, Marek; Vangel, Mark; Potkin, Steven G
In the present report, estimates of test-retest and between-site reliability of fMRI assessments were produced in the context of a multicenter fMRI reliability study (FBIRN Phase 1, www.nbirn.net). Five subjects were scanned on 10 MRI scanners on two occasions. The fMRI task was a simple block design sensorimotor task. The impulse response functions to the stimulation block were derived using an FIR-deconvolution analysis with FMRISTAT. Six functionally-derived ROIs covering the visual, auditory and motor cortices, created from a prior analysis, were used. Two dependent variables were compared: percent signal change and contrast-to-noise-ratio. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients derived from a variance components analysis. Test-retest reliability was high, but initially, between-site reliability was low, indicating a strong contribution from site and site-by-subject variance. However, a number of factors that can markedly improve between-site reliability were uncovered, including increasing the size of the ROIs, adjusting for smoothness differences, and inclusion of additional runs. By employing multiple steps, between-site reliability for 3T scanners was increased by 123%. Dropping one site at a time and assessing reliability can be a useful method of assessing the sensitivity of the results to particular sites. These findings should provide guidance toothers on the best practices for future multicenter studies.
Adrienne C. Lahti
Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has allowed exploring neural correlates of memory deficits in vivo. In this article, we will give a selective review of fMRI studies probing brain regions and functional networks that are thought to be related to abnormal memory performance in two memory systems prominently affected in schizophrenia; working memory and episodic memory. We revisit the classic “hypofrontality” hypothesis of working memory deficits and explore evidence for frontotemporal dysconnectivity underlying episodic memory abnormalities. We conclude that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal. However, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks.
Liu, Yong; Wang, Kun; Yu, Chunshui; He, Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Liang, Meng; Wang, Liang; Jiang, Tianzi
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a promising technique for measuring brain activities during rest, has attracted much attention in the past few years. In this paper, we review recent progress on the study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on resting-state fMRI. First, we briefly introduce some AD-related studies from other groups. Then we describe our AD-related work in detail from three aspects: (1) alterations in regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the fMRI signal in the resting state, (2) altered patterns of functional connectivity from regions of interest and whole brain analyses, and (3) discriminative analyses based on classification features from resting-state fMRI data for differentiating AD patients from healthy elders. Finally, we summarize the main results and some prospects for future work.
Oztekin, Ilke; Long, Nicole M; Badre, David
Free recall is a fundamental paradigm for studying memory retrieval in the context of minimal cue support. Accordingly, free recall has been extensively studied using behavioral methods. However, the neural mechanisms that support free recall have not been fully investigated due to technical challenges associated with probing individual recall events with neuroimaging methods. Of particular concern is the extent to which the uncontrolled latencies associated with recall events can confer sufficient design efficiency to permit neural activation for individual conditions to be distinguished. The present study sought to rigorously assess the feasibility of testing individual free recall events with fMRI. We used both theoretically and empirically derived free recall latency distributions to generate simulated fMRI data sets and assessed design efficiency across a range of parameters that describe free recall performance and fMRI designs. In addition, two fMRI experiments empirically assessed whether differential neural activation in visual cortex at onsets determined by true free recall performance across different conditions can be resolved. Collectively, these results specify the design and performance parameters that can provide comparable efficiency between free recall designs and more traditional jittered event-related designs. These findings suggest that assessing BOLD response during free recall using fMRI is feasible, under certain conditions, and can serve as a powerful tool in understanding the neural bases of memory search and overt retrieval.
Alegria, Analucia A; Radua, Joaquim; Rubia, Katya
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in conduct disorder and in oppositional defiant disorder have shown inconsistencies. The aim of this meta-analysis of fMRI studies in disruptive behavior disorders was to establish the most consistent brain dysfunctions and to address task- and subtype-related heterogeneity. Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all whole-brain fMRI studies of youths with disruptive behavior disorder or conduct problems up to August 2015. Sub-meta-analyses were conducted in functional subdomains of emotion processing; in cool and hot executive functions, which refer to goal-directed higher cognitive functions with and without motivational and affective significance; and in a subgroup of youths with additional psychopathic traits. The authors performed a meta-analysis of voxel-based group differences in functional activation using the anisotropic effect-size version of seed-based d mapping. Across 24 studies, 338 youths with disruptive behavior disorder or conduct problems relative to 298 typically developing youths had consistent underactivation in the rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate and in the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral caudate. Sub-meta-analyses of fMRI studies showed that medial fronto-cingulate dysfunction was driven by hot executive function. The sub-meta-analysis of emotion processing fMRI studies showed the most consistent underactivation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal pole, while cool executive functions were associated with temporal abnormalities. Youths with disruptive behavior disorder with psychopathic traits showed reduced ventromedial prefrontal-hypothalamic-limbic activation, but they also showed hyperactivation in cognitive control mediating dorsolateral prefrontal-dorsal and striatal regions. The findings show that the most consistent dysfunction in youths with disruptive behavior disorder is in the rostro-dorsomedial, fronto-cingulate, and
Hakkarainen, Elina; Pirila, Silja; Kaartinen, Jukka; van der Meere, Jaap J.
The study investigated stimulus evaluation time, event preparation, and motor action planning of patients with mild spastic cerebral palsy and a peer control group in the age range of 9 to 18 years. To this end, participants were carrying out a stimulus recognition task. Findings indicated an
Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana
Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we…
Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Namita; Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Center, Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, PGIMER, New Delhi (India)
To investigate whether the motor functional alterations in schizophrenia (SZ) are also associated with structural changes in the related brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 right-handed SZ patients and 14 right-handed healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during right index finger-tapping task in the same session. fMRI results showed reduced functional activation in the motor areas (contralateral precentral and postcentral gyrus) and ipsilateral cerebellum in SZ subjects as compared to healthy controls (n = 14). VBM analysis also revealed reduced grey matter in motor areas and white matter reduction in cerebellum of SZ subjects as compared to controls. The present study provides an evidence for a possible association between structural alterations in the motor cortex and disturbed functional activation in the motor areas in persons affected with SZ during a simple finger-tapping task. (orig.)
Matthew P. Kirschen
Full Text Available Verbal working memory (VWM engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters and modality (auditory and visual dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44, insular, cingulate (BA 32, and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40 regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI and right inferior (HVIII cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19 and left parietal (BA7/40 cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominately in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22. In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.
Kirschen, Matthew P; Chen, S H Annabel; Desmond, John E
Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2, 4, or 6 letters) and modality (auditory and visual) dependent cerebro-cerebellar VWM activation using a Sternberg task. FMRI revealed modality-independent activations in left frontal (BA 6/9/44), insular, cingulate (BA 32), and bilateral inferior parietal/supramarginal (BA 40) regions, as well as in bilateral superior (HVI) and right inferior (HVIII) cerebellar regions. Visual presentation evoked prominent activations in right superior (HVI/CrusI) cerebellum, bilateral occipital (BA19) and left parietal (BA7/40) cortex while auditory presentation showed robust activations predominantly in bilateral temporal regions (BA21/22). In the cerebellum, we noted a visual to auditory emphasis of function progressing from superior to inferior and from lateral to medial regions. These results extend our previous findings of fMRI activation in cerebro-cerebellar networks during VWM, and demonstrate both modality dependent commonalities and differences in activations with increasing memory load.
Qian Xiao; Yuan Zhong; Dali Lu; Weijia Gao; Qing Jiao; Guangming Lu; Linyan Su
UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was examined with...
Spence, Jeffrey S; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Ferree, Thomas C
Linear statistical models are used very effectively to assess task-related differences in EEG power spectral analyses. Mixed models, in particular, accommodate more than one variance component in a multisubject study, where many trials of each condition of interest are measured on each subject. Generally, intra- and intersubject variances are both important to determine correct standard errors for inference on functions of model parameters, but it is often assumed that intersubject variance is the most important consideration in a group study. In this article, we show that, under common assumptions, estimates of some functions of model parameters, including estimates of task-related differences, are properly tested relative to the intrasubject variance component only. A substantial gain in statistical power can arise from the proper separation of variance components when there is more than one source of variability. We first develop this result analytically, then show how it benefits a multiway factoring of spectral, spatial, and temporal components from EEG data acquired in a group of healthy subjects performing a well-studied response inhibition task. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ellen R.A. De Bruijn
Full Text Available For successful goal-directed behavior it is essential for humans to continuously monitor one’s actions and detect errors as fast as possible. EEG studies have identified an error-related ERP component known as the error-related negativity or ERN. Theories on error monitoring propose a direct relation to reward processing. Whenever an error is made, the outcome of an action turns out to be worse than expected, resulting in a loss of reward and hence eliciting the ERN. However, as own errors are always associated with a loss of reward, disentangling whether the ERN is error- or reward-dependent has proven to be an extremely difficult endeavor. Recently, an ERN has also been demonstrated following the observation of other’s errors. An important difference with own errors is that other people’s errors can be associated with loss or gain depending on the cooperative or competitive context in which they are made. We conducted an ERP study to disentangle whether performance monitoring is error- or reward-dependent. Twelve pairs (N=24 of participants performed and observed a speeded-choice reaction task in two contexts. Own errors were always associated with a loss of reward. Observed errors in the cooperative context also yielded a loss of reward, but observed errors in the competitive context resulted in a gain. The results showed that the ERN was present following all types of errors independent of who made the error and the outcome of the action. Consequently, the current study demonstrates that performance monitoring as reflected by the ERN is error-specific and not directly dependent on reward.
Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad
, are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...... background EEG in various input signal to noise ratios. While both methods can be applied to track dynamical changes, the simplified Kalman filter has an advantage over the Sliding Window Averaging, most notable in a better noise suppression when both are optimized for faster changing latency and amplitude...
Buklina, S B; Podoprigora, A E; Pronin, I N; Shishkina, L V; Boldyreva, G N; Bondarenko, A A; Fadeeva, L M; Kornienko, V N; Zhukov, V Iu
Paper describes a study of language lateralization of patients with brain tumors, measured by preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and comparison results with tumor histology and profile of functional asymmetry. During the study 21 patient underwent fMRI scan. 15 patients had a tumor in the left and 6 in the right hemisphere. Tumors were localized mainly in the frontal, temporal and fronto-temporal regions. Histological diagnosis in 8 cases was malignant Grade IV, in 13 cases--Grade I-III. fMRI study was perfomed on scanner "Signa Exite" with a field strength of 1.5 As speech test reciting the months of the year in reverse order was used. fMRI scan results were compared with the profile of functional asymmetry, which was received with the results of questionnaire Annette and dichotic listening test. Broca's area was found in 7 cases in the left hemisphere, 6 had a tumor Grade I-III. And one patient with glioblastoma had a tumor of the right hemisphere. Broca's area in the right hemisphere was found in 3 patients (2 patients with left sided tumor, and one with right-sided tumor). One patient with left-sided tumor had mild motor aphasia. Bilateral activation in both hemispheres of the brain was observed in 6 patients. All of them had tumor Grade II-III of the left hemisphere. Signs of left-handedness were revealed only in half of these patients. Broca's area was not found in 4 cases. All of them had large malignant tumors Grade IV. One patient couldn't handle program of the research. Results of fMRI scans, questionnaire Annette and dichotic listening test frequently were not the same, which is significant. Bilateral activation in speech-loads may be a reflection of brain plasticity in cases of long-growing tumors. Thus it's important to consider the full range of clinical data in studying the problem of the dominant hemisphere for language.
Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan
Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy
Chinnadurai, Somasundaram Aadhimoolam; Venkatesan, Srinivasan Avathvadi; Shankar, Gobinathan; Samivel, Balasubramanian; Ranganathan, Lakshmi Narasimhan
Although cognitive fatigue plays a significant part in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) related impairment, knowledge regarding it is largely lacking. Until now, not many tools are available to a clinician to detect cognitive fatigue. The subjective tools of fatigue have never been reliable.tabl OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and clinical/ demographic profile of cognitive fatigue in MS using novel clinical and electrophysiological measures and to find their accuracy. We also aimed to test the three leading hypotheses - the temporal fatigue, cognitive load and cognitive domain hypotheses of cognitive fatigue in MS. 50 consecutive MS patients attending the Neurology OPD in Madras Medical College, Chennai from May 2015 to February 2016 satisfying the 2010 revised McDonald criteria for MS with an equal number of matched controls were recruited. Modified versions (a shorter version, and longer and more demanding versions) of the Stroop test, symbol digit modalities test, and serial addition tests were used in addition to modified tests of P300 latency and amplitude each specifically tailored to reveal cognitive fatigue. Out of the seven measures of cognitive fatigue used, 46% (n=23) of MS patients had impairment in two or more of the scores compared to that of 8% (n=4) in the healthy control group. The Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores were significantly higher for MS patients with cognitive fatigue compared to those without. All the clinical and electrophysiological measures used in this study had a relatively high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, all the clinical measures correlated with the electrophysiological measures of cognitive fatigue in this study. Our data also supported all three hypotheses implying that cognitive fatigue in MS may be a multifaceted entity. Cognitive fatigue is widely prevalent in MS and can be detected with specific tools. The tools developed and described in this study may be used as an effective means of detecting
Richard, Nelly; Laursen, Bettina; Grupe, Morten
ERPs was illustrated using the classical CWT and the aCWT. Next, the two methods were applied to EEG recordings obtained from prefrontal cortex in rats performing a two-tone auditory discrimination task. Main results. While only early ERP frequency changes between responses to target and non...... developed and validated a novel method specifically refined to analyse P300-like ERPs in rats. Approach. An adapted CWT (aCWT) was implemented to preserve high time-frequency resolution across all scales by commissioning of multiple wavelets operating at different scales. First, decomposition of simulated......-target tones were detected by the CWT, both early and late changes were successfully described with strong accuracy by the aCWT in rat ERPs. Increased frontal gamma power and phase synchrony was observed particularly within theta and gamma frequency bands during deviant tones. Significance. The study suggests...
Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris
The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention.
Safi-Harb, Mouna; Proulx, Sébastien; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Gotman, Jean
EEG-fMRI is an established technique to allow mapping BOLD changes in response to interictal discharges recorded in the EEG of epilepsy patients. Traditional fMRI experiments rely on an echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a time resolution given by its time-to-repetition (TR) of ~2 s. Recently, multiple fast fMRI sequences have been developed to get around the limited temporal resolution of the EPI sequence, and achieved a TR in the 100 ms range or lower. One such sequence is called Magnetic Resonance EncephaloGraphy (MREG). Its high temporal resolution should offer increased detection sensitivity and statistical power in the context of epilepsy studies and in fMRI experiments in general. The aim of this work was to investigate the advantages and disadvantages offered by MREG. This was done by superimposing artificial event-related BOLD responses on EPI and MREG background signals, from 5 epileptic patients, that were free of epileptic discharges (spikes) on simultaneously recorded EEG. These functional datasets simulated different spiking rates and hemodynamic response amplitudes, and were analyzed with the commonly used General Linear Model (GLM) with the canonical hemodynamic response function (HRF) as a fixed model of the response. Robustness to violation of the assumptions of the GLM was additionally assessed with similar simulations using variable spike-to-spike response amplitudes and 8 non-canonical HRFs. Consistent with previous work, MREG yields higher maximum statistical t-values than EPI, but our simulations showed these statistics to be inflated, as the false positive rate at a standard threshold was high. At thresholds set to appropriately control specificity, EPI showed better true positive rate and larger cluster size than MREG. However, the lack of an appropriate calibration of the amplitude of the responses across the sequences precludes definitive judgment on their relative sensitivity. In addition, we show that a mismatch between the assumed
Detandt, Sandrine; Bazan, Ariane; Schröder, Elisa; Olyff, Giulia; Kajosch, Hendrik; Verbanck, Paul; Campanella, Salvatore
Cognitive impairment is a major component in addiction. However, research has been inconclusive as to whether this is also the case for smokers. The present study aims at providing electrophysiological clue for altered inhibitory control in smokers and at investigating whether reduced inhibition was more pronounced during exposure to a smoking cue. ERPs were recorded during a visual Go-NoGo task performed by 18 smokers and 23 controls, in which either a frequent Go signal (letter "M") or a rare No-Go signal ("letter W") were superimposed on three different long-lasting background contexts: black-neutral, smoking-related and non smoking-related. (1) Smokers performed worse and had an earlier NoGo-N2 latency as compared to controls and independently of context, suggesting a general inhibition impairment; (2) with smoking-related backgrounds specifically, smokers made fewer mistakes than they did in other contexts and displayed a larger NoGo P3 amplitude. These data might suggest that background cues related to addiction may help smokers to be more accurate in an inhibition task. Our results show the classical inhibitory impairment in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However, our data also suggest that a smoking-related background may bolster the inhibitory ability of smokers specifically. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Marcalee; Kozyrev, Natalie; Figley, Chase R; Richards, J Scott
The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the spinal activation during sexual response of the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord. This is a laboratory-based pilot study in human females at a University-based medical center in the United States. In three healthy spinal cord injury (SCI) females, spinal cord activations during sexual audiovisual stimulation (alone), genital self-stimulation (alone) and simultaneous audiovisual and genital self-stimulation (combined) were assessed and then compared with each subjects' remaining sensory and motor function. Spinal fMRI responses of the intermediolateral columns were found during audiovisual stimulation in both subjects with incomplete injuries, but they were not observed in the subject with a complete injury. Moreover, sacral responses to combined stimulation differed greatly between the subjects with complete and incomplete injuries. These results not only provide the first in vivo documentation of spinal fMRI responses associated with sexual arousal in women with SCIs, but also suggest that spinal cord fMRI is capable of distinguishing between injury subtypes. Therefore, although there are certain limitations associated with fMRI during sexual stimulation (for example, movement artifacts, an artificially controlled environment and so), these findings demonstrate the potential utility of incorporating spinal cord fMRI in future research to evaluate the impact of specific patterns of SCI on sexual responses and/or the effects of treatment.
James R. Moeller
Full Text Available In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI, the general linear model (GLM is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1 verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2 discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support.
Zhou, Bo; Konstorum, Anna; Duong, Thao; Tieu, Kinh H.; Wells, William M.; Brown, Gregory G.; Stern, Hal S.; Shahbaba, Babak
We propose a hierarchical Bayesian model for analyzing multi-site experimental fMRI studies. Our method takes the hierarchical structure of the data (subjects are nested within sites, and there are multiple observations per subject) into account and allows for modeling between-site variation. Using posterior predictive model checking and model…
Singh, R; Shukla, R.; Dalal, P. K.; Sinha, P.K.; Trivedi, J.K.
P300 component of the event related potential (ERP) provides one neurophysiological index of cognitive dysfunction in depression. Forty subjects fulfilling DSM-III criteria for depression were compared to 40 age and sex matched normal controls. The P300 was recorded using the auditory odd-ball paradigm. Depressives had a significantly prolonged P300 latency and reduced P300 amplitude as compared to the controls. The P300 latency showed a significant positive correlation with age of the patien...
Eichele, T.; Specht, K.; Moosmann, M.; Jongsma, M.L.A.; Quian Quiroga, R.; Nordby, H.; Hugdahl, K.
The brain acts as an integrated information processing system, which methods in cognitive neuroscience have so far depicted in a fragmented fashion. Here, we propose a simple and robust way to integrate functional MRI (fMRI) with single trial event-related potentials (ERP) to provide a more complete
Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John
BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.
Full Text Available BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1 already proficient in at least two languages; or (2 are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1 longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2 statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.
Andrews, Edna; Frigau, Luca; Voyvodic-Casabo, Clara; Voyvodic, James; Wright, John
BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1) already proficient in at least two languages; or (2) are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1) longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2) statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition. PMID:24961428
J Gordon Millichap
Event-related functional MRI (fMRI) was used to study the neural basis of spontaneous motor and vocal tics in 10 patients with Tourette syndrome, at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.
Horan, William P; Jimenez, Amy M; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Green, Michael F
Although it has been proposed that schizophrenia is characterized by impaired empathy, several recent studies found intact neural responses on tasks measuring the affective subdomain of empathy. This study further examined affective empathy in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 21 healthy controls using a validated pain empathy paradigm with two components: (i) observing videos of people described as medical patients who were receiving a painful sound stimulation treatment; (ii) listening to the painful sounds (to create regions of interest). The observing videos component incorporated experimental manipulations of perspective taking (instructions to imagine 'Self' vs 'Other' experiencing pain) and cognitive appraisal (information about whether treatment was 'Effective' vs 'Not Effective'). When considering activation across experimental conditions, both groups showed similar dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI) activation while merely observing others in pain. However, there were group differences associated with perspective taking: controls showed relatively greater dACC and AI activation for the Self vs Other contrast whereas patients showed relatively greater activation in these and additional regions for the Other vs Self contrast. Although patients demonstrated grossly intact neural activity while observing others in pain, they showed more subtle abnormalities when required to toggle between imagining themselves vs others experiencing pain. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chen, Chi-Hua; Suckling, John; Lennox, Belinda R; Ooi, Cinly; Bullmore, Ed T
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to identify state and trait markers of brain abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the primary literature is composed of small-to-medium-sized studies, using diverse activation paradigms on variously characterized patient groups, which can be difficult to synthesize into a coherent account. This review aimed to synthesize current evidence from fMRI studies in midlife adults with BD and to investigate whether there is support for the theoretical models of the disorder. We used voxel-based quantitative meta-analytic methods to combine primary data on anatomical coordinates of activation from 65 fMRI studies comparing normal volunteers (n = 1,074) and patients with BD (n = 1,040). Compared to normal volunteers, patients with BD underactivated the inferior frontal cortex (IFG) and putamen and overactivated limbic areas, including medial temporal structures (parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and amygdala) and basal ganglia. Dividing studies into those using emotional and cognitive paradigms demonstrated that the IFG abnormalities were manifest during both cognitive and emotional processing, while increased limbic activation was mainly related to emotional processing. In further separate comparisons between healthy volunteers and patient subgroups in each clinical state, the IFG was underactive in manic but not in euthymic and depressed states. Limbic structures were not overactive in association with mood states, with the exception of increased amygdala activation in euthymic states when including region-of-interest studies. In summary, our results showed abnormal frontal-limbic activation in BD. There was attenuated activation of the IFG or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was consistent across emotional and cognitive tasks and particularly related to the state of mania, and enhanced limbic activation, which was elicited by emotional and not cognitive tasks, and not
Melchers, Martin; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Trautner, Peter; Weber, Bernd; Lachmann, Bernd; Buss, Pauline; Heinen, Rebekka; Reuter, Martin
Vicarious embarrassment (VE) is an emotion triggered by the observation of others' pratfalls or social norm violations. Several explanatory approaches have been suggested to explain the source of this phenomenon, including perspective taking abilities or ingroup identification. Knowledge about its biological bases, however, is scarce. To gain a better understanding, the present study investigated neural activation patterns in response to video clips from reality TV shows. Reality TV is well known for presenting social norm violations, flaws and pratfalls of its protagonists in real life situations thereby qualifying as an ecological valid trigger for VE. N = 60 healthy participants viewed stand stills from previously watched video clips taken from German reality TV-shows while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clips were preselected for high versus low VE content in a pilot study. Besides the investigation of differences in brain activation elicited by VE versus control stand stills (blocked design contrast), we performed additional exploratory functional connectivity analyses (psychophysiological interaction; PPI) to detect VE related brain networks. Compared to the low VE condition, participants in the high VE condition showed a higher activation in the middle temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the gyrus rectus. Functional connectivity analyses confirmed increased connectivity of these regions with the anterior cingulate in the VE condition. Moreover, self-ratings of VE and brain activity were correlated positively. Reality TV formats with high VE content activate brain regions associated with Theory of Mind, but also with empathic concern and social identity. Therefore, our results support the idea that the ability to put oneself in other person's shoes is a major prerequisite for VE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cognitive flexibility is the ability to switch rapidly between multiple goals. By using a task-switching paradigm, the present study investigated how positive emotion affected cognitive flexibility and the underlying neural mechanisms. After viewing pictures of different emotional valence (positive, negative, or neutral, participants discriminated whether a target digit in a specific color was odd or even. After a series of trials, the color of target stimuli was changed, i.e., the switch condition. Switch costs were measured by the increase of reaction times (RTs in the switch trials compared to those in the repeat trials. Behavior results indicated that switch costs significantly decreased in the positive emotional condition, and increased in the negative emotional condition, compared with those in the neutral condition. Imaging data revealed enhanced activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC in switch trials than those in repeat trials. Moreover, the interaction between emotion (positive, negative, neutral and trial type (repeat vs. switch was significant. For switch trials, the activation of dACC decreased significantly in the positive condition, while increased significantly in the negative condition compared to neutral condition. By contrast, for repeat trials, no significant difference was observed for the activation of dACC among three emotional conditions. Our results showed that positive emotions could increase the cognitive flexibility and reduce the conflict by decreasing the activation of dACC.
Taillan, Julien; Ardiale, Eléonore; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Félician, Olivier; Lemaire, Patrick
This neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) study investigated neural correlates of strategy selection. Young adults performed an arithmetic task in two different conditions. In both conditions, participants had to provide estimates of two-digit multiplication problems like 54 × 78. In the choice condition, participants had to select the better of two available rounding strategies, rounding-up (RU) strategy (i.e., doing 60 × 80 = 4,800) or rounding-down (RD) strategy (i.e., doing 50 × 70 = 3,500 to estimate product of 54 × 78). In the no-choice condition, participants did not have to select strategy on each problem but were told which strategy to use; they executed RU and RD strategies each on a series of problems. Participants also had a control task (i.e., providing correct products of multiplication problems like 40 × 50). Brain activations and performance were analyzed as a function of these conditions. Participants were able to frequently choose the better strategy in the choice condition; they were also slower when they executed the difficult RU than the easier RD. Neuroimaging data showed greater brain activations in right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and angular gyrus (ANG), when selecting (relative to executing) the better strategy on each problem. Moreover, RU was associated with more parietal cortex activation than RD. These results suggest an important role of fronto-parietal network in strategy selection and have important implications for our further understanding and modeling cognitive processes underlying strategy selection.
Luijten, Maartje; Machielsen, Marise W.J.; Veltman, Dick J.; Hester, Robert; de Haan, Lieuwe; Franken, Ingmar H.A.
Background Several current theories emphasize the role of cognitive control in addiction. The present review evaluates neural deficits in the domains of inhibitory control and error processing in individuals with substance dependence and in those showing excessive addiction-like behaviours. The combined evaluation of event-related potential (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in the present review offers unique information on neural deficits in addicted individuals. Methods We selected 19 ERP and 22 fMRI studies using stop-signal, go/no-go or Flanker paradigms based on a search of PubMed and Embase. Results The most consistent findings in addicted individuals relative to healthy controls were lower N2, error-related negativity and error positivity amplitudes as well as hypoactivation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These neural deficits, however, were not always associated with impaired task performance. With regard to behavioural addictions, some evidence has been found for similar neural deficits; however, studies are scarce and results are not yet conclusive. Differences among the major classes of substances of abuse were identified and involve stronger neural responses to errors in individuals with alcohol dependence versus weaker neural responses to errors in other substance-dependent populations. Limitations Task design and analysis techniques vary across studies, thereby reducing comparability among studies and the potential of clinical use of these measures. Conclusion Current addiction theories were supported by identifying consistent abnormalities in prefrontal brain function in individuals with addiction. An integrative model is proposed, suggesting that neural deficits in the dorsal ACC may constitute a hallmark neurocognitive deficit underlying addictive behaviours, such as loss of control. PMID:24359877
Full Text Available Harish A Sharma1, Rajarsi Gupta2, William Olivero31Robarts Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 2University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA; 3Neurological Surgery, University of Illinois UC/Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, IL, USAAbstract: Low back pain is a common human ailment. It is estimated that over 70% of the population will experience low back pain that will require medication and/or medical attention. There are many causes for low back pain, one being herniation of the discs of the lumbar spine. Treatment options are very limited. Why patients develop chronic pain especially when there is no known organic cause or when the offending painful stimulus has been removed remains poorly understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a technique that allows researchers to image which regions of the brain that are activated during motor, cognitive, and sensory experiences. Using fMRI to study pain has revealed new information about how the brain responds to painful stimuli and what regions of the brain are activated during pain. However, many of the paradigms used do not replicate the subject's pain or use painful stimuli in volunteers without pain. Also, following patients from their acute phase of pain to the chronic phase with serial fMRI has not been performed. In this study we developed a paradigm that would allow studying patients with low back pain and leg pain including lumbar radiculopathy to better mimic a clinical pain syndrome and to have a method of following patients with this type of pain over time.Keywords: functional magnetic resonance imaging, low back pain, pain syndrome, chronic pain
Liu, Jia; Duffy, Ben A; Bernal-Casas, David; Fang, Zhongnan; Lee, Jin Hyung
A large number of fMRI studies have shown that the temporal dynamics of evoked BOLD responses can be highly heterogeneous. Failing to model heterogeneous responses in statistical analysis can lead to significant errors in signal detection and characterization and alter the neurobiological interpretation. However, to date it is not clear that, out of a large number of options, which methods are robust against variability in the temporal dynamics of BOLD responses in block-design studies. Here, we used rodent optogenetic fMRI data with heterogeneous BOLD responses and simulations guided by experimental data as a means to investigate different analysis methods' performance against heterogeneous BOLD responses. Evaluations are carried out within the general linear model (GLM) framework and consist of standard basis sets as well as independent component analysis (ICA). Analyses show that, in the presence of heterogeneous BOLD responses, conventionally used GLM with a canonical basis set leads to considerable errors in the detection and characterization of BOLD responses. Our results suggest that the 3rd and 4th order gamma basis sets, the 7th to 9th order finite impulse response (FIR) basis sets, the 5th to 9th order B-spline basis sets, and the 2nd to 5th order Fourier basis sets are optimal for good balance between detection and characterization, while the 1st order Fourier basis set (coherence analysis) used in our earlier studies show good detection capability. ICA has mostly good detection and characterization capabilities, but detects a large volume of spurious activation with the control fMRI data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slotnick, Scott D
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the standard method of evaluating brain function in the field of Cognitive Neuroscience, in part because fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques are readily available. Because fMRI has excellent spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution, this method can only be used to identify the spatial location of brain activity associated with a given cognitive process (and reveals virtually nothing about the time course of brain activity). By contrast, event-related potential (ERP) recording, a method that is used much less frequently than fMRI, has excellent temporal resolution and thus can track rapid temporal modulations in neural activity. Unfortunately, ERPs are under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and low density ERP recording has poor spatial resolution. In an effort to foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition. Critically, high density ERPs offer the promise of excellent temporal resolution and good spatial resolution (or excellent spatial resolution if coupled with fMRI), which is necessary to capture the spatial-temporal dynamics of human brain function.
Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle
Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shah, Ankoor S.; Bressler, Steven L.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Ding, Ming-Zhou; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Ulbert, Istvan; Schroeder, Charles E.
There are two opposing hypotheses about the brain mechanisms underlying sensory event-related potentials (ERPs). One holds that sensory ERPs are generated by phase resetting of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and the other that they result from signal averaging of stimulus-evoked neural responses. We tested several contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by direct intracortical analysis of neural activity in monkeys. Our findings clearly demonstrate evoked response contributions to the sensory ERP in the monkey, and they suggest the likelihood that a mixed (Evoked/Phase Resetting) model may account for the generation of scalp ERPs in humans.
Jonckers, Elisabeth; Shah, Disha; Hamaide, Julie; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g., treatment, lesion etc.) modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI) and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI) between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with several methodological
Triplett, Regina L; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D; Asato, Miya R
Deficits in executive function are noted increasingly in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8-17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (nonreward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.
Triplett, Regina L.; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Gaillard, William D.; Asato, Miya R.
SUMMARY Objective Deficits in executive function are increasingly noted in children with epilepsy and have been associated with poor academic and psychosocial outcomes. Impaired inhibitory control contributes to executive dysfunction in children with epilepsy; however, its neuroanatomic basis has not yet been investigated. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to probe the integrity of activation in brain regions underlying inhibitory control in children with epilepsy. Methods This cross-sectional study consisted of 34 children aged 8 to 17 years: 17 with well-controlled epilepsy and 17 age-and sex-matched controls. Participants performed the antisaccade (AS) task, representative of inhibitory control, during fMRI scanning. We compared AS performance during neutral and reward task conditions and evaluated task-related blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. Results Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired AS performance compared to controls during both neutral (non-reward) and reward trials, but exhibited significant task improvement during reward trials. Post-hoc analysis revealed that younger patients made more errors than older patients and all controls. fMRI results showed preserved activation in task-relevant regions in patients and controls, with the exception of increased activation in the left posterior cingulate gyrus in patients specifically with generalized epilepsy across neutral and reward trials. Significance Despite impaired inhibitory control, children with epilepsy accessed typical neural pathways as did their peers without epilepsy. Children with epilepsy showed improved behavioral performance in response to the reward condition, suggesting potential benefits of the use of incentives in cognitive remediation. PMID:25223606
Lee, T-W; Northoff, G; Wu, Y-T
In resting state, the dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed reliable modular structures. To explore the network property, previous research used to construct an adjacency matrix by Pearson's correlation and prune it using stringent statistical threshold. However, traditional analyses may lose useful information at middle to moderate high correlation level. This resting fMRI study adopted full connection as a criterion to partition the adjacency matrix into composite sub-matrices (neural patterns) and investigated the associated community organization and network features. Modular consistency across subjects was assessed using scaled inclusivity index. Our results disclosed two neural patterns with reliable modular structures. Concordant with the results of traditional intervention, community detection analysis showed that neural pattern 1, the sub-matrix at highest correlation level, was composed of sensory-motor, visual associative, default mode/midline, temporal limbic and basal ganglia structures. The neural pattern 2 was situated at middle to moderate high correlation level and comprised two larger modules, possibly associated with mental processing of outer world (such as visuo-associative, auditory and sensory-motor networks) and inner homeostasis (such as default-mode, midline and limbic systems). Graph theoretical analyses further demonstrated that the network feature of neural pattern 1 was more local and segregate, whereas that of neural pattern 2 was more global and integrative. Our results suggest that future resting fMRI research may take the neural pattern at middle to moderate high correlation range into consideration, which has long been ignored in extant literature. The variation of neural pattern 2 could be relevant to individual characteristics of self-regulatory functions, and the disruption in its topology may underlie the pathology of several neuropsychiatric illnesses
Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L
Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks.
Bethlehem, Richard A I; van Honk, Jack; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon
In recent years the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has become one of the most studied peptides of the human neuroendocrine system. Research has shown widespread behavioural effects and numerous potential therapeutic benefits. However, little is known about how OT triggers these effects in the brain. Here, we discuss some of the physiological properties of OT in the human brain including the long half-life of neuropeptides, the diffuse projections of OT throughout the brain and interactions with other systems such as the dopaminergic system. These properties indicate that OT acts without clear spatial and temporal specificity. Therefore, it is likely to have widespread effects on the brain's intrinsic functioning. Additionally, we review studies that have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) concurrently with OT administration. These studies reveal a specific set of 'social' brain regions that are likely to be the strongest targets for OT's potential to influence human behaviour. On the basis of the fMRI literature and the physiological properties of the neuropeptide, we argue that OT has the potential to not only modulate activity in a set of specific brain regions, but also the functional connectivity between these regions. In light of the increasing knowledge of the behavioural effects of OT in humans, studies of the effects of OT administration on brain function can contribute to our understanding of the neural networks in the social brain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hesling, Isabelle; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Peppé, Sue; Amirault, Marion; Bouvard, Manuel; Allard, Michèle
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a specific triad of symptoms such as abnormalities in social interaction, abnormalities in communication and restricted activities and interests. While verbal autistic subjects may present a correct mastery of the formal aspects of speech, they have difficulties in prosody (music of speech), leading to communication disorders. Few behavioural studies have revealed a prosodic impairment in children with autism, and among the few fMRI studies aiming at assessing the neural network involved in language, none has specifically studied prosodic speech. The aim of the present study was to characterize specific prosodic components such as linguistic prosody (intonation, rhythm and emphasis) and emotional prosody and to correlate them with the neural network underlying them. We used a behavioural test (Profiling Elements of the Prosodic System, PEPS) and fMRI to characterize prosodic deficits and investigate the neural network underlying prosodic processing. Results revealed the existence of a link between perceptive and productive prosodic deficits for some prosodic components (rhythm, emphasis and affect) in HFA and also revealed that the neural network involved in prosodic speech perception exhibits abnormal activation in the left SMG as compared to controls (activation positively correlated with intonation and emphasis) and an absence of deactivation patterns in regions involved in the default mode. These prosodic impairments could not only result from activation patterns abnormalities but also from an inability to adequately use the strategy of the default network inhibition, both mechanisms that have to be considered for decreasing task performance in High Functioning Autism.
Johnson, Matthew R.; McCarthy, Gregory; Muller, Kathleen A.; Brudner, Samuel N.; Johnson, Marcia K.
Refreshing is the component cognitive process of directing reflective attention to one of several active mental representations. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggested that refresh tasks involve a component process of initiating refreshing as well as the top-down modulation of representational regions central to refreshing. However, those studies were limited by fMRI’s low temporal resolution. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the timecourse of refreshing on the scale of milliseconds rather than seconds. Event-related potential (ERP) analyses showed that a typical refresh task does have a distinct electrophysiological response as compared to a control condition, and includes at least two main temporal components: an earlier (~400ms) positive peak reminiscent of a P3 response, and a later (~800ms–1400ms) sustained positivity over several sites reminiscent of the late directing attention positivity (LDAP). Overall, the evoked potentials for refreshing representations from three different visual categories (faces, scenes, words) were similar, but multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) showed that some category information was nonetheless present in the EEG signal. When related to previous fMRI studies, these results are consistent with a two-phase model, with the first phase dominated by frontal control signals involved in initiating refreshing and the second by the top-down modulation of posterior perceptual cortical areas that constitutes refreshing a representation. This study also lays the foundation for future studies of the neural correlates of reflective attention at a finer temporal resolution than is possible using fMRI. PMID:25961640
Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Herman, Peter; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hyder, Fahmeed
Energetic basis of neural activity provides a solid foundation for noninvasive neuroimaging with calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Calculating dynamic changes in cerebral oxidative energy utilization (CMRO2) is limited by uncertainties about whether or not the conventional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) model can be applied transiently using multimodal measurements of blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) that affect the BOLD signal. A prerequisite for dynamic calibrated fMRI is testing the linearity of multimodal signals within a temporal regimen, as assessed by signal strength (i.e., both intensity and width). If each hyperemic component (BOLD, CBV, CBF) is demonstrated to be linear with neural activity under various experimental conditions, then the respective transfer functions generated by deconvolution with neural activity should be time invariant and thus could potentially be used for calculating CMRO2 transients. Hyperemic components were investigated at 11.7 T in α-chloralose-anesthetized rats and combined with electrophysiological recordings of local field potential (LFP) and multiunit activity (MUA) from the cortex during forepaw stimulation, in which stimulus number and frequency were varied. Although relationships between neural activity and stimulus features ranged from linear to nonlinear, associations between hyperemic components and neural activity were linear. Specific to each hyperemic component, a universal transfer function (with LFP or MUA) yielded predictions in agreement with experimental measurements. The results identified a component of the BOLD signal that can be attributed to significant changes in CMRO2, even for temporal events separated by <200 ms. PMID:19211878
Tatia M C Lee
Full Text Available The neural correlates of lying about affective information were studied using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI methodology. Specifically, 13 healthy right-handed Chinese men were instructed to lie about the valence, positive or negative, of pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS while their brain activity was scanned by a 3T Philip Achieva scanner. The key finding is that the neural activity associated with deception is valence-related. Comparing to telling the truth, deception about the valence of the affectively positive pictures was associated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, precuneus, and middle temporal regions. Lying about the valence of the affectively negative pictures, on the other hand, was associated with activity in the orbital and medial frontal regions. While a clear valence-related effect on deception was observed, common neural regions were also recruited for the process of deception about the valence of the affective pictures. These regions included the lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions. Activity in these regions has been widely reported in fMRI studies on deception using affectively-neutral stimuli. The findings of this study reveal the effect of valence on the neural activity associated with deception. Furthermore, the data also help to illustrate the complexity of the neural mechanisms underlying deception.
Tierney, Tim M; Carmichael, David W
Random Field Theory has been used in the fMRI literature to address the multiple comparisons problem. The method provides an analytical solution for the computation of precise p-values when its assumptions are met. When its assumptions are not met the thresholds generated by Random Field Theory can be more conservative than Bonferroni corrections, which are arguably too stringent for use in fMRI. As this has been well documented theoretically it is surprising that a majority of current studies (~80%) would not meet the assumptions of Random Field Theory and therefore would have reduced sensitivity. Specifically most data is not smooth enough to meet the good lattice assumption. Current studies smooth data on average by twice the voxel size which is rarely sufficient to meet the good lattice assumption. The amount of smoothing required for Random Field Theory to produce accurate p-values increases with image resolution and decreases with degrees of freedom. There is no rule of thumb that is valid for all study...
Del Din, Silvia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Sawacha, Zimi; Jonsdottir, Johanna; Rabuffetti, Marco; Cobelli, Claudio; Ferrarin, Maurizio
The ability to walk independently is a primary goal for rehabilitation after stroke. Gait analysis provides a great amount of valuable information, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a powerful approach to define networks involved in motor control. The present study reports a new methodology based on both fMRI and gait analysis outcomes in order to investigate the ability of fMRI to reflect the phases of motor learning before/after electromyographic biofeedback treatment: the preliminary fMRI results of a post stroke subject's brain activation, during passive and active ankle dorsal/plantarflexion, before and after biofeedback (BFB) rehabilitation are reported and their correlation with gait analysis data investigated. A control subject and a post-stroke patient with chronic hemiparesis were studied. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a block-design protocol on both subjects while performing passive and active ankle dorsal/plantarflexion. fMRI and gait analysis were assessed on the patient before and after electromyographic biofeedback rehabilitation treatment during gait activities. Lower limb three-dimensional kinematics, kinetics and surface electromyography were evaluated. Correlation between fMRI and gait analysis categorical variables was assessed: agreement/disagreement was assigned to each variable if the value was in/outside the normative range (gait analysis), or for presence of normal/diffuse/no activation of motor area (fMRI). Altered fMRI activity was found on the post-stroke patient before biofeedback rehabilitation with respect to the control one. Meanwhile the patient showed a diffuse, but more limited brain activation after treatment (less voxels). The post-stroke gait data showed a trend towards the normal range: speed, stride length, ankle power, and ankle positive work increased. Preliminary correlation analysis revealed that consistent changes were observed both for the fMRI data, and the gait
Thijs, Youri; Vingerhoets, Guy; Pattyn, Els; Rombaut, Lies; Witvrouw, Erik
Studies have shown that proprioceptive inputs during active and passive arm movements are processed in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain. At which level of the central nervous system proprioceptive signals coming from the knee are regulated remains to be elucidated. In order to investigate whether there is a detectable difference in brain activity when various proprioceptive inputs are exerted at the knee, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used. fMRI in 13 healthy, right leg-dominant female volunteers compared brain activation during flexion-extension movements of the right knee under three different conditions: with application of a tight knee brace, with application of a moderate tight knee sleeve, and without application of a brace or sleeve. Brain activation was detected in the primary sensorimotor cortex (left and right paracentral lobule) and in the left superior parietal lobule of the brain. There was a significantly higher level of brain activation with the application of the brace and sleeve, respectively, compared to the condition without a brace or sleeve. A significantly higher cortical activation was also seen when comparing the braced condition with the condition when a sleeve was applied. The results suggest that peripheral proprioceptive input to the knee joint by means of a brace or sleeve seems to influence brain activity during knee movement. The results of this study also show that the intensity of brain activation during knee movement can be influenced by the intensity of proprioceptive stimulation at the joint.
Isanova, E.; Petrovskiy, E.; Savelov, A.; Yudkin, D.; Tulupov, A.
The study aimed to assess the neural activity of different brain regions in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and the healthy volunteers by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a 1.5 T MRI Achieva scanner (Philips). Results: The fMRI study showed a DMN of brain function in patients with FXS, as well as in the healthy volunteers. Furthermore, it was found that a default mode network of the brain in patients with FXS and healthy volunteers does not have statistically significant differences (p>0.05), which may indicate that the basal activity of neurons in patients with FXS is not reduced. In addition, we have found a significant (p<0.001) increase in the FC within the right inferior parietal and right angular gyrus in the resting state in patients with FXS. Conclusion: New data of functional status of the brain in patients with FXS were received. The significant increase in the resting state functional connectivity within the right inferior parietal and right angular gyrus (p<0.001) in patients with FXS was found.
Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank
Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155
Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Hollnagel, Christoph; Brügger, Mike; Kollias, Spyros; Riener, Robert
The goal of robotic therapy is to provoke motor plasticity via the application of robotic training strategies. Although robotic haptic guidance is the commonly used motor-training strategy to reduce performance errors while training, research on motor learning has emphasized that errors are a fundamental neural signal that drives motor adaptation. Thus, researchers have proposed robotic therapy algorithms that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. Studying the particular brain regions involved in learning under different training strategies might help tailoring motor training conditions to the anatomical location of a focal brain insult. In this paper, we evaluate the brain regions involved in locomotion adaptation when training with three different conditions: without robotic guidance, with a random-varying force disturbance, and with repulsive forces proportional to errors. We performed an fMRI pilot study with four healthy subjects who stepped in an fMRI compatible walking robotic device. Subjects were instructed to actively synchronize their left leg with respect to their right leg (passively guided by the robot) while their left leg was affected by any of the three conditions. We observed activation in areas known to be involved in error processing. Although we found that all conditions required the similar cortical network to fulfill the task, we observed a tendency towards more activity in the motor/sensory network as more "challenged" the subjects were. © 2011 IEEE
Catherine J. Stoodley
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies report cerebellar activation during both motor and non-motor paradigms, and suggest a functional topography within the cerebellum. Sensorimotor tasks activate the anterior lobe, parts of lobule VI, and lobule VIII, whereas higher-level tasks activate lobules VI and VII in the posterior lobe. To determine whether these activation patterns are evident at a single-subject level, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during five tasks investigating sensorimotor (finger tapping, language (verb generation, spatial (mental rotation, working memory (N-back, and emotional processing (viewing images from the International Affective Picture System. Finger tapping activated the ipsilateral anterior lobe (lobules IV-V as well as lobules VI and VIII. Activation during verb generation was found in right lobules VII and VIIIA. Mental rotation activated left-lateralized clusters in lobules VII-VIIIA, VI-Crus I, and midline VIIAt. The N-back task showed bilateral activation in right lobules VI-Crus I and left lobules VIIB-VIIIA. Cerebellar activation was evident bilaterally in lobule VI while viewing arousing vs. neutral images. This fMRI study provides the first proof of principle demonstration that there is topographic organization of motor execution vs. cognitive/emotional domains within the cerebellum of a single individual, likely reflecting the anatomical specificity of cerebro-cerebellar circuits underlying different task domains. Inter-subject variability of motor and non-motor topography remains to be determined.
Gao, Weijia; Jiao, Qing; Lu, Shaojia; Zhong, Yuan; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Dali; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Fan; Lu, Guangming; Su, Linyan
Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has attracted increasing attentions due to its high prevalence and great influence on social functions of children and adolescents. However, the pathophysiology underlying PBD remains unclear. In the present study, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to detect abnormalities of baseline brain functions in depressed PBD youth. Seventeen youth with PBD-depression aged 10 - 18 years old and 18 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited in this study. The fMRI data under resting state were obtained on a Siemens 3.0 Tesla scanner and were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Correlations between the ReHo values of each survived area and the severity of depression symptoms in patients were further analyzed. As compared with the control group, PBD-depression patients showed decreased ReHo in the medial frontal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and the right putamen. Significant negative correlations of the mood and feelings questionnaire scores with mean ReHo values in the medial frontal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus in PBD-depression patients were observed. Our results suggest that extensive regions with altered baseline brain activities are existed in PBD-depression and these brain regions mainly locate in the fronto-limbic circuit and associated striatal structures. Moreover, the present findings also add to our understanding that there could be unique neuropathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD-depression.
Gabbatore, Ilaria; Geda, Elisabetta; Gastaldo, Luigi; Duca, Sergio; Costa, Tommaso; Bara, Bruno G.; Sacco, Katiuscia
Introduction. The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of a rehabilitative training, the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), aimed at improving communicative-pragmatic abilities and the related cognitive components, on the cerebral modifications of a single case patient diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods. The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after the treatment. In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain. Behavioural measures of the patient's communicative performance were also gathered before and after training and at follow-up. Results. The patient improved his communicative performance in almost all tests. Posttraining stronger ALFF signal emerged in the superior, inferior, and medial frontal gyri, as well as the superior temporal gyri. Conclusions. Even if based on a single case study, these preliminary results show functional changes at the cerebral level that seem to support the patient's behavioural improvements. PMID:28239498
Serra-Grabulosa, Josep M; Adan, Ana; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria
Caffeine and glucose can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, neural basis of these effects remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and glucose on sustained attention, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty young right-handed, healthy, low caffeine-consuming subjects participated in the study. In a double-blind, randomised design, subjects received one of the following beverages: vehicle (water, 150 ml); vehicle plus 75 g of glucose; vehicle plus 75 mg of caffeine; vehicle plus 75 g of glucose and 75 mg of caffeine. Participants underwent two scanning fMRI sessions (before and 30 min after of the administration of the beverage). A continuous performance test was used to assess sustained attention. Participants who received combined caffeine and glucose had similar performance to the others but had a decrease in activation in the bilateral parietal and left prefrontal cortex. Since these areas have been related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that combined caffeine and glucose could increase the efficiency of the attentional system. However, more studies using larger samples and different levels of caffeine and glucose are necessary to better understand the combined effects of both substances. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bucher, Kerstin; Dietrich, Thomas; Marcar, Valentine L; Brem, Silvia; Halder, Pascal; Boujraf, Said; Summers, Paul; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Loenneker, Thomas
Abilities to discriminate forms defined by motion continue to develop throughout childhood. To investigate late development of the visual motion system, we measured brain activity with event-related EEG potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in groups of adolescents (15-17 years) and adults (20-30 years) during a visual form discrimination task--with forms being either defined by motion or luminance contrast. We further explored whether possible developmental changes varied with the degree of motion coherence reflecting maturation specific to global motion processing. Both the fMRI activation patterns and ERP topographies were very similar between adolescents and adults, suggesting that the basic visual networks for processing motion and form are established by the age of 15-17. The ERP response to luminance- and motion-defined forms was dominated by a posterior negativity (N1: 120-270 ms). The N1 of the motion contrast was delayed in adolescents, whereas the N1 of the static condition did not differ between groups. Since the motion-evoked N1 is thought to arise in the middle temporal area MT/V5, our results indicate that visual motion processing in MT continues to get faster, becoming still more efficient during late development. Neither the ERP nor the fMRI results revealed maturation effects specific to motion coherence. This indicates that the specific mechanisms to process global dot motion are already mature in adolescence. The present findings support the view that static perception matures earlier than dynamic perception, and that these visual systems have different developmental courses.
Pyka, M; Burgmer, M; Lenzen, T; Pioch, R; Dannlowski, U; Pfleiderer, B; Ewert, A W; Heuft, G; Arolt, V; Konrad, C
Hypnotic paralysis has been used since the times of Charcot to study altered states of consciousness; however, the underlying neurobiological correlates are poorly understood. We investigated human brain function during hypnotic paralysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), focussing on two core regions of the default mode network and the representation of the paralysed hand in the primary motor cortex. Hypnotic suggestion induced an observable left-hand paralysis in 19 participants. Resting-state fMRI at 3T was performed in pseudo-randomised order awake and in the hypnotic condition. Functional connectivity analyses revealed increased connectivity of the precuneus with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, angular gyrus, and a dorsal part of the precuneus. Functional connectivity of the medial frontal cortex and the primary motor cortex remained unchanged. Our results reveal that the precuneus plays a pivotal role during maintenance of an altered state of consciousness. The increased coupling of selective cortical areas with the precuneus supports the concept that hypnotic paralysis may be mediated by a modified representation of the self which impacts motor abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Feddern, Richard; Knake, Annika; Knöchel, Christian; Prvulovic, David; Fußer, Fabian; Karakaya, Tarik; Loellgen, Deborah; Freitag, Christine; Pantel, Johannes; Linden, David E J
Episodic memory deficits affect the majority of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The study investigates episodic memory performance through different approaches, including behavioural measures, physiological parameters, and the underlying functional activation patterns with functional neuroimaging (fMRI). 26 Remitted BD patients and a matched group of healthy controls underwent a verbal episodic memory test together with monitored autonomic response, psychopathological ratings and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the verbal episodic memory test. Compared to healthy controls, BD patients performed significantly worse during the episodic memory task. The results further indicate that verbal episodic memory deficits in BD are associated with abnormal functional activity patterns in frontal, occipital and limbic regions, and an increase in stress parameters. We aimed to minimise sample heterogeneity by setting clear criteria for remission, based on the scores of a depression (BDI II) and mania scale (BRMAS) and on the DSM IV criteria. However, our patients were not symptom-free and scored higher on BDI II scores than the control group. The results are of interest for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in BD patients, as persistent cognitive impairment may hamper full rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Zennaro, Alessandro; Cauda, Franco
Recently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limbic system. These findings are in line with the traditional conceptualization of the test, as they suggest that taking the Rorschach involves (a) high-level visual processing, (b) top-down as well as bottom-up attentional processes, and (c) perception and processing of emotions and emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Interference control and conflict resolution is affected by ageing. There is increasing evidence that ageing does not compromise interference control in general but rather shows distinctive effects on different components of interference control. Different conflict types, (e.g. stimulus-stimulus (S-S or stimulus-response (S-R conflicts trigger different cognitive processes and thus activate different neural networks. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we used a combined Flanker and Stimulus Response Conflict (SRC task to investigate the effect of ageing on S-S and S-R conflicts. Behavioral data analysis revealed larger SRC effects in elderly. fMRI Results show that both age groups recruited similar regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus and middle occipital gyrus during Flanker conflict processing. Furthermore, elderly show an additional activation pattern in parietal and frontal areas. In contrast, no common activation of both age groups was found in response to the SRC. These data suggest that ageing has distinctive effects on S-S and S-R conflicts.
García-García, Isabel; Jurado, María Ángeles; Garolera, Maite; Marqués-Iturria, Idoia; Horstmann, Annette; Segura, Bàrbara; Pueyo, Roser; Sender-Palacios, María José; Vernet-Vernet, Maria; Villringer, Arno; Junqué, Carme; Margulies, Daniel S; Neumann, Jane
Obesity is associated with structural and functional alterations in brain areas that are often functionally distinct and anatomically distant. This suggests that obesity is associated with differences in functional connectivity of regions distributed across the brain. However, studies addressing whole brain functional connectivity in obesity remain scarce. Here, we compared voxel-wise degree centrality and eigenvector centrality between participants with obesity (n=20) and normal-weight controls (n=21). We analyzed resting state and task-related fMRI data acquired from the same individuals. Relative to normal-weight controls, participants with obesity exhibited reduced degree centrality in the right middle frontal gyrus in the resting-state condition. During the task fMRI condition, obese participants exhibited less degree centrality in the left middle frontal gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex along with reduced eigenvector centrality in the lateral occipital cortex and occipital pole. Our results highlight the central role of the middle frontal gyrus in the pathophysiology of obesity, a structure involved in several brain circuits signaling attention, executive functions and motor functions. Additionally, our analysis suggests the existence of task-dependent reduced centrality in occipital areas; regions with a role in perceptual processes and that are profoundly modulated by attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hauk, Olaf; Davis, Matthew H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
Psycholinguistic research has documented a range of variables that influence visual word recognition performance. Many of these variables are highly intercorrelated. Most previous studies have used factorial designs, which do not exploit the full range of values available for continuous variables, and are prone to skewed stimulus selection as well as to effects of the baseline (e.g. when contrasting words with pseudowords). In our study, we used a parametric approach to study the effects of several psycholinguistic variables on brain activation. We focussed on the variable word frequency, which has been used in numerous previous behavioural, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, in order to investigate the neuronal network underlying visual word processing. Furthermore, we investigated the variable orthographic typicality as well as a combined variable for word length and orthographic neighbourhood size (N), for which neuroimaging results are still either scarce or inconsistent. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis of event-related fMRI data acquired from 21 subjects in a silent reading paradigm. The frequency variable correlated negatively with activation in left fusiform gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyri and bilateral insulae, indicating that word frequency can affect multiple aspects of word processing. N correlated positively with brain activity in left and right middle temporal gyri as well as right inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, our analysis revealed multiple distinct brain areas involved in visual word processing within one data set.
Hartwell, Karen J.; Prisciandaro, James J.; Borckardt, Jeffery; Li, Xingbao; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.
Technical advances allowing for the analysis of fMRI results in real-time have led to studies exploring the ability of individuals to use neural feedback signals to modify behavior and regional brain activation. The use of real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) feedback has been explored for therapeutic benefit in a number of disease states, but to our knowledge the potential therapeutic benefit of rtfMRI feedback in the treatment of addictive disorders has not been explored. This manuscript will provide an...
Full Text Available Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition. The fMRI data were analyzed using a novel fixation-based event-related (FIBER method, which allows the tracking of brain activity linked to individual fixations. The results revealed that fixating an emotional object was linked to greater deactivation in the right lingual gyrus than fixating the background of an emotional image, while no difference between object and background was found for neutral images. We suggest that deactivation in the lingual gyrus might be linked to inhibition of saccade execution. This was supported by fixation duration results, which showed that in the negative condition, fixations falling on the object were longer than those falling on the background. Furthermore, increase in the image clarity was correlated with fixation-related activity within the lateral occipital complex, the structure linked to object recognition. This correlation was significantly stronger for negative images, presumably due to greater deployment of attention towards emotional objects. Our eye-tracking results are in line with these observations, showing that the chance of fixating an object rose faster for negative images over neutral ones as the level of noise decreased. Overall, our study demonstrated that emotional value of an image changes the way that low and high-level scene properties affect the characteristics of
Slabu, Lavinia Mihaela
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful technique because of the high spatial resolution and the noninvasiveness. The applications of the fMRI to the auditory pathway remain a challenge due to the intense acoustic scanner noise of approximately 110 dB SPL. The auditory system
Full Text Available The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to 1 capture the superior performance of expert athletes and 2 capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck towards a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120 where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on 6 elite expert hockey players, 5 intermediate players, and 6 non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < .05 more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1. We then tested 3 of the hockey players and 3 of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2. In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited.
Grimm, Simone; Beck, Johannes; Schuepbach, Daniel; Hell, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Bermpohl, Felix; Niehaus, Ludwig; Boeker, Heinz; Northoff, Georg
Although recent neuroimaging and therapeutic transcranial magnetic cortex stimulation (TMS) studies suggest imbalance between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) the fundamental neuropsychological characterization of left DLPFC hypoactivity and right DLPFC hyperactivity in MDD remains poorly understood. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activity in left and right DLPFC related to unattended (unexpected) and attended (expected) judgment of emotions. Participating in the study were 20 medication-free patients with MDD and 30 healthy subjects. The MDD patients showed hypoactivity in the left DLPFC during both unattended and attended emotional judgment and hyperactivity in the right DLPFC during attended emotional judgment. In contrast to healthy subjects, left DLPFC activity during emotional judgment was not parametrically modulated by negative emotional valence and was inversely modulated by positive emotional valence in MDD patients. Hyperactivity in the right DLPFC correlated with depression severity. Results demonstrate that left DLPFC hypoactivity is associated with negative emotional judgment rather than with emotional perception or attention while right DLPFC hyperactivity is linked to attentional modulation. Left-right DLPFC imbalance is characterized in neuropsychological regard, which bridges the gap from resting metabolism and therapeutic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation effects to functional neuroanatomy of altered emotional-cognitive interaction in MDD.
Rostrup, Egill; Law, I; Blinkenberg, M
Previous fMRI studies of the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia have shown signal change in cerebral gray matter, but not in white matter. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare (15)O PET and T *(2)-weighted MRI during a hypercapnic challenge. The measurements were perf...
Whalley, Matthew G.; Rugg, Michael D.; Smith, Adam P. R.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Brewin, Chris R.
In the present study, we used fMRI to assess patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression, and trauma-exposed controls, during an episodic memory retrieval task that included non-trauma-related emotional information. In the study phase of the task neutral pictures were presented in emotional or neutral contexts.…
Domján, Nóra; Csifcsák, Gábor; Janka, Zoltán
The investigation of schizophrenia's aetiology and pathomechanism is of high importance in neurosciences. In the recent decades, analyzing event-related potentials have proven to be useful to reveal the neuropsychological dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Even the very early stages of auditory stimulus processing are impaired in this disorder; this might contribute to the experience of auditory hallucinations. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relationship between auditory hallucinations and event-related potentials. Due to the dysfunction of early auditory sensory processing, patients with schizophrenia are not able to locate the source of stimuli and to allocate their attention appropriately. These deficits might lead to auditory hallucinations and problems with daily functioning. Studies involving high risk groups may provide tools for screening and early interventions; thus improving the prognosis of schizophrenia.
Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Friston, Karl J.; Toosy, Ahmed T.; Gandini Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M.
Abstract Motor fMRI studies, comparing dominant (DH) and nondominant (NDH) hand activations have reported mixed findings, especially for the extent of ipsilateral (IL) activations and their relationship with task complexity. To date, no study has directly compared DH and NDH activations using an event‐related visually guided dynamic power‐grip paradigm with parametric (three) forces (GF) in healthy right‐handed subjects. We implemented a hierarchical statistical approach aimed to: (i) identify the main effect networks engaged when using either hand; (ii) characterise DH/NDH responses at different GFs; (iii) assess contralateral (CL)/IL‐specific and hemisphere‐specific activations. Beyond confirming previously reported results, this study demonstrated that increasing GF has an effect on motor response that is contextualised also by the use of DH or NDH. Linear analysis revealed increased activations in sensorimotor areas, with additional increased recruitments of subcortical and cerebellar areas when using the NDH. When looking at CL/IL‐specific activations, CL sensorimotor areas and IL cerebellum were activated with both hands. When performing the task with the NDH, several areas were also recruited including the CL cerebellum. Finally, there were hand‐side‐independent activations of nonmotor‐specific areas in the right and left hemispheres, with the right hemisphere being involved more extensively in sensori‐motor integration through associative areas while the left hemisphere showing greater activation at higher GF. This study shows that the functional networks subtending DH/NDH power‐grip visuomotor functions are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct and this should be taken into consideration when performing fMRI studies, particularly when planning interventions in patients with specific impairments. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5079–5100, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26415818
Yusoff, A. N.; Teng, X. L.; Ng, S. B.; Hamid, A. I. A.; Mukari, S. Z. M.
This study aimed to model the psychophysiological interaction (PPI) between the bilateral STG and cerebellum (lobule VI and lobule VII) during an arithmetic addition task. Eighteen young adults participated in this study. They were instructed to solve single-digit addition tasks in quiet and noisy backgrounds during an fMRI scan. Results showed that in both hemispheres, the response in the cerebellum was found to be linearly influenced by the activity in STG (vice-versa) for both in-quiet and in-noise conditions. However, the influence of the cerebellum on STG seemed to be modulated by noise. A two-way PPI model between STG and cerebellum is suggested. The connectivity between the two regions during a simple addition task in a noisy condition is modulated by the participants’ higher attention to perceive.
Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Guedj, Eric; Souville, Marc; Trousselard, Marion; Zendjidjian, Xavier; El Khoury-Malhame, Myriam; Fakra, Eric; Nazarian, Bruno; Blin, Olivier; Canini, Frédéric; Khalfa, Stephanie
Resilience refers to the capacity to cope effectively in stressful situations or adversity. It may involve the ability to experience emotions matching the demands of environmental circumstances. The brain mechanisms underlying resilience remain unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the relationship between the neural basis of emotional experience and resilience. Thirty-six fire-fighters were included. They performed an fMRI script-driven paradigm comprising relaxing and trauma-related scripts to evaluate the cerebral substrate of emotional experience (presilience DRS15 scale (pResilience was positively correlated with the right amygdala and left orbitofrontal activations when performing the contrast of trauma vs. relaxing script. The present study provides neural data on the mechanisms underlying resilience and their relationship with emotional reactivity, suggesting that appropriate emotional response in stressful situations is essential for coping with aversive events in daily life. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jan Christopher Cwik
Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.
Wenxing Hu; Dongdong Lin; Calhoun, Vince D; Yu-Ping Wang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex mental disorder associated with genetic variations, brain development and activities, and environmental factors. There is an increasing interest in combining genetic, epigenetic and neuroimaging datasets to explore different level of biomarkers for the correlation and interaction between these diverse factors. Sparse Multi-Canonical Correlation Analysis (sMCCA) is a powerful tool that can analyze the correlation of three or more datasets. In this paper, we propose the sMCCA model for imaging genomics study. We show the advantage of sMCCA over sparse CCA (sCCA) through the simulation testing, and further apply it to the analysis of real data (SNPs, fMRI and methylation) from schizophrenia study. Some new genes and brain regions related to SZ disease are discovered by sMCCA and the relationships among these biomarkers are further discussed.
Onofrj, M; Fulgente, T; Thomas, A
Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to central and lateral half field patterned stimuli of 1, 2 and 4 cycles per degree (cpd) were recorded in a patient with Dorsal Simultanagnosia due to bilateral lesions of parieto-occipital junction. VEPs consisted of the normal N1-P1-N2 components with same spatial frequency sensitivity as in controls. VEPs had similar latencies and amplitudes whether the patient could see or not the patterned stimuli. Event related potentials (ERPs) to visual and acoustic odd-ball paradigm were also recorded in the same patient. Visual ERPs consisted of an early NA-effect, and of N2-P3 components. P3 was recorded only from frontal, central and temporal derivations. The topographical P3 abnormality was, however, the same for visual and acoustic odd-ball paradigms. The amplitude of P3 was smaller when the patient missed visual stimuli. These findings show that severe bilateral lesions at the parieto-occipital junction, inducing Simultanagnosia, do not obliterate VEPs or ERPs components.
Liang, Chun-Yu; Xu, Zhi-Yuan; Mei, Wei; Wang, Li-Li; Xue, Li; Lu, De Jian; Zhao, Hu
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified activation in the prefrontal-parietal-sub-cortical circuit during feigned memory impairment when comparing with truthful telling. Here, we used fMRI to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between answering correctly, answering randomly, answering…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a specific triad of symptoms such as abnormalities in social interaction, abnormalities in communication and restricted activities and interests. While verbal autistic subjects may present a correct mastery of the formal aspects of speech, they have difficulties in prosody (music of speech, leading to communication disorders. Few behavioural studies have revealed a prosodic impairment in children with autism, and among the few fMRI studies aiming at assessing the neural network involved in language, none has specifically studied prosodic speech. The aim of the present study was to characterize specific prosodic components such as linguistic prosody (intonation, rhythm and emphasis and emotional prosody and to correlate them with the neural network underlying them. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a behavioural test (Profiling Elements of the Prosodic System, PEPS and fMRI to characterize prosodic deficits and investigate the neural network underlying prosodic processing. Results revealed the existence of a link between perceptive and productive prosodic deficits for some prosodic components (rhythm, emphasis and affect in HFA and also revealed that the neural network involved in prosodic speech perception exhibits abnormal activation in the left SMG as compared to controls (activation positively correlated with intonation and emphasis and an absence of deactivation patterns in regions involved in the default mode. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These prosodic impairments could not only result from activation patterns abnormalities but also from an inability to adequately use the strategy of the default network inhibition, both mechanisms that have to be considered for decreasing task performance in High Functioning Autism.
Schulte, Laura H; Sprenger, Christian; May, Arne
The brainstem is a major site of processing and modulation of nociceptive input and plays a key role in the pathophysiology of various headache disorders. However, human imaging studies on brainstem function following trigeminal nociceptive stimulation are scarce as brainstem specific imaging approaches have to address multiple challenges such as magnetic field inhomogeneities and an enhanced level of physiological noise. In this study we used a viable protocol for brainstem fMRI of standardized trigeminal nociceptive stimulation to achieve detailed insight into physiological brainstem mechanisms of trigeminal nociception. We conducted a study of 21 healthy participants using a nociceptive ammonia stimulation of the left nasal mucosa with an optimized MR acquisition protocol for high resolution brainstem echoplanar imaging in combination with two different noise correction techniques. Significant BOLD responses to noxious ammonia stimulation were observed in areas typically involved in trigeminal nociceptive processing such as the spinal trigeminal nuclei (sTN), thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex and cerebellum as well as in a pain modulating network including the periaqueductal gray area, hypothalamus (HT), locus coeruleus and cuneiform nucleus (CNF). Activations of the left CNF were positively correlated with pain intensity ratings. Employing psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis we found enhanced functional connectivity of the sTN with the contralateral sTN and HT following trigeminal nociception. We also observed enhanced functional connectivity of the CNF with the RVM during painful stimulation thus implying an important role of these two brainstem regions in central pain processing. The chosen approach to study trigeminal nociception with high-resolution fMRI offers new insight into human pain processing and might thus lead to a better understanding of headache pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Curley, Louise E; Kydd, Rob R; Robertson, Michelle C; Pillai, Avinesh; McNair, Nicolas; Lee, HeeSeung; Kirk, Ian J; Russell, Bruce R
A novel group of designer drugs containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and/or trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) have been available worldwide for more than a decade; however, their effects on human brain function have not been extensively described. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, the acute effects of BZP and TFMPP (alone and in combination) on the neural networks involved in executive function were investigated using an event-related Stroop functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. Thirteen healthy participants aged 18-40 years undertook the Stroop task 90 min after taking an oral dose of either BZP (200 mg), TFMPP (either 50 or 60 mg), BZP + TFMPP (100 + 30 mg) or placebo. A change in activity in neural regions reflects an increase in local demand for oxygen, due to an increase in neuronal activity. Relative to placebo, an increase in neural activation was observed in the dorsal striatum following BZP, and in the thalamus following TFMPP, when performing the Stroop task. These data suggest that additional compensatory resources were recruited to maintain performance during the Stroop task. When BZP and TFMPP were administered together, both the dorsal striatum and thalamus were activated. However, the combination of BZP/TFMPP attenuated activation in the caudate, possibly due to TFMPP's indirect effects on dopamine release via 5HT2C receptors.
Cappadocia, David C; Monaco, Simona; Chen, Ying; Blohm, Gunnar; Crawford, J Douglas
The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution. Using the pro/anti instruction to differentiate visual and motor directional selectivity during planning, we found that one occipital area showed contralateral "visual" selectivity, whereas a broad constellation of left hemisphere occipital, parietal, and frontal areas showed contralateral "movement" selectivity. Temporal analysis of these areas through the entire memory-planning sequence revealed early visual selectivity in most areas, followed by movement selectivity in most areas, with all areas showing a stereotypical visuo-movement transition. Cross-correlation of these spatial parameters through time revealed separate spatiotemporally correlated modules for visual input, motor output, and visuo-movement transformations that spanned occipital, parietal, and frontal cortex. These results demonstrate a highly distributed occipital-parietal-frontal reach network involved in the transformation of retrospective sensory information into prospective movement plans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van Zutphen, Linda; Siep, Nicolette; Jacob, Gitta A; Goebel, R.; Arntz, Arnoud
Emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity are fundamental topics in research of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies using fMRI examining the neural correlates concerning these topics is growing and has just begun understanding the underlying neural correlates in BPD.
van Zutphen, L.; Siep, N.; Jacob, G.A.; Goebel, R.; Arntz, A.
Emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity are fundamental topics in research of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies using fMRI examining the neural correlates concerning these topics is growing and has just begun understanding the underlying neural correlates in BPD.
Kwon, Yong-Ju; Lee, Jun-Ki; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Jeong, Jin-Su
The aim of the present study is to investigate the learning-related changes in brain activation induced by the training of hypothesis generation skills regarding biological phenomena. Eighteen undergraduate participants were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after training over a period of 2 months. The…
Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.
Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar
Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale
Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…
Hoptman, Matthew J.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; D’Angelo, Debra; Mauro, Cristina J.; Butler, Pamela D.; Milham, Michael P.; Javitt, Daniel C.
Schizophrenia has been increasingly conceptualized as a disorder of brain connectivity, in large part due to findings emerging from white matter and functional connectivity (FC) studies. This work has focused primarily on within-hemispheric connectivity, however some evidence has suggested abnormalities in callosal structure and interhemispheric interaction. Here we examined functional connectivity between homotopic points in the brain using a technique called voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). We performed VMHC analyses on resting state fMRI data from 23 healthy controls and 25 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We found highly significant reductions in VMHC in patients for a number of regions, particularly the occipital lobe, the thalamus, and the cerebellum. No regions of increased VMHC were detected in patients. VMHC in the postcentral gyrus extending into the precentral gyrus was correlated with PANSS Total scores. These results show substantial impairment of interhemispheric coordination in schizophrenia. PMID:22910401
Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko
In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural basis of the self-referential process1 is special, especially in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, it remains controversial whether activity of the MPFC (and other related brain regions) appears only during the self-referential process. We investigated the neural correlates during the processing of references to the self, close other (friend), and distant other (prime minister) using fMRI. In comparison with baseline findings, referential processing to the three kinds of persons defined above showed common activation patterns in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and right cerebellum. Additionally, percent changes in BOLD signal in five regions of interest demonstrated the same findings. The result indicated that DMPFC was not special for the self-referential process, while there are common neural bases for evaluating the personalities of the self and others.
Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping
In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varga, Eszter; Herold, Róbert; Schnell, Zsuzsanna; Simon, Mária; Hajnal, András; Járai, Róbert; Fekete, Sándor; Tényi, Tamás
In this study we have examined a group of schizophrenia patients during the understanding of irony tasks, who had normal IQ. 14 patients and 14 healthy control subjects were included, 15 irony and 15 control tasks were invertigated during an fMRI investigation. During the contextual phase patients had shown a higher activitation in different brain regions. The healthy controls had shown deactivitation during this phase, while this couldn't be seen in the patiens group. During the irony phase healthy subjects activated brain regions known as mentalisation areas, while patients didn't. Our results can support the view, that behind schizophrenia patients mentalisation deficit the contextual phase can play the central role.
Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.
Ffytche, D H; Howard, R J; Brammer, M J; David, A; Woodruff, P; Williams, S
Despite recent advances in functional neuroimaging, the apparently simple question of how and where we see--the neurobiology of visual consciousness--continues to challenge neuroscientists. Without a method to differentiate neural processing specific to consciousness from unconscious afferent sensory signals, the issue has been difficult to resolve experimentally. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study patients with the Charles Bonnet syndrome, for whom visual perception and sensory input have become dissociated. We found that hallucinations of color, faces, textures and objects correlate with cerebral activity in ventral extrastriate visual cortex, that the content of the hallucinations reflects the functional specializations of the region and that patients who hallucinate have increased ventral extrastriate activity, which persists between hallucinations.
Full Text Available Both the ventral and dorsal visual streams in the human brain are known to be involved in reading. However, the interaction of these two pathways and their responses to different cognitive demands remains unclear. In this study, activation of neural pathways during Chinese character reading was acquired by using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique. Visual-spatial analysis (mediated by the dorsal pathway was disassociated from lexical recognition (mediated by the ventral pathway via a spatial-based lexical decision task and effective connectivity analysis. Connectivity results revealed that, during spatial processing, the left superior parietal lobule (SPL positively modulated the left fusiform gyrus (FG, while during lexical processing, the left SPL received positive modulatory input from the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and sent negative modulatory output to the left FG. These findings suggest that the dorsal stream is highly involved in lexical recognition and acts as a top-down modulator for lexical processing.
Prescott, James; Gavrilescu, Maria; Cunnington, Ross; O'Boyle, Michael W; Egan, Gary F
Mathematical giftedness is a form of intelligence related to enhanced mathematical reasoning that can be tested using a variety of numerical and spatial tasks. A number of neurobiological mechanisms related to exceptional mathematical reasoning ability have been postulated, including enhanced brain connectivity. We aimed to further investigate this possibility by comparing a group of mathematically gifted adolescents with an average math ability control group performing mental rotation of complex three-dimensional block figures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected and differences in intrahemispheric and interhemispheric connectivity between the groups were assessed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The math-gifted showed heightened intrahemispheric frontoparietal connectivity, as well as enhanced interhemispheric frontal connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal and premotor cortex. These enhanced connectivity patterns are consistent with previous studies linking increased activation of the frontal and parietal regions with high fluid intelligence, and may be a unique neural characteristic of the mathematically gifted brain.
Meda, Shashwath A; Calhoun, Vince D; Astur, Robert S; Turner, Beth M; Ruopp, Kathryn; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Driving while intoxicated remains a major public health hazard. Driving is a complex task involving simultaneous recruitment of multiple cognitive functions. The investigators studied the neural substrates of driving and their response to different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a virtual reality driving simulator. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate spatially independent and temporally correlated driving-related brain circuits in 40 healthy, adult moderate social drinkers. Each subject received three individualized, separate single-blind doses of beverage alcohol to produce BACs of 0.05% (moderate), 0.10% (high), or 0% (placebo). 3 T fMRI scanning and continuous behavioral measurement occurred during simulated driving. Brain function was assessed and compared using both ICA and a conventional general linear model (GLM) analysis. ICA results replicated and significantly extended our previous 1.5T study (Calhoun et al. [2004a]: Neuropsychopharmacology 29:2097-2017). GLM analysis revealed significant dose-related functional differences, complementing ICA data. Driving behaviors including opposite white line crossings and mean speed independently demonstrated significant dose-dependent changes. Behavior-based factors also predicted a frontal-basal-temporal circuit to be functionally impaired with alcohol dosage across baseline scaled, good versus poorly performing drivers. We report neural correlates of driving behavior and found dose-related spatio-temporal disruptions in critical driving-associated regions including the superior, middle and orbito frontal gyri, anterior cingulate, primary/supplementary motor areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Overall, results suggest that alcohol (especially at high doses) causes significant impairment of both driving behavior and brain functionality related to motor planning and control, goal directedness, error monitoring, and memory. 2008 Wiley
Suslow, Thomas; Ihme, Klas; Quirin, Markus; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Bauer, Jochen; Bomberg, Luise; Kersting, Anette; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Lobsien, Donald
Previous research has revealed affect-congruity effects for the recognition of affects from faces. Little is known about the impact of affect on the perception of body language. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of implicit (versus explicit) affectivity with the recognition of briefly presented affective body expressions. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, has been found to be more predictive of spontaneous physiological reactions than explicit (self-reported) affect. Thirty-four healthy women had to label the expression of body postures (angry, fearful, happy, or neutral) presented for 66 ms and masked by a neutral body posture in a forced-choice format while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants' implicit affectivity was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Measures of explicit state and trait affectivity were also administered. Analysis of the fMRI data was focused on a subcortical network involved in the rapid perception of affective body expressions. Only implicit negative affect (but not explicit affect) was correlated with correct labeling performance for angry body posture. As expected, implicit negative affect was positively associated with activation of the subcortical network in response to fearful and angry expression (compared to neutral expression). Responses of the caudate nucleus to affective body expression were especially associated with its recognition. It appears that processes of rapid recognition of affects from body postures could be facilitated by an individual's implicit negative affect. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hoffart, L; Conrath, J; Matonti, F; Galland, F; Wotawa, N; Chavane, F; Castet, E; Ridings, B; Masson, G S
INTRODUCTION. We used high-field (3T) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the retinotopic organization of human cortical areas. Retinotopic maps were reconstructed using existing mapping techniques. Stimuli were made of a rotating wedge stimulus, which provided angular coordinate maps, and an expanding or contracting ring, which provided eccentricity coordinate maps. Stimuli consisted of a grey background alternating with a flickering checkerboard. A Brucker 3T scanner equipped with a head coil and a custom optical system was used to acquire sets of echoplanar images of 20 occipital coronal slices within a RT of 2.111 ms and an 8 mm3 voxel resolution. Surface models of each subject's occipital lobes were constructed using the Brainvisa software from a sagittal T1-weighted image with a 1 mm3 voxel resolution. The cortical models were then inflated to obtain unfolded surfaces. Statistical analyses of the functional data were made under SPM99, and the response amplitudes were finally assigned to the cortical reconstructed surfaces. We identified boundaries between different early visual areas (V1, V2, V3) using eccentricity and polar angle retinotopic maps and detection of reversals in the representation of the polar angle. Both complete maps and reversals corresponding to the V1/V2 borders were clearly visible with a single recording session. Also, we were able to compare data from subjects across various fMRI acquisitions and found that there was a strong correlation between maps acquired at different sessions for the same subject. We developed a quick (mapping method at 3T, which makes it possible to study the cortical remapping in patients with retinal scotomas.
Cabeza, R; Nyberg, L
Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been extensively used to explore the functional neuroanatomy of cognitive functions. Here we review 275 PET and fMRI studies of attention (sustained, selective, Stroop, orientation, divided), perception (object, face, space/motion, smell), imagery (object, space/motion), language (written/spoken word recognition, spoken/no spoken response), working memory (verbal/numeric, object, spatial, problem solving), semantic memory retrieval (categorization, generation), episodic memory encoding (verbal, object, spatial), episodic memory retrieval (verbal, nonverbal, success, effort, mode, context), priming (perceptual, conceptual), and procedural memory (conditioning, motor, and nonmotor skill learning). To identify consistent activation patterns associated with these cognitive operations, data from 412 contrasts were summarized at the level of cortical Brodmann's areas, insula, thalamus, medial-temporal lobe (including hippocampus), basal ganglia, and cerebellum. For perception and imagery, activation patterns included primary and secondary regions in the dorsal and ventral pathways. For attention and working memory, activations were usually found in prefrontal and parietal regions. For language and semantic memory retrieval, typical regions included left prefrontal and temporal regions. For episodic memory encoding, consistently activated regions included left prefrontal and medial temporal regions. For episodic memory retrieval, activation patterns included prefrontal, medial temporal, and posterior midline regions. For priming, deactivations in prefrontal (conceptual) or extrastriate (perceptual) regions were consistently seen. For procedural memory, activations were found in motor as well as in non-motor brain areas. Analysis of regional activations across cognitive domains suggested that several brain regions, including the cerebellum, are engaged by a variety of cognitive
Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W
Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew, Colin; Fein, George
It has been proposed that event-related oscillation (ERO) measures of EEG activity recorded in P300 tasks provide more powerful biomarkers of alcoholism than event-related potential (ERP) measures. This study examines this question in a group of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs). EEGs were recorded on 48 LTAAs and 48 age and gender-matched nonalcoholic controls (NACs) during the performance of a 3-condition visual target detection task. The event-related data were analyzed to extract ERP amplitude measures and total and evoked ERO power measures. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance to determine the contributions of ERO versus ERP measures to discriminate between the LTAA versus NAC groups. The LTAA group showed significantly lower evoked delta ERO power and total delta and theta ERO power compared to the control group. The evoked and total ERO power measures provide an alternative (but not more powerful) representation of the group difference than does P3b amplitude. There was a weak suggestion that nonphase-locked theta ERO power (which contributes to total ERO power) might provide independent discriminatory information. Reduced evoked ERO power in the response to target stimuli provided an alternative and comparable representation of the reduced P3b amplitude in LTAA. This is not surprising as the evoked ERO power measures are derived from time-frequency representations of the ERP waveform. Induced theta oscillations might provide independent discriminatory information beyond ERP amplitude measures, but separate analysis of the event-related nonphase-locked activity is required to investigate this further.
Carole Susan Scherling
Full Text Available IntroductionCognitive deficits are a side-effect of chemotherapy, however pre-treatment research is limited. This study examines neurofunctional differences during working memory between breast cancer (BC patients and controls, prior to chemotherapy. MethodsEarly stage BC females (23, scanned after surgery but before chemotherapy, were individually matched to non-cancer controls. Participants underwent fMRI while performing a Visuospatial N-back task and data was analyzed by multiple group comparisons. fMRI task performance, neuropsychological tests, hospital records and salivary biomarkers were also collected.ResultsThere were no significant group differences on neuropsychological tests, estrogen or cortisol. Patients made significantly fewer commission errors but had less overall correct responses and were slower than controls during the task. Significant group differences were observed for the fMRI data, yet results depended on the type of analysis. BC patients presented with increased activations during working memory compared to controls in areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, thalamus, and midbrain. Individual group regressions revealed a reverse relationship between brain activity and commission errors. ConclusionsThis is the first fMRI investigation to reveal neurophysiological differences during visuospatial working memory between BC patients pre-chemotherapy and controls.SignificanceThis highlights the need to better understand the pre-chemotherapy BC patient and the effects of associated confounding variables.
Dieterich, Marianne; Bauermann, Thomas; Best, Christoph; Stoeter, Peter; Schlindwein, Peter
.... Functional MRI (fMRI) in healthy subjects has shown that stimulation of the visual system induces an activation of the visual cortex and ocular motor areas bilaterally as well as simultaneous deactivations of multisensory...
Sperling, R; Bates, J.; Chua, E; Cocchiarella, A; Rentz, D; Rosen, B.; Schacter, D; Albert, M
Objective: To examine alterations in patterns of brain activation seen in normal aging and in mild Alzheimer's disease by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an associative encoding task.
[Comparative study on effects of electroacupuncture stimulation of Shenmen (HT 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) on P 300 of event-related potentials and brain electrical activity mapping in healthy young adults].
Hu, Wu-Bin; Hu, Ling; Dong, Chao-Yang; Cai, Rong-Lin; Zhou, Yi-Ping; Wang, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Feng
To observe the effect difference of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Shenmen (HT 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) on P 300 of event-related potentials (ERPs) in volunteer subjects, so as to explore functional specificity of acupoints in processing cerebral information. Sixty healthy volunteer college students were randomly and equally divided into Shenmen (HT 7) group and Taiyuan (LU 9) group (30 persons/group). EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral Shenmen (HT 7) and Taiyuan (LU 9) for 15 min. The ERPs were acquired by averaging EEG activity following Oddba II auditory tone-double stimuli and brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) acquired by means of Scan 4.5 collection and analysis system. Data were calculated and analyzed with SPSS 17.0 for Windows. After testing, the subjects were inquired about the perception for acupuncture stimulation and other sensations or psychological activities. Following EA stimulation of both HT 7 and LU 9, the amplitude of P 300 in the ERPs were significantly decreased in comparison with pre-EA stimulation in the same one group (P 0.05). But, EA of HT 7 had a slightly stronger effect in shortening P 300 latency. With regard to the potential intensity distribution of BEAM, there were some differences between HT 7 and LU 9 groups. The high potential responses for HT 7 were found mainly in the occipital lobe, and in the left parietal lobe and the right temporal lobe, whereas those for LU 9 were found to mainly disperse in the left occipital lobe and the parietal lobe. EA stimulation of HT 7 and LU 9 has a slight difference on lowering P 300 amplitude of ERPs, and may result in different distribution of the high potential responses in different lobes of the cerebral cortex in healthy subjects. The functional specificity of EA stimulation of different acupoints needs further study.
Alexandra P. Key
Full Text Available Human communication and language skills rely heavily on the ability to detect and process auditory inputs. This paper reviews possible applications of the event-related potential (ERP technique to the study of cortical mechanisms supporting human auditory processing, including speech stimuli. Following a brief introduction to the ERP methodology, the remaining sections focus on demonstrating how ERPs can be used in humans to address research questions related to cortical organization, maturation and plasticity, as well as the effects of sensory deprivation, and multisensory interactions. The review is intended to serve as a primer for researchers interested in using ERPs for the study of the human auditory system.
Liu, Tongran; Shi, Jiannong; Zhao, Daheng; Yang, Jie
Using time-frequency analysis techniques to investigate the event-related low-frequency (delta: 0.5-4 Hz; theta: 4-8 Hz) activity of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) data of highly and average intelligent children, 18 intellectually gifted children, and 18 intellectually average children participated the present study. Present findings…
Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha
This review examines whether similarity between the first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the (morpho)syntactic processing of the L2, using both neural location and temporal processing information. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) studies show that nonnative speakers can…
Wang, Ping; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Qi, Zhigang; Huang, Silin; Li, Hui-Jie
Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs) and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs) of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0.62, p = 0.536), gender ratio (t = 1.29, p = 0.206) and years of education (t = 1.92, p = 0.062) between VGPs and NVGPs. The results show that older VGPs present significantly better behavioral performance than NVGPs. Older VGPs activate greater than NVGPs in brain regions, mainly in frontal-parietal areas, including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left supramarginal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, the right precuneus and the left paracentral lobule. The present study reveals that video game experiences may have positive influences on older adults in behavioral performance and the underlying brain activation. These results imply the potential role that video games can play as an effective tool to improve cognitive ability in older adults.
Full Text Available Video games have been found to have positive influences on executive function in older adults; however, the underlying neural basis of the benefits from video games has been unclear. Adopting a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study targeted at the flanker task, the present study aims to explore the neural basis of the improved executive function in older adults with video game experiences. Twenty video game players (VGPs and twenty non-video game players (NVGPs of 60 years of age or older participated in the present study, and there are no significant differences in age (t = 0.62, p = 0.536, gender ratio (t = 1.29, p = 0.206 and years of education (t = 1.92, p = 0.062 between VGPs and NVGPs. The results show that older VGPs present significantly better behavioral performance than NVGPs. Older VGPs activate greater than NVGPs in brain regions, mainly in frontal-parietal areas, including the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the left supramarginal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, the right precuneus and the left paracentral lobule. The present study reveals that video game experiences may have positive influences on older adults in behavioral performance and the underlying brain activation. These results imply the potential role that video games can play as an effective tool to improve cognitive ability in older adults.
Full Text Available The small-world organization has been hypothesized to reflect a balance between local processing and global integration in the human brain. Previous multimodal imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that the topological architecture of the brain network is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, these studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the topological properties of brain alterations in AD. One potential explanation for these inconsistent results lies with the diverse homogeneity and distinct progressive stages of the AD involved in these studies, which are thought to be critical factors that might affect the results. We investigated the topological properties of brain functional networks derived from resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of carefully selected moderate AD patients and normal controls (NCs. Our results showed that the topological properties were found to be disrupted in AD patients, which showing increased local efficiency but decreased global efficiency. We found that the altered brain regions are mainly located in the default mode network, the temporal lobe and certain subcortical regions that are closely associated with the neuropathological changes in AD. Of note, our exploratory study revealed that the ApoE genotype modulates brain network properties, especially in AD patients.
Yang, Yang; Bi, Hong-Yan; Long, Zhi-Ying; Tao, Sha
Numerous studies reported that developmental dyslexia in alphabetic languages was associated with a wide range of sensorimotor deficits, including balance, motor skill and time estimation, explained by skill automatization deficit hypothesis. Neural correlates of skill automatization deficit point to cerebellar dysfunction. Recently, a behavioral study revealed an implicit motor learning deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia in their left hands, indicating left cerebellar dysfunction. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), our study examined the brain activation during implicit motor learning in 9 Chinese dyslexic and 12 age-matched children. Dyslexic children showed abnormal activations in the left cerebellum, left middle/medial temporal lobe and right thalamus compared with age-matched children during implicit motor learning. These findings provide evidence of cerebellar abnormality in Chinese dyslexic people. Furthermore, dysfunction of the left cerebellum in Chinese dyslexia is inconsistent with the right cerebellum abnormalities that were reported by studies on alphabetic-language dyslexia, suggesting that neurobiological abnormalities of impaired reading are probably language specific.
Faragó, Péter; Tuka, Bernadett; Tóth, Eszter; Szabó, Nikoletta; Király, András; Csete, Gergő; Szok, Délia; Tajti, János; Párdutz, Árpád; Vécsei, László; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás
Migraine is one of the most severe primary headache disorders. The nature of the headache and the associated symptoms during the attack suggest underlying functional alterations in the brain. In this study, we examined amplitude, the resting state fMRI fluctuation in migraineurs with and without aura (MWA, MWoA respectively) and healthy controls. Resting state functional MRI images and T1 high-resolution images were acquired from all participants. For data analysis we compared the groups (MWA-Control, MWA-MWoA, MWoA-Control). The resting state networks were identified by MELODIC. The mean time courses of the networks were identified for each participant for all networks. The time-courses were decomposed into five frequency bands by discrete wavelet decomposition. The amplitude of the frequency-specific activity was compared between groups. Furthermore, the preprocessed resting state images were decomposed by wavelet analysis into five specific frequency bands voxel-wise. The voxel-wise amplitudes were compared between groups by non-parametric permutation test. In the MWA-Control comparison the discrete wavelet decomposition found alterations in the lateral visual network. Higher activity was measured in the MWA group in the highest frequency band (0.16-0.08 Hz). In case of the MWA-MWoA comparison all networks showed higher activity in the 0.08-0.04 Hz frequency range in MWA, and the lateral visual network in in higher frequencies. In MWoA-Control comparison only the default mode network revealed decreased activity in MWoA group in the 0.08-0.04 Hz band. The voxel-wise frequency specific analysis of the amplitudes found higher amplitudes in MWA as compared to MWoA in the in fronto-parietal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. The amplitude of the resting state fMRI activity fluctuation is higher in MWA than in MWoA. These results are in concordance with former studies, which found cortical hyperexcitability in MWA.
Full Text Available Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects. A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1 general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2 error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.
Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter
Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.
Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kuchinke, Lars; Pehrs, Corinna; Urton, Karolina; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.
Neuroscientific investigations regarding aspects of emotional experiences usually focus on one stimulus modality (e.g., pictorial or verbal). Similarities and differences in the processing between the different modalities have rarely been studied directly. The comparison of verbal and pictorial emotional stimuli often reveals a processing advantage of emotional pictures in terms of larger or more pronounced emotion effects evoked by pictorial stimuli. In this study, we examined whether this picture advantage refers to general processing differences or whether it might partly be attributed to differences in visual complexity between pictures and words. We first developed a new stimulus database comprising valence and arousal ratings for more than 200 concrete objects representable in different modalities including different levels of complexity: words, phrases, pictograms, and photographs. Using fMRI we then studied the neural correlates of the processing of these emotional stimuli in a valence judgment task, in which the stimulus material was controlled for differences in emotional arousal. No superiority for the pictorial stimuli was found in terms of emotional information processing with differences between modalities being revealed mainly in perceptual processing regions. While visual complexity might partly account for previously found differences in emotional stimulus processing, the main existing processing differences are probably due to enhanced processing in modality specific perceptual regions. We would suggest that both pictures and words elicit emotional responses with no general superiority for either stimulus modality, while emotional responses to pictures are modulated by perceptual stimulus features, such as picture complexity. PMID:23409009
Okada, Kayoko; Rogalsky, Corianne; O'Grady, Lucinda; Hanaumi, Leila; Bellugi, Ursula; Corina, David; Hickok, Gregory
Since the discovery of mirror neurons, there has been a great deal of interest in understanding the relationship between perception and action, and the role of the human mirror system in language comprehension and production. Two questions have dominated research. One concerns the role of Broca's area in speech perception. The other concerns the role of the motor system more broadly in understanding action-related language. The current study investigates both of these questions in a way that bridges research on language with research on manual actions. We studied the neural basis of observing and executing American Sign Language (ASL) object and action signs. In an fMRI experiment, deaf signers produced signs depicting actions and objects as well as observed/comprehended signs of actions and objects. Different patterns of activation were found for observation and execution although with overlap in Broca's area, providing prima facie support for the claim that the motor system participates in language perception. In contrast, we found no evidence that action related signs differentially involved the motor system compared to object related signs. These findings are discussed in the context of lesion studies of sign language execution and observation. In this broader context, we conclude that the activation in Broca's area during ASL observation is not causally related to sign language understanding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e. thalamus and basal ganglia areas are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.
Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Xiangpeng; Feng, Tingyong
Procrastination is a prevalent problematic behavior that brings serious consequences to individuals who suffer from it. Although this phenomenon has received increasing attention from researchers, the underpinning neural substrates of it is poorly studied. To examine the neural bases subserving procrastination, the present study employed resting-state fMRI. The main results were as follows: (1) the behavioral procrastination was positively correlated with the regional activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while negatively correlated with that of the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). (2) The aPFC-seed connectivity with the anterior medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with procrastination. (3) The connectivity between vmPFC and several other regions, such as the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex showed a negative association with procrastination. These results suggested that procrastination could be attributed to, on the one hand, hyper-activity of the default mode network (DMN) that overrides the prefrontal control signal; while on the other hand, the failure of top-down control exerted by the aPFC on the DMN. Therefore, the present study unravels the biomarkers of procrastination and provides treatment targets for procrastination prevention.
Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter
Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026
Mohamad, M.; Mardan, N. H.; Ismail, S. S.
Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive and motor function. But, the relationships with motor performance are less well understood. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess cortical activation in older adults. This study employed power grip task that utilised block paradigm consisted of alternate 30s rest and active. A visual cue was used to pace the hand grip movement that clenched a cylindrical rubber bulb connected with pressure pneumatic gauge that measure the pressure (Psi). The objective of this study is determined the brain areas activated during motor task and the correlation between percentage signal change of each motor area (BA 4 and 6) and hand grip pressure. Result showed there was a significant difference in mean percentage signal change in BA 4 and BA 6 in both hemispheres and negative correlation obtained in BA 4 and BA 6. These results indicate that a reduced ability in the motor networks contribute to age-related decline in motor performance.
Canessa, Nicola; Gorini, Alessandra; Cappa, Stefano F; Piattelli-Palmarini, Massimo; Danna, Massimo; Fazio, Ferruccio; Perani, Daniela
Psychological studies of deductive reasoning have shown that subjects' performance is affected significantly by the content of the presented stimuli. Specifically, subjects find it easier to reason about contexts and situations with a social content. In the present study, the effect of content on brain activation was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects were solving two versions of the Wason selection task, which previous behavioral studies have shown to elicit a significant content effect. One version described an arbitrary relation between two actions (Descriptive: "If someone does ..., then he does ..."), whereas the other described an exchange of goods between two persons (Social-Exchange: "If you give me ..., then I give you ..."). Random-effect statistical analyses showed that compared to baseline, both tasks activated frontal medial cortex and left dorsolateral frontal and parietal regions, confirming the major role of the left hemisphere in deductive reasoning. In addition, although the two reasoning conditions were identical in logical form, the social-exchange task was also associated with right frontal and parietal activations, mirroring the left-sided activations common to both reasoning tasks. These results suggest that the recruitment of the right hemisphere is dependent on the content of the stimuli presented.
Tom J Van Grootel
Full Text Available Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days. Large rotating checkerboard stimuli induced BOLD activation in visual cortices at early ages. Additionally we used static and dynamic Glass pattern stimuli to probe BOLD responses in primary visual cortex and two extrastriate areas: V4 and MT-V5. The resulting activations were analyzed with standard GLM and multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA approaches. We analyzed three contrasts: Glass pattern present/absent, static/dynamic Glass pattern presentation, and structured/random Glass pattern form. For both GLM and MVPA approaches, robust coherent BOLD activation appeared relatively late in comparison to the maturation of known neuronal properties and the development of behavioral sensitivity to Glass patterns. Robust differential activity to Glass pattern present/absent and dynamic/static stimulus presentation appeared first in V1, followed by V4 and MT-V5 at older ages; there was no reliable distinction between the two extrastriate areas. A similar pattern of results was obtained with the two analysis methods, although MVPA analysis showed reliable differential responses emerging at later ages than GLM. Although BOLD responses to large visual stimuli are detectable, our results with more refined stimuli indicate that global BOLD activity changes as behavioral performance matures. This reflects an hierarchical development of
Hallam, Glyn P.; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal; Miles, Eleanor; Niven, Karen; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Hunter, Michael D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Totterdell, Peter; Farrow, Tom F. D.
Studies investigating the neurophysiological basis of intrapersonal emotion regulation (control of one's own emotional experience) report that the frontal cortex exerts a modulatory effect on limbic structures such as the amygdala and insula. However, no imaging study to date has examined the neurophysiological processes involved in interpersonal emotion regulation, where the goal is explicitly to regulate another person's emotion. Twenty healthy participants (10 males) underwent fMRI while regulating their own or another person's emotions. Intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulation tasks recruited an overlapping network of brain regions including bilateral lateral frontal cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, and left temporo-parietal junction. Activations unique to the interpersonal condition suggest that both affective (emotional simulation) and cognitive (mentalizing) aspects of empathy may be involved in the process of interpersonal emotion regulation. These findings provide an initial insight into the neural correlates of regulating another person's emotions and may be relevant to understanding mental health issues that involve problems with social interaction. PMID:24936178
Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Herold, Dorrit; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix
Patients with mania show alterations of social behaviour. Neuropsychological studies in euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) have revealed deficits in cognitive, but not emotional aspects of social cognition (SC). Here, we studied the neural signature of social stimulus processing in mania. We expected alterations in regions associated with cognitive SC (dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex, dMPFC). Participants comprised 14 manic patients and 14 matched healthy controls who viewed standardized pictures with social and non-social content during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Region-of-interest-analyses focused on areas related to SC (dorsal/ventral medial prefrontal cortex; temporo-parietal junction), determined by a quantitative meta-analysis. Between-group comparisons ('social>non-social') revealed reduced BOLD responses in the right dMPFC in manic patients, but no significant group difference in the ventral MPFC. In addition, manic patients showed elevated BOLD activation in the right temporo-parietal junction during perception of social stimuli, which was correlated with increased delusional ideation. Patients with mania show diminished BOLD responses to social stimuli in the right dMPFC, associated with cognitive SC and this may be related to reported deficits in understanding others' mental states. At the same time, manic patients show hyperactivation of the right temporo-parietal junction, likely related to exaggerated attribution of meaning to social stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okada, Kayoko; Venezia, Jonathan H; Matchin, William; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory
Research on the neural basis of speech-reading implicates a network of auditory language regions involving inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex and sites along superior temporal cortex. In audiovisual speech studies, neural activity is consistently reported in posterior superior temporal Sulcus (pSTS) and this site has been implicated in multimodal integration. Traditionally, multisensory interactions are considered high-level processing that engages heteromodal association cortices (such as STS). Recent work, however, challenges this notion and suggests that multisensory interactions may occur in low-level unimodal sensory cortices. While previous audiovisual speech studies demonstrate that high-level multisensory interactions occur in pSTS, what remains unclear is how early in the processing hierarchy these multisensory interactions may occur. The goal of the present fMRI experiment is to investigate how visual speech can influence activity in auditory cortex above and beyond its response to auditory speech. In an audiovisual speech experiment, subjects were presented with auditory speech with and without congruent visual input. Holding the auditory stimulus constant across the experiment, we investigated how the addition of visual speech influences activity in auditory cortex. We demonstrate that congruent visual speech increases the activity in auditory cortex.
Full Text Available Research on the neural basis of speech-reading implicates a network of auditory language regions involving inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex and sites along superio