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Sample records for event periods due

  1. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, K.T., E-mail: tuan.huynh@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, A., E-mail: anne.barros@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Castro, I.T., E-mail: inmatorres@unex.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Politecnica, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  2. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.T.; Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Castro, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  3. Predictions of Resuspension of Highway Detention Pond Deposits in Interrain Event Periods due to Wind-Induced Currents and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    -shear stress induced by the return flow near the bed and waves both generated by the wind. Wind statistics for 30 years have been applied for prediction of the annual discharged bulk of suspended solids and associated pollutants; fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo......(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (PAHs) and the heavy metals of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. The current and wave-generated bed-shear stresses entail a discharged bulk of pollutants corresponding to approximately 10% of the annual accumulation of pollutants in the present pond due...

  4. Freight economic vulnerabilities due to flooding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Extreme weather events, and flooding in particular, have been occurring more often and with increased severity over the past decade, and there is reason to expect this trend will continue in the future due to a changing climate. Flooding events can u...

  5. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  6. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  7. Computing return times or return periods with rare event algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestang, Thibault; Ragone, Francesco; Bréhier, Charles-Edouard; Herbert, Corentin; Bouchet, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    The average time between two occurrences of the same event, referred to as its return time (or return period), is a useful statistical concept for practical applications. For instance insurances or public agencies may be interested by the return time of a 10 m flood of the Seine river in Paris. However, due to their scarcity, reliably estimating return times for rare events is very difficult using either observational data or direct numerical simulations. For rare events, an estimator for return times can be built from the extrema of the observable on trajectory blocks. Here, we show that this estimator can be improved to remain accurate for return times of the order of the block size. More importantly, we show that this approach can be generalised to estimate return times from numerical algorithms specifically designed to sample rare events. So far those algorithms often compute probabilities, rather than return times. The approach we propose provides a computationally extremely efficient way to estimate numerically the return times of rare events for a dynamical system, gaining several orders of magnitude of computational costs. We illustrate the method on two kinds of observables, instantaneous and time-averaged, using two different rare event algorithms, for a simple stochastic process, the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. As an example of realistic applications to complex systems, we finally discuss extreme values of the drag on an object in a turbulent flow.

  8. The INTIMATE event stratigraphy of the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander Rasmussen, Sune; Svensson, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic INTIMATE (INtegration of Ice-core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group has previously recommended an Event Stratigraphy approach for the synchronisation of records of the Last Termination using the Greenland ice core records as the regional stratotypes. A key element of these protocols has been the formal definition of numbered Greenland Stadials (GS) and Greenland Interstadials (GI) within the past glacial period as the Greenland expressions of the characteristic Dansgaard-Oeschger events that represent cold and warm phases of the North Atlantic region, respectively. Using a recent synchronization of the NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2 ice cores that allows the parallel analysis of all three records on a common time scale, we here present an extension of the GS/GI stratigraphic template to the entire glacial period. In addition to the well-known sequence of Dansgaard-Oeschger events that were first defined and numbered in the ice core records more than two decades ago, a number of short-lived climatic oscillations have been identified in the three synchronized records. Some of these events have been observed in other studies, but we here propose a consistent scheme for discriminating and naming all the significant climatic events of the last glacial period that are represented in the Greenland ice cores. In addition to presenting the updated event stratigraphy, we make a series of recommendations on how to refer to these periods in a way that promotes unambiguous comparison and correlation between different proxy records, providing a more secure basis for investigating the dynamics and fundamental causes of these climatic perturbations. The work presented is a part of a newly published paper in an INTIMATE special issue of Quaternary Science Reviews: Rasmussen et al., 'A stratigraphic framework for abrupt climatic changes during the Last Glacial period based on three synchronized Greenland ice-core records: refining and extending the INTIMATE event

  9. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  10. 24 CFR 203.262 - Due date of periodic MIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums-Periodic...

  11. Structure resonances due to space charge in periodic focusing channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Jameson, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Vlasov-Poisson model is one of the most effective methods to study the space charge dominated beam evolution self-consistently in a periodic focusing channel. Since the approach to get the solution with this model is not trivial, previous studies are limited in degenerated conditions, either in smoothed channel (constant focusing) [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4713 (1998)] or in alternating gradient focusing channel with equal initial beam emittance condition in the degrees of freedom [I. Hofmann et al., Part. Accel. 13, 145 (1983); Chao Li et al., THOBA02, IPAC2016]. To establish a basis, we intentionally limit this article to the study of the pure transverse periodic focusing lattice with arbitrary initial beam condition, and the same lattice structure in both degrees of freedom, but with possibility of different focusing strengths. This will show the extension of the existing work. The full Hamiltonian is invoked for a pure transverse focusing lattice in various initial beam conditions, revealing different mode structure and additional modes beyond those of the degenerated cases. Application of the extended method to realistic lattices (including longitudinal accelerating elements) and further details will then reveal many new insights, and will be presented in later work.

  12. Forensic evidence in apparel fabrics due to stab events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S E; Carr, D J; Kieser, J; Niven, B E; Taylor, M C

    2009-10-30

    Stab injuries and fatalities have been reported to be the most common crimes of violence in several countries, particularly in those where access to firearms is restricted [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. Analysis of damaged apparel may provide important information about the cause of death and the events leading up to and after the victim's final moments [M.T. Pailthorpe, N.A.G. Johnson, The private forensic scientist and the criminal justice system, in: D. Biles, J. Vernon (Eds.), Private Sector and Community Involvement in the Criminal Justice System: Conference Proceedings, vol. 23, Australian Institute of Criminology, Wellington, 1994, 231-240]. A high proportion of stab wounds occur in the chest and as this area is generally clothed many sharp force cases involve damage to fabrics [J.M. Taupin, F.-P. Adolf, J. Robertson, Examination of damage to textiles, in: J. Robertson, M. Grieve (Eds.), Forensic Examination of Fibres, CRC Press, United States of America, 1999, pp. 65-87; A.C. Hunt, R.J. Cowling, Murder by stabbing, Forensic Sci. Int. 52 (1991) 107-112; D.A. Rouse, Patterns of stab wounds: a six year study, Med. Sci. Law 34 (1994) 67-71]. The structural stabilisation and degradation of fabric due to laundering significantly alters fabric properties [S.E. Gore, R.M. Laing, C.A. Wilson, D.J. Carr, B.E. Niven, Standardizing a pre-treatment cleaning procedure and effects of application on apparel fabrics, Text. Res. J. 76 (2006) 455-464], yet the effect of such on severance morphology does not appear to have been investigated. In this work the effect of blade type (hunting knife, kitchen knife, screwdriver) on new and laundered

  13. Cellular events in adhesion formation due to thermal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, A; Aronson, M; Halperin, B; Griffel, B

    1984-01-01

    Consequent to thermal traumatization of the intestinal wall of the mouse, histopathological events ensue which lead to peritoneal adhesion formation. In the first 48 h, the main pathological findings are of a necrotic and inflammatory nature, but subsequently fibroplasia is the main feature, as evidenced by the appearance of spindle-shaped cells followed by fibroblasts. Factors essential for and contributing to the formation of adhesions are described.

  14. Human event-related brain potentials to auditory periodic noise stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaernbach, C; Schröger, E; Gunter, T C

    1998-02-06

    Periodic noise is perceived as different from ordinary non-repeating noise due to the involvement of echoic memory. Since this stimulus does not contain simple physical cues (such as onsets or spectral shape) that might obscure sensory memory interpretations, it is a valuable tool to study sensory memory functions. We demonstrated for the first time that the processing of periodic noise can be tapped by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Human subjects received repeating segments of noise embedded in non-repeating noise. They were instructed to detect the periodicity inherent to the stimulation. We observed a central negativity time-locked on the periodic segment that correlated to the subjects behavioral performance in periodicity detection. It is argued that the ERP result indicates an enhancement of sensory-specific processing.

  15. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines

  16. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44 global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV, the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB. Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events.

    The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; −3% and organic carbon (OC; −3% due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (−3% and food cooking (−4%. In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3. In general, climate

  17. Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance Predicts Cardiac Events in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Although pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (LHD-PH accounts for the largest proportion of pulmonary hypertension, few reports on the epidemiological analysis of LHD-PH exist. Recently, pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC has attracted attention as a possible factor of right ventricular afterload along with pulmonary vascular resistance. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of PAC in LHD-PH.The subject consisted of 252 LHD-PH patients (145 men, mean age 63.4 ± 14.7 years diagnosed by right heart catheterization. PAC was estimated by the ratio between stroke volume and pulmonary arterial pulse pressure. Patients were classified into four groups according to the PAC (1st quartile was 0.74 to 1.76 ml/mmHg, the 2nd quartile 1.77 to 2.53 ml/mmHg, the 3rd quartile 2.54 to 3.59 ml/mmHg, and the 4th quartile 3.61 to 12.14 ml/mmHg. The end-points were defined as rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure and/or cardiac death. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine what variables were associated with cardiac events.The patients in the 1st quartile had the lowest cardiac index and stroke volume index, and the highest mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles. Fifty-four patients experienced cardiac events during the follow-up period (median 943 days. The event-free rate of the 1st quartile was significantly lower than that of the 3rd and 4th quartiles (66.7% vs 82.5% [3rd quartile], P = 0.008; and 92.1% [4th quartile], P < 0.001. The Cox hazard analysis revealed that PAC was significantly associated with cardiac events (HR 0.556, 95% CI 0.424-0.730, P < 0.001.PAC is useful in the prediction of cardiac event risk in LHD-PH patients.

  18. Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance Predicts Cardiac Events in Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koichi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Jin, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Misaka, Tomofumi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Background Although pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (LHD-PH) accounts for the largest proportion of pulmonary hypertension, few reports on the epidemiological analysis of LHD-PH exist. Recently, pulmonary arterial capacitance (PAC) has attracted attention as a possible factor of right ventricular afterload along with pulmonary vascular resistance. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of PAC in LHD-PH. Methods The subject consisted of 252 LHD-PH patients (145 men, mean age 63.4 ± 14.7 years) diagnosed by right heart catheterization. PAC was estimated by the ratio between stroke volume and pulmonary arterial pulse pressure. Patients were classified into four groups according to the PAC (1st quartile was 0.74 to 1.76 ml/mmHg, the 2nd quartile 1.77 to 2.53 ml/mmHg, the 3rd quartile 2.54 to 3.59 ml/mmHg, and the 4th quartile 3.61 to 12.14 ml/mmHg). The end-points were defined as rehospitalization due to worsening heart failure and/or cardiac death. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine what variables were associated with cardiac events. Results The patients in the 1st quartile had the lowest cardiac index and stroke volume index, and the highest mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance compared with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles. Fifty-four patients experienced cardiac events during the follow-up period (median 943 days). The event-free rate of the 1st quartile was significantly lower than that of the 3rd and 4th quartiles (66.7% vs 82.5% [3rd quartile], P = 0.008; and 92.1% [4th quartile], P < 0.001). The Cox hazard analysis revealed that PAC was significantly associated with cardiac events (HR 0.556, 95% CI 0.424–0.730, P < 0.001). Conclusion PAC is useful in the prediction of cardiac event risk in LHD-PH patients. PMID:27875533

  19. 38 CFR 21.3047 - Extended period of eligibility due to physical or mental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... those disabling effects as physical or mental disabilities. (b) Commencing date. The eligible spouse or... eligibility due to physical or mental disability. 21.3047 Section 21.3047 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... period of eligibility due to physical or mental disability. (a) General. (1) An eligible spouse or...

  20. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  1. Event Processing and Variable Part of Sample Period Determining in Combined Systems Using GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strémy, Maximilián; Závacký, Pavol; Jedlička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with combined dynamic systems and usage of modern techniques in dealing with these systems, focusing particularly on sampling period design, cyclic processing tasks and related processing algorithms in the combined event management systems using genetic algorithms.

  2. Brief communication: Post-event analysis of loss of life due to hurricane Harvey

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroy, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, Bas

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life directly caused by hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred directly due to the event. Most of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area, which was most severely affected by extreme rainfall and heavy flooding. The majority of fatalities in this area were recovered outside the designated 100 and 500 year flood zones. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles...

  3. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar motion due to the inner (terrestrial planets (Mercury, Me; Venus, V; Earth, E; Mars, Ma has been calculated (here for the years 1868–2030. The author found these basic properties of this motion: the toroidal volume in which the Sun moves has the inner radius of 101.3 km and the outer radius of 808.2 km. The solar orbit due to the inner (terrestrial planets is "heart-shaped". The orbital points which are the closest to the centre lie at the time distance of 1.6 years (584 days, on the average, and approximately coincide with the moments of the oppositions of V and E. The spectrum of periods shows the dominant period of 1.6 years (V-E and further periods of 2.13 years (E-Ma (25.6 months, QBO, 0.91 years (V-Ma, 0.8 years ((V-E/2 and 6.4 years. All the periods are above the 99% confidence level. A possible connection of this solar motion with the mid-term quasi-periodicities (MTQP, i.e. 1.5–1.7 years in solar and solar-terrestrial indices can be proposed.

  4. Prediction of Communication Outage Period between Satellite and Earth station Due to Sun Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Song

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a computer program to predict solar interference period. To calculate Sun‘s position, we used DE406 ephemerides and Earth ellipsoid model. The Sun‘s position error is smaller than 10arcsec. For the verification of the calculation, we used TU media ground station on Seongsu-dong, and MBSAT geostationary communication satellite. We analysis errors, due to satellite perturbation and antenna align. The time error due to antenna align has -35 to +16 seconds at 0.1 degree, and -27 to +41 seconds at 0.25 degree. The time errors derived by satellite perturbation has 30 to 60 seconds.

  5. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    2015-12-01

    concert with viral genomes increasing in the blood and oral cavity, possibly due to a systemic type I interferon response. This study provides the first description of events during the incubation period of natural EBV infection in humans and definitive data upon which to formulate theories of viral control and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Periodic Impact Cratering and Extinction Events Over the Last 260 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. Anewly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 +/- 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 +/- 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  7. Analyzing and Identifying Teens' Stressful Periods and Stressor Events From a Microblog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Liang; Jia, Jia; Feng, Ling

    2017-09-01

    Increased health problems among adolescents caused by psychological stress have aroused worldwide attention. Long-standing stress without targeted assistance and guidance negatively impacts the healthy growth of adolescents, threatening the future development of our society. So far, research focused on detecting adolescent psychological stress revealed from each individual post on microblogs. However, beyond stressful moments, identifying teens' stressful periods and stressor events that trigger each stressful period is more desirable to understand the stress from appearance to essence. In this paper, we define the problem of identifying teens' stressful periods and stressor events from the open social media microblog. Starting from a case study of adolescents' posting behaviors during stressful school events, we build a Poisson-based probability model for the correlation between stressor events and stressful posting behaviors through a series of posts on Tencent Weibo (referred to as the microblog throughout the paper). With the model, we discover teens' maximal stressful periods and further extract details of possible stressor events that cause the stressful periods. We generalize and present the extracted stressor events in a hierarchy based on common stress dimensions and event types. Taking 122 scheduled stressful study-related events in a high school as the ground truth, we test the approach on 124 students' posts from January 1, 2012 to February 1, 2015 and obtain some promising experimental results: (stressful periods: recall 0.761, precision 0.737, and F 1 -measure 0.734) and (top-3 stressor events: recall 0.763, precision 0.756, and F 1 -measure 0.759). The most prominent stressor events extracted are in the self-cognition domain, followed by the school life domain. This conforms to the adolescent psychological investigation result that problems in school life usually accompanied with teens' inner cognition problems. Compared with the state-of-the-art top

  8. Validation of modelling the radiation exposure due to solar particle events at aircraft altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Bartlett, D. T.; Bilski, P.; Dyer, C.; Flueckiger, E.; Fuller, N.; Lantos, P.; Reitz, G.; Ruehm, W.; Spurny, F.; Taylor, G.; Trompier, F.; Wissmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Dose assessment procedures for cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew have been introduced in most European countries in accordance with the corresponding European directive and national regulations. However, the radiation exposure due to solar particle events is still a matter of scientific research. Here we describe the European research project CONRAD, WP6, Subgroup-B, about the current status of available solar storm measurements and existing models for dose estimation at flight altitudes during solar particle events leading to ground level enhancement (GLE). Three models for the numerical dose estimation during GLEs are discussed. Some of the models agree with limited experimental data reasonably well. Analysis of GLEs during geomagnetically disturbed conditions is still complex and time consuming. Currently available solar particle event models can disagree with each other by an order of magnitude. Further research and verification by on-board measurements is still needed. (authors)

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis associated with transient thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Bo; Ahn, Jinhee; Oh, Min Young; Choi, Bo Gwang; Kang, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2012-07-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism characterized by muscle weakness and hypokalemia. All ethnicities can be affected, but TPP typically presents in men of Asian descent. The most common cause of TPP in thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease. However, TPP can occur with any form of thyrotoxicosis. Up to our knowledge, very few cases ever reported the relationship between TPP and painless thyroiditis. We herein report a 25-yr-old Korean man who suffered from flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities and numbness of hands. The patient was subsequently diagnosed as having TPP associated with transient thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis. The paralytic attack did not recur after improving the thyroid function. Therefore, it is necessary that early diagnosis of TPP due to transient thyrotoxicosis is made to administer definite treatment and prevent recurrent paralysis.

  10. Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbacher, J; Huber, B T; Norris, R D; Markey, M

    2001-01-18

    Ocean anoxic events were periods of high carbon burial that led to drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide, lowering of bottom-water oxygen concentrations and, in many cases, significant biological extinction. Most ocean anoxic events are thought to be caused by high productivity and export of carbon from surface waters which is then preserved in organic-rich sediments, known as black shales. But the factors that triggered some of these events remain uncertain. Here we present stable isotope data from a mid-Cretaceous ocean anoxic event that occurred 112 Myr ago, and that point to increased thermohaline stratification as the probable cause. Ocean anoxic event 1b is associated with an increase in surface-water temperatures and runoff that led to decreased bottom-water formation and elevated carbon burial in the restricted basins of the western Tethys and North Atlantic. This event is in many ways similar to that which led to the more recent Plio-Pleistocene Mediterranean sapropels, but the greater geographical extent and longer duration (approximately 46 kyr) of ocean anoxic event 1b suggest that processes leading to such ocean anoxic events in the North Atlantic and western Tethys were able to act over a much larger region, and sequester far more carbon, than any of the Quaternary sapropels.

  11. Vegetation Cover and Furrow Erosion due to Extreme Rain Events in Semiarid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Cárceles-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of the soil resource in semi-arid environments is one of the major challenges of agricultural systems, particularly in the Mediterranean region. In the present study, two types of soil management were compared: minimum tillage (ML and minimum tillage with spontaneous vegetation cover (MLVE. The comparison was conducted in a rainfed almond plantation at slope (35%, under an extraordinary event in 2015 (91.3 mm and EI30 of 2,719.89 mm ha-1 h-1. In this situation in MLVE plots, the development of furrows in contrast to ML were not recorded; the total soil loss was more than 12 times lower than that recorded in the latter. This fact demonstrated the effectiveness of the vegetal cover in the protection of the agricultural soil against the erosion during extreme events. Also, for ML management, furrow erosion represented more than 60% of the total soil loss, demonstrating the dominance of this type of erosion. Finally, it should be noted that this event represents the almost total loss of soil recorded in the experimental plots during the period 2012-2015; and this consequently shows the significant impact of extreme events on erosion rates in the Mediterranean region.

  12. The validity of a patient-reported adverse drug event questionnaire using different recall periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sieta T; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Denig, Petra

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a patient-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) questionnaire with a 3-month or 4-week recall period. METHODS: Patients receiving at least one oral glucose-lowering drug were asked to report potential ADEs they experienced related to any drug in a daily diary for a

  13. Incipient motion in gravel bed rivers due to energetic turbulent flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos

    2013-04-01

    This contribution reviews recent developments and contributions in the field of incipient motion and entrainment of coarse sediment grains due to the action of near bed turbulent flows. Specifically, traditional shear based spatio-temporally averaged concepts and instantaneous stress tensor criteria are contrasted to the newly proposed flow event based impulse and energy criteria. The energy criterion, suggests that only sufficiently energetic turbulent events can remove a particle from its resting position on the bed surface and result on its entrainment downstream. While the impulse and energy criteria are interconnected through the energy-impulse equation, the later appears to be more versatile and appropriate for generalising to sediment transport. These flow event based criteria have a sound physical basis for describing the intermittent character of particle entrainment as inherited by near boundary turbulence at near threshold conditions. These criteria can be derived from fundamental laws of physics such as Newtonian classical mechanics and the Lagrange equations respectively. The energetic events that are capable of performing geomorphic work at the scale of individual particles are shown to follow a power law, meaning that more energetic events (capable of removing larger stones) are expected to occur less frequently. In addition, this paper discusses the role of the coefficient of energy transfer efficiency introduced in the energy equation for particle entrainment. A preliminary investigation from analysis of a series of mobile grain flume experiments illustrates that different signatures of turbulence or sequence of flow structures may have different effectiveness towards particle transport. Characteristic cases of specific energetic flow events and the associated particle response are shown and classified with regard to the time required for complete entrainment. Finally these findings are commented with respect to the implications for sediment

  14. An Investigation of the Ionospheric Disturbances Due to the 2014 Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events Over Brazilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R.; Batista, I. S.; Jonah, O. F.; de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; Denardini, C. M.

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the ionospheric F region response in the Brazilian sector due to sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events of 2014. The data used for this work are obtained from GPS receivers and magnetometer measurements during day of year (DOY) 01 to 120, 2014 at different stations in the equatorial and low-latitude regions in the Brazilian sector. In addition, the data obtained from Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System satellites during DOY 01 to 75 of 2014 are used. The main novelty of this research is that, during the 2014 SSW events, daytime vertical total electron content (VTEC) shows a strong increase on the order of about 23% and 11% over the equatorial and low-latitude regions, respectively. We also observed that the nighttime VTEC (SSW days) is increased by 8% and 33% over equatorial and low-latitude regions, respectively. The magnetometer measurements show a strong counterelectrojet during the SSW days. The results show an amplification of the 0.5 day and 2-16 day periods in the VTEC and equatorial electrojet during the SSWs. The occurrences of ionospheric irregularities during the SSW events are around 84% and 53% in the equatorial and low-latitude regions, respectively, which is less frequent when compared with those during the pre-SSW periods.

  15. On the quasi-periodic nature of magnetopause flux transfer events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M.; Wild, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    The authors look at the interpretation of magnetopause flux transfer events (FTE), which claims to show that these events are quasi periodic with a mean period of about 8 minutes. FTE are characteristic signatures in the magnetic field observed by satellites in or near the magnetopause. They are mainly observed when the interplanetary magnetic field is southward, as is supported by a wide range of experimental evidence. There are several theoretical models which try to explain these events. The most successful to date is based upon a suggestion made by Saunders and Biernat, et al. This model has the advantage of accounting for some of the ground based observations of these events. It has been suggested that FTE represent bursts of enhanced magnetic reconnection, and may be the dominant mechanism of this solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. The authors also look at the variability of the IMF B z component as a potential source of the periodic FTE. Data from the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft taken during 1977 to 1979 were statistically surveyed for this report. The spacecraft crossed the magnetopause more than 172 times, and could observe FTE for typically 1 hr per pass. Data for the IMF came from the IMP8 spacecraft. Little data was available for the period of interest, but for the subsequent phase of the solar cycle there was considerable coverage. The data analysis shows a highly skewed recurrence period, with a mode of 3 min., and a lower and upper decile of 1.5 and 18.5 min. No significant peak is observed at 8 minutes. The shape of the distribution does not lend itself to any natural period of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. There may be a correlation with the B z component of the IMF, but the correlation suffers most from the variability of the IMF dataset

  16. Quasi-periodic fractal patterns in geomagnetic reversals, geological activity, and astronomical events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puetz, Stephen J.; Borchardt, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Spectral analysis indicates similar harmonics in astronomical and geological events. • Quasi-periodic cycles occur in tripling patterns of 30.44, 91.33, 274, 822, and 2466 myr. • Similar astro- and geo-phases suggest that the cycles develop from a common source. - Abstract: The cause of geomagnetic reversals remains a geological mystery. With the availability of improved paleomagnetic databases in the past three years, a reexamination of possible periodicity in the geomagnetic reversal rate seems warranted. Previous reports of cyclicity in the reversal rate, along with the recent discovery of harmonic cycles in a variety of natural events, sparked our interest in reevaluating possible patterns in the reversal rate. Here, we focus on geomagnetic periodicity, but also analyze paleointensity, zircon formation, star formation, quasar formation, supernova, and gamma ray burst records to determine if patterns that occur in other types of data have similar periodicity. If so, then the degree of synchronization will indicate likely causal relationships with geomagnetic reversals. To achieve that goal, newly available time-series records from these disciplines were tested for cyclicity by using spectral analysis and time-lagged cross-correlation techniques. The results showed evidence of period-tripled cycles of 30.44, 91.33, 274, 822, and 2466 million years, corresponding to the periodicity from a new Universal Cycle model. Based on the results, a fractal model of the universe is hypothesized in which sub-electron fractal matter acts as a dynamic medium for large-scale waves that cause the cycles in astronomical and geological processes. According to this hypothesis, the medium of sub-electron fractal matter periodically compresses and decompresses according to the standard laws for mechanical waves. Consequently, the compressions contribute to high-pressure environments and vice versa for the decompressions, which are hypothesized to cause the

  17. Cuban experience in management of radiological events in the period of 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza, Yamil; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Diaz Guerra, Pedro I.; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Hernandez Alvarez, Ramon; Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz; Fuente Puch, Andres de la

    2005-01-01

    In the development of practices associated with the use of ionizing radiation, while all the required protection and safety measures are taken, there is always a probability of occurrence of situations of accidents for which it must be prepared and organized with a system of emergencies both at the level of regulatory authority and other organizations and of users. In the frames of this system the comprehensive assessment of radiological events constitutes a basic element of feedback for its further development. The objective of this work is to make an analysis of the behavior of the events in Cuba in the period 2000-2004

  18. Determining Storm Surge Return Periods: The Use of Evidence of Historic Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Schmith, Torben

    for tide gauge measurements, with 120 years of data available for the calculations. However, the oldest of these tide gauge stations was set up after a major storm surge in 1872, and no events of similar severity have occurred since. Including the evidence of the historic events from the 18th century...... changes the return period statistics, with a best estimate of a 100 year event changing from 1.5 meters (Sørensen et al. 2013) to 2.6 [2.2 – 2.8] meters (present study) in Køge just south of Copenhagen. Thus, with the tide gauge-based statistics, the storm surge on January 4 2017 was a 100 year event......, but with the revised statistics using historic evidence, much larger events can be expected. Further, we assess the very large impact of sea level rise on the storm surge statistics. As an example, according to the official statistics of southern Copenhagen, the flooding of a present day 100 year event...

  19. To what extent can global warming events influence scaling properties of climatic fluctuations in glacial periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's climate is an extremely unstable complex system consisting of nonlinear and still rather unknown interactions among atmosphere, land surface, ice and oceans. The system is mainly driven by solar irradiance, even if internal components as volcanic eruptions and human activities affect the atmospheric composition thus acting as a driver for climate changes. Since the extreme climate variability is the result of a set of phenomena operating from daily to multi-millennial timescales, with different correlation times, a study of the scaling properties of the system can evidence non-trivial persistent structures, internal or external physical processes. Recently, the scaling properties of the paleoclimate changes have been analyzed by distinguish between interglacial and glacial climates [Shao and Ditlevsen, 2016]. The results show that the last glacial record (20-120 kyr BP) presents some elements of multifractality, while the last interglacial period (0-10 kyr BP), say the Holocene period, seems to be characterized by a mono-fractal structure. This is associated to the absence of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events in the interglacial climate that could be the cause for the absence of multifractality. This hypothesis is supported by the analysis of the period between 18 and 27 kyr BP, i.e. during the Last Glacial Period, in which a single DO event have been registred. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) we were able to detect a timescale separation within the Last Glacial Period (20-120 kyr BP) in two main components: a high-frequency component, related to the occurrence of DO events, and a low-frequency one, associated to the cooling/warming phase switch [Alberti et al., 2014]. Here, we investigate the scaling properties of the climate fluctuations within the Last Glacial Period, where abrupt climate changes, characterized by fast increase of temperature usually called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, have been particularly pronounced. By using the

  20. Temporal integration of sequential auditory events: silent period in sound pattern activates human planum temporale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustovic, Henrietta; Scheffler, Klaus; Di Salle, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Neuhoff, John G; Hennig, Jürgen; Seifritz, Erich

    2003-09-01

    Temporal integration is a fundamental process that the brain carries out to construct coherent percepts from serial sensory events. This process critically depends on the formation of memory traces reconciling past with present events and is particularly important in the auditory domain where sensory information is received both serially and in parallel. It has been suggested that buffers for transient auditory memory traces reside in the auditory cortex. However, previous studies investigating "echoic memory" did not distinguish between brain response to novel auditory stimulus characteristics on the level of basic sound processing and a higher level involving matching of present with stored information. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a regular pattern of sounds repeated every 100 ms and deviant interspersed stimuli of 100-ms duration, which were either brief presentations of louder sounds or brief periods of silence, to probe the formation of auditory memory traces. To avoid interaction with scanner noise, the auditory stimulation sequence was implemented into the image acquisition scheme. Compared to increased loudness events, silent periods produced specific neural activation in the right planum temporale and temporoparietal junction. Our findings suggest that this area posterior to the auditory cortex plays a critical role in integrating sequential auditory events and is involved in the formation of short-term auditory memory traces. This function of the planum temporale appears to be fundamental in the segregation of simultaneous sound sources.

  1. High precision locations of long-period events at La Fossa Crater (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rapisarda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last eruption in 1888-90, the volcanic activity on Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy has been limited to fumarolic degassing. Fumaroles are mainly concentred at the active cone of La Fossa in the northern sector of the island and are periodically characterized by increases in temperature as well as in the amount of both CO2 and He. Seismic background activity at Vulcano is dominated by micro-seismicity originating at shallow depth (<1-1.5 km under La Fossa cone. This seismicity is related to geothermal system processes and comprises long period (LP events. LPs are generally considered as the resonance of a fluid-filled volume in response to a trigger. We analyzed LP events recorded during an anomalous degassing period (August-October 2006 applying a high precision technique to define the shape of the trigger source. Absolute and high precision locations suggest that LP events recorded at Vulcano during 2006 were produced by a shallow focal zone ca. 200 m long, 40 m wide and N30-40E oriented. Their occurrence is linked to magmatic fluid inputs that by modifying the hydrothermal system cause excitation of a fluid-filled cavity.

  2. Risk of Fall-Related Injury due to Adverse Weather Events, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevitz, Kathryn; Madera, Robbie; Newbern, Claire; Lojo, José; Johnson, Caroline C

    Following a surge in fall-related visits to local hospital emergency departments (EDs) after a severe ice storm, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health examined the association between inclement winter weather events and fall-related ED visits during a 5-year period. Using a standardized set of keywords, we identified fall-related injuries in ED chief complaint logs submitted as part of Philadelphia Department of Public Health's syndromic surveillance from December 2006 through March 2011. We compared days when falls exceeded the winter fall threshold (ie, "high-fall days") with control days within the same winter season. We then conducted matched case-control analysis to identify weather and patient characteristics related to increased fall-related ED visits. Fifteen high-fall days occurred during winter months in the 5-year period. In multivariable analysis, 18- to 64-year-olds were twice as likely to receive ED care for fall-related injuries on high-fall days than on control days. The crude odds of ED visits occurring from 7:00 am to 10:59 am were 70% higher on high-fall days vs control days. Snow was a predictor of a high-fall day: the adjusted odds of snow before a high-fall day as compared with snow before a control day was 13.4. The association between the number of fall-related ED visits and weather-related fall injuries, age, and timing suggests that many events occurred en route to work in the morning. Promoting work closures or delaying openings after severe winter weather would allow time for better snow or ice removal, and including "fall risk" in winter weather advisories might effectively warn morning commuters. Both strategies could help reduce the number of weather-related fall injuries.

  3. An Ilustrative Nuclide Release Behavior from an HLW Repository due to an Earthquake Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Hwang, Yong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won

    2008-01-01

    Program for the evaluation of a high-level waste repository which is conceptually modeled. During the last few years, programs developed with the aid of AMBER and GoldSim by which nuclide transports in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as transport through the biosphere under various normal and disruptive release scenarios could be modeled and evaluated, have been continuously demonstrated. To show its usability, as similarly done for the natural groundwater flow scheme, influence of a possible disruptive event on a nuclide release behavior from an HLW repository system caused naturally due to an earthquake has been investigated and illustrated with the newly developed GoldSim program

  4. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  5. Intermittent ice sheet discharge events in northeastern North America during the last glacial period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papa, Brian D.; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Wang, Zhaomin [McGill University, Earth System Modelling Group, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2006-02-01

    The 3D ice sheet model of Marshall and Clarke, which includes both dynamics and thermodynamics, is used to successfully simulate millennial-scale oscillations within an ice sheet under steady external forcing. Such internal oscillations are theorized to be the main cause of quasi-periodic large-scale ice discharges known as Heinrich Events. An analysis of the mechanisms associated with multi-millennial oscillations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, including the initiation and termination of sliding events, is performed. This analysis involves an examination of the various heat sources and sinks that affect the basal ice temperature, which in turn determines the nature of the ice sheet movement. The ice sheet thickness and surface slope, which affect the pressure-melting point and strain heating, respectively, are found to be critical for the formation and development of fast moving ice streams, which lead to large iceberg calving. Although the main provenance for Heinrich Events is thought to be from Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait, we show that the more northerly regions around Lancaster Strait and Baffin Island may also be important sources for ice discharges during the last glacial period. (orig.)

  6. Location of long-period events below Kilauea Volcano using seismic amplitudes and accurate relative relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, J.; Got, J.-L.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present methods for improving the location of long-period (LP) events, deep and shallow, recorded below Kilauea Volcano by the permanent seismic network. LP events might be of particular interest to understanding eruptive processes as their source mechanism is assumed to directly involve fluid transport. However, it is usually difficult or impossible to locate their source using traditional arrival time methods because of emergent wave arrivals. At Kilauea, similar LP waveform signatures suggest the existence of LP multiplets. The waveform similarity suggests spatially close sources, while catalog solutions using arrival time estimates are widely scattered beneath Kilauea's summit caldera. In order to improve estimates of absolute LP location, we use the distribution of seismic amplitudes corrected for station site effects. The decay of the amplitude as a function of hypocentral distance is used for inferring LP location. In a second stage, we use the similarity of the events to calculate their relative positions. The analysis of the entire LP seismicity recorded between January 1997 and December 1999 suggests that a very large part of the LP event population, both deep and shallow, is generated by a small number of compact sources. Deep events are systematically composed of a weak high-frequency onset followed by a low-frequency wave train. Aligning the low-frequency wave trains does not lead to aligning the onsets indicating the two parts of the signal are dissociated. This observation favors an interpretation in terms of triggering and resonance of a magmatic conduit. Instead of defining fault planes, the precise relocation of similar LP events, based on the alignment of the high-energy low-frequency wave trains, defines limited size volumes. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Enhanced Global Monsoon in Present Warm Period Due to Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate global monsoon precipitation (GMP changes between the Present Warm Period (PWP, 1900–2000 and the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1250–1850 by performing millennium sensitivity simulations using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1. Three millennium simulations are carried out under time-varying solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas (GHG forcing, respectively, from 501 to 2000 AD. Compared to the global-mean surface temperature of the cold LIA, the global warming in the PWP caused by high GHG concentration is about 0.42 °C, by strong solar radiation is 0.14 °C, and by decreased volcanic activity is 0.07 °C. The GMP increases in these three types of global warming are comparable, being 0.12, 0.058, and 0.055 mm day−1, respectively. For one degree of global warming, the GMP increase induced by strong GHG forcing is 2.2% °C−1, by strong solar radiation is 2.8% °C−1, and by decreased volcanic forcing is 5.5% °C−1, which means that volcanic forcing is most effective in terms of changing the GMP among these three external forcing factors. Under volcanic inactivity-related global warming, both monsoon moisture and circulation are enhanced, and the enhanced circulation mainly occurs in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. The circulation, however, is weakened in the other two cases, and the GMP intensification is mainly caused by increased moisture. Due to large NH volcanic aerosol concentration in the LIA, the inter-hemispheric thermal contrast of PWP global warming tends to enhance NH monsoon circulation. Compared to the GHG forcing, solar radiation tends to warm low-latitude regions and cause a greater monsoon moisture increase, resulting in a stronger GMP increase. The finding in this study is important for predicting the GMP in future anthropogenic global warming when a change in natural solar or volcanic activity occurs.

  8. Il problema dei debiti internazionali nel periodo tra le due guerre mondiali. (The international debt problem in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DE CECCO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Grande attenzione è stata recentemente dedicata al problema attuale del debito del terzo mondo e le sue implicazioni per il sistema bancario internazionale . Una rassegna di eventi simili a volte precedenti in passato dimostra che gli operatori dei mercati finanziari internazionali hanno la memoria corta , poiché la maggior parte degli aspetti della crisi si sono verificati in passato. Questo è confermato dal considerare il problema del debito internazionale tra la prima e la seconda guerra mondiale . La principale differenza tra allora e adesso è che il periodo tra le due guerre fu un periodo di transizione da un sistema di commercio dominato daòòa sterlina ad uno dominato  dal dollaro statunitense . Molti dei problemi di oggi derivano da questa continua dominazione dollaroConsiderable attention has recently been paid to the current problem of third world debt and its implications for the international banking system. A review of similar events at previous times in the past shows that operators in international financial markets have very short memories, since most of the aspects of the current crisis have occurred in the past. This is borne out by considering the international debt problem between the first and second world wars. The major difference between then and now is that the interwar period was a time of transition from a sterling-dominated trading system to one dominated by the US dollar. Many of today's problems stem from this continuing dollar domination.JEL: N24

  9. Event terms in the response spectra prediction equation and their deviation due to stress drop variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, H.; Nakano, K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of strong ground motions separated from acceleration Fourier spectra and acceleration response spectra of 5% damping calculated from weak and moderate ground motions observed by K-NET, KiK-net, and the JMA Shindokei Network in Japan using the generalized spectral inversion method. The separation method used the outcrop motions at YMGH01 as reference where we extracted site responses due to shallow weathered layers. We include events with JMA magnitude equal to or larger than 4.5 observed from 1996 to 2011. We find that our frequency-dependent Q values are comparable to those of previous studies. From the corner frequencies of Fourier source spectra, we calculate Brune's stress parameters and found a clear magnitude dependence, in which smaller events tend to spread over a wider range while maintaining the same maximum value. We confirm that this is exactly the case for several mainshock-aftershock sequences. The average stress parameters for crustal earthquakes are much smaller than those of subduction zone, which can be explained by their depth dependence. We then compared the strong motion characteristics based on the acceleration response spectra and found that the separated characteristics of strong ground motions are different, especially in the lower frequency range less than 1Hz. These differences comes from the difference between Fourier spectra and response spectra found in the observed data; that is, predominant components in high frequency range of Fourier spectra contribute to increase the response in lower frequency range with small Fourier amplitude because strong high frequency component acts as an impulse to a Single-Degree-of-Freedom system. After the separation of the source terms for 5% damping response spectra we can obtain regression coefficients with respect to the magnitude, which lead to a new GMPE as shown in Fig.1 on the left. Although stress drops for inland earthquakes are 1/7 of the subduction

  10. Events of potential learning: how preschoolers produce curriculum at the computer during free play periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Bevemyr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasizes children’s learning through play. This means that children’s learning in everyday practice is accomplished through a complex mixture of teacher-led activities and activities the children themselves initiate. When learning is viewed as situated and constituted through social interaction (Lave & Wenger, 1991, almost all social events have learning potential. Consequently, from an educational and a curriculum point of view it is important to raise the question of how children’s learning can be made visible, and determine what kind of learning children’s own initiated (play activities imply. The focus of the paper is on children’s (aged 3-5 years “communities of practice” at the computer during “free play” period in two various Swedish preschools settings. Events of peer interaction are analyzed in detail to illustrate what kind of learning activities are going on at the computer, and to discuss these events of potential learning in relation to the curriculum goals and the educational practice. From a curriculum point of view, the analyses show that the children’s activities at the computer involve a variety of events that might provides for learning that can be viewed as goal-oriented. From the children’s point of view, the project of socialization seems to be the most prominent goal. A crucial point for educational success, however, is to understand not only what the object of learning is, rather what motivates children’s play apprenticeship in their own “communities of practice”.

  11. Lineage extinction and replacement in dengue type 1 virus populations are due to stochastic events rather than to natural selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Myat Thu; Lowry, Kym; Jiang Limin; Thaung Hlaing; Holmes, Edward C.; Aaskov, John

    2005-01-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, two clades (B and C; genotype I) of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) appeared in Myanmar (Burma) that were new to that location. Between 1998 and 2000, a third clade (A; genotype III) of DENV-1, which had been circulating at that locality for at least 25 years, became extinct. These changes preceded the largest outbreak of dengue recorded in Myanmar, in 2001, in which more than 95% of viruses recovered from patients were DENV-1, but where the incidence of severe disease was much less than in previous years. Phylogenetic analyses of viral genomes indicated that the two new clades of DENV-1 did not arise from the, now extinct, clade A viruses nor was the extinction of this clade due to differences in the fitness of the viral populations. Since the extinction occurred during an inter-epidemic period, we suggest that it was due to a stochastic event attributable to the low rate of virus transmission in this interval

  12. Shallow degassing events as a trigger for very-long-period seismicity at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew; Wilson, David; Fee, David; Orr, Tim R.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The first eruptive activity at Kīlauea Volcano’s summit in 25 years began in March 2008 with the opening of a 35-m-wide vent in Halema‘uma‘u crater. The new activity has produced prominent very-long-period (VLP) signals corresponding with two new behaviors: episodic tremor bursts and small explosive events, both of which represent degassing events from the top of the lava column. Previous work has shown that VLP seismicity has long been present at Kīlauea’s summit, and is sourced approximately 1 km below Halema‘uma‘u. By integrating video observations, infrasound and seismic data, we show that the onset of the large VLP signals occurs within several seconds of the onset of the degassing events. This timing indicates that the VLP is caused by forces—sourced at or very near the lava free surface due to degassing—transmitted down the magma column and coupling to the surrounding rock at 1 km depth.

  13. Spiral waves in excitable media due to noise and periodic forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Guoyong, E-mail: g-y-yuan@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Xu Lin [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Xu Aiguo; Wang Guangrui [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Yang Shiping [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Excitable media jointly driven by periodic forcing and Gaussian white noise. > The joint driving leads to many unique tip motions. > New type of spiral wave breakup occurs between entrainment bands with 1:1 and 2:1. > Arnold tongues for different noise intensities exhibit stochastic resonance. > Fourier spectrum analysis can interpret tip motions and formation of entrainments. - Abstract: We investigate the jointly driven effects of external periodic forcing and Gaussian white noise on meandering spiral waves in excitable media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Interesting phenomena resulted from various forcing periods are found, for example, piece-wise line drift, intermittent straight-line drift and so on. We also observe new type of breakup of spiral wave between entrainment bands with 1:1 and 2:1. It is believed that the occurrence of the new type is relevant to the appearance of local bidirectional propagation window. There exist optimized noise intensities which can induce the broadest entrainments and Arnold tongues. Such a phenomenon is referred to as stochastic resonance. It is also observed that the noise makes significant effects on the spiral wave with straight-line drift. Via the tip Fourier spectrum, the varying of tip motion with external periods on the resonance band is interpreted.

  14. Prediction of accident sequence probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.M.; Collins, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to predict accident probabilities in nuclear power plants subject to earthquakes. The resulting computer program accesses response data to compute component failure probabilities using fragility functions. Using logical failure definitions for systems, and the calculated component failure probabilities, initiating event and safety system failure probabilities are synthesized. The incorporation of accident sequence expressions allows the calculation of terminal event probabilities. Accident sequences, with their occurrence probabilities, are finally coupled to a specific release category. A unique aspect of the methodology is an analytical procedure for calculating top event probabilities based on the correlated failure of primary events

  15. Quality of life and mortality assessment in patients with major cardiac events in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Fernando José; Botelho, Miguela; Fernandes, Vera; Barros, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications in the postoperative period are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Few studies have assessed the degree of dependence in these patients and their perception of health. The objective of this study was to assess the mortality and the quality of life in patients who developed major cardiac events (MCE) in the postoperative period. Retrospective study carried out in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU), between March 2006 and March 2008. The patients were assessed regarding the occurrence of CE. Six months after the hospital discharge, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was filled out and dependence was assessed in relation to activities of daily living (ADL). The comparisons between independent groups of patients were carried out using Student's t test. The comparison between each variable and the occurrence of CE was carried out by logistic regression and included all patients. Of the 1,280 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 26 (2%) developed MCE. The univariate analysis identified as independent determinants for the development of major cardiac events: ASA physical status, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart disease and score of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI). The six-month mortality after the SICU discharge was 35%. Of the 17 surviving patients, 13 completed the questionnaires. Thirty-one percent of them reported that their general health was better on the day they answered the questionnaire, when compared to 12 months before. Sixty-nine percent of the patients were dependent in instrumental ADL e 15% in personal ADL. The development of MCE has a significant impact on the duration of hospital stay and mortality rates. Six months after the discharge from the SICU, more than 50% of the patients were dependent in at least one instrumental ADL. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterising the structure of quasi-periodic mixing events in stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwar Nain; Partridge, Jamie; Dalziel, Stuart; Caulfield, C. P.; Mathematical Underpinnings of Stratified Turbulence (MUST) Team

    2017-11-01

    We present results from experiments conducted to study mixing in a two-layer stably-stratified turbulent Taylor-Couette flow. It has previously been observed that there is a quasi-periodic mixing event located at the interface separating the layers. We observe, through conductivity probe measurements, that the power of the mixing event in the frequency spectrum of the density data at the interface is higher when measured near the inner cylinder than in the middle of the annular gap. This is consistent with Oglethorpe's (2014) hypothesis that the mixing structure is triggered near the inner cylinder, and then advects and decays or disperses radially. We also observe that at Ri =g/'Ro (RiΩi)2 7 , where Ri, Ro are the inner and outer cylinder radius, respectively, g ' the reduced gravity characterising the density jump between the layers and Ωi is the rotation rate of the inner cylinder, the power drops significantly at all radial locations, which is reminiscent of the onset of the enhanced flux regime as observed by Oglethorpe et al. (2013). We perform experiments to characterise the spatial extent and dynamics of this mixing structure using particle image velocimetry (PIV) giving further insights into this important mixing process. EPSRC programme Grant EP/K034529/1 & SGPC-CCT Scholarship.

  17. Perioperative period in cardiac transplantation from donors with brain death due to methanol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful use of donor hearts from people died of methanol poisoning helps reducing the deficit of donor organs for patients requiring urgent cardiac transplantation [3]. We present our experience of successful cardiac transplantations from 2 donors who died due to methanol poisoning. Given the possibility of performing a cardiac transplant from this group of donors a protocol has been developed at the V.I. Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artificial Organs of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation which includes clinical, laboratory and instrumental criteria for the selection of heart donor and recipient. The possibility of delayed onset myocardial contractile dysfunction due to methanol poisoning means that a longer conditioningperiod is vital as well as compulsory clinical, laboratory and expert chocardiographic examinations of the potential donor heart.

  18. Sjögren syndrome presenting with hypopotassemic periodic paralysis due to renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataoglu, Esra Hayriye; Demir, Betul; Tuna, Mazhar; Çavus, Bilger; Cetin, Faik; Temiz, Levent Umit; Ozturk, Savas; Yenigun, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune-lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of exocrine glands. Clinically, Sjögren syndrome (SS) has a wide spectrum, varying from autoimmune exocrinopathy to systemic involvement. There have been few cases reporting that primary SS developed with distal renal tubular acidosis clinically. Case Report: Here, we present a case with primary Sjögren syndrome accompanied by hypopotassemic paralysis due to renal tubular acidosis. Severe hypopotassemia, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, alkaline urine and disorder in urinary acidification test were observed in the biochemical examination of the 16-year-old female patient, who had applied to our clinic for extreme loss of muscle force. After the examinations it was determined that the patient had developed Type 1 RTA (distal RTA) due to primary Sjögren syndrome. Potassium and alkaline replacement was made and an immediate total recovery was achieved. Conclusions: Hypopotassemic paralysis due to primary Sjögren syndrome is a rare but severe disorder that could lead to death if not detected early and cured appropriately. Thus, effective treatment should be immediately initiated in cases where severe hypopotassemia is accompanied by metabolic acidosis, and the cases should also be examined for extraglandular involvement of SS. PMID:23569525

  19. The source of infrasound associated with long-period events at mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R.S.; Garces, M.A.; Chouet, B.A.; D'Auria, L.; Hedlin, M.A.H.; De Groot-Hedlin, C.; Waite, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    During the early stages of the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens eruption, the source process that produced a sustained sequence of repetitive long-period (LP) seismic events also produced impulsive broadband infrasonic signals in the atmosphere. To assess whether the signals could be generated simply by seismic-acoustic coupling from the shallow LP events, we perform finite difference simulation of the seismo-acoustic wavefield using a single numerical scheme for the elastic ground and atmosphere. The effects of topography, velocity structure, wind, and source configuration are considered. The simulations show that a shallow source buried in a homogeneous elastic solid produces a complex wave train in the atmosphere consisting of P/SV and Rayleigh wave energy converted locally along the propagation path, and acoustic energy originating from , the source epicenter. Although the horizontal acoustic velocity of the latter is consistent with our data, the modeled amplitude ratios of pressure to vertical seismic velocity are too low in comparison with observations, and the characteristic differences in seismic and acoustic waveforms and spectra cannot be reproduced from a common point source. The observations therefore require a more complex source process in which the infrasonic signals are a record of only the broadband pressure excitation mechanism of the seismic LP events. The observations and numerical results can be explained by a model involving the repeated rapid pressure loss from a hydrothermal crack by venting into a shallow layer of loosely consolidated, highly permeable material. Heating by magmatic activity causes pressure to rise, periodically reaching the pressure threshold for rupture of the "valve" sealing the crack. Sudden opening of the valve generates the broadband infrasonic signal and simultaneously triggers the collapse of the crack, initiating resonance of the remaining fluid. Subtle waveform and amplitude variability of the infrasonic signals as

  20. Phononic thermal resistance due to a finite periodic array of nano-scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trang Nghiêm, T. T.; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier [Univ. Lyon, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CETHIL UMR5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-07-28

    The wave property of phonons is employed to explore the thermal transport across a finite periodic array of nano-scatterers such as circular and triangular holes. As thermal phonons are generated in all directions, we study their transmission through a single array for both normal and oblique incidences, using a linear dispersionless time-dependent acoustic frame in a two-dimensional system. Roughness effects can be directly considered within the computations without relying on approximate analytical formulae. Analysis by spatio-temporal Fourier transform allows us to observe the diffraction effects and the conversion of polarization. Frequency-dependent energy transmission coefficients are computed for symmetric and asymmetric objects that are both subject to reciprocity. We demonstrate that the phononic array acts as an efficient thermal barrier by applying the theory of thermal boundary (Kapitza) resistances to arrays of smooth scattering holes in silicon for an exemplifying periodicity of 10 nm in the 5–100 K temperature range. It is observed that the associated thermal conductance has the same temperature dependence as that without phononic filtering.

  1. Increasing Flood Risk due to Run-off Outflow near Estuarine City during Storm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.; Lee, C.; Do, K.; Jung, T.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclone easily causes inundation damage to low-lying coastal area and the damage may be amplified due to tide motion, sea-level rise, riverine discharges. Specifically, typhoons are accompanied by intensive rainfall, which will of course raise the river water level and thus enhance the flooding damages. If the tidal cycle coincides the high water, flooding will be even aggravated. In the present study, we simulated storm surge motions at the coastal area considering combined effects of tidal and river discharge with aim to improve the accuracy of flooding prediction. The quasi 3-dimension ocean circulation model, Delf3D was used which solves the unsteady shallow water equation in the 2D and 3D. Since Delft3D is much applicable to accommodate the indirect flooding factors such as riverine discharge and short waves, outer-coupled modeling system was established to account for combined tide-surge-riverine discharge effects. In such integrated system, 11 tidal constituents were input as open boundary condition using TPXO 7.2 model, while the water level per unit time was preliminary calculated by HEC-HMS model and input as the upstream boundary conditions for river inside the domain. Typhoon MAEMI which attacked Masan city located at southern coast of South Korea and caused severe inundation damages in 2003 was selected for the study event. Basic information for typhoon such as path, wind speed, atmospheric pressure every 3 hours was provided by the Korea Meteorological Agency and was adopted. The simulation was implemented with tide and storm surge boundary conditions focusing on the target area, Masan, while the additional consideration on the discharge of the river inside the domain was also made. Simulated water level at the fixed location was compared to the observation for its verification and the extent of inundation areas of Masan were compared between observed and calculated. The marginal contribution of riverine discharge on the flooding area

  2. Survey of reportable events in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. Period covered: 2nd quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    There were 40 reportable events in the period covered. 39 events belonged to the lowest reporting category N (normal notification, INES scale 0), 1 incident belongs to the category E (immediate notification, INES scale 1). There was no release above limit of radioactivity nor were there any effects on man or environment. (orig.) [de

  3. Lower-Extremity Weakness in a Teenager Due to Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Matthew D

    2017-04-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis is the hallmark of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). TPP is a potentially deadly complication of hyperthyroidism that occurs because of rapid and dramatic intracellular shift of potassium. This transference results in severe hypokalemia and clinically manifests itself as muscle weakness or paralysis. This condition predominantly affects males of Asian descent, and its presentation can range from mild to severe, as seen in our case. We present the case of a 15-year-old Asian-American male who presented to a tertiary-care pediatric emergency department complaining of generalized weakness and flaccid paralysis of his lower extremities. The differential for such a complaint is extremely broad, and the symptoms can result from etiologies arising from the cerebral cortex, the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or even the muscles themselves. Our patient was found to have an extremely low serum potassium concentration, as well as an electrocardiogram that revealed a prolonged QT interval and right bundle branch block. The etiology of these abnormalities and the patient's symptoms was found to be undiagnosed and uncontrolled hyperthyroidism from Grave's disease, which resulted in this dramatic presentation of thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This entity is common in Asia but still somewhat rare in the United States and other Western countries. Our case illustrates that careful history taking and a focused diagnostic evaluation, in conjunction with having an awareness of this disease, can help expedite diagnosis and management, as well as avoid unnecessary and potential harmful testing in the emergency department setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of nuclear air treatment system related License Event Reports for the period 1985 - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacox, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will continue the review of HVAC/NATS related LERS presented at past Air Cleaning Conferences by Dr. D. W. Moeller and his associates. The general approach and format are similar. LER abstracts from mid 1985 through 1987 were reviewed and those related to HVAC/NATS classified and analyzed. The categories were jointly developed by Dr. Moeller, Dr. Casper Sun and myself. In appropriate cases both primary and secondary categories fora problem are given. A basic listing by category and brief statistical review are presented. Additionally a number of categories are discussed in some detail. The categories chosen for specific review are intended to highlight particular problem areas. NUREG/CR-2000 License Event Report (LER) Compilation is the basis for the initial review and coding. In essentially all cases where an LER is classified as of interest the complete LER was obtained and reviewed in full. The intent of this paper is to provide a basis for the industry to document and analyze problem areas that require additional attention. It appears that about 15% of all LERS in the subject period are HVAC/NATS related. This figure is generally consistent with those reported at the 17th DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. It is hoped that such attention will allow additional resources to be allocated to upgrade systems, procedures and training as well as in some cases government regulation

  5. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured.

    For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported.

    Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding.

    Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of

  6. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  7. Safety Evaluation for IHTS Integrity due to the Steam Generator Sodium-Water Reaction Event in the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jun; Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi-Seok; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the integrity of the IHTS and SG by the SWR event are evaluated using the SWAAMII code. A sodium has a chemical characteristics to rigorously react the water or steam and produce the high pressure waves and high temperature reaction heat. It has an excellent characteristics as a reactor coolant. But, there is an event to be considered in the sodium cooled fast reactor design. The Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR) event can be occurred by the water or steam leaks due to the break of the steam generator tubes. The propagated high pressure waves threathen the structural integrity of the affected Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS) and steam generator. If the IHTS pipes are failed, the sodium of the IHTS can be released to the containment building. To the peak pressure point of view, it is performed to evaluate the integrity of the major components due to the SWR event in the SG. The generated peak pressures due to the five SG tubes simultaneous break event are within the range of the design pressure for the SG, IHX and IHTS including the related pipes.

  8. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for ...

  9. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mahmud; M. Hixson; M. J. Kleeman

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000–2006 and 2047–2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days ...

  10. Serious Bleeding Events due to Warfarin and Antibiotic Co-prescription In a Cohort of Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael A.; Zeringue, Angelique; McDonald, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics may interact with warfarin, increasing the risk for significant bleeding events. Methods Retrospective cohort study of veterans prescribed warfarin for ≥ 30 days without interruption through the VA between October 1, 2002 and September 1, 2008. Antibiotics considered to be high-risk for interaction with warfarin include: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, fluiconazole, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. Low-risk antibiotics include: clindamycin and cephalexin. Risk of bleeding event within 30 days of antibiotic exposure was measured using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions and receipt of other medications interacting with warfarin. Results A total of 22,272 patients met inclusion criteria with 14,078 and 8,194 receiving high- and low-risk antibiotics, respectively. There were 93 and 36 bleeding events in the high- and low-risk groups, respectively. Receipt of a high-risk antibiotic (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-2.19) and azithromycin (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13-3.30) were associated with increased risk of bleeding as a primary diagnosis. TMP/SMX (HR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45-3.02), ciprofloxacin (HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.42-2.50), levofloxacin (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.22-2.50), azithromycin (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.33), and clarithromycin (HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.16-4.94) were associated with serious bleeding as a primary or secondary diagnosis. INR alterations were common; 9.7% of patients prescribed fluconazole had INR value >6. Patients who had INR performed 3-14 days of co-prescription were at a decrease risk of serious bleeding (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88). Conclusions Warfarin users who are prescribed high-risk antibiotics are at higher risk for serious bleeding events. Early INR evaluation may mitigate this risk. PMID:24657899

  11. A Study on the Frequency of Initiating Event of OPR-1000 during Outage Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Jae Beol; Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    These sources of data did not reflect the latest event data which have occurred during the PWR outage to the frequencies of initiating event Electric Power Research Institute(EPRI) in USA collected the data of loss of decay heat removal during outage from 1989 to 2009 and published technical report. Domestic operating experiences for LOOP is gathered in Operational Performance Information System for Nuclear Power Plant(OPIS). To reduce conservatism and obtain completeness for LPSD PSA, those data should be collected and used to update the frequencies. The frequencies of LOSDC and LOOP are reevaluated using the data of EPRI and OPIS in this paper. Quantification is conducted to recalculate core damage frequency(CDF), since the rate is changed. The results are discussed below. To make an accurate estimate of the initiating events of LPSD PSA, the event data were collected and the frequencies of initiating events were updated using Bayesian approach. CDF was evaluated through quantification. Δ CDF is -40% and the dominant contributor is pressurizer PSV stuck open event. The most of the event data in EPRI TR were collected from US nuclear power plant industry. Those data are not enough to evaluate outage risk precisely. Therefore, to reduce conservatism and obtain completeness for LPSD PSA, the licensee event report and domestic data should be collected and reflected to the frequencies of the initiating events during outage.

  12. Reactor pressure vessel failure probability following through-wall cracks due to pressurized thermal shock events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Garnich, M.R.; Simonen, E.P.; Bian, S.H.; Nomura, K.K.; Anderson, W.E.; Pedersen, L.T.

    1986-04-01

    A fracture mechanics model was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to predict the behavior of a reactor pressure vessel following a through-wall crack that occurs during a pressurized thermal shock (PTS) event. This study, which contributed to a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program to study PTS risk, was coordinated with the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The PNL fracture mechanics model uses the critical transients and probabilities of through-wall cracks from the IPTS Program. The PNL model predicts the arrest, reinitiation, and direction of crack growth for a postulated through-wall crack and thereby predicts the mode of vessel failure. A Monte-Carlo type of computer code was written to predict the probabilities of the alternative failure modes. This code treats the fracture mechanics properties of the various welds and plates of a vessel as random variables. Plant-specific calculations were performed for the Oconee-1, Calvert Cliffs-1, and H.B. Robinson-2 reactor pressure vessels for the conditions of postulated transients. The model predicted that 50% or more of the through-wall axial cracks will turn to follow a circumferential weld. The predicted failure mode is a complete circumferential fracture of the vessel, which results in a potential vertically directed missile consisting of the upper head assembly. Missile arrest calculations for the three nuclear plants predict that such vertical missiles, as well as all potential horizontally directed fragmentation type missiles, will be confined to the vessel enclosre cavity. The PNL failure mode model is recommended for use in future evaluations of other plants, to determine the failure modes that are most probable for postulated PTS events

  13. Adverse event potentially due to an interaction between ibrutinib and verapamil: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert Kuhn, E; Levêque, D; Lioure, B; Gourieux, B; Bilbault, P

    2016-02-01

    Ibrutinib is a recently approved oral anticancer agent with pharmacokinetics that is very sensitive to metabolic inhibition. We report a serious side effect of ibrutinib potentially attributable to interaction with the moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor verapamil. A patient with mantle cell lymphoma was admitted to our emergency department with severe diarrhoea. During a prescription review, the clinical pharmacist identified a potential drug interaction between ibrutinib and verapamil present in a branded combination product also containing trandolapril. Ibrutinib was discontinued for 5 days, and verapamil was stopped. Lercanidipine 10 mg daily was prescribed as an alternative antihypertensive drug. The patient was discharged after 3 days with symptomatic treatment for his diarrhoea. Three months later, the patient maintained control with ibrutinib and olmesartan, but without verapamil. This is the first description of a serious side effect of ibrutinib likely due to an interaction with the CYP3A4 inhibitor verapamil. Prescriptions of ibrutinib must be carefully checked to identify possible interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitors and patients monitored accordingly. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Retrospective Study of Reported Adverse Events Due to Complementary Health Products in Singapore From 2010 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to collate and analyse adverse event reports associated with the use of complementary health products (CHP submitted to the Health Sciences Authority (HSA of Singapore for the period 2010–2016 to identify various trends and signals for pharmacovigilance purposes. A total of 147,215 adverse event reports suspected to be associated with pharmaceutical products and CHP were received by HSA between 2010 and 2016. Of these, 143,191 (97.3% were associated with chemical drugs, 1,807 (1.2% with vaccines, 1,324 (0.9% with biological drugs (biologics, and 893 (0.6% with CHP. The number of adverse event reports associated with Chinese Proprietary Medicine, other complementary medicine and health supplements are presented. Eight hundred and ninety three adverse event reports associated with CHP in the 7-year period have been successfully collated and analyzed. In agreement with other studies, adverse events related to the “skin and appendages disorders” were the most commonly reported. Most of the cases involved dermal allergies (e.g., rashes associated with the use of glucosamine products and most of the adulterated products were associated with the illegal addition of undeclared drugs for pain relief. Dexamethasone, chlorpheniramine, and piroxicam were the most common adulterants detected. Reporting suspected adverse events is strongly encouraged even if the causality is not confirmed because any signs of clustering will allow rapid regulatory actions to be taken. The findings from this study help to create greater awareness on the health risks, albeit low, when consuming CHP and dispelling the common misconception that “natural” means “safe.” In particular, healthcare professionals and the general public should be aware of potential adulteration of CHP. The analysis of spontaneously reported adverse events is an important surveillance system in monitoring the safety of CHP and helps in the understanding of the

  15. Determining Storm Surge Return Periods: The Use of Evidence of Historic Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Schmith, Torben

    Storm surges are a major concern for many coastal communities, and rising levels of surges is a key concern in relation to climate change. The sea level of a statistical 100-year or 1000-year storm surge event and similar statistical measures are used for spatial planning and emergency preparedness...

  16. Occurrence of blowing snow events at an alpine site over a 10-year period: Observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim Bouvet, F.; Martin, E.; Durand, Y.; Bellot, H.; Bel, C.; Puglièse, P.

    2013-05-01

    Blowing snow events control the evolution of the snow pack in mountainous areas and cause inhomogeneous snow distribution. The goal of this study is to identify the main features of blowing snow events at an alpine site and assess the ability of the detailed snowpack model Crocus to reproduce the occurrence of these events in a 1D configuration. We created a database of blowing snow events observed over 10 years at our experimental site. Occurrences of blowing snow events were divided into cases with and without concurrent falling snow. Overall, snow transport is observed during 10.5% of the time in winter and occurs with concurrent falling snow 37.3% of the time. Wind speed and snow age control the frequency of occurrence. Model results illustrate the necessity of taking the wind-dependence of falling snow grain characteristics into account to simulate periods of snow transport and mass fluxes satisfactorily during those periods. The high rate of false alarms produced by the model is investigated in detail for winter 2010/2011 using measurements from snow particle counters.

  17. On the Mass and Luminosity Functions of Tidal Disruption Flares: Rate Suppression due to Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole is expected to yield a luminous flare of thermal emission. About two dozen of these stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) may have been detected in optical transient surveys. However, explaining the observed properties of these events within the tidal disruption paradigm is not yet possible. This theoretical ambiguity has led some authors to suggest that optical TDFs are due to a different process, such as a nuclear supernova or accretion disk instabilities. Here we present a test of a fundamental prediction of the tidal disruption event scenario: a suppression of the flare rate due to the direct capture of stars by the black hole. Using a recently compiled sample of candidate TDFs with black hole mass measurements, plus a careful treatment of selection effects in this flux-limited sample, we confirm that the dearth of observed TDFs from high-mass black holes is statistically significant. All the TDF impostor models we consider fail to explain the observed mass function; the only scenario that fits the data is a suppression of the rate due to direct captures. We find that this suppression can explain the low volumetric rate of the luminous TDF candidate ASASSN-15lh, thus supporting the hypothesis that this flare belongs to the TDF family. Our work is the first to present the optical TDF luminosity function. A steep power law is required to explain the observed rest-frame g-band luminosity, {dN}/{{dL}}g\\propto {L}g-2.5. The mean event rate of the flares in our sample is ≈ 1× {10}-4 galaxy‑1 yr‑1, consistent with the theoretically expected tidal disruption rate.

  18. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Busy period analysis, rare events and transient behavior in fluid flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Asmussen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a process {(Jt,Vt}t≥0 on E×[0,∞, such that {Jt} is a Markov process with finite state space E, and {Vt} has a linear drift ri on intervals where Jt=i and reflection at 0. Such a process arises as a fluid flow model of current interest in telecommunications engineering for the purpose of modeling ATM technology. We compute the mean of the busy period and related first passage times, show that the probability of buffer overflow within a busy cycle is approximately exponential, and give conditioned limit theorems for the busy cycle with implications for quick simulation. Further, various inequalities and approximations for transient behavior are given. Also explicit expressions for the Laplace transform of the busy period are found. Mathematically, the key tool is first passage probabilities and exponential change of measure for Markov additive processes.

  20. Changes of amplitude and topographical characteristics of event-related potentials during the hypnagogic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michida, N; Ebata, A; Tanaka, H; Hayashi, M; Hori, T

    1999-04-01

    In the previous study, during the vertex sharp wave period (hypnagogic EEG stage 4), negative components (N300, N550) were dominant at Fz and Cz in contrast to the positive component (P400) being prominent at the other areas, Pz, Oz, T5 and T6. There is no agreement regarding P400 properties during the hypnagogic period. In this study, using topographic mapping, we found that two negative components (N300, N550) and P400 independently increased their amplitude at the different areas of the scalp as arousal level lowered. The anterior negative components may reflect the information processing related to the K-complex. The P400 may reflect other activities different from the K-complex mechanism or P300 attention mechanisms.

  1. Estimating Finite Source Effects in Microlensing Events due to Free-Floating Planets with the Euclid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindita Hamolli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years free-floating planets (FFPs have drawn a great interest among astrophysicists. Gravitational microlensing is a unique and exclusive method for their investigation which may allow obtaining precious information about their mass and spatial distribution. The planned Euclid space-based observatory will be able to detect a substantial number of microlensing events caused by FFPs towards the Galactic bulge. Making use of a synthetic population algorithm, we investigate the possibility of detecting finite source effects in simulated microlensing events due to FFPs. We find a significant efficiency for finite source effect detection that turns out to be between 20% and 40% for a FFP power law mass function index in the range [0.9, 1.6]. For many of such events it will also be possible to measure the angular Einstein radius and therefore constrain the lens physical parameters. These kinds of observations will also offer a unique possibility to investigate the photosphere and atmosphere of Galactic bulge stars.

  2. Modeling the Deterioration of Engine and Low Pressure Compressor Performance During a Roll Back Event Due to Ice Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Jorgenson, Philip, C. E.; Jones, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to apply a computational tool for the flow analysis of the engine that has been tested with ice crystal ingestion in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) of NASA Glenn Research Center. A data point was selected for analysis during which the engine experienced a full roll back event due to the ice accretion on the blades and flow path of the low pressure compressor. The computational tool consists of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) engine system thermodynamic cycle code, and an Euler-based compressor flow analysis code, that has an ice particle melt estimation code with the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor blade rows. Decreasing the performance characteristics of the low pressure compressor (LPC) within the NPSS cycle analysis resulted in matching the overall engine performance parameters measured during testing at data points in short time intervals through the progression of the roll back event. Detailed analysis of the fan-core and LPC with the compressor flow analysis code simulated the effects of ice accretion by increasing the aerodynamic blockage and pressure losses through the low pressure compressor until achieving a match with the NPSS cycle analysis results, at each scan. With the additional blockages and losses in the LPC, the compressor flow analysis code results were able to numerically reproduce the performance that was determined by the NPSS cycle analysis, which was in agreement with the PSL engine test data. The compressor flow analysis indicated that the blockage due to ice accretion in the LPC exit guide vane stators caused the exit guide vane (EGV) to be nearly choked, significantly reducing the air flow rate into the core. This caused the LPC to eventually be in stall due to increasing levels of diffusion in the rotors and high incidence angles in the inlet guide vane (IGV) and EGV stators. The flow analysis indicating

  3. Can the periodic spectral modulations observed in 236 Sloan Sky Survey stars be due to dark matter effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Fabrizio; Licata, Ignazio

    2017-09-01

    The search for dark matter (DM) is one of the most active and challenging areas of current research. Possible DM candidates are ultralight fields such as axions and weak interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Axions piled up in the center of stars are supposed to generate matter/DM configurations with oscillating geometries at a very rapid frequency, which is a multiple of the axion mass m B (Brito et al (2015); Brito et al (2016)). Borra and Trottier (2016) recently found peculiar ultrafast periodic spectral modulations in 236 main sequence stars in the sample of 2.5 million spectra of galactic halo stars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (˜1% of main sequence stars in the F-K spectral range) that were interpreted as optical signals from extraterrestrial civilizations, suggesting them as possible candidates for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) program. We argue, instead, that this could be the first indirect evidence of bosonic axion-like DM fields inside main sequence stars, with a stable radiative nucleus, where a stable DM core can be hosted. These oscillations were not observed in earlier stellar spectral classes probably because of the impossibility of starting a stable oscillatory regime due to the presence of chaotic motions in their convective nuclei. The axion mass values, (50< {m}B< 2.4× {10}3) μ {eV}, obtained from the frequency range observed by Borra and Trottier, (0.6070< f< 0.6077) THz, agree with the recent theoretical results from high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics (Borsanyi et al (2016); Borsanyi et al (2016b)).

  4. Anticipating demand for emergency health services due to medication-related adverse events after rapid mass prophylaxis campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Wattson, Daniel; Cuomo, Jason; Benson, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Mass prophylaxis against infectious disease outbreaks carries the risk of medication-related adverse events (MRAEs). The authors sought to define the relationship between the rapidity of mass prophylaxis dispensing and the subsequent demand for emergency health services due to predictable MRAEs. The authors created a spreadsheet-based computer model that calculates scenario-specific predicted daily MRAE rates from user inputs by applying a probability distribution to the reported timing of MRAEs. A hypothetical two- to ten-day prophylaxis campaign for one million people using recent data from both smallpox vaccination and anthrax chemoprophylaxis campaigns was modeled. The length of a mass prophylaxis campaign plays an important role in determining the subsequent intensity in emergency services utilization due to real or suspected adverse events. A two-day smallpox vaccination scenario would produce an estimated 32,000 medical encounters and 1,960 hospitalizations, peaking at 5,246 health care encounters six days after the start of the campaign; in contrast, a ten-day campaign would lead to 41% lower peak surge, with a maximum of 3,106 encounters on the busiest day, ten days after initiation of the campaign. MRAEs with longer lead times, such as those associated with anthrax chemoprophylaxis, exhibit less variability based on campaign length (e.g., 124 out of an estimated 1,400 hospitalizations on day 20 after a two-day campaign versus 103 on day 24 after a ten-day campaign). The duration of a mass prophylaxis campaign may have a substantial impact on the timing and peak number of clinically significant MRAEs, with very short campaigns overwhelming existing emergency department (ED) capacity to treat real or suspected medication-related injuries. While better reporting of both incidence and timing of MRAEs in future prophylaxis campaigns should improve the application of this model to community-based emergency preparedness planning, these results highlight the need

  5. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  6. Predictive value of long-term changes of growth differentiation factor-15 over a 27-year-period for heart failure and death due to coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluschnik, Nina; Ojeda, Francisco; Zeller, Tanja; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Becher, Peter Moritz; Sinning, Christoph; Blankenberg, Stefan; Westermann, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), Cystatin C and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been discussed as biomarkers for prediction of cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of single and repeated measurements of GDF-15 compared to Cystatin C and CRP for incidence of heart failure (HF) and death due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general population. Levels of GDF-15, CRP and Cystatin C were determined in three repeated measurements collected 5 years apart in the DAN-MONICA (Danish-Multinational MONitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease) cohort (participants at baseline n = 3785). Cox regression models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors revealed significantly increased hazard ratios (HR) for GDF-15 for incident HF 1.36 (HR per interquartile range (IQR) increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16; 1.59) and for death from CHD 1.51 (HR per IQR increase, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.75) (both with p<0.001). Joint modeling of time-to-event and longitudinal GDF-15 over a median 27-year follow-up period showed that the marker evolution was positively associated with death of CHD (HR per IQR increase 3.02 95% CI: (2.26, 4.04), p < 0.001) and HF (HR per IQR increase 2.12 95% CI: (1.54, 2.92), p<0.001). However using Cox models with follow-up time starting at the time of the third examination, serial measurement of GDF-15, modeled as changes between the measurements, did not improve prediction over that of the most recent measurement. GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for prediction of HF and death due to CHD in the general population, which may provide prognostic information to already established clinical biomarkers. Repeated measurements of GDF-15 displayed only a slight improvement in the prediction of these endpoints compared to a single measurement.

  7. Development of Guidelines for Use of Proton Single-Event Test Data to Bound Single-Event Effect Susceptibility Due to Light Ions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional methods for Single-Event Effects (SEE) Hardness Assurance have proven difficult to adapt to Explorer, Cubesat and other risk tolerant platforms with...

  8. Characterization And State-Of-The-Art Modeling Of Extreme Precipitation Events Over Africa During The Historical Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibba, P.; Sylla, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of the state-of-the-art climate models to reproduce the mean spatial characteristics of extreme precipitation indices over Africa is evaluated. The ensembles of eight precipitation-based indices as defined by ETCCDI were extracted from seventeen CMIP5 GCMs and twelve CORDEX RCMs simulations based on absolute and percentile (95th) thresholds and computed from the 1975 to 2004 historical period. Daily precipitation indices calculated from GPCP and TRMM satellite-derived observation datasets during the period 1997 to 2012 and 1998 to 2011 respectively were also employed in this study for model validation. Results of spatial representation of the frequency of extreme precipitation events (R1mm, CDD, CWD and R95p) highlight a generally good consistency between the two observations. Equally, in the regional analysis some similarities exist in their median and interquartile (25th and 75th percentile) spread especially for CDD, CWD and R95p for most regions. In the associated intensities (SDII, RX5day, R95 and R95ptot), results indicate large spatial differences between the two observational datasets, with finer resolution TRMM generating higher rainfall intensities than the coarser resolution GPCP. TRMM has also demonstrated higher median and interquartile range as compared to GPCP. The CORDEX RCMs and CMIP5 GCMs simulations have estimated more number of extreme precipitation events, while underestimated the intensities. The differences between the models and observations can be as large as the typical model interquartile spread of the ensembles for some indices (R1mm, CWD, SDII and R95) in some regions. Meanwhile, CORDEX estimations are generally closer to the observations than CMIP5 in reproducing the frequency of extreme rainfall indices. For the estimation of rainfall intensities, CORDEX simulations are in most cases more consistence with TRMM observations whilst the CMIP5 GCMs simulations are closer to GPCP observations.

  9. Incidence of injuries due to accidental fall : A life span study for the period 1971-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of accidental fall in 67,436 trauma patients was investigated for the period 1971-1995. Over-all a decrease in incidence was found from 1976 through 1995: however, notwithstanding thr over-all picture a strong age-specific increase ia the incidence was observed in persons of 80) years

  10. Effect of the fluid core on changes in the length of day due to long period tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, J. M.; Smith, M. L.; Sasao, T.

    1981-01-01

    The long period luni-solar tidal potential is known to cause periodic changes in the earth's rotation rate. It is found that the effect of a dissipationless fluid outer core is to reduce the amplitudes of these tidal perturbations by about 11 percent. When the fluid core effect is added to Agnew and Farrell's (1978) estimate of the effect of an equilibrium ocean, the result is in accord with observation. The effects of dissipative processes within the fluid core are also examined. Out-of-phase perturbations are found which could be as large as about 10 ms at 18.6 yr. It is concluded, however, that the poorly understood decade fluctuations in the earth's rotation rate will prohibit observation of this effect.

  11. Emittance growth of an electron beam in a periodic channel due to transfer of longitudinal energy to transverse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Most discussions about emittance growth and halo production for an intense electron beam in a periodic focusing channel assume that the total transverse energy is constant (or, in other words, that the transverse and longitudinal Hamiltonians are separable). Previous analyses that include variations in the total transverse energy are typically based on a transverse-longitudinal coupling that is either from two-dimensional space-charge modes or particle-particle Coulomb collisions. With the space-charge modes, the energy exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is periodic, and of constant magnitude. The total energy transfer for the case of the Coulomb collisions is negligible. This limited increase of energy in the transverse direction from these other effects will limit the amount of transverse emittance growth possible. In this paper, the authors investigate a mechanism in which there is a continual transfer of energy from the longitudinal direction to the transverse direction, leading to essentially unlimited potential transverse emittance growth. This mechanism is caused by an asymmetry of the beam's betatron motion within the periodic focusing elements. This analysis is based on thermodynamic principles. This mechanism exists for both solenoids and quadrupole focusing, although only solenoid focusing is studied here

  12. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang June; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100

  13. Containment Performance Evaluation of a Sodium Fire Event Due to Air Ingress into the Cover Gas Region of the Reactor Vessel in the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang June; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kang, Seok Hun; Choi, Chi-Woong; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seung Won; Jeong, Taekyeong; Ha, Kwi-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Comparing with the light water reactor, sodium as a reactor coolant violently reacts with oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Due to this chemical reaction, heat generated from the combustion heat increases the temperature and pressure in the containment atmosphere. The structural integrity of the containment building which is a final radiological defense barrier is threaten. A sodium fire event in the containment due to air ingress into the cover gas region in the reactor vessel is classified as one of the design basis events in the PGSFR. This event comes from a leak or crack on the reactor upper closure header surface. It accompanys an event of the radiological fission products release to the inside the containment. In this paper, evaluation for the sodium fire and radiological influence due to air ingress into the cover gas region of the reactor vessel is described. To evaluate this event, the CONTAIN-LMR, MACCS-II and OR-IGEN-II codes are used. For the sodium pool fire event in the containment, the performance evaluation and radiological influence are carried out. In the thermal hydraulic aspects, the 1 cell containment yields the most conservative result. In this event, the maximum temperature and pressure in the containment are calculated 0.185 MPa, 280.0 .deg. C, respectively. The radiological dose at the EAB and LPZ are below the acceptance criteria specified in the 10CFR100.

  14. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE [Department of Energy] N-Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L.; Baxter, J.T.; Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P.; Brosseau, D.A.

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs

  15. Analysis of core damage frequency due to external events at the DOE (Department of Energy) N-Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambright, J.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Daniel, S.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baxter, J.T. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Johnson, J.J.; Ravindra, M.K.; Hashimoto, P.O.; Mraz, M.J.; Tong, W.H.; Conoscente, J.P. (EQE, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Brosseau, D.A. (ERCE, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A complete external events probabilistic risk assessment has been performed for the N-Reactor power plant, making full use of all insights gained during the past ten years' developments in risk assessment methodologies. A detailed screening analysis was performed which showed that all external events had negligible contribution to core damage frequency except fires, seismic events, and external flooding. A limited scope analysis of the external flooding risk indicated that it is not a major risk contributor. Detailed analyses of the fire and seismic risks resulted in total (mean) core damage frequencies of 1.96E-5 and 4.60E-05 per reactor year, respectively. Detailed uncertainty analyses were performed for both fire and seismic risks. These results show that the core damage frequency profile for these events is comparable to that found for existing commercial power plants if proposed fixes are completed as part of the restart program. 108 refs., 85 figs., 80 tabs.

  16. Characterization of endocrine events during the periestrous period in sheep after estrous synchronization with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleeff, J; Karsch, F J; Padmanabhan, V

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Internal Drug Releasing (CIDR) device is an intravaginal pessary containing progesterone (P4) designed for synchronizing estrus in ruminants. To date, there has been little information available on the timing, duration, and quality of the follicular phase after CIDR removal and how those characteristics compare with natural periovulatory endocrine events. The present communication relates the results of methods we used to characterize the endocrine events that followed CIDR synchronization. Breeding-season ewes were given an injection (10 mg) of Lutalyse (PGF2 alpha), and then studied during three consecutive estrous cycles, beginning in the luteal phase after the estrus induced by PGF2 alpha. Cycle 1 estrus was synchronized with 1 CIDR (Type G) inserted for 8 d beginning 10 d after PGF2 alpha. Cycles 2 and 3 were synchronized with two CIDRs for 8 d beginning 10 d after previous CIDR removal. Cycle 1 estrous behavior and serum gonadotropins showed a follicular phase (the interval from CIDR withdrawal to gonadotropin surge [surge] peak) of 38.2 +/- 1.5 hr. Two CIDRs lengthened the interval to 46.2 +/- 1.5 hr (P synchronization concentrated surges within a 24-hr period in 92% of the ewes in Cycles 1 and 2. Cycles 3 ewes were euthanized at estimated luteal, early follicular, late follicular, LH surge, and secondary FSH rise timepoints. Endocrine data and ovaries showed that 88% of the ewes synchronized with two CIDRs were in the predicted stage of the estrous cycle. These data demonstrate that the CIDR device applied during the luteal phase effectively synchronizes estrus and results in a CIDR removal-to-surge interval of similar length to a natural follicular phase.

  17. SEA-LEVEL RISE. Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, A; Carlson, A E; Long, A J; Milne, G A; Clark, P U; DeConto, R; Horton, B P; Rahmstorf, S; Raymo, M E

    2015-07-10

    Interdisciplinary studies of geologic archives have ushered in a new era of deciphering magnitudes, rates, and sources of sea-level rise from polar ice-sheet loss during past warm periods. Accounting for glacial isostatic processes helps to reconcile spatial variability in peak sea level during marine isotope stages 5e and 11, when the global mean reached 6 to 9 meters and 6 to 13 meters higher than present, respectively. Dynamic topography introduces large uncertainties on longer time scales, precluding robust sea-level estimates for intervals such as the Pliocene. Present climate is warming to a level associated with significant polar ice-sheet loss in the past. Here, we outline advances and challenges involved in constraining ice-sheet sensitivity to climate change with use of paleo-sea level records. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Waveform correlation and coherence of short-period seismic noise within Gauribidanur array with implications for event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, Y.S.; Arora, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In continuation with our effort to model the short-period micro seismic noise at the seismic array at Gauribidanur (GBA), we have examined in detail time-correlation and spectral coherence of the noise field within the array space. This has implications of maximum possible improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relevant to event detection. The basis of this study is about a hundred representative wide-band noise samples collected from GBA throughout the year 1992. Both time-structured correlation as well as coherence of the noise waveforms are found to be practically independent of the inter element distances within the array, and they exhibit strong temporal and spectral stability. It turns out that the noise is largely incoherent at frequencies ranging upwards from 2 Hz; the coherency coefficient tends to increase in the lower frequency range attaining a maximum of 0.6 close to 0.5 Hz. While the maximum absolute cross-correlation also diminishes with increasing frequency, the zero-lag cross-correlation is found to be insensitive to frequency filtering regardless of the pass band. An extremely small value of -0.01 of the zero-lag correlation and a comparatively higher year-round average estimate at 0.15 of the maximum absolute time-lagged correlation yields an SNR improvement varying between a probable high of 4.1 and a low of 2.3 for the full 20-element array. 19 refs., 6 figs

  19. Lattice Wind Description and Characterization of Mexico City Local Wind Events in the 2001–2006 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salcido

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban transformation and expansion in Mexico City continuously affect its urban morphology, and therefore the modes of wind circulation inside it and their occurrence probabilities. Knowledge on these topics is an important issue for urban planning and for other urban studies, such as air quality assessment. In this paper, using a lattice wind model at a meso-β scale, we develop a simple description and characterization of Mexico City local wind events that occurred during the period 2001–2006, including an estimation of the occurrence probabilities. This region was modeled as a 2D lattice domain of identical cells, and wind conditions in each cell were described by four wind attributes: the horizontal velocity components, divergence, and vorticity. Models of one and four cells were applied to wind data furnished by the meteorological network of the city. Results include the following: Early morning: low intensity winds (75% from N, NW, W and SW (75%, convergent (93%, with a slight predominance of cyclonic vorticity (54%. Morning and early afternoon: winds from N, NE and E (72% with speeds from 0.5 to 3.5 m/s, slight prevailing of convergent winds (51%, and slight predominance of cyclonic vorticity (57%. Late afternoon and night: winds blowing from N, NW, and S (63% with speeds from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s (66%, convergent (90%, and cyclonic (72%.

  20. [Analysis of disability due to ocular complications of diabetes in Tashkent over a ten-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhamalova, Sh A; Iskandarova, Sh T; Nabiev, A M

    2016-01-01

    to study peculiarities of primary and recurrent disability due to ocular complications of diabetes in Tashkent over the years 2003-2012 and to assess the impact of risk factors on the effectiveness of laser photocoagulation of the retina. A total of 347 disability examination reports of diabetic patients with ocular complications were copied and 48 case histories of patients with type II diabetes who underwent laser photocoagulation of the retina - retrospectively analyzed. Stabilization of visual function was used as the effectiveness criterion. The rate of new cases of disability over the studied decade averaged 0.55 per 100,000 population per year, while that of recurrent disability was 1.8 times higher - 0.97. The overall rate of disability was not high - 1.53; at that, severe disability (i.e. grade I and II) prevailed. Both recurrent and primary disability groups were made up by middle-aged patients and those in their retirement age; however, in the recurrent disability group the number of young disabled people was 4.5 times higher than in the primary disability group. Studies of the effectiveness of laser photocoagulation of the retina in relation to the compensation of diabetes and blood pressure level showed that unstable general condition was associated with not only significant deterioration of visual function, but also complications, including severe. The rate of disability due to ocular complications of diabetes is generally not high, however, grades I and II disabilities that require greater social support has been found to prevail in both groups. Most of disabled people are middle-aged (working-age population), which also causes economic damage. In cases of decompensated diabetes and unstable blood pressure, the effectiveness of laser photocoagulation of the retina is reduced.

  1. Bending Characteristics Change of Long-Period fiber Grating due to Co-doping of Boron for Optical fiber Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Dae Seung; Chung, Young Joo

    2005-01-01

    In long-period fiber grating (LPFG) to be made up optical fiber sensors, resonance coupling occurs between the forward-propagating core mode and cladding modes at the wavelength that satisfy the Phase matching condition. The resonance wavelength and the coupling strength depends strongly on the external environment like temperature, strain, and ambient index. These characteristics can be utilized for various applications as optical fiber sensors. Fabrication of optical fiber gratings is typically based on the photosensitivity effect, i.e. the permanent change of the refractive index upon irradiation of the UV beam, and therefore, fabrication of the optical fiber with high phososensitivity is an important part of the research on optical fiber gratings. In this work, we measured the effort of to-doping of boron on the index difference between the core and cladding of the optical fiber and the sensitivity of the LPFC to the temperature and bending changes. We observed that the index difference between the core and the cladding decreased by (1.69x10 -4 /SCCM) and the temperature sensitivity of the resonance wavelength shirt decreased by (0.01145nm/ .deg. C/SCCM). The dependence or the bending-induced changes or the transmission characteristics of LPFG on the tore-cladding index difference was investigated experimentally. The measurement results indicate that the bending sensitivity increases as the index difference decreases

  2. Plasma-Sheath Instability in Hall Thrusters Due to Periodic Modulation of the Energy of Secondary Electrons in Cyclotron Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-in-cell simulation of Hall thruster plasmas reveals a plasma-sheath instability manifesting itself as a rearrangement of the plasma sheath near the thruster channel walls accompanied by a sudden change of many discharge parameters. The instability develops when the sheath current as a function of the sheath voltage is in the negative conductivity regime. The major part of the sheath current is produced by beams of secondary electrons counter-streaming between the walls. The negative conductivity is the result of nonlinear dependence of beam-induced secondary electron emission on the plasma potential. The intensity of such emission is defined by the beam energy. The energy of the beam in crossed axial electric and radial magnetic fields is a quasi-periodical function of the phase of cyclotron rotation, which depends on the radial profile of the potential and the thruster channel width. There is a discrete set of stability intervals determined by the final phase of the cyclotron rotation of secondary electrons. As a result, a small variation of the thruster channel width may result in abrupt changes of plasma parameters if the plasma state jumps from one stability interval to another

  3. Events at blood collection area due to nonconforming blood bags and plateletpheresis kits: need for timely corrective and preventive actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anupam; Sachan, Deepti; Elhence, Priti; Pandey, Hem; Dubey, Anju

    2012-07-01

    Good blood banking practice requires that every effort should be made to detect any deviation or defect in blood bank products and to identify any potential risk to blood donor or recipient(s). We report the findings of an exercise that provide an insight into why feedback from the user side is crucial. Various events involving blood bags and plateletpheresis kits and the corresponding appropriate actions instituted for remedial measures were recorded. These scattered events were recorded for 6 months following the use of a new batch of improved blood bags with add-on features. Several events related to plateletpheresis kits from three different manufacturers were also recorded for 1 year. The affected blood bags were utilized with no untoward incident. The complaint was closed following satisfactory response from the blood bag manufacturing company that acted in a timely manner in addressing the root causes of the problems. However, corrective and preventive actions (CAPA) could not be implemented for plateletpheresis kits. The rate of undesirable events was higher with plateletpheresis kits as compared with whole blood bags (1.75% vs. 0.06%). As defects or deviations that trigger the need for CAPA can stem from numerous sources, it is important to clearly identify and document the problems and level of risk so that appropriate investigations can be instituted and remedial actions can be taken in a timely manner. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a quality initiative to collate and analyze blood product faults in conjunction with blood product manufacturers. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. [Evaluation of the notification of dysphonia on the voice profesionals as a sentinel event in Navarra. Period 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga Baigorri, Sara; García López, Vega

    2017-07-07

    Among the lesions produced by the professional use of the voice since 2007, the Vocal Nodules (VN) are recognized in Spain as an Occupational Disease. With the aim of promoting its notification in Navarre, the Sentinel Program was incorporated in 2013 and, with this study, we seek to verify its efficacy. The study population were voice professionals reported for dysphonia as sentinel events during the years 2013 to 2015 in Navarre. Its effectiveness was validated by the cumulative incidence of 100,000 workers for each of the years and Positive Predictive Value as an indicator of suspicion. The declaration was verified as an occupational disease. In the period April 2013 to December, 110 cases were reported, 71 nominal and 39 non-nominal. The annual incidence increased from 9.0 cases per 100,000 to 13.4. Of the cases investigated, 63 were women and 8 men. The mean age was 40.8 years (38.5-43.1 95% CI). 58 cases (81.7%) corresponded to teachers. In 22 of the 71 nodules (31%) and 9 coincidences were notified as an occupational disease. We found a greater presence of nodules in professionals with extra work use of voice (OR 4.2 IC 1.3-14.3) and better evolution of pathologies other than VN (OR = 2.5 CI 1.1-5.8 ). The suspicion was confirmed as occupational in 54 cases (positive predictive value 76.1%). The centinel program is effective in reporting dysphonia although it is important to highlight the low declaration as occupational disease of the cases detected.

  5. Comorbidity in illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder versus posttraumatic stress disorder due to external events in a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Jordana L; Mota, Natalie; Edmondson, Donald; El-Gabalawy, Renée

    2018-05-10

    The current study compared physical and mental health characteristics and quality of life of illness-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus those with PTSD due to external traumatic events in a population-based sample. PTSD was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-5) using DSM-5 criteria in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants with past-year PTSD (n = 1779) were categorized into two groups: illness-induced (6.5%) and other trauma-induced PTSD (92.9%) based on index trauma. Group differences in physical health, mental health, and quality of life were estimated using multiple logistic and linear regressions with adjustment for demographics and medical morbidity. Compared to PTSD due to external events, illness-induced PTSD had higher rates of life-threatening illness in the past year. Illness-induced PTSD compared to PTSD due to external events was associated with reduced odds of depressive/bipolar disorders and antisocial personality disorder, but increased odds of cannabis use disorder. The groups did not differ on quality of life after accounting for medical morbidity. Illness-induced PTSD is common among American adults and has a similar impact on quality of life as PTSD due to external events, but may have distinct mental health correlates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on method to identify actual causes and conditions of safety rule deviations through analyzing events due to unsafe acts of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Takeda, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a method to understand actual causes and condition of intentional deviation from safety rules (including norm and written rules that has developed to anticipate, prevent, detect and recover human errors) in an organization by analyzing events due to unsafe acts of workers (human factor events) and to propose effective measures. Firstly, by reviewing literature regarding safety violations, the following two advantages of investigating actual condition of safety rule deviation through human factor event analysis were extracted, such as (a) being able to clarify relationships between deviations, human errors, and events, and (b) being able to identify specific causal factors that influenced the decision to deviate, including acts of people concerned, problems with rules, task demands, environment and management. Next, through the analysis of human factor event data in accordance with existing human error analysis method on the basis of advantages above, the following three requirements for analyzing event data were extracted, such as (a) gathering information such as rules concerning to the work activities related to the human factor events, and whether there are intentional deviations of the rules, (b) gathering information and identify interrelations among causal factors of the intentional deviations, and (c) gathering information on general condition of deviations and the causal factors. (author)

  7. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  8. Investigation of radial dose effect on single event upset cross-section due to heavy ions using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy ions are the main cause to produce single event upset (SEU) damage on electronic devices since they are high LET radiations. The dimension of electronic components in new technology, arise a challenge in radiation effect estimations. Accurate investigations require fully considering the ion track in energy deposition as a radial dose distribution. In this work, the distribution of delta rays as well as LET have been calculated to determine ionization structure around ion track by a Monte Carlo code, GEANT4. The radial dose of several heavy ions with different energy in silicon was investigated and compared with the works by other authors in this field. The results showed that heavy ions with identical LET can have different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. As a demonstrative example, according to our results, the error probability for 4.8 GeV iron was 8 times greater than that for 15 MeV carbon ions, in transistors with new process technology which have small dimension and low critical charges. Our results show that considering radial dose distribution considerably improves the accuracy of the SEU cross-section estimation in electronic devices especially for new technologies. - Highlights: • The single event upset is produced by heavy ions interaction on electronic devices. • The radial dose of several heavy ions in silicon was calculated by GEANT4. • Heavy ions with identical LET had different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. • Low dimension and critical charge devices were more sensitive to radial dose effect

  9. Multi-Model Simulations of Aerosol and Ozone Radiative Forcing Due to Anthropogenic Emission Changes During the Period 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Gunnar; Aas, Wenche; Ribu, Cherian; Collins, William; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Flanner, Mark; Forster, Piers; Hodnebrog, Oivind; Klimont, Zbigniew; Lund, Marianne T.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the geographical distribution of emissions of substances that alter the atmospheric energy balance has changed due to economic growth and air pollution regulations. Here, we show the resulting changes to aerosol and ozone abundances and their radiative forcing using recently updated emission data for the period 1990-2015, as simulated by seven global atmospheric composition models. The models broadly reproduce large-scale changes in surface aerosol and ozone based on observations (e.g. 1 to 3 percent per year in aerosols over the USA and Europe). The global mean radiative forcing due to ozone and aerosol changes over the 1990-2015 period increased by 0.17 plus or minus 0.08 watts per square meter, with approximately one-third due to ozone. This increase is more strongly positive than that reported in IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report). The main reasons for the increased positive radiative forcing of aerosols over this period are the substantial reduction of global mean SO2 emissions, which is stronger in the new emission inventory compared to that used in the IPCC analysis, and higher black carbon emissions.

  10. Effects of anthropogenic heat due to air-conditioning systems on an extreme high temperature event in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Di Sabatino, S.; Martilli, A.; Chan, P. W.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic heat flux is the heat generated by human activities in the urban canopy layer, which is considered the main contributor to the urban heat island (UHI). The UHI can in turn increase the use and energy consumption of air-conditioning systems. In this study, two effective methods for water-cooling air-conditioning systems in non-domestic areas, including the direct cooling system and central piped cooling towers (CPCTs), are physically based, parameterized, and implemented in a weather research and forecasting model at the city scale of Hong Kong. An extreme high temperature event (June 23-28, 2016) in the urban areas was examined, and we assessed the effects on the surface thermal environment, the interaction of sea-land breeze circulation and urban heat island circulation, boundary layer dynamics, and a possible reduction of energy consumption. The results showed that both water-cooled air-conditioning systems could reduce the 2 m air temperature by around 0.5 °C-0.8 °C during the daytime, and around 1.5 °C around 7:00-8:00 pm when the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height was confined to a few hundred meters. The CPCT contributed around 80%-90% latent heat flux and significantly increased the water vapor mixing ratio in the atmosphere by around 0.29 g kg-1 on average. The implementation of the two alternative air-conditioning systems could modify the heat and momentum of turbulence, which inhibited the evolution of the PBL height (a reduction of 100-150 m), reduced the vertical mixing, presented lower horizontal wind speed and buoyant production of turbulent kinetic energy, and reduced the strength of sea breeze and UHI circulation, which in turn affected the removal of air pollutants. Moreover, the two alternative air-conditioning systems could significantly reduce the energy consumption by around 30% during extreme high temperature events. The results of this study suggest potential UHI mitigation strategies and can be extended to

  11. ICUD-0147 Extreme event statistics of urban pluvial floods – Return period assessment and rainfall variability impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuyls, Damian Murla; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    A return period assessment of urban flood has been performed and its adhered impact of rainfall variability studied over a urban drainage catchment area in Aalborg, Denmark. Recorded rainfall from 7 rain gauges has been used, located in a range of 7.5Km and for a period varying form 18-37 years....... Return period of rainfall and flood at catchment and local scale has been estimated, its derived ambiguities analysed and the variability of rain gauge based rainfall investigated regarding to flood estimation results. Results show a clear contrast between rainfall and flood return period estimates...

  12. Recovery Sleep Reverses Impaired Response Inhibition due to Sleep Restriction: Evidence from a Visual Event Related Potentials Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jin

    Full Text Available To investigate response inhibition after total sleep deprivation (TSD and the restorative effects of one night of recovery sleep (RS.Fourteen healthy male participants performed a visual Go/NoGo task, and electroencephalogram recordings were conducted at five time points: (1 baseline, (2 after 12 h of TSD, (3 after 24 h of TSD, (4 after 36 h of TSD, and (5 following 8 h of RS. The dynamic changes in response inhibition during TSD and after 8 h of RS were investigated by examining the NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 event-related potential components.Compared with baseline, NoGo-P3 amplitudes were decreased, while the NoGo-N2 latency increased along with the awake time prolonged. NoGo anteriorization, which was minimized after 24 h of TSD, progressively decreased with increasing TSD. After 8 h of RS, recoveries of both the NoGo-P3 amplitude and NoGo-N2 latency in the prefrontal cortex were observed compared with the values after 36 h of TSD.TSD induced a dose-dependent functional decline in the response inhibition of NoGo-N2 and NoGo-P3 on prefrontal cortex activation, and 8 h of RS resulted in recovery or maintenance of the response inhibition. However, it was not restored to baseline levels.Participants were chosen male college students only, thus the findings cannot be generalized to older people and women. Additionally, the sample size was small, and, thus, speculations on the meaning of the results of this study should be cautious. The EEG continuous recording should be employed to monitor the decline of alertness following TSD.

  13. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  14. Elastic-plastic response of a piping system due to simulated double-ended guillotine break events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Diem, H.; Hunger, H.; Katzenmeier, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the blowdown experiments performed on the HDR feedwater line with feedwater check valve the conclusion can be drawn that high transient loads of up to plastic strains of 3%, acting on an initially integer piping system, can be sustained without loss of integrity for a low number of load cycles due to the plasticizing capacity of the pipework materials nowadays used in reactor technology. In the experiments carried out with ferritic piping of ND 400 pressure peaks up to about 31,5 MPa were achieved which resulted in excessive strains of up to 3%. By nonlinear finite element computations (ABAQUS) it was possible to describe the elastic-plastic behaviour of the piping in a good approximation. (orig./GL)

  15. Probability assessment for the incidence of extreme events due to the climatic change. Focus Germany; Berechnung der Wahrscheinlichkeiten fuer das Eintreten von Extremereignissen durch Klimaaenderungen. Schwerpunkt Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonas, Martin; Staeger, Tim; Schoenwiese, Christian-Dietrich [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt, Arbeitsgruppe Klimaforschung

    2005-08-15

    The study on the probability of occurrence of extreme weather events in Germany is based on compiled data covering ground-level temperature, precipitation and wind during the time period 1901 to 2000. The data processing approach is based on two methodologies: a time-gliding extreme value analysis and a structure-oriented time-series analysis. The results show a significant increase of very hot months and at the same time a decrease of extreme cold months within the 20th century. In the time period after 1951 the probability of very high daily maximum temperatures increased for all seasons. Concerning the precipitation the increase of extreme values and higher variabilities are observed for the winter period. The results concerning the wind are not so clear. Summarizing the extreme behavior of temperature and precipitation has shown strong variations during the last century.

  16. Elastic-plastic response of a piping system due to simulated double-ended guillotine break events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Diem, H.; Hunger, H.; Katzenmeier, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the blowdown experiments performed on the HDR feedwater line with feedwater check valve the conclusion can be drawn that high transient loads of up to plastic strains of 3%, acting on an initially integer piping system, can be sustained without loss of integrity for a low number of load cycles due to the plasticizing capacity of the pipework materials nowadays used in the reactor technology. In the experiments carried out with ferritic piping of ND 400 pressure peaks up to about 31,5 mPA were achieved which resulted in excessive strains of up to 3%. By nonlinear finite element computations (ABAQUS) it was possible to describe the elastic-plastic behaviour of the piping in a good approximation. On account of the safety margins proved in the experiments, potential inaccuracies in theoretical structure analyses are recommended so as to be on the safe side. On the other hand, it appears that designing pipework with reference to elastic stress categories does not adequately take into account the actual reserves of the pipework material

  17. Association of stressful life events with acute myocardial infarction in population in the city of Niš within the period from 1998-2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Zorana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stressful life events present a very important category of psychosocial stress. A few studies have showed that a psychosocial stress represents a very important risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but measures of stress may not be suitable for different countries, cultures and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of stressful life events with AMI in the period of 1998-2000 in the population of the city of Niš. Methods. A case-control study included 100 patients with the first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 healthy subjects, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the city of Niš. The data of stressful life events were obtained by the Scaling of life events by Paykel ES, modified by the authors consistent with the examined population and the period of investigation. The Yates χ2 test, odds ratio - OR and their 99% interval of confidence were used as statistical procedures. Results. The results showed that stressful life events in the period of investigation were very important risk factors for AMI with a statistically significant level (p = 0.000. Huge financial problems (OR = 202.36, Ci = 24.82-4387.58, violation of law (OR = 168.00, Ci = 10.66-6658.96 and serious illness of family members (OR = 159.60, Ci = 19.05- 3514.81 were the highest risk for AMI. The patients who reported that his/her son or other member of family had been gone to the army (or mobilization before the illness onset, had 138 times higher risk of AMI (Ci = 14.98-3222.47, χ2 = 40.95, p = 0.000, while the patients who had mobilized themselves had 84 times higher risk (Ci = 7.00- 2363.06, χ2 = 23.87, p = 0.000. Effect of several stressful life events lead to significantly increased risk of AMI and that significance is larger as the number of life events is more frequent (one life event: OR = 28.41, Ci = 3.73- 593.52; χ2 = 17.40, p = 0.000; ≥ 4: OR = 336.00, Ci = 28.31- 9760.28, χ2 = 50

  18. [Hyperammonemia due to ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency--a cause of lethal metabolic crisis during the newborn period and infancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, L; Colombo, J P; Fischer, H

    1980-05-01

    A severe hyperammonemia is the characteristic finding in patients with enzyme defects in urea cycle and one of the main causes of the acute metabolic crisis dsuring the newborn period and infancy. A case report is given about two male infants, who died in the age of one and of seven months respectively. In the second child the blood ammonia concentration raised up to 833 micrograms/100 ml, and, OTC deficiency was diagnosed due to enzyme determination in liver biopsie. Probably, the first child, that also died as newborn, suffered from the same disease. In this case, only post mortem findings are available.

  19. The Unconstrained Event Bulletin (UEB) for the IMS Seismic Network Spaning the Period May 15-28, 2010: a New Resource for Algorithm Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, R.; Young, C. J.; Ballard, S.

    2017-12-01

    A major problem with developing new data processing algorithms for seismic event monitoring is the lack of standard, high-quality "ground-truth" data sets to test against. The unfortunate effect of this is that new algorithms are often developed and tested with new data sets, making comparison of algorithms difficult and subjective. In an effort towards resolving this problem, we have developed the Unconstrained Event Bulletin (UEB), a ground-truth data set from the International Monitoring System (IMS) primary and auxiliary seismic networks for a two-week period in May 2010. All UEB analysis was performed by the same expert, who has more than 30 years of experience analyzing seismic data for nuclear explosion monitoring. We used the most complete International Data Centre (IDC) analyst-review event bulletin (the Late Event Bulletin or LEB) as a starting point for this analysis. To make the UEB more complete, we relaxed the minimum event definite criteria to the level of a pair of P-type and an S-type phases at a single station and using azimuth/slowness as defining. To add even more events that our analyst recognized and didn't want to omit, in rare cases, events were constructed using only 1 P-phase. Perhaps most importantly, on average our analyst spent more than 60 hours per day of data, far more than was possible in the production of the LEB. The result of all this was that while the LEB had 2,101 LEB events for the 2-week time period, we ended up with 11,435 events in the UEB, an increase of over 400%. New events are located all over the world and include both earthquakes and manmade events such as mining explosions. Our intent is to make our UEB data set openly available for all researchers to use for testing detection, correlation, and location algorithms, thus making it much easier to objectively compare different research efforts. Acknowledgement: Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and

  20. N2 Dissociation In The Mesosphere Due To Secondary Electrons During A Solar Proton Event: The Effect On Atomic Nitrogen and Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verronen, P. T.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Turunen, E.; Ulich, Th.

    Solar proton events have an effect on the middle atmospheric odd nitrogen chem- istry. During a solar proton event high energy protons enter Earth's middle atmosphere where they ionize ambient gas. Ionization leads to production of atomic nitrogen, and further to production of nitric oxide, through ion chemistry. In addition, ionization processes produce secondary electrons that, if possessing 9.76 eV or more energy, dissociate N2 providing an additional source of atomic nitrogen. We have calculated mesospheric N2 dissociation rate due to secondary electrons dur- ing a solar proton event. Further, we have studied the effect on atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide at altitudes between 50 and 90 km. It was found that N2 is efficiently dis- sociated in the lower mesosphere by secondary electrons, with rates up to 103 cm-3 s-1 at 50 km. Thus, secondary electrons significantly add to odd nitrogen produc- tion. As a result of N2 dissociation, atomic nitrogen is greatly enhanced in both N(4S) and N(2D) states by 259% and 1220% maximum increases at 50 km, respectively. This further leads to a maximum increase of 16.5% in NO concentration at 61 km via chemical reactions. In our study a Monte Carlo model was used to calculate the total ionization rate and secondary electrons flux due to precipitating protons. These where then used as input to a detailed ion and neutral chemistry model and a steady-state solution was calcu- lated for two cases: With and without N2 dissociation due to secondary electrons.

  1. A neonate with mitral stenosis due to accessory mitral valve, ventricular septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus: changes in echocardiographical findings during the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tadahiko; Okubo, Tadashi

    2002-12-01

    A female neonate with mitral stenosis due to accessory mitral valve with ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus is described. She was referred to our hospital because of neonatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was improved by ventilator support, but rapid deterioration of respiration with pulmonary congestion and hemorrhage appeared 8 days after birth. Echocardiography revealed an accessory mitral valve attached to the anterior mitral leaflet with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus. Although there were no echocardiographical findings indicating mitral stenosis on admission, the mitral stenosis blood flow patterns were detected by color and pulsed Doppler examination performed on the eighth day after admission. Transaortic resection of accessory mitral valve tissue was performed with patch closure of the ventricular septal defect and ligation of the ductus arteriosus 35 days after birth. After operation, pulmonary congestion and hemorrhage were improved. Postoperative echocardiography showed complete resection of the accessory mitral valve and no mitral insufficiency. We concluded that the combination of the accessory mitral valve and left-to-right shunt due to ventricular septal defect or patent ducturs arteriosus might have led to a critical hemodynamic condition due to relative mitral stenosis in the neonatal period with the decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance.

  2. Response to period shifts in tapping and circle drawing: a window into event and emergent components of continuous movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenka, Breanna E

    2015-05-01

    Synchronization of movement to a metronome is a well-studied task for both discretely and smoothly produced rhythmic movement. In particular, behavioral responses to unexpected changes in a regular metronome can reveal both the strength and the completeness of error correction mechanisms and temporal control. Clock-like control is exhibited by discretely produced movement and movement with discrete perceptual information, whereas smoothly produced movement does not rely on internal clock mechanisms. Documented differences in error correction between discretely and smoothly produced movements have been attributed to this different underlying control. In this study, error correction mechanisms were examined by inducing changes in the pace of rhythmic movement. An overshoot response following the pace change for both tapping and circle drawing is documented, and suggests the presence of phase and period correction in both tasks. The presence of phase correction in circle drawing also suggests that clock and non-clock timing may co-exist within the same movement. Furthermore, a sub-group of participants emerged who appropriately changed pace, but were not able to correct the phasing of their movement while performing the circle drawing task, supporting that phase and period maintenance in timing are independently controlled processes.

  3. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L; Malinowski, Josie E; McGee, Shauna L; Bennett, Paul D; Ruby, Perrine M; Blagrove, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the "Appreciating dreams" method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the "Listening to the dreamer" method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater insight

  4. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lloyd Edwards

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on Rapid Eye Movement sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, 1 male reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the ‘Appreciating dreams’ method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (7 females, 2 males reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the ‘Listening to the dreamer’ method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method exploration-insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and NREM dream reports, hypothesizing greater

  5. Comparing personal insight gains due to consideration of a recent dream and consideration of a recent event using the Ullman and Schredl dream group methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Malinowski, Josie E.; McGee, Shauna L.; Bennett, Paul D.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    There have been reports and claims in the psychotherapeutic literature that the consideration of recent dreams can result in personal realizations and insight. There is theoretical support for these claims from work on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep having a function of the consolidation of emotional memories and the creative formation of connections between new and older memories. To investigate these claims, 11 participants (10 females, one male) reported and considered a recent home dream in a dream discussion group that following the “Appreciating dreams” method of Montague Ullman. The group ran 11 times, each participant attending and participating once. A further nine participants (seven females, two males) reported and considered a recent home dream in a group that followed the “Listening to the dreamer” method of Michael Schredl. The two studies each had a control condition where the participant also reported a recent event, the consideration of which followed the same technique as was followed for the dream report. Outcomes of the discussions were assessed by the participants on the Gains from Dream Interpretation (GDI) scale, and on its counterpart, the Gains from Event Interpretation scale. High ratings on the GDI experiential-insight subscale were reported for both methods, when applied to dreams, and for the Ullman method Exploration-Insight ratings for the dream condition were significantly higher than for the control event condition. In the Ullman method, self-assessment of personal insight due to consideration of dream content was also significantly higher than for the event consideration condition. The findings support the view that benefits can be obtained from the consideration of dream content, in terms of identifying the waking life sources of dream content, and because personal insight may also occur. To investigate the mechanisms for the findings, the studies should be repeated with REM and non-REM dream reports, hypothesizing greater

  6. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  7. Assessment of predictive models for the failure of titanium and ferrous alloys due to hydrogen effects. Report for the period of June 16 to September 15, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archbold, T.F.; Bower, R.B.; Polonis, D.H.

    1982-04-01

    The 1977 version of the Simpson-Puls-Dutton model appears to be the most amenable with respect to utilizing known or readily estimated quantities. The Pardee-Paton model requires extensive calculations involving estimated quantities. Recent observations by Koike and Suzuki on vanadium support the general assumption that crack growth in hydride forming metals is determined by the rate of hydride formation, and their hydrogen atmosphere-displacive transformation model is of potential interest in explaining hydrogen embrittlement in ferrous alloys as well as hydride formers. The discontinuous nature of cracking due to hydrogen embrittlement appears to depend very strongly on localized stress intensities, thereby pointing to the role of microstructure in influencing crack initiation, fracture mode and crack path. The initiation of hydrogen induced failures over relatively short periods of time can be characterized with fair reliability using measurements of the threshold stress intensity. The experimental conditions for determining K/sub Th/ and ΔK/sub Th/ are designed to ensure plane strain conditions in most cases. Plane strain test conditions may be viewed as a conservative basis for predicting delayed failure. The physical configuration of nuclear waste canisters may involve elastic/plastic conditions rather than a state of plane strain, especially with thin-walled vessels. Under these conditions, alternative predictive tests may be considered, including COD and R-curve methods. The double cantilever beam technique employed by Boyer and Spurr on titanium alloys offers advantages for examining hydrogen induced delayed failure over long periods of time. 88 references

  8. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  9. Baseline Preferences for Daily, Event-Driven, or Periodic HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Gay and Bisexual Men in the PRELUDE Demonstration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Vaccher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe effectiveness of daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is well established. However, there has been increasing interest in non-daily dosing schedules among gay and bisexual men (GBM. This paper explores preferences for PrEP dosing schedules among GBM at baseline in the PRELUDE demonstration project.Materials and methodsIndividuals at high-risk of HIV were enrolled in a free PrEP demonstration project in New South Wales, Australia, between November 2014 and April 2016. At baseline, they completed an online survey containing detailed behavioural, demographic, and attitudinal questions, including their ideal way to take PrEP: daily (one pill taken every day, event-driven (pills taken only around specific risk events, or periodic (daily dosing during periods of increased risk.ResultsOverall, 315 GBM (98% of study sample provided a preferred PrEP dosing schedule at baseline. One-third of GBM expressed a preference for non-daily PrEP dosing: 20% for event-driven PrEP, and 14% for periodic PrEP. Individuals with a trade/vocational qualification were more likely to prefer periodic to daily PrEP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 4.58, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI: (1.68, 12.49], compared to individuals whose highest level of education was high school. Having an HIV-positive main regular partner was associated with strong preference for daily, compared to event-driven PrEP [aOR = 0.20, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.87]. Participants who rated themselves better at taking medications were more likely to prefer daily over periodic PrEP [aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: (0.20, 0.76].DiscussionIndividuals’ preferences for PrEP schedules are associated with demographic and behavioural factors that may impact on their ability to access health services and information about PrEP and patterns of HIV risk. At the time of data collection, there were limited data available about the efficacy of non-daily PrEP schedules, and clinicians only recommended daily PrEP to

  10. Probability Estimates of Solar Particle Event Doses During a Period of Low Sunspot Number for Thinly-Shielded Spacecraft and Short Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Atwell, et al., 2015), we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. These SPEs contain Ground Level Events (GLE), sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs (Tylka and Dietrich, 2009, Tylka and Dietrich, 2008, and Atwell, et al., 2008). GLEs are extremely energetic solar particle events having proton energies extending into the several GeV range and producing secondary particles in the atmosphere, mostly neutrons, observed with ground station neutron monitors. Sub-GLE events are less energetic, extending into the several hundred MeV range, but do not produce secondary atmospheric particles. Sub-sub GLEs are even less energetic with an observable increase in protons at energies greater than 30 MeV, but no observable proton flux above 300 MeV. In this paper, we consider those SPEs that occurred during 1973-2010 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. In addition, we provide probability estimates of absorbed dose based on mission duration with a 95% confidence level (CL). We also discuss the implications of these data and provide some recommendations that may be useful to spacecraft designers of these smaller spacecraft.

  11. Validating a mass balance accounting approach to using 7Be measurements to estimate event-based erosion rates over an extended period at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.; Cogliandro, Vanessa; Callegari, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Use of the fallout radionuclides cesium-137 and excess lead-210 offers important advantages over traditional methods of quantifying erosion and soil redistribution rates. However, both radionuclides provide information on longer-term (i.e., 50-100 years) average rates of soil redistribution. Beryllium-7, with its half-life of 53 days, can provide a basis for documenting short-term soil redistribution and it has been successfully employed in several studies. However, the approach commonly used introduces several important constraints related to the timing and duration of the study period. A new approach proposed by the authors that overcomes these constraints has been successfully validated using an erosion plot experiment undertaken in southern Italy. Here, a further validation exercise undertaken in a small (1.38 ha) catchment is reported. The catchment was instrumented to measure event sediment yields and beryllium-7 measurements were employed to document the net soil loss for a series of 13 events that occurred between November 2013 and June 2015. In the absence of significant sediment storage within the catchment's ephemeral channel system and of a significant contribution from channel erosion to the measured sediment yield, the estimates of net soil loss for the individual events could be directly compared with the measured sediment yields to validate the former. The close agreement of the two sets of values is seen as successfully validating the use of beryllium-7 measurements and the new approach to obtain estimates of net soil loss for a sequence of individual events occurring over an extended period at the scale of a small catchment.

  12. ANALYSIS OF LABOUR ACCIDENTS DUE TO ROCK FALL EVENTS IN CUTTING FACE OF TUNNEL AND STUDY OF THE COUNTERMEASURES FOR SAFETY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Tamate, Satoshi; Toyosawa, Yasuo

    In this paper, we analysed the labour accidents which had casualties due to rock fall events in the headings of tunnel and cleared the condition of the occurrence. It was clearly revealed that the accidents mostly happened when the workers mounted the explosive and the steel arch in the headings of the mountain tunnel. In addition, the dimension of the rocks fallen were averagely 0.6m diameter, it was not so much large. Therefore, the countermeasures based on both soft and hard faces would be useful and effective, such as the displacement measurement of a cutting face of tunnel, securing the sufficient lights to observe the cutting face, boring for drainage and shotcreting in a heading of tunnel.

  13. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  14. Long-period seismicity reveals magma pathways above a laterally propagating dyke during the 2014-15 Bárðarbunga rifting event, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jennifer; Donaldson, Clare; White, Robert S.; Caudron, Corentin; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; Hudson, Thomas S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg

    2018-05-01

    The 2014-15 Bárðarbunga-Holuhraun rifting event comprised the best-monitored dyke intrusion to date and the largest eruption in Iceland in 230 years. A huge variety of seismicity was produced, including over 30,000 volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VTs) associated with the dyke propagation at ∼6 km depth below sea level, and large-magnitude earthquakes accompanying the collapse of Bárðarbunga caldera. We here study the long-period seismicity associated with the rifting event. We systematically detect and locate both long-period events (LPs) and tremor during the dyke propagation phase and the first week of the eruption. We identify clusters of highly similar, repetitive LPs, which have a peak frequency of ∼1 Hz and clear P and S phases followed by a long-duration coda. The source mechanisms are remarkably consistent between clusters and also fundamentally different to those of the VTs. We accurately locate LP clusters near each of three ice cauldrons (depressions formed by basal melting) that were observed on the surface of Dyngjujökull glacier above the path of the dyke. Most events are in the vicinity of the northernmost cauldron, at shallower depth than the VTs associated with lateral dyke propagation. At the two northerly cauldrons, periods of shallow seismic tremor following the clusters of LPs are also observed. Given that the LPs occur at ∼4 km depth and in swarms during times of dyke-stalling, we infer that they result from excitation of magmatic fluid-filled cavities and indicate magma ascent. We suggest that the tremor is the climax of the vertical melt movement, arising from either rapid, repeated excitation of the same LP cavities, or sub-glacial eruption processes. This long-period seismicity therefore represents magma pathways between the depth of the dyke-VT earthquakes and the surface. Notably, we do not detect tremor associated with each cauldron, despite melt reaching the base of the overlying ice cap, a concern for hazard monitoring.

  15. Delineation of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome phenotype due to the c.934C>T, p.(Arg312Cys) mutation in COL1A1: Report on a three-generation family without cardiovascular events, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Venturini, Marina; Zanca, Arianna; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Ritelli, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a rare connective tissue disorder primarily characterized by hyperextensible skin, defective wound healing, abnormal scars, easy bruising, and generalized joint hypermobility; arterial dissections are rarely observed. Mutations in COL5A1 and COL5A2 encoding type V collagen account for more than 90% of the patients so far characterized. In addition, cEDS phenotype was reported in a small number of patients carrying the c.934C>T mutation in COL1A1 that results in an uncommon substitution of a non-glycine residue in one Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeat of the pro-α1(I)-chain p.(Arg312Cys), which leads to disturbed collagen fibrillogenesis due to delayed removal of the type I procollagen N-propeptide. This specific mutation has been associated with propensity to arterial rupture in early adulthood; indeed, in literature the individuals harboring this mutation are also referred to as "(classic) vascular-like" EDS patients. Herein, we describe a three-generation cEDS family with six adults carrying the p.(Arg312Cys) substitution, which show a variable and prevalent cutaneous involvement without any major vascular event. These data, together with those available in literature, suggest that vascular events are not a diagnostic handle to differentiate patients with the p.(Arg312Cys) COL1A1 mutation from those with COL5A1 and COL5A2 defects, and highlight that during the diagnostic process the presence of at least the p.(Arg312Cys) substitution in COL1A1 should be investigated in cEDS patients without type V collagen mutations. Nevertheless, for these patients, as well as for those affected with cEDS, a periodical vascular surveillance should be carried out together with cardiovascular risk factors monitoring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Review of events occurring during the transport of radioactive material for the period 1984-1993. A report on the IAEA's EVTRAM database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In 1988 the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated data collecting activities for accidents and incidents (EVTRAM), shipments (SHIPTRAM) and radiation exposure (EXTRAM) in connection with radioactive material transport. This publication reports on the data made available for the EVTRAM database by ten Member States regarding events occurring during the transport of radioactive material during the period 1984-1993. The main objectives of the EVATRAM database are to provide information to support evaluations of the effectiveness of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and provide a means of information exchange for any lessons learned. Member States providing data do so on a voluntary basis an report only those events that involve the safety features of packages being transported. The tables presented in this report are based solely on the data provided regarding 128 valid cases. Where it is meaningful to relate frequency tables this has been done in the section containing cross-tabulations; otherwise, the frequency tables are to be considered individually. Because it is neither complete nor comprehensive the data has severely limited uses for establishing trends or drawing conclusions. The statistical analyses performed are to be considered only in this light. Neither the data nor the tables may be cited as the basis for general, conclusive statements about radioactive material transport events. 4 refs, 5 tabs

  17. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  18. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, L O; Konlaan, B B; Johansson, S E

    To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start.

  19. Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-10-22

    Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content

  20. Source mechanism of small long-period events at Mount St. Helens in July 2005 using template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Shearer, Peter M.; Haney, Matthew M.; Waite, Gregory P.; Moran, Seth C.; Mikesell, T. Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Long-period (LP, 0.5-5 Hz) seismicity, observed at volcanoes worldwide, is a recognized signature of unrest and eruption. Cyclic LP “drumbeating” was the characteristic seismicity accompanying the sustained dome-building phase of the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), WA. However, together with the LP drumbeating was a near-continuous, randomly occurring series of tiny LP seismic events (LP “subevents”), which may hold important additional information on the mechanism of seismogenesis at restless volcanoes. We employ template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion to image the source mechanism of one multiplet of these LP subevents at MSH in July 2005. The signal-to-noise ratios of the individual events are too low to produce reliable waveform-inversion results, but the events are repetitive and can be stacked. We apply network-based template matching to 8 days of continuous velocity waveform data from 29 June to 7 July 2005 using a master event to detect 822 network triggers. We stack waveforms for 359 high-quality triggers at each station and component, using a combination of linear and phase-weighted stacking to produce clean stacks for use in waveform inversion. The derived source mechanism pointsto the volumetric oscillation (~10 m3) of a subhorizontal crack located at shallow depth (~30 m) in an area to the south of Crater Glacier in the southern portion of the breached MSH crater. A possible excitation mechanism is the sudden condensation of metastable steam from a shallow pressurized hydrothermal system as it encounters cool meteoric water in the outer parts of the edifice, perhaps supplied from snow melt.

  1. Estimation of core-damage frequency to evolutionary ALWR [advanced light water reactor] due to seismic initiating events: Task 4.3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Harrison, D.G.; Summitt, R.L.

    1990-04-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is presently developing a requirements document for the design of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One of the basic goals of the EPRI ALWR Requirements Document is that the core-damage frequency for an ALWR shall be less than 1.0E-5. To aid in this effort, the Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP) initiated a functional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to determine how effectively the evolutionary plant requirements contained in the existing EPRI Requirements Document assure that this safety goal will be met. This report develops an approximation of the core-damage frequency due to seismic events for both evolutionary plant designs (pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor(BWR)) as modeled in the corresponding functional PRAs. Component fragility values were taken directly form information which has been submitted for inclusion in Appendix A to Volume 1 of the EPRI Requirements Document. The results show a seismic core-damage frequency of 5.2E-6 for PWRS and 5.0E-6 for BWRs. Combined with the internal initiators from the functional PRAs, the overall core-damage frequencies are 6.0E-6 for the pwr and BWR, both of which satisfy the 1.0E-5 EPRI goal. In addition, site-specific considerations, such as more rigid components and less conservative fragility data and seismic hazard curves, may further reduce these frequencies. The effect of seismic events on structures are not addressed in this generic evaluation and should be addressed separately on a design-specific basis. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. [The Health Department of Sicily "Regional recommendations for hospital discharge and communication with patients after admission due to a cardiologic event" decree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Maurizio Giuseppe; De Luca, Giovanni; Gabriele, Michele; Tourkmani, Nidal

    2014-06-01

    Mortality and rehospitalizations still remain high after discharge for an acute cardiologic event. In this context, hospital discharge represents a potential pitfall for heart disease patients. In the setting of care transitions, the discharge letter is the main instrument of communication between hospital and primary care. Communication, besides, is an integral part of high-quality, patient-centered interventions aimed at improving the discharge process. Inadequate information at discharge significantly affects the quality of treatment compliance and the adoption of lifestyle modifications for an effective secondary prevention. The Health Department of Sicily, in 2013, established a task force with the aim to elaborate "Regional recommendations for hospital discharge and communication with patients after admission due to a cardiologic event", inviting to participate GICR-IACPR and many other scientific societies of cardiology and primary care, as discharge letter and communication are fundamental junctions of care transitions in cardiology. These recommendations have been published as a specific decree and contain: a structured model of discharge letter, which includes all of the parameters characterizing patients at high clinical risk, high thrombotic risk and low risk according to the Consensus document ANMCO/GICR-IACPR/GISE; is thus possible to identify these patients, choosing consequently the most appropriate follow-up pathways. A particular attention has been given to the "Medication Reconciliation" and to the identification of therapeutic targets; an educational Kit, with different forms on cardiac diseases, risk factors, drugs and lifestyle; a check-list about information given to the patient and caregivers. The "Recommendations" represent, in conclusion, the practical realization of the fruitful cooperation between scientific societies and political-administrative institutions that has been realized in Sicily in the last years.

  3. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part II: The role of the upper ocean short-term periodic and episodic mixing events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new production by 25% and 10% respectively relative to that predicted with daily and weekly forcing. This decrease varied regionally, being a 30% reduction in equatorial areas primarily because of increased light limitation resulting from deepening of the mixed layer overnight as well as enhanced storm activity, and 25% at moderate and high latitudes primarily due to increased grazing pressure resulting from late winter stratification events. Mini-blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occur in the model during these events, leading to zooplankton populations being sufficiently well developed to suppress the progress of phytoplankton blooms. A 10% increase in primary production was predicted in the peripheries of the oligotrophic gyres due to increased storm-induced nutrient supply end enhanced winter production during the short term stratification events that are resolved in the run forced by 6 h meteorological fields. By resolving the diurnal cycle, model performance was significantly improved with respect to several common problems: underestimated primary production in the oligotrophic gyres; overestimated primary production in the Southern Ocean; overestimated magnitude of the spring bloom in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, and overestimated primary production in equatorial areas. The result of using 6 h forcing on predicted ecosystem dynamics was profound, the effects persisting far beyond the hourly timescale, and having major consequences for predicted global and new production on an annual basis.

  4. Patient safety incident reports related to traditional Japanese Kampo medicines: medication errors and adverse drug events in a university hospital for a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Makoto; Nogami, Tatsuya; Watari, Hidetoshi; Kitahara, Hideyuki; Misawa, Hiroki; Kimbara, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-21

    Kampo medicine is traditional Japanese medicine, which originated in ancient traditional Chinese medicine, but was introduced and developed uniquely in Japan. Today, Kampo medicines are integrated into the Japanese national health care system. Incident reporting systems are currently being widely used to collect information about patient safety incidents that occur in hospitals. However, no investigations have been conducted regarding patient safety incident reports related to Kampo medicines. The aim of this study was to survey and analyse incident reports related to Kampo medicines in a Japanese university hospital to improve future patient safety. We selected incident reports related to Kampo medicines filed in Toyama University Hospital from May 2007 to April 2017, and investigated them in terms of medication errors and adverse drug events. Out of 21,324 total incident reports filed in the 10-year survey period, we discovered 108 Kampo medicine-related incident reports. However, five cases were redundantly reported; thus, the number of actual incidents was 103. Of those, 99 incidents were classified as medication errors (77 administration errors, 15 dispensing errors, and 7 prescribing errors), and four were adverse drug events, namely Kampo medicine-induced interstitial pneumonia. The Kampo medicine (crude drug) that was thought to induce interstitial pneumonia in all four cases was Scutellariae Radix, which is consistent with past reports. According to the incident severity classification system recommended by the National University Hospital Council of Japan, of the 99 medication errors, 10 incidents were classified as level 0 (an error occurred, but the patient was not affected) and 89 incidents were level 1 (an error occurred that affected the patient, but did not cause harm). Of the four adverse drug events, two incidents were classified as level 2 (patient was transiently harmed, but required no treatment), and two incidents were level 3b (patient was

  5. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tomeczkowski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategyduring elective hip and knee replacement surgery. METHODS: Individual patients (N = 50,000 were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit, pneumonia treatment (€5,000, and length of stay (€300/day. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. RESULTS: At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. CONCLUSIONS: EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  6. Potential cost saving of Epoetin alfa in elective hip or knee surgery due to reduction in blood transfusions and their side effects: a discrete-event simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeczkowski, Jörg; Stern, Sean; Müller, Alfred; von Heymann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic blood is still common in orthopedic surgery. This analysis evaluates from the perspective of a German hospital the potential cost savings of Epoetin alfa (EPO) compared to predonated autologous blood transfusions or to a nobloodconservationstrategy (allogeneic blood transfusion strategy)during elective hip and knee replacement surgery. Individual patients (N = 50,000) were simulated based on data from controlled trials, the German DRG institute (InEK) and various publications and entered into a stochastic model (Monte-Carlo) of three treatment arms: EPO, preoperative autologous donation and nobloodconservationstrategy. All three strategies lead to a different risk for an allogeneic blood transfusion. The model focused on the costs and events of the three different procedures. The costs were obtained from clinical trial databases, the German DRG system, patient records and medical publications: transfusion (allogeneic red blood cells: €320/unit and autologous red blood cells: €250/unit), pneumonia treatment (€5,000), and length of stay (€300/day). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to determine which factors had an influence on the model's clinical and cost outcomes. At acquisition costs of €200/40,000 IU EPO is cost saving compared to autologous blood donation, and cost-effective compared to a nobloodconservationstrategy. The results were most sensitive to the cost of EPO, blood units and hospital days. EPO might become an attractive blood conservation strategy for anemic patients at reasonable costs due to the reduction in allogeneic blood transfusions, in the modeled incidence of transfusion-associated pneumonia andthe prolongedlength of stay.

  7. Long-term changes in flood event patterns due to changes in hydrological distribution parameters in a rural-urban catchment, Shikoku, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2011-07-01

    This article describes the principal control parameters of flood events and precipitation and the relationships between corresponding hydrologic and climatologic parameters. The long-term generation of runoff and associated processes is important in understanding floods and droughts under changes in climate and land use. This study presents detailed analyses of flood events in a coastal amphitheatre catchment with a total area of 445 km 2 in western Japan, followed by analyses of flood events in both urban and forest areas. Using long-term (1962 to 2002) hydrological and climatological data from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, Japan, the contributions of precipitation, river discharge, temperature, and relative humidity to flood events were analysed. Flood events could be divided into three types with respect to hydrologic and climatologic principal control parameters: the long-term tendency; medium-term changes as revealed by hydrographs and hyetographs of high-intensity events such as the relative precipitation, river discharge, and temperature; and large events, as shown by the flow-duration curve, with each cluster having particular characteristics. River discharge showed a decreasing tendency of flow quantity during small rainfall events of less than 100 mm/event from the 1980s to the present. An approximately 7% decrease from 44.8 to 37.3% occurred in the percentage of river water supplied by precipitation in the years after the 1980s. For the medium-term changes, no marked change occurred in the flow quantity of the peak point over time in event hydrographs. However, flow quantities before and after the peak tended to decrease by 1 to 2 m 3/s after the 1980s. Theoretical considerations with regard to the influence of hydrologic and climatologic parameters on flood discharge are discussed and examined in terms of observational data. These findings provide a sound foundation for use in hydrological catchment modelling.

  8. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356689-07$15.00/0.

  9. Changes in groundwater reserves and radiocarbon and chloride content due to a wet period intercalated in an arid climate sequence in a large unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, E.; Jódar, J.; Herrera, C.; Custodio-Ayala, J.; Medina, A.

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric tracers in groundwater samples collected from springs and deep wells is, in most cases, the result of a mixture of waters with a wide range of residence times in the ground. Such is the case of an unconfined aquifer recharged over all its surface area. Concentrations greatly differ from the homogeneous residence time case. Data interpretation relies on knowledge of the groundwater flow pattern. To study relatively large systems, the conservative ion chloride and the decaying radiocarbon (14C) are considered. Radiocarbon (14C) activity in groundwater, after correction to discount the non-biogenic contribution, is often taken as an indication of water age, while chloride can be used to quantify recharge. In both cases, the observed tracer content in groundwater is an average value over a wide range which is related to water renewal time in the ground. This is shown considering an unconfined aquifer recharged all over its area under arid conditions, in which a period of greater recharge happened some millennia ago. The mathematical solution is given. As the solution cannot be made general, to show and discuss the changes in water reserve and in chloride and radiocarbon concentration (apparent ages), two scenarios are worked out, which are loosely related to current conditions in Northern Chile. It is shown that tracer concentration and the estimated water age are not directly related to the time since recharge took place. The existence of a previous wetter-than-present period has an important and lasting effect on current aquifer water reserves and chloride concentration, although the effect on radiocarbon activity is less pronounced. Chloride concentrations are smaller than in current recharge and apparent 14C ages do not coincide with the timing, duration and characteristics of the wet period, except in the case in which recharge before and after the wet period is negligible and dead aquifer reserves are non-significant. The use of

  10. Catheter-free Period Over 2 Days Is Associated with Better Outcome in Catheter-related Bloodstream Infection due to Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Mori, Nobuyoshi; Hoshino, Eri; Sakurai, Aki; Furukawa, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Regardless of active antifungal drugs, mortality of candidemia remains high. Although it is well-known that central venous catheter (CVC) is one of the most important risk factors of candidemia and should be removed immediately, little is known about optimal timing of CVC replacement after removal. Here, we analyzed contributing risk factors associated with 30-day mortality for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) due to candida and optimal timing of CVC replacem...

  11. THE DISCOVERY OF PERIODIC MODULATIONS IN THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF GALAXIES, POSSIBLY DUE TO ULTRARAPID LIGHT BURSTS FROM THEIR MASSIVE CENTRAL BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borra, Ermanno F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Centre d' Optique, Photonique et Laser, Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 Quebec (Canada)

    2013-09-10

    A Fourier transform analysis of 2.5 million spectra in the SDSS survey was carried out to detect periodic modulations contained in the intensity versus frequency spectrum. A statistically significant signal was found for 223 galaxies, while the spectra of 0.9 million galaxies were observed. A plot of the periods as a function of redshift clearly shows that the effect is real without any doubt, because the modulations are quantized at two base periods that increase with redshift in two very tight parallel linear relations. We suggest that this result could be caused by light bursts separated by times on the order of 10{sup -13} s, but other causes may be possible. We investigate the hypothesis that the modulation is generated by the Fourier transform of spectral lines, but conclude that this hypothesis is not valid. Although the light burst suggestion implies absurdly high temperatures, it is supported by the fact that the Crab pulsar also has extremely short unresolved pulses (<0.5 ns) that imply similarly high temperatures. Furthermore, the radio spectrum of the Crab pulsar also has spectral bands similar to those that have been detected. Finally, decreasing the signal-to-noise threshold of detection gives results consistent with beamed signals having a small beam divergence, as expected from non-thermal sources that send a jet, like those seen in pulsars. Considering that galaxy centers contain massive black holes, exotic black hole physics may be responsible for the spectral modulation. However, at this stage, this idea is only a hypothesis to be confirmed with further work.

  12. Unusual magneto-transport of YBa2Cu3O7−δ films due to the interplay of anisotropy, random disorder and nanoscale periodic pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trastoy, J; Rouco, V; Bernard, R; Briatico, J; Villegas, J E; Ulysse, C; Faini, G; Palau, A; Puig, T; Lesueur, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the general problem of a manifold of interacting elastic lines whose spatial correlations are strongly affected by the competition between random and ordered pinning. This is done through magneto-transport experiments with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ thin films that contain a periodic vortex pinning array created via masked ion irradiation, in addition to the native random pinning. The strong field-matching effects we observe suggest the prevalence of periodic pinning, and indicate that at the matching field each vortex line is bound to an artificial pinning site. However, the vortex-glass transition dimensionality—quasi-two dimensional instead of the usual three dimensional—evidences reduced vortex-glass correlations along the vortex line. This is also supported by an unusual angular dependence of the magneto-resistance, which greatly differs from that of Bose-glass systems. A quantitative analysis of the angular magneto-resistance allows us to link this behaviour to the enhancement of the system anisotropy, a collateral effect of the ion irradiation. (paper)

  13. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  14. Innovation, creative ideas to attend the challenges of the Central Laguna Verde for the period 2011-2015 due to new 100% of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera C, A.

    2011-11-01

    For the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (CLV) is an opportunity to present to the nuclear community in Mexico the improvement areas and challenges for the period 2011-2015, now that has been concluded the phase of starting tests of the CLV modernization, with an increment of power of 20% that represents a new generation of electrical power of 815 M We per hour in the 2 Units, with these new challenges the strategic planning 2011 at 2015 take relevance to give guide to the innovation, with new ideas of improvement to the processes, human resources and leadership, with the purpose of maintaining reliable all the equipment s and process systems by means of the use of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats analysis, in order to make strategies that aid to generate competitive advantages for the production of electric power in Mexico, using privileged information that contain the database of the improvement systems, like are the programs of corrective action, of human acting, of external operational experience, of auto-evaluation and of benchmarking that is the referential comparison with other similar power stations. At present, in the general management of operation exist the training by coaching to grow in the formation of the half commands and line supervisors, reinforcing the wanted behaviors, the abilities of the technicians, and the orientation in deficient performances in the search of the operational excellence. (Author)

  15. Resonance generation of photons from vacuum in cavities due to strong periodical changes of conductivity in a thin semiconductor boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, A V; Dodonov, V V

    2005-01-01

    We study a possibility of photon generation from vacuum in a cavity with an artificial effective time-dependent plasma mirror, which could be created by means of periodical short laser pulses, illuminating a thin semiconductor slab. We take into account two important circumstances: a big imaginary part of the complex time-dependent dielectric permeability inside the slab and a strong dependence of this imaginary part on the distance from the surface of the slab. We find the conditions under which the usual unitary quantization schemes in time-dependent media with real dielectric permeability can be applied to the problem concerned with relatively small (a few per cent) error. We show that, by using a slab with thickness of the order of 1 mm, it is possible to generate a large number of microwave (GHz) photons (up to 10 8 or more) after several thousand picosecond pulses with repetition frequency of the order of 1 GHz, provided that semiconductor materials with high mobility of carriers, high photoabsorption efficiency and small recombination time (less than 1 ns) can be found. We discuss the possible advantages of modes with TM polarization over TE ones, as well as some other important problems to be solved

  16. A computational study of the piezoelectric response due to the material effect in periodic, single island thin films and the geometric effect in periodic, bi-island thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electromechanical response of a square-periodic array of circular piezoelectric (PE) thin films alternating with non-piezoelectric (NPE) films is studied in this paper. The material effects are studied for four film/substrate combinations in absence of NPE films for which it is found that if d zxx zzz (z-axis being normal to the interfacial plane between the film and the substrate), it results in reduced substrate bending leading to reduced degradation in the electromechanical response of the thin film. The bi-island structure is studied for zinc oxide on strontium titanate, and, in general, it is seen that the NPE films not only reduce degradation of the electromechanical response of the PE films but also increase their internal stresses; the effect on the former is less than the latter. These effects are most prominent when the circular NPE thin films fill the space between the PE thin films and are elastically very stiff compared to the substrate.

  17. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy.To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility.The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637.Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available.Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30.After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14 and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups.This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  18. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  19. Psychopathological dimensions in subjects with hereditary ATTR V30M amyloidosis and their relation with life events due to the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Alice; Fonseca, Isabel; Sousa, Alexandra; Rodrigues, Carla; Branco, Margarida; Coelho, Teresa; Sequeiros, Jorge; Freitas, Paula

    2018-03-01

    Chronic physical illness has been associated with emotional distress. Chronic diseases may change usual family patterns with economic, social and family losses. Hereditary ATTR V30M amyloidosis is a rare, fatal inherited systemic amyloidosis, with chronic evolution and beginning in adulthood. To evaluate psychopathological dimensions and how they correlated with disease-related life events, 209 symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers, participated in the study. Sociodemographic and Family and Personal History Disease questionnaires and brief symptom inventory (BSI) were applied. BSI indices, global severity index (GSI), positive symptom index (PSI) and positive symptom total (PST) scored higher than general population. Independent predictors for GSI >0.83 were female sex (OR = 3.46, p = .005) and being symptomatic carriers (OR = 3.03, p = .039). Independent predictors of a PST >26.99 were female sex (OR = 3.74, p = .012) symptomatic carrier (OR = 5.32, p = .025), age between 15 and 24 years at affected parent's death (OR = 5.26, p = .04). Independent predictors of a PSI >1.56 were being asymptomatic carrier (OR = 6.3, p = .036); to have children (OR = 3.19, p = .043) and have ≤14 years at parent's disease onset (OR = 6.39, p = .05). Results point to an important vulnerability of this population for psychological distress and psychiatric disease. Early life events related to disease, being sick and sex are associated with psychopathological distress.

  20. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  1. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  2. Disease burden evaluation of fall-related events in the elderly due to hypoglycemia and other diabetic complications: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabu UH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Usman H Malabu,1 Venkat N Vangaveti,1 Richard Lee Kennedy2 1School of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, QLD, Australia; 2Department of Medicine, Deakin University, VIC, Australia Abstract: A hypoglycemia-induced fall is common in older persons with diabetes. The etiology of falls in this population is usually multifactorial, and includes microvascular and macrovascular complications and age-related comorbidities, with hypoglycemia being one of the major precipitating causes. In this review, we systematically searched the literature that was available up to March 31, 2014 from MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar using the following terms: hypoglycemia; insulin; diabetic complications; and falls in elderly. Hypoglycemia, defined as blood glucose <4.0 mmol/L (70 mg/dL requiring external assistance, occurs in one-third of elderly diabetics on glucose-lowering therapies. It represents a major barrier to the treatment of diabetes, particularly in the elderly population. Patients who experience hypoglycemia are at a high risk for adverse outcomes, including falls leading to bone fracture, seizures, cognitive dysfunction, and prolonged hospital stays. An increase in mortality has been observed in patients who experience any one of these events. Paradoxically, rational insulin therapy, dosed according to a patient's clinical status and the results of home blood glucose monitoring, so as to achieve and maintain recommended glycemic goals, can be an effective method for the prevention of hypoglycemia and falls in the elderly. Contingencies, such as clinician-directed hypoglycemia treatment protocols that guide the immediate treatment of hypoglycemia, help to limit both the duration and severity of the event. Older diabetic patients with or without underlying renal insufficiency or other severe illnesses represent groups that are at high risk for hypoglycemia-induced falls and, therefore, require lower insulin dosages. In this review

  3. Review the number of accidents in Tehran over a two-year period and prediction of the number of events based on a time-series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405

  4. Lower Hybrid Frequency Range Waves Generated by Ion Polarization Drift Due to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Analysis of an Event Observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  5. The language used in describing autobiographical memories prompted by life period visually presented verbal cues, event-specific visually presented verbal cues and short musical clips of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zator, Krysten; Katz, Albert N

    2017-07-01

    Here, we examined linguistic differences in the reports of memories produced by three cueing methods. Two groups of young adults were cued visually either by words representing events or popular cultural phenomena that took place when they were 5, 10, or 16 years of age, or by words referencing a general lifetime period word cue directing them to that period in their life. A third group heard 30-second long musical clips of songs popular during the same three time periods. In each condition, participants typed a specific event memory evoked by the cue and these typed memories were subjected to analysis by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program. Differences in the reports produced indicated that listening to music evoked memories embodied in motor-perceptual systems more so than memories evoked by our word-cueing conditions. Additionally, relative to music cues, lifetime period word cues produced memories with reliably more uses of personal pronouns, past tense terms, and negative emotions. The findings provide evidence for the embodiment of autobiographical memories, and how those differ when the cues emphasise different aspects of the encoded events.

  6. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  7. Identifying the Climatic Conditions in Iraq by Tracking Down Cooling Events in the North Atlantic Ocean in the Period 3000–0 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslih Khamis D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, monthly averages of precipitation in the Baghdad station, and petrologic tracer proxy data for ocean properties in the North Atlantic (NA have been used in an attempt to identify climatic conditions in Iraq during the study period. The study showed that contemporary changes in precipitation in Iraq are associated with NAO, as a negative relationship is found between them. Moreover, the study found that there is a strong negative correlation between NAOI and SST in NA, where drift ice indices explain between 33–36% of the NAOI variability.

  8. Environmental Conditions in a Carpathian Deep Sea Basin During the Period Preceding Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - A Case Study from the Skole Nappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.

  9. Projected changes of rainfall event characteristics for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svoboda Vojtěch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes of warm season (May–September rainfall events in an ensemble of 30 regional climate model (RCM simulations are assessed for the Czech Republic. Individual rainfall events are identified using the concept of minimum inter-event time and only heavy events are considered. The changes of rainfall event characteristics are evaluated between the control (1981–2000 and two scenario (2020–2049 and 2070–2099 periods. Despite a consistent decrease in the number of heavy rainfall events, there is a large uncertainty in projected changes in seasonal precipitation total due to heavy events. Most considered characteristics (rainfall event depth, mean rainfall rate, maximum 60-min rainfall intensity and indicators of rainfall event erosivity are projected to increase and larger increases appear for more extreme values. Only rainfall event duration slightly decreases in the more distant scenario period according to the RCM simulations. As a consequence, the number of less extreme heavy rainfall events as well as the number of long events decreases in majority of the RCM simulations. Changes in most event characteristics (and especially in characteristics related to the rainfall intensity depend on changes in radiative forcing and temperature for the future periods. Only changes in the number of events and seasonal total due to heavy events depend significantly on altitude.

  10. Early life disease programming during the preconception and prenatal period: making the link between stressful life events and type-1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasveer Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of developing Type-1 diabetes among children who were exposed to maternal bereavement during the prenatal or 1-year preconception period. METHODS: We identified N = 1,548,746 singleton births born in Denmark between January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2004, and their next of kin. Altogether, 39,857 children were exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life. The main outcome of interest was hospitalization for type-1 diabetes (ICD 8: 249; ICD 10: E10. RESULTS: We found the strongest association for type-1 diabetes among children exposed to traumatic father or sibling deaths (aIRR: 2.03, 1.22-3.38; the association was mainly seen for girls (aIRR: 2.91, 1.61-5.26. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to suggest that female fetuses exposed to severe prenatal stress are at increased risk for developing type-1 diabetes.

  11. Comparative study of adverse events after yellow fever vaccination between elderly and non-elderly travellers: questionnaire survey in Japan over a 1-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Hori, Narumi; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-03-01

    A live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccination is required of all travellers visiting countries where YF virus is endemic. Although the risk of serious adverse events (AEs) after YF vaccination is known to be greater in elderly people than in younger people, information about other AEs among elderly travellers is lacking. A prospective observational questionnaire study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of AEs after YF vaccination in travellers who attended a designated YF vaccination centre in Tokyo, Japan, from 1 November 2011 to 31 October 2012. A questionnaire enquiring about any AEs experienced in the 2 weeks following YF vaccination was distributed to all vaccinees enrolled in this study, and responses were collected subsequently by mail or phone. For child vaccinees, their parents were allowed to respond in their stead. Of the 1298 vaccinees who received the YF vaccine, 1044 (80.4%) were enrolled in the present study and 666 (63.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Of these 666 respondents, 370 (55.6%) reported AEs, of which 258 (38.7%) were systemic and 230 (34.5%) were local. No severe AEs associated with YF vaccination were reported. Elderly vaccinees (aged ≥60 years) reported fewer total AEs than those aged yellow vaccination reported among elderly vaccinees than among non-elderly vaccinees. These results could provide supplementary information for judging the adaptation of vaccination in elderly travellers. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Incubation Period and Early Natural History Events of the Acute Form of Paracoccidioidomycosis: Lessons from Patients with a Single Paracoccidioides spp. Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccheri, Renata; Khoury, Zarifa; Barata, Luis Carlos Barradas; Benard, Gil

    2016-06-01

    Several aspects of the natural history of paracoccidioidomycosis are still poorly understood. Different from the most prevalent, chronic form of the disease, the acute form represents a continuum from the initial respiratory infection to the full-blown disease, thus providing an opportunity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the early phase of this mycosis. We describe, for the first time, two patients with a single time point exposure to Paracoccidioides spp., for whom we were able to determine the time lapsed between exposure to the fungus Paracoccidioides spp. and the onset of signs and symptoms. In case 1, the pulmonary infection was unapparent, and the first manifestations of the acute/subacute form of the disease presented 4 months after Paracoccidioides spp. In case 2, self-limited, non-specific respiratory and systemic symptoms presented 45 days after infection. Thus, our patients confirm that, within a few weeks of infection, Paracoccidioides spp. affects the pulmonary lymphatic system and initially causes no or mild-to-moderate self-limited symptoms, eventually causing abnormalities on a chest X-ray, all of which spontaneously subside. These cases provide some insight into the natural history of this mycosis, the extent of the host exposure to the fungus, and the determination of its incubation period.

  13. Successful retreatment with grazoprevir and elbasvir for patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b, who discontinued prior treatment with NS5A inhibitor-including regimens due to adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Koji; Wu, Shuang; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Saito, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Naoya

    2018-03-23

    Sustained virologic response (SVR) by interferon and interferon-free treatment can results in the reduction of advanced liver fibrosis and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recent interferon-free treatment for HCV shortens the duration of treatment and leads to higher SVR rates, without any serious adverse events. However, it is important to retreat patients who have had treatment-failure with HCV non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor-including regimens. Combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir only leads to approximately 100% SVR rates in HCV genotype (GT1b), NS5A inhibitor-naïve patients in Japan. This combination is not an indication for severe renal disease or heart disease, and these patients should be treated or retreated with a different regimen. Retreatment with HCV non-structural protein 3/4A inhibitor, grazoprevir, and HCV NS5A inhibitor, elbasvir, successfully eradicated HCV RNA in three patients with HCV genotype 1b infection who discontinued prior interferon-free treatments including HCV NS5A inhibitors due to adverse events within 2 weeks. Retreatment with the 12-week combination regimen of grazoprevir and elbasvir is effective for HCV GT1b patients who discontinue the HCV NS5A inhibitor-including regimens within 2 weeks. The treatment response may be related to the short duration of initial treatment, which did not produce treatment-emergent RASs.

  14. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  15. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  16. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    covering the period from the Middle Ages to the present day - give their voice in the honouring of the two scholars for their musical scholarship. As it may be seen from the table of contents, the publication covers a broad range both in time and in topics, which are all included in the scholarly sphere...

  17. Associations of Incident Cardiovascular Events With Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Leg Movements of Sleep in Older Men, for the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study (MrOS Sleep Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, John W; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) may be associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the individual contributions of these factors to adverse CVD outcomes are unknown. During the MrOS Sleep Study, 2823 men (mean age = 76.3 years) participated in a comprehensive sleep assessment from 2000 to 2002. RLS was identified by self-report of a physician diagnosis of RLS. A periodic limb movement of sleep index (PLMI) was derived from unattended in-home polysomnography. Incident cardiovascular events were centrally adjudicated during 8.7 ± 2.6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was all-cause CVD; secondary outcomes included incident myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for multiple covariates, including PLMI, to examine if there were independent associations of RLS and PLMI to the outcomes. Physician-diagnosed RLS was reported by 2.2% and a PLMI ≥ 15 was found in 59.6% of men. RLS was not associated with the composite CVD outcome. RLS was significantly associated with incident MI (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.04-3.91) even after adjustment for multiple covariates. Results were only modestly attenuated when PLMI was added to the model. PLMI also was found to predict incident MI (per SD increase in PLMI, HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.00-1.30, p = .05), and was materially unchanged after addition of RLS. The independent risk that RLS confers for MI suggests a role for non-PLMS factors such as sleep disturbance, shared genetic factors, or PLM-independent sympathetic hyperactivity. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  19. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN'S IEA-R1 research reactor due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Cabral, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa

    2009-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), which is the Brazilian nuclear regulatory commission, imposes safety and licensing standards in order to ensure that the nuclear power plants operate in a safe way. For licensing a nuclear reactor one of the demands of CNEN is the simulation of some accidents and thermalhydraulic transients considered as design base to verify the integrity of the plant when submitted to adverse conditions. The accidents that must be simulated are those that present large probability to occur or those that can cause more serious consequences. According to the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) the initiating event that can cause the largest damage in the core, of the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, is the LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident). The objective of this paper is estimate the frequency of the IEA-R1 core damage, caused by this initiating event. In this paper we analyze the accident evolution and performance of the systems which should mitigate this event: the Emergency Coolant Core System (ECCS) and the isolated pool system. They will be analyzed by means of the event tree. In this work the reliability of these systems are also quantified using the fault tree. (author)

  20. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  1. Available studies fail to provide strong evidence of increased risk of diarrhea mortality due to measles in the period 4-26 weeks after measles rash onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-07

    Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Open Grey and Grey Literature Report databases for relevant literature using broad search terms. Prospective, retrospective and case-control studies in low- and middle-income countries involving children under five wherein relevant evidence were presented were included. Data were extracted from the articles and summarized. Fifty abstracts retrieved through the database searches met the initial screening criteria. Twelve additional documents were identified by review of the references of the documents found in the initial searches. Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan. Some measles vaccine effectiveness studies show lower diarrhea morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated. However, children who received vaccine may have differed in important ways from children who did not, such as health service utilization. Additionally, cohort studies following unvaccinated children showed no difference in diarrhea morbidity and mortality between cases and controls more than 4 weeks after measles rash onset. One study showed some evidence that severe measles may predispose children to gastroenteritis, but was not able to show a corresponding increase in the risk of diarrhea mortality. The available evidence

  2. Estimative of core damage frequency in IPEN's IEA-R1 research reactor (PSA level 1) due to the initiating event of loss of coolant caused by large rupture in the pipe of the primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Daniel Massami

    2009-01-01

    This work applies the methodology of probabilistic safety assessment level 1 to the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN-CNEN/SP. Two categories of identified initiating events of accidents in the reactor are studied: loss of flow and loss of primary coolant. Among the initiating events, blockage of flow channel and loss of cooling fluid by major pipe rupture in the primary circuit are chosen for a detailed analysis. The event tree technique is used to analyze the evolution of the accident, including the actuation or the fail of actuation of the safety systems and the reactor damages. Using the fault tree the reliability of the following reactor safety systems is evaluated: reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the electric system. Estimative for the frequency of damage to the reactor core and the probability of failure of the analyzed systems are calculated. The estimated values for the frequencies of core damage are within the expected margins and are of the same order of magnitude as those found for similar reactors. The reliability of the reactor shutdown system, isolation of the reactor pool and ECCS are satisfactory for the conditions these systems are required. However, for the electric system it is suggested an upgrade to increase its reliability. (author)

  3. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  4. The drone as an additional risk factor due to conditions not provided for in radiological safety at major events; O drone como fator adicional de risco decorrente de condicoes nao previstas na seguranca radiologica em grandes eventos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gilberto de Jesus

    2015-07-01

    Major international events are potential targets of terrorist actions, seeking instant publicity that events of this magnitude provide, with the intention of causing terror and disseminate its power to a large number of people worldwide. In this context, the critical analysis of additional risk factor linked to procedures and protocols adopted on radiation safety is important. The possibility of unforeseen situations of risk, especially those resulting from the current global technological development, is a fact. Radioactive material can be used in this type of terrorism in a wide range of devices and illicit trafficking of this material is a reality that worries the International Atomic Energy Agency. In the current technological development scenario of the world, the potential occurrence of terrorist acts using drones combined with radioactive material dispersal devices, is real. The recent history of drones incidents presents cases where, despite not having been necessarily terrorist motivation, their circumstances and characteristics favor the occurrence of malicious acts. This paper proposes to alert the need of updating the current security protocols, considering the potential association of this technology with radioactive dispersal devices. (author)

  5. Estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil price. An EMD-based event analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shouyang; Yu, Lean; Lai, Kin Keung

    2009-01-01

    The impact of extreme events on crude oil markets is of great importance in crude oil price analysis due to the fact that those events generally exert strong impact on crude oil markets. For better estimation of the impact of events on crude oil price volatility, this study attempts to use an EMD-based event analysis approach for this task. In the proposed method, the time series to be analyzed is first decomposed into several intrinsic modes with different time scales from fine-to-coarse and an average trend. The decomposed modes respectively capture the fluctuations caused by the extreme event or other factors during the analyzed period. It is found that the total impact of an extreme event is included in only one or several dominant modes, but the secondary modes provide valuable information on subsequent factors. For overlapping events with influences lasting for different periods, their impacts are separated and located in different modes. For illustration and verification purposes, two extreme events, the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and the Iraq War in 2003, are analyzed step by step. The empirical results reveal that the EMD-based event analysis method provides a feasible solution to estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil prices variation. (author)

  6. Estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil price. An EMD-based event analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shouyang [Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yu, Lean [Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lai, Kin Keung [Department of Management Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (China)

    2009-09-15

    The impact of extreme events on crude oil markets is of great importance in crude oil price analysis due to the fact that those events generally exert strong impact on crude oil markets. For better estimation of the impact of events on crude oil price volatility, this study attempts to use an EMD-based event analysis approach for this task. In the proposed method, the time series to be analyzed is first decomposed into several intrinsic modes with different time scales from fine-to-coarse and an average trend. The decomposed modes respectively capture the fluctuations caused by the extreme event or other factors during the analyzed period. It is found that the total impact of an extreme event is included in only one or several dominant modes, but the secondary modes provide valuable information on subsequent factors. For overlapping events with influences lasting for different periods, their impacts are separated and located in different modes. For illustration and verification purposes, two extreme events, the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and the Iraq War in 2003, are analyzed step by step. The empirical results reveal that the EMD-based event analysis method provides a feasible solution to estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil prices variation. (author)

  7. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  8. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  9. Depth of source from long period P-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Falguni

    1986-01-01

    Short period (SP) seismograms are much better than long period (LP) seismograms to get the time resolution needed for the focal depth estimation. However, complex scattering effects due to crustal inhomogeneities and also the multi-pathing of signals usually complicate the short period records. On the other hand the seismograms from long period signals demonstrate clear coherent body waves. Therefore, for intermediate depths (15-60 km) prediction error filtering of LP signals will be useful for identifying the depth phases. Such a study has been carried out in the first part of this report. In a group of 7 events, the p p phases have been extracted from LP signals and the depths so estimated compared well with the published data. For explosions at shallow depths (depth p phases will tend to cancel each other in LP seismograms. As the source depth increases, the cancellation becomes less effective. This feature can be used for the identification of an event as well as for getting an estimate of the source depth. This phenomenon can be successfully exploited for identifying multiple explosions, because at teleseismic distances (Δ > 30 o ) no LP (around 20s period) P waves will be seen in the seismogram due to such events whereas relatively strong SP signals and LP Rayleigh waves will be observed. This phenomenon has been studied for 16 events. For three of these events having m b as high as 6.1 and presumed to be underground explosions, one could not see any P wave on remaining 13 events (which were classified as earthquakes), it was possible to set a threshold value of m b above which an earthquake should produce LP P-wave signals at a given distance. (author)

  10. Effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Crijns, Harry J G M; van Eickels, Martin

    2009-01-01

    . RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 21+/-5 months, with the study drug discontinued prematurely in 696 of the 2301 patients (30.2%) receiving dronedarone and in 716 of the 2327 patients (30.8%) receiving placebo, mostly because of adverse events. The primary outcome occurred in 734 patients (31......-interval prolongation, nausea, diarrhea, rash, and an increased serum creatinine level than the placebo group. Rates of thyroid- and pulmonary-related adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dronedarone reduced the incidence of hospitalization due to cardiovascular events...

  11. Modeling of the Nano- and Picoseismicity Rate Changes Resulting from Static Stress Triggering due to Small (MW2.2) Event Recorded at Mponeng Deep Gold Mine, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, M.; Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Kwiatek, G.; Boettcher, M. S.; Dresen, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Static stress changes following large earthquakes are known to affect the rate and spatio-temporal distribution of the aftershocks. Here we utilize a unique dataset of M ≥ -3.4 earthquakes following a MW 2.2 earthquake in Mponeng gold mine, South Africa, to investigate this process for nano- and pico- scale seismicity at centimeter length scales in shallow, mining conditions. The aftershock sequence was recorded during a quiet interval in the mine and thus enabled us to perform the analysis using Dietrich's (1994) rate and state dependent friction law. The formulation for earthquake productivity requires estimation of Coulomb stress changes due to the mainshock, the reference seismicity rate, frictional resistance parameter, and the duration of aftershock relaxation time. We divided the area into six depth intervals and for each we estimated the parameters and modeled the spatio-temporal patterns of seismicity rates after the stress perturbation. Comparing the modeled patterns of seismicity with the observed distribution we found that while the spatial patterns match well, the rate of modeled aftershocks is lower than the observed rate. To test our model, we used four metrics of the goodness-of-fit evaluation. Testing procedure allowed rejecting the null hypothesis of no significant difference between seismicity rates only for one depth interval containing the mainshock, for the other, no significant differences have been found. Results show that mining-induced earthquakes may be followed by a stress relaxation expressed through aftershocks located on the rupture plane and in regions of positive Coulomb stress change. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the main features of the temporal and spatial distribution of very small, mining-induced earthquakes at shallow depths can be successfully determined using rate- and state-based stress modeling.

  12. Developing future precipitation events from historic events: An Amsterdam case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manola, Iris; van den Hurk, Bart; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Due to climate change, the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events is expected to increase. It is therefore of high importance to develop climate change scenarios tailored towards the local and regional needs of policy makers in order to develop efficient adaptation strategies to reduce the risks from extreme weather events. Current approaches to tailor climate scenarios are often not well adopted in hazard management, since average changes in climate are not a main concern to policy makers, and tailoring climate scenarios to simulate future extremes can be complex. Therefore, a new concept has been introduced recently that uses known historic extreme events as a basis, and modifies the observed data for these events so that the outcome shows how the same event would occur in a warmer climate. This concept is introduced as 'Future Weather', and appeals to the experience of stakeholders and users. This research presents a novel method of projecting a future extreme precipitation event, based on a historic event. The selected precipitation event took place over the broader area of Amsterdam, the Netherlands in the summer of 2014, which resulted in blocked highways, disruption of air transportation, flooded buildings and public facilities. An analysis of rain monitoring stations showed that an event of such intensity has a 5 to 15 years return period. The method of projecting a future event follows a non-linear delta transformation that is applied directly on the observed event assuming a warmer climate to produce an "up-scaled" future precipitation event. The delta transformation is based on the observed behaviour of the precipitation intensity as a function of the dew point temperature during summers. The outcome is then compared to a benchmark method using the HARMONIE numerical weather prediction model, where the boundary conditions of the event from the Ensemble Prediction System of ECMWF (ENS) are perturbed to indicate a warmer climate. The two

  13. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period

  14. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  15. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc......, and national identity politics in Denmark. Despite the medical doctors’ efforts and intentions, the out- come was framed by 9/11, which has become the major critical event of the decade—one that has supported a developing cleavage between the Danish majority and Denmark’s Muslim immigrant minority....

  16. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  17. Aquatic chemistry of flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Rodinov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    During flood events a major discharge of water and dissolved substances happens. However flood waters very much differs from water composition during low-water events. Aquatic chemistry of flood waters also is of importance at the calculation of loadings as well as they might have major impact on water quality in receiving water bodies (lakes, coastal waters and seas). Further flood regime of rivers is subjected to changes due to climate change and growing impact of human activities. The aim of this study is to analyse water chemical composition changes during flood events in respect to low water periods, character of high-water events and characteristics of the corresponding basin. Within this study, the concentrations of major dissolved substances in the major rivers of Latvia have been studied using monitoring data as well as field studies during high water/ low water events. As territories of studies flows of substances in river basins/subbasins with different land-use character and different anthropogenic impacts has been studied to calculate export values depending on the land-use character. Impact of relations between dissolved substances and relations in respect to budgets has been calculated. The dynamics of DOC, nutrient and major dissolved substance flows depending on landuse pattern and soil properties in Latvia has been described, including emissions by industrial and agricultural production. In these changes evidently climate change signals can be identified. The water chemistry of a large number of rivers during flood events has been determined and the possible impact of water chemical composition on DOC and nutrient flows has been evaluated. Long-term changes (1977-2013) of concentrations of dissolved substances do not follow linear trends but rather show oscillating patterns, indicating impact of natural factors, e.g. changing hydrological and climatic conditions. There is a positive correlation between content of inert dissolved substances and

  18. Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 ( 3.3 Ma) in the southern hemisphere: constraining the climatic drivers of a short-term glaciation event during the Pliocene warm Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, D.; Auer, G.; Bogus, K.; Groeneveld, J.; Henderiks, J.; Jatiningrum, R. S.; Christensen, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate was characterized by intriguing climate variability during the Late Pliocene (3.6 to 2.59 Ma): a brief (<100 kyr) but intense glaciation (MIS M2) interrupted the relatively warm climate state around 3.3 Ma. Until today, different hypotheses exist to explain why this glaciation event was so intense, and why the global climate system returned to warm Pliocene conditions relatively quickly. One of these proposed mechanisms is a reduced equator-to-pole heat transfer, in response to a tectonically reduced Indonesian Throughflow (ITF; De Schepper et al., 2014; Karas et al., 2011a, b). However, the scarcity of orbital-scale continuous climate archives in the outflow of the Indonesian Seaway hampers testing this hypothesis. To assess the supposed relationship between mid-Pliocene glaciations and latitudinal heat transport through the Indonesian Throughflow, we constructed a 3-kyr resolution planktonic δ18OG.sacculiferrecord for the 3.9 - 2.7 Ma interval from Site U1463 (18°59'S, 117°37'E; Northwestern Australian Shelf; IODP Expedition 356 "Indonesian Throughflow"). The U1463 oxygen isotope record concurs exceptionally well with the sea surface temperature (SST) record from Site 806 (0°19'N, 159°22'E) in the West Pacific Warm Pool (Wara et al., 2005), even during MIS M2. Hence, Site U1463 suggests an uninterrupted ITF signal during Pliocene glaciations. Surprisingly though, the U1463 δ18OG.sacculifer record exhibits a 0.5‰ offset with the nearby Site 763 record (20°35'S, 112°12'E) around MIS M2. This implies that Site 763, which lies a bit further offshore than U1463, fits better with Indian Ocean SST records (e.g. Site 214; Karas et al., 2009) across MIS M2. In conclusion, the U1463 data reveal that heat-transport through the Indonesian Throughflow did not shut down completely during MIS M2. However, its intensity decreased during MIS M2, causing Site 763 to temporarily reflect an Indian Ocean, rather than an ITF signal. References De Schepper, S

  19. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  20. Asynchronous sampled-data approach for event-triggered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Memon, Azhar M.

    2017-11-01

    While aperiodically triggered network control systems save a considerable amount of communication bandwidth, they also pose challenges such as coupling between control and event-condition design, optimisation of the available resources such as control, communication and computation power, and time-delays due to computation and communication network. With this motivation, the paper presents separate designs of control and event-triggering mechanism, thus simplifying the overall analysis, asynchronous linear quadratic Gaussian controller which tackles delays and aperiodic nature of transmissions, and a novel event mechanism which compares the cost of the aperiodic system against a reference periodic implementation. The proposed scheme is simulated on a linearised wind turbine model for pitch angle control and the results show significant improvement against the periodic counterpart.

  1. Reporting of safeguards events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.; Ervin, N.E.

    1988-02-01

    On June 9, 1987, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule revising the reporting requirements for safeguards events. Safeguards events include actual or attempted theft of special nuclear material (SNM); actual or attempted acts or events which interrupt normal operations at power reactors due to unauthorized use of or tampering with machinery, components, or controls; certain threats made against facilities possessing SNM; and safeguards system failures impacting the effectiveness of the system. The revised rule was effective October 8, 1987. On September 14, 1987, the NRC held a workshop in Bethesda, MD, to answer affected licensees' questions on the final rule. This report documents questions discussed at the September 14 meeting, reflects a completed staff review of the answers, and supersedes previous oral comment on the topics covered

  2. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  3. One hundred years of return period: Strengths and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, E.; Fiori, A.; Grimaldi, S.; Lombardo, F.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2015-10-01

    One hundred years from its original definition by Fuller, the probabilistic concept of return period is widely used in hydrology as well as in other disciplines of geosciences to give an indication on critical event rareness. This concept gains its popularity, especially in engineering practice for design and risk assessment, due to its ease of use and understanding; however, return period relies on some basic assumptions that should be satisfied for a correct application of this statistical tool. Indeed, conventional frequency analysis in hydrology is performed by assuming as necessary conditions that extreme events arise from a stationary distribution and are independent of one another. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of return period when the independence condition is omitted; hence, we explore how the different definitions of return period available in literature affect results of frequency analysis for processes correlated in time. We demonstrate that, for stationary processes, the independence condition is not necessary in order to apply the classical equation of return period (i.e., the inverse of exceedance probability). On the other hand, we show that the time-correlation structure of hydrological processes modifies the shape of the distribution function of which the return period represents the first moment. This implies that, in the context of time-dependent processes, the return period might not represent an exhaustive measure of the probability of failure, and that its blind application could lead to misleading results. To overcome this problem, we introduce the concept of Equivalent Return Period, which controls the probability of failure still preserving the virtue of effectively communicating the event rareness.

  4. Aortic events in a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Stochholm, Kirstine; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Gregersen, Pernille A; Vejlstrup, Niels; Østergaard, John R; Gravholt, Claus H; Andersen, Niels H

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort. The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections. We associated aortic events with age, sex, and Marfan syndrome diagnosis prior or after the first aortic event. From the total cohort of 412 patients, 150 (36.4 %) had an aortic event. Fifty percent were event free at age 49.6. Eighty patients (53.3 %) had prophylactic surgery and seventy patients (46.7 %) a dissection. The yearly event rate was 0.02 events/year/patient in the period 1994-2014. Male patients had a significant higher risk of an aortic event at a younger age with a hazard ratio of 1.75 (CI 1.26-2.42, p = 0.001) compared with women. Fifty-three patients (12.9 %) were diagnosed with MFS after their first aortic event which primarily was aortic dissection [n = 44 (83.0 %)]. More than a third of MFS patients experienced an aortic event and male patients had significantly more aortic events than females. More than half of the total number of dissections was in patients undiagnosed with MFS at the time of their event. This emphasizes that diagnosing MFS is lifesaving and improves mortality risk by reducing the risk of aorta dissection.

  5. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  6. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  7. Tracking the El Nino events from Antarctic ice core records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, S.S.; Oelmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine measurements were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) on stratigraphically dated ice core samples from Byrd Station, Antarctica, for the last three centuries. The time period between 1969 and 1989 showed an enhanced impact on the Antarctic ice sheets from oceans in the form of marine aerosols. A disturbed ocean-atmosphere interface due to El Ni Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events seems to be a candidate for this observation in Antarctica. (author)

  8. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  9. A Bivariate return period for levee failure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isola, M.; Caporali, E.

    2017-12-01

    Levee breaches are strongly linked with the interaction processes among water, soil and structure, thus many are the factors that affect the breach development. One of the main is the hydraulic load, characterized by intensity and duration, i.e. by the flood event hydrograph. On the magnitude of the hydraulic load is based the levee design, generally without considering the fatigue failure due to the load duration. Moreover, many are the cases in which the levee breach are characterized by flood of magnitude lower than the design one. In order to implement the strategies of flood risk management, we built here a procedure based on a multivariate statistical analysis of flood peak and volume together with the analysis of the past levee failure events. Particularly, in order to define the probability of occurrence of the hydraulic load on a levee, a bivariate copula model is used to obtain the bivariate joint distribution of flood peak and volume. Flood peak is the expression of the load magnitude, while the volume is the expression of the stress over time. We consider the annual flood peak and the relative volume. The volume is given by the hydrograph area between the beginning and the end of event. The beginning of the event is identified as an abrupt rise of the discharge by more than 20%. The end is identified as the point from which the receding limb is characterized by the baseflow, using a nonlinear reservoir algorithm as baseflow separation technique. By this, with the aim to define warning thresholds we consider the past levee failure events and the relative bivariate return period (BTr) compared with the estimation of a traditional univariate model. The discharge data of 30 hydrometric stations of Arno River in Tuscany, Italy, in the period 1995-2016 are analysed. The database of levee failure events, considering for each event the location as well as the failure mode, is also created. The events were registered in the period 2000-2014 by EEA

  10. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  11. On the quiet-time Pc 5 pulsation events (spacequakes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.C.; Niblett, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    A quiet-time Pc 5 event (designated Spacequake) of March 18, 1974, first noted on the Fort Churchill magnetogram, was studied using global data. Its amplitude was found to be largest in the northern part of the auroral zone and its period seemed to increase with latitude. The clockwise polarization of the event noted at Baker Lake and higher latitudes changed to counterclockwise at Fort Churchill in X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z planes. The resonance of a field line (L approximately 10) excited due to an instability of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type may have given rise to the observed event. It is conjectured that the cause of instability at this altitude was internal convection of the magnetosphere. Similar quiet-time events from four Canadian observatories were selected from approximately 11 years of magnetograms and their statistical analysis revealed that (i) occurrences maximised near dawn and dusk (ii) the amplitude-latitude profile peaked at Great Whale River (L approximately 6.67), (iii) periods increased with increasing geomagnetic latitudes, (iv) a large number of events occurred in January, February and March every year, and (v) frequency of occurrence increased with increasing sunspot numbers. Comparison of these results with those available in the literature from analyses of satellite data clearly indicate that quiet-time Pc 5 events (Spacequakes) originate in the outer magnetosphere. (author)

  12. Perfluoroctano líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina por ruptura gigante Perfluoroctane liquid as a short-term vitreous-retinal tamponade in the postoperative period in patients with retinal detachment due to giant tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carvalho Ventura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Relatar os resultados de vitrectomia via pars plana com utilização de perfluocarbono líquido (Perfluoroctano-Ophtalmos®, como tamponante vítreo-retiniano de curta duração, no pós-operatório de portadores de descolamento de retina, por ruptura gigante. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se dez desses pacientes. Todos os casos eram complicados por vitreorretinopatia proliferativa grau B ou pior com rupturas que variavam em extensão de 90º a 210º. O perfluorocarbono líquido foi introduzido, por via pars plana, com o volume necessário para ultrapassar o limite posterior da ruptura, permanecendo no pós-operatório por cinco dias, estando os pacientes em decúbito dorsal. Após esse período submetiam-se a segunda intervenção para troca do perfluorocarbono líquido para gás ou óleo de silicone. RESULTADOS: Após período de acompanhamento médio de 16,2 ± 12,4 meses (2 a 43 meses, 80% das retinas estavam aplicadas, sendo necessária a repetição desta técnica em 1 caso (10% caso e em 2 casos (20% não houve reaplicação da retina por vitreorretinopatia avançada. Houve melhora da acuidade visual em 5 casos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se bons resultados quanto à aplicação da retina (80% e melhora da acuidade visual (50% quando do uso do perfluorocarbono líquido como tamponante vitreorretiniano de curta duração no pós-operatório de cirurgias de descolamento de retina por rupturas gigantes.PURPOSE: To report pars plana vitrectomy results of intravitreous use of liquid perfluorocarbon as a short-term postoperative tamponade in retinal detachment due to giant tears in a series of patients. METHODS: Ten of those patients, all of them complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade B or worse, with tear extension varying from 90º to 210º were studied. Perfluorocarbon liquid was injected via pars plana until the posterior tear limit, remaining in the postoperative period during five days, with the patients in supine position

  13. Reminiscence bump in memory for public events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.; Meeter, M.

    2008-01-01

    People tend to recall more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than from other lifetime periods. Most evidence suggests that differential encoding causes this reminiscence bump. However, the question why personal events are encoded better in those periods is still unanswered. To

  14. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  15. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lun C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  16. Electron-Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron-ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  17. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  18. Event Ticketing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the virtual world nowadays is an environment more favorable and in full up as regards the evolution of our cultural and technological development. Due to the possibility of online promotion, Internet-based business technology was born, a new, still moving process, representing companies and suppliers of goods and services a unique way to win as many potential customers as possible. The paper analyzes system requirements for online shopping in general and the specific requirements for on-line event ticket sales systems. The paper insists on the critical design and implementation issues for an Event Ticketing System and the potential problems for such a fully automated, high-availability system

  19. Long Period Seismological Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-31

    in central Asia as observed at the high-gain long- period sites. Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity...Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity of the surface wave signals from many events in the Tadzhik-Kirgiz...and receivers. A number of Interesting features can be illustrated by examining portions of three selsmograms recorded at Chiang Mai (CHO

  20. Recurring events - Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    known, thus the actions taken were not effective in preventing recurrence of an event, - The contributing factors or causes of the event were not taken into account in defining the actions to be taken. Several good practices were identified to prevent recurring events. These practices are part of related guides provided by national and international bodies. Some of these are: - NPPs should analyse recurring events in-depth, in order to identify root causes and contributing factors to prevent further recurrence. The specific factors that failed to prevent recurrence should be investigated and identified (that is, why prior operating experience was not effectively applied). - For minor events, trend analyses should be performed to monitor the frequency of component failures (which may be unavoidable) or the frequency of minor human performance problems (which may indicate weaknesses in error prevention processes and programs). - Analysis of external operating experiences from other NPPs should be strengthened to broaden the basis for preventive measures; - Actions taken after events should be assessed regarding their effectiveness in preventing recurrence of similar events. Subsequent to the workshop, a more detailed search of reports of operating experience, including IRS and other reports from national sources, resulted in the determination of a number of recurring categories: - Loss of RHR at mid-loop (in the 1999 report also); - BWR instability (in the 1999 report also); - PWR vessel corrosion due to boric acid effects; - Hydrogen detonation in BWR piping; - Steam Generator Tube Rupture; - Multiple valve failures in ECCS; - Service Water Failure due to Marine Biofouling (in the 1999 report also); - System Level Failures with Human Factors Considerations; - Strainer Clogging (sources of emergency injection or recirculation). Five conclusions were established on the basis of the workshop and the recurring event analysis: Conclusion 1: Recurring events continue to be

  1. A highly specific test for periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansmann, Gerrit, E-mail: gansmann@uni-bonn.de [Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 14–16, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Complex Systems, University of Bonn, Brühler Straße 7, 53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  2. A highly specific test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series

  3. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  4. Trend analysis of nuclear reactor automatic trip events subjected to operator's human error at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Trends in nuclear reactor automatic trip events due to human errors during plant operating mode have been analyzed by extracting 20 events which took place in the United States during the period of seven years from 2002 to 2008, cited in the LERs (Licensee Event Reports) submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It was shown that the yearly number of events was relatively large before 2005, and thereafter the number decreased. A period of stable operation, in which the yearly number was kept very small, continued for about three years, and then the yearly number turned to increase again. Before 2005, automatic trip events occurred more frequently during periodic inspections or start-up/shut-down operations. The recent trends, however, indicate that trip events became more frequent due to human errors during daily operations. Human errors were mostly caused by the self-conceit and carelessness of operators through the whole period. The before mentioned trends in the yearly number of events might be explained as follows. The decrease in the automatic trip events is attributed to sharing trouble information, leading as a consequence to improvement of the manual and training for the operations which have a higher potential risk of automatic trip. Then, while the period of stable operation continued, some operators came to pay less attention to preventing human errors and not interest in the training, leading to automatic trip events in reality due to miss-operation. From these analyses on trouble experiences in the US, we learnt the followings to prevent the occurrence similar troubles in Japan: Operators should be thoroughly skilled in basic actions to prevent human errors as persons concerned. And it should be further emphasized that they should elaborate by imaging actual plant operations even though the simulator training gives them successful experiences. (author)

  5. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  6. A new event detector designed for the Seismic Research Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, James N.; Hutt, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    A new short-period event detector has been implemented on the Seismic Research Observatories. For each signal detected, a printed output gives estimates of the time of onset of the signal, direction of the first break, quality of onset, period and maximum amplitude of the signal, and an estimate of the variability of the background noise. On the SRO system, the new algorithm runs ~2.5x faster than the former (power level) detector. This increase in speed is due to the design of the algorithm: all operations can be performed by simple shifts, additions, and comparisons (floating point operations are not required). Even though a narrow-band recursive filter is not used, the algorithm appears to detect events competitively with those algorithms that employ such filters. Tests at Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory on data supplied by Blandford suggest performance commensurate with the on-line detector of the Seismic Data Analysis Center, Alexandria, Virginia.

  7. Probabilistic analysis of extreme wind events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaviaropoulos, P.K. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    A vital task in wind engineering and meterology is to understand, measure, analyse and forecast extreme wind conditions, due to their significant effects on human activities and installations like buildings, bridges or wind turbines. The latest version of the IEC standard (1996) pays particular attention to the extreme wind events that have to be taken into account when designing or certifying a wind generator. Actually, the extreme wind events within a 50 year period are those which determine the ``static`` design of most of the wind turbine components. The extremes which are important for the safety of wind generators are those associated with the so-called ``survival wind speed``, the extreme operating gusts and the extreme wind direction changes. A probabilistic approach for the analysis of these events is proposed in this paper. Emphasis is put on establishing the relation between extreme values and physically meaningful ``site calibration`` parameters, like probability distribution of the annual wind speed, turbulence intensity and power spectra properties. (Author)

  8. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  9. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  10. External Events PSA for the Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareith, Attila; Karsa, Zoltan; Siklossy, Tamas; Vida, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Initially, probabilistic safety assessment of external events was limited to the analysis of earthquakes for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The level 1 seismic PSA was completed in 2002 showing a significant contribution of seismic failures to core damage risk. Although other external events of natural origin had previously been screened out from detailed plant PSA mostly on the basis of event frequencies, a review of recent experience on extreme weather phenomena made during the periodic safety review of the plant led to the initiation of PSA for external events other than earthquakes in 2009. In the meantime, the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant confirmed further the importance of such an analysis. The external event PSA for the Paks plant followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk quantification and interpretation of results. As a result of event selection and screening the following weather related external hazards were subject to detailed analysis: extreme wind, extreme rainfall (precipitation), extreme snow, extremely high and extremely low temperatures, lightning, frost and ice formation. The analysis proved to be a significant challenge due to scarcity of data, lack of knowledge, as well as limitations of existing PSA methodologies. This paper presents an overview of the external events PSA performed for the Paks NPP. Important methodological aspects are summarised. Key analysis findings and unresolved issues that need further elaboration are highlighted. Development of external events PSA for the Paks NPP was completed by the end of 2012. The analysis followed the commonly known steps: selection and screening of external hazards, hazard assessment for screened-in external events, analysis of plant response and fragility, PSA model development, and risk

  11. Trending analysis of precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  12. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  13. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  14. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Nigel

    2011-10-06

    Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup.

  15. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Nigel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup.

  16. Global bioevents and the question of periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepkoski, J. John

    The hypothesis of periodicity in extinction is an empirical claim that extinction events, while variable in magnitude, are regular in timing and therefore are serially dependent upon some single, ultimate cause with clocklike behavior. This hypothesis is controversal, in part because of questions regarding the identity and timing of certain extinction events and because of speculations concerning possible catastrophic extraterrestrial forcing mechanisms. New data on extinctions of marine animal genera are presented that display a high degree of periodicity in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic as well as a suggestion of nonstationary periodicity in the late Paleozoic. However, no periodicity is evident among the as yet poorly documented extinction events of the early and middle Paleozoic.

  17. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  18. Screening and evaluation of First Half 1980 licensee event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waage, J.M.

    1981-05-01

    This program was established to identify those events which contain important operating experience and to communicate the insights gained from evaluation of such events to other plant owners and operators. This report represents a summary of that work for the LERs produced during roughly the first half of 1980. It discusses events of major significance reported during that period and summarizes those events which were identified as important. Several generic problem areas are discussed. Six major significant events took place during this period

  19. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  20. Cosmogenic nuclide production within the atmosphere and long period comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. These high energy particles collide with target nuclei, producing a shower of secondary particles. These secondaries contribute significantly to the radiation background at sea level and in the atmosphere, as well as producing rare cosmogenic nuclides. This contribution is variable over long time scales as astrophysical events change the cosmic ray flux incident on the Earth. Our work re-examines a previously proposed climate effect of increased cosmic ray flux due to galactic location. Although our work does not support this effect, cosmic ray secondaries remain a threat to terrestrial biota. We calculate the cosmogenic neutron flux within the atmosphere as a function of primary spectrum. This work is pivotal in determining the radiation dose due to any arbitrary astrophysical event where the primary spectrum is known. Additionally, this work can be used to determine the cosmogenic nuclide production from such an event. These neutrons are the fundamental source of cosmogenic nuclides within our atmosphere and extraterrestrial matter. We explore the idea that excursions in 14C and 10Be abundances in the atmosphere may arise from direct deposition by long-period comet impacts, and those in 26Al from any bolide. We find that the amount of nuclide mass on large long-period comets entering the Earth's atmosphere may be sufficient for creating anomalies in the records of 14C and 10Be from past impacts. In particular, the estimated mass of the proposed Younger Dryas comet is consistent with its having deposited sufficient isotopes to account for recorded nuclide increases at that time. The 26Al/10Be ratio is much larger in extraterrestrial objects than in the atmosphere, and so, we note that measuring this ratio in ice cores is a suitable further test for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This portion of our work may be used to find possible impact events in the geologic record as well as determination of a large

  1. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  3. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  4. Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nathan Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico é clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos.Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

  5. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescents' Evaluation of Cyberbullying Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Shariff, Shaheen; McConnell, Megan; Talwar, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Educators and other professionals working with adolescents have grown increasingly concerned about how technology affects social relationships given the amount of time that is spent engaging in online activities. Cyberbullying has sparked the interest of many researchers due to the tragic events reported in the media, relating to the online…

  7. [People with stomas - issues and responses in critical periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazue; Ishiguro, Miho

    2014-01-01

    People with stomas who have either been cured of cancer or are living with cancer have achieved good interrelationships among the three issues of"establishing self-care","dealing with stoma complications", and"accepting stomas", and they are maintaining stable physical and mental states.However, self-care may become difficult due to stoma complications and adverse events caused by chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the cancer treatment period, and in advanced phases of cancer serious stoma complications may occur due to deterioration of general condition and advancing cancer. Therefore, there is a risk that those stable physical and mental states will collapse.In order to deal with this critical state, in the cancer treatment period, stoma skin care is used for handling skin problems around the stoma, and for adverse events such as hand-and-foot syndrome, braces that are easy to operate are chosen from among various types of stoma braces in order to cover impediments.During advanced phases of cancer, care is conducted with the main priority placed on physical stability in order to ensure that the three major complications of stoma varicose veins, stoma prolapse, and parastomal hernia do not worsen and significantly affect general condition and daily life.Stoma outpatient treatment that provides lifelong support for such issues, and the existence of skin- and excretion-care certified nurses who provided highly specialized selfcare support, are extremely important for cancer survivors with stomas.

  8. On the return period and design in a multivariate framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Salvadori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Calculating return periods and design quantiles in a multivariate environment is a difficult problem: this paper tries to make the issue clear. First, we outline a possible way to introduce a consistent theoretical framework for the calculation of the return period in a multi-dimensional environment, based on Copulas and the Kendall's measure. Secondly, we introduce several approaches for the identification of suitable design events: these latter quantities are of utmost importance in practical applications, but their calculation is yet limited, due to the lack of an adequate theoretical environment where to embed the problem. Throughout the paper, a case study involving the behavior of a dam is used to illustrate the new concepts outlined in this work.

  9. Periodic weather and climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V

    2002-01-01

    Variations in meteorological parameters are largely due to periodic processes and can be forecast for several years. Many such processes are related to astronomical factors such as the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the modulation of solar irradiance by lunar and planetary motion. The Moon, Jupiter, and Venus have the strongest effect. These influences produce lines in the spectra of meteorological variations, which are combinations of the harmonics of the frequencies of revolution of the planets, the Earth, and the Moon around the Sun with the harmonics of the lunar revolution around the Earth. Due to frequency differences between the orbital and radial motions, fine spectral features of three types appear: line splitting, line-profile complications due to radial oscillations, and additional lines due to the combination of radial-oscillation frequencies with perturbation harmonics. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Investigation of human performance events at French power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghertman, F.; Griffon-Fouco, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the collection of data on human errors that occur at operating power plants. Three collection methods are used, each relating to a difference level of analysis. (1) Simplified statistical analysis of the causes of human errors: Events which have occurred at operating power plants and which are attributable to human errors are selected. The errors thus identified are analysed briefly and are described by a simplified classification, statistical analysis then being applied to find the principal factors underlying these errors. By way of example, an analysis is given of data on emergency shut-downs involving a human error component that occurred at 900 MW(e) PWR plants during 1982, 1983, 1984. (2) In-depth statistical analysis of the causes of certain human errors: The errors selected are analysed and described by means of a detailed classification. By way of example, the collection and evaluation of data on human errors occurring during periodic tests at a 900 MW(e) power plant over a period of six months are described. (3) In-depth analysis of certain events due to human errors: The events selected are analysed by means of a method which reconstitutes the multicausal aspect of the event and of each human error. By way of example, a description is given of an emergency core cooling required at a 900 MW(e) PWR plant. In conclusion, it is explained how these three methods of collection play complementary roles

  11. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  12. Glaciological parameters of disruptive event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, C.

    1979-01-01

    The following disruptive events caused by ice sheets are considered: continental glaciation, erosion, loading and subsidence, deep ground water recharge, flood erosion, isostatic rebound rates, melting, and periodicity of ice ages

  13. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  14. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  15. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  16. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse...

  17. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603... Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are computed as follows: (1) The day of the act or event from which the period begins to run is not included. (2...

  18. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3... Provisions § 221.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are computed as follows: (1) The day of the act or event from which the period begins to run is not included. (2) The last day of the...

  19. Modeled seasonality of glacial abrupt climate events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flueckiger, J.; Knutti, R.; White, J.W.C.; Renssen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Greenland ice cores, as well as many other paleo-archives from the northern hemisphere, recorded a series of 25 warm interstadial events, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events, during the last glacial period. We use the three-dimensional coupled global ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model

  20. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  1. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  2. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, R.J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ramirez, E. [Physics Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient q extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting q to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  3. Event-by-event fluctuations at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, Harald; Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marn, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Slvova, J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Appelshauser, Harald; Sako, Hiro

    2005-01-01

    Results on event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and net charge in Pb-Au collisions, measured by the CERES Collaboration at CERN-SPS, are presented. We discuss the centrality and beam energy dependence and compare our data to cascade calculations.

  4. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    carried out for buyers or sellers involved in real estate transactions. It can also be part of mergers including real estate and other assets or part of facilities management outsourcing. This paper is based on a case study and an interview survey of companies involved in TDD consulting in Denmark......Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly...... and Italy during 2009. The research identifies the current practice and compares it with the recommended practice in international guidelines. The current practice is very diverse and could in many cases be improved by a more structured approach and stricter adherence to international guidelines. However...

  5. TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL EVENTS DESIGNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to prove and disclose the essence of the author’s technology of educational events designing.Methodology and methods of research. Methodological basis of work is humanitarian approach. The method of pedagogical modeling was used for the model development of educational events influence on pedagogical activity formation. The content analysis of texts descriptions, case-study method, expert estimations of event projects were applied as the main methods of efficiency confirmation of the technology of educational events design.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristics of an educational event are emphasized by means of an empirical way: opening (what a person opens for himself; generation (a result of a personal action; and participation in creation of something "new" (new communications, relations and experience. The structure of technology of educational events design including work with concepts (an educational event, substantial and procedural components is presented. The technology of educational events designing is considered as the process of the well-grounded choice of designing technologies, mutual activity, pedagogical communication, components of educational activity: contents, methods, means, and organizational forms depending on educational aims due to age-specific peculiarities of participants of the educational event. The main conditions providing successful use of the technology are the involvement into joint cognitive activity of all its participants and importance of the events for each of them that qualitatively change the nature of a cognitive process and generate real transformations of the reality.Practical significance. The author’s experience in teaching testifies to introduction of the module «Technology of Design of Educational Events» into the basic educational subject-module «Design Competence of the Teacher» (degree program «Pedagogical Education», considering this module as

  6. Diffusion in periodic potentials with path integral hyperdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, T; Khandkar, M D; Chen, L Y; Ying, S C; Ala-Nissila, T

    2011-08-01

    We consider the diffusion of brownian particles in one-dimensional periodic potentials as a test bench for the recently proposed stochastic path integral hyperdynamics (PIHD) scheme [Chen and Horing, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 224103 (2007)]. First, we consider the case where PIHD is used to enhance the transition rate of activated rare events. To this end, we study the diffusion of a single brownian particle moving in a spatially periodic potential in the high-friction limit at low temperature. We demonstrate that the boost factor as compared to straight molecular dynamics (MD) has nontrivial behavior as a function of the bias force. Instead of growing monotonically with the bias, the boost attains an optimal maximum value due to increased error in the finite path sampling induced by the bias. We also observe that the PIHD method can be sensitive to the choice of numerical integration algorithm. As the second case, we consider parallel resampling of multiple bias force values in the case of a brownian particle in a periodic potential subject to an external ac driving force. We confirm that there is no stochastic resonance in this system. However, while the PIHD method allows one to obtain data for multiple values of the ac bias, the boost with respect to MD remains modest due to the simplicity of the equation of motion in this case.

  7. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  8. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  9. The significance of unforeseen events in organisational ethnographic inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Trevor; Swailes, Stephen; Handley, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance for the practicing ethnographer of responding to unforeseen events that occur during periods of data collection.\\ud Analysis of four unforeseen events occurring during prolonged periods of study amongst workplace cleaners is undertaken and the changes in researcher acceptance resulting from the outcomes of these events are reported.\\ud This article shows how awareness of the possible incidence of unforeseen events and the ability to car...

  10. ICPP criticality event of October 17, 1978. Facts and sequential description of criticality event and precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On October 17 during the period of approximately 8:15 to 8:40 p.m., a criticality event occurred in the base of IB column, H-100. The inventory of medium short-lived fission products used to determine the number of fissions indicates that the criticality occurred in column H-100 aqueous phase and the sampling of the column wall with counting of the filings clearly indicates that the event occurred in the column base. The events leading up to the accident are described. The event produced no personnel injury, on-or off-site contamination, nor damage to equipment or property

  11. Environmental conditions synchronize waterbird mortality events in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Karine; Chipault, Jennifer G.; White, C. LeAnn; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1960s, periodic outbreaks of avian botulism type E have contributed to large-scale die-offs of thousands of waterbirds throughout the Great Lakes of the United States. In recent years, these events have become more common and widespread. Occurring during the summer and autumn months, the prevalence of these die-offs varies across years and is often associated with years of warmer lake temperatures and lower water levels. Little information exists on how environmental conditions mediate the spatial and temporal characteristics of mortality events.In 2010, a citizen science programme, Avian Monitoring for Botulism Lakeshore Events (AMBLE), was launched to enhance surveillance efforts and detect the appearance of beached waterbird carcasses associated with avian botulism type E outbreaks in northern Lake Michigan. Using these data, our goal was to quantify the within-year characteristics of mortality events for multiple species, and to test whether the synchrony of these events corresponded to fluctuations in two environmental factors suspected to be important in the spread of avian botulism: water temperature and the prevalence of green macroalgae.During two separate events of mass waterbird mortality, we found that the detection of bird carcasses was spatially synchronized at scales of c. 40 km. Notably, the extent of this spatial synchrony in avian mortality matched that of fluctuations in lake surface water temperatures and the prevalence of green macroalgae.Synthesis and applications. Our findings are suggestive of a synchronizing effect where warmer lake temperatures and the appearance of macroalgae mediate the characteristics of avian mortality. In future years, rising lake temperatures and a higher propensity of algal masses could lead to increases in the magnitude and synchronization of avian mortality due to botulism. We advocate that citizen-based monitoring efforts are critical for identifying the potential environmental conditions associated

  12. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  13. Platelet function in the postprandial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinzinger Helmut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia have been related to cardiovascular events. Among different underlying mechanisms platelet activation seems to be responsible too. No comparable data between various tests in normo- vs. hyperlipidemics before and at different time intervals are available after a fat meal. We aimed to compare 9 of them within the same patients at several time points in postprandial hyperlipidemia. Results For some tests baseline values between the groups were significantly different (TXB2, platelet sensitivity, sedimentation and WU-test. However, hyperlipidemia revealed a variable influence on the tests examined. Some of the available tests apparently sensitive to show platelet activation reflect the increase in triglycerides (TG, such as the sedimentation index. ADP-induced platelet aggregatory activity in count adjusted washed isolated platelet samples during postprandial hyperlipidemia indicates mildly enhanced platelet activity, but does not seem to induce significant changes in aggregation. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (> 400 mg/dl fasting changes in platelet function are more pronounced due to delayed decay and may last up to 16 hours paralleling TG reaching the prevalue. The overwhelming majority of platelet function tests do not significantly respond to postprandial hyperlipidemia. The correlation between the tests applied is poor. For standardization purpose, platelet aggregation tests, aimed to examine proaggregatory capacity in atherosclerosis, should only be performed at the same time of the day after a fasting period > 6 hours. The great variation in preanalytical work-up on comparison of various tests, large number of platelet tests available and their respective potential value are discussed. Conclusions At present, the suspicion that platelet function is significantly activated in the postprandial period cannot be supported by any of the tests used. The

  14. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  15. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  16. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  17. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  18. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  19. Petrological cycles and caldera-forming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Deering, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many caldera-forming events can be framed within broad petrological cycles; volcanic stratigraphy typically defines a trend from mafic to more silicic magmas with time, culminating in the catastrophic evacuation of an upper crustal reservoir filled with the silicic magma, followed by a return to the eruption of more mafic magmas shortly after caldera collapse. Understanding how such cycles develop has clear implications for characterizing the current state of an active system. Here, we focus on a detailed examination of the well-exposed Quaternary Kos-Nisyros eruptive sequence (eastern Aegean arc) to frame a potential model for such cycles. On the basis of zircon U/Th/Pb ages, building the upper crustal magma chamber large enough to induce caldera collapse required at least a few hundred thousand years. This timeframe is necessary not only for the accumulation of large amounts of viscous, gas-rich silicic magma, but also to heat the upper crust sufficiently to allow the developing reservoir to be maintained above the solidus. In the Kos-Nisyros volcanic center, small eruptions precede the caldera-forming event and mark this period of thermal maturation as the system transitions from intermediate to silicic magma, reaching the most-evolved state only shortly prior to the caldera-forming event, the Kos Plateau Tuff (> 60 km3 of volatile-rich, high-silica rhyolite). The Kos Plateau Tuff was then followed by small-volume eruptions of more mafic magma (basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacites) that are characterized by a drier mineral assemblage. With time, the system transitioned back to cold, wet, high-SiO2 rhyolite. We suggest that the changes in magma composition and mineralogy following the caldera-forming event are due to a near-complete crystallization of the non-erupted mush in the upper crustal reservoir as it is abruptly decompressed during eruption. This rapid crystallization (1) leads to the formation of a porphyritic texture in the crystalline residual - a

  20. Vulnerability and resilience of the carbon exchange o a subarctic peatland to an extreme winter event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Rasse, Daniel P.; Lund, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    impact of this event. Our results indicate that gross primary production (GPP) exhibited a delayed response to temperature following snowmelt. From snowmelt up to the peak of summer, this reduced carbon uptake by 14 (0-24) g Cm-2 (similar to 12% of GPP in that period)-similar to the effect of interannual......Extreme winter events that damage vegetation are considered an important climatic cause of arctic browning-a reversal of the greening trend of the region-and possibly reduce the carbon uptake of northern ecosystems. Confirmation of a reduction in CO2 uptake due to winter damage, however, remains...... event. The warm summer also increased ecosystem respiration, which limited net carbon uptake. This study shows that damage from a single extreme winter event can have an ecosystem-wide impact on CO2 uptake, and highlights the importance of including winter-induced shrub damage in terrestrial ecosystem...

  1. Event by event physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are fundamental for the study of the QGP phase transition. The ALICE experiment is well suited for precise event-by-event measurements of various quantities. In this article, we review the capabilities of ALICE to study the fluctuations of several key observables such as the net charge, the temperature, and the particle ratios. Among the observables related to correlations, we review the balance functions and the long range correlations.

  2. Control of extreme events in the bubbling onset of wave turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuzio, P P; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2014-04-01

    We show the existence of an intermittent transition from temporal chaos to turbulence in a spatially extended dynamical system, namely, the forced and damped one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. For some values of the forcing parameter, the system dynamics intermittently switches between ordered states and turbulent states, which may be seen as extreme events in some contexts. In a Fourier phase space, the intermittency takes place due to the loss of transversal stability of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a low-dimensional subspace. We mapped these transversely unstable regions and perturbed the system in order to significantly reduce the occurrence of extreme events of turbulence.

  3. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 - ... Event ‒ represents activities related to IDRC operations and may include both ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management.

  4. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  5. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  6. A Mosque event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2017-01-01

    and public imaginations attached to it. And they are connected to a specific event – the opening of the mosque. In the first part, a conceptual framework is presented bringing together literature on three notions: encounters, visibility and the event. Following this, the paper explores the opening event...

  7. On semirecurrent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1984-01-01

    In some problems of the mathematical theory of particle counters, film or filmless measurements of track ionization in high energy physics,queueing theory, random walks, etc., the classes of emirecurrent and m-semirecurrent events, which generalize the recurrent events and the recurrent events with delay, appeared. In the paper their basic properties, and some relationships between them are shown

  8. Recurring Events in the Finnish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suksi, Seija; Olander, Ronnie; Tiippana, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation of event investigation methods applied by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), and the two Finnish nuclear power plant operators Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) was carried out by the Technical Research Centre (VIT) on an assignment from STUK. The study aimed at providing a broad overview of the whole organisational framework to support event investigation practices at the regulatory body and at the utilities. The study was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Investigation of Methodologies for Incident Analysis'. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the adequacy and reliability of event investigation analysis methods and practices in the Finnish nuclear power industry and based on the results to further develop them. In general, the direct causes of identified events could be detected and eliminated, but more emphasis should be given to the prevention of recurrence of events and identification of common causes and latent failures. The study showed that the evaluated organisations had rather comprehensive incident analysis arrangements. The study also showed that more focus and prioritisation are needed. Deficiencies were identified mostly in the areas of recording, assessment and classification of new events, use of existing operating experience data, utilisation of information technology tools, and allocation of work and resources. Also the indicators or measures for the effectiveness of event investigation and operating experience feedback were missing. All organisations should maintain adequate resources in this area. The researchers suggested a more effective operating experience feedback loop. Especially more attention should be paid to root cause analysis of significant events, tasks and activities where the initial errors have occurred, and weaknesses of defensive barriers. It was also recommended that implementing periodic operational experience

  9. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  10. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  11. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  12. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  13. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  14. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  15. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  16. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  17. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  18. Lunar Phases and Emergency Department Visits for Renal Colic Due to Ureteral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Andy W; Johnson, Justin D; Fronczak, Carolyn M; LaGrange, Chad A

    2016-01-01

    Urolithiasis affects an estimated 5% of the population and the lifetime risk of passing a stone in the urinary tract is estimated to be 8-10%. Urinary calculus formation is highly variable and while certain risk factors such as age, gender, seasonality, anatomic abnormality, and metabolic diseases have been identified, not much is known regarding the association of environmental factors such as lunar phases on renal colic. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that full moon phase is an environmental factor associated for increased emergency department (ED) visits for renal colic due to ureteral calculus. We analyzed 559 renal colic diagnoses by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in a 24-month period and compared them with corresponding lunar phases as well as supermoon events. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± two days, new moon ± two days, and the days in-between as normal days according to the lunar calendar. Supermoon event dates were obtained from NASA. 90 cases (16.1%) were diagnosed during full moon phase, 89 cases (15.9%) were diagnosed during new moon phase, and 380 cases (68.0%) were diagnosed during normal days. The incidence of renal colic showed no statistically significant association with lunar phases or supermoon events. In this retrospective longitudinal study with adequate power, neither full moon phase nor supermoon event exhibited an association with increased renal colic diagnoses due to ureteral calculus by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

  19. Analysis for Human-related Events during the Overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Min Chull; Choi, Dong Won; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The event frequency due to human error is decreasing among 20 operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) excluding the NPP (Shin-Kori unit-1) in the commissioning stage since 2008. However, the events due to human error during an overhaul (O/H) occur annually (see Table I). An analysis for human-related events during the O/H was performed. Similar problems were identified for each event from the analysis and also, organizational and safety cultural factors were also identified

  20. Basic and substitute supply in the event of customer insolvency. The field between energy law and insolvency law, with due consideration to the unconstitutionality of the basic supply ordinances for electricity and gas; Grund- und Ersatzversorgung in der Insolvenz des Kunden. Das Spannungsfeld von Energie- und Insolvenzrecht unter Beruecksichtigung der Verfassungswidrigkeit der GVV fuer Strom und Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchewitz, Paul

    2008-07-01

    The author of this publication examines the legal relationships that arise between the parties involved if a customer receiving a basic or substitute energy supply runs into crisis and insolvency. The intent is to describe and assess the interplay between energy law and insolvency law. The author examines how far the obligations of the basic supplier reach in the event of customer insolvency, what means the customer, the (provisional) insolvency administrator and the basic supplier have at their disposal in this situation and how these might assessed from a legal and economic viewpoint. Special emphasis is placed on the partial unconstitutionality of the basic supply ordinances for electricity and gas. These laws should also specify the parties' obligations and rights in the event of insolvency.

  1. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grames

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy and water. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre et al., 2013; Viglione et al., 2014. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. In order to build this first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events, we transform an existing descriptive stochastic model into an optimal deterministic model. The intermediate step is to formulate and simulate a descriptive deterministic model. We develop a periodic water function to approximate the former discrete stochastic time series of rainfall events. Due to the non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function the long-term path of consumption and investment will be periodic.

  2. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Senger, R.K.; Leem, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes analyses of a potential post-closure pyrophoric event in a waste package containing uranium metal spent fuel. The analyses include temperature at adjacent waste packages caused by the event and the dose to humans due to the event. The thermal analyses show that the event would not be expected to damage the adjacent waste packages. The dose analyses show that the doses due to the event are small. These analyses provide support to screening arguments used to demonstrate that the pyrophoric event should not be considered in the total system performance assessment model

  3. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  4. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... speaking, or swallowing Falls due to muscle weakness Prevention ... . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12. Ferri FF. Hyperthyroidism. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016 . ...

  5. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  6. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  7. Sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple initiating events in fire events PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A single fire event within a fire compartment or a fire scenario can cause multiple initiating events (IEs). As an example, a fire in a turbine building fire area can cause a loss of the main feed-water (LOMF) and loss of off-site power (LOOP) IEs. Previous domestic fire events PSA had considered only the most severe initiating event among multiple initiating events. NUREG/CR-6850 and ANS/ASME PRA Standard require that multiple IEs are to be addressed in fire events PSA. In this paper, sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple IEs in fire events PSA for Hanul Unit 3 were performed and their results were presented. In this paper, sensitivity studies on the approaches for addressing multiple IEs in fire events PSA are performed and their results were presented. From the sensitivity analysis results, we can find that the incorporations of multiple IEs into fire events PSA model result in the core damage frequency (CDF) increase and may lead to the generation of the duplicate cutsets. Multiple IEs also can occur at internal flooding event or other external events such as seismic event. They should be considered in the constructions of PSA models in order to realistically estimate risk due to flooding or seismic events.

  8. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GX17+2: CONFIRMATION OF A PERIODIC SYNCHROTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Bornak, Jillian; Gelino, Dawn M.; Wachter, Stefanie; Rupen, Michael P.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    GX17+2 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is also a member of a small family of LMXBs known as 'Z-sources' that are believed to have persistent X-ray luminosities that are very close to the Eddington limit. GX17+2 is highly variable at both radio and X-ray frequencies, a feature common to Z-sources. What sets GX17+2 apart is its dramatic variability in the near-infrared, where it changes by ΔK ∼ 3 mag. Previous investigations have shown that these brightenings are periodic, recurring every 3.01 days. Given its high extinction (A V ≥ 9 mag), it has not been possible to ascertain the nature of these events with ground-based observations. We report mid-infrared Spitzer observations of GX17+2 which indicate a synchrotron spectrum for the infrared brightenings. In addition, GX17+2 is highly variable in the mid-infrared during these events. The combination of the large-scale outbursts, the presence of a synchrotron spectrum, and the dramatic variability in the mid-infrared suggest that the infrared brightening events are due to the periodic transit of a synchrotron jet across our line of sight. An analysis of both new, and archival, infrared observations has led us to revise the period for these events to 3.0367 days. We also present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for GX17+2 obtained during two predicted infrared brightening events. Analysis of these new data, and data from the RXTE archive, indicates that there is no correlation between the X-ray behavior of this source and the observed infrared brightenings. We examine various scenarios that might produce periodic jet emission.

  9. Innovation, creative ideas to attend the challenges of the Central Laguna Verde for the period 2011-2015 due to new 100% of power; Innovacion, ideas creativas para atender los retos y desafios del periodo de la Central Laguna Verde en 2011-2015 por el nuevo 100% de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera C, A., E-mail: arr99999@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    For the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (CLV) is an opportunity to present to the nuclear community in Mexico the improvement areas and challenges for the period 2011-2015, now that has been concluded the phase of starting tests of the CLV modernization, with an increment of power of 20% that represents a new generation of electrical power of 815 M We per hour in the 2 Units, with these new challenges the strategic planning 2011 at 2015 take relevance to give guide to the innovation, with new ideas of improvement to the processes, human resources and leadership, with the purpose of maintaining reliable all the equipment s and process systems by means of the use of strengths, opportunities, vulnerabilities and threats analysis, in order to make strategies that aid to generate competitive advantages for the production of electric power in Mexico, using privileged information that contain the database of the improvement systems, like are the programs of corrective action, of human acting, of external operational experience, of auto-evaluation and of benchmarking that is the referential comparison with other similar power stations. At present, in the general management of operation exist the training by coaching to grow in the formation of the half commands and line supervisors, reinforcing the wanted behaviors, the abilities of the technicians, and the orientation in deficient performances in the search of the operational excellence. (Author)

  10. Planning support system for climate adaptation: Composing effective sets of blue-green measures to reduce urban vulnerability to extreme weather events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, I.M.; Ven, Van de F.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of pluvial flooding, heat stress and drought is increasing due to climate change. To increase urban resilience to extreme weather events, it is essential to combine green and blue infrastructure and link enhanced storage capacity in periods of water surplus with moments of water shortage as

  11. Analysis of rockburst and rockfall accidents in relation to class of stope support, regional support, energy of seismic events and mining layout

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cichowicz, A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the assessment of safety risk and the analysis of Falls Of Ground (FOG) in mines due to seismic events and mining layout during the period of 1991-1992 on a single mine. The multivariate analysis was used to obtain a...

  12. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  13. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  14. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  15. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  16. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  17. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  18. NPP unusual events: data, analysis and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, V.

    1990-01-01

    Subject of the paper are the IAEA cooperative patterns of unusual events data treatment and utilization of the operating safety experience feedback. The Incident Reporting System (IRS) and the Analysis of Safety Significant Event Team (ASSET) are discussed. The IRS methodology in collection, handling, assessment and dissemination of data on NPP unusual events (deviations, incidents and accidents) occurring during operations, surveillance and maintenance is outlined by the reports gathering and issuing practice, the experts assessment procedures and the parameters of the system. After 7 years of existence the IAEA-IRS contains over 1000 reports and receives 1.5-4% of the total information on unusual events. The author considers the reports only as detailed technical 'records' of events requiring assessment. The ASSET approaches implying an in-depth occurrences analysis directed towards level-1 PSA utilization are commented on. The experts evaluated root causes for the reported events and some trends are presented. Generally, internal events due to unexpected paths of water in the nuclear installations, occurrences related to the integrity of the primary heat transport systems, events associated with the engineered safety systems and events involving human factor represent the large groups deserving close attention. Personal recommendations on how to use the events related information use for NPP safety improvement are given. 2 tabs (R.Ts)

  19. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, C.; Brarda, L.; Frank, M.; Franek, B.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Köstner, S.; Moine, G.; Neufeld, N.; Somogyi, P.; Stoica, R.; Suman, S.

    2008-07-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed.

  20. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, F; Barandela, C; Brarda, L; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; Herwijnen, E v; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Koestner, S; Moine, G; Neufeld, N; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R; Suman, S; Franek, B; Galli, D

    2008-01-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. The entire data-flow is controlled and configured by means of a SCADA system and several databases. After an overview of the LHCb data acquisition and its design principles this paper will emphasize the LHCb event filter system, which is now implemented using the final hardware and will be ready for data-taking for the LHC startup. Control, configuration and security aspects will also be discussed

  1. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  2. Adverse events associated with acupuncture: three multicentre randomized controlled trials of 1968 cases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Zhang, Fu-wen; Li, Ying; Wu, Xi; Zheng, Hui; Cheng, Lin-hao; Liang, Fan-rong

    2011-03-24

    In order to evaluate the safety of acupuncture in China objectively, we investigated the adverse events associated with acupuncture based on three multicentre randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the safety of acupuncture, identifying the common types of acupuncture adverse events, and analysing the related risk factors for their occurrence. This observational study included patients who received acupuncture from three multicentre RCTs respectively for migraine, functional dyspepsia and Bell's palsy. The 1968 patients and their acupuncturists documented adverse events associated with acupuncture after treatment. We collected data about adverse events due to acupuncture treatment from their case report forms. We analysed the incidence and details of the adverse effects, and studied the risk factors for acupuncture adverse events with non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Among the 1968 patients, 74 patients (3.76%) suffered at least one adverse event throughout the treatment period. We did not observe the occurrence of serious adverse events. 73 patients with adverse events recovered within 2 weeks through effective treatment such as physiotherapy or self-treatment. A total of 3 patients withdrew because of adverse events. There were 9 types of adverse events related to acupuncture, including subcutaneous haematoma, bleeding, skin bruising and needle site pain. Subcutaneous haematoma and haemorrhage in the needling points were the most common adverse events. Age and gender were related to the occurrence of acupuncture adverse events. The older the patients were, the higher the risk of adverse events was. In addition, male patients had slightly higher risk of an adverse event than female patients. Acupuncture is a safe therapy with low risk of adverse events in clinical practice. The risk factors for adverse events (AEs) were related to the patients' gender and age and the local anatomical structure of the acupoints. AEs could be reduced and

  3. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  4. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  5. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  6. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  7. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  8. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  9. Satellite Anomalies Due to Environment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These events range from minor operational problems to permanent spacecraft failures. Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States...

  10. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  11. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  12. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  13. The Blayais event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the main events occurred to the Blayais installation during the year 2000. For each events, the detailed chronology, the situation analysis, the crisis management and the public information are provided. Some recommendations are also provided by the nuclear safety authorities. (A.L.B.)

  14. Propagation of short-period gravity waves at high-latitudes during the MaCWAVE winter campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nielsen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically winter campaign an all-sky monochromatic CCD imager has been used to investigate the properties of short-period mesospheric gravity waves at high northern latitudes. Sequential measurements of several nightglow emissions were made from Esrange, Sweden, during a limited period from 27–31 January 2003. Coincident wind measurements over the altitude range (~80–100 km using two meteor radar systems located at Esrange and Andenes have been used to perform a novel investigation of the intrinsic properties of five distinct wave events observed during this period. Additional lidar and MSIS model temperature data have been used to investigate their nature (i.e. freely propagating or ducted. Four of these extensive wave events were found to be freely propagating with potential source regions to the north of Scandinavia. No evidence was found for strong orographic forcing by short-period waves in the airglow emission layers. The fifth event was most unusual exhibiting an extensive, but much smaller and variable wavelength pattern that appeared to be embedded in the background wind field. Coincident wind measurements indicated the presence of a strong shear suggesting this event was probably due to a large-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  15. Recommended Format for the Periodic Table of the Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a new, recommended format for the periodic table which does not use the letters A and B to designate subgroups of elements. Also describes events leading to the adoption of this recommendation. (JM)

  16. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroij, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, B.

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males

  17. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk is dynamic and influenced by many processes related to hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Flood damage increased significantly over the past decades, however, resulting overall economic loss per event is an aggregated indicator and it is difficult to attribute causes to this increasing...... trend. Much has been learned about damaging processes during floods at the micro-scale, e.g. building level. However, little is known about the main factors determining the amount of flood damage on event level. Thus, we analyse and compare paired flood events, i.e. consecutive, similar damaging floods...... example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number...

  18. Analysis of geohazards events along Swiss roads from autumn 2011 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, roads and railways are threatened throughout the year by several natural hazards. Some of these events reach transport infrastructure many time per year leading to the closing of transportation corridors, loss of access, deviation travels and sometimes infrastructures damages and loss of human lives (3 fatalities during the period considered). The aim of this inventory of events is to investigate the number of natural events affecting roads and railways in Switzerland since autumn 2011 until now. Natural hazards affecting roads and railway can be classified in five categories: rockfalls, landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches and floods. They potentially cause several important direct damages on transportation infrastructure (roads, railway), vehicles (slightly or very damaged) or human life (slightly or seriously injured person, death). These direct damages can be easily evaluated from press articles or from Swiss police press releases. Indirect damages such as deviation cost are not taken into account in this work. During the two a half last years, about 50 events affecting the Swiss roads and Swiss railways infrastructures were inventoried. The proportion of events due to rockfalls is 45%, to landslides 25%, to debris flows 15%, to snow avalanches 10% and to floods 5%. During this period, three fatalities and two persons were injured while 23 vehicles (car, trains and coach) and 24 roads and railways were damaged. We can see that floods occur mainly on the Swiss Plateau whereas rockfalls, debris flow, snow avalanches and landslides are mostly located in the Alpine area. Most of events occur on secondary mountain roads and railways. The events are well distributed on the whole Alpine area except for the Gotthard hotspot, where an important European North-South motorway (hit in 2003 with two fatalities) and railway (hit three times in 2012 with one fatalities) are more frequently affected. According to the observed events in border regions of

  19. Research and development activities of the Seismology Section for the period January 1982-December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Falguni

    1984-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Seismology Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at Bombay are reported for the period January 1982-December 1983 in the form of summaries. The Section's activities are mainly directed towards detection of underground nuclear explosions. During the report period 64 signals out of about 12000 seismograms which were examined were identified as the signals due to underground nuclear explosions. The instrumentation work for Kolar rockburst research was almost completed under the collaboration programme of BARC with Bharat Gold Mines Ltd. Analytical methods have been developed for interpreting the frequency-magnitude relation of earthquake. These methods will be useful in the seismic estimation of risk in case only restricted data involving events of low magnitude are available. A list of publications of the staff-members of the Section during the report period is given. (M.G.B.)

  20. LHCb Online event processing and filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Brarda, L; Frank, M; Franek, B; Galli, D; Gaspar, C; Van Herwijnen, E; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Köstner, S; Moine, G; Neufeld, N; Somogyi, P; Stoica, R; Suman, S

    2008-01-01

    The first level trigger of LHCb accepts one million events per second. After preprocessing in custom FPGA-based boards these events are distributed to a large farm of PC-servers using a high-speed Gigabit Ethernet network. Synchronisation and event management is achieved by the Timing and Trigger system of LHCb. Due to the complex nature of the selection of B-events, which are the main interest of LHCb, a full event-readout is required. Event processing on the servers is parallelised on an event basis. The reduction factor is typically 1/500. The remaining events are forwarded to a formatting layer, where the raw data files are formed and temporarily stored. A small part of the events is also forwarded to a dedicated farm for calibration and monitoring. The files are subsequently shipped to the CERN Tier0 facility for permanent storage and from there to the various Tier1 sites for reconstruction. In parallel files are used by various monitoring and calibration processes running within the LHCb Online system. ...

  1. Australian Northwest Shelf: a Late Neogene Reversible Tectonic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominz, M. A.; Gurnis, M.; Gallagher, S. J.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia is characterized by several offshore basins with active rifting in Permian and Jurassic time. Thus, by the Late Neogene this continental margin should be a very slowly subsiding passive margin. However, thick, poorly dated sediments have been noted in this region leading to speculation that this part of Australia has undergone down-warping in this time period. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 356 was designed, in part, to better constrain this even in both time and space. Post-cruise Airy-backstripping analyses of samples from four IODP 356 well sites, located as far south as the Perth Basin and as far North as the Carnarvon Basin, suggest that, in fact, this region has undergone a latest Miocene (≈ 8 to 6 Ma) subsidence event followed by a later (≈ 2 to 1 Ma) uplift event. Age constraints are from micropaleontology with some refinement using climate cycle-stratigraphy. Water depth constraints are from benthic foraminifera and from quantitative ratios of benthic foraminifera to planktonic foraminifera. These event cannot be explained as related to either the high-magnitude glacial eustatic changes nor can the uplift event be eliminated and ascribed to sediments filling the accommodation space generated in the earlier event. The magnitude and duration of the vertical movements are remarkably similar and suggests that the subsidence is reversible. Reversibility is a key aspect of a dynamic topography signal. However, it is difficult to produce a mantle anomaly that reproduces the subsidence and subsequent uplift with the requisite amplitude and rates as observed in the NWS of Australia. Additionally, the subduction of the Australian Plate into the Java Trench is too distant to affect this region of Australia. Modeling of a flexural warping due to in-plane stress related to collision of Timor with the Java trench is

  2. Special Features In Turbulent Mixing. Comparison between Periodic and Non Periodic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Costescu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available After hundreds of years of stability study, the problems of flow kinematics are far from complete solving. A modern theory appears in this field: the mixing theory. Its mathematical methods and techniques developed the significant relation between turbulence and chaos. The turbulence is an important feature of dynamic systems with few freedom degrees, the so-called far from equilibrium systems. These are widespread between the models of excitable media.Studying a mixing for a flow implies the analysis of successive stretching and folding phenomena for its particles, the influence of parameters and initial conditions. In the previous works, the study of the 3D non-periodic models exhibited a quite complicated behavior, involving some significant events - the so-called rare events. The variation of parameters had a great influence on the length and surface deformations. The 2D (periodic case is simpler, but significant events can also issue for irrational values of the length and surface versors, as was the situation in 3D case.The comparison between 2D and 3D case revealed interesting properties; therefore a modified 2D (periodic model is tested. The numerical simulations were realized in MapleVI, for searching special mathematical events. Continuing this work both from analytical and numeric standpoint would relieve useful properties for the turbulent mixing. A proximal target is to test some special functions for the periodic model, and to study the behavior of the structures realized by the model.

  3. Hygrothermal modelling of flooding events within historic buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Z.; Schellen, H.L.; Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Blades, N.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding events pose a high risk to valuable monumental buildings and their interiors. Due to higher river discharges and sea level rise, flooding events may occur more often in future. Hygrothermal building simulation models can be applied to investigate the impact of a flooding event on the

  4. Hygrothermal modelling of flooding events within historic buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Z.; Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.; Blades, N.; Mahdavi, A.; Mertens, B.

    2013-01-01

    Flooding events pose a high risk to valuable monumental buildings and their interiors. Due to higher river discharges and sea level rise, flooding events may occur more often in future. Hygrothermal building simulation models can be applied to investigate the impact of a flooding event on the

  5. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  6. Climate change and heavy rain events in the central U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    Floods are one of the most destructive weather-related natural hazards, annually responsible for hundreds of millions of dollars of damage in the United States. The 1993 Upper Mississippi River flood was particularly devastating, with losses estimate at $15--20 billion. Climate change caused by anthropogenic releases of trace gases into the atmosphere may potentially affect the frequency and/or intensity of the meteorological conditions that cause floods. Flood control structures often have lifetimes of 50 to 100 years or more. Since design decisions are being made today for flood control structures that will still be in operation in the late 21st century, it is important to study the possibility that changes in flooding may result due to possible climate change. In this paper, the authors describe an analysis of heavy precipitation events. In particular, they identify the principal meteorological conditions that are associated with these events. An approach to assessing the impacts of climate change on flood-producing heavy rain events is outlined. Kunkel et al. (1993) found that floods on small streams in the central US could be closely related to large rain accumulations over 5--10-day periods. Typically, these accumulations are the result of two or more sizable individual events. The first event may set the stage by creating wet topsoils. The following events then result in high runoff. The present study focuses on these multiday events as a primary meteorological cause of floods. Obviously other factors, such as antecedent soil moisture, play a role in determining the exact amount and temporal distribution of runoff for any particular event. This analysis thus represents a first-order look at possible changes in flooding due to climate change

  7. External event analysis methods for NUREG-1150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.; Lambright, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring probabilistic risk assessments of six operating commercial nuclear power plants as part of a major update of the understanding of risk as provided by the original WASH-1400 risk assessments. In contrast to the WASH-1400 studies, at least two of the NUREG-1150 risk assessments will include an analysis of risks due to earthquakes, fires, floods, etc., which are collectively known as eternal events. This paper summarizes the methods to be used in the external event analysis for NUREG-1150 and the results obtained to date. The two plants for which external events are being considered are Surry and Peach Bottom, a PWR and BWR respectively. The external event analyses (through core damage frequency calculations) were completed in June 1989, with final documentation available in September. In contrast to most past external event analyses, wherein rudimentary systems models were developed reflecting each external event under consideration, the simplified NUREG-1150 analyses are based on the availability of the full internal event PRA systems models (event trees and fault trees) and make use of extensive computer-aided screening to reduce them to sequence cut sets important to each external event. This provides two major advantages in that consistency and scrutability with respect to the internal event analysis is achieved, and the full gamut of random and test/maintenance unavailabilities are automatically included, while only those probabilistically important survive the screening process. Thus, full benefit of the internal event analysis is obtained by performing the internal and external event analyses sequentially

  8. Temperature distribution of a simplified rotor due to a uniform heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, Sarah; Fischer, Tim; Meier, Felix; Werner, Ewald; kyzy, Sonun Ulan; Munz, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    In gas turbines, high combustion efficiency as well as operational safety are required. Thus, labyrinth seal systems with honeycomb liners are commonly used. In the case of rubbing events in the seal system, the components can be damaged due to cyclic thermal and mechanical loads. Temperature differences occurring at labyrinth seal fins during rubbing events can be determined by considering a single heat source acting periodically on the surface of a rotating cylinder. Existing literature analysing the temperature distribution on rotating cylindrical bodies due to a stationary heat source is reviewed. The temperature distribution on the circumference of a simplified labyrinth seal fin is calculated using an available and easy to implement analytical approach. A finite element model of the simplified labyrinth seal fin is created and the numerical results are compared to the analytical results. The temperature distributions calculated by the analytical and the numerical approaches coincide for low sliding velocities, while there are discrepancies of the calculated maximum temperatures for higher sliding velocities. The use of the analytical approach allows the conservative estimation of the maximum temperatures arising in labyrinth seal fins during rubbing events. At the same time, high calculation costs can be avoided.

  9. Solar proton events and their effect on space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquille, C.

    1994-01-01

    Solar protons present a major problem to space systems because of the ionisation and displacement effects which arise from their interaction with matter. This is likely to become a greater problem in the future due to the use of more sensitive electronic components and the proposed expansion of manned activities in space. An outline is provided of the physical processes associated with individual solar events, the solar activity cycle and the transport of solar particles between the Sun and the Earth. The problems of predicting solar event fluences, both over short- and long-term periods, are discussed. The currently available solar proton event models used for long-term forecasting are briefly reviewed, and the advantages and deficiencies of each model are investigated. Predictions using the models are compared to measurements made by the GOES-7 satellite during the rising phase of the current solar cycle. These measurements are also used to illustrate the sensitivity of the models to the choice of confidence level and to the spectral form used for extrapolation over the solar proton energy range. (author)

  10. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier at Mount Rainier, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.; Allstadt, Kate E.; De Angelis, Silvio; Malone, Stephen D.; Moran, Seth C.; Vidale, John

    2013-01-01

    We observed several swarms of repeating low-frequency (1–5 Hz) seismic events during a 3 week period in May–June 2010, near the summit of Mount Rainier, Washington, USA, that likely were a result of stick–slip motion at the base of alpine glaciers. The dominant set of repeating events ('multiplets') featured >4000 individual events and did not exhibit daytime variations in recurrence interval or amplitude. Volcanoes and glaciers around the world are known to produce seismic signals with great variability in both frequency content and size. The low-frequency character and periodic recurrence of the Mount Rainier multiplets mimic long-period seismicity often seen at volcanoes, particularly during periods of unrest. However, their near-surface location, lack of common spectral peaks across the recording network, rapid attenuation of amplitudes with distance, and temporal correlation with weather systems all indicate that ice-related source mechanisms are the most likely explanation. We interpret the low-frequency character of these multiplets to be the result of trapping of seismic energy under glacial ice as it propagates through the highly heterogeneous and attenuating volcanic material. The Mount Rainier multiplet sequences underscore the difficulties in differentiating low-frequency signals due to glacial processes from those caused by volcanic processes on glacier-clad volcanoes.

  11. Communication regarding the thorp event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, P.

    2007-01-01

    HSE investigated the circumstances of the leak of highly radioactive product liquor inside the cell of the THORP plant at Sellafield which went undetected for a period of approximately 9 months between 2004 and 2005. The leak resulted in 83 000 litres of the liquor being deposited on the floor of the cell and although all indications are that none of this liquor escaped into the ground and no--one was harmed, it did attract considerable media attention. HSE's Nuclear Safety Directorate instigated its own investigation which resulted in enforcement action being taken. BNG Sellafield was charged with 3 offenses under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, pleaded guilty and was fined pounds 500 k in Crown Court in January 2007. The incident was categorized as '3' on the International Nuclear Event Scale and attracted a lot of attention in this country and abroad. The event is useful in illustrating the difficulties in handling communications related to a high hazard nuclear site which even in normal operation can attract considerable attention. The role of the safety regulator is considered. It is proposed that communications issues can be grouped in to three distinct areas; - Early information by the licensee on the incident, status of the plant etc. which would be aimed at the public and media. - Ministerial reporting and as a result reporting to OGDs and our responsibility to early notify our international neighbours. - Lessons learnt from the event which in this case are fed hack to the industry through an HSE openly published report. This presentation covers each type of communication in the context of this event and draws conclusions on what can be considered good practice and what are some of the difficulties which may need to be overcome. (author)

  12. Event shape sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecna, Renata; Tomasik, Boris

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable (e.g., v 2 , v 3 , q 2 ). It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution. (orig.)

  13. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  14. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  15. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  16. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  17. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  18. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  19. The ALEPH event builder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benetta, R.; Marchioro, A.; McPherson, G.; Rueden, W. von

    1986-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the ALEPH experiment at CERN is organised in a hierarchical fashion within FASTBUS. The detector consists of a number of sub-detectors whose data must be individually assembled and formatted in real time. This task of 'event building' will be performed by a FASTBUS module in which a powerful microprocessor running high level software is embedded. Such a module, called an Event Builder, has been constructed by the ALEPH Online Group at CERN. (Auth.)

  20. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  1. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: Three rare secondary causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Eswaradass Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic paralysis is a rare neuromuscular disorder, related to a defect in muscle ion channels, characterized by episodes of painless muscle weakness, which may be precipitated by heavy exercise, fasting, or high-carbohydrate meals. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis may be familial (primary or secondary. Here, we report three cases of secondary causes of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. On evaluation, case 1 had distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA due to Sjogren′s syndrome, case 2 had drug induced proximal RTA (Fanconi′s syndrome and case 3 had thyrotoxicosis. Clinician must be aware of causes of secondary PP as recognition and diagnosis can completely prevent further attacks of periodic paralysis. Each of the above case is rare, but completely treatable if diagnosed. Low dose steroids with bicarbonate replacement in case 1, stopping tenofovir in case 2 and carbimazole therapy in case 3 prevented further attacks of periodic paralysis and cardiopulmonary complications.

  2. Simulation of land use evolution by discrete events method: Application to “la chaîne des puys” from XV to XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Michelin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a discrete event method, simulation of land use evolution has been applied to a landscape model of “la ChaÎne des Puys” (French Massif Central during along period (XV–XVIII centuries. The indications concerning the evolution of land use are in conformity with the observation of actual situations but the dynamic changes are faster than in actual facts. In spite of limitations due to necessary simplifications, it is now established that the discrete event method is efficient to simulate land use evolution during a long period. The model is immediately able to describe actual dynamics and to show sensitive variables with their critical values. Although oversimplified, it shows how far factors such as level of crops production and taxation can influence land use and landscape changes with a more or less lengthy period. In the future, the model should be bettered by introducing other determined and/or stochastic events.

  3. Nutrition security under extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrition security under extreme events. Zero hunger being one of the Sustainable Development Goal from the United Nations, food security has become a trending research topic. However extreme events impact on global food security is not yet 100% understood and there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of global food trade and nutrition security to improve countries resilience to extreme events. In a globalized world, food is still a highly regulated commodity and a strategic resource. A drought happening in a net food-exporter will have little to no effect on its own population but the repercussion on net food-importers can be extreme. In this project, we propose a methodology to describe and quantify the impact of a local drought to human health at a global scale. For this purpose, nutrition supply and global trade data from FAOSTAT have been used with domestic food production from national agencies and FAOSTAT, global precipitation from the Climate Research Unit and health data from the World Health Organization. A modified Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) has been developed to measure the level of resilience of one country to a drought happening in another country. This index describes how a country is dependent of importation and how diverse are its importation. Losses of production and exportation due to extreme events have been calculated using yield data and a simple food balance at country scale. Results show that countries the most affected by global droughts are the one with the highest dependency to one exporting country. Changes induced by droughts also disturbed their domestic proteins, fat and calories supply resulting most of the time in a higher intake of calories or fat over proteins.

  4. Analysis of economic and social costs of adverse events associated with blood transfusions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribed-Sánchez, Borja; González-Gaya, Cristina; Varea-Díaz, Sara; Corbacho-Fabregat, Carlos; Bule-Farto, Isabel; Pérez de-Oteyza, Jaime

    2018-02-16

    To calculate, for the first time, the direct and social costs of transfusion-related adverse events in order to include them in the National Healthcare System's budget, calculation and studies. In Spain more than 1,500 patients yearly are diagnosed with such adverse events. Blood transfusion-related adverse events recorded yearly in Spanish haemovigilance reports were studied retrospectively (2010-2015). The adverse events were coded according to the classification of Diagnosis-Related Groups. The direct healthcare costs were obtained from public information sources. The productivity loss (social cost) associated with adverse events was calculated using the human capital and hedonic salary methodologies. In 2015, 1,588 patients had adverse events that resulted in direct health care costs (4,568,914€) and social costs due to hospitalization (200,724€). Three adverse reactions resulted in patient death (at a social cost of 1,364,805€). In total, the cost of blood transfusion-related adverse events was 6,134,443€ in Spain. For the period 2010-2015: the trends show a reduction in the total amount of transfusions (2 vs. 1.91M€; -4.4%). The number of adverse events increased (822 vs. 1,588; +93%), as well as their related direct healthcare cost (3.22 vs. 4.57M€; +42%) and the social cost of hospitalization (110 vs 200M€; +83%). Mortality costs decreased (2.65 vs. 1.36M€; -48%). This is the first time that the costs of post-transfusion adverse events have been calculated in Spain. These new figures and trends should be taken into consideration in any cost-effectiveness study or trial of new surgical techniques or sanitary policies that influence blood transfusion activities. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Random and externally controlled occurrences of Dansgaard–Oeschger events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lohmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO events constitute the most pronounced mode of centennial to millennial climate variability of the last glacial period. Since their discovery, many decades of research have been devoted to understand the origin and nature of these rapid climate shifts. In recent years, a number of studies have appeared that report emergence of DO-type variability in fully coupled general circulation models via different mechanisms. These mechanisms result in the occurrence of DO events at varying degrees of regularity, ranging from periodic to random. When examining the full sequence of DO events as captured in the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP ice core record, one can observe high irregularity in the timing of individual events at any stage within the last glacial period. In addition to the prevailing irregularity, certain properties of the DO event sequence, such as the average event frequency or the relative distribution of cold versus warm periods, appear to be changing throughout the glacial. By using statistical hypothesis tests on simple event models, we investigate whether the observed event sequence may have been generated by stationary random processes or rather was strongly modulated by external factors. We find that the sequence of DO warming events is consistent with a stationary random process, whereas dividing the event sequence into warming and cooling events leads to inconsistency with two independent event processes. As we include external forcing, we find a particularly good fit to the observed DO sequence in a model where the average residence time in warm periods are controlled by global ice volume and cold periods by boreal summer insolation.

  6. Random and externally controlled occurrences of Dansgaard-Oeschger events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Johannes; Ditlevsen, Peter D.

    2018-05-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events constitute the most pronounced mode of centennial to millennial climate variability of the last glacial period. Since their discovery, many decades of research have been devoted to understand the origin and nature of these rapid climate shifts. In recent years, a number of studies have appeared that report emergence of DO-type variability in fully coupled general circulation models via different mechanisms. These mechanisms result in the occurrence of DO events at varying degrees of regularity, ranging from periodic to random. When examining the full sequence of DO events as captured in the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core record, one can observe high irregularity in the timing of individual events at any stage within the last glacial period. In addition to the prevailing irregularity, certain properties of the DO event sequence, such as the average event frequency or the relative distribution of cold versus warm periods, appear to be changing throughout the glacial. By using statistical hypothesis tests on simple event models, we investigate whether the observed event sequence may have been generated by stationary random processes or rather was strongly modulated by external factors. We find that the sequence of DO warming events is consistent with a stationary random process, whereas dividing the event sequence into warming and cooling events leads to inconsistency with two independent event processes. As we include external forcing, we find a particularly good fit to the observed DO sequence in a model where the average residence time in warm periods are controlled by global ice volume and cold periods by boreal summer insolation.

  7. Aerosol events in the broader Mediterranean basin based on 7-year (2000–2007 MODIS C005 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gkikas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol events (their frequency and intensity in the broader Mediterranean basin were studied using 7-year (2000–2007 aerosol data of optical depth (AOD at 550 nm from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra. The complete spatial coverage of data revealed a significant spatial variability of aerosol events which is also dependent on their intensity. Strong events occur more often in the western and central Mediterranean basin (up to 14 events/year whereas extreme events (AOD up to 5.0 are systematically observed in the eastern Mediterranean basin throughout the year. There is also a significant seasonal variability with strong aerosol events occurring most frequently in the western part of the basin in summer and extreme episodes in the eastern part during spring. The events were also analyzed separately over land and sea revealing differences that are due to the different natural and anthropogenic processes, like dust transport (producing maximum frequencies of extreme episodes in spring over both land and sea or forest fires (producing maximum frequencies in strong episodes in summer over land. The inter-annual variability shows a gradual decrease in the frequency of all aerosol episodes over land and sea areas of the Mediterranean during the period 2000–2007, associated with an increase in their intensity (increased AOD values. The strong spatiotemporal variability of aerosol events indicates the need for monitoring them at the highest spatial and temporal coverage and resolution.

  8. Abortion hysterectomy at 11 weeks’ gestation due to undiagnosed placenta accreta (PA: A case report and a mini review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Shaamash

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available First trimester placenta accreta (PA is a rare event; there are few reported cases worldwide. Herein we report a case of abortion hysterectomy at 11 weeks’ gestation due to undiagnosed first trimester placenta accreta. Also, we reviewed medical literatures over the past 20 years for case reports of first trimester PA diagnosed after the occurrence of severe bleeding during abortive curettage or in the post abortive period.

  9. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  10. Confusion in the Periodic Table of the Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, W. C.; Powell, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses long (expanded), short (condensed), and pyramidal periodic table formats and documents events leading to a periodic table in which subgroups (families) are designated with the letters A and B, suggesting that this format is confusing for those consulting the table. (JN)

  11. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charvátová, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2007), s. 1227-1232 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : solar- planet ary relationships * solar physics * celestial mechanis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2007

  12. Length-scale effect due to periodic variation of geometrically necessary dislocation densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oztop, M. S.; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories have been successful in predicting qualitative aspects of the length scale effect, most notably the increase in yield strength and hardness as the size of the deforming volume decreases. However new experimental methodologies enabled by recent developments...... of high spatial resolution diffraction methods in a scanning electron microscope give a much more quantitative understanding of plastic deformation at small length scales. Specifically, geometrically necessary dislocation densities (GND) can now be measured and provide detailed information about...... the microstructure of deformed metals in addition to the size effect. Recent GND measurements have revealed a distribution of length scales that evolves within a metal undergoing plastic deformation. Furthermore, these experiments have shown an accumulation of GND densities in cell walls as well as a variation...

  13. 77 FR 63225 - Extension of Statutory Period for Compensation for Certain Disabilities Due to Undiagnosed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Lateral Sclerosis has no end date; diseases affecting Vietnam veterans are still emerging 50 years later with no end date for filing, and some Gulf War veterans are more ill than Vietnam veterans... recipients thereof; or (4) Raise novel legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates, the President's...

  14. Mastitis due to Mycoplasma in the state of New York during the period 1972-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R N; Sears, P M; Merrill, R A; Hayes, G L

    1992-01-01

    Between January 1972 and December 1990, bulk-tank (n = 721) and cow (n = 9,163) milk samples from dairy herds in New York State were examined by bacteriologic procedures for Mycoplasma. The organism was found in 165 herds in 42 counties, and in 2.3 and 11.7% of the tank and cow samples, respectively. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated in 164 herds, M. californicum was isolated in 1. Highest incidence of mycoplasmal clinical mastitis occurred during the winter. The disease resulted in culling of 30-70% of the cows in several herds. Eighty-six of the positive herds were located in the western part of the state. This area had more large herds (greater than 200 cows) compared to the rest of the state; however, herd size was not a risk factor. Purchased animals added to herds without quarantine, poor hygiene during mastitis treatment, and personnel in contact with mastitic cows or infected milk were involved in outbreaks and disease transmission.

  15. 76 FR 81834 - Extension of Statutory Period for Compensation for Certain Disabilities Due to Undiagnosed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ..., and summarization of the scientific and medical literature for peer review regarding the possible... directed NAS to continue to review, evaluate, and summarize scientific and medical literature associated... Order 13563 (Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review) emphasizes the importance of quantifying both...

  16. Clinic to Cockpit: Analysis of Aviator Grounding Periods Due to Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Psychological testing performed at the ACS noted elevated levels of depression and anxiety, in addition to significantly increased neuroticism...Major depressive disorder in military aviators: a retrospective study of prevalence. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009; 80(8):734- 737. 3. Marsh RW...Patterson JC, Jones DR, Marsh RW, Drummond FE. Aeromedical management of U.S. Air Force aviators who attempt suicide . Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001; 72

  17. An anisotropic universe due to dimension-changing vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scargill, James H.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question of observational signatures of a false vacuum decay event in the early universe followed by a period of inflation; in particular, motivated by the string landscape, we consider decays in which the parent vacuum has a smaller number of large dimensions than the current vacuum, which leads to an anisotropic universe. We go beyond previous studies, and examine the effects on the CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra, due to both scalar and tensor modes, and consider not only late-time effects but also the full cosmological perturbation theory at early times. We find that whilst the scalar mode behaves as one would expect, and the effects of anisotropy at early times are sub-dominant to the late-time effects already studied, for the tensor modes in fact the the early-time effects grow with multipole and can become much larger than one would expect, even dominating over the late-time effects. Thus these effects should be included if one is looking for such a signal in the tensor modes

  18. Statistical analysis of solar proton events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kurt

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new catalogue of 253 solar proton events (SPEs with energy >10MeV and peak intensity >10 protons/cm2.s.sr (pfu at the Earth's orbit for three complete 11-year solar cycles (1970-2002 is given. A statistical analysis of this data set of SPEs and their associated flares that occurred during this time period is presented. It is outlined that 231 of these proton events are flare related and only 22 of them are not associated with Ha flares. It is also noteworthy that 42 of these events are registered as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs in neutron monitors. The longitudinal distribution of the associated flares shows that a great number of these events are connected with west flares. This analysis enables one to understand the long-term dependence of the SPEs and the related flare characteristics on the solar cycle which are useful for space weather prediction.

  19. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  20. EERE Showcase Event (Solar Decathlon 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolles, Eric [Orange County Great Park Corporation, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The goal of the Orange County Great Park Corporation (Great Park) is to successfully host the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015. In furtherance of that goal, tasks to be performed within the current reporting period include the following: Task 1.0 Arrange Site Team Visits for January 2015 The Great Park arranged appropriate meeting space for the site team visits over a three-day period, January 8, 2015 through January 10, 2015. Instead of a meeting in Hanger 244, the DOE requested a different meeting space. The working team met in the Operations offices on January 8th. The student teams were welcomed at the City of Irvine’s Lakeview Senior Center on January 9th, and came back on January 10th for breakout sessions. Task 2.0 Outreach Activities The following outreach activities related to the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2015 occurred during and prior to the event: • Promoted the return of the Solar Decathlon 2015 on the City’s website. (cityofirvine.org) • Promoted the return of the Solar Decathlon 2015 through the City’s and Great Park’s social media channels, including Facebook and Twitter. (facebook.com/cityofirvine, facebook.com/orangecountygreatpark, twitter.com/City_of_Irvine, twitter.com/ocgreatpark) • Promoted the return of the Solar Decathlon 2015 and student visit through a City Council Announcement. • Worked to set-up meetings between the U.S. Department of Energy team and potential donors/key stakeholders in Irvine. • Began ICTV filming and coverage of the Solar Decathlon 2015 teams. This includes student team interviews, interview with Richard King and b-roll footage. • Facilitated an interview with Sarah Farrar and the Orange County Register during the recent student visit in January • Information in May was provided to Irvine Unified School District and Tustin Unified School District promoting the three Education Days that the DOE will host during the event. More DOE information is due in August, which

  1. Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)

  2. Periodic tests: a human factors analysis of documentary aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, Romuald; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Periodic tests are technical inspections aimed at verifying the availability of the safety-related systems during operation. The French licensee, Electricite de France (EDF), manages periodic tests according to procedures, methods of examination and a frequency, which were defined when the systems were designed. These requirements are defined by national authorities of EDF in a reference document composed of rules of testing and tables containing the reference values to be respected. This reference document is analyzed and transformed by each 'Centre Nucleaire de Production d'Electricite' (CNPE) into station-specific operating ranges of periodic tests. In 2003, the IRSN noted that significant events for safety (ESS) involving periodic tests represented more than 20% of ESS between 2000 and 2002. Thus, 340 ESS were related to non-compliance with the conditions of the test and errors in the implementation of the procedures. A first analysis showed that almost 26% of all ESSs from 2000 to 2002 were related to periodic tests. For many of them, the national reference document and the operating ranges of tests were involved. In this context, the 'Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire' (DGSNR), requested the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) to examine the process of definition and implementation of the periodic tests. The IRSN analyzed about thirty French Licensee event reports occurring during the considered period (2000-2002). The IRSN also interviewed the main persons responsible for the processes and observed the performance of 3 periodic tests. The results of this analysis were presented to a group of experts ('Groupe Permanent') charged with delivering advice to the DGSNR about the origin of the problems identified and the improvements to be implemented. The main conclusions of the IRSN addressed the quality of the prescriptive documents. In this context, EDF decided to carry out a thorough analysis of the whole process. The first

  3. Special event planning for the emergency manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Peter T

    2009-11-01

    In the domain of emergency management and homeland security there is a lack of a formal planning process at the local level when it comes to special event planning. The unique nature of special event planning demands an understanding of the planning process for both traditional and non-traditional planning partners. This understanding will make certain that local governments apply due diligence when planning for the safety of the public. This paper offers a practical roadmap for planning at the local level. It will address those 'special events' that are beyond routine local events but not of a sufficient scale to be granted National Special Security Event status. Due to the infrequency of 'special events' in most communities, it is imperative that deliberate planning takes place. Upon conclusion, the reader will be able to construct a planning process tailored to the needs of their community, guide both traditional and non-traditional planning partners through the planning process, determine priorities, explore alternatives, plan for contingencies, conduct a confirmation brief, facilitate operations and assemble an after-action report and improvement plan.

  4. Period Variations for the Cepheid VZ Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirorattanakul, Krittanon; Engle, Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Wells, Mark; Laney, Clifton D.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-12-01

    The Cepheid Period-Luminosity law is a key rung on the extragalactic distance ladder. However, numerous Cepheids are known to undergo period variations. Monitoring, refining, and understanding these period variations allows us to better determine the parameters of the Cepheids themselves and of the instability strip in which they reside, and to test models of stellar evolution. VZ Cyg, a classical Cepheid pulsating at ˜4.864 days, has been observed for over 100 years. Combining data from literature observations, the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) transit survey, and new targeted observations with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak, we find a period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0642 ± 0.0018 s yr-1. However, when only the recent observations are examined, we find a much higher period change rate of dP/dt = -0.0923 ± 0.0110 s yr-1. This higher rate could be due to an apparent long-term (P ≈ 26.5 years) cyclic period variation. The possible interpretations of this single Cepheid’s complex period variations underscore both the need to regularly monitor pulsating variables and the important benefits that photometric surveys such as KELT can have on the field. Further monitoring of this interesting example of Cepheid variability is recommended to confirm and better understand the possible cyclic period variations. Further, Cepheid timing analyses are necessary to fully understand their current behaviors and parameters, as well as their evolutionary histories.

  5. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation, March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  6. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  7. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  8. First Indico Virtual Event

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The first Indico virtual event will take place on February 4th 15:00 and will focus on two main topics The release of Indico v1.2 The migration of the OO Indico backend database (ZODB) to a more standard DBMS It will be fully virtual using the CERN Vidyo service and will foster discussions between developers and administrators of Indico servers worldwide. Connections to the virtual room will be open, but attendees are encouraged to register to the event, in order to be informed of any changes in the organisation if any. If you would like to add a topic of discussion or propose yourself a contribution, please let us know at indico-team@cern.ch. Connection to Vidyo Vidyo connection details are available here CERN Vidyo service documentation can be found here First-time users are encouraged to try the service before connecting to the real event

  9. Detection of anomalous events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  10. Defining Extreme Events: A Cross-Disciplinary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Lauren E.; Chang, Heejun; Chester, Mikhail V.; Depietri, Yaella; Friedman, Erin; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kominoski, John S.; McPhearson, Timon; Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Rosi, Emma J.; Shafiei Shiva, Javad

    2018-03-01

    Extreme events are of interest worldwide given their potential for substantial impacts on social, ecological, and technical systems. Many climate-related extreme events are increasing in frequency and/or magnitude due to anthropogenic climate change, and there is increased potential for impacts due to the location of urbanization and the expansion of urban centers and infrastructures. Many disciplines are engaged in research and management of these events. However, a lack of coherence exists in what constitutes and defines an extreme event across these fields, which impedes our ability to holistically understand and manage these events. Here, we review 10 years of academic literature and use text analysis to elucidate how six major disciplines—climatology, earth sciences, ecology, engineering, hydrology, and social sciences—define and communicate extreme events. Our results highlight critical disciplinary differences in the language used to communicate extreme events. Additionally, we found a wide range in definitions and thresholds, with more than half of examined papers not providing an explicit definition, and disagreement over whether impacts are included in the definition. We urge distinction between extreme events and their impacts, so that we can better assess when responses to extreme events have actually enhanced resilience. Additionally, we suggest that all researchers and managers of extreme events be more explicit in their definition of such events as well as be more cognizant of how they are communicating extreme events. We believe clearer and more consistent definitions and communication can support transdisciplinary understanding and management of extreme events.

  11. DER 83: outstanding events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The DER's activity is presented through 82 ''outstanding events''. Each one is a stage in the effort of research and development of the DER. These events concern the following fields: new applications of electric power for customers; environment protection and new energy sources; improvements of electric power production units; electrical materials; electric network planning and control; computer codes. In the production field, one deals more particularly with nuclear reactor safety studies: analysis of the behaviour of different components; reactor safety experiments; reliability of different systems (safety, communications...) [fr

  12. Accident sequence precursor events with age-related contributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.A.; Kohn, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program at ORNL analyzed about 14.000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) filed by US nuclear power plants 1987--1993. There were 193 events identified as precursors to potential severe core accident sequences. These are reported in G/CR-4674. Volumes 7 through 20. Under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, the authors evaluated these events to determine the extent to which component aging played a role. Events were selected that involved age-related equipment degradation that initiated an event or contributed to an event sequence. For the 7-year period, ORNL identified 36 events that involved aging degradation as a contributor to an ASP event. Except for 1992, the percentage of age-related events within the total number of ASP events over the 7-year period ({approximately}19%) appears fairly consistent up to 1991. No correlation between plant ape and number of precursor events was found. A summary list of the age-related events is presented in the report.

  13. Projected changes to rain-on-snow events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) events have significant impacts on cold region ecosystems and water-related natural hazards, and therefore it is very important to assess how this hydro-meteorological phenomenon will evolve in a changing climate. This study evaluates the changes in ROS characteristics (i.e., frequency, amounts, and runoff) for the future 2041-2070 period with respect to the current 1976-2005 period over North America using six simulations, based on two Canadian RCMs, driven by two driving GCMs for RCP4.5 and 8.5 emission pathways. Projected changes to extreme runoff caused by the changes of the ROS characteristics are also evaluated. All simulations suggest general increases in ROS days in late autumn, winter, and early spring periods for most Canadian regions and northwestern USA for the future period, due to an increase in rain days in a warmer climate. Increases in the future ROS amounts are projected mainly due to an increase in ROS days, although increases in precipitation intensity also contributes to the future increases. Future ROS runoff is expected to increase more than future ROS amounts during snowmelt months as ROS events usually enhance runoff, given the land state and asociated reduced soil infiltration rate and also due to the faster snowmelt rate occuring during these events. The simulations also show that ROS events usually lead to extreme runoff over most of Canada and north-western and -central USA in the January-May snowmelt months for the current period and these show no significant changes in the future climate. However, the future ROS to total runoff ratio will significantly decrease for western and eastern Canada as well as north-western USA for these months, due to an overall increase of the fraction of direct snowmelt and rainfall generated runoff in a warmer climate. These results indicate the difficulties of flood risk and water resource managements in the future, particularly in Canada and north-western and -central USA, requiring

  14. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-08

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

  15. Aspirin and the risk of cardiovascular events in atherosclerosis patients with and without prior ischemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavry, Anthony A; Elgendy, Islam Y; Elbez, Yedid; Mahmoud, Ahmed N; Sorbets, Emmanuel; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-09-01

    The benefit of aspirin among patients with stable atherosclerosis without a prior ischemic event is not well defined. Aspirin would be of benefit in outpatients with atherosclerosis with prior ischemic events, but not in those without ischemic events. Subjects from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health registry were divided according to prior ischemic event (n =21 724) vs stable atherosclerosis, but no prior ischemic event (n = 11 872). Analyses were propensity score matched. Aspirin use was updated at each clinic visit and considered as a time-varying covariate. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. In the group with a prior ischemic event, aspirin use was associated with a marginally lower risk of the primary outcome at a median of 41 months (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.01, P = 0.06). In the group without a prior ischemic event, aspirin use was not associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome at a median of 36 months (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.73-1.45, P = 0.86). In this observational analysis of outpatients with stable atherosclerosis, aspirin was marginally beneficial among patients with a prior ischemic event; however, there was no apparent benefit among those with no prior ischemic event. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic stratigraphy of key demographic events in Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Verónica; Triska, Petr; Pereira, Joana B; Alshamali, Farida; Rito, Teresa; Machado, Alison; Fajkošová, Zuzana; Cavadas, Bruno; Černý, Viktor; Soares, Pedro; Richards, Martin B; Pereira, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    At the crossroads between Africa and Eurasia, Arabia is necessarily a melting pot, its peoples enriched by successive gene flow over the generations. Estimating the timing and impact of these multiple migrations are important steps in reconstructing the key demographic events in the human history. However, current methods based on genome-wide information identify admixture events inefficiently, tending to estimate only the more recent ages, as here in the case of admixture events across the Red Sea (~8-37 generations for African input into Arabia, and 30-90 generations for "back-to-Africa" migrations). An mtDNA-based founder analysis, corroborated by detailed analysis of the whole-mtDNA genome, affords an alternative means by which to identify, date and quantify multiple migration events at greater time depths, across the full range of modern human history, albeit for the maternal line of descent only. In Arabia, this approach enables us to infer several major pulses of dispersal between the Near East and Arabia, most likely via the Gulf corridor. Although some relict lineages survive in Arabia from the time of the out-of-Africa dispersal, 60 ka, the major episodes in the peopling of the Peninsula took place from north to south in the Late Glacial and, to a lesser extent, the immediate post-glacial/Neolithic. Exchanges across the Red Sea were mainly due to the Arab slave trade and maritime dominance (from ~2.5 ka to very recent times), but had already begun by the early Holocene, fuelled by the establishment of maritime networks since ~8 ka. The main "back-to-Africa" migrations, again undetected by genome-wide dating analyses, occurred in the Late Glacial period for introductions into eastern Africa, whilst the Neolithic was more significant for migrations towards North Africa.

  17. A severe blizzard event in Romania – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Georgescu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During winter cold strong winds associated with snowfalls are not unusual for South and Southeastern Romania. The episode of 2–4 January 2008 was less usual due to its intensity and persistence. It happened after a long period (autumn 2006–autumn 2007 of mainly southerly circulations inducing warm weather, when the absolute record of the maximum temperature was registered. The important snowfalls and snowdrifts, leading to a consistent snow layer (up to 100 cm, produced serious transport and electricity supply perturbations.

    Since this atypical local weather event was not correctly represented by the operational numerical forecasts, several cross-comparison numerical simulations were performed to analyze the relative role of the coupler/coupling models and to compare two ways of process-scale uncertainties mitigation: optimizing the forecast range and performing ensemble forecast through the perturbation of the lateral boundary conditions. The results underline, for this case, the importance of physical parametrization package on the first place and secondary, the importance of the model horizontal resolution. The resolution increase is beneficial only in the local process representation; on larger scale it may either improve or decrease the accuracy effect, depending on the specified nudging between large-scale and small-scale information. The event capture is likely to be favored by two elements: a more appropriate time-scale of the event's physics and the quality of the transmitted large-scale information. Concerning the time scale, the statistics on skill as a function of forecast range are shown to be a useful tool in order to increase the accuracy of the numerical simulations. Ensembles forecasting versus resolution increase experiments indicate, for such atypical events, an interesting supply in the forecast accuracy through the ensemble method when applied to correct the minimum skill of the deterministic forecast.

  18. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  19. Events Marketing Model of Dubai Shopping Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prakash Vel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities and places have become major destinations through taking the extra mile of creativity and offering a well-researched package of offerings through systematically planned events. One such leading example in the list of successful festivals that have earned a global reputation due to its uniqueness and creative event offerings is the Dubai Shopping Festival (DSF in the United Arab Emirates. This paper is a case study based description of the internal and external drivers involved in planning and implementing a global event successfully and has captured the various drivers through a structured framework. The analysis serves as a good addition to the existing literature on ‘Events Marketing’. 

  20. Long-term changes to flood conditions due to varying management strategies, Rock River, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rock River is a 300-mile tributary of the Mississippi River in southern Wisconsin. Its source is a protected migratory bird habitat called the Horicon National Wildlife Refuge. Below the refuge, the Rock River flows through mostly rural, agricultural areas, with wide floodplain of mixed land use. Between the dam at Horicon and a hydroelectric dam in Watertown, WI, lie the townships of Lebanon, Ashippun, and Ixonia. These rural townships boast productive agricultural lands of mostly corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Large portions of their land are within the floodplain, underlain by vast expanses of outwash sands and gravels, glaciolacustrine deposits, and tills. Throughout the region, spring floods are common from snowmelt and spring rain. These annual floods may be exacerbated by frozen ground and slow infiltration, making it an accepted part of life for residents. Over the last 8 years, and possibly as many as 20, this segment of the Rock River has seen an increase in flooding both in periodicity and retention of flood waters. Due to the delicate habitat of the wildlife refuge and the commissioned hydroelectric installation at the upper dam in Watertown, the residents and local governments of the Lebanon/Ashippun/Ixonia segment of the river have mostly been left to their own devices to monitor and manage flood events. Lebanon Township has been recording water levels for several years. Recent events at the hydroelectric plant seem to indicate that it may be playing a more important role in the flooding. High water events and flood retention do not correlate well with precipitation for the region. It appears that releases at the dam, or periods of water retention, are driving the long flooding periods upstream. Negative impacts to the region from the flooding include property damage, loss of arable land, and environmental effects.

  1. Analysis of warm convective rain events in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, D.; Figuerola, F.; Aran, M.; Rigo, T.

    2009-09-01

    Between the end of September and November, events with high amounts of rainfall are quite common in Catalonia. The high sea surface temperature of the Mediterranean Sea near to the Catalan Coast is one of the most important factors that help to the development of this type of storms. Some of these events have particular characteristics: elevated rain rate during short time periods, not very deep convection and low lightning activity. Consequently, the use of remote sensing tools for the surveillance is quite useless or limited. With reference to the high rain efficiency, this is caused by internal mechanisms of the clouds, and also by the air mass where the precipitation structure is developed. As aforementioned, the contribution of the sea to the air mass is very relevant, not only by the increase of the big condensation nuclei, but also by high temperature of the low layers of the atmosphere, where are allowed clouds with 5 or 6 km of particles in liquid phase. In fact, the freezing level into these clouds can be detected by -15ºC. Due to these characteristics, this type of rainy structures can produce high quantities of rainfall in a relatively brief period of time, and, in the case to be quasi-stationary, precipitation values at surface could be very important. From the point of view of remote sensing tools, the cloud nature implies that the different tools and methodologies commonly used for the analysis of heavy rain events are not useful. This is caused by the following features: lightning are rarely observed, the top temperatures of clouds are not cold enough to be enhanced in the satellite imagery, and, finally, reflectivity radar values are lower than other heavy rain cases. The third point to take into account is the vulnerability of the affected areas. An elevated percentage of the Catalan population lives in the coastal region. In the central coast of Catalonia, the urban areas are surrounded by a not very high mountain range with small basins and

  2. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  3. Lunar Phases and Emergency Department Visits for Renal Colic Due to Ureteral Calculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy W Yang

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis affects an estimated 5% of the population and the lifetime risk of passing a stone in the urinary tract is estimated to be 8-10%. Urinary calculus formation is highly variable and while certain risk factors such as age, gender, seasonality, anatomic abnormality, and metabolic diseases have been identified, not much is known regarding the association of environmental factors such as lunar phases on renal colic. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that full moon phase is an environmental factor associated for increased emergency department (ED visits for renal colic due to ureteral calculus.We analyzed 559 renal colic diagnoses by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in a 24-month period and compared them with corresponding lunar phases as well as supermoon events. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± two days, new moon ± two days, and the days in-between as normal days according to the lunar calendar. Supermoon event dates were obtained from NASA.90 cases (16.1% were diagnosed during full moon phase, 89 cases (15.9% were diagnosed during new moon phase, and 380 cases (68.0% were diagnosed during normal days. The incidence of renal colic showed no statistically significant association with lunar phases or supermoon events.In this retrospective longitudinal study with adequate power, neither full moon phase nor supermoon event exhibited an association with increased renal colic diagnoses due to ureteral calculus by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

  4. Business Event Notification Service (BENS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — BENS provides a notification of pre-defined business events to applications, portals, and automated business processes. Such events are defined in the Event Catalog,...

  5. Wroclaw neutrino event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J A

    2006-01-01

    A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the Δ resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering

  6. The CMS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Brigljevic, V; Cano, E; Cittolin, Sergio; Csilling, Akos; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Larsen, H; Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schwick, C; Sphicas, Paris; ODell, V; Suzuki, I; Berti, L; Maron, G; Toniolo, N; Zangrando, L; Ninane, A; Erhan, S; Bhattacharya, S; Branson, J G

    2003-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider will employ an event builder which will combine data from about 500 data sources into full events at an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/s. Several architectures and switch technologies have been evaluated for the DAQ Technical Design Report by measurements with test benches and by simulation. This paper describes studies of an EVB test-bench based on 64 PCs acting as data sources and data consumers and employing both Gigabit Ethernet and Myrinet technologies as the interconnect. In the case of Ethernet, protocols based on Layer-2 frames and on TCP/IP are evaluated. Results from ongoing studies, including measurements on throughput and scaling are presented. The architecture of the baseline CMS event builder will be outlined. The event builder is organised into two stages with intelligent buffers in between. The first stage contains 64 switches performing a first level of data concentration by building super-fragments from fragmen...

  7. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  8. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  9. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  10. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Preparedness events in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    NRPA have as Secretariat for the Crisis Committee and the nuclear preparedness organization in 2008 published several reports of incidents of radioactivity and radioactive pollution to the nuclear preparedness organization, media and the public. In addition to these events, there have been some incidents with radiation and small radioactive sources in Norway during this year. (AG)

  12. Event Classification using Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M.H.T. de; Schutte, K.; Kraaij, W.

    2013-01-01

    The semantic gap is one of the challenges in the GOOSE project. In this paper a Semantic Event Classification (SEC) system is proposed as an initial step in tackling the semantic gap challenge in the GOOSE project. This system uses semantic text analysis, multiple feature detectors using the BoW

  13. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over and over again Know the Signs of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Half of the children who survive traumatic events ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Mental Health Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  14. Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Ji, Qiang

    2016-10-11

    Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, targetcentered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.

  15. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  16. [Deaths due to non-AIDS diseases among HIV infected patients: A 14-year study (1998-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Cristina; Masiá, Mar; Padilla, Sergio; Aquilino, Ana; Bas, Cristina; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the deaths caused by non-AIDS diseases in a cohort of HIV-infected patients treated between 1998 and 2011. Information on the causes of death was collected retrospectively, and then classified according to the deaths code (CoDe) algorithm. Patient characteristics and causes of death were compared for two periods: 1998-2004 and 2005-2011. A total of 159 out of the 1070 patients cared for in study period died, 56 (35%) due to AIDS events and 86 (54%) due to non-AIDS events (NAEs); in 17 (11%) the cause of death could not be determined. Overall, the main causes of death were infections (32%), cancer (17%), and unnatural deaths (17%). There was lower mortality from AIDS-related conditions during the second period (18.5% vs 47%; Pcauses of death in patients with HIV. In recent years the majority of deceased patients are on ART and with virological suppression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Life events and escape in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Craig, T; Harris, T; Wojcik, W; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'. CD patients had significantly more severe life events and 'escape' events than controls. In the month before symptom onset at least one severe event was identified in 56% of CD patients - significantly more than 21% of depression patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-13.70] and healthy controls (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.86-18.2). In the same time period 53% of CD patients had at least one 'high escape' event - again significantly higher than 14% in depression patients (OR 6.90, 95% CI 2.05-23.6) and 0% in healthy controls. Previous sexual abuse was more commonly reported in CD than controls, and in one third of female patients was contextually relevant to life events at symptom onset. The majority (88%) of life events of potential aetiological relevance were not identified by routine clinical assessments. Nine per cent of CD patients had no identifiable severe life events. Evidence was found supporting the psychological model of CD, the Freudian notion of escape and the potential aetiological relevance of childhood traumas in some patients. Uncovering stressors of potential aetiological relevance requires thorough psychosocial evaluation.

  18. Drivers of flood damage on event level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, H.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Apel, H.

    2016-01-01

    example are the 2002 and 2013 floods in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany. The 2002 flood caused the highest economic damage (EUR 11600 million) due to a natural hazard event in Germany. Damage was so high due to extreme flood hazard triggered by extreme precipitation and a high number......-level mitigation measures, 3) more effective early warning and improved coordination of disaster response and 4) a more targeted maintenance of flood defence systems and their deliberate relocation. Thus, despite higher hydrological severity damage due to the 2013 flood was significantly lower than in 2002. In our...

  19. Variations in tritium levels during single storm events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.W.

    1979-06-01

    Precipitation samples have been taken over a period of one calendar year to determine the variables in environmental tritium during single storm events. Where possible, comment is made on the hydrological implications of these variations

  20. Hydrodynamic modelling of extreme flood events in the Kashmir valley in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manoj; Parvaze, Sabah

    2017-04-01

    Floods are one of the most predominant, costly and deadly hazards of all natural vulnerabilities. Every year, floods exert a heavy toll on human life and property in many parts of the world. The prediction of river stages and discharge during flood extremes plays a vital role in planning structural and non-structural measures of flood management. The predictions are also valuable to prepare the flood inundation maps and river floodplain zoning. In the Kashmir Valley, floods occur mainly and very often in the Jhelum Basin mostly due to extreme precipitation events and rugged mountainous topography of the basin. These floods cause extreme damage to life and property in the valley from time to time. Excessive rainfall, particularly in higher sub-catchments causes the snow to melt resulting in excessive runoff downhill to the streams causing floods in the Kashmir Valley where Srinagar city is located. However, very few hydrological studies have been undertaken for the Jhelum Basin mainly due to non-availability of hydrological data due to very complex mountainous terrain. Therefore, the present study has been conducted to model the extreme flood events in the Jhelum Basin in Kashmir Valley. An integrated NAM and MIKE 11 HD model has been setup for Jhelum basin up to Ram Munshi Bagh gauging site and then four most extreme historical flood events in the time series has been analyzed separately including the most recent and most extreme flood event of 2014. In September 2014, the Kashmir Valley witnessed the most severe flood in the past 60 years due to catastrophic rainfall from 1st to 6th September wherein the valley received unprecedented rainfall of more than 650 mm in just 3 days breaking record of many decades. The MIKE 11 HD and NAM model has been calibrated using 21 years (1985-2005) data and validated using 9 years (2006-2014) data. The efficiency indices of the model for calibration and validation period is 0.749 and 0.792 respectively. The model simulated

  1. Construction and Updating of Event Models in Auditory Event Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Markus; Maurer, Annika E.; Brich, Irina; Pagenkopf, Anne; Wickelmaier, Florian; Papenmeier, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Humans segment the continuous stream of sensory information into distinct events at points of change. Between 2 events, humans perceive an event boundary. Present theories propose changes in the sensory information to trigger updating processes of the present event model. Increased encoding effort finally leads to a memory benefit at event…

  2. Estimate of neutrons event-by-event in DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the contribution of neutrons to hadronic showers in the DREAM module event-by-event as a means to estimate the event-by-event fluctuations in binding energy losses by hadrons as they break up nuclei of the Cu absorber. We make a preliminary assessment of the consequences for hadronic energy resolution in dual-readout calorimeters.

  3. ENSO Diversity Changes Due To Global Warming In CESM-LE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreric, A.; Dewitte, B.; Guemas, V.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is predicted to be modified due to global warming based on the CMIP3 and CMIP5 data bases. In particular the frequency of occurrence of extreme Eastern Pacific El Niño events is to double in the future in response to the increase in green-house gazes. Such forecast relies however on state-of-the-art models that still present mean state biases and do not simulate realistically key features of El Niño events such as its diversity which is related to the existence of at least two types of El Niño events, the Eastern Pacific (EP) El Nino and the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño events. Here we take advantage of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble (LE) that provides 35 realizations of the climate of the 1920-2100 period with a combination of both natural and anthropogenic climate forcing factors, to explore on the one hand methods to detect changes in ENSO statistics and on the other hand to investigate changes in thermodynamical processes associated to the increase oceanic stratification owed to global warming. The CESM simulates realistically many aspects of the ENSO diversity, in particular the non-linear evolution of the phase space of the first two EOF modes of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific. Based on indices accounting for the two ENSO regimes used in the literature, we show that, although there is no statistically significant (i.e. confidence level > 95%) changes in the occurrence of El Niño types from the present to the future climate, the estimate of the changes is sensitive to the definition of ENSO indices that is used. CESM simulates in particular an increase occurrence of extreme El Niño events that can vary by 28% from one method to the other. It is shown that the seasonal evolution of EP El Niño events is modified from the present to the future climate, with in particular a larger occurrence of events taking place in Austral summer in the warmer climate

  4. [Dehydration due to "mouth broken"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijler, D P M; van Mossevelde, P W J; van Beek, R H T

    2012-09-01

    Two children were admitted to a medical centre due to dehydration after an oral injury and the extraction of a tooth. One child complained of "mouth broken". Dehydration is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance in children. Babies and young children are prone to dehydration due to their relatively large body surface area, the high percentage extracellular fluid, and the limited ability of the kidneys to conserve water. After the removal ofa tooth, after an oral trauma or in case of oral discomfort, a child is at greater risk of dehydration by reduced fluid and food intake due to oral pain and/or discomfort and anxiety to drink. In those cases, extra attention needs to be devoted to the intake of fluids.

  5. Thinking about memories for everyday and shocking events: do people use ease-of-retrieval cues in memory judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Hirst, William

    2006-06-01

    Extant research shows that people use retrieval ease, a feeling-based cue, to judge how well they remember life periods. Extending this approach, we investigated the role of retrieval ease in memory judgments for single events. In Experiment 1, participants who were asked to recall many memories of an everyday event (New Year's Eve) rated retrieval as more difficult and judged their memory as worse than did participants asked to recall only a few memories. In Experiment 2, this ease-of-retrieval effect was found to interact with the shocking character of the remembered event: There was no effect when the event was highly shocking (i.e., learning about the attacks of September 11, 2001), whereas an effect was found when the event was experienced as less shocking (due either to increased distance to "9/11" or to the nonshocking nature of the event itself). Memory vividness accounted for additional variance in memory judgments, indicating an independent contribution of content-based cues in judgments of event memories.

  6. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  7. Probability Estimates of Solar Proton Doses During Periods of Low Sunspot Number for Short Duration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier paper presented at ICES in 2015, we investigated solar particle event (SPE) radiation exposures (absorbed dose) to small, thinly-shielded spacecraft during a period when the monthly smoothed sunspot number (SSN) was less than 30. Although such months are generally considered "solar-quiet", SPEs observed during these months even include Ground Level Events, the most energetic type of SPE. In this paper, we add to previous study those SPEs that occurred in 1973-2015 when the SSN was greater than 30 but less than 50. Based on the observable energy range of the solar protons, we classify the event as GLEs, sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs, all of which are potential contributors to the radiation hazard. We use the spectra of these events to construct a probabilistic model of the absorbed dose due to solar protons when SSN < 50 at various confidence levels for various depths of shielding and for various mission durations. We provide plots and tables of solar proton-induced absorbed dose as functions of confidence level, shielding thickness, and mission-duration that will be useful to system designers.

  8. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation, December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This monthly report contains licensee event report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System - Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  9. Nightside High Latitude Magnetic Impulse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Connors, M. G.; Braun, D.; Posch, J. L.; Kaur, M.; Guillon, S.; Hartinger, M.; Kim, H.; Behlke, R.; Reiter, K.; Jackel, B. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude Magnetic Impulse Events (MIEs), isolated pulses with periods 5-10 min, were first noted in ground-based magnetometer data near local noon, and are now understood to be signatures of transient pressure increases in the solar wind (sudden impulses - SIs) and/or in the ion foreshock (traveling convection vortex events - TCVs). However, solitary pulses with considerably larger amplitude (ΔB up to 1500 nT) have often been observed in the night sector at these same latitudes. These events are not directly associated with transient external pressure increases, and are often large enough to produce significant ground induced currents. Although many night sector MIEs occur in association with substorm signatures, others appear to be very isolated. We present here a survey of intense MIE events identified in magnetometer data from the AUTUMNX and MACCS arrays in eastern Arctic Canada at all local times between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2017. We also show maps of horizontal and vertical perturbations and maximum dB/dt values, as well as sample magnetograms, for several example events using data from these and other arrays in Arctic Canada, as well as in West Greenland and Antarctica, the latter to show the conjugate nature of these events. A basic relation to GIC data in the Hydro-Québec electrical transmission network in eastern Canada has been determined and will be discussed.

  10. Periodic gaits for the CMU Ambler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Suren N.; Mahalingam, Swaminathan

    1992-02-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie-Mellon University Ambler, a six-legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. In this article, gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion has been developed that ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  11. Nova Event Logging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliger, R.J.; Suski, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nova is a 200 terawatt, 10-beam High Energy Glass Laser currently under construction at LLNL. This facility, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of laser driven inertial confinement fusion, contains over 5000 elements requiring coordinated control, data acquisition, and analysis functions. The large amounts of data that will be generated must be maintained over the life of the facility. Often the most useful but inaccessible data is that related to time dependent events associated with, for example, operator actions or experiment activity. We have developed an Event Logging System to synchronously record, maintain, and analyze, in part, this data. We see the system as being particularly useful to the physics and engineering staffs of medium and large facilities in that it is entirely separate from experimental apparatus and control devices. The design criteria, implementation, use, and benefits of such a system will be discussed

  12. Terrorism as Media Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Proving that terrorism should be seen as a media event (as defined by Dayan and Katzafter 9/11 and treated accordingly. We have turned to the work of Dayan and Katz and GeorgeGerbner’s for a definition of media events and of violence in the mass media. This paper is ahermeneutical interpretation of the concept of terrorism and its relation to communication. We haveput forward a better understanding of the complex concept of terrorism and its definitions in the massmedia context. Terrorism nowadays should always be defined within its inherent relation with themedia. The article is the first to define terrorism as media evenit in Dayan and Katz’s terms.

  13. Traumatic-event headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas David C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic headaches from head trauma and whiplash injury are well-known and common, but chronic headaches from other sorts of physical traumas are not recognized. Methods Specific information was obtained from the medical records of 15 consecutive patients with chronic headaches related to physically injurious traumatic events that did not include either head trauma or whiplash injury. The events and the physical injuries produced by them were noted. The headaches' development, characteristics, duration, frequency, and accompaniments were recorded, as were the patients' use of pain-alleviative drugs. From this latter information, the headaches were classified by the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society as though they were naturally-occurring headaches. The presence of other post-traumatic symptoms and litigation were also recorded. Results The intervals between the events and the onset of the headaches resembled those between head traumas or whiplash injuries and their subsequent headaches. The headaches themselves were, as a group, similar to those after head trauma and whiplash injury. Thirteen of the patients had chronic tension-type headache, two had migraine. The sustained bodily injuries were trivial or unidentifiable in nine patients. Fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration was not evident in these patients of whom seven were not even seeking payments of any kind. Conclusions This study suggests that these hitherto unrecognized post-traumatic headaches constitute a class of headaches characterized by a relation to traumatic events affecting the body but not including head or whiplash traumas. The bodily injuries per se can be discounted as the cause of the headaches. So can fabrication of symptoms for financial remuneration. Altered mental states, not systematically evaluated here, were a possible cause of the headaches. The overall resemblance of these headaches to the headaches after

  14. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  15. Intercorporate Security Event Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kovalev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security controls are prone to false positives and false negatives which can lead to unwanted reputation losses for the bank. The reputational database within the security operations center (SOC and intercorporate correlation of security events are offered as a solution to increase attack detection fidelity. The theses introduce the definition and structure of the reputation, architectures of reputational exchange and the place of intercorporate correlation in overall SOC correlation analysis.

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Event Risks for Future Human Missions within the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, S.; Ford, J.

    2017-12-01

    As astronauts travel beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), space weather research will play a key role in determining risks from space radiation. Of interest are the rare, large solar energetic particle (SEP) events that can cause significant medical effects during flight. Historical SEP data were analyzed from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) program covering the time period of 1986 to 2016 for SEP events. The SEP event data were combined with a Monte Carlo approach to develop a risk model to determine maximum expected doses for missions within the inner heliosphere. Presented here are results from risk assessments for proposed Mars transits as compared to a geostationary Earth-bound mission. Overall, the greatest risk was for the return from Mars with a Venus swing-by, due to the additional transit length and decreased distance from the Sun as compared to traditional Hohmann transfers. The overall results do not indicate that the effects of SEP events alone would prohibit these missions based on current radiation limits alone, but the combination of doses from SEP events and galactic cosmic radiation may be significant, and should be considered in all phases of mission design.

  17. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  18. Long-Term Recall of Event Sequences in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, Jean M.; McDonough, Laraine

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrated that 11-month olds can encode novel causal events from a brief period of observational learning and recall much of the information after 24 hours and after 3 months. The infants remembered more individual actions than whole sequences, but reproduced many of the events in their entirety after the long delay. (MDM)

  19. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  20. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  1. Teacher Dismissal and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichner, Edward C.; Blackstone, Sidney

    1977-01-01

    This article addresses due process requirements in the nonrenewal and dismissal of tenured and nontenured teachers. The Georgia Fair Dismissal Law is used as a basis for discussing the grounds for teacher dismissal. Dismissal grounds discussed are 1) incompetency; 2) insubordination; 3) willful neglect of duties; 4) immorality; 5) inciting,…

  2. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    William is 9 years of age, residing with his parent within the boundaries of an unnamed district ("the District"). As a student with autism he is eligible for special education programming and services. There was one issue presented for this due process hearing: What was the appropriate program and placement for him for the 2008-2009 school year?…

  3. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  4. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine.

  5. Multichannel long period seismic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the specifications and performance of an eight channel long period seismic digital data acquisition system, which is developed and installed at Seismic Array Station, Gauribidanur, Karnataka State. The paper describes how these data in an unedited form are recorded on a single track of magnetic tape inter-mittantly, which has resulted in recording of 50 days data on a single tapespool. A time indexing technique which enables quick access to any desired portion of a recorded tape is also discussed. Typical examples of long period seismic event signals recorded by this system are also illustrated. Various advantages, the system provides over the analog multichannel instrumentation tape recording system, operating at Seismic Array Station for th e last two decades, are also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  6. Marginal elasticity of periodic triangulated origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bryan; Sussman, Dan; Lubensky, Tom; Santangelo, Chris

    Origami, the classical art of folding paper, has inspired much recent work on assembling complex 3D structures from planar sheets. Origami, and more generally hinged structures with rigid panels, where all faces are triangles have special properties due to having a bulk balance of mechanical degrees of freedom and constraints. We study two families of periodic triangulated origami structures, one based on the Miura ori and one based on a kagome-like pattern due to Ron Resch. We point out the consequences of the balance of degrees of freedom and constraints for these ''metamaterial plates'' and show how the elasticity can be tuned by changing the unit cell geometry.

  7. Attributing anthropogenic impact on regional heat wave events using CAM5 model large ensemble simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S. H.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme heat waves have serious impacts on society. It was argued that the anthropogenic forcing might substantially increase the risk of extreme heat wave events (e.g. over western Europe in 2003 and over Russia in 2010). However, the regional dependence of such anthropogenic impact and the sensitivity of the attributed risk to the definition of heat wave still require further studies. In our research framework, the change in the frequency and severity of a heat wave event under current conditions is calculated and compared with the probability and magnitude of the event if the effects of particular external forcing, such as due to human influence, had been absent. In our research, we use the CAM5 large ensemble simulation from the CLIVAR C20C+ Detection and Attribution project (http://portal.nersc.gov/c20c/main.html, Folland et al. 2014) to detect the heat wave events occurred in both historical all forcing run and natural forcing only run. The heat wave events are identified by partial duration series method (Huth et al., 2000). We test the sensitivity of heat wave thresholds from daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in warm season (from May to September) between 1959 and 2013. We consider the anthropogenic effect on the later period (2000-2013) when the warming due to human impact is more evident. Using Taiwan and surrounding area as our preliminary research target, We found the anthropogenic effect will increase the heat wave day per year from 30 days to 75 days and make the mean starting(ending) day for heat waves events about 15-30 days earlier(later). Using the Fraction of Attribution Risk analysis to estimate the risk of frequency of heat wave day, our results show the anthropogenic forcing very likely increase the heat wave days over Taiwan by more than 50%. Further regional differences and sensitivity of the attributed risk to the definition of heat wave will be compared and discussed.

  8. Mosaic deletion of 20pter due to rescue by somatic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Megan M; Vanzo, Rena J; Sdano, Mallory R; Baxter, Adrianne L; South, Sarah T

    2016-01-01

    We report on a unique case of a mosaic 20pter-p13 deletion due to a somatic repair event identified by allele differentiating single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) probes on chromosomal microarray. Small terminal deletions of 20p have been reported in a few individuals and appear to result in a variable phenotype. This patient was a 24-month-old female who presented with failure to thrive and speech delay. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) performed on peripheral blood showed a 1.6 Mb deletion involving the terminus of 20p (20pter-20p13). This deletion appeared mosaic by CMA and this suspicion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Additionally, the deletion interval at 20p was directly adjacent to 15 Mb of mosaic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The pattern of SNP probes was highly suggestive of a somatic repair event that resulted in rescue of the deleted region using the non-deleted homologue as a template. Structural mosaicism is rare and most often believed to be due to a postzygotic mechanism. This case demonstrates the additional utility of allele patterns to help distinguish mechanisms and in this case identified the possibility of either a post-zygotic repair of a germline deletion or a post-zygotic deletion with somatic recombination repair in a single step. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace

  10. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  11. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiply imaged Transient Events in Cluster Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Delampady

    2018-04-01

    ARIES had a successful gravitational microlens project during 1998-2002. A similar monitor for Transient Events in galaxies at high redshift lensed by rich galaxy-clusters provides a challenging possibility with important cosmological implications. Rich galaxy-clusters at intermediate redshifts are powerful gravitational lenses which produce multiple images, in the shape of giant arcs of 5-20" extent, of distant background galaxies in their field. Weak lens shear of the background galaxy distribution can reliably trace the lens mass profile. Multiple images of supernovae or GRBs in the background galaxies can be recorded in a systematic monitor of the system. An unlensed high redshift supernova might not be observable, but when lensed by a galaxy-cluster, it will stand out because the point event brightens relative to the host. The color profile of a high redshift lensed point event will be much more reliable than an unlensed one due to much less host contamination. An estimate of the time delay enables observation of the full light curve of the subsequent images of the event. ARIES can have outside collaboration for multiband simultaneous lightcurves of other images. The measured time delay and position of images of the transient event provide better cosmological constraints including distance scale of the Universe. The Devasthal telescope can detect one or more events by monitoring half a dozen cluster fields over three years time.

  13. Machine-Learning Techniques for the Determination of Attrition of Forces Due to Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    selected as a proof of concept due to its vast number of data points. While this report does note some trends associated with temperature and dew...separate data sets for helicopters and airplanes, while selectively requesting the event IDs, descriptions of events, light conditions, temperature , dew...weather events) and the error rate for that class . The rows are labeled for the actual occurrence of those events. Thus, for every row–column

  14. Magnetosphere energetics during substorm events IMP 8 and Geotail observations

    CERN Document Server

    Belehaki, A

    2001-01-01

    Magnetospheric energetics during substorm events is studied in this paper. Three events were selected, a weak substorm, a large isolated one and finally a prolonged period of substorm activity with multiple intensifications. It is assumed that the energy, that entered the magnetosphere due to electromagnetic coupling with the solar wind, is described by the epsilon parameter, proposed by Perreault and Akasofu (1978). High resolution, magnetic field and plasma data from the MGF and LEP experiments on board Geotail were analyzed to determine the timing of plasmoid release, its dimensions, its convection velocity and finally the energy carried by each plasmoid. Plasmoids were defined as structures with rotating magnetic fields and enhanced total pressure. Tailward plasmoid bulk speed in the distant tail varied from 350 to 750 km/s. Their dimensions in the X/sub GSM/ direction was found to be from 4.5 to 28 R/sub E/, and their duration did not exceed 5 min. The average energy carried by each plasmoid in the dista...

  15. Spectral characteristics of the nearshore waves off Paradip, India during monsoon and extreme events

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Rupali, S.P.

    and directional wave energy spectra distinctly separate out the wave conditions that prevailed off Paradip in the monsoon, fair weather and extreme weather events during the above period. Frequency-energy spectra during extreme events are single peaked...

  16. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  17. Second-order analysis of semiparametric recurrent event processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongtao

    2011-09-01

    A typical recurrent event dataset consists of an often large number of recurrent event processes, each of which contains multiple event times observed from an individual during a follow-up period. Such data have become increasingly available in medical and epidemiological studies. In this article, we introduce novel procedures to conduct second-order analysis for a flexible class of semiparametric recurrent event processes. Such an analysis can provide useful information regarding the dependence structure within each recurrent event process. Specifically, we will use the proposed procedures to test whether the individual recurrent event processes are all Poisson processes and to suggest sensible alternative models for them if they are not. We apply these procedures to a well-known recurrent event dataset on chronic granulomatous disease and an epidemiological dataset on meningococcal disease cases in Merseyside, United Kingdom to illustrate their practical value. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  19. Dose due to 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2011-10-01

    The dose due to 40 K has been estimated. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements in nature, being approximately 2% of the Earth's crust. Potassium has three isotopes 39 K, 40 K and 41 K, two are stable while 40 K is radioactive with a half life of 1.2x10 9 years; there is 0.0117% 40 K-to-K ratio. Potassium plays an important role in plants, animals and humans growth and reproduction. Due to the fact that K is an essential element for humans, 40 K is the most abundant radioisotope in human body. In order to keep good health conditions K must be intake at daily basis trough food and beverages, however when K in ingested above the requirements produce adverse health effects in persons with renal, cardiac and hypertension problems or suffering diabetes. In 89.3% 40 K decays to 40 C through β-decay, in 10.3% decays through electronic capture and emitting 1.46 MeV γ-ray. K is abundant in soil, construction materials, sand thus γ-rays produced during 40 K decay contribute to external dose. For K in the body practically all 40 K decaying energy is absorbed by the body; thus 40 K contributes to total dose in humans and it is important to evaluate its contribution. In this work a set of 40 K sources were prepared using different amounts of KCl salt, a γ-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) was characterized to standardized the sources in order to evaluate the dose due to 40 K. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters the dose due to 40 K was measured and related to the amount of 40 K γ-ray activity. (Author)

  20. Parallel discrete event simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeinder, B.J.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Withagen, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    In simulating applications for execution on specific computing systems, the simulation performance figures must be known in a short period of time. One basic approach to the problem of reducing the required simulation time is the exploitation of parallelism. However, in parallelizing the simulation

  1. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, T.R.; Anoj Kumar; Patra, R.P.; Vikas; Patil, S.S.; Chatterjee, M.K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S.

    2014-01-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi

  2. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, T. R.; Kumar, Anoj; Patra, R. P.; Vikas,; Patil, S. S.; Chatterjee, M. K.; Sharma, Ranjit; Murali, S., E-mail: tejram@barc.gov.in [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    National level response mechanism is developed at emergency response centres of DAE (DAE-ERCs) at 22 different locations spread all over the country and National Disaster Response Forces with National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). ERCs are equipped with radiation monitors, radionuclide identifinders, Personnel Radiation Dosimeters (PRD) with monitoring capabilities of the order of tens of nGy/h (μR/hr) above the radiation background at any suspected locations. Even if small amounts of radioactive material is smuggled and brought in some other form into public domain, ERCs are capable to detect, identify and segregate the radioactive material from any inactive scrap. DAE-ERCs have demonstrated their capability in source search, detection, identification and recovery during the radiological emergency at Mayapuri, New Delhi.

  3. Validation of modelling the radiation exposure due to solar particle events at aircraft altitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beck, P.; Bartlett, D. T.; Bilski, P.; Dyer, C.; Fluckiger, E.; Fuller, N.; Lantos, P.; Reitz, G.; Ruhm, W.; Spurný, František; Taylor, G.; Trompier, F.; Wissmann, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2008), s. 51-58 ISSN 0144-8420. [Annual Meeting of the European-Radiation-Dosimetry-Group (EURADOS). Paris, 21.01.2008-25.01.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Grant - others:Evropské společenství(XE) ILSRA - 2004 - 248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : on-board airplanes * cosmic radiation * simulations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2008

  4. Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Kunz, Hawley; Sams, Clarence F.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the effect of space travel on the human immune system has proven to be extremely challenging. Limited opportunities for in-flight studies, varying mission durations, technical and logistical obstacles, small subject numbers, and a broad range of potential assays have contributed to this problem. Additionally, the inherent complexity of the immune system, with its vast array of cell populations, sub-populations, diverse regulatory molecules, and broad interactions with other physiological systems, makes determining precise variables to measure very difficult. There is also the challenge of determining the clinical significance of any observed immune alterations. Will such a change lead to disease, or is it a transient subclinical observation related to short-term stress? The effect of this problem may be observed by scanning publications associated with immunity and spaceflight, which began to appear during the 1970s. Although individually they are each valid studies, the comprehensive literature to date suffers from widely varying sampling methods and assay techniques, low subject counts, and sometimes a disparate focus on narrow aspects of immunity. The most clinically relevant data are derived from in-flight human studies, which have demonstrated altered cell-mediated immunity and reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Much more data are available from post-flight testing of humans, with clear evidence of altered cytokine production patterns, altered leukocyte distribution, continued latent viral reactivation, and evidence of dramatically altered virus-specific immunity. It is unknown if post-flight assessments relate to the in-flight condition or are a response to landing stress and readaptation. In-flight culture of cells has clearly demonstrated that immune cells are gravity-sensitive and display altered functional characteristics. It is unknown if these data are related to in vivo immune cell function or are an artifact of microgravity culture. Ground analog testing of humans and animals, as well as microgravity-analog cell culture, has demonstrated utility. However, in all cases, it is not known with certainty if these data would reflect similar testing during space travel. Given their ready availability, ground analogs may be extremely useful for assay development and the evaluation of potential countermeasures. In general, the evidence base suffers from widely disparate studies on small numbers of subjects that do not directly correlate well with each other or spaceflight itself. Also lacking are investigations of the effect of gender on adaption to spaceflight. This results in significant knowledge 'gaps' that must be filled by future studies to completely determine any clinical risk related to immunity for human exploration-class space missions. These gaps include a significant lack of in-flight data, particularly during long-duration space missions. The International Space Station represents an excellent science platform with which to address this knowledge gap. Other knowledge gaps include lack of a single validated ground analog for the phenomenon and a lack of flight-compatible laboratory equipment capable of monitoring astronauts (for either clinical or research purposes). However, enough significant data exist, as described in this manuscript, to warrant addressing this phenomenon during the utilization phase of the ISS. A recent Space Shuttle investigation has confirmed the 31 in-flight nature of immune dysregulation, demonstrating that it is not merely a post-flight phenomenon. Several current studies are ongoing onboard the ISS that should thoroughly characterize the phenomenon. NASA recognizes that if spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation persists during exploration flights in conjunction with other dangers, such as high-energy radiation, the result may be a significant clinical risk. This emphasizes the need for a continued integrated comprehensive approach to determining the effect of prolonged spaceflight, separated from transient launch and landing stresses, on human immunity. After such studies, the phenomenon will be understood, and, hopefully, a monitoring strategy will have been developed that could be used to monitor the effectiveness of countermeasure

  5. A new system to quantify uncertainties in LEO satellite position determination due to space weather events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new system for quantitative assessment of uncertainties in LEO satellite position caused by storm time changes in space environmental...

  6. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  7. The Astronomical Pulse of Global Extinction Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F.V. Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The linkage between astronomical cycles and the periodicity of mass extinctions is reviewed and discussed. In particular, the apparent 26 million year cycle of global extinctions may be related to the motion of the solar system around the galaxy, especially perpendicular to the galactic plane. The potential relevance of Milankovitch cycles is also explored in the light of current evidence for the possible causes of extinction events over a geological timescale.

  8. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  9. Microseismic event location by master-event waveform stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Dahm, T.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform stacking location methods are nowadays extensively used to monitor induced seismicity monitoring assoiciated with several underground industrial activities such as Mining, Oil&Gas production and Geothermal energy exploitation. In the last decade a significant effort has been spent to develop or improve methodologies able to perform automated seismological analysis for weak events at a local scale. This effort was accompanied by the improvement of monitoring systems, resulting in an increasing number of large microseismicity catalogs. The analysis of microseismicity is challenging, because of the large number of recorded events often characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio. A significant limitation of the traditional location approaches is that automated picking is often done on each seismogram individually, making little or no use of the coherency information between stations. In order to improve the performance of the traditional location methods, in the last year, alternative approaches have been proposed. These methods exploits the coherence of the waveforms recorded at different stations and do not require any automated picking procedure. The main advantage of this methods relies on their robustness even when the recorded waveforms are very noisy. On the other hand, like any other location method, the location performance strongly depends on the accuracy of the available velocity model. When dealing with inaccurate velocity models, in fact, location results can be affected by large errors. Here we will introduce a new automated waveform stacking location method which is less dependent on the knowledge of the velocity model and presents several benefits, which improve the location accuracy: 1) it accounts for phase delays due to local site effects, e.g. surface topography or variable sediment thickness 2) theoretical velocity model are only used to estimate travel times within the source volume, and not along the whole source-sensor path. We

  10. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  11. Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of ev...

  12. LIU 2011 event

    CERN Multimedia

    BE Department

    2011-01-01

    The LHC injectors upgrade (LIU) project was launched at the end of 2010 to coordinate the preparation of the CERN accelerator complex to meet the needs of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) until at least 2030. It should be completed by the end of the second long LHC shutdown, presently scheduled for 2018.   The goal of the LIU-2011 event is to present the status and plans of the LIU project, describing the needs and the actions foreseen in the different accelerators, from Linac4 to the PSB, PS and SPS.  

  13. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  14. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the emergence and evolution of catastrophe models (cat models. Starting with the present context of extreme weather events and features of catastrophic risk (cat risk we’ll make a chronological illustration from a theoretical point of view of the main steps taken for building such models. In this way the importance of interdisciplinary can be observed. The first cat model considered contains three modules. For each of these indentified modules: hazard, vulnerability and financial losses a detailed overview and also an exemplification of a potential case of an earthquake that measures more than 7 on Richter scale occurring nowadays in Bucharest will be provided. The key areas exposed to earthquake in Romania will be identified. Then, based on past catastrophe data and taking into account present conditions of housing stock, insurance coverage and the population of Bucharest the impact will be quantified by determining potential losses. In order to accomplish this work we consider a scenario with data representing average values for: dwelling’s surface, location, finishing works. On each step we’ll make a reference to the earthquake on March 4 1977 to see what would happen today if a similar event occurred. The value of Bucharest housing stock will be determined taking firstly the market value, then the replacement value and ultimately the real value to quantify potential damages. Through this approach we can find the insurance coverage of potential losses and also the uncovered gap. A solution that may be taken into account by public authorities, for example by Bucharest City Hall will be offered: in case such an event occurs the impossibility of paying compensations to insured people, rebuilding infrastructure and public buildings and helping the suffering persons should be avoided. An actively public-private partnership should be created between government authorities, the Natural Disaster Insurance Pool, private

  15. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  16. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Chen Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases

  17. Meningitis due to Xanthomonas maltophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girijaratnakumari T

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available During 1st week of post-operative period, a 28 year old female patient operated for left cerebellopontine angle tumor, continued to get fever. Lumbar puncture did not reveal any organisms. She responded to ciprofloxacin. Two months later, she was readmitted with signs and symptoms of meningitis. The CSF tapped on lumbar puncture grew Xanthomonas maltophilia, Gram negative bacilli, sensitive to various antibiotics, ciprofloxacin being one of them. The patient was given ciprofloxacin for 3 weeks. On follow up, a year later she was found to be asymptomatic.

  18. Assessment of the Long Term Trends in Extreme Heat Events and the Associated Health Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.; Rennie, J.; Kunkel, K.; Herring, S.; Cullen, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface air temperature products have been essential for monitoring the evolution of the climate system. Before a temperature dataset is included in such reports, it is important that non-climatic influences be removed or changed so the dataset is considered homogenous. These inhomogeneities include changes in station location, instrumentation and observing practices. While many homogenized products exist on the monthly time scale, few daily products exist, due to the complication of removing breakpoints that are truly inhomogeneous rather than solely by chance (for example, sharp changes due to synoptic conditions). Recently, a sub monthly homogenized dataset has been developed using data and software provided by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Homogeneous daily data are useful for identification and attribution of extreme heat events over a period of time. Projections of increasing temperatures are expected to result in corresponding increases in the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat events. It is also established that extreme heat events can have significant public health impacts, including short-term increases in mortality and morbidity. In addition, it can exacerbate chronic health conditions in vulnerable populations, including renal and cardiovascular issues. To understand how heat events impact a specific population, it will be important to connect observations on the duration and intensity of extreme heat events with health impacts data including insurance claims and hospital admissions data. This presentation will explain the methodology to identify extreme heat events, provide a climatology of heat event onset, length and severity, and explore a case study of an anomalous heat event with available health data.

  19. Tolerability of sibutramine during a 6-week treatment period in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes: a preliminary analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, A.P.; Caterson, I.; Coutinho, W.

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainties about the cardiovascular safety of sibutramine led to the SCOUT trial that is investigating sibutramine plus weight management in high-risk, overweight/obese patients. A 6-week lead-in period during which all patients received sibutramine permitted an initial assessment...... of tolerability. A total of 10,742 patients received sibutramine and 3.1% of these discontinued due to an adverse event; issues affecting more than 10 patients were drug intolerance, headache, insomnia, nausea, dry mouth, and constipation-, tachycardia-, and hypertension-related events. Serious adverse events......, most commonly associated with the System Organ Class, Cardiac disorders, were reported by 2.7% of patients; however, the majority was not considered sibutramine-related. Adverse events relating to high blood pressure and/or pulse rate, whether reported as adverse events leading to discontinuation...

  20. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  1. Properties of Repetitive Long-Period Seismicity at Villarrica Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J.; Johnson, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Villarrica Volcano, Chile hosts a persistent lava lake and is characterized by degassing and long-period seismicity. In order to better understand the relationship between outgassing and seismicity, we recorded broadband seismic and acoustic data along with high-rate SO2 emission data. We used both a densely-spaced linear array deployed on the northern flank of Villarrica, during the austral summer of 2011, and a wider aperture array of stations distributed around the volcano that was active in the austral summer of 2010. Both deployments consisted of three-component broadband stations and were augmented with broadband infrasound sensors. Of particular interests are repetitive, ~1 Hz seismic and coincident infrasound signals that occurred approximately every 2 minutes. Because these events are typically very low amplitude, we used a matched filter approach to identify them. We windowed several high-amplitude records of these events from broadband seismic stations near the vent. The record section of each event served as a template to compare with the entire dataset by cross-correlation. This approach identified ~20,000 nearly identical events during the ~7 day deployment of the linear array, which were otherwise difficult to identify in the raw records. Assuming that all of the events that we identified have identical source mechanisms and depths, we stack the large suite of events to produce low-noise records and particle motions at receivers farther than 5 km from the vent. We find that the records from stations near the edifice are dominated by tangential particle motion, suggesting the influence of near-field components. Correlation of these data with broadband acoustic data collected at the summit suggest that these repeatable seismic processes are linked to acoustic emissions, probably due to gas bubbles bursting at the magma free surface, as no eruptive products besides gas were being emitted by the volcano during the instrument deployment. The acoustic

  2. Testing the sensitivity of trade linkages in Europe to compound drought events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Droughts can be defined as spatially extensive events that are characterized by temporal deficits in precipitation, soil moisture or streamflow, and have the potential to cause large direct and indirect economic losses. Many European countries face drought as an economically important hazard, with agriculture, livestock, forestry, energy, industry, and water sectors particularly at risk, causing economic losses of 139 billion US over the past 30 years. Apart from these direct impacts, business production and the flow of goods and services can be affected indirectly by droughts. With consequences that can propagate through the economic system affecting regions not directly hit by the drought event itself, or in time-periods long after the original drought event occurred. In this study, we evaluate the sensitivity of existing trade linkages between the different NUTS-2 regions in Europe to the coupled occurrence of hydro-meteorological drought events, and their associated production losses. Using a multi-regional supply-use model for Europe, we have, on a product level, insight in the existing trade linkages between NUTS-2 regions. Using this information in combination with historical drought data, we assessed and identified for a selection of water related products: 1) the dependency-structures of the NUTS-2 regions within Europe for the import and export of products (and therein water); 2) the coupled nature of drought events occurring in regions that are linked via these trade-patterns; 3) the probability of not meeting demands (on a product level) due to drought events and the associated (indirect economic) impacts; and 4) regions that lose or benefit from their selection of trade-partners given the coupled nature of drought events, as well as the net effects for Europe as a whole.

  3. Living with extreme weather events - perspectives from climatology, geomorphological analysis, chronicles and opinion polls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, I.; Kirchengast, A.; Proske, H.

    2009-09-01

    The ongoing climate change debate focuses more and more on changing extreme events. Information on past events can be derived from a number of sources, such as instrumental data, residual impacts in the landscape, but also chronicles and people's memories. A project called "A Tale of Two Valleys” within the framework of the research program "proVision” allowed to study past extreme events in two inner-alpine valleys from the sources mentioned before. Instrumental climate time series provided information for the past 200 years, however great attention had to be given to the homogeneity of the series. To derive homogenized time series of selected climate change indices methods like HOCLIS and Vincent have been applied. Trend analyses of climate change indices inform about increase or decrease of extreme events. Traces of major geomorphodynamic processes of the past (e.g. rockfalls, landslides, debris flows) which were triggered or affected by extreme weather events are still apparent in the landscape and could be evaluated by geomorphological analysis using remote sensing and field data. Regional chronicles provided additional knowledge and covered longer periods back in time, however compared to meteorological time series they enclose a high degree of subjectivity and intermittent recordings cannot be obviated. Finally, questionnaires and oral history complemented our picture of past extreme weather events. People were differently affected and have different memories of it. The joint analyses of these four data sources showed agreement to some extent, however also showed some reasonable differences: meteorological data are point measurements only with a sometimes too coarse temporal resolution. Due to land-use changes and improved constructional measures the impact of an extreme meteorological event may be different today compared to earlier times.

  4. SMOS data and extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Mahmoodi, Ali; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parrens, Marie; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Bircher, Simone; Molero-rodenas, Beatriz; Drusch, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3), vegetation water content over land, and ocean salinity. These geophysical features are important as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches, and in particular in improving model forecasts. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission has now been collecting data for over 7 years. The whole data set has been reprocessed (Version 620 for levels 1 and 2 and version 3 for level 3 CATDS) while operational near real time soil moisture data is now available and assimilation of SMOS data in NWP has proved successful. After 7 years it seems important to start using data for having a look at anomalies and see how they can relate to large scale events. We have also produced a 15 year soil moisture data set by merging SMOS and AMSR using a neural network approach. The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than seven years in orbit in a climatic trend perspective, as through such a period anomalies can be detected. Thereby we benefit from consistent datasets provided through the latest reprocessing using most recent algorithm enhancements. Using the above mentioned products it is possible to follow large events such as the evolution of the droughts in North America, or water fraction evolution over the Amazonian basin. In this occasion we will focus on the analysis of SMOS and ancillary products anomalies to reveal two climatic trends, the temporal evolution of water storage over the Indian continent in relation to rainfall anomalies, and the global impact of El Nino types of events on the general water storage distribution. This presentation shows in detail the use of long term data sets

  5. Extreme events monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mahmoodi, Ali; Richaume, Philippe; Al-Yaari, Amen; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3), vegetation water content over land, and ocean salinity. These geophysical features are important as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches, and in particular in improving model forecasts. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission has now been collecting data for 6 years. The whole data set has just been reprocessed (Version 620 for levels 1 and 2 and version 3 for level 3 CATDS). After 6 years it seems important to start using data for having a look at anomalies and see how they can relate to large scale events The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than six years in orbit in a climatic trend perspective, as through such a period anomalies can be detected. Thereby we benefit from consistent datasets provided through the latest reprocessing using most recent algorithm enhancements. Using the above mentioned products it is possible to follow large events such as the evolution of the droughts in North America, or water fraction evolution over the Amazonian basin. In this occasion we will focus on the analysis of SMOS and ancillary products anomalies to reveal two climatic trends, the temporal evolution of water storage over the Indian continent in relation to rainfall anomalies, and the global impact of El Nino types of events on the general water storage distribution. This presentation shows in detail the use of long term data sets of L-band microwave radiometry in two specific cases, namely droughts and water budget over a large basin. Several other analyses are under way currently. Obviously, vegetation water content, but also dielectric constant, are carrying a wealth

  6. THE ROLE AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE EVENT BASED COMMUNICATION IN THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatu Cristian Ionut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The electoral campaigns are considered to be among the most delicate challenges for a marketer due to the limited time available, the sensible margin for error, the high impact of each statement and the condensation of a quite large amount of resources in a 30 day period. While the ultimate goal for the campaign staff is to bring the global electoral package closer to the electorate and earn their votes most, of the time various competitors use disappointingly similar tactics that create confusion among the electorate. The campaign related events turned out to be one of the tactics that allows for a pin-point targeting of the electorate and a better control on the receivers of the message. This paper focuses on the types of events used that can be used in an electoral campaign reinforced with their particularities and effects registered in previous campaigns.

  7. Secondary Restoration Control of Islanded Microgrids With Decentralized Event-triggered Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Meng; Xiao, Xiangning

    2018-01-01

    in the feedback control laws, the proposed control strategies just require the communication between distributed secondary controllers at some particular instants while having frequency and voltage restoration function and accurate active power sharing. The stability and inter-event interval are also analyzed......Distributed cooperative control methods attract more and more attention in microgrid secondary control because they are more reliable and flexible. However, the traditional methods rely on the periodic communication, which is neither economic nor efficient due to its large communication burden...... in this paper. An islanded microgrid test system is built in PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the proposed control strategies. It shows that the proposed secondary control strategies based on event-triggered approach can highly reduce the inter-agent communication....

  8. Flight diversions due to onboard medical emergencies on an international commercial airline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valani, Rahim; Cornacchia, Marisa; Kube, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    Each year, close to 2 billion passengers travel on commercial airlines. In-flight medical events result in suboptimal care due to a variety of factors. Flight diversions due to medical emergencies carry a significant financial and legal cost. The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of in-flight medical diversions from Air Canada. This was a review of in-flight medical emergencies from 2004-2008. Both telemedicine and Air Canada databases were crossreferenced to capture all incidents. Presenting complaints were categorized by systems. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Over the 5 yr, there were 220 diversions, of which 91 (41.4%) of the decisions were made by pilots or onboard medical personnel. During this period there were 5386 telemedicine contacts with ground support providers, who on average recommended 2.4 diversions per 100 calls. The rate for diversions almost doubled from 2006 to 2007, with a sharp drop in telemedicine contacts during the same period. The four most common categories resulting in diversions were cardiac (58 diversions, 26.4%), neurological (43 diversions, 19.5%), gastrointestinal (GI) (25 diversions, 11.4%), and syncope (22 diversions, 10.0%). Only 6.8% of all diversions were due to cardiac arrest. Medical conditions most commonly leading to diversions were cardiac, neurological, gastrointestinal, and syncope. Our study showed that a decrease in telemedicine contact during this period was accompanied by an increase in diversions, while increased pre-screening of passengers did not prove effective in decreasing diversion rates.

  9. Analysis of the events on the operating of the wrong compartment of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lixin; Zhou Hong; Zhang Hao; Che Shuwei; Zhang Jiajun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an operational event that unit trip caused by the operating of the wrong compartment, due to the personnel error is introduced. Through in-depth research on this kind of events the causes of the events are found, some suggestions are put forward. It can provide a reference for preventing the similar events from recurring to other NPPs. (authors)

  10. Mathematical foundations of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems

  11. Event Reconstruction Techniques in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M.; Bian, J.; Messier, M.; Niner, E.; Rocco, D.; Sachdev, K.

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment utilizing the NuMI beam generated at Fermilab. The experiment will measure the oscillations within a muon neutrino beam in a 300 ton Near Detector located underground at Fermilab and a functionally-identical 14 kiloton Far Detector placed 810 km away. The detectors are liquid scintillator tracking calorimeters with a fine-grained cellular structure that provides a wealth of information for separating the different particle track and shower topologies. Each detector has its own challenges with the Near Detector seeing multiple overlapping neutrino interactions in each event and the Far Detector having a large background of cosmic rays due to being located on the surface. A series of pattern recognition techniques have been developed to go from event records, to spatially and temporally separating individual interactions, to vertexing and tracking, and particle identification. This combination of methods to achieve the full event reconstruction will be discussed.

  12. Event Shape Sorting: selecting events with similar evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomášik Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel method for the organisation of events. The method is based on comparing event-by-event histograms of a chosen quantity Q that is measured for each particle in every event. The events are organised in such a way that those with similar shape of the Q-histograms end-up placed close to each other. We apply the method on histograms of azimuthal angle of the produced hadrons in ultrarelativsitic nuclear collisions. By selecting events with similar azimuthal shape of their hadron distribution one chooses events which are likely that they underwent similar evolution from the initial state to the freeze-out. Such events can more easily be compared to theoretical simulations where all conditions can be controlled. We illustrate the method on data simulated by the AMPT model.

  13. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  14. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Probabilistic analysis of external events with focus on the Fukushima event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Jockenhoevel-Barttfeld, Mariana; Klapp, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    External hazards are those natural or man-made hazards to a site and facilities that are originated externally to both the site and its processes, i.e. the duty holder may have very little or no control over the hazard. External hazards can have the potential of causing initiating events at the plant, typically transients like e.g., loss of offsite power. Simultaneously, external events may affect safety systems required to control the initiating event and, where applicable, also back-up systems implemented for risk-reduction. The plant safety may especially be threatened when loads from external hazards exceed the load assumptions considered in the design of safety-related systems, structures and components. Another potential threat is given by hazards inducing initiating events not considered in the safety demonstration otherwise. An example is loss of offsite power combined with prolonged plant isolation. Offsite support, e.g., delivery of diesel fuel oil, usually credited in the deterministic safety analysis may not be possible in this case. As the Fukushima events have shown, the biggest threat is likely given by hazards inducing both effects. Such hazards may well be dominant risk contributors even if their return period is very high. In order to identify relevant external hazards for a certain Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) location, a site specific screening analysis is performed, both for single events and for combinations of external events. As a result of the screening analysis, risk significant and therefore relevant (screened-in) single external events and combinations of them are identified for a site. The screened-in events are further considered in a detailed event tree analysis in the frame of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) to calculate the core damage/large release frequency resulting from each relevant external event or from each relevant combination. Screening analyses of external events performed at AREVA are based on the approach provided

  16. Depressive disorder due to craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R

    1995-01-01

    Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149

  17. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  19. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  20. Extreme weather Events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resulting in deaths, disease and injury due to drowning, lack of sanitation and safe drinking water and exposure to dangerous chemical contaminants. Floods and tropical cyclones have greatest impact in South Asia; and Latin America; Increased risk of diarrhoeal diseases, cholera, cryptosporidiosis,; campylobacter and ...