WorldWideScience

Sample records for event effect results

  1. The delay effect on outcome evaluation: results from an Event-related Potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies demonstrate that the timing of receiving gains or losses affects decision-making, a phenomenon known as temporal discounting, as participants are inclined to prefer immediate rewards over delayed ones and vice versa for losses. The present study used the event-related potential (ERP technique with a simple gambling task to investigate how delayed rewards and losses affected the brain activity in outcome evaluations made by 20 young adults. Statistical analysis revealed a larger feedback related negativity (FRN effect between loss and gain following immediate outcomes than following future outcomes. In addition, delay impacted FRN only in gain conditions, with delayed winning eliciting a more negative FRN than immediatewinning. These results suggest that temporal discounting and sign effect could be encoded in the FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation.

  2. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  3. Underlying event and correlation results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    The underlying event activity in $pp$ collisions is measured using events with a leading charged-particle jet. The activity is measured independently in the two halves of the region transverse to the leading object, containing the maximum and minimum activities. Complementary to the underlying event analysis, the observation of long-range two-particle correlations in high energy heavy ion collisions opens opportunities to explore QCD in quark gluon plasma, the hot dense matter created in heavy ion collisions. The observation of similar correlation structures in high multiplicity $pp$ collisions suggests novel QCD effects. We present selected results of the underlying event activity and particle correlations in various collision systems.

  4. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of μg on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU’s). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiments were designed to determine if S. meliloti would infect M. truncatula and initiate biomolecular changes associated with nodule formation and if the μg environment altered the host plant and/or bacteria to induce nodule formation upon return to 1g. Initial analysis results demonstrate that the legumes and bacteria cultivated in μg have potential to develop a symbiotic interaction, but suggest that μg alters their ability to form nodules upon return to 1g. (Research supported by NASA ESMD/ Advance Capabilities Division grant NNX10AR09A)

  5. Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentration on planktonic foraminifera: results from laboratory culture experiments and implications for oceanic anoxic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, A.; da Rocha, R. E.; Bijma, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.; Eggins, S. M.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    During Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), substantial turnover of planktonic foraminiferal species occurred, however, the direct effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on planktonic foraminifera remain obscure. Althogh culture experiments conducted under controlled conditions can quantify the relationships between foraminiferal ecology and environmental parameters, experiments controlling DO have yet to be conducted because it is difficult to maintain a stable oxygen concentration. In this study, we cultured two subtropical-transitional planktonic foraminifer species (one symbiotic species, Orbulina universa, and one nonsymbiotic species, Globigerina bulloides) under six different DO conditions (between 10% and 100% saturation). In both species, the gametogenesis rate was more than 60% even at a DO of 10%, suggesting that at least 'dysoxic' conditions (~0.7 mg O2 L-1) could not have directly caused the extinction of planktonic foraminifera during OAEs. Planktonic foraminifera originated from benthic lineages, and this origin is one possible explanation for their high tolerance to extremely low DO levels. Although the number of days to gametogenesis did not differ significantly among treatments in either species, final shell weight increased with increasing DO, suggesting that fossil foraminiferal shell weight could vary with past DO conditions. Our results suggest that the extinction of many planktonic foraminiferal species during OAEs may have been due to anoxic or euxinic conditions in the euphotic zone. The occurrence of these conditions can be explained either by the oxygen minimum layer model or by the stagnant ocean model combined with elevated riverine P input.

  6. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  7. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc...

  8. Event Structure and Grammatical Patterns: Resultative Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the nature of grammatical patterns through an in-depth study of resultative constructions in Mandarin and Thai. At the heart of the thesis lies the proposal that event structure templates--complex, meaning-based grammatical patterns--must be recognised as primary objects of linguistic analysis. As content-theoretic objects…

  9. The CMS event builder demonstrator and results with Myrinet

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, S; Faure, B; Gigi, D; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Ninane, A; Orsini, L; Pollet, Lucien; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Schleifer, W; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, Paris

    2001-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a large and high performance event building network. Several switch technologies are currently being evaluated in order to compare different architectures for the event builder. One candidate is Myrinet. This paper describes the demonstrator which has been setup to study a small-scale (16*16) event builder based on PCs running Linux connected to Myrinet and Ethernet switches. A detailed study of the Myrinet switch performance has been performed for various traffic conditions, including the behaviour of composite switches. Results from event building studies are presented, including measurements on throughput, overhead and scaling. Traffic shaping techniques have been implemented and the effect on the event building performance has been investigated. The paper reports on performances and maximum event rate obtainable using custom software, not described, for the Myrinet control program and the low-level communica...

  10. Effects of candesartan in acute stroke on vascular events during long-term follow-up: results from the Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornslien, Astrid G; Sandset, Else C; Igland, Jannicke; Terént, Andreas; Boysen, Gudrun; Bath, Philip M W; Murray, Gordon D; Berge, Eivind

    2015-08-01

    Randomized-controlled trials have shown no beneficial short-term effects of blood pressure lowering treatment in the acute phase of stroke. We aimed to see whether blood pressure lowering treatment with candesartan in the acute phase can lead to benefits that become apparent over a longer period of follow-up. The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stoke Trial was a randomized- and placebo-controlled trial of candesartan in 2,029 patients with acute stroke and systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg. Trial treatment was given for seven-days, and the primary follow-up period was six-months. We have used the national patient registries and the cause of death registries in the Scandinavian countries to collect data on vascular events and deaths up to three-years from randomization. The primary end-point was the composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death, and we used Cox proportional hazards regression model for analysis. Long-term data were available for 1,256 of the 1,286 patients (98%) from Scandinavia. The risk of the primary composite end-point did not differ significantly between the groups (candesartan 178/632 events, placebo 203/624 events, hazard ratio = 0·87, 95% confidence interval 0·71-1·07). There were also no statistically significant differences for the secondary end-points stroke and all-cause death, or in any of the pre-specified subgroups. Treatment with candesartan in the acute phase of stroke was not associated with clear long-term clinical benefits. This result supports the conclusion from trials with short-term follow-up, that blood pressure lowering treatment with candesartan should not be given routinely to patients with acute stroke and raised blood pressure. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Effect of Microgravity on Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Initial Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species of the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiment one was designed to determine if S. meliloti infect M. truncatula and initiate physiological changes associated with nodule formation. Roots of five-day-old M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 (Enodll::gus) were inoculated 24 hr before launch with either S. meliloti strain 1021 or strain ABS7 and integrated into BRIC-PDFU hardware placed in a 4 C Cold Bag for launch on Atlantis. Inoculated plants and uninoculated controls were maintained in the dark at ambient temperature in the middeck of STS-135 for 11 days before fixation in RNAlater(tM) by crew activation of the PDFU. Experiment two was designed to determine if microgravity altered the process of bacterial infection and host plant nodule formation. Seeds of two M. truncatula cultivar Jemalong A17 lines, the Enodll::gus used in experiment 1, and SUNN, a super-nodulating mutant of A17, were germinated on orbit for 11 days in the middeck cabin and returned to Earth alive inside of BRIC-PDFU's at 4 C. S. meliloti strains 1021 and ABS7 were cultivated separately in broth culture on orbit and also returned to Earth alive. After landing, flight- and groundgrown plants and bacteria were transferred from BRIC-PDFU's into Nunc(tm) 4-well plates for reciprocity crosses. Rates of plant growth and nodule development on Buffered Nodulation Medium (lacking nitrogen) were measured for 14 days. Preliminary analysis' of Experiment 1 confirms that

  12. Global Seismic Cross-Correlation Results: Characterizing Repeating Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieceli, R.; Dodge, D. A.; Walter, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Increases in seismic instrument quality and coverage have led to increased knowledge of earthquakes, but have also revealed the complex and diverse nature of earthquake ruptures. Nonetheless, some earthquakes are sufficiently similar to each other that they produce correlated waveforms. Such repeating events have been used to investigate interplate coupling of subduction zones [e.g. Igarashi, 2010; Yu, 2013], study spatio-temporal changes in slip rate at plate boundaries [e.g. Igarashi et al., 2003], observe variations in seismic wave propagation velocities in the crust [e.g. Schaff and Beroza, 2004; Sawazaki et al., 2015], and assess inner core rotation [e.g. Yu, 2016]. The characterization of repeating events on a global scale remains a very challenging problem. An initial global seismic cross-correlation study used over 310 million waveforms from nearly 3.8 million events recorded between 1970 and 2013 to determine an initial look at global correlated seismicity [Dodge and Walter, 2015]. In this work, we analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the most highly correlated event clusters or "multiplets" from the Dodge and Walter [2015] study. We examine how the distributions and characteristics of multiplets are effected by tectonic environment, source-station separation, and frequency band. Preliminary results suggest that the distribution of multiplets does not correspond to the tectonic environment in any obvious way, nor do they always coincide with the occurrence of large earthquakes. Future work will focus on clustering correlated pairs and working to reduce the bias introduced by non-uniform seismic station coverage and data availability. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. The effect of major adverse renal cardiovascular event (MARCE) incidence, procedure volume, and unit cost on the hospital savings resulting from contrast media use in inpatient angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; McCullough, Peter A; Todoran, Thomas M; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Palli, Swetha R; Ryan, Michael P; Gunnarsson, Candace

    2017-12-15

    To determine the net economic impact of switching from low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) to iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; iodixanol) in patients undergoing inpatient coronary or peripheral angioplasty in the United States (US). A budget impact model (BIM) was developed from a hospital perspective. Nationally representative procedural and contrast media prevalence rates, along with MARCE (major adverse renal cardiovascular event) incidence and episode-related cost data were derived from Premier Hospital Data (October 2014 to September 2015). A previously estimated relative risk reduction in MARCE associated with IOCM usage (9.3%) was applied. The higher cost of IOCM was included when calculating the net impact estimates at the aggregate, hospital type, and per hospital levels. One-way (±25%) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses identified the model's most important inputs. Based on weighted analysis, 513,882 US inpatient angioplasties and 35,610 MARCE cases were estimated annually. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" strategy increases contrast media cost, but prevents 2,900 MARCE events. The annual budget impact was an estimated saving of $30.71 million, aggregated across all US hospitals, $6,316 per hospital, or $60 per procedure. Net savings were maintained across all univariate sensitivity analyses. While MARCE/event-free cost differential was the most important factor driving total net savings for hospitals in the Northeast and West, procedural volume was important in the Midwest and rural locations. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" approach yields substantial net global savings to hospitals, both at the national level and within hospital sub-groups. Hospital administrators should maintain awareness of the factors that are likely to be more influential for their hospital and recognize that purchasing on the basis of lower contrast media cost may result in higher overall costs for patients undergoing inpatient

  14. Tracheotomy-Related Catastrophic Events: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Preety; Zhu, Hannah; Shah, Rahul K.; Roberson, David W.; Berry, Jay; Skinner, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To gather qualitative and semiquantitative information about catastrophic complications during and following tracheotomy. Study Design National survey distributed to American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery members via the Academy weekly email newsletter during April and May 2011. Methods A total of 478 respondents provided estimates of the number of four specific tracheotomy-related complications (innominate artery fistula, esophageal fistula, acute tracheotomy occlusion, and obstructing granuloma), all catastrophic events, and events resulting in death or permanent disability encountered during their careers. There were 253 respondents who provided 405 free-text descriptions of specific events. Results The respondents experienced approximately one catastrophic event every 10 years and one event resulting in death or permanent disability every 20 years. More than 90% occurred more than 1 week after surgery. Categories of physicians who experienced more events per year included academic physicians and laryngologists. Pediatric otolaryngologists had twice as many innominate artery fistulas per year of practice as others. Qualitative (free-text) descriptions of the most serious events demonstrated that more of these events involved loss of airway and volume bleeds, usually from innominate or carotid artery erosion. Many of the events due to airway loss involved potentially correctable deficits in family education, nursing care, home care, and other structural factors. Conclusions Even when we allow for selection bias, these data suggest that a substantial number of tracheotomy complications leading to death or permanent disability occur at a national level. The vast majority of events occur more than 1 week after the procedure. Many of the described events were caused by factors that should be amenable to prospective system improvement strategies. PMID:22183626

  15. Attitudes and Perceptions of Urban African Americans of a “Dirty Bomb” Radiological Terror Event: Results of a Qualitative Study and Implications for Effective Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R.; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a “dirty bomb” is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with “shelter in place” recommendations. Methods Thirty-seven 18–65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. Results The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the “whole truth” because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Conclusion Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place. PMID:25611688

  16. Recent results on event-by-event fluctuations in ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083375

    2015-01-01

    Non-statistical event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have been proposed as a probe of the phase transition of hadronic matter to a deconfined phase of quarks and gluons, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma. In a thermodynamical picture of the strongly interacting system formed in heavy-ion collisions, the dynamical fluctuations of net-charge, fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum, mean multiplicity and balance functions are related to the fundamental properties of the system, hence they may reveal information about the QCD phase transition. In this article, recent results on event-by-event measurements of net-charge fluctuations, the measurement of the balance function and mean transverse momentum fluctuations are discussed.

  17. Compendium of Single Event Effects (SEE) Test Results for COTS and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon; Bailey, Chuck; Nguyen, Kyson; O'Neill, Patrick; Gaza, Razvan; Patel, Chirag; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of SEE testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions. This paper summarizes test results for components considered for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space applications.

  18. Adverse events resulting from lasers used in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althunayan, Abdulaziz M; Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Elhilali, Mostafa M; Andonian, Sero

    2014-02-01

    To collate world reports of adverse events (AEs) resulting from lasers used in urology. The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was searched using the term "Laser for gastro-urology use." In addition, the Rockwell Laser Industries (RLI) Laser Accident Database was searched for the following types of lasers: neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG), holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), diode and thulium:YAG (Tm:YAG). Both databases were last accessed on October 1, 2012. Overall, there were 433 AEs; 166 in MAUDE database (1992-2012) and 267 in RLI database (1964-2005). Most of the AEs (198/433 or 46%) resulted from generator failure or fiber tip breaking. Whereas there were 20 (4.6%) AEs harming medical operators, there were 159 (37%) AEs harming nonmedical operators using Nd:YAG, KTP, and diode lasers. Eye injuries ranging from mild corneal abrasions to total vision loss were reported in 164 AEs with the use of Nd:YAG, KTP, and diode lasers. Overall, there were 36 (8.3%) AEs resulting in patient harm, including 7 (1.6%) mortalities, 3 deaths from ureteral perforation using the Ho:YAG laser, and 4 deaths from air emboli using the Nd:YAG laser. Other reported patient injuries included bladder perforation resulting in urinary diversion in a patient, in addition to minor skin burns, internal burns, and bleeding in others. There were no AEs reported with the use of Tm:YAG laser. Most of the AEs reported relate to equipment failure. There were no eye injuries reported with the use of Ho:YAG lasers. Caution must be exercised when using lasers in urology, including wearing appropriate eye protection when using Nd:YAG, KTP, and diode lasers.

  19. Cardiovascular events in patients with COPD: TORCH study results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calverley, Peter M A; Anderson, Julie A; Celli, Bartolome

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that long-term use of beta agonists to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. In this post hoc analysis, data from the TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study were used.......2% for placebo, 22.7% for salmeterol, 24.3% for fluticasone propionate and 20.8% for SFC. Although a history of myocardial infarction doubled the probability of cardiovascular adverse events, the event rates remained similar across treatment groups. CONCLUSION: Post hoc analysis of the 3-year TORCH dataset...

  20. The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, C.; Bromet, E.; Karam, E. G.; Kessler, R. C.; McLaughlin, K. A.; Ruscio, A. M.; Shahly, V.; Stein, D. J.; Petukhova, M.; Hill, E.; Alonso, J.; Atwoli, L.; Bunting, B.; Bruffaerts, R.; Caldas-de-Almeida, J. M.; de Girolamo, G.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Huang, Y.; Lepine, J. P.; Kawakami, N.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K. M.; Shalev, A.; Slade, T.; ten Have, M.; Torres, Y.; Viana, M. C.; Zarkov, Z.; Koenen, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs. Method General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure. Results Over 70% of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5% were exposed to four or more. Five types – witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury – accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events. Conclusions Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization. PMID:26511595

  1. Language Enabled Airmen Program: Language Intensive Training Events 2011 Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    reading. If teachers do not know how to teach listening, they require information and skills in this area. Macaro, Graham, and Vanderplank (2007), Rost ...assessment in second language testing: A meta-analysis and analysis of experiential factors. Language Testing, 15, 1-20. Rost , M. (2010). Teaching and...interactions, including those where leadership is required • Can respond effectively to verbal and nonverbal forms of communication • Can

  2. Geomagnetic Effect Caused by 1908 Tunguska Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Kuzmicheva, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    results of this current system shows that an unique azimuth of trajectory of the body exists, for which the variations of all three components of the geomagnetic field do not contradict to the observation data. This azimuth is equal to 306 degrees, while other estimates are in the range of 290-344 degrees. This idea of the atmospheric plume ejected along the trajectory and ionization in the upper atmosphere, caused by the following atmospheric oscillations, could explain the geomagnetic effect both in general and locally in Irkutsk observatory: the time delay and the variations of all magnetic field components. Binding of simulation results of observation data also allows us to select the unique trajectory azimuth for Tunguska body. References: [1] Ivanov K.G. The Geomagnetic phenomena, which were being observed on the Irkutsk magnetic observatory, following the explosion of the Tunguska meteorite //Meteoritika. 1961. Iss. XXI. P.46-49 (in Russian). [2] Losseva T., Merkin V., Nemtchinov I. Estimations of the Aeronomical and Electromagnetic Disturbances in the E-layer of the Ionosphere, caused by Tunguska Event // AGU Fall Meeting. 1999. SA32A-09.

  3. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  4. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  5. Release of Mercury Mine Tailings from Mine Impacted Watersheds by Extreme Events Resulting from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    An increase in intensity and frequency of extreme events resulting from climate change is expected to result in extreme precipitation events on both regional and local scales. Extreme precipitation events have the potential to mobilize large volumes of mercury (Hg) mine tailings in watersheds where tailings reside in the floodplain downstream from historic Hg mines. The California Hg mineral belt produced one third of the worlds Hg from over 100 mines from the 1850's to 1972. In the absence of environmental regulations, tailings were disposed of into streams adjacent to the mines in order to have them transported from the mine site during storm events. Thus most of the tailings no longer reside at the mine site. Addition of tailings to the streams resulted in stream aggradation, increased over-bank flow, and deposition of tailings in the floodplain for up to 25 kms downstream from the mines. After cessation of mining, the decrease in tailings entering the streams resulted in degradation, incision of the streams into the floodplain, and inability of the streams to access the floodplain. Thus Hg tailings have remained stored in the floodplain since cessation of mining. Hg phases in these tailings consist of cinnabar, metacinnabar and montroydite based on EXAFS analysis. Size analysis indicates that Hg phases are fine grained, less than 1 um. The last regional scale extreme precipitation events to effect the entire area of the California Hg mineral belt were the ARkStorm events of 1861-1862 that occurred prior to large scale Hg mining. Extreme regional ARkStorm precipitation events as well as local summer storms, such as the July 2006 flood in the Clear Creek Hg mining district, are expected to increase in frequency and have the potential to remobilize the large volume of tailings stored in floodplain deposits. Although Hg mine remediation has decreased Hg release from mine sites in a period of benign climate, no remediation efforts have addressed the large source of

  6. Early-life events. Effects on aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, a considerable body of evidence has emerged showing that circumstances during the fetal period and childhood may have lifelong programming effects on different body functions with a considerable impact on disease susceptibility. From a medical point of view, these long-term effects are today referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept. The DOHaD concept may have a fundamental impact on our ideas about when and how to intervene in order to prevent aging-related loss of function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide a synopsis of epidemiological findings relating early-life conditions with key aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, cognitive impairments and osteoporosis. There are several mechanisms that have been suggested as linking early-life events with late-life disease. This review will discuss programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function as one of the best characterised examples of such mechanisms.

  7. Effect of radium-223 dichloride on symptomatic skeletal events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases: results from a phase 3, double-blind, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Oliver; Coleman, Robert; Nilsson, Sten; Heinrich, Daniel; Helle, Svein I; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Fosså, Sophie D; Chodacki, Aleš; Wiechno, Paweł; Logue, John; Widmark, Anders; Johannessen, Dag Clement; Hoskin, Peter; James, Nicholas D; Solberg, Arne; Syndikus, Isabel; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; O'Bryan-Tear, C Gillies; Shan, Minghua; Bruland, Øyvind S; Parker, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Bone metastases frequently cause skeletal events in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy, short-range α-particles. We assessed the effect of radium-223 compared with placebo in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised ALSYMPCA trial, we enrolled patients who had symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with two or more bone metastases and no known visceral metastases, who were receiving best standard of care, and had previously either received or were unsuitable for docetaxel. Patients were stratified by previous docetaxel use, baseline total alkaline phosphatase level, and current bisphosphonate use, then randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either six intravenous injections of radium-223 (50 kBq/kg) or matching placebo; one injection was given every 4 weeks. Randomisation was done with an interactive voice response system, taking into account trial stratification factors. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival, which has been reported previously. Here we report on time to first symptomatic skeletal event, defined as the use of external beam radiation to relieve bone pain, or occurrence of a new symptomatic pathological fracture (vertebral or non-verterbal), or occurence of spinal cord compression, or tumour-related orthopeadic surgical intervention. All events were required to be clinically apparent and were not assessed by periodic radiological review. Statistical analyses of symptomatic skeletal events were based on the intention-to-treat population. The study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00699751. Between June 12, 2008, and Feb 1, 2011, 921 patients were enrolled, of whom 614 (67%) were randomly assigned to receive radium-223 and 307 (33%) placebo

  8. Twin and genetic effects on life events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, C.M.; Cath, D.C.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Twin studies that examine the effect of specific environmental risk factors on psychiatric disorders assume that there are no differences in prevalences of these risk factors between twins and singletons. Violation of this assumption signifies that the results from twin studies might not generalize

  9. The Effects of Job Event Stressors and Social Support on Psychological Stress Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    種市, 康太郎; 大塚, 泰正; 小杉, 正太郎

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of job event stressors and social support on psychological stress reactions. A total of 2,873 male employees in an industrial research institute completed a Job Events Check List (including job event stressors) and a Job Stress Scale (including social support and psychological stress reactions). Results showed that work support had buffering effects on 5 of the 14 relationships between job event stressors and psychological stress reactions. Non-work support had...

  10. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  11. The epidemiology of traumatic event exposure worldwide: results from the World Mental Health Survey Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, C; Bromet, E; Karam, E G; Kessler, R C; McLaughlin, K A; Ruscio, A M; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Petukhova, M; Hill, E; Alonso, J; Atwoli, L; Bunting, B; Bruffaerts, R; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M; de Girolamo, G; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Huang, Y; Lepine, J P; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, M E; Navarro-Mateu, F; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A; Slade, T; ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zarkov, Z; Koenen, K C

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research has documented that exposure to traumatic events has negative effects on physical and mental health. Much less research has examined the predictors of traumatic event exposure. Increased understanding of risk factors for exposure to traumatic events could be of considerable value in targeting preventive interventions and anticipating service needs. General population surveys in 24 countries with a combined sample of 68 894 adult respondents across six continents assessed exposure to 29 traumatic event types. Differences in prevalence were examined with cross-tabulations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether traumatic event types clustered into interpretable factors. Survival analysis was carried out to examine associations of sociodemographic characteristics and prior traumatic events with subsequent exposure. Over 70% of respondents reported a traumatic event; 30.5% were exposed to four or more. Five types - witnessing death or serious injury, the unexpected death of a loved one, being mugged, being in a life-threatening automobile accident, and experiencing a life-threatening illness or injury - accounted for over half of all exposures. Exposure varied by country, sociodemographics and history of prior traumatic events. Being married was the most consistent protective factor. Exposure to interpersonal violence had the strongest associations with subsequent traumatic events. Given the near ubiquity of exposure, limited resources may best be dedicated to those that are more likely to be further exposed such as victims of interpersonal violence. Identifying mechanisms that account for the associations of prior interpersonal violence with subsequent trauma is critical to develop interventions to prevent revictimization.

  12. Long-term cost effectiveness of early and sustained dual oral antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel given for up to one year after percutaneous coronary intervention results: from the Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinart, Sean C; Kolm, Paul; Veledar, Emir; Zhang, Zefeng; Mahoney, Elizabeth M; Bouin, Olivier; Gabriel, Sylvie; Jackson, Joseph; Chen, Roland; Caro, Jaime; Steinhubl, Steven; Topol, Eric; Weintraub, William S

    2005-09-06

    This study sought to evaluate the long-term cost effectiveness of a clopidogrel loading strategy before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by continued treatment for one year. The Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial, a randomized trial of 2,116 patients, showed the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel 300 mg before PCI and 75 mg daily for one year afterward compared with placebo load and placebo days 29 to 365 in reducing the combined risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. All patients received clopidogrel on days 1 to 28 and aspirin on days 1 to 365. All hospitalizations were assigned a diagnosis-related group. Associated costs were estimated three ways (including professional costs): 1) Medicare costs, 2) MEDSTAT costs, and 3) blend with Medicare for those age > or = 65 years and MEDSTAT for those age <65 years. Clopidogrel 75 mg cost 3.22 dollars. Life expectancy in trial survivors was estimated using external data. Confidence intervals were assessed by bootstrap. The primary composite end point occurred in 89 (8.45%) clopidogrel patients and in 122 (11.48%) placebo patients (relative risk reduction [RRR] 26.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9% to 44.4%). The number of life-years gained (LYG) with clopidogrel was 0.1526 (95% CI 0.0263 to 0.2838) using Framingham data and 0.1920 (95% CI 0.054 to 0.337) using Saskatchewan data. Average total costs were 664 dollars higher for the clopidogrel arm (95% CI -461 dollars to 1,784 dollars). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) based on Framingham data ranged from 3,685 dollars/LYG to 4,353 dollars/LYG, with over 97% of bootstrap-derived ICER estimates below 50,000 dollars/LYG. The ICERs based on Saskatchewan data were 2,929 dollars/LYG to 3,460 dollars/LYG, with over 98% of estimates below 50,000 dollars/LYG. Platelet inhibition with clopidogrel loading before PCI followed by therapy for one year is highly cost effective.

  13. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J. P.; Reinhard, S

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to cont...

  14. The effect of event repetition on the production of story grammar in children's event narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B; Powell, Martine B; Roberts, Kim P

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the effect of event repetition on the amount and nature of story-grammar produced by children when recalling the event. Children aged 4 years (N=50) and 7 years (N=56) participated in either 1 or 6 occurrences of a highly similar event where details varied across the occurrences. Half the children in each age and event group recalled the last/single occurrence 5-6 days later and the other half recalled the last/single occurrence after 5-6 weeks (the final and single occurrence was the same). Children's free recall responses were classified according to the number and proportion of story-grammar elements (Stein & Glenn, 1979-setting, initiating event, internal response, plan, attempt, direct consequence, and resolution) as well as the prevalence of causal links between the individual story-grammar elements. More story-grammar detail and more links between individual story-grammar elements were reported about the final compared to single occurrence. The amount of story-grammar increased with age and decreased over time. Further, an interaction was revealed such that the effect of retention interval on the production of story-grammar was negligible for older children who experienced the repeated event. Event repetition has a beneficial effect on the production of children's story-grammar content in situations where event details varied from occasion to occasion. This study highlights the importance of eliciting free recall when conducting evidential interviews with child witnesses about repeated events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Powell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects are best measured at a local level. This paper analyzes weather events at the level of the farm for a specific crop, winter wheat. Once it has been established that extreme events are expected to continue occurring at historically high levels for farming locations throughout the Netherlands, the effects of those events on wheat yields are estimated while controlling for the other major input factors affecting yields. Econometric techniques are applied to an unbalanced panel data set of 334 farms for a period of up to 12 years. Analyzes show that the number of days with extreme high temperatures in Dutch wheat growing regions has significantly increased since the early 1900s, while the number of extreme low temperature events has fallen over that same period. The effects of weather events on wheat yields were found to be time specific in that the week in which an event occurred determined its effect on yields. High temperature events and precipitation events were found to significantly decrease yields.

  16. Deja Vu All Over Again: Effects of Reenactment on Toddlers' Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Ellyn G.; Hudson, Judith A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of reenactment on 18-month-olds' event memory. Results indicated that reenacting novel activities in a laboratory playroom improved event memory. Reenactment was more effective after a time delay, and the effects of timing of reenactment were more pronounced after a six-month delay. Reenacting half of the…

  17. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  18. The magnitude and effects of extreme solar particle events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiggens Piers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energetic particle (SEP radiation environment is an important consideration for spacecraft design, spacecraft mission planning and human spaceflight. Herein is presented an investigation into the likely severity of effects of a very large Solar Particle Event (SPE on technology and humans in space. Fluences for SPEs derived using statistical models are compared to historical SPEs to verify their appropriateness for use in the analysis which follows. By combining environment tools with tools to model effects behind varying layers of spacecraft shielding it is possible to predict what impact a large SPE would be likely to have on a spacecraft in Near-Earth interplanetary space or geostationary Earth orbit. Also presented is a comparison of results generated using the traditional method of inputting the environment spectra, determined using a statistical model, into effects tools and a new method developed as part of the ESA SEPEM Project allowing for the creation of an effect time series on which statistics, previously applied to the flux data, can be run directly. The SPE environment spectra is determined and presented as energy integrated proton fluence (cm−2 as a function of particle energy (in MeV. This is input into the SHIELDOSE-2, MULASSIS, NIEL, GRAS and SEU effects tools to provide the output results. In the case of the new method for analysis, the flux time series is fed directly into the MULASSIS and GEMAT tools integrated into the SEPEM system. The output effect quantities include total ionising dose (in rads, non-ionising energy loss (MeV g−1, single event upsets (upsets/bit and the dose in humans compared to established limits for stochastic (or cancer-causing effects and tissue reactions (such as acute radiation sickness in humans given in grey-equivalent and sieverts respectively.

  19. General practitioners′ attitudes toward reporting and learning from adverse events: results from a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn H.; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate GPs' attitudes to and willingness to report and learn from adverse events and to study how a reporting system should function. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: General practice in Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' attitudes to exchange of experience with colleagues and others......, and circumstances under which such exchange is accepted. SUBJECTS: A structured questionnaire sent to 1198 GPs of whom 61% responded. RESULTS. GPs had a positive attitude towards discussing adverse events in the clinic with colleagues and staff and in their continuing medical education groups. The GPs had...... a positive attitude to reporting adverse events to a database if the system granted legal and administrative immunity to reporters. The majority preferred a reporting system located at a research institute. CONCLUSION: GPs have a very positive attitude towards discussing and reporting adverse events...

  20. Single event effects actel AX FPGA

    CERN Document Server

    Machefert, F P

    2002-01-01

    ACTEL and NASA performed irradiation tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the AX1000 component of the new ACTEL FPGA family "Axcelerator". The characteristics of these FPGAs are attractive and make them good candidates for the Front-End of the LHCb Calorimeters. The results of the measurements done at BNL are used to determine the resistance of the AX in the environment of the Calorimeter electronics. If mitigation techniques are used (triple voting or horizontal and vertical parity), no major worry is expected in spite of the safety factors applied in the evaluation. In this case and at maximum, a few bit errors could be observed per year on the full Calorimeter system.

  1. Dust events on Vatnajökull, Iceland: comparison between model results and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosics, Monika; Groot Zwaaftink, Christine; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Dust events in Iceland considerably influence the surface albedo and subsequently the energy balance of glaciers such as Vatnajökull. Here we study dust events on Vatnajökull based on model simulations and ground-based measurements. Possible sources of dust origin are proglacial areas and sandy deserts which cover more than 22% of Iceland. A newly developed scheme for dust mobilization is used to estimate dust emission from these sandy deserts. Driven with these emissions, a Lagrangian dispersion model, FLEXPART, is used to calculate dust concentration and deposition. The model simulations facilitate to distinguish main source areas of dust transported to the glacier. Meteorological conditions at the source locations as well as flows induced by topography will affect the spatial distribution of dust on the glacier, and not all are resolved by the meteorological data from ECMWF used to run FLEXPART (resolution 0.2 degrees or about 22 km). We aim to determine how important local effects are. Ground based data such as distributed snow samples from Vatnajökull with impurities were collected in October 2013 and 2015. Additionally, firn cores of about 8 meters depth from Brúarjökull (NE Vatnajökull), were taken in 2014 and 2015. The firn cores show pronounced dust layers in the years 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2008. These dust concentrations from firn cores and snow samples as well as time series of albedo measurements from automatic weather stations, were compared to model results. For this comparison we chose ablation seasons which are not influenced by volcanic eruptions. For these periods we explain variations in dust amounts and their spatial patterns.

  2. Presentation of the results of a Bayesian automatic event detection and localization program to human analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, N.; Kebede, F.; Feitio, P.; Le Bras, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has been developing and testing NET-VISA (Arora et al., 2013), a Bayesian automatic event detection and localization program, and evaluating its performance in a realistic operational mode. In our preliminary testing at the CTBTO, NET-VISA shows better performance than its currently operating automatic localization program. However, given CTBTO's role and its international context, a new technology should be introduced cautiously when it replaces a key piece of the automatic processing. We integrated the results of NET-VISA into the Analyst Review Station, extensively used by the analysts so that they can check the accuracy and robustness of the Bayesian approach. We expect the workload of the analysts to be reduced because of the better performance of NET-VISA in finding missed events and getting a more complete set of stations than the current system which has been operating for nearly twenty years. The results of a series of tests indicate that the expectations born from the automatic tests, which show an overall overlap improvement of 11%, meaning that the missed events rate is cut by 42%, hold for the integrated interactive module as well. New events are found by analysts, which qualify for the CTBTO Reviewed Event Bulletin, beyond the ones analyzed through the standard procedures. Arora, N., Russell, S., and Sudderth, E., NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis, 2013, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 103, 709-729.

  3. Association of BMI and pediatric urologic postoperative events: Results from pediatric NSQIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Michael P; McNamara, Erin R; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-08-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications in adults, but has not been investigated in children undergoing urologic procedures. Given the low rate of complications associated with urologic surgery, a large sample is required for their characterization, but BMI is frequently not available in administrative databases. Here we report results from the first nationally based, prospectively assembled cohort analyzed with respect to the association of BMI with 30-day postoperative events for pediatric urologic procedures. To determine the association of elevated BMI with overall 30-day postoperative events and wound complications in a large national sample of children undergoing urologic procedures. We queried the 2012 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (NSQIP), defining obesity as a BMI above the 95th percentile and overweight above the 85th percentile, per CDC definitions. We used BMI percentile as a referent group. Complications were collected within 30 days of the procedure. Comorbidity was classified on a linear scale using a validated pediatric-specific comorbidity score, and procedures were classified as genital, abdominal without bowel involvement, or abdominal with bowel involvement. Univariate and multivariate logistic models were used to test significance of associations. 2871 patients aged 2-18 years were analyzed. Of these, 420 (14.6%) were overweight and 440 (15.3%) were obese. A summary of 30-day events and complications is shown in the structured abstract table. On multivariate analysis adjusting for age, gender, class of procedure, and comorbidity, BMI remained a significant risk factor for 30-day events when comparing BMI ≥85th percentile to BMI percentile (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.8, p = 0.035). An exploratory subgroup analysis examining the rate of wound complications demonstrated an odds ratio of 2.36 (95% CI 1.28-4.35, p = 0.006) for BMI >85th percentile on multivariate

  4. Adult eyewitness memory and compliance: effects of post-event misinformation on memory for a negative event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Goodman, Gail S; Ibabe, Izaskun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated effects of misleading post-event information, delay, and centrality definition on eyewitness memory and suggestibility for a negative event (a vividly filmed murder). Either immediately or 2 weeks after viewing the film, 93 adults read a (misleading or control) narrative about the event and then completed a recognition memory test. Misinformation acceptance was operative, but strong evidence for memory malleability was lacking. Compliance predicted misinformation effects, especially on the delayed test. Although accuracy was generally higher for central than peripheral information, centrality criteria influenced the pattern of results. Self-report of greater distress was associated with better recognition accuracy. The results suggest that use of different centrality definitions may partly explain inconsistencies across studies of memory and suggestibility for central and peripheral information. Moreover, social factors appeared, at least in part, to influence misinformation effects for the highly negative event, especially as memory faded. Implications for eyewitness memory and suggestibility are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Stock market returns and clinical trial results of investigational compounds: an event study analysis of large biopharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    For biopharmaceutical companies, investments in research and development are risky, and the results from clinical trials are key inflection points in the process. Few studies have explored how and to what extent the public equity market values clinical trial results. Our study dataset matched announcements of clinical trial results for investigational compounds from January 2011 to May 2013 with daily stock market returns of large United States-listed pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Event study methodology was used to examine the relationship between clinical research events and changes in stock returns. We identified public announcements for clinical trials of 24 investigational compounds, including 16 (67%) positive and 8 (33%) negative events. The majority of announcements were for Phase 3 clinical trials (N = 13, 54%), and for oncologic (N = 7, 29%) and neurologic (N = 6, 24%) indications. The median cumulative abnormal returns on the day of the announcement were 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.3, 13.4%; P = 0.02) for positive events and -2.0% (95% CI: -9.1, 0.7%; P = 0.04) for negative events, with statistically significant differences from zero. In the day immediately following the announcement, firms with positive events were associated with stock price corrections, with median cumulative abnormal returns falling to 0.4% (95% CI: -3.8, 12.3%; P = 0.33). For firms with negative announcements, the median cumulative abnormal returns were -1.7% (95% CI: -9.5, 1.0%; P = 0.03), and remained significantly negative over the two day event window. The magnitude of abnormal returns did not differ statistically by indication, by trial phase, or between biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms. The release of clinical trial results is an economically significant event and has meaningful effects on market value for large biopharmaceutical companies. Stock return underperformance due to negative events is greater in magnitude and persists longer than

  6. Stock market returns and clinical trial results of investigational compounds: an event study analysis of large biopharmaceutical companies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hwang

    Full Text Available For biopharmaceutical companies, investments in research and development are risky, and the results from clinical trials are key inflection points in the process. Few studies have explored how and to what extent the public equity market values clinical trial results.Our study dataset matched announcements of clinical trial results for investigational compounds from January 2011 to May 2013 with daily stock market returns of large United States-listed pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Event study methodology was used to examine the relationship between clinical research events and changes in stock returns.We identified public announcements for clinical trials of 24 investigational compounds, including 16 (67% positive and 8 (33% negative events. The majority of announcements were for Phase 3 clinical trials (N = 13, 54%, and for oncologic (N = 7, 29% and neurologic (N = 6, 24% indications. The median cumulative abnormal returns on the day of the announcement were 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.3, 13.4%; P = 0.02 for positive events and -2.0% (95% CI: -9.1, 0.7%; P = 0.04 for negative events, with statistically significant differences from zero. In the day immediately following the announcement, firms with positive events were associated with stock price corrections, with median cumulative abnormal returns falling to 0.4% (95% CI: -3.8, 12.3%; P = 0.33. For firms with negative announcements, the median cumulative abnormal returns were -1.7% (95% CI: -9.5, 1.0%; P = 0.03, and remained significantly negative over the two day event window. The magnitude of abnormal returns did not differ statistically by indication, by trial phase, or between biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms.The release of clinical trial results is an economically significant event and has meaningful effects on market value for large biopharmaceutical companies. Stock return underperformance due to negative events is greater in magnitude and persists longer

  7. Applying spatiotemporal statistics to derive vulnerability patterns resulting from torrent events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S.; Heidger, C.; Ornetsmüller, C.

    2012-04-01

    Damages to the built environment resulting from torrent events are a considerable threat to Alpine societies. However, apart from the documentation of such events in terms of observed deposition heights or modelled geomorphological parameters, only little is known so far with respect to spatial and temporal patterns of the resulting loss ratio. Considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might be mutual reasons for lower or higher damage. Moreover, damage rates are not necessarily spatially overlapping with areas of high process intensities. We used the software SaTScan to analyse the spatiotemporal patterns behind the data of well-documented torrent events in the European Alps. Clusters of high damage ratios and clusters of low damage ratios were detectable in the test sites, but partially with only low statistical significance. By artificially modifying the dataset we derived a threshold necessary for an application of such a method in order to obtain statistically significant results. The method is targeted at a better understanding of the spatiotemporal vulnerability patterns of buildings exposed to torrent events.

  8. Measuring the effects of extreme weather events on yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, J.P.; Reinhard, S.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide, therefore, anticipating and calculating their effects on crop yields is important for topics ranging from food security to the economic viability of biomass products. Given the local nature of weather, particularly precipitation, effects

  9. Relation between stressful life events, neuropeptides and cytokines: results from the LISA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberth, Gunda; Weber, Annegret; Röder, Stefan; Elvers, Horst-Dietrich; Krämer, Ursula; Schins, Roel P F; Diez, Ulrike; Borte, Michael; Heinrich, Joachim; Schäfer, Thomas; Herbarth, Olf; Lehmann, Irina

    2008-12-01

    Stressful life events evidently have an impact on development of allergic diseases, but the mechanism linking stress to pathological changes of immune system function is still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between stressful life events, neuropeptide and cytokine concentrations in children. Within the LISAplus (Life style-Immune system-Allergy) study, blood samples from children of 6 yr of age were analysed for concentration of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP) and the Th1/Th2 cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-4. Life events such as severe disease or death of a family member, unemployment or divorce of the parents were assessed with a questionnaire filled in by the parents. For 234 children, blood analysis and questionnaire data regarding life events were available. Children with separated/divorced parents showed high VIP levels and high concentrations of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 in their blood. Severe diseases and death of a family member were neither associated with neuropeptide levels nor with cytokine concentrations. Unemployment of the parents was associated with decreased IFN-gamma concentrations in children's blood but not with neuropeptide levels, whereas children experiencing concomitant severe disease and death of a family member had reduced SP blood levels. The neuropeptide VIP might be a mediator between stressful life events and immune regulation contributing to the Th2 shifted immune response in children with separated/divorced parents. Unemployment of the parents was associated with immune regulation in children on the basis of a still unknown mechanism whereas reduced SP levels seem to have no effect on immune regulation.

  10. Effects of Adaptive Wormhole Routing in Event Builder Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, R; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J; Bauer, G

    2007-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider features a two-stage event builder, which combines data from about 500 sources into full events at an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/s. To meet the requirements, several architectures and interconnect technologies have been quantitatively evaluated. Both Gigabit Ethernet and Myrinet networks will be employed during the first run. Nearly full bi-section throughput can be obtained using a custom software driver for Myrinet based on barrel shifter traffic shaping. This paper discusses the use of Myrinet dual-port network interface cards supporting channel bonding to achieve virtual 5GBit/s links with adaptive routing to alleviate the throughput limitations associated with wormhole routing. Adaptive routing is not expected to be suitable for high-throughput event builder applications in high-energy physics. To corroborate this claim, results from the CMS event builder preseries installation at CERN are presented and the problems of ...

  11. Spatiotemporal predictability alters perceived duration of visual events: Memento effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Vanes, Lucy D; Huff, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Does event perception alter perceived duration? Previous research has shown that the perceived duration of a short scene depicting a disk moving along a segmented path is reduced when the temporal order of the motion segments is reversed (Memento effect). This effect has been attributed to the idea that reversed segments give rise to the perception of distinct visual events, whereas continuous segments are perceived as a single event. It has been suggested that the reduction in perceived duration is a result of perceiving multiple distinct events rather than 1. Here, the authors replicate and investigate the origin of the Memento effect. In 4 experiments, they explore the role of the spatiotemporal predictability of the disk's movement as well as the influence of the number of discrete events on perceived duration. Controlling for spatiotemporal predictability eliminates the Memento effect; however, controlling for the number of distinct events does not. Thus, the authors' results suggest that violations in spatiotemporal predictability rather than a varying number of discrete events induce the Memento effect. The authors discuss the impact of these findings for the perception of more naturalistic events. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Results of single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmed Tomov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery is a modern approach in the operative treatment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: Single-event multilevel orthopedic surgery was carried out in 108 patients with cerebral palsy. Patients’ average age was 11.3±1.7 years. Surgical results were analyzed at follow-up after 18 to 24 months, by way of detailed physical examination, functional assessment, imaging, the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score and Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Results: In our series, 647 procedures were performed during 141 surgeries. Patients had an average of 4.59 procedures per surgery. Observational gait analysis showed an improvement in stance and swing gait phases in ambulatory children. According to the Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire, an increase of functional level was noted in 50 patients but did not change in 32 patients. Conclusions: For children with cerebral palsy, single-event multilevel surgery is defined as two or more surgical procedures of the soft tissue or bone at two or more anatomical levels during one operative procedure. In cases where a large volume of surgery is required, two separate operations with a short break in between, but requiring only one hospital admission and one rehabilitation period, are also included. This approach requires adapted methods of surgical intervention, and appropriate methods of anesthesia and pain control in the postoperative period to the start of rehabilitation. Compliance with the above principles allowed the necessary correction of orthopedic complications to be achieved in all cases.

  13. Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of life event stress, exercise workload, hardiness and coping style on susceptibility to the common cold. GA Struwig, M Papaikonomou, P Kruger. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and DanceVol. 12(4) 2006: pp. 369-383. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  14. Single Event Effects in FPGA Devices 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of single event effects in FPGA devices 2014-2015 including commercial Xilinx V5 heavy ion accelerated testing, Xilinx Kintex-7 heavy ion accelerated testing. Mitigation study, and investigation of various types of triple modular redundancy (TMR) for commercial SRAM based FPGAs.

  15. Single Event Effects in FPGA Devices 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of single event effects in FPGA devices 2015-2016 including commercial Xilinx V5 heavy ion accelerated testing, Xilinx Kintex-7 heavy ion accelerated testing, mitigation study, and investigation of various types of triple modular redundancy (TMR) for commercial SRAM based FPGAs.

  16. Effect of first myocardial ischemic event on renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Wouter B. A.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Hillege, Hans L.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cardiovascular dysfunction on renal function have been poorly characterized. Therefore, we investigated the relation between a first ischemic cardiac event and long-term renal function changes in the general population from the PREVEND study. We studied 6,360 subjects with a total

  17. effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tranexamic acid can reduce bleeding in patients undergoing elective surgery. We assessed the effects of early administration of a short course of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and the receipt of blood transfusion in trauma patients. Methods: This randomised controlled trial was ...

  18. Adaptation to flood risk: Results of international paired flood event studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Apel, Heiko; Aronica, Giuseppe T.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Bubeck, Philip; Caloiero, Tommaso; Chinh, Do T.; Cortès, Maria; Gain, Animesh K.; Giampá, Vincenzo; Kuhlicke, Christian; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Mârd, Johanna; Matczak, Piotr; Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Molinari, Daniela; Dung, Nguyen V.; Petrucci, Olga; Schröter, Kai; Slager, Kymo; Thieken, Annegret H.; Ward, Philip J.; Merz, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    As flood impacts are increasing in large parts of the world, understanding the primary drivers of changes in risk is essential for effective adaptation. To gain more knowledge on the basis of empirical case studies, we analyze eight paired floods, that is, consecutive flood events that occurred in the same region, with the second flood causing significantly lower damage. These success stories of risk reduction were selected across different socioeconomic and hydro-climatic contexts. The potential of societies to adapt is uncovered by describing triggered societal changes, as well as formal measures and spontaneous processes that reduced flood risk. This novel approach has the potential to build the basis for an international data collection and analysis effort to better understand and attribute changes in risk due to hydrological extremes in the framework of the IAHSs Panta Rhei initiative. Across all case studies, we find that lower damage caused by the second event was mainly due to significant reductions in vulnerability, for example, via raised risk awareness, preparedness, and improvements of organizational emergency management. Thus, vulnerability reduction plays an essential role for successful adaptation. Our work shows that there is a high potential to adapt, but there remains the challenge to stimulate measures that reduce vulnerability and risk in periods in which extreme events do not occur.

  19. Mega-Events: The effect of the world’s biggest sporting events on local, regional, and national economies

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Matheson

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the economics of sports mega-events as well as a review of the existing literature in the field. The paper describes why boosters’ ex ante estimates of the economic impact of large sporting events tend to exaggerate the net economic benefits of these events and surveys the results of a large number of ex post studies of exploring the true impact of mega-events.

  20. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL SPACE AND THE ATHLETES’ JUMPING AND THROWING EVENTS RESULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 200 primary school students in the region of Prokuplje, male, aged 13 and 14 years, who, in addition to regular physical education classes, were included in the sports clubs training activities. The variables sample included 13 anthropometric measures as a set of predictors and four specific-motor tests of jumping (high jump and long jump and throwing events (shot put and javelin, as well as a set of criteria. The aim of this research was to examine the relation of morphological characteristics with the jumping and throwing events results, with elementary school students as athletes. Determining the relations and influence between the morphological characteristics and the specific motor skills was obtained by applying the canonical-correlation and regression analysis. The research of canonical correlation analysis results showed that there are statistically significant interlinks between canonical factors of morphological dimension Can. 0.81% (p = .000 and the results of examinee’s specific-motor skills in a long running jump, running high jump, shot put and javelin. Regression analysis results show that the morphological dimensions have an important prediction of the results of examinee’s specific-motor skills.

  1. Using relational databases to collect and store discrete-event simulation results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Soler, José

    2016-01-01

    Computer-based discrete-event simulation is a popular method to simulate telecommunication networks. As these networks grow larger in size and complexity, fast collection of simulation results and efficient storage is paramount. The usual simulation simulation workflow is to run the simulation......, export the results to a data carrier file and then process the results stored in a file using the data processing software. In this work, we propose to save the simulation results directly from a simulation tool to a computer database. We implemented a link between the discrete-even simulation tool...... and the database and performed performance evaluation of 3 different open-source database systems. We show, that with a right choice of a database system, simulation results can be collected and exported up to 2.67 times faster, and use 1.78 times less disk space when compared to using simulation software built...

  2. Single event effects in high-energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Alía, Rubén; Brugger, Markus; Danzeca, Salvatore; Cerutti, Francesco; de Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; Denz, Reiner; Ferrari, Alfredo; Foro, Lionel L.; Peronnard, Paul; Røed, Ketil; Secondo, Raffaello; Steckert, Jens; Thurel, Yves; Toccafondo, Iacocpo; Uznanski, Slawosz

    2017-03-01

    The radiation environment encountered at high-energy hadron accelerators strongly differs from the environment relevant for space applications. The mixed-field expected at modern accelerators is composed of charged and neutral hadrons (protons, pions, kaons and neutrons), photons, electrons, positrons and muons, ranging from very low (thermal) energies up to the TeV range. This complex field, which is extensively simulated by Monte Carlo codes (e.g. FLUKA) is due to beam losses in the experimental areas, distributed along the machine (e.g. collimation points) and deriving from the interaction with the residual gas inside the beam pipe. The resulting intensity, energy distribution and proportion of the different particles largely depends on the distance and angle with respect to the interaction point as well as the amount of installed shielding material. Electronics operating in the vicinity of the accelerator will therefore be subject to both cumulative damage from radiation (total ionizing dose, displacement damage) as well as single event effects which can seriously compromise the operation of the machine. This, combined with the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components due to budget, performance and availability reasons, results in the need to carefully characterize the response of the devices and systems to representative radiation conditions.

  3. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Besser, R.; Hejduk, M.

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for screening against the high accuracy catalog, then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is a primary source of state estimate uncertainty, and drag is directly governed by space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times, and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag), giving rise to several questions. Does a change in space weather make a close approach safer or riskier? Might performing a maneuver make the approach worse due to uncertainty in predicted location at a given time? What if there are errors in the predicted timing or magnitude of the space weather event? Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of drag perturbations on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction can become riskier or less risky. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag coefficient of the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the effect is likely to have on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, all of the observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  4. Proprioceptive event related potentials: gating and task effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2005-01-01

    stimuli of 100 g weight increase was recorded in 12 runs of 40 pairs and an 1:4 oddball task of discriminating between 40 and 100 g weight increase was both recorded in 24 healthy men. The subjects were stratified in 3 groups according to their discrimination errors. RESULTS: The proprioceptive event...

  5. Effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular events in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Crijns, Harry J G M; van Eickels, Martin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug that is being developed for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter trial to evaluate the use of dronedarone in 4628 patients with atrial fibrillation who had additional risk factors for death....... Patients were randomly assigned to receive dronedarone, 400 mg twice a day, or placebo. The primary outcome was the first hospitalization due to cardiovascular events or death. Secondary outcomes were death from any cause, death from cardiovascular causes, and hospitalization due to cardiovascular events....... RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 21+/-5 months, with the study drug discontinued prematurely in 696 of the 2301 patients (30.2%) receiving dronedarone and in 716 of the 2327 patients (30.8%) receiving placebo, mostly because of adverse events. The primary outcome occurred in 734 patients (31...

  6. Reaching out for patients: public relations and events with real results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechel, Marie Czenko

    2010-02-01

    In today's market, the aesthetic physician needs to connect with patients using methods that are personal, educational, and that will glean the interest of prospective patients whose attention and dollars are sought by countless facial plastic surgery competitors near and far. Public relations, or reaching your prospective patient without a direct solicitation (advertising) for services, are traditional means that include media relations and charitable and social events. With the added component of social media, today the opportunities to reach out for new patients and garner real results are more varied and more affordable than ever before. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. The Effects of Life Events and Socioeconomic Position in Childhood and Adulthood on Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Almar A L; Aartsen, Marja J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn

    2017-03-01

    Building on social stress theory, this study has 2 aims. First, we aim to estimate the effects of stressful life events in childhood and adulthood on Successful Aging (SA). Second, we examine how unequal exposure to such life events between individuals with different socioeconomic position (SEP) contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in SA. We used 16-year longitudinal data from 2,185 respondents aged 55-85 years in 1992 in the Dutch nationally representative Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Measurement of SA was based on earlier work, in which we integrated trajectories in 9 indicators of functioning into an index of SA. Using path analysis, we investigated direct and indirect effects of parental and adulthood SEP as well as of self-reported childhood and adulthood life events on SA. Almost all included life events had negative direct effects on SA. Parental SEP had no direct effect on SA, whereas adulthood SEP had. Higher Parental SEP increased the likelihood of parental problems and parental death in childhood, resulting in negative indirect effects on SA. Higher adulthood SEP had both positive and negative indirect effects on SA, through increasing the likelihood of divorce and unemployment, but decreasing the likelihood of occupational disability. SEP and particular stressful life events are largely, but not entirely independent predictors of SA. We found that high and low SEP may increase exposure to particular events that negatively affect SA. Findings suggest that low (childhood) SEP and stressful life events are interrelated factors that may limit individual opportunities to age successfully.

  8. Tunka-Rex. Event reconstruction and effect of antenna alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarina, Yulia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Irkutsk State University (ISU) (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The Tunka-Rex experiment (Tunka Radio Extension) has been deployed in autumn 2012 at the territory of the Tunka-133 experiment (Tunka Valley, Republic of Buryatia, Russia), covering an area of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. Tunka-133 detects the Cherenkov radiation from air showers of cosmic rays at energies E >or similar 10{sup 16.5}-10{sup 18} eV, and 25 antennas of Tunka-Rex measure the radio emission of the same air showers. Unlike most radio experiments the Tunka-Rex antennas are not aligned along the north-south and east-west axis, but rotated by 45 {sup circle} with respect to the geomagnetic north-south axis. Using CoREAS simulations, we studied the effect of the antenna alignment on the efficiency of Tunka-Rex in the presence of noise. This report presents the results of this study as well as methods for the reconstruction of measured air shower events.

  9. Thromboembolic Events Associated with Thalidomide and Multimodality Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Results of RTOG 0330

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RTOG 0330 was developed to address the toxicity of RTOG 9514 and to add thalidomide (THAL to MAID chemoradiation for intermediate/high grade soft tissue sarcomas (STSs and to preoperative radiation (XRT for low-grade STS. Methods. Primary/locally recurrent extremity/trunk STS: ≥8 cm, intermediate/high grade (cohort A: >5 cm, low grade (cohort B. Cohort A: 3 cycles of neoadjuvant MAID, 2 cycles of interdigitated THAL (200 mg/day/concurrent 22 Gy XRT, resection, 12 months of adjuvant THAL. Cohort B: neoadjuvant THAL/concurrent 50 Gy XRT, resection, 6 months of adjuvant THAL. Planned accrual 44 patients. Results. 22 primary STS patients (cohort A/B 15/7. Cohort A/B: median age of 49/47 years; median tumor size 12.8/10 cm. 100% preoperative THAL/XRT and surgical resection. Three cycles of MAID were delivered in 93% cohort A. Positive margins: 27% cohort A/29% cohort B. Adjuvant THAL: 60% cohort A/57% cohort B. Grade 3/4 venous thromboembolic (VTE events: 40% cohort A (1 catheter thrombus and 5 DVT or PE versus 0% cohort B. RTOG 0330 closed early due to cohort A VTE risk and cohort B poor accrual. Conclusion. Neoadjuvant MAID with THAL/XRT was associated with increased VTE events not seen with THAL/XRT alone or in RTOG 9514 with neoadjuvant MAID/XRT.

  10. Adaptation to flood risk: Results of international paired flood event studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2017-01-01

    As flood impacts are increasing in large parts of the world, understanding the primary drivers of changes in risk is essential for effective adaptation. To gain more knowledge on the basis of empirical case studies, we analyze eight paired floods, that is, consecutive flood events that occurred...... in the same region, with the second flood causing significantly lower damage. These success stories of risk reduction were selected across different socioeconomic and hydro-climatic contexts. The potential of societies to adapt is uncovered by describing triggered societal changes, as well as formal measures...... and spontaneous processes that reduced flood risk. This novel approach has the potential to build the basis for an international data collection and analysis effort to better understand and attribute changes in risk due to hydrological extremes in the framework of the IAHSs Panta Rhei initiative. Across all case...

  11. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...... additive hazards model.Results: During follow-up (1,085,049 person-years), a total of 1718 alcohol-related events occurred. The joint effect of very high alcohol consumption (>21 [>28] drinks per week in women [men]) and low education on alcohol-related events exceeded the sum of their separate effects...

  13. Impact of new traumatic or stressful life events on pre-existing PTSD in traumatized refugees: results of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A significant proportion of trauma survivors experience an additional critical life event in the aftermath. These renewed experiences of traumatic and stressful life events may lead to an increase in trauma-related mental health symptoms.Method: In a longitudinal study, the effects of renewed experiences of a trauma or stressful life event were examined. For this purpose, refugees seeking asylum in Germany were assessed for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, anxiety, and depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist [HSCL-25] before treatment start as well as after 6 and 12 months during treatment (N=46. Stressful life events and traumatic events were recorded monthly. If a new event happened, PDS and HSCL were additionally assessed directly afterwards. Mann–Whitney U-tests were performed to calculate the differences between the group that experienced an additional critical event (stressful vs. trauma during treatment (n=23 and the group that did not (n=23, as well as differences within the critical event group between the stressful life event group (n=13 and the trauma group (n=10.Results: Refugees improved significantly during the 12-month period of our study, but remained severely distressed. In a comparison of refugees with a new stressful life event or trauma, significant increases in PTS, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found directly after the experience, compared to the group without a renewed event during the 12 months of treatment. With regard to the different critical life events (stressful vs. trauma, no significant differences were found regarding overall PTS, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Only avoidance symptoms increased significantly in the group experiencing a stressful life event.Conclusion: Although all clinicians should be aware of possible PTS symptom reactivation, especially those working with refugees and asylum seekers, who often experience new critical life

  14. Reports about Occurrence of Events with Effect on Aviation Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a system, that is established to report the events with effect on safety. This system is based on requirements published in Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention and legislative foundations laid down in Regulation L13, Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU No 376/2014, Decree No. 359/2006 Sb. and Act No. 49/1997 Sb. Standards and legislative rules precisely define the types of events that are subject of reporting and also define the structure and content of the reporting message. This content is consists mainly of the identification data about the airplane and crew, information about the route and a short description of the damage to the airplane. In the following, we discuss the possible use of such a system of mandatory reporting for the needs of safety indicators. Then there are proposals of changes in the content of the reporting message for the need of safety indicators. The present knowledge indicates that the use of all opportunities provided by the law for the reporting of events can lead to a creating of sufficient basis for safety indicators.

  15. Climatic changes resulting from mass extinctions at the K-T boundary (and other bio-events)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Volk, Tyler

    1988-01-01

    The mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary include about 90 percent of marine calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths), and carbon-isotope data show that marine primary productivity was drastically reduced for about 500,000 years after the boundary event, the so-called Strangelove Ocean effect. One result of the elimination of most marine phytoplankton would have been a severe reduction in production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a biogenic gas that is believed to be the major precursor of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans. A drastic reduction in marine CCN should lead to a cloud canopy with significantly lower reflectivity, and hence cause a significant warming at the earth's surface. Calculations suggest that, all other things being held constant, a reduction in CCN of more than 80 percent (a reasonable value for the K-T extinctions) could have produced a rapid global warming of 6 C or more. Oxygen-isotope analyses of marine sediments, and other kinds of paleoclimatic data, have provided for a marked warming, and a general instability of climate coincident with the killoff of marine plankton at the K-T boundary. Similar reductions in phytoplankton abundance at other boundaries, as indicated by marked shifts in carbon-isotope curves, suggest that severe temperature changes may have accompanied other mass extinctions, and raises the intriguing possibility that the extinction events themselves could have contributed to the climatic instabilities at critical bio-events in the geologic record.

  16. Effect of traumatic event reexposure and PTSD on substance use disorder treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jessica M; Brooner, Robert K; King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    A remarkably high rate of traumatic event reexposure has been demonstrated in community-based substance users which negatively impacts their substance use disorder (SUD). The rate and effect of such reexposure in treatment is unknown. Despite increasing evidence that a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has little influence on long-term SUD treatment outcomes, it is possible that PTSD symptom fluctuations could have effects. This prospective longitudinal study examined the rate and effect of traumatic event reexposure and PTSD symptoms in 169 male and female methadone maintenance patients with a comorbid psychiatric disorder who were participating in a parent study. Traumatic events and PTSD symptoms were tested for association with drug use, treatment interruption, and counseling adherence in the same month, one month later, and two months later. Approximately 18% of patients were reexposed to a traumatic event each month during the 12-month study. Reexposure was associated with about twice the risk of treatment interruption in the same month and one month later. Every 10% increase in PTSD symptom severity was associated with a 36% increased risk of treatment interruption two months later. No effects were seen on drug use or counseling adherence. SUD patients have a relatively high rate of traumatic event reexposure. Both traumatic events and PTSD symptoms are associated with increased risk of treatment interruption, resulting in SUD patients leaving treatment at precisely the time they could benefit from treatment support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined effects of thrombosis pathway gene variants predict cardiovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Auro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic background of complex diseases is proposed to consist of several low-penetrance risk loci. Addressing this complexity likely requires both large sample size and simultaneous analysis of different predisposing variants. We investigated the role of four thrombosis genes: coagulation factor V (F5, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1, protein C (PROC, and thrombomodulin (THBD in cardiovascular diseases. Single allelic gene variants and their pair-wise combinations were analyzed in two independently sampled population cohorts from Finland. From among 14,140 FINRISK participants (FINRISK-92, n = 5,999 and FINRISK-97, n = 8,141, we selected for genotyping a sample of 2,222, including 528 incident cardiovascular disease (CVD cases and random subcohorts totaling 786. To cover all known common haplotypes (>10%, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped. Classification-tree analysis identified 11 SNPs that were further analyzed in Cox's proportional hazard model as single variants and pair-wise combinations. Multiple testing was controlled by use of two independent cohorts and with false-discovery rate. Several CVD risk variants were identified: In women, the combination of F5 rs7542281 x THBD rs1042580, together with three single F5 SNPs, was associated with CVD events. Among men, PROC rs1041296, when combined with either ICAM1 rs5030341 or F5 rs2269648, was associated with total mortality. As a single variant, PROC rs1401296, together with the F5 Leiden mutation, was associated with ischemic stroke events. Our strategy to combine the classification-tree analysis with more traditional genetic models was successful in identifying SNPs-acting either in combination or as single variants--predisposing to CVD, and produced consistent results in two independent cohorts. These results suggest that variants in these four thrombosis genes contribute to arterial cardiovascular events at population level.

  18. Traumatic event exposure and depression severity over time: results from a prospective cohort study in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Melissa; Morgenstern, Hal; Zivin, Kara; Aiello, Allison E; Galea, Sandro

    2014-11-01

    A substantial proportion of adults experience traumatic events each year, yet little is known about the effects of different types of traumatic events on depression severity over time. We prospectively assessed the effects of traumatic event exposure during a 1-year period on changes in depression severity during that period among a representative sample of adults living in Detroit, Michigan in the United States. We used data from 1,054 participants in the first two waves of the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (2008-2010). Depression severity was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the effect of traumatic event exposure on depression severity at Wave 2, adjusting for Wave 1 PHQ-9 score and potential confounders. The mean depression severity score at Wave 2 among those exposed to at least one traumatic event during follow-up was 1.71 times higher than among those with no traumatic event exposure [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.29]. Also positively associated with depression severity at Wave 2 (vs. no traumatic events) were assaultive violence (mean ratio 2.49, 95 % CI 1.41-4.38), injuries and other directly experienced shocking events (mean ratio 2.59, 95 % CI 1.62-3.82), and three or more traumatic events (mean ratio 2.58, 95 % CI 1.62-4.09). Violence, injuries, and other directly experienced traumatic events increase depression severity and may be useful targets for interventions to alleviate the burden of depression in urban areas.

  19. Impact of unplanned events on early postoperative results of minimally invasive esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xufeng; Ye, Bo; Yang, Yu; Sun, Yifeng; Hua, Rong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Mao, Teng; Li, Zhigang

    2017-10-30

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is increasingly performed worldwide. Unplanned events during thoracoscopy or laparoscopy can jeopardize the procedure, sometimes necessitating conversion to open surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of unplanned events on early postoperative outcomes after MIE. A consecutive group of 303 patients who underwent MIE between January 2011 and December 2015 were reviewed. The patients were allocated to two groups comprising those with (G-UPE, 85 patients) and without unplanned events (G-Regular, 218 patients). Unplanned events, defined as events that clearly changed or prolonged the procedure included intraoperative bleeding, chest and/or peritoneal adhesions, tumor invasion (sT4a + T4b), non-radical resection (R2 resection), and conversion for any reason. Differences in postoperative complications between the groups were analyzed. The most common unplanned events were pleural and/or peritoneal adhesions (28/89, 31.5%), followed by intraoperative discovery of tumor invasion (sT4a + T4b, 25/89, 28.1%). There were significant differences in the incidence of respiratory (57.6% vs. 8.3%) and nervous system complications (10.6% vs. 2.7%), postoperative infection (32.9% vs. 5.0%), and chylothorax (8.2% vs. 0.9%) between the G-UPE and G-Regular groups, respectively (P events during MIE increase the incidence of postoperative complications. Improved clinical staging and more careful surgery minimize unplanned events. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Indicators of healthcare results: analysis of adverse events during hospital stays

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Cristina Pires Nascimento; Maria Cecília Toffoletto; Leilane Andrade Gonçalves; Walkíria das Graças Freitas; Katia Grillo Padilha

    2008-01-01

    This quantitative, retrospective study aimed to characterize adverse events (AE) in Intensive Care Units (ICU), Semi-Intensive Care Units (SCU) and Inpatient Units (IU), regarding nature, type, day of the week and nursing professionals / patient ratio at the moment of occurrence; as well as to identify nursing interventions after the event and AE rates. The study was performed at a private hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred twenty-nine AE were notified. The predominant eve...

  1. Bose-Einstein correlations and results on minimum bias interactions, underlying event and particle production from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00098974; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The report on recent results of soft-QCD with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC are presented. The effects of space-time geometry in the hadronization phase has been studied in the context of Bose-Einstein correlations between charged particles, for determining the size and shape of the source from which particles are emitted and for interpreting of quark confinement effects. Bose-Einstein correlation parameters are investigated in p-p collisions at 0.9 and 7 TeV, up to very high charged-particle multiplicities. Measurements of the properties of charged particle production are presented from proton-proton collisions at different centre-of-mass energies in the range of 0.9 to 13 TeV and compared to various Monte Carlo event generator models. Furthermore particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event in proton-proton collisions have been measured and are compared to theoretical models. The production properties of mesons and baryons are presented and compared to predictions.

  2. Implementation of effective alcohol control strategies is needed at large sports and entertainment events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Mark; Galloway, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    To assess the implementation and effectiveness of strategies and actions to eliminate and/or reduce alcohol-related problems at large sports and entertainment events in New Zealand. We conducted site visits and monitoring observations at venues before, during and after a variety of large events between March 2009 and November 2010. Thirteen events were attended at nine different venues. Events included rugby, rugby league and cricket matches, motor racing, rowing, horse racing, an outdoor music festival, and food and wine festivals. Most large events appeared to pass with few or no alcohol-related problems. The exceptions were one of the horse-race meetings, a rugby league match and one food and wine festival. Common contexts at events where alcohol-related problems were seen included: inadequate alcohol control and management by security staff; the ability to purchase four alcoholic drinks (rather than two) at a time; inexperienced bar staff untrained in responsible alcohol service; no or little promotion of low and non-alcoholic drinks; and a lack of monitoring and enforcement of the law on intoxication. An important approach to prevent and reduce alcohol-related problems at large spots and entertainment events is the use of specific alcohol-control strategies. The management of alcohol consumption is a major part of event management that must be planned with harm-minimisation strategies well in advance of the event itself. If strategies and actions are not properly implemented to manage the sale and supply of alcohol at large events, there is significant risk of alcohol-related problems and harm resulting from them. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Event memory: the effects of processing objectives and time delay on memory for action sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, R S; Bodenhausen, G V

    1985-08-01

    The memorial representations of events that result from different types of goal-directed cognition are conceptualized on the basis of the general model of information processing proposed by Wyer and Srull (1980, 1984). In a test of this conceptualization, subjects read a passage describing the events that took place at a cocktail party. They were told either (a) to form an impression of the party and the events that occurred, (b) to empathize with the person from whose perspective the passage was written, or (c) to remember the information presented in a way that would allow them to reproduce it. The stimulus passage contained two target events, each consisting of actions that were either described chronologically or in reverse order, and were either presented together or were separated by other unrelated material. After either a short or a long delay, subjects recalled the information they read in the order it came to mind. Finally, subjects were given the individual event actions and told to place them in the order they were presented. The actions comprising target events were generally more likely to be recalled together and in chronological order when subjects had learned about them with either an impression formation or an empathy objective than when they had read about them with the goal of remembering them. However, orderings of these actions were affected by task objectives only after a long delay. The effect of task objectives on the order of recalling the events themselves showed a quite different pattern; for example, subjects with an empathy objective were most likely to recall the last target event presented before the first one after a long delay, whereas subjects with an impression objective were least likely to do so. The proposed model provided a reasonable account of these and other effects of task objectives on memory for events and the actions comprising them.

  4. Coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients. Results from the HARVEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatini, Paolo; Fania, Claudio; Mos, Lucio; Garavelli, Guido; Mazzer, Adriano; Cozzio, Susanna; Saladini, Francesca; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2016-06-01

    Controversy still exists about the long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee consumption in hypertension. The predictive capacity of coffee use for cardiovascular events (CVEs) was investigated in 1204 participants from the HARVEST, a prospective cohort study of non-diabetic subjects aged 18-45years, screened for stage 1 hypertension. Subjects were grouped into three categories of coffee drinking, non-drinkers (none), moderate drinkers (1 to 3cups/day) and heavy drinkers (4or more cups/day). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were developed adjusting for possible confounding variables and risk factors. During a median follow-up of 12.6years, CVEs were developed by 60 participants. CVEs were more common among coffee drinkers than abstainers (abstainers, 2.2%; moderate drinkers, 7.0%; heavy drinkers, 14.0%; p for trend=0.0003). In a multivariable Cox regression model, coffee use was a significant predictor of CVE in both coffee categories, with a hazard ratio of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.0-7.9) in moderate coffee drinkers and of 4.5 (1.4-14.2) in heavy drinkers compared to abstainers. After inclusion of change in body weight (p=ns), incident hypertension (p=0.027) and presence of diabetes/prediabetes (p=ns) at follow-up end, the association with CVE was attenuated but remained significant in heavy coffee drinkers (HR, 95% CI, 3.4, 1.04-11.3). These data show that coffee consumption increases the risk of CVE in a linear fashion in hypertension. This association may be explained in part by the association between coffee and development of hypertension. Hypertensive patients should be discouraged from drinking coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Out-of-Hospital Pediatric Patient Safety Events: Results of the CSI Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Garth; Hansen, Matthew; Lambert, William; O'Brien, Kerth; Dickinson, Caitlin; Dickinson, Kathryn; Van Otterloo, Joshua; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-10-12

    Studies of adult hospital patients have identified medical errors as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the frequency and nature of pediatric patient safety events in the out-of-hospital setting. We sought to quantify pediatric patient safety events in EMS and identify patient, call, and care characteristics associated with potentially severe events. As part of the Children's Safety Initiative -EMS, expert panels independently reviewed charts of pediatric critical ambulance transports in a metropolitan area over a three-year period. Regression models were used to identify factors associated with increased risk of potentially severe safety events. Patient safety events were categorized as: Unintended injury; Near miss; Suboptimal action; Error; or Management complication ("UNSEMs") and their severity and potential preventability were assessed. Overall, 265 of 378 (70.1%) unique charts contained at least one UNSEM, including 146 (32.8%) errors and 199 (44.7%) suboptimal actions. Sixty-one UNSEMs were categorized as potentially severe (23.3% of UNSEMs) and nearly half (45.3%) were rated entirely preventable. Two factors were associated with heightened risk for a severe UNSEM: (1) age 29 days to 11 months (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.25-8.68); (2) cases requiring resuscitation (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.16-8.28). Severe UNSEMs were disproportionately higher among cardiopulmonary arrests (8.5% of cases, 34.4% of severe UNSEMs). During high-risk out-of-hospital care of pediatric patients, safety events are common, potentially severe, and largely preventable. Infants and those requiring resuscitation are important areas of focus to reduce out-of-hospital pediatric patient safety events.

  6. Effect of amlodipine on cardiovascular events in hypertensive haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Hopfenmueller, Werner; Scholze, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Hypertensive haemodialysis patients may be at a high risk for cardiovascular events. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the calcium channel blocker amlodipine reduces mortality and cardiovascular events in these high-risk patients.......Hypertensive haemodialysis patients may be at a high risk for cardiovascular events. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the calcium channel blocker amlodipine reduces mortality and cardiovascular events in these high-risk patients....

  7. Compendium of Single-Event Latchup and Total Ionizing Dose Test Results of Commercial Analog to Digital Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports single-event latchup and total dose results for a variety of analog to digital converters targeted for possible use in NASA spacecraft's. The compendium covers devices tested over the last 15 years.

  8. Infrasound signals from events at the DPRK test site: observations and modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karl; Pilger, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Over the last ten years North Korea announced underground nuclear test explosions at its Punggyi-ri test site in October 2006, May 2009, February 2013 as well as in January and September 2016. For the test in February 2013 infrasound arrivals are clearly seen in recordings at IMS station IS45 in Russia. These have been associated to the event in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) along with an arrival for IMS station IS30, which appears hidden in the background noise of the waveforms. Even before these infrasound arrivals were detected, there have been reports from infrasound signals observed at a network of national infrasound stations in South Korea for the May 2009 events. These stations subsequently were also reported to have detected the 2013 event acoustically. More recently it was found for IS45 that it may have detections from the January 2016 underground nuclear explosion. Based on these reports we undertook a comprehensive study and searched for infrasound arrivals in the data of two IMS stations, IS30 and IS45, that could have originated from near-source conversion near the primary nuclear explosion source. For all events analyzed using the frequency-wavenumber (F-K) technique, we find infrasound signals, except for the events in 2009 and September 2016, that can be attributed to the source at the test site, in terms of appropriate arrival directions and apparent velocities. For the 2009 event we find a late acoustic arrival at IS45 corresponding to a previously observed arrival arriving early at South Korean stations, which are located in the opposite direction of IS45. We apply propagation modeling using ray tracing and parabolic equation calculations in order to verify all observed infrasound detections at the IMS stations as well as reported arrivals from a station in South Korea. Finally we also examined the case of the 12 May 2010 event, for which we find weak or spurious detections, but which we can model sufficiently well, so that we can not rule

  9. Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedts Stefaan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles in the van Allen radiation belts and in solar energetic particle events can damage satellites on orbit leading to malfunctions and loss of satellite service. Here we describe some recent results from the SPACECAST project on modelling and forecasting the radiation belts, and modelling solar energetic particle events. We describe the SPACECAST forecasting system that uses physical models that include wave-particle interactions to forecast the electron radiation belts up to 3 h ahead. We show that the forecasts were able to reproduce the >2 MeV electron flux at GOES 13 during the moderate storm of 7–8 October 2012, and the period following a fast solar wind stream on 25–26 October 2012 to within a factor of 5 or so. At lower energies of 10 – a few 100 keV we show that the electron flux at geostationary orbit depends sensitively on the high-energy tail of the source distribution near 10 RE on the nightside of the Earth, and that the source is best represented by a kappa distribution. We present a new model of whistler mode chorus determined from multiple satellite measurements which shows that the effects of wave-particle interactions beyond geostationary orbit are likely to be very significant. We also present radial diffusion coefficients calculated from satellite data at geostationary orbit which vary with Kp by over four orders of magnitude. We describe a new automated method to determine the position at the shock that is magnetically connected to the Earth for modelling solar energetic particle events and which takes into account entropy, and predict the form of the mean free path in the foreshock, and particle injection efficiency at the shock from analytical theory which can be tested in simulations.

  10. Effects of penetrating traumatic brain injury on event segmentation and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Jeffrey M; Kurby, Christopher A; Landazabal, Claudia S; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) is associated with deficits in cognitive tasks including comprehension and memory, and also with impairments in tasks of daily living. In naturalistic settings, one important component of cognitive task performance is event segmentation, the ability to parse the ongoing stream of behavior into meaningful units. Event segmentation ability is associated with memory performance and with action control, but is not well assessed by standard neuropsychological assessments or laboratory tasks. Here, we measured event segmentation and memory in a sample of 123 male military veterans aged 59-81 who had suffered a traumatic brain injury as young men, and 34 demographically similar controls. Participants watched movies of everyday activities and segmented them to identify fine-grained or coarse-grained events, and then completed tests of recognition memory for pictures from the movies and of memory for the temporal order of actions in the movies. Lesion location and volume were assessed with computed tomography (CT) imaging. Patients with traumatic brain injury were impaired on event segmentation. Those with larger lesions had larger impairments for fine segmentation and also impairments for both memory measures. Further, the degree of memory impairment was statistically mediated by the degree of event segmentation impairment. There was some evidence that lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) selectively impaired coarse segmentation; however, lesions outside of a priori regions of interest also were associated with impaired segmentation. One possibility is that the effect of vmPFC damage reflects the role of prefrontal event knowledge representations in ongoing comprehension. These results suggest that assessment of naturalistic event comprehension can be a valuable component of cognitive assessment in cases of traumatic brain injury, and that interventions aimed at event segmentation could be clinically helpful

  11. Effects of Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injury on Event Segmentation and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Landazabal, Claudia S.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating traumatic brain injury is associated with deficits in cognitive tasks including comprehension and memory, and also with impairments in tasks of daily living. In naturalistic settings, one important component of cognitive task performance is event segmentation, the ability to parse the ongoing stream of behavior into meaningful units. Event segmentation ability is associated with memory performance and with action control, but is not well assessed by standard neuropsychological assessments or laboratory tasks. Here, we measured event segmentation and memory in a sample of 123 male military veterans aged 59–81 who had suffered a traumatic brain injury as young men, and 34 demographically similar controls. Participants watched movies of everyday activities and segmented them to identify fine-grained or coarse-grained events, and then completed tests of recognition memory for pictures from the movies and of memory for the temporal order of actions in the movies. Lesion location and volume were assessed with computed tomography imaging. Patients with traumatic brain injury were impaired on event segmentation. Those with larger lesions had larger impairments for fine segmentation and also impairments for both memory measures. Further, the degree of memory impairment was statistically mediated by the degree of event segmentation impairment. There was some evidence that lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) selectively impaired coarse segmentation; however, lesions outside of a priori regions of interest also were associated with impaired segmentation. One possibility is that the effect of vmPFC damage reflects the role of prefrontal event knowledge representations in ongoing comprehension. These results suggest that assessment of naturalistic event comprehension can be a valuable component of cognitive assessment in cases of traumatic brain injury, and that interventions aimed at event segmentation could be clinically helpful. PMID:26704077

  12. Field Test Results of a New Ambulatory Care Medication Error and Adverse Drug Event Reporting System—MEADERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, John; Zafar, Atif; Kuo, Grace M.; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Forjuoh, Samuel N.; Knox, Lyndee M.; Lynch, John T.; Stevens, Brian Kelly; Pace, Wilson D.; Hamlin, Benjamin N.; Scherer, Hilary; Hudson, Brenda L.; Oppenheimer, Caitlin Carroll; Tierney, William M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE In this study, we developed and field tested the Medication Error and Adverse Drug Event Reporting System (MEADERS)—an easy-to-use, Web-based reporting system designed for busy office practices. METHODS We conducted a 10-week field test of MEADERS in which 220 physicians and office staff from 24 practices reported medication errors and adverse drug events they observed during usual clinical care. The main outcomes were (1) use and acceptability of MEADERS measured with a postreporting survey and interviews with office managers and lead physicians, and (2) distributions of characteristics of the medication event reports. RESULTS A total of 507 anonymous event reports were submitted. The mean reporting time was 4.3 minutes. Of these reports, 357 (70%) included medication errors only, 138 (27%) involved adverse drug events only, and 12 (2.4%) included both. Medication errors were roughly equally divided among ordering medications, implementing prescription orders, errors by patients receiving the medications, and documentation errors. The most frequent contributors to the medication errors and adverse drug events were communication problems (41%) and knowledge deficits (22%). Eight (1.6%) of the reported events led to hospitalization. Reporting raised staff and physician awareness of the kinds of errors that occur in office medication management; however, 36% agreed or strongly agreed that the event reporting “has increased the fear of repercussion in the practice.” Time pressure was the main barrier to reporting. CONCLUSIONS It is feasible for primary care clinicians and office staff to report medication errors and adverse drug events to a Web-based reporting system. Time pressures and a punitive culture are barriers to event reporting that must be overcome. Further testing of MEADERS as a quality improvement tool is warranted. PMID:21060122

  13. Aeration effects on metabolic events during sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad H; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine; La, Hyun-Joon; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2014-07-01

    The metabolism of Bacillus thuringiensis during its sporulation process was investigated under different concentrations of oxygen. At the beginning of sporulation, the aeration conditions were regulated to obtain different oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in four separate fermentations, representing interrupted, limited, non-limited, and saturated oxygenation, respectively. A higher OTR resulted in a higher pH, up to about 9 in the case of saturated oxygenation, while the interrupted oxygenation resulted in a significantly acidic culture. In contrast, the absence of oxygen resulted in rapid sporangia lysis and caused acidification of the medium, indicating a distinctly different sporangia composition and different metabolism. The bacterium also showed different CO2 production rates during sporulation, although a maximum point was observed in every case.With a higher OTR, the maximal value was observed after a longer time and at a lower value (40, 26, and 13 mmol/L/h for limited, non-limited, and saturated cases, respectively). Despite the exhaustion of glucose prior to the sporulation phase, the interrupted oxygenation resulted in acetate, lactate, and citrate in the medium with a maximum concentration of 4.8, 1.3, and 5.0 g/L, respectively. Notwithstanding, while the metabolic events differed visibly in the absence of oxygen, once sporulation was triggered, it was completed, even in the case of an interrupted oxygen supply.

  14. Effects of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients receiving hemodialysis: the EValuation Of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; London, Gerard M; Parfrey, Patrick S; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Dehmel, Bastian; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Kubo, Yumi; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Goodman, William G; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M; Herzog, Charles A

    2014-11-17

    Premature cardiovascular disease limits the duration and quality of life on long-term hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events attributable to atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms, risk factors for these events, and the effects of cinacalcet, using adjudicated data collected during the EValuation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial. EVOLVE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet or matched placebo for up to 64 months. For this post hoc analysis, the outcome measure was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events reflecting atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. During the trial, 1518 patients experienced an adjudicated cardiovascular event, including 958 attributable to nonatherosclerotic disease. Of 1421 deaths during the trial, 768 (54%) were due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden death was the most frequent fatal cardiovascular event, accounting for 24.5% of overall mortality. Combining fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, randomization to cinacalcet reduced the rates of sudden death and heart failure. Patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced fewer nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events (adjusted relative hazard 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96), while the effect of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic events did not reach statistical significance. Accepting the limitations of post hoc analysis, any benefits of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in the context of hemodialysis may result from attenuation of nonatherosclerotic processes. Unique identifier: NCT00345839. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Canagliflozin for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events: Results From the CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado; de Zeeuw, Dick; Fulcher, Greg; Erondu, Ngozi; Shaw, Wayne; Fabbrini, Elisa; Sun, Tao; Li, Qiang; Desai, Mehul; Matthews, David R

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND : Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that significantly reduces the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated cardiovascular risk. The comparative effects among participants with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (secondary versus primary prevention) were prespecified for evaluation. METHODS : The CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) randomly assigned 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus to canagliflozin or placebo. The primary prevention cohort comprised individuals ≥50 years of age with ≥2 risk factors for cardiovascular events but with no prior cardiovascular event, and the secondary prevention cohort comprised individuals ≥30 years of age with a prior cardiovascular event. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes included heart failure hospitalization and a renal composite (40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate, renal replacement therapy, or renal death). RESULTS : Primary prevention participants (N=3486; 34%) were younger (63 versus 64 years of age), were more often female (45% versus 31%), and had a longer duration of diabetes mellitus (14 versus 13 years) compared with secondary prevention participants (N=6656; 66%). The primary end point event rate was higher in the secondary prevention group compared with the primary prevention group (36.9 versus 15.7/1000 patient-years, Pprimary end point was reduced with canagliflozin compared with placebo (26.9 versus 31.5/1000 patient-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.97; Pprimary (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.74-1.30) and secondary prevention (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.95) cohorts. Renal outcomes (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.79 versus HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.39-1.02; interaction P value=0.73) and heart

  16. Some psychological effects associated with positive and negative thinking about stressful event outcomes: was Pollyanna right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhart, D E

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated psychological effects associated with tendencies to focus one's thinking on positive versus negative outcomes of concluded stressful events, called respectively, positive and negative thinking. Four questions were addressed: (a) whether positive and negative thinking benefit or reduce psychological well-being, (b) whether these effects are transitory or enduring, (c) whether they are limited to thoughts about an event's impact on oneself or generalize to thoughts about an event's external consequences, and (d) whether tendencies to think positively or negatively about prior stressors influence psychological vulnerability to the impact of future ones. College students completed an event-outcome appraisal questionnaire designed to make salient positive and negative thoughts about the outcomes of recent stressful events. Subjects' well-being was then assessed both immediately after the salience manipulation and again 8 weeks later. Positive thinking increased the well-being that subjects reported immediately after their thoughts were assessed, but was unrelated to the well-being they reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively about past event outcomes may temporarily lead to perceptions of increased well-being while the thoughts are salient, it has no enduring influence. In contrast, negative thinking was associated with lower reported well-being not only when the thoughts were salient but after a delay as well. Psychological effects associated with both types of thinking were due mostly to self-relevant thoughts rather than to externally relevant ones. Negative thinking about prior stressor outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability to the impact of later ones on several aspects of well-being. Overall, results for negative thinking are consistent with evidence reported after an 8-week delay. This suggests that although thinking positively effects that persist over time. However, positive thinking does not

  17. A pulsed nanosecond IR laser diode system to automatically test the Single Event Effects in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Bizzarri, M; Blasko, S; Caraffini, D; Dimasso, L; Esposito, G; Farnesini, L; Ionica, M; Menichelli, M; Papi, A; Pontetti, G; Postolache, V

    2002-01-01

    A pulsed nanosecond IR laser diode system to automatically test the Single Event Effects in laboratory is described. The results of Single Event Latchup (SEL) test on two VLSI chips (VA sub H DR64, 0.8 and 1.2 mu m technology) are discussed and compared to those obtained with high-energy heavy ions at GSI (Darmstadt).

  18. Solar Irradiance Changes And Photobiological Effects At Earth's Surface Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Neale, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth for decades. Although there is some direct biological damage on the surface from redistributed radiation several studies have indicated that the greatest long term threat is from ozone depletion and subsequent heightened solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is known that organisms exposed to this irradiation experience harmful effects such as sunburn and even direct damage to DNA, proteins, or other cellular structures. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In the present work, we employed a radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light). Using biological weighting functions we have considered a wide range of effects, including: erythema and skin cancer in humans; inhibition of photosynthesis in the diatom Phaeodactylum sp. and dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans inhibition of carbon fixation in Antarctic phytoplankton; inhibition of growth of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Otana) seedlings; and cataracts. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in

  19. 49 CFR 40.162 - What must MROs do with multiple verified results for the same testing event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What must MROs do with multiple verified results for the same testing event? 40.162 Section 40.162 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... and the Verification Process § 40.162 What must MROs do with multiple verified results for the same...

  20. Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and positive (posttraumatic growth – PTG effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Material and Methods: Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59% who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73. Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy – positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. Conclusions: The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5:635–644

  1. PROPAGATION OF THE 2014 JANUARY 7 CME AND RESULTING GEOMAGNETIC NON-EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, M. L.; Collinson, G.; Taktakishvili, A. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, B. J.; Jian, L. K.; Savani, N. P.; MacNeice, P. J.; Zheng, Y. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Colaninno, R. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Odstrcil, D. [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Möstl, C. [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); Temmer, M., E-mail: m.leila.mays@nasa.gov [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)

    2015-10-20

    On 2014 January 7 an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) with a radial speed ≈2500 km s{sup −1} was observed from near an active region close to disk center. This led many forecasters to estimate a rapid arrival at Earth (≈36 hr) and predict a strong geomagnetic storm. However, only a glancing CME arrival was observed at Earth with a transit time of ≈49 hr and a K{sub P} geomagnetic index of only 3−. We study the interplanetary propagation of this CME using the ensemble Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)–ENLIL+Cone model, that allows a sampling of CME parameter uncertainties. We explore a series of simulations to isolate the effects of the background solar wind solution, CME shape, tilt, location, size, and speed, and the results are compared with observed in situ arrivals at Venus, Earth, and Mars. Our results show that a tilted ellipsoid CME shape improves the initial real-time prediction to better reflect the observed in situ signatures and the geomagnetic storm strength. CME parameters from the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model used as input to WSA–ENLIL+Cone, along with a tilted ellipsoid cloud shape, improve the arrival-time error by 14.5, 18.7, 23.4 hr for Venus, Earth, and Mars respectively. These results highlight that CME orientation and directionality with respect to observatories play an important role in understanding the propagation of this CME, and for forecasting other glancing CME arrivals. This study also demonstrates the importance of three-dimensional CME fitting made possible by multiple viewpoint imaging.

  2. Results of Simulated Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) on Spectra Restraint Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin; Hussain, Sarosh; Waller, Jess

    2017-01-01

    Spectra or similar Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric is the likely choice for future structural space suit restraint materials due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance, and dimensional stability. During long duration space missions, space suits will be subjected to significant amounts of high-energy radiation from several different sources. To insure that pressure garment designs properly account for effects of radiation, it is important to characterize the mechanical changes to structural materials after they have been irradiated. White Sands Test Facility (WSFTF) collaborated with the Crew and Thermal Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to irradiate and test various space suit materials by examining their tensile properties through blunt probe puncture testing and single fiber tensile testing after the materials had been dosed at various levels of simulated GCR and SPE Iron and Proton beams at Brookhaven National Laboratories. The dosages were chosen based on a simulation developed by the Structural Engineering Division at JSC for the expected radiation dosages seen by space suit softgoods seen on a Mars reference mission. Spectra fabric tested in the effort saw equivalent dosages at 2x, 10x, and 20x the predicted dose as well as a simulated 50 year exposure to examine the range of effects on the material and examine whether any degradation due to GCR would be present if the suit softgoods were stored in deep space for a long period of time. This paper presents the results of this work and outlines the impact on space suit pressure garment design for long duration deep space missions.

  3. Effect of simulation on nursing knowledge and critical thinking in failure to rescue events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carolyn R

    2012-10-01

    Failure to rescue events are hospital deaths that result from human error and unsafe patient conditions. A failure to rescue event implies that the last and best chance to avoid tragedy is not acted on in time to avoid a disaster. Patient safety is often compromised by nurses who do not perform accurate assessments (vigilance), do not detect clinical changes (surveillance), or do not display critical thinking (recognition that something is wrong). This project used simulation as a teaching strategy to enhance nursing performance. Medical-surgical nurses took part in a simulated failure to rescue event in which the patient's clinical condition deteriorated rapidly. Nursing knowledge and critical thinking improved after the simulation and showed the effectiveness of simulation as a teaching strategy to address nursing knowledge and critical thinking skills. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Cook, Emily C; Connell, Christian M

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = .98; 68 % girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors.

  5. Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C; Neale, Patrick J; Snyder, Brock R

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible (TUV) radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA-damaging radiation are still similar to our improved calculations. We also found that the intensity of biologically damaging radiation varies widely with organism and specific impact considered; these results have implications for biosphere-level damage following astrophysical ionizing radiation events. When considering changes in surface-level visible light irradiance, we found that, contrary to previous assumptions, a decrease in irradiance is only present for a short time in very limited geographical areas; instead we found a net increase for most of the modeled time-space region. This result has implications for proposed climate changes associated with ionizing radiation events.

  6. [Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth - PTG) effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59%) who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy - positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5):635-644.

  7. Stressful life events and adolescent substance use and depression: conditional and gender differentiated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J P; Su, S S

    1998-09-01

    Stressful life circumstances have myriad influences on human health and behavior. Early research focused on the variable distribution of stress and its effects by socioeconomic status, race, and gender. More recent research indicates that variation by age is also an important consideration. For example, adolescent reactions to stressful life events are often inconsistent with adult reactions to similar life situations and transitions. Moreover, since most studies assess only a single outcome--usually depression--they risk classification bias since analyses exclude other potential stress-related outcomes. This paper assesses the gender distinct effects of stressful life events on two outcomes among adolescents, substance use and depressive symptoms. The results of a second-order regression model indicate that life events affect female, but not male, depressive symptoms, especially when self-esteem is low or mastery is high. Furthermore, life events affect substance use when peer drug use is high, or when parental support is low, but this latter effect is limited to female adolescents.

  8. Single Event Effects Test Facility Options at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Gallmeier, Franz X [ORNL; Dominik, Laura J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of microelectronics of ever diminishing feature size in avionics systems has led to a growing Single Event Effects (SEE) susceptibility arising from the highly ionizing interactions of cosmic rays and solar particles. Single event effects caused by atmospheric radiation have been recognized in recent years as a design issue for avionics equipment and systems. To ensure a system meets all its safety and reliability requirements, SEE induced upsets and potential system failures need to be considered, including testing of the components and systems in a neutron beam. Testing of integrated circuits (ICs) and systems for use in radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities that can run evaluations on microcircuits for the effects of radiation. This paper provides a background of the atmospheric radiation phenomenon and the resulting single event effects, including single event upset (SEU) and latch up conditions. A study investigating requirements for future single event effect irradiation test facilities and developing options at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is summarized. The relatively new SNS with its 1.0 GeV proton beam, typical operation of 5000 h per year, expertise in spallation neutron sources, user program infrastructure, and decades of useful life ahead is well suited for hosting a world-class SEE test facility in North America. Emphasis was put on testing of large avionics systems while still providing tunable high flux irradiation conditions for component tests. Makers of ground-based systems would also be served well by these facilities. Three options are described; the most capable, flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station using about one kW of proton beam power on a gas-cooled tungsten target, with dual test enclosures. Less expensive options are also described.

  9. Effectiveness of public health messaging and communication channels during smoke events: A rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer A; Peters, Micah D J; Ramsey, Imogen; Sharplin, Greg; Corsini, Nadia; Eckert, Marion

    2017-05-15

    Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review. Principal results were: 1) Smoke-related public health messages are communicated via a variety of channels, but limited evidence is available regarding their effectiveness for the general public or at-risk groups. 2) Messages that use simple language are more commonly recalled, understood, and complied with. Compliance differs according to socio-demographic characteristics. 3) At-risk groups may be advised to stay indoors before the general population, in order to protect the most vulnerable people in a community. The research included in this review was observational and predominantly descriptive, and is therefore unable to sufficiently answer questions regarding effectiveness. Experimental research, as well as evaluations, are required to examine the effectiveness of modern communication channels, channels to reach at-risk groups, and the 'stay indoors' message. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  11. Single Event Effect Hardware Trojans with Remote Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    BJT , N-channel Power MOSFET Single Event Gate Rupture SEGR Rupture of gate dielectric due to high electrical field conditions Power MOSFETs, Non...device sizing, or a different transistor threshold voltage (Vt). Once triggered by an SEE the Trojan enable signal would be connected to a

  12. Sibling Socialization: The Effects of Stressful Life Events and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…

  13. Single Event Effects Testing of the Linfinity SG1525A Pulse Width Modulator Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. W., Jr.; Carts, M. A.; LaBel, K. A.; Forney, J. D.; Irwin, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) Controllers are the heart of switching power supply systems in development today. The PWMs considered here have the same integration advantages as many other controllers but it also includes the interface drivers for the follow-on power Field Effect Transistors (FET). Previous work on these types of devices looked into the required test methodologies [ 11 and the impact of radiation on the soft start and shutdown circuits of typically incorporated in the technology [2]. Taking advantage of this previous work this study was undertaken to determine the single event destructive and transient susceptibility of the Linfinity SG1525A Pulse Width Modulator Controller. The device was monitored for transient interruptions in the output signals and for destructive events induced by exposing it to a heavy ion beam at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility. After exposing these devices to the beam, a new upset mode has been identified that can lead to catastrophic power supply system failure if this event would occur while drive power FETs off the two device outputs. The devices and the test methods used will be described first. This will be followed by a brief description of the data collected to date (not all data can be presented with the length constraints of the summary) and a summary of the key results.

  14. Compendium of Single Event Effects, Total Ionizing Dose, and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Chen, Dakai; Campola, Michael J.; Casey, Megan C.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results and analysis investigating the effects of radiation on a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects (SEE), proton-induced displacement damage (DD), and total ionizing dose (TID). Introduction: This paper is a summary of test results.NASA spacecraft are subjected to a harsh space environment that includes exposure to various types of ionizing radiation. The performance of electronic devices in a space radiation environment is often limited by its susceptibility to single event effects (SEE), total ionizing dose (TID), and displacement damage (DD). Ground-based testing is used to evaluate candidate spacecraft electronics to determine risk to spaceflight applications. Interpreting the results of radiation testing of complex devices is quite difficult. Given the rapidly changing nature of technology, radiation test data are most often application-specific and adequate understanding of the test conditions is critical. Studies discussed herein were undertaken to establish the application-specific sensitivities of candidate spacecraft and emerging electronic devices to single-event upset (SEU), single-event latchup (SEL), single-event gate rupture (SEGR), single-event burnout (SEB), single-event transient (SET), TID, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS), and DD effects.

  15. Cold-water event of January 2010 results in catastrophic benthic mortality on patch reefs in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, M. A.; Ruzicka, R. R.; Kidney, J. A.; Morrison, J. M.; Brinkhuis, V. B.

    2012-06-01

    The Florida Keys are periodically exposed to extreme cold-water events that can have pronounced effects on coral reef community structure. In January 2010, the Florida Keys experienced one of the coldest 12-day periods on record, during which water temperatures decreased below the lethal limit for many tropical reef taxa for several consecutive days. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the scleractinian mortality and acute changes to benthic cover at four patch reefs in the middle and upper Keys that coincided with this cold-water event. Significant decreases in benthic cover of scleractinian corals, gorgonians, sponges, and macroalgae were observed between summer 2009 and February 2010. Gorgonian cover declined from 25.6 ± 4.6% (mean ± SE) to 13.3 ± 2.7%, scleractinian cover from 17.6 ± 1.4% to 10.7 ± 0.9%, macroalgal cover from 8.2 ± 5.2% to 0.7 ± 0.3%, and sponge cover from 3.8 ± 1.4% to 2.3 ± 1.2%. Scleractinian mortality varied across sites depending upon the duration of lethal temperatures and the community composition. Montastraea annularis complex cover was reduced from 4.4 ± 2.4% to 0.6 ± 0.2%, and 93% of all colonies surveyed suffered complete or partial mortality. Complete or partial mortality was also observed in >50% of all Porites astreoides and Montastraea cavernosa colonies and resulted in a significant reduction in cover. When compared with historical accounts of cold-water-induced mortality, our results suggest that the 2010 winter mortality was one of the most severe on record. The level of coral mortality on patch reefs is of particular concern because corals in these habitats had previously demonstrated resistance against stressors (e.g., disease and warm-water bleaching) that had negatively affected corals in other habitats in the Florida Keys during recent decades.

  16. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  17. The effect of cosmic rays on biological systems - an investigation during GLE events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisheva, N. K.; Lammer, H.; Biernat, H. K.; Vashenuyk, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, first direct and circumstantial evidences of the effects of cosmic rays (CR) on biological systems are presented. A direct evidence of biological effects of CR is demonstrated in experiments with three cellular lines growing in culture during three events of Ground Level Enhancement (GLEs) in the neutron count rate detected by ground-based neutron monitor in October 1989. Various phenomena associated with DNA lesion on the cellular level demonstrate coherent dynamics of radiation effects in all cellular lines coincident with the time of arrival of high-energy solar particles to the near-Earth space and with the main peak in GLE. These results were obtained in the course of six separate experiments, with partial overlapping of the time of previous and subsequent experiments, which started and finished in the quiet period of solar activity (SA). A significant difference between the values of multinuclear cells in all cellular lines in the quiet period and during GLE events indicates that the cause of radiation effects in the cell cultures is an exposure of cells to the secondary solar CR near the Earth's surface. The circumstantial evidence was obtained by statistical analysis of cases of congenital malformations (CM) at two sites in the Murmansk region. The number of cases of all classes of CM reveals a significant correlation with the number of GLE events. The number of cases of CM with pronounced chromosomal abnormalities clearly correlates with the GLE events that occurred a year before the birth of a child. We have found a significant correlation between modulations of the water properties and daily background variations of CR intensity. We believe that the effects of CR on biological systems can be also mediated by fluctuations in water properties, considered as one of possible mechanisms controlling the effects of CRs on biological systems.

  18. Event displays and plots of latest results from ATLAS Higgs Search

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, collaboration

    2012-01-01

    On 4 July, 2012, the ATLAS experiment presented a preview of its updated results on the search for the Higgs Boson. The results were shown at a seminar held jointly at CERN and via video link at ICHEP 2012, the International Conference for High Energy Physics in Melbourne, Australia, where detailed analyses will be presented later this week. More information at http://atlas.cern

  19. Bose-Einstein correlations and results on minimum bias interactions, underlying event and particle production from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitsky, Yuri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The effects of space-time geometry in the hadronization phase has been studied in the context of Bose-Einstein correlations between charged particles, for determining the size and shape of the source from which particles are emitted and for interpreting of quark confinement effects. Bose-Einstein correlation parameters are investigated in p-p collisions at 900 GeV and 7 TeV, up to very high charged-particle multiplicities. Measurements of the properties of charged particle production are presented from proton-proton collisions at different centre-of-mass energies in the range of 0.9 to 13 TeV and compared to various Monte Carlo event generator models. Furthermore particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event in proton-proton collisions have been measured and are compared to theoretical models. The production properties of mesons and baryons are presented and compared to predictions.

  20. Influence of heavy ion flux on single event effect testing in memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Liu, Jie; Sun, Youmei; Hou, Mingdong; Xi, Kai; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Bin; Ye, Bing

    2017-09-01

    The natural space presents a particle flux variable environment and choosing a suitable flux value for ground-based single event experiments is an unresolved problem so far. In this work, various types of memory devices have been tested over the ion flux range from 10 to 105 ions/(cm2·s) using different ions covering LET from 10.1 to 99.8 MeV·cm2/mg. It was found that for most devices the error rates of single event upsets are affected by the applied flux value. And the effect involving flux becomes prominent as it is increased above 103 ions/(cm2·s). Different devices behave differently as the flux is increased and the flux effect depends strongly on the LET of the impinging ions. The results concluded in this experiment are discussed in detail and recommendations for choosing appropriate experimental flux are given.

  1. Effects of a flooding event on a threatened black bear population in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Lowe, Carrie L.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The Louisiana black bear, Ursus americanus luteolus, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act as a result of habitat loss and human-related mortality. Information on population-level responses of large mammals to flooding events is scarce, and we had a unique opportunity to evaluate the viability of the Upper Atchafalaya River Basin (UARB) black bear population before and after a significant flooding event. We began collecting black bear hair samples in 2007 for a DNA mark-recapture study to estimate abundance (N) and apparent survival (φ). In 2011, the Morganza Spillway was opened to divert floodwaters from the Mississippi River through the UARB, inundating > 50% of our study area, potentially impacting recovery of this important bear population. To evaluate the effects of this flooding event on bear population dynamics, we used a robust design multistate model to estimate changes in transition rates from the flooded area to non-flooded area (ψF→NF) before (2007–2010), during (2010–2011) and after (2011–2012) the flood. Average N across all years of study was 63.2 (SE = 5.2), excluding the year of the flooding event. Estimates of ψF→NF increased from 0.014 (SE = 0.010; meaning that 1.4% of the bears moved from the flooded area to non-flooded areas) before flooding to 0.113 (SE = 0.045) during the flood year, and then decreased to 0.028 (SE= 0.035) after the flood. Although we demonstrated a flood effect on transition rates as hypothesized, the effect was small (88.7% of the bears remained in the flooded area during flooding) and φ was unchanged, suggesting that the 2011 flooding event had minimal impact on survival and site fidelity.

  2. Effect of traumatic event reexposure and PTSD on substance use disorder treatment response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peirce, Jessica M; Brooner, Robert K; King, Van L; Kidorf, Michael S

    .... This prospective longitudinal study examined the rate and effect of traumatic event reexposure and PTSD symptoms in 169 male and female methadone maintenance patients with a comorbid psychiatric...

  3. Stressful Life Events and Depression Symptoms: The Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse on Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Black, Shimrit K.; Liu, Richard T.; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. Method In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. PMID:23800893

  4. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  5. Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dietrich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.

    Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade school classes in Austria (2002-2004, mainly in Vienna (N=260. The control group consisted of 231 subjects. Medical examinations were performed and the participantsf knowledge on good nutrition and dietary habits were collected. Twelve nutrition sessions, one hour per week in each class, were conducted. Teachers were advised to discuss health issues in their classes and specific exercise physiologists were informed about how to integrate appropriate exercises into their lessons.

    Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks and at follow up (10 months. 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI .90.Perc..

    Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.

  6. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, Matthew D.; Newman, Lauri K.; Besser, Rebecca L.; Pachura, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for conjunction assessment screening against the JSpOC high accuracy catalog and then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is the primary source of state estimate uncertainty. Drag magnitude and uncertainty is directly governed by atmospheric density and thus space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature, which do not perform well in prediction. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 (JBH09) atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag). Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of JBH09 model error on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction is likely to become riskier, less risky, or pass unaffected. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag situation for the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the range of possible effects on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, the different types of observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  7. Delay-time distribution of core-collapse supernovae with late events resulting from binary interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zapartas, E.; de, Mink SE; Izzard, Robert George; Yoon, S-C; Badenes, C.; Götberg, Y; de Koter A.; Neijssel, CJ; Renzo, M; Schootemeijer, A.; Shrotriya, TS

    2017-01-01

    Most massive stars, the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, are in close binary systems and may interact with their companion through mass transfer or merging. We undertake a population synthesis study to compute the delay-time distribution of core-collapse supernovae, that is, the supernova rate versus time following a starburst, taking into account binary interactions. We test the systematic robustness of our results by running various simulations to account for the uncertainties in ou...

  8. Effects of Sex and Event Type on Head Impact in Collegiate Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885

  9. Comparing Physics Scheme Performance for a Lake Effect Snowfall Event in Northern Lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Arnott, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution forecast models, such as those used to predict severe convective storms, can also be applied to predictions of lake effect snowfall. A high resolution WRF model forecast model is provided to support operations at NWS WFO Gaylord, Michigan, using a 12 ]km and 4 ]km nested configuration. This is comparable to the simulations performed by other NWS WFOs adjacent to the Great Lakes, including offices in the NWS Eastern Region who participate in regional ensemble efforts. Ensemble efforts require diversity in initial conditions and physics configurations to emulate the plausible range of events in order to ascertain the likelihood of different forecast scenarios. In addition to providing probabilistic guidance, individual members can be evaluated to determine whether they appear to be biased in some way, or to better understand how certain physics configurations may impact the resulting forecast. On January 20 ]21, 2011, a lake effect snow event occurred in Northern Lower Michigan, with cooperative observing and CoCoRaHS stations reporting new snow accumulations between 2 and 8 inches and liquid equivalents of 0.1 ]0.25 h. The event of January 21, 2011 was particularly well observed, with numerous surface reports available. It was also well represented by the WRF configuration operated at NWS Gaylord. Given that the default configuration produced a reasonable prediction, it is used here to evaluate the impacts of other physics configurations on the resulting prediction of the primary lake effect band and resulting QPF. Emphasis here is on differences in planetary boundary layer and cloud microphysics parameterizations, given their likely role in determining the evolution of shallow convection and precipitation processes. Results from an ensemble of seven microphysics schemes and three planetary boundary layer schemes are presented to demonstrate variability in forecast evolution, with results used in an attempt to improve the forecasts in the 2011 ]2012

  10. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  11. Polarimetric Emission of Rain Events: Simulation and Experimental Results at X-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Duffo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate models are used today for infrared and microwave satellite radiance simulations of the first two Stokes elements in the physical retrieval, data assimilation etc. of surface and atmospheric parameters. Although in the past a number of theoretical and experimental works have studied the polarimetric emission of some natural surfaces, specially the sea surface roughened by the wind (Windsat mission, very limited studies have been conducted on the polarimetric emission of rain cells or other natural surfaces. In this work, the polarimetric emission (four Stokes elements of a rain cell is computed using the polarimetric radiative transfer equation assuming that raindrops are described by Pruppacher-Pitter shapes and that their size distribution follows the Laws-Parsons law. The Boundary Element Method (BEM is used to compute the exact bistatic scattering coefficients for each raindrop shape and different canting angles. Numerical results are compared to the Rayleigh or Mie scattering coefficients, and to Oguchi’s ones, showing that above 1-2 mm raindrop size the exact formulation is required to model properly the scattering. Simulation results using BEM are then compared to the experimental data gathered with a X-band polarimetric radiometer. It is found that the depolarization of the radiation caused by the scattering of non-spherical raindrops induces a non-zero third Stokes parameter, and the differential phase of the scattering coefficients induces a non-zero fourth Stokes parameter.

  12. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the 'Arab Spring' uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The experiences and PTSD symptoms among 91 Syrian Kurdish refugees in the Arbat camp in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq were assessed using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, sections I, IV, and V. Results showed that the estimated levels of PTSD symptoms were high: between 35 and 38%. There were no significant gender differences in the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. However, men reported more general traumatic experiences than women. There were significant positive correlations between PTSD symptoms with traumatic events and torture (r = 0.500, r = 0.366, respectively). Examining the mental health impact of torture and other traumatic events among refugees has possible implications for organizations managing rehabilitation programs for individuals who have been exposed to traumatic events.

  13. Drinking and condom use: results from an event-based daily diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Barbara C; Vanslyke, Jan Gaylord; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Rainey, Damian T; Morrison, Diane M; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2008-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that drinking alcohol interferes with condom use, most studies on this topic do not meet the conditions required for causal interpretation. We examined the association of drinking to condom use using data from diaries of alcohol use and sexual encounters, collected over 8 weeks from college students and clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic. This method establishes the temporal relationships between drinking and condom use and controls for individual differences by using a within-subjects analysis. Multilevel models that predicted condom use from alcohol use before the sexual encounter, partner type, and the use of other contraception showed that drinking before sex was unrelated to condom use. These results do not support the persistent notion that alcohol causes people to engage in sexual risk that they would avoid when sober; instead, people tend to follow their usual pattern of condom use, regardless of alcohol use.

  14. Asymptotic Effectiveness of the Event-Based Sampling According to the Integral Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Miskowicz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid progress in intelligent sensing technology creates new interest in a development of analysis and design of non-conventional sampling schemes. The investigation of the event-based sampling according to the integral criterion is presented in this paper. The investigated sampling scheme is an extension of the pure linear send-on- delta/level-crossing algorithm utilized for reporting the state of objects monitored by intelligent sensors. The motivation of using the event-based integral sampling is outlined. The related works in adaptive sampling are summarized. The analytical closed-form formulas for the evaluation of the mean rate of event-based traffic, and the asymptotic integral sampling effectiveness, are derived. The simulation results verifying the analytical formulas are reported. The effectiveness of the integral sampling is compared with the related linear send-on-delta/level-crossing scheme. The calculation of the asymptotic effectiveness for common signals, which model the state evolution of dynamic systems in time, is exemplified.

  15. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and female reproductive cycle events: results from the OCD and reproduction collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Vulink, Nienke C C; Denys, Damiaan; Wang, Ying; Samuels, Jack F; Nestadt, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Women with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report that symptoms first appear or exacerbate during reproductive cycle events; however, little is known about these relationships. The goals of this study were to examine, in a US and a European female OCD sample, onset and exacerbation of OCD in reproductive cycle events, and to investigate the likelihood of repeat exacerbation in subsequent pregnancies and postpartum periods. Five hundred forty-two women (United States, n = 352; Dutch, n = 190) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD, completed self-report questionnaires designed to assess OCD onset and symptom exacerbation associated with reproductive events. OCD onset occurred within 12 months after menarche in 13.0%, during pregnancy in 5.1%, at postpartum in 4.7%, and at menopause in 3.7%. Worsening of pre-existing OCD was reported by 37.6% of women at premenstruum, 33.0% during pregnancy, 46.6% postpartum, and 32.7% at menopause. Exacerbation in first pregnancy was significantly associated with exacerbation in second pregnancy (OR = 10.82, 95% CI 4.48-26.16), as was exacerbation in first postpartum with exacerbation in second postpartum (OR = 6.86, 95% CI 3.27-14.36). Results were replicated in both samples. Reproductive cycle events are periods of increased risk for onset and exacerbation of OCD in women. The present study is the first to provide significant evidence that exacerbation in or after first pregnancy is a substantial risk factor for exacerbation in or after a subsequent pregnancy. Further research is needed to identify factors related to exacerbation, so that physicians may provide appropriate recommendations to women regarding clinical issues involving OCD and reproductive cycle events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mega-event effects on the housing market: Evidence from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiaohui; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Mega-event regeneration involves extensive government funds and public participation; thus, this study emphasises the importance of verifying if these financial and human investments can be justified by the net effects of mega-event regeneration. Accordingly, the contingent valuation method is used to establish a framework to quantify the welfare effects of event regeneration from the economic, social and environmental perspectives. We proposed a theoretical framework that enables the ranking...

  17. Comparison of two recent storm surge events based on results of field surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Shibayama, Tomoya; Mikami, Takahito; Esteban, Miguel; Takagi, Hiroshi; Maell, Martin; Iwamoto, Takumu

    2017-10-01

    This paper compares two different types of storm surge disaster based on field surveys. Two cases: a severe storm surge flood with its height of over 5 m due to Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippine, and inundation of storm surge around Nemuro city in Hokkaido of Japan with its maximum surge height of 2.8 m caused by extra-tropical cyclone are taken as examples. For the case of the Typhoon Haiyan, buildings located in coastal region were severely affected due to a rapidly increase in ocean surface. The non-engineering buildings were partially or completely destroyed due to their debris transported to an inner bay region. In fact, several previous reports indicated two unique features, bore-like wave and remarkably high speed currents. These characteristics of the storm surge may contribute to a wide-spread corruption for the buildings around the affected region. Furthermore, in the region where the surge height was nearly 3 m, the wooden houses were completely or partially destroyed. On the other hand, in Nemuro city, a degree of suffering in human and facility caused by the storm surge is minor. There was almost no partially destroyed residential houses even though the height of storm surge reached nearly 2.8 m. An observation in the tide station in Nemuro indicated that this was a usual type of storm surge, which showed a gradual increase of sea level height in several hours without possessing the unique characteristics like Typhoon Haiyan. As a result, not only the height of storm surge but also the robustness of the buildings and characteristics of storm surge, such as bore like wave and strong currents, determined the existent of devastation in coastal regions.

  18. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Key events and their effects on cycling behaviour in Dar-es-Salaam : abstract + powerpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores key events and investigates their effects on cycling behaviour in the city of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the study is to identify specific key events during a person’s life course with a significant effect on change of travel behaviour towards cycling in relation to

  20. The mediating effect of depression between exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in news journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Backholm

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: News journalists are an occupational group with a unique task at the scene of an unfolding crisis—to collect information and inform the public about the event. By being on location, journalists put themselves at risk for being exposed to the potentially traumatic event. Objective: To compare potentially traumatic exposure during work assignments at a crisis scene and in personal life as predictors of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in news journalists. Further, to investigate the mediating effect of depression between the predictor and predicted variables. Method: With a web-based questionnaire, information from a sample of Finnish news journalists (n=407 was collected. The data collected included details on the range of potentially traumatic assignments (PTAs at the crisis scene during the past 12 months, lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs in personal life, PTSD symptoms, and level of depression. Results: Approximately 50% of the participants had worked with a PTA during the past 12 months. Depression had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTAs at the scene and symptoms of PTSD. A similar result was found regarding the relationship between personal life PTEs and PTSD. Depression had a complete indirect effect in the case of PTAs and a partial indirect effect in regard to PTE exposure in personal life. Conclusions: Exposure to PTAs is common within journalistic work. The results reflect the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of the measured symptoms (PTSD, depression in relation to trauma history. The main limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the nature of the instruments used for the collection of work-related trauma history.

  1. The mediating effect of depression between exposure to potentially traumatic events and PTSD in news journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Klas; Björkqvist, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    Background News journalists are an occupational group with a unique task at the scene of an unfolding crisis—to collect information and inform the public about the event. By being on location, journalists put themselves at risk for being exposed to the potentially traumatic event. Objective To compare potentially traumatic exposure during work assignments at a crisis scene and in personal life as predictors of the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in news journalists. Further, to investigate the mediating effect of depression between the predictor and predicted variables. Method With a web-based questionnaire, information from a sample of Finnish news journalists (n=407) was collected. The data collected included details on the range of potentially traumatic assignments (PTAs) at the crisis scene during the past 12 months, lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs) in personal life, PTSD symptoms, and level of depression. Results Approximately 50% of the participants had worked with a PTA during the past 12 months. Depression had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between PTAs at the scene and symptoms of PTSD. A similar result was found regarding the relationship between personal life PTEs and PTSD. Depression had a complete indirect effect in the case of PTAs and a partial indirect effect in regard to PTE exposure in personal life. Conclusions Exposure to PTAs is common within journalistic work. The results reflect the importance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of the measured symptoms (PTSD, depression) in relation to trauma history. The main limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the nature of the instruments used for the collection of work-related trauma history. PMID:22912918

  2. The Effect of Local Events to Rural Tourism as a Recreational Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Zeynep ÖZER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recreation is the activities that person attends voluntarily in his/her spare time to refreshing, relaxing and motivation. Activities that are made in rural area are option for recreational activities. There is an increase in consumer demand for rural tour ism as an alternative tourism option. Participants get a chance to know different cultural structures and chance to see natural beauties by attending rural activities. Events that are performed with attendees form different destinations are support area fr om economy, development and advertising point of view. Objective of this work is making contribution to development rural tourism and recreational activities by defining the effect of local events to rural tourism as a recreational activity. In this work, the effect of participation of recreational tourism activities to rural tourism is investigated. Data that is required is gathered by semi structured interview technique. The result of this work has a potential to use a resource to lead event managers. Thi s work also has a potential to use a resource for studies that are related to recreation tourism, local activities and rural tourism.

  3. Reading Instruction with Gifted and Talented Readers: A Series of Unfortunate Events or a Sequence of Auspicious Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Patricia F.

    2008-01-01

    The enigmatic author Lemony Snicket is quick to establish from the start that happy events are not to be expected in his collection, "A Series of Unfortunate Events." Every happy event in the lives of the three clever and charming Baudelaire children is countered with an even more unfortunate one, events rife with misery, misfortune, and despair.…

  4. Extreme climate events counteract the effects of climate and land-use changes in Alpine treelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ceres; Guéguen, Maya; Douzet, Rolland; Carboni, Marta; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Münkemüller, Tamara; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    Summary 1. Climate change and extreme events, such as drought, threaten ecosystems worldwide and in particular mountain ecosystems, where species often live at their environmental tolerance limits. In the European Alps, plant communities are also influenced by land-use abandonment leading to woody encroachment of subalpine and alpine grasslands. 2. In this study, we explored how the forest–grassland ecotone of Alpine treelines will respond to gradual climate warming, drought events and land-use change in terms of forest expansion rates, taxonomic diversity and functional composition. We used a previously validated dynamic vegetation model, FATE-HD, parameterised for plant communities in the Ecrins National Park in the French Alps. 3. Our results showed that intense drought counteracted the forest expansion at higher elevations driven by land-use abandonment and climate change, especially when combined with high drought frequency (occurring every 2 or less than 2 years). 4. Furthermore, intense and frequent drought accelerated the rates of taxonomic change and resulted in overall higher taxonomic spatial heterogeneity of the ecotone than would be expected under gradual climate and land-use changes only. 5. Synthesis and applications. The results from our model show that intense and frequent drought counteracts forest expansion driven by climate and land-use changes in the forest–grassland ecotone of Alpine treelines. We argue that land-use planning must consider the effects of extreme events, such as drought, as well as climate and land-use changes, since extreme events might interfere with trends predicted under gradual climate warming and agricultural abandonment. PMID:28670002

  5. Fewer adverse events as a result of the SAFE or SORRY? programme in hospitals and nursing homes. part i: primary outcome of a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Betsie G I; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Mintjes, Joke A J; Borm, George F; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Defloor, Tom; Habets, Herbert; Voss, Andreas; Vloet, Lilian C M; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; van Achterberg, Theo

    2011-09-01

    Patient care guidelines are usually implemented one at a time, yet patients are at risk for multiple, often preventable, adverse events simultaneously. This study aimed to test the effect of the SAFE or SORRY? programme on the incidence of three adverse events (pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections and falls). This paper describes Part I of the study: the effect on the incidence of adverse events. A cluster randomised trial was conducted between September 2006 and November 2008. After a three-month baseline period the intervention was implemented followed by a nine-month follow-up period. Ten wards from four hospitals and ten wards from six nursing homes were stratified for institute and ward type and then randomised to intervention or usual care group. During baseline and follow-up, patients (≥18 years) with an expected length of stay of at least five days, were asked to participate. The SAFE or SORRY? programme consisted of the essential recommendations of guidelines for the three adverse events. A multifaceted implementation strategy was used for the implementation: education, patient involvement and feedback on process and outcome indicators. The usual care group continued care as usual. Data were collected on the incidence of adverse events and a Poisson regression model was used to estimate the rate ratio of the adverse events between the intervention and the usual care group at follow-up. At follow-up, 2201 hospital patients with 3358 patient weeks and 392 nursing home patients with 5799 patient weeks were observed. Poisson regression analyses showed a rate ratio for the development of an adverse event in favour of the intervention group of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.34-0.95) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48-0.99) for hospital patients and nursing home patients respectively. This study showed that implementing multiple guidelines simultaneously is possible, which is promising. Patients in the intervention groups developed 43% and 33% fewer adverse events compared to the

  6. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  7. Comprehensive Assessment of Damage Effects during Transient Events in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Sizyuk, Valeryi

    2017-10-01

    During abnormal operations in tokamaks, the incident particle and heat fluxes during disruptions and ELMs are quickly generate a secondary plasma composed mainly from divertor plate materials. This mini-plasma will then absorb the incoming disruptive plasma and convert its energy to intense radiation fluxes to nearby components. HEIGHTS simulations showed significant increase of radiation fluxes and components heat load for high-Z (i.e., tungsten) generated secondary plasma. These radiations can seriously damage hidden components such as umbrella tubes and dome structure. In fact, simulation showed that during longer disruption times the evolving mini-plasma can damage parts of Be first wall. We have enhanced previous HEIGHTS models and implemented efficient models for photon and particle transport in evolving secondary plasma during transients. HEIGHTS now simulates full 3D detail ITER geometry to assess various damage of these components during plasma instabilities. HEIGHTS predicted again, for the first time, details of heat loads and temperatures evolution of divertor and nearby components including first wall. Current ITER divertor design needs to be modified to withstand the damage produced from disruptions. A single unmitigated disruption event can cause serious damage to components that were not directly exposed to disruptions including dome, stainless steel tubes, and parts of Be first wall. Supported by National Science Foundation, PIRE Project.

  8. The effect of paranoia on the judging of harmful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Evans, Nicole; Černis, Emma; Lister, Rachel; Dunn, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Social psychological research has indicated that intentional harm may be perceived as causing greater damage than unintentional harm. It has been proposed that this harm magnification is a consequence of a need to blame, condemn and punish ("blame motivation"). The objective of the current study was to replicate these findings and to test whether such judgements about harmful events are associated with the level of an individual's paranoia. Three hundred adults read a scenario in which a head of a company causes a reduction in employees' pay. Participants were randomly allocated to versions in which the outcome of the executive's action was intended or unintended. Ratings were made of intent, harm caused and blame motivation. Participants also completed assessments of paranoia and anxiety. Intentional harm was judged as causing worse outcomes than unintentional harm, explaining a small amount of variance in harm scores. Paranoia moderated judgements of intent and blame motivation but not the degree of harm caused; high paranoia, relative to low paranoia, was associated with the unintentional scenario generating higher attributions of intent and blame and the intentional scenario generating lower attributions of intent and blame. Anxiety levels did not affect judgements. The study supports the theory that there is a reasoning bias that magnifies the consequences of intentional harm relative to unintentional harm. In the initial judgement about intent, people with paranoia are less accurate in their use of contextual information.

  9. Single event effects in the pixel readout chip for BTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriele Chiodini et al.

    2001-12-07

    In future experiments the readout electronics for pixel detectors is required to be resistant to a very high radiation level. In this paper we report on irradiation tests performed on several preFPIX2 prototype pixel readout chips for the BTeV experiment exposed to a 200 MeV proton beam. The prototype chips have been implemented in commercial 0.25 {micro}m CMOS processes following radiation tolerant design rules. The results show that this ASIC design tolerates a large total radiation dose, and that radiation induced Single Event Effects occur at a manageable level.

  10. Experimental studies of single-event effects induced by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Hou, M. D.; Li, B. Q.; Liu, C. L.; Wang, Z. G.; Cheng, S.; Sun, Y. M.; Jin, Y. F.; Lin, Y. L.; Cai, J. R.; Wang, S. J.; Ye, Z. H.; Zhu, G. W.; Du, H.; Ren, Q. Y.; Wu, W.; Mao, X. M.; Sun, Y. Q.; Guo, R.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents the results of ground-based heavy ion test of single-event effect (SEE) vulnerability on microcircuits used in space. We observed the dependence of upset cross-sections on the incident angle of ions in Intel 8086 CPU. SEU cross-sections of various SRAMs did not depend on the stored pattern, but 0→1 and 1→0 transitions were completely different for different manufacturer products. Some SEE protection methods were verified in conditions of ground simulation experiments.

  11. An econometric analysis of the mental-health effects of major events in the life of older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Portrait, France; van den Berg, Gerard J

    2002-09-01

    Major events in the life of an older individual, such as retirement, a significant decrease in income, death of the spouse, disability, and a move to a nursing home, may affect the mental-health status of the individual. For example, the individual may enter a prolonged depression. We investigate this using unique longitudinal panel data that track labor market behavior, health status, and major life events, over time. To deal with endogenous aspects of these events we apply fixed effects estimation methods. We find some strikingly large effects of certain events on the occurrence of depression. We relate the results to the health care and labor market policy towards older individuals. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Influence of negative emotion on the framing effect: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Wang, Kai

    2015-04-15

    The framing effect is the phenomenon in which different descriptions of an identical problem can result in different choices. The influence of negative emotions on the framing effect and its neurocognitive basis are important issues, especially in the domain of saving lives, which is essential and highly risky. In each trial of our experiment, the emotion stimulus is presented to the participants, followed by the decision-making stimulus, which comprises certain and risky options with the same expected value. Each pair of options is positively or negatively framed. The behavioral results indicate a significant interactive effect between negative emotion and frame; thus, the risk preference under the positive frame can be enhanced by negative emotions, whereas this finding is not true under the negative frame. The event-related potential analysis indicates that choosing certain options under the positive frame with negative emotion priming generates smaller P2 and P3 amplitudes and a larger N2 amplitude than with neutral emotion priming. The event-related potential findings indicate that individuals can detect risk faster and experience more conflict and increased decision difficulty if they choose certain options under the positive frame with negative priming compared with neutral priming.

  13. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKENNA, Skye; Jarvis, Jessie; Sankey, Tonia; Reason, Carissa; Coles, Robert; Rasheed, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, albeit at low levels, and the decline in seagrasses occurred over several years with cyclone Yasi having little additional impact. We have conducted annual on-ground surveys of seagrass distribution and the above-ground meadow biomass in Cairns Harbour and Trinity Inlet since 2001. This has shown a declining trend in biomass since a peak in 2004 and in area since it peaked in 2007. In 2012, seagrass area and above-ground biomass were significantly below the long-term (12 year) average but seagrass was still present. Declines were associated with regional impacts on coastal seagrasses from multiple years of above-average rainfall and severe storm and cyclone activity, similar to other nearby seagrass areas, and not as a result of a single event.

  14. Beyond Criterion A1: the effects of relational and non-relational traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L; Frazier, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Trauma research has historically focused on Criterion A1 traumas, neglecting many other negative interpersonal events that have been shown to lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; S. L. Anders, P. A. Frazier, & S. Frankfurt, 2011 ). Trauma research has also focused primarily on PTSD and neglected other important outcomes, such as relationship functioning. This study aimed to assess a broader range of events, including many Criterion A1 interpersonal events; assess the cumulative impact of event exposure; and examine the relation between event exposure and a broad range of outcomes, including relationship functioning. A sample of 181 undergraduate students completed measures assessing exposure to a broad range of events, their worst lifetime event, and current psychological (e.g., psychological distress) and relationship (e.g., partner trust) functioning. Results suggested that non-Criterion A1 relational events were very common in our sample. The number of lifetime relational events experienced, whether Criterion A1 or non-Criterion A1, was strongly and consistently associated with all outcomes. The number of lifetime Criterion A1 non-relational events experienced was significantly associated with current PTSD symptoms but was not associated with other mental health and relationship outcomes. No differences were found between Criterion A1 relational, non-Criterion A1 relational, and Criterion A1 non-relational worst events on any of the mental health or relationship measures. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed.

  15. Image analysis of single event transient effects on charge coupled devices irradiated by protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Ma, Wuying [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2016-10-21

    The experiments of single event transient (SET) effects on charge coupled devices (CCDs) irradiated by protons are presented. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the accelerator protons with the energy of 200 MeV and 60 MeV.The incident angles of the protons are at 30°and 90° to the plane of the CCDs to obtain the images induced by the perpendicularity and incline incident angles. The experimental results show that the typical characteristics of the SET effects on a CCD induced by protons are the generation of a large number of dark signal spikes (hot pixels) which are randomly distributed in the “pepper” images. The characteristics of SET effects are investigated by observing the same imaging area at different time during proton radiation to verify the transient effects. The experiment results also show that the number of dark signal spikes increases with increasing integration time during proton radiation. The CCDs were tested at on-line and off-line to distinguish the radiation damage induced by the SET effects or DD effects. The mechanisms of the dark signal spike generation induced by the SET effects and the DD effects are demonstrated respectively.

  16. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y; Lindquist, Kristen A; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60-90 ms), middle (270-300 ms), and later (540-570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals' level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8-12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30-50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of "emotional complexity." Implications for models of emotion are also discussed.

  17. Simultaneous functional near-infrared brain imaging and event-related potential studies of Stroop effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jiahuan; Li, Ting; Zhang, Zhongxing; Gong, Hui

    2009-02-01

    Functional near-infrared brain imaging (fNIRI) and event-related potential (ERP) were used simultaneous to detect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which is considered to execute cognitive control of the subjects while performing the Chinese characters color-word matching Stroop task with event-related design. The fNIRI instrument is a portable system operating at three wavelengths (735nm & 805nm &850nm) with continuous-wave. The event-related potentials were acquired by Neuroscan system. The locations of optodes corresponding to the electrodes were defined four areas symmetrically. In nine native Chinese-speaking fit volunteers, fNIRI measured the hemodynamic parameters (involving oxy-/deoxy- hemoglobin) changes when the characteristic waveforms (N500/P600) were recorded by ERP. The interference effect was obvious as a longer reaction time for incongruent than congruent and neutral stimulus. The responses of hemodynamic and electrophysiology were also stronger during incongruent compared to congruent and neutral trials, and these results are similar to those obtained with fNIRI or ERP separately. There are high correlations, even linear relationship, in the two kinds of signals. In conclusion, the multi-modality approach combining of fNIRI and ERP is feasible and could obtain more cognitive function information with hemodynamic and electrophysiology signals. It also provides a perspective to prove the neurovascular coupling mechanism.

  18. Securing or sacrificing access to a car : Gender difference in the effects of life events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender differentiated effects of life events on the decision to change car accessibility. It argues that similar to other choices (e.g. employment) women and men may vary in decisions to the choice of car accessibility, particularly in response to life events. This study aims

  19. Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Jacob H; Beisner, Brianne A; Hill, Ashley E; McCowan, Brenda

    2017-03-01

    Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal part of daily social interactions, human presence might affect the frequency of various behaviors and instigate increases in conspecific aggression. We sought to determine how and which human management events affect conspecific aggression both immediately after an event and throughout the course of a day. From June 2008 through December 2009, we recorded agonistic encounters among macaques living in 7 social groups in large outdoor field cages. Behavioral data were then synchronized with specific management events (for example, feeding, enclosure cleaning, animal catching) that occurred within or near the enclosure. By using an Information Theoretical approach, 2 generalized linear mixed models were developed to estimate the effects of human management events on 1) aggression after individual management events and 2) daily levels of aggression. Univariate analysis revealed an increase in the rate of aggression after a management event occurred. The best predictor of aggression in a cage was the type of management event that occurred. Various factors including the number of daily management events, the total time of management events, the technicians involved, reproductive season, and their interactions also showed significant associations with daily aggression levels. Our findings demonstrate that human management events are associated with an increase in conspecific aggression between rhesus macaques and thus have implications regarding how humans manage primates in research facilities.

  20. Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Thornton, L M; Prescott, C A

    2001-04-01

    Women are at greater risk for major depression than men. The authors sought to determine whether the gender difference in prevalence for major depression was due to more frequent exposure to stressful life events and/or greater sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. Male-male, female-female, and male-female twin pairs from a population-based registry were personally interviewed. Each interview assessed the occurrence, to the nearest month, of 18 personal and social network classes of stressful life events and episode onsets of major depression. Standard logistic regression analyses were conducted for the same-sex pairs, and each female twin in the opposite-sex pairs was compared with her male co-twin by using conditional logistic regression. Women consistently reported higher rates of housing problems, loss of confidant, crises and problems getting along with individuals in their proximal network, and illness of individuals within their distal network. In both the same-sex and opposite-sex samples, men reported higher rates of job loss, legal problems, robbery, and work problems. Consistent sex differences in the depressogenic effect of stressful life events were seen for three event categories: men were more sensitive to the depressogenic effects of divorce or separation and work problems; women were more sensitive to the depressogenic effects of problems getting along with individuals in their proximal network. None of the gender difference in prevalence of major depression could be explained by differing rates of or sensitivities to stressful life events. Women reported more interpersonal whereas men reported more legal and work-related stressful life events. Most life event categories influenced the risk for major depression similarly in the two sexes. The results suggest that the greater prevalence of major depression in women versus men is due neither to differences in the rates of reported stressful life events nor to differential sensitivity to their

  1. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  2. Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Kate; Holmes, Emily A.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Foster, Russell G.; Wulff, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine the effect of sleep deprivation compared to sleep, immediately after experimental trauma stimuli on the development of intrusive memories to that trauma stimuli. Design: Participants were exposed to a film with traumatic content (trauma film). The immediate response to the trauma film was assessed, followed by either total sleep deprivation (sleep deprived group, N = 20) or sleep as usual (sleep group, N = 22). Twelve hours after the film viewing the initial psychological effect of the trauma film was measured and for the subsequent 6 days intrusive emotional memories related to the trauma film were recorded in daily life. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory and participants' home environment. Participants: Healthy paid volunteers. Measurements and results: On the first day after the trauma film, the psychological effect as assessed by the Impact of Event Scale – Revised was lower in the sleep deprived group compared to the sleep group. In addition, the sleep deprived group reported fewer intrusive emotional memories (mean 2.28, standard deviation [SD] 2.91) compared to the sleep group (mean 3.76, SD 3.35). Because habitual sleep/circadian patterns, psychological health, and immediate effect of the trauma film were similar at baseline for participants of both groups, the results cannot be accounted for by pre-existing inequalities between groups. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation on one night, rather than sleeping, reduces emotional effect and intrusive memories following exposure to experimental trauma. Citation: Porcheret K, Holmes EA, Goodwin GM, Foster RG, Wulff K. Psychological effect of an analogue traumatic event reduced by sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1017–1025. PMID:26118556

  3. Trauma and memory: effects of post-event misinformation, retrieval order, and retention interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Goodman, Gail S

    2008-01-01

    The present study concerned effects of misinformation, retrieval order, and retention interval on eyewitness memory for a traumatic event (a vivid murder). Relations between misinformation acceptance and compliance were also examined. The classic three-stage misinformation paradigm (Loftus, 1979) was employed, with a multi-component recognition test added. Either immediately or 2 weeks after viewing a distressing film, 232 adults read a narrative (misleading or control) about the murder and then took a recognition test that tapped memory for central and peripheral details. Test-item order either matched the chronology of the film or was randomly determined. Significant misinformation effects were obtained. Moreover, control participants were more accurate in response to questions about central than peripheral information; however, this was not so for misinformed participants. Sequential but not random retrieval order resulted in a higher proportion of correct responses for central as opposed to peripheral misinformation questions. Compliance was significantly related to misinformation effects. Delay increased participants' suggestibility, impaired memory accuracy, and produced higher confidence ratings for misinformed participants compared to controls. Findings indicate that even for a highly negative event, adults' memory is not immune to inaccuracies and suggestive influences.

  4. Spatial vulnerability under extreme events: a case of Asian dust storm's effects on children's respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Yang, Chiang-Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2013-04-01

    Asian dust storm (ADS) events have raised concerns regarding their adverse impact on human health. Whether ADS events can result in the heterogeneity of health impacts on children across space and time has not been studied. The goal of this study is to examine the spatial vulnerability impact of ADS events on children's respiratory health geographically and to analyze any patterns related to ADS episodes. From 1998 to 2007, data from both preschool children's and schoolchildren's daily respiratory clinic visits, gathered from patients located in 41 districts of Taipei City and New Taipei City, are analyzed in a Bayesian spatiotemporal model in order to investigate the interaction between spatial effects and ADS episodes. When adjusting for the temporal effect, air pollutants, and temperature, the spatial pattern explicitly varies during defined study periods: non-ADS periods, ADS periods, and post-ADS periods. Compared to non-ADS periods, the relative rate of children's respiratory clinic visits significantly reduced 0.74 to 0.99 times in most districts during ADS periods, while the relative rate rose from 1.01 to 1.11 times in more than half of districts during post-ADS periods, especially in schoolchildren. This spatial vulnerability denotes that the significantly increased relative rate of respiratory clinic visits during post-ADS periods is primarily located in highly urbanized areas for both children's populations. Hence, the results of this study suggest that schoolchildren are particularly more vulnerable to the health impacts of ADS exposure in terms of higher excessive risks over a larger spatial extent than preschool children, especially during post-ADS periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil biotic legacy effects of extreme weather events influence plant invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Annelein; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-06-11

    Climate change is expected to increase future abiotic stresses on ecosystems through extreme weather events leading to more extreme drought and rainfall incidences [Jentsch A, et al. (2007) Front Ecol Environ 5(7):365-374]. These fluctuations in precipitation may affect soil biota, soil processes [Evans ST, Wallenstein MD (2012) Biogeochemistry 109:101-116], and the proportion of exotics in invaded plant communities [Jiménez MA, et al. (2011) Ecol Lett 14:1277-1235]. However, little is known about legacy effects in soil on the performance of exotics and natives in invaded plant communities. Here we report that drought and rainfall effects on soil processes and biota affect the performance of exotics and natives in plant communities. We performed two mesocosm experiments. In the first experiment, soil without plants was exposed to drought and/or rainfall, which affected soil N availability. Then the initial soil moisture conditions were restored, and a mixed community of co-occurring natives and exotics was planted and exposed to drought during growth. A single stress before or during growth decreased the biomass of natives, but did not affect exotics. A second drought stress during plant growth resetted the exotic advantage, whereas native biomass was not further reduced. In the second experiment, soil inoculation revealed that drought and/or rainfall influenced soil biotic legacies, which promoted exotics but suppressed natives. Our results demonstrate that extreme weather events can cause legacy effects in soil biota, promoting exotics and suppressing natives in invaded plant communities, depending on the type, frequency, and timing of extreme events.

  6. Memory effect triggered by exceptional event: the Rio Cordon study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Mao, Luca; Picco, Lorenzo; Garcia-Rama, Adriana; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2016-04-01

    ). The amounts transported by the floods are investigated as a function of Qpeak, using a power-law regression. Bedload (r2= 0.739) and suspended load (r2= 0.565) appear positively correlated with Qpeak, also showing that floods of a certain magnitude transported more sediments after the exceptional 1994 flood. A comparable behavior can be observed by the Qpeak/D50 relationship (r2= 0.688). The ratio between sediment load and effective runoff of the events allowed the temporal trend of transport efficiency to be inferred. The results highlight that nearly a decade with high transport efficiency appears to have occurred subsequently to the September 1994 event. This result confirms that exceptional floods, rarely assessed by short-term monitoring programs, can strongly affect the long-term sediment fluxes. In the case of Rio Cordon, the exceptional event triggered a "memory effect" in the basin, altering the sediment dynamics for roughly 10 years. This research was supported by the Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest PRIN2010-2011, prot. 20104ALME4, ITSE; and by the University of Padova Research Project CPDA149091- WoodAlp.

  7. Early event-related potential effects of syllabic processing during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    A number of behavioral studies have suggested that syllables might play an important role in visual word recognition in some languages. We report two event-related potential (ERP) experiments using a new paradigm showing that syllabic units modulate early ERP components. In Experiment 1, words and pseudowords were presented visually and colored so that there was a match or a mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The results showed color-syllable congruency effects in the time window of the P200. Lexicality modulated the N400 amplitude, but no effects of this variable were obtained at the P200 window. In Experiment 2, high- and low-frequency words and pseudowords were presented in the congruent and incongruent conditions. The results again showed congruency effects at the P200 for low-frequency words and pseudowords, but not for high-frequency words. Lexicality and lexical frequency effects showed up at the N400 component. The results suggest a dissociation between syllabic and lexical effects with important consequences for models of visual word recognition.

  8. Single-Event Effects in Silicon and Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Topper, Alyson D.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Electronics Parts and Packaging program-funded activities over the past year on single-event effects in silicon and silicon carbide power devices are presented, with focus on SiC device failure signatures.

  9. The Effect of AOP on Software Engineering, with Particular Attention to OIF and Event Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Filman, Robert; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We consider the impact of Aspect-Oriented Programming on Software Engineering, and, in particular, analyze two AOP systems, one of which does component wrapping and the other, quantification over events, for their software engineering effects.

  10. The Single Event Effect Characteristics of the 486-DX4 Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouba, Coy; Choi, Gwan

    1996-01-01

    This research describes the development of an experimental radiation testing environment to investigate the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the 486-DX4 microprocessor. SEE effects are caused by radiation particles that disrupt the logic state of an operating semiconductor, and include single event upsets (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL). The relevance of this work can be applied directly to digital devices that are used in spaceflight computer systems. The 486-DX4 is a powerful commercial microprocessor that is currently under consideration for use in several spaceflight systems. As part of its selection process, it must be rigorously tested to determine its overall reliability in the space environment, including its radiation susceptibility. The goal of this research is to experimentally test and characterize the single event effects of the 486-DX4 microprocessor using a cyclotron facility as the fault-injection source. The test philosophy is to focus on the "operational susceptibility," by executing real software and monitoring for errors while the device is under irradiation. This research encompasses both experimental and analytical techniques, and yields a characterization of the 486-DX4's behavior for different operating modes. Additionally, the test methodology can accommodate a wide range of digital devices, such as microprocessors, microcontrollers, ASICS, and memory modules, for future testing. The goals were achieved by testing with three heavy-ion species to provide different linear energy transfer rates, and a total of six microprocessor parts were tested from two different vendors. A consistent set of error modes were identified that indicate the manner in which the errors were detected in the processor. The upset cross-section curves were calculated for each error mode, and the SEU threshold and saturation levels were identified for each processor. Results show a distinct difference in the upset rate for different configurations of

  11. The effects of spatial contextual familiarity on remembered scenes, episodic memories, and imagined future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies have explored the effect of contextual familiarity on remembered and imagined events. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of this effect by comparing the effect of cuing spatial memories, episodic memories, and imagined future events with spatial contextual cues of varying levels of familiarity. We used real-world landmark cues that had all been previously visited by the participants, and we measured the retrieval time, detail-richness, and vividness of remembered scenes, events, and imagined future events based on these cues. Participants consistently rated scenes and events based on more familiar cues as more detailed and more vivid, and they took less time to retrieve them. When the types of details were examined, it was revealed that the effects of increased contextual familiarity carry over to non-spatial details in the case of remembered events but possibly not in imagined events. This study provides evidence regarding how episodic memory and imagination are reliant on spatial context and possibly the process of scene construction.

  12. Online Motor Imagery Training Effect for the Appearance of Event Related Desynchronization (ERD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuru; Gouko, Manabu; Ito, Koji

    Stroke patients have some motor deficits, but they can regain their motor abilities by rehabilitation. In the aspect of rehabilitation, voluntary movement is very important. We propose a system which can make a closed loop in brain for stroke patients like voluntary movement. Event Related Desynchronization (ERD) is used to extract patients' motor intention, and then Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) stimuls their paralyzed muscles. In many Brain Computer Interface (BCI) researches, subjects are trained for several months or years to do the task, because of the difficulty to extract clear ERD without training. Thinking about applying for stroke patients, motor imagery training should be shorter, because of the brain plasticity. We did a pilot study about the effect of visual feedback training for three days with healthy subjects. The result indicated that ERD could be clearly extracted in three days, but the training effect differs in each subjects.

  13. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.

  14. Effects of damaging hydrogeological events on people throughout 15 years in a Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Luigi; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-07-01

    Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE) are defined as rainy periods during which landslides and floods can damage people. The paper investigated the effects of DHE on people living in Calabria (southern Italy) in the period 2000-2014, using data coming from the systematic survey of regional newspapers. Data about fatalities, people injured and people involved (not killed neither hurt) were stored in the database named PEOPLE, made of three sections: (1) event identification, (2) victim-event interaction, (3) effects on people. The outcomes highlighted vulnerability factors related to gender and age: males were killed more frequently (75 %) than females (25 %), and fatalities were older (average age 49 years) than injured (40.1 years) and involved people (40.5 years). The average ages of females killed (67.5 years), injured (43.4 years) and involved (44.6 years) were higher than the same values assessed for males, maybe indicating that younger females tended to be more cautious than same-age males, while older females showed an intrinsic greater vulnerability. Involved people were younger than injured people and fatalities, perhaps because younger people show greater promptness to react in dangerous situations. In the study region, floods caused more fatalities (67.9 %), injured (55 %) and involved people (55.3 %) than landslides. Fatalities and injuries mainly occurred outdoor, especially along roads, and the most dangerous dynamic was to be dragged by flood, causing the majority of fatalities (71.4 %). These outcomes can be used to strengthen the strategies aimed at saving people, and to customise warning campaigns according to the local risk features and people's behaviour. The results can improve the understanding of the potential impacts of geo-hydrological hazards on the population and can increase risk awareness among both administrators and citizens.

  15. Variable Depth Bragg Peak Method for Single Event Effects Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, S.; Kanyogoro, N.; Foster, C.; O'Neill, P.

    2011-01-01

    and the corresponding LET calculated from the change in degrader thickness. That information is used to generate a plot of cross-section as a function of ion LET. The advantages of this approach are that the part does not have to be de-lidded and a broad range of LETs is available from a single heavy ion without having to go to non-normal angles of incidence to change the "effective" LET. As we will show, it is possible to obtain an entire curve of cross-section versus LET using just two or three ions. Fig. 1 shows curves of cross-section vs LET for a Freescale 4 Mbit SOI/SRAM measured at the 88" Cyclotron at Berkeley and at NSRL. The open symbols are the data obtained from Berkeley for top-side and back-side irradiation. The solid data points are for the data obtained at NSRL using a device for which the package was intact. The data are for Iron and Gold and cover a range of LETs from 4 MeV.cm2/mg to 84 MeV.cm2/mg. The agreement between the data obtained from Berkeley and from NSRL is excellent, demonstrating that the VDBP method is capable of providing accurate values of cross-section versus LET, at least for the 4 Mbit SRAM. Details of the technique will be included in the final presentation.

  16. Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

    2014-10-01

    Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Conflicting results between randomized trials and observational studies on the impact of proton pump inhibitors on cardiovascular events when coadministered with dual antiplatelet therapy: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Chiara; Washam, Jeffrey B; Jones, W Schuyler; Halim, Sharif A; Hasselblad, Victor; Mayer, Stephanie B; Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Dolor, Rowena J

    2015-01-01

    Discordant results have been reported on the effects of concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for cardiovascular outcomes. We conducted a systematic review comparing the effectiveness and safety of concomitant use of PPIs and DAPT in the postdischarge treatment of unstable angina/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients. We searched for clinical studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1995 to 2012. Reviewers screened and extracted data, assessed applicability and quality, and graded the strength of evidence. We performed meta-analyses of direct comparisons when outcomes and follow-up periods were comparable. Thirty-five studies were eligible. Five (4 randomized controlled trials and 1 observational) assessed the effect of omeprazole when added to DAPT; the other 30 (observational) assessed the effect of PPIs as a class when compared with no PPIs. Random-effects meta-analyses of the studies assessing PPIs as a class consistently reported higher event rates in patients receiving PPIs for various clinical outcomes at 1 year (composite ischemic end points, all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, stroke, revascularization, and stent thrombosis). However, the results from randomized controlled trials evaluating omeprazole compared with placebo showed no difference in ischemic outcomes, despite a reduction in upper gastrointestinal bleeding with omeprazole. Large, well-conducted observational studies of PPIs and randomized controlled trials of omeprazole seem to provide conflicting results for the effect of PPIs on cardiovascular outcomes when coadministered with DAPT. Prospective trials that directly compare pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical events among specific PPI agents in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with DAPT are warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Primary single event effect studies on Xilinx 28-nm System-on-Chip (SoC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yao [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, Shuhuan, E-mail: shuhuanliu@126.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Du, Xuecheng; Yuan, Yuan; He, Chaohui [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaotang [Peking University, Beijing 100000 (China); Du, Xiaozhi; Li, Yonghong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Single Event Effect (SEE) on Xilinx 28-nm System-on-Chip (SoC) was investigated by both simulation and experiments in this study. In the simulation process, typical structure of NAND gate and flip-flop in SoC were designed using Cadence tool. Various kinds of radiation were simulated as pulsed current source in consideration of multilayer wiring and energy loss before reaching the sensitive area. The circuit modules were simulated as SEE occurred and malfunctioned when pulsed current source existed. The changes of the circuit modules output were observed when pulsed current signals were placed at different sensitive nodes or the circuit operated under different conditions. The sensitive nodes in typical modules and the possible reasons of test program malfunction were primarily studied. In the experimental process, SoC chip was irradiated with α particles, protons and laser respectively. The irradiation test results showed that Single Event Upset (SEU) occurred in typical modules of SoC, in accordance with the simulation results.

  19. Autoantibodies and neuropsychiatric events at the time of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis: results from an international inception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, J G; Urowitz, M B; Siannis, F; Farewell, V; Gordon, C; Bae, S C; Isenberg, D; Dooley, M A; Clarke, A; Bernatsky, S; Gladman, D; Fortin, P R; Manzi, S; Steinsson, K; Bruce, I N; Ginzler, E; Aranow, C; Wallace, D J; Ramsey-Goldman, R; van Vollenhoven, R; Sturfelt, G; Nived, O; Sanchez-Guerrero, J; Alarcón, G S; Petri, M; Khamashta, M; Zoma, A; Font, J; Kalunian, K; Douglas, J; Qi, Q; Thompson, K; Merrill, J T

    2008-03-01

    To examine, in an inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, the association between neuropsychiatric (NP) events and anti-ribosomal P (anti-P), antiphospholipid (lupus anticoagulant [LAC], anticardiolipin), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, and anti-NR2 glutamate receptor antibodies. NP events were identified using the American College of Rheumatology case definitions and clustered into central/peripheral and diffuse/focal events. Attribution of NP events to SLE was determined using decision rules of differing stringency. Autoantibodies were measured without knowledge of NP events or their attribution. Four hundred twelve patients were studied (87.4% female; mean +/- SD age 34.9 +/- 13.5 years, mean +/- SD disease duration 5.0 +/- 4.2 months). There were 214 NP events in 133 patients (32.3%). The proportion of NP events attributed to SLE varied from 15% to 36%. There was no association between autoantibodies and NP events overall. However, the frequency of anti-P antibodies in patients with central NP events attributed to SLE was 4 of 20 (20%), versus 3 of 107 (2.8%) in patients with other NP events and 24 of 279 (8.6%) in those with no NP events (P = 0.04). Among patients with diffuse NP events, 3 of 11 had anti-P antibodies (27%), compared with 4 of 111 patients with other NP events (3.6%) and 24 of 279 of those with no NP events (8.6%) (P = 0.02). Specific clinical-serologic associations were found between anti-P and psychosis attributed to SLE (P = 0.02) and between LAC and cerebrovascular disease attributed to SLE (P = 0.038). There was no significant association between other autoantibodies and NP events. Clinically distinct NP events attributed to SLE and occurring around the time of diagnosis were found to be associated with anti-P antibodies and LAC. This suggests that there are different autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms, although low sensitivity limits the clinical application of testing for these antibodies.

  20. Fewer adverse events as a result of the SAFE or SORRY? programme in hospitals and nursing homes. part i: primary outcome of a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, B. van; Schoonhoven, L.; Mintjes, J.A.; Borm, G.F.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Defloor, T.; Habets, H.; Voss, A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient care guidelines are usually implemented one at a time, yet patients are at risk for multiple, often preventable, adverse events simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the effect of the SAFE or SORRY? programme on the incidence of three adverse events (pressure

  1. Gene-Environment Interaction Effects of Peer Deviance, Parental Knowledge and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Megan E; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Latvala, Antti; Korhonen, Tellervo; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to address two methodological issues that have called into question whether previously reported gene-environment interaction (GxE) effects for adolescent alcohol use are 'real'. These issues are (1) the potential correlation between the environmental moderator and the outcome across twins and (2) non-linear transformations of the behavioral outcome. Three environments that have been previously studied (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events) were examined here. For each moderator (peer deviance, parental knowledge, and potentially stressful life events), a series of models was fit to both a raw and transformed measure of monthly adolescent alcohol use in a sample that included 825 dizygotic (DZ) and 803 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The results showed that the moderating effect of peer deviance was robust to transformation, and that although the significance of moderating effects of parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events were dependent on the scale of the adolescent alcohol use outcome, the overall results were consistent across transformation. In addition, the findings did not vary across statistical models. The consistency of the peer deviance results and the shift of the parental knowledge and potentially stressful life events results between trending and significant, shed some light on why previous findings for certain moderators have been inconsistent and emphasize the importance of considering both methodological issues and previous findings when conducting and interpreting GxE analyses.

  2. Stability amidst turmoil: Grit buffers the effects of negative life events on suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Dan V; Young, Kevin C; Kleiman, Evan M

    2015-08-30

    The goal of the current study is to examine the role of grit as a resilience factor that reduces the risk for suicidal ideation conferred by negative life events. Participants (N=209) completed measures of negative life events and grit at baseline and a measure of suicidal ideation at follow-up four weeks later. Poisson regression analyses found that higher levels of grit buffered the relationship between negative life events and suicidal ideation such that negative life events only predicted suicidal ideation if grit was low. These results suggest that high grit can abate the increased suicidal ideation associated with negative life events. Aside from absolute levels of suicidal ideation, being able to predict or buffer dramatic shifts in suicidal ideation can be a useful diagnostic tool during interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on event-related potential P300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tetsuya; Sato, Aya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2012-04-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on brain activity. P300 latency of event-related potential (ERP) was used to evaluate the effects of low-frequency and short-term rTMS by stimulating the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is considered to be the related area of P300 origin. In addition, the prolonged stimulation effects on P300 latency were analyzed after applying rTMS. A figure-eight coil was used to stimulate left-right SMG, and intensity of magnetic stimulation was 80% of motor threshold. A total of 100 magnetic pulses were applied for rTMS. The effects of stimulus frequency at 0.5 or 1 Hz were determined. Following rTMS, an odd-ball task was performed and P300 latency of ERP was measured. The odd-ball task was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min post-rTMS. ERP was measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was measured at Fz, Cz, and Pz that were indicated by the international 10-20 electrode system. Results demonstrated that different effects on P300 latency occurred between 0.5-1 Hz rTMS. With 1 Hz low-frequency magnetic stimulation to the left SMG, P300 latency decreased. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 15 ms at Cz. This decrease continued for approximately 10 min post-rTMS. In contrast, 0.5 Hz rTMS resulted in delayed P300 latency. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 20 ms at Fz, and this delayed effect continued for approximately 15 min post-rTMS. Results demonstrated that P300 latency varied according to rTMS frequency. Furthermore, the duration of the effect was not similar for stimulus frequency of low-frequency rTMS.

  4. The Effect of Task Duration on Event-Based Prospective Memory: A Multinomial Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Tang, Weihai; Liu, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action when a specific event occurs is referred to as Event-Based Prospective Memory (EBPM). This study investigated how EBPM performance is affected by task duration by having university students ( n = 223) perform an EBPM task that was embedded within an ongoing computer-based color-matching task. For this experiment, we separated the overall task's duration into the filler task duration and the ongoing task duration. The filler task duration is the length of time between the intention and the beginning of the ongoing task, and the ongoing task duration is the length of time between the beginning of the ongoing task and the appearance of the first Prospective Memory (PM) cue. The filler task duration and ongoing task duration were further divided into three levels: 3, 6, and 9 min. Two factors were then orthogonally manipulated between-subjects using a multinomial processing tree model to separate the effects of different task durations on the two EBPM components. A mediation model was then created to verify whether task duration influences EBPM via self-reminding or discrimination. The results reveal three points. (1) Lengthening the duration of ongoing tasks had a negative effect on EBPM performance while lengthening the duration of the filler task had no significant effect on it. (2) As the filler task was lengthened, both the prospective and retrospective components show a decreasing and then increasing trend. Also, when the ongoing task duration was lengthened, the prospective component decreased while the retrospective component significantly increased. (3) The mediating effect of discrimination between the task duration and EBPM performance was significant. We concluded that different task durations influence EBPM performance through different components with discrimination being the mediator between task duration and EBPM performance.

  5. The Effect of Task Duration on Event-Based Prospective Memory: A Multinomial Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Remembering to perform an action when a specific event occurs is referred to as Event-Based Prospective Memory (EBPM. This study investigated how EBPM performance is affected by task duration by having university students (n = 223 perform an EBPM task that was embedded within an ongoing computer-based color-matching task. For this experiment, we separated the overall task’s duration into the filler task duration and the ongoing task duration. The filler task duration is the length of time between the intention and the beginning of the ongoing task, and the ongoing task duration is the length of time between the beginning of the ongoing task and the appearance of the first Prospective Memory (PM cue. The filler task duration and ongoing task duration were further divided into three levels: 3, 6, and 9 min. Two factors were then orthogonally manipulated between-subjects using a multinomial processing tree model to separate the effects of different task durations on the two EBPM components. A mediation model was then created to verify whether task duration influences EBPM via self-reminding or discrimination. The results reveal three points. (1 Lengthening the duration of ongoing tasks had a negative effect on EBPM performance while lengthening the duration of the filler task had no significant effect on it. (2 As the filler task was lengthened, both the prospective and retrospective components show a decreasing and then increasing trend. Also, when the ongoing task duration was lengthened, the prospective component decreased while the retrospective component significantly increased. (3 The mediating effect of discrimination between the task duration and EBPM performance was significant. We concluded that different task durations influence EBPM performance through different components with discrimination being the mediator between task duration and EBPM performance.

  6. Effects of sea surface temperature anomaly on flooding events in Hunan province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjia; Wang, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) on flood-season precipitation in Hunan Province (the main grain-producing area in China) and change trend of the related flooding events. Based on the observation data of flood seasons in 44 stations of Hunan province from 1970-2013 and the sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from the Met Office Hadley Center, the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, power spectrum analysis and correlation analytical method have been conducted to identify the key time and marine regions which influence flood-season rainfall distribution. According to these analyses, two main spatial patterns of precipitation have been observed. The first and remarkable pattern is generally distributed uniformly throughout the region and is characterized by a 2-3-year and 20-23-year periods. The decadal variability has a negative correlation with the summer SSTA in the Indian Ocean near the equator, while the interannual variability is associated with the previous autumn and winter SSTA in the eastern Pacific. The second pattern illustrates dry-wet difference, indicating a north-to-south opposite, in a 3-year periods. The key area for influencing this mode is distributed in the Equator Pacific especially in the previous autumn and winter (known as ENSO). Furthermore, based on the EOF results of precipitation, we introduced the historical flooding event records of Hunan province and developed the spatial distribution maps and probability density curves for the direct economic losses in the years of anomaly and normal rainfall. The results reveal that the anomaly years suffer more serious losses and there is a corresponding relationship between north-to-south opposite precipitation mode and regional economic loss differences. With the function of illustrating the variation trend of hazards and the critical influence factor, these results are the data foundation for flood risk assessment. It can be used as a

  7. Field test results of a new ambulatory care Medication Error and Adverse Drug Event Reporting System--MEADERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickner, John; Zafar, Atif; Kuo, Grace M; Fagnan, Lyle J; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Knox, Lyndee M; Lynch, John T; Stevens, Brian Kelly; Pace, Wilson D; Hamlin, Benjamin N; Scherer, Hilary; Hudson, Brenda L; Oppenheimer, Caitlin Carroll; Tierney, William M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we developed and field tested the Medication Error and Adverse Drug Event Reporting System (MEADERS)-an easy-to-use, Web-based reporting system designed for busy office practices. We conducted a 10-week field test of MEADERS in which 220 physicians and office staff from 24 practices reported medication errors and adverse drug events they observed during usual clinical care. The main outcomes were (1) use and acceptability of MEADERS measured with a postreporting survey and interviews with office managers and lead physicians, and (2) distributions of characteristics of the medication event reports. A total of 507 anonymous event reports were submitted. The mean reporting time was 4.3 minutes. Of these reports, 357 (70%) included medication errors only, 138 (27%) involved adverse drug events only, and 12 (2.4%) included both. Medication errors were roughly equally divided among ordering medications, implementing prescription orders, errors by patients receiving the medications, and documentation errors. The most frequent contributors to the medication errors and adverse drug events were communication problems (41%) and knowledge deficits (22%). Eight (1.6%) of the reported events led to hospitalization. Reporting raised staff and physician awareness of the kinds of errors that occur in office medication management; however, 36% agreed or strongly agreed that the event reporting "has increased the fear of repercussion in the practice." Time pressure was the main barrier to reporting. It is feasible for primary care clinicians and office staff to report medication errors and adverse drug events to a Web-based reporting system. Time pressures and a punitive culture are barriers to event reporting that must be overcome. Further testing of MEADERS as a quality improvement tool is warranted.

  8. Emotional Granularity Effects on Event-Related Brain Potentials during Affective Picture Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja Y.; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Nam, Chang S.

    2017-01-01

    There is debate about whether emotional granularity, the tendency to label emotions in a nuanced and specific manner, is merely a product of labeling abilities, or a systematic difference in the experience of emotion during emotionally evocative events. According to the Conceptual Act Theory of Emotion (CAT) (Barrett, 2006), emotional granularity is due to the latter and is a product of on-going temporal differences in how individuals categorize and thus make meaning of their affective states. To address this question, the present study investigated the effects of individual differences in emotional granularity on electroencephalography-based brain activity during the experience of emotion in response to affective images. Event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related desynchronization and synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis techniques were used. We found that ERP responses during the very early (60–90 ms), middle (270–300 ms), and later (540–570 ms) moments of stimulus presentation were associated with individuals’ level of granularity. We also observed that highly granular individuals, compared to lowly granular individuals, exhibited relatively stable desynchronization of alpha power (8–12 Hz) and synchronization of gamma power (30–50 Hz) during the 3 s of stimulus presentation. Overall, our results suggest that emotional granularity is related to differences in neural processing throughout emotional experiences and that high granularity could be associated with access to executive control resources and a more habitual processing of affective stimuli, or a kind of “emotional complexity.” Implications for models of emotion are also discussed. PMID:28392761

  9. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%), women who had experienced domestic...

  10. Affective visual event-related potentials: Arousal, valence, and repetition effects for normal and distorted pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenkrants, Bella; Olofsson, Jonas K.; Polich, John

    2007-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess arousal (low, high), valence (negative, positive), and stimulus repetition effects for normal and distorted images from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). Distorted stimuli were constructed by dividing each image into 108 one cm squares and rearranging the segments randomly to produce a “scrambled” picture. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were elicited by presenting the normal and scrambled images as target stimuli, with a r...

  11. Aging memory for pictures: Using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Waring, Jill D.; Beth, Ellen H.; McKeever, Joshua D.; Milberg, William P.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2007-01-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to e...

  12. Psychological Effect of an Analogue Traumatic Event Reduced by Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcheret, Kate; Holmes, Emily A; Goodwin, Guy M; Foster, Russell G; Wulff, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of sleep deprivation compared to sleep, immediately after experimental trauma stimuli on the development of intrusive memories to that trauma stimuli. Participants were exposed to a film with traumatic content (trauma film). The immediate response to the trauma film was assessed, followed by either total sleep deprivation (sleep deprived group, N = 20) or sleep as usual (sleep group, N = 22). Twelve hours after the film viewing the initial psychological effect of the trauma film was measured and for the subsequent 6 days intrusive emotional memories related to the trauma film were recorded in daily life. Academic sleep laboratory and participants' home environment. Healthy paid volunteers. On the first day after the trauma film, the psychological effect as assessed by the Impact of Event Scale - Revised was lower in the sleep deprived group compared to the sleep group. In addition, the sleep deprived group reported fewer intrusive emotional memories (mean 2.28, standard deviation [SD] 2.91) compared to the sleep group (mean 3.76, SD 3.35). Because habitual sleep/circadian patterns, psychological health, and immediate effect of the trauma film were similar at baseline for participants of both groups, the results cannot be accounted for by pre-existing inequalities between groups. Our findings suggest that sleep deprivation on one night, rather than sleeping, reduces emotional effect and intrusive memories following exposure to experimental trauma. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Orthographic combinability and phonological consistency effects in reading Chinese phonograms: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Hsien; Tsai, Jie-Li; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tzeng, Ovid J-L

    2009-01-01

    In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace the temporal dynamics of phonological consistency and phonetic combinability in the reading of Chinese phonograms. The data showed a significant consistency-by-combinability interaction at N170. High phonetic combinability characters elicited greater negativity at N170 than did low phonetic combinability characters, and the combinability effect was only found in the reading of high consistency characters. The results support the phonological mapping hypothesis of the reading-related N170 effect and suggest that the earlier stages of visual word recognition are shaped by the mapping of orthography to phonology even in Chinese. Moreover, our data revealed both consistency and combinability effects at P200 and N400, accounted for by the two-stage framework for visual word recognition. That is, characters with high combinability or high consistency facilitated the earlier stages of orthographic or phonological processing which were due to increased activation at the perceptual level; consequently, less positive P200 was demonstrated. In the later stages, high combinability or high consistency characters were associated with a larger semantic neighborhood, which increased semantic competition and exaggerated the N400 effect. These data support the assumption of radical-based inputs proposed by the lexical constituent model. However, the phonetic consistency effects found at N170 and P200 cannot be reconciled with the current framework of the lexical constituent model. A possible revision will be discussed.

  14. Managing the effects of the weather on the Equestrian Events of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcott, Leo; Leung, Wing-Mo; Riggs, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a 3 year project to investigate and manage the effects of the local weather conditions on horses competing in the 2008 Olympic Games. The first part of the investigation involved estimating the expected heat load on horses during competition and suggesting measures to ensure their safety based on data collected from dedicated weather monitoring at both Olympic venues during August 2006, 2007 and 2008. The aim of the second part was to establish a reliable system of point forecasting to monitor and predict inclement weather that might affect the competitions. This involved setting up automatic monitoring systems and exploiting numerical weather prediction models. The monitoring and predicting capabilities were tested by running two 'virtual' or simulated cross country competitions in 2006 and 2007. They were further trialled with live horses during the Test Event in August 2007, when a rapid cooling system for horses using shade tents, misting fans and iced water was refined. The results of both parts yielded valuable information which was used to establish a protocol to ensure that horses would not become heat stressed or subjected to dangerous weather conditions. Despite some very high temperatures and humidity, a number of storms and two serious tropical cyclones, there were no disruptions to the competition schedule and no serious injuries or heat stress to the horses throughout the 2008 Equestrian Events.

  15. Single Event Effect cross section calibration and application to quasi-monoenergetic and spallation facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alía Rubén García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to calibrate Single Event Effect (SEE-based detectors in monoenergetic fields and apply the resulting semi-empiric responses to more general mixed-field cases in which a broad variety of particle species and energy spectra are present. The calibration of the response functions is based both on experimental proton (30–200 MeV and neutron (5–300 MeV data and considerations derived from Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The application environments include the quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at RCNP, the atmospheric-like VESUVIO spallation spectrum and the CHARM high-energy accelerator test facility. The agreement between the mixed-field response and that predicted through the mono-energetic calibration is within ±30% for the broad variety of cases considered and thus regarded as highly successful for mixed-field monitoring applications.

  16. A signal detection method for temporal variation of adverse effect with vaccine adverse event reporting system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Du, Jingcheng; Huang, Jing; Ellenberg, Susan S; Hennessy, Sean; Tao, Cui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-05

    To identify safety signals by manual review of individual report in large surveillance databases is time consuming; such an approach is very unlikely to reveal complex relationships between medications and adverse events. Since the late 1990s, efforts have been made to develop data mining tools to systematically and automatically search for safety signals in surveillance databases. Influenza vaccines present special challenges to safety surveillance because the vaccine changes every year in response to the influenza strains predicted to be prevalent that year. Therefore, it may be expected that reporting rates of adverse events following flu vaccines (number of reports for a specific vaccine-event combination/number of reports for all vaccine-event combinations) may vary substantially across reporting years. Current surveillance methods seldom consider these variations in signal detection, and reports from different years are typically collapsed together to conduct safety analyses. However, merging reports from different years ignores the potential heterogeneity of reporting rates across years and may miss important safety signals. Reports of adverse events between years 1990 to 2013 were extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database and formatted into a three-dimensional data array with types of vaccine, groups of adverse events and reporting time as the three dimensions. We propose a random effects model to test the heterogeneity of reporting rates for a given vaccine-event combination across reporting years. The proposed method provides a rigorous statistical procedure to detect differences of reporting rates among years. We also introduce a new visualization tool to summarize the result of the proposed method when applied to multiple vaccine-adverse event combinations. We applied the proposed method to detect safety signals of FLU3, an influenza vaccine containing three flu strains, in the VAERS database. We showed that it had high

  17. Flood events in small mountain catchments : observations and results from the Draix experimental basins (French South Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, N.; Klotz, S.

    2009-04-01

    The floods generated in small mountains basin are flash floods often devastating. Predicting runoff, erosion and sediment yield within mountainous catchments presents a strategic interest due to the consequences which arise from these phenomenons and the need for natural hazard mitigation engineering. The need to quantify the phenomenon and the effect of the restoration strategies led the Cemagref to monitor a group of little basins in the Southern French Alps : the Draix field Observatory on hydrological and erosional processes in mountain areas. The main goal of this laboratory is to improve the prediction of the runoff and erosion response of small mountain catchments to climatological inputs (precipitation and temperature), particularly for extreme events. A focus is given on the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall at the scale of a small mountainous catchment, on the hydrological response of these small catchments to this input, on the role of the vegetation cover in these processes. The experimental basins of Draix are located 200 km South of Grenoble, near the little town of Digne. Five basins have been equipped since 1982 for the measurement of rainfall, liquid discharge and solid transport, which can be both bedload and suspension. These basins have different areas, from 1300 m² to 1 km². Four are located in denuded areas with vegetation cover ranging from 21 % to 56 %; the last one was reforested at the end of the last century, within the frame of restoration works. 87 % of its surface area is now covered with a pine forest. The paper will present a summary on the conditions of occurrence of the high floods for the different basin scale. As two catchments of nearly 1 km², have homogeneous but different vegetation covers, a comparison can be made and highlights the effect of the vegetation cover on the flood generation.

  18. Reporting Clinical End Points and Safety Events in an Acute Coronary Syndrome Trial: Results With Integrated Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Patrícia O; Lopes, Renato D; Stevens, Susanna R; Zimerman, André; Wruck, Lisa; James, Stefan K; Haque, Ghazala; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha C V; Alexander, John H; Alexander, Karen P

    2017-04-24

    End points and adverse events (AEs) are collected separately in clinical trials, yet regulatory requirements for serious AE reporting vary across regions, so classifying end points according to seriousness criteria can be useful in global trials. In the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events 2 (APPRAISE-2) trial, patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome were randomized to apixaban or placebo for the prevention of recurrent ischemic events. Suspected end points (myocardial infarction, stroke, or bleeding) were adjudicated by an independent clinical events classification committee. Safety criteria were collected for suspected end points and AEs. Patient-level event rates per 100 patient-days of follow-up, modeled using Poisson regression, explored the influence of region and patient characteristics on event reporting. Overall, 13 909 events were reported by 858 sites in 39 countries; 8.4% (n=1166) were suspected end points, and 91.6% (n=12 743) were AEs. Overall, 66.0% of suspected end points were confirmed by the clinical events classification committee. Most clinical events classification committee-confirmed end points met criteria to be classified as serious (94.0%); many clinical events classification committee-negated end points also did (63.2%), but fewer AEs met seriousness criteria (17.9%). The most common seriousness criterion was hospitalization (79.9%, n=2594). Region explained 28.7% of end point- and 26.4% of serious AE-reporting variation, and patient characteristics explained an additional 25.4% of end point and 13.4% of serious AE variation. Nonserious AE-reporting variation was not explained by adjustment. An integrated collection of end points and serious AEs is feasible in a multinational trial and illustrates the shared characteristics of events. Tailoring event collection to fit the phase and purpose of the trial is achievable and informative. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00831441. © 2017 The

  19. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berberich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012, two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group, located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany, have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants’ behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological, which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis.

  20. Location negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yujun; Wang, Enguo; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Guo Xiang

    2016-08-01

    As the reading process is inseparable from working memory, inhibition, and other higher cognitive processes, the deep cognitive processing defects that are associated with dyslexia may be due to defective distraction inhibition systems. In this study, we used event-related potential technology to explore the source of negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia and in a group of healthy children for comparison. We found that the changes in the average response times in the negative priming and control conditions were consistent across the two groups, while the negative priming effects differed significantly between the groups. The magnitude of the negative priming effect was significantly different between the two groups, with the magnitude being significantly higher in the control group than it was in the developmental dyslexia group. These results indicate that there are deficits in distraction inhibition in children with developmental dyslexia. In terms of the time course of processing, inhibition deficits in the dyslexia group appeared during early-stage cognition selection and lasted through the response selection phase. Regarding the cerebral cortex locations, early-stage cognition selection was mainly located in the parietal region, while late-stage response selection was mainly located in the frontal and central regions. The results of our study may help further our understanding of the intrinsic causes of developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring: results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, S M; Mesman, E; Nolen, W A; Eijckemans, M J C; Hillegers, M H J

    2015-01-01

    Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of life events on the onset and recurrence of mood episodes in bipolar offspring, as well as the effects of temperament, coping and parenting style on this association. Bipolar offspring (n = 108) were followed longitudinally from adolescence to adulthood. Mood disorders were assessed with: the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders; life events with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule; and psychological measures using the Utrecht Coping List, Temperament and Character Inventory and short-EMBU (memories of upbringing instrument). Anderson-Gill models (an extension of the Cox proportional hazard model) were utilized. Life events were associated with an increased risk for first and, although less pronounced, subsequent mood episodes. There was a large confounding effect for the number of previous mood episodes; findings suggest a possible kindling effect. Passive coping style increased the risk of mood episode onset and recurrent episodes, but also altered the effect of life events on mood disorders. Harm avoidance temperament was associated with mood episode recurrence. Life events are especially a risk factor in the onset of mood disorders, though less so in recurrent episodes. Psychological features (passive coping and harm-avoidant temperament) contribute to the risk of an episode occurring, and also have a moderating effect on the association between life events and mood episodes. These findings create potential early intervention strategies for bipolar offspring.

  2. Effects of a controlled freeze-thaw event on dissolved and colloidal soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ah; Lee, Ha Kyung; Choi, Jung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the freezing and thawing that accompany the warming process on the composition of the soil organic matter in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. Temperate soil samples were incubated in a refrigerator at 2 °C for 4 weeks and compared with those frozen at -20 °C in the second week followed by thawing at 2 °C to study a freeze-thaw effect with minimal effect from the thawing temperature. The freeze-thaw group was compared with those incubated at 25 °C in the last week to investigate a warming effect after thawing. Thawing at 2 °C after freezing at -20 °C increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but decreased colloidal Ca. The subsequent warming condition greatly increased both DOC and colloidal Ca. The colloidal organic carbon (COC) and dissolved Ca showed rather subtle changes in response to the freeze-thaw and warming treatments compared to the changes in DOC and colloidal Ca. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and Fourier transformation-infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) results showed that the freeze-thaw and warming treatments gave the opposite effects on the compositions of dissolved humic-like substances, polysaccharides or silicates, and aliphatic alcohols. A principal component analysis (PCA) with the DOC, fluorescence EEM, and FT-IR spectra produced two principal components that successfully distinguished the effects of the freeze-thaw and warming treatments. Due to the contrasting effects of the freeze-thaw and warming treatments, the overall effects of freeze-thaw events in nature on the dissolved and colloidal soil organic matter could vary depending on the thawing temperature.

  3. Are measurements of patient safety culture and adverse events valid and reliable? Results from a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Per G

    2015-05-02

    The association between measurements of the patient safety culture and the "true" patient safety has been insufficiently documented, and the validity of the tools used for the measurements has been questioned. This study explored associations between the patient safety culture and adverse events, and evaluated the validity of the tools. In 2008/2009, a survey on patient safety culture was performed with Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) in two medical departments in two geographically separated hospitals of Innlandet Hospital Trust. Later, a retrospective analysis of adverse events during the same period was performed with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). The safety culture and adverse events were compared between the departments. 185 employees participated in the study, and 272 patient records were analysed. The HSOPSC scores were lower and adverse events less prevalent in department 1 than in department 2. In departments 1 and 2 the mean HSOPSC scores (SD) were at the unit level 3.62 (0.42) and 3.90 (0.37) (p safety culture and adverse events. Until the criterion validity of the tools for measuring patient safety culture and tracking of adverse events have been further evaluated, measurement of patient safety culture could not be used as a proxy for the "true" safety.

  4. The effect of spirituality and religious attendance on the relationship between psychological distress and negative life events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Brown, Qiana L.; Eaton, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the relationship between negative life events and psychological distress. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1,071 community dwelling adults from East Baltimore, Maryland who participated in the fourth (2004–2005) wave of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The 20-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20) was used to measure psychological distress. Multiple regression models were used to assess the association between negative life events and distress as well as to measure the effect of religious attendance and spirituality on the association between psychological distress and negative events while adjusting for demographic variables, past distress and social support from friends and relatives. Results In pooled analysis, negative events were significant predictors of distress, b = 1.00, β = 0.072, p spirituality did not affect or modify the association between negative events and distress. However, religious attendance was inversely associated with distress with higher frequency of attendance associated with lower distress after controlling for demographic and social support factors, b = −2.10, β = −.110, p spirituality, b = 1.23, β = 0.092, p spirituality; the association between religious attendance and decreased distress was true only for those scoring high in spirituality. Social support accounted for some of the inverse association between religious and distress. Conclusion Religious attendance and spirituality may play a role in how people experience and deal with difficult life situations. PMID:23732707

  5. Neutropenia as an Adverse Event following Vaccination: Results from Randomized Clinical Trials in Healthy Adults and Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi-Kioi, Vincent; Lewis, David; Launay, Odile; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Bodinham, Caroline L.; Aerssens, Annelies; Groth, Nicola; Saul, Allan; Podda, Audino

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of early vaccine trials aimed at evaluating the safety profile of novel vaccines, abnormal haematological values, such as neutropenia, are often reported. It is therefore important to evaluate how these trials should be planned not to miss potentially important safety signals, but also to understand the implications and the clinical relevance. Methodology We report and discuss the results from five clinical trials (two with a new Shigella vaccine in the early stage of clinical development and three with licensed vaccines) where the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were evaluated before and after vaccination. Additionally, we have performed a systematic review of the literature on cases of neutropenia reported during vaccine trials to discuss our results in a more general context. Principal Findings Both in our clinical trials and in the literature review, several cases of neutropenia have been reported, in the first two weeks after vaccination. However, neutropenia was generally transient and had a benign clinical outcome, after vaccination with either multiple novel candidates or well-known licensed vaccines. Additionally, the vaccine recipients with neutropenia frequently had lower baseline ANC than non-neutropenic vaccinees. In many instances neutropenia occurred in subjects of African descent, known to have lower ANC compared to western populations. Conclusions It is important to include ANC and other haematological tests in early vaccine trials to identify potential safety signals. Post-vaccination neutropenia is not uncommon, generally transient and clinically benign, but many vaccine trials do not have a sampling schedule that allows its detection. Given ethnic variability in the level of circulating neutrophils, normal ranges taking into account ethnicity should be used for determination of trial inclusion/exclusion criteria and classification of neutropenia related adverse events. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02017899

  6. The Analysis on Space Radiation Environment and Effect of the KOMPSAT-2 Spacecraft(II): Single Event Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Day-Young; Kim, Hak-Jung

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, space radiation environment and single event effect(SEE) have been analyzed for the KOMPSAT-2 operational orbit. As spacecraft external and internal space environment, trapped proton, SEP(solar energetic particle) and GCR(galactic cosmic ray) high energy protons and heavy ions spectrums are analyzed. Finally, SEU and SEL rate prediction has been perfomed for the Intel 80386 microprocessor CPU that is planned to be used in the KOMPSAT-2. As the estimation results, under nominal operational condition, it is predicted that trapped proton and high energetic proton induced SEU effect will not occur. But, it is predicted that heavy ion induced SEU can occur several times during KOMPSAT-2 3-year mission operation. KOMPSAT-2 has been implementing system level design to mitigate SEU occurrence using processor CPU error detection function of the on-board flight software.

  7. Effects of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 on clinical cardiovascular events : A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Shen, X; Jiang, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z; Dong, X; Li, J; Han, Q; Zhao, J; Wang, B; Liu, L

    2017-11-07

    The present meta-analysis was designed to improve statistical power and review the effects of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 on clinical cardiovascular events. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to May 2017. Studies considered to be eligible were randomized controlled trials about the effects of monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 on clinical cardiovascular events. The primary endpoint was positively adjudicated cardiovascular events; the secondary endpoint comprised cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization, stroke, and hospitalization for unstable angina. We included 20 randomized controlled trials involving 67,934 patients. Monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 were associated with a significant reduction in positively adjudicated cardiovascular events (relative risk [RR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-0.93; z = 4.03; p = 0.000), MI (RR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.71-0.86; z = 4.96; p = 0.000), coronary revascularization (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.75-0.88; z = 4.93; p = 0.000), and stroke (RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; z = 3.47; p = 0.001). Monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 did not reduce hospitalization rates due to unstable angina. The results of subgroup analysis showed that evolocumab was associated with a lower risk of positively adjudicated cardiovascular events, MI, coronary revascularization, and stroke without reducing cardiac mortality. Alirocumab reduced the incidence of cardiac mortality but not of other cardiovascular events, while bococizumab was associated with a reduced risk of stroke. Monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 were associated with a lower risk of positively adjudicated cardiovascular events, MI, coronary revascularization, and stroke.

  8. The importance of context dependency for understanding the effects of low flow events on fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W.

    2014-01-01

    The natural hydrology of streams and rivers has been extensively altered by dam construction, water diversion, and climate change. An increased frequency of low-flow events will affect fish by changing habitat availability, resource availability, and reproductive cues. I reviewed the literature to characterize the approaches taken to assess low-flow events and fish, the main effects of low-flow events on fish, and the associated mechanistic drivers. Most studies are focused on temperate streams and are comparative in nature. Decreased stream flow is associated with decreased survival, growth, and abundance of fish populations and shifts in community composition, but effects are variable. This variability in effects is probably caused by context dependence. I propose 3 main sources of context dependence that drive the variation in fish responses to low-flow events: attributes of the low-flow event, attributes of the habitat, and attributes of the fish. Awareness of these sources of context dependence can help managers interpret and explain data, predict vulnerability of fish communities, and prioritize appropriate management actions.

  9. Association of novel biomarkers with future cardiovascular events is influenced by ethnicity: results from a multi-ethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranna, Vikas; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Niraj, Ashutosh; Kumar, Abhimanyu; Ference, Brian; Afonso, Luis

    2013-06-20

    We sought to define the influence of ethnicity on associations between novel biomarkers and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study participants, a community based population of asymptomatic US adults. Baseline (log transformed) levels of biomarkers namely C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) and factor VIII were used to predict the cumulative incidence of all CVD events in an ethnicity stratified study cohort from Cox-proportional hazard analysis where models were adjusted for relevant confounders. Ethnic cohorts included 2362 Caucasians, 1601 African Americans, 1353 Hispanics, and 751 Chinese. At mean 4.6 years of follow-up, 286 CVD events were identified with cumulative incidence of 11.3% in Caucasians, 9.8% in African Americans, 11.3% in Hispanics and 6.9% in Chinese. Biomarker risk association with CVD events incidence was significantly influenced by ethnicity with positive association (HR, 95% CI, p value) being shown for: CRP among Caucasians only (1.23, 1.04-1.47, ethnically diverse, asymptomatic US adult population suggest that biomarker association with incident CVD events is significantly influenced by ethnicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ADVERSE EVENT OF DRUG THERAPY (THE FIRST RESULTS OF THE STUDY ACCORDING TO THE PROFILE OUTPATIENT REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse events (As of medicines are becoming a more serious problem of health care and society due to the growth of the pharmaceutical market. Incomplete information about AEs of drug therapy is an important aspect of this problem. The use of the register method is very promising in the study of adverse drug reactions in clinical practice. Aim. To study the AEs of drug therapy in the PROFILE outpatient register. Material and methods. Primary patients (n=1531 were included into the PROFILE outpatient register from January 2011 to August 2015. The median age of patients was 63 (54; 71 years. The registration card of patients and patient questionnaires were used within the register for the database creation. Analysis of retrospective data of the register was fulfilled Results. Various AEs were reported in 223 (14.6% patients. Total anamnestic information on 301 cases of AEs was collected: 223 cases were recorded once, 63 – twice, 15 – three times. Patients with AEs were older than patients without AEs ((p<0.0001. AEs were registered most frequently in the use of ACE inhibitors and acetylsalicylic acid: an average of 15% of all cases, each. Various allergic reactions and symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders (pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc. were leaders in the structure of AEs. Naturally there were more patients without AEs among those, who did not take medications. Among patients treated with 6 to 10 medications per day, there were 1.5 times more people who had at least one AE (p<0.0001. Conclusion. The use of the register method allows to add information about the safety of various drugs. However, analysis of the prospective data of the PROFILE register looks the most promising for the solution of this problem.

  11. Direct effects of prismatic lenses on visuomotor control: an event-related functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, James; Ferber, Susanne; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2008-10-01

    Exposure to prisms has long been used to explore the control of visually guided actions primarily because adaptation requires the recalibration of misaligned reference frames due to perturbed visual input (i.e. eye-in-head and hand-centered reference frames must be realigned). To date, the only neuroimaging study to explore the direct effects of prisms on pointing used positron emission tomography and found increased activation only in right parietal cortex. We used event-related functional MRI to examine the effects of prisms on visuomanual pointing. Results demonstrated changes in activity in the anterior cingulate, the anterior intraparietal region and in a medial region of the right cerebellum. Specifically, activity in these regions was higher for the first few pointing trials made while viewing targets through prisms when directly contrasted to the last few trials. These results highlight that a more extensive network of cortical and cerebellar regions is involved in recalibrating visuomotor commands in the face of perturbed visual input.

  12. [Effects of carbocisteine on airway inflammation and related events in SO2-exposed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Y; Okamura, T; Masumoto, Y; Tachiiri, T; Momo, K

    2001-01-01

    Airway inflammation leads to secretion of abnormal mucous glycoprotein and ciliary injury. To investigate the possible usefulness of carbocisteine against airway inflammation and events related to it, we conducted a study in SO2-exposed rats of the effects of carbocisteine and ambroxol, as an active control drug, on components of mucous glycoprotein (fucose, sialic acid and protein) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); on infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells in BALF; on tracheal and bronchial-ciliary lesions; and on cAMP levels in tracheal and alveolar tissues. Carbocisteine inhibited or improved all SO2-induced changes tested, and dosages of 125 and 250 mg/kg b.i.d. reduced fucose, sialic acid and protein contents, inflammatory cells (as markers of inflammation), free radicals, and elastase activity in BALF, and suppressed the development of ciliary lesions of the tracheal and bronchial mucosa, while ambroxol (10 mg/kg b.i.d.) showed no such effects. In addition, carbocisteine improved cAMP levels in the tracheal and alveolar tissues. These results indicate that carbocisteine is able to prevent the development of inflammation-related respiratory disease in this rat model, and that this remission of airway inflammation may be associated with carbocisteine-induced normalization of cAMP levels in tracheal and alveolar tissues as well as with its mucoregulant and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, carbocisteine has a unique mucoregulant action and inhibits SO2-induced airway inflammation in a manner different from that of ambroxol.

  13. Event-related potential effects of superior action anticipation in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Gao, Hongwei; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Pin; Lin, Huiyan; Mo, Lei; Lin, Chong-De

    2011-04-04

    The ability to predict the trajectory of a ball based on the opponent's body kinematics has been shown to be critical to high-performing athletes in many sports. However, little is known about the neural correlates underlying such superior ability in action anticipation. The present event-related potential study compared brain responses from professional badminton players and non-player controls when they watched video clips of badminton games and predicted a ball's landing position. Replicating literature findings, the players made significantly more accurate judgments than the controls and showed better action anticipation. Correspondingly, they showed enlarged amplitudes of two ERP components, a P300 peaking around 350ms post-stimulus with a parietal scalp distribution and a P2 peaking around 250ms with a posterior-occipital distribution. The P300 effect was interpreted to reflect primed access and/or directing of attention to game-related memory representations in the players facilitating their online judgment of related actions. The P2 effect was suggested to reflect some generic learning effects. The results identify clear neural responses that differentiate between different levels of action anticipation associated with sports expertise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Post and during event effect of cell phone talking and texting on driving performance--a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Codjoe, Julius; Ishak, Sherif; McCarter, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have been done in the field of driver distraction, specifically on the use of cell phone for either conversation or texting while driving. Researchers have focused on the driving performance of drivers when they were actually engaged in the task; that is, during the texting or phone conversation event. However, it is still unknown whether the impact of cell phone usages ceases immediately after the end of task. The primary objective of this article is to analyze the post-event effect of cell phone usage (texting and conversation) in order to verify whether the distracting effect lingers after the actual event has ceased. This study utilizes a driving simulator study of 36 participants to test whether a significant decrease in driver performance occurs during cell phone usage and after usage. Surrogate measures used to represent lateral and longitudinal control of the vehicle were standard deviation (SD) of lane position and mean velocity, respectively. RESULTS suggest that there was no significant decrease in driver performance (both lateral and longitudinal control) during and after the cell phone conversation. For the texting event, there were significant decreases in driver performance in both the longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle during the actual texting task. The diminished longitudinal control ceased immediately after the texting event but the diminished lateral control lingered for an average of 3.38 s. The number of text messages exchanged did not affect the magnitude or duration of the diminished lateral control. The result indicates that the distraction and subsequent elevated crash risk of texting while driving linger even after the texting event has ceased. This finding has safety and policy implications in reducing distracted driving.

  15. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette; Andersen, Zorana J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; de Faire, Ulf; de Hoogh, Kees; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Gigante, Bruna; Havulinna, Aki S; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoek, Gerard; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K; Meisinger, Christa; Migliore, Enrica; Overvad, Kim; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pekkanen, Juha; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Goran; Pundt, Noreen; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Swart, Wim J R; Turunen, Anu W; Vineis, Paolo; Weimar, Christian; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. Data from 11 cohorts were collected, and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual air pollution exposures were predicted from land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The exposures were: PM2.5 [particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter], coarse PM (PM between 2.5 and 10 μm), PM10 (PM ≤ 10 μm), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Random-effects meta-analysis was used for pooled effect estimation. A total of 99,446 study participants were included, 3,086 of whom developed stroke. A 5-μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 exposure was associated with 19% increased risk of incident stroke [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.62]. Similar findings were obtained for PM10. The results were robust to adjustment for an extensive list of cardiovascular risk factors and noise coexposure. The association with PM2.5 was apparent among those ≥ 60 years of age (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.87), among never-smokers (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.88), and among participants with PM2.5 exposure < 25 μg/m3 (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.77). We found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value.

  16. Effect of Sleep State and Position on Obstructive Respiratory Events Distribution in Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kersh, Karim; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo; Patel, Paras M; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2016-04-15

    This study aimed to examine the effect of sleep state (rapid eye movement [REM] versus non-rapid eye movement [NREM]) and position (supine versus non-supine position) on obstructive respiratory events distribution in adolescent population (ages 12 to 18 y). This was a retrospective study that included 150 subjects between the ages of 12 to 18 y with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 1/h. Subjects using REM sleep-suppressant medications and subjects with history of genetic anomalies or craniofacial syndromes were excluded. The median age was 14 y with interquartile range (IQR) of 13 to 16 y, 56% of patients were males and the median body mass index (BMI) z-score was 2.35 (IQR: 1.71-2.59) with 77.3% of patients fulfilling obesity criteria. Respiratory obstructive events were more common in REM sleep. The median REM obstructive AHI (OAHI) was 8.9 events per hour (IQR: 2.74-22.8), whereas the median NREM OAHI was 3.2 events per hour (IQR: 1.44-8.29; p adolescents had more REM obstructive events with median REM OAHI of 13.2 events per hour (IQR: 4.88-30.6), which was significantly higher than median REM OAHI of 4.94 (IQR: 2.05-11.36; p = 0.004) in white adolescents. Obstructive events were more common in supine position with higher median supine OAHI of 6.55 (IQR: 4-17.73) when compared to median non-supine OAHI of 2.94 (IQR: 1-6.54; p sleep related obstructive respiratory events in the adolescents (12 to 18 y of age) occur predominantly in REM sleep and in supine position. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  17. Koroška Bela alluvial fan – The result of the catastrophic slope events; (Karavanke Mountains, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Jež

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Koroška Bela alluvial fan deposits were investigated to determine the genesis of the fan and the source area of sediments. The alluvial fan is composed of a sequence of diamicton layers, and related subaeric sediments that were deposited by multiple mass flow events, in some cases certainly by debris flows. The predominant sources ofsediments are tectonically deformed clastic and partly carbonate Carbonifferous and Permian rocks. In diamictons also pebbles of other rocks from the hinterland are present. These were eroded from the channel of Bela during the mass flow events. We estimate the future debris flow hazard along Bela stream as high.

  18. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Resulting from Torture and Other Traumatic Events among Syrian Kurdish Refugees in Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Hawkar; Hassan, Chiya Q.

    2017-01-01

    Political violence is known to cause psychological distress. There is a large body of empirical studies drawing correlations between war trauma, torture, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there are few studies on the effects of war-related trauma among Syrian refugees after events following the ‘Arab Spring’ uprisings between 2010 and 2012. This study examines the association of PTSD symptoms with torture and other traumatic events among Syrian Kurdish refugees living in Kur...

  19. Extreme total column ozone events and effects on UV solar radiation at Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, K.; Bais, A. F.; Fountoulakis, I.; Balis, D.; Tourpali, K.; Meleti, C.; Zanis, P.

    2016-11-01

    Thirty years of total ozone column (TOC) measurements conducted by a Brewer spectrophotometer, operating in Thessaloniki (40.6°) since March 1982, have been analyzed using the statistical extreme value theory for the identification of extreme TOC events. About 12 % of the total number of days with TOC measurements were identified as extreme-low and ˜15 % as extreme-high events. The influence of the extreme-low events on the annual mean TOC values is up to ˜18 DU, while the extreme-high events show lower impact (up to 12 DU). Removing the extreme events from the time series results in smoother year-to-year variability and reduction of the small long-term linear trend (-0.08 %/year) by a factor of 2. Furthermore, we examined the impact of the extreme events on the noon erythemal irradiance under clear skies, and we provide evidence that even under extreme-low TOC conditions, the UV radiation levels are determined to a great extent by the aerosol optical depth. Although the influence of aerosols is evident during all seasons, for spring and summer, the sensitivity of UV radiation is larger, probably due to the different nature of the aerosols over Thessaloniki during these seasons.

  20. Simulating the effects of hyperpycnal events on the stratigraphy of Poverty Shelf, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, E. W.; Kettner, A. J.; Kubo, Y.; Gomez, B.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    The hydrologic-transport model, HydroTrend indicates that suspended sediment discharge of the Waipaoa River, New Zealand increased from 2.3 to 15 Mt/y over the last 3000 years. Prior to the arrival of European colonists in the nineteenth century A.D., volcanic eruptions, natural fires and severe storms controlled erosion rates within the basin. Since then, clearing of much of the indigenous forest for sheep farming has caused suspended sediment discharge of the Waipaoa to increase by 850%. HydroTrend simulations indicate the Waipaoa was not able to generate hyperpycnal discharges before the arrival of European colonists. However, because of deforestation in the headwaters, suspended sediment concentrations of the Waipaoa are now able to exceed 40 kg/m3 during large flood events. The river density of these events is great enough to cause the manner by which sediment is transported from the river to change from a surface plume to a hyperpycnal plume. Although these hyperpycnal events are rare (recurrence intervals greater than 2 years), simulations suggest these events carry approximately one fifth of the total sediment load. Observational data of hyperpycnal flows are scarce as they often only occur during extreme weather events. Given the proper boundary conditions, these events have the potential to transport large amounts of sediment over the sheltered Poverty Bay shelf, and into the deep ocean. For this study, we have used HydroTrend results as input to the basin filling model, sedflux (coupled with the hyperpycnal plume model, sakura), to investigate the impact of these hyperpycnal events on the stratigraphy of the Poverty Bay shelf. We note that while some flood events generate hyperpycnal flows that are able to bypass the shelf, others are unable to ignite and deposit the bulk of their sediment on the shelf.

  1. The Relation of Exposure to Traumatic Events and Longitudinal Mental Health Outcomes for Children Enrolled in Systems of Care: Results from a National System of Care Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Melissa L; Connell, Christian M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relation between children's history of exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and clinical and functional mental health trajectories over a 18-month period among a national sample of youth referred for services in children's behavioral health systems of care (SOCs). Using data from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services program for communities funded from 1997 to 2000, the study sample included 9556 children and their families. Latent growth modeling was used to assess the effect of history of exposure to PTEs on trajectories in a number of behavioral health outcomes during the 3-year period following referral to services, controlling for child demographic characteristics (gender, race, and age). Results revealed that, on average, children in SOCs exhibited significant improvements over time on all four outcome measures. Children with a history of exposure to PTEs had higher rates of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors and functional impairments and fewer behavioral and emotional strengths at baseline, but experienced improvements in these outcomes at the same rates as children without exposure to a traumatic event. Finally, child race, gender, and age also were associated with differences in behavioral health trajectories among service recipients. Implications for SOCs, including approaches to make them more trauma-informed, are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  2. Study of effects of Bt maize (Zea mays) events on Lepidoptera Ostrinia nubilalis, Sesamia nonagrioidesin southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folcher, L; Eychenne, N; Weissenberger, A; Jarry, M; Regnault-Roger, C; Delos, M

    2006-01-01

    Crops of maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in southwestern France with GMO (Genetic Modified Organism) vs isogenetic varieties in order to verify the control of European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and the Corn Stalk Borer (CBS) Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefevbre) by GMO in field conditions. The bioassays were carried out in 1998 and 1999 before moratorium, then in 2005. Experiments involved respectively 18, 12 and 19 fields cultivated with Furio/Furio cb (GMO), Cecilia/ Elgina (GMO) and PR33P66/PR33P67 (GMO) varieties. These transgenic events expressed Cry1A(b) protein (Bt maize). Plants were noted for insect infestation assessment (number of larvae in stalks and ears per plant). Statistical tests used t-test on couple of plots. Results showed a significant difference in the density of both ECB and CBS between control and the two transgenic events. The two transgenic events acted differently. The control of the two Bt events on the two pests were differentiated and discussed. These experiments underlined the importance of field evaluation for testing real effects of transgenic events on crop according the environmental context.

  3. Disentangling the effects of low self-esteem and stressful events on depression: findings from three longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L

    2009-08-01

    Diathesis-stress models of depression suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events jointly influence the development of depressive affect. More specifically, the self-esteem buffering hypothesis states that, in the face of challenging life circumstances, individuals with low self-esteem are prone to depression because they lack sufficient coping resources, whereas those with high self-esteem are able to cope effectively and consequently avoid spiraling downward into depression. The authors used data from 3 longitudinal studies of adolescents and young adults, who were assessed 4 times over a 3-year period (Study 1; N = 359), 3 times over a 6-week period (Study 2; N = 249), and 4 times over a 6-year period (Study 3; N = 2,403). In all 3 studies, low self-esteem and stressful events independently predicted subsequent depression but did not interact in the prediction. Thus, the results did not support the self-esteem buffering hypothesis but suggest that low self-esteem and stressful events operate as independent risk factors for depression. In addition, the authors found evidence in all 3 studies that depression, but not low self-esteem, is reciprocally related to stressful events, suggesting that individuals high in depression are more inclined to subsequently experience stressful events.

  4. The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanEck, M; Berkhof, H; Nicolson, N; Sulon, J

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived stress and related individual characteristics, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol levels. Forty-one ''high stress'' and 46 ''low stress'' subjects were selected on the basis of Perceived Stress Scale scores from a sample of male,

  5. The effects of structured writing assignments on processing stressful life events: an uncontroled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoutrop, M.; Lange, A.; Hanewald, G.; Duurland, C.; Bermond, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study the effectiveness of writing assignments in the treatment of individuals who have suffered traumatic or stressful life events is investigated. Thirty-two undergraduates participated in the study. The treatment consisted of five writing sessions of 45 min duration that took place

  6. Impact of Traumatic Events on Coping Strategies and Their Effectiveness among Kurdish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Muhammed, Abbas Hedayiet; Abdulrahman, Hemen Ahmed

    2004-01-01

    The aims were, first, to identify behavioural, cognitive, emotional, and social coping responses to traumatic and stressful situations, and second, to examine how the nature and severity of traumatic events are associated with coping dimensions. Third, the effectiveness of coping dimensions was evaluated for their ability to buffer the children's…

  7. Effect of face fracturing on shear wave coda quality factor estimated from acoustic emission events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of the quality factor derived from S wave coda (Q(subc)) on frequency is analysed in order to understand the effect of fracturing ahead of a mining stope. Micro seismic events recorded using acoustic emission sensors in a mining...

  8. Effects of stimulus repetitions on the event-related potential of humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambeth, A.; Maes, J.H.R.; Quian Quiroga, R.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of repeated stimulus presentations on the event-related potential (ERP) of humans and rats. Both species were presented with a total of 100 auditory stimuli, divided into four blocks of 25 stimuli. By means of wavelet denoising, single-trial ERPs were

  9. Bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects in the regime of optical event horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jie; Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei

    2015-01-01

    We study the cross-phase-modulation-induced soliton spectral shifting in the regime of the optical event horizon. The perturbed soliton to either red-shifting or blue-shifting is controllable, which could evoke bidirectional soliton spectral tunneling effects....

  10. The effects of cortisol administration on approach-avoidance behavior: An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peer, J.M. van; Roelofs, K.; Rotteveel, M.; Dijk, J.G. van; Spinhoven, P.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cortisol administration (50 mg) on approach and avoidance tendencies in low and high trait avoidant healthy young men. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured during a reaction time task, in which participants evaluated the emotional expression of

  11. Effects of transgenic maize expressing the Cry1Ab protein (event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-23

    Oct 23, 2012 ... protein (event MON810) on locally adapted earthworms in a sandy loam soil in the ... short-term, growing Bt maize does not have negative effects on the numbers of the earthworms in the. Central Eastern Cape, South ... The study was established as a randomized complete block design. (RCBD) with two Bt ...

  12. Predicting neuropathy and reactions in leprosy at diagnosis and before incident events-results from the INFIR cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Cairns S Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a disease of skin and peripheral nerves. The process of nerve injury occurs gradually through the course of the disease as well as acutely in association with reactions. The INFIR (ILEP Nerve Function Impairment and Reactions Cohort was established to identify clinically relevant neurological and immunological predictors for nerve injury and reactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study, in two centres in India, recruited 188 new, previously untreated patients with multi-bacillary leprosy who had no recent nerve damage. These patients underwent a series of novel blood tests and nerve function testing including motor and sensory nerve conduction, warm and cold detection thresholds, vibrometry, dynamometry, monofilament sensory testing and voluntary muscle testing at diagnosis and at monthly follow up for the first year and every second month for the second year. During the 2 year follow up a total of 74 incident events were detected. Sub-clinical changes to nerve function at diagnosis and during follow-up predicted these new nerve events. Serological assays at baseline and immediately before an event were not predictive; however, change in TNF alpha before an event was a statistically significant predictor of that event. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings increase our understanding of the processes of nerve damage in leprosy showing that nerve function impairment is more widespread than previously appreciated. Any nerve involvement, including sub-clinical changes, is predictive of further nerve function impairment. These new factors could be used to identify patients at high risk of developing impairment and disability.

  13. Unsafe Drug Use and Arrhythmic Events in Brugada Patients with ICD: Results of a Long-Term Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Fernandes, Diogo; António, Natália; Madeira, Marta; Sousa, Pedro; Ventura, Miguel; Cristóvão, João; Nascimento, José; Elvas, Luís; Gonçalves, Lino; Pego, Guilherme Mariano

    2018-01-25

    Brugada syndrome is a hereditary disease linked with an increased risk of sudden death that may require an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in order to halt the arrhythmic events. The aim of this study was to identify possible triggers for appropriate ICD therapies in patients with Brugada syndrome, focusing on their past and current therapeutic profiles. Thirty patients with high-risk Brugada syndrome, with ICD implanted at the Coimbra Hospital and University Center, were enrolled. Patients were questioned about their Brugada syndrome history, previous cardiac events, comorbidities, present and past medications, and physical activity. Patients were followed up during 5.8 ± 5.3 years. The ICD was interrogated, and arrhythmic events and device therapies were recorded. The cohort who received appropriate ICD therapies was compared with the remaining patients to determine the potential link between clinical variables and potentially fatal arrhythmic events. More than half of the patients (53.3%) took at least one non-recommended drug, and 16.7% received appropriate ICD therapies, with a long-term rate of 4.0%/year. There was a tendency for more appropriate ICD therapies in patients who took unsafe drugs (85.7 versus 45.5%, p = 0.062), and the mean time between unsafe drug intake and appropriate ICD therapies was 3.8 ± 7.5 days. This study revealed that the medical community is still unaware of the pharmacological restrictions imposed by Brugada syndrome. Patients who took non-recommended drugs seem to have a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmic events.

  14. Affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events: the moderating effect of religiosity on avoidance behavior among students studying under a high level of terror event exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Zukerman, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the development of affective and behavioral changes following exposure to traumatic events among Israeli students studying under a high level of terror event exposure and to assess the effects of religiosity on those changes development. A questionnaire was administered to 770 students in the Ariel University Center in Judea and Samaria. Higher levels of terror exposure were associated with higher levels of avoidance behavior, subjective feelings of insecurity, and emotional distress. Higher religiosity moderated avoidance behavior, even when controlling for the level of objective exposure to terror events exposure, but had no influence on subjective sense of insecurity, or the level of emotional distress. These findings suggest that religiosity moderates behavioral changes development after traumatic event exposure mainly by reducing avoidance behavior.

  15. Investigation of bacterial effects of Asian dust events through comparison with seasonal variability in outdoor airborne bacterial community

    OpenAIRE

    Jonguk Park; Tomoaki Ichijo; Masao Nasu; Nobuyasu Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric bacterial dispersion with aeolian dust has been reported to have a potential impact on public health and ecosystems. Asian dust is a major aeolian event that results in an estimated 4 million tons of Asian dust particles falling in Japan annually, 3,000?5,000 km away from their source regions. However, most studies have only investigated the effects of Asian dust during dust seasons. Therefore, in this study, outdoor bacterial abundance and community composition were determined by...

  16. Geomorphic and Land Management Effects on Channel Altering Events in the Klamath Mountain, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A.; Mikulovsky, R. P.

    2012-12-01

    Channel altering events have many impacts on stream channels and can be the result of debris flows, hyper-concentrated flows or severe flooding. They play a major role in coarse woody debris delivery to fish bearing streams and provide a mix of sediment to the higher order streams. Channel altering events can reduce or even temporarily eliminate riparian vegetation along the stream channel and create changes in the stream bed such as aggradation and degradation. These processes are a natural part of steep, rugged landscapes such as that of the Klamath Mountains and have long-term benefits to the stream systems. The process can be accelerated however, by land management activities or severe wildfire events. Previous investigations have focused on the impacts to landsliding rates as a result of timber harvest, wildfire and forest roads. These studies are limited in spatial extent and have not combined timber harvest, wildfire, forest roads, storm intensity and geomorphic characteristics in the same investigation. In addition, previous studies have not included areas where landslides did not occur for comparison. This study investigates the relationships between landform, timber harvest, forest roads, wildfire, and storm intensity over the Klamath Mountains in Northern California. The study investigates the initiation points of channel altering events that occurred in the flood of December 1996/January 1997. Channel altering event initiation points are the uppermost point of an altered channel segment (highest elevation) as apparent on aerial photos. The initiation points are compared to stratified random points in and near channels where no channel altering event occurred. The initiation points and random points were attributed with information such as aspect, hillslope gradient, elevation, bedrock type, landform, storm intensity and land management practices. A logistic regression analysis will determine if there is a suite of characteristics that separated the

  17. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J.; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T.; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A.; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention. PMID:26926868

  18. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Troup

    Full Text Available The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs. ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention.

  19. Preliminary results of the Social Impact Research group of MEDEX: requests related to Strong Wind events (2000-2002) of two Meteorological Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J.; Gayà, M.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    In 2008 a pilot study was carried out by the Social Impact Research group (SIR) in two regions of Spain, the Balearic Islands and Catalonia. The SIR group, as a part of the MEDEX project, suggested some general criteria about how to analyse requested reports received in Meteorological Services, as a way to improve the knowledge of high impact weather events on population. Furthermore, an analysis of the requests related to damages caused by heavy rain (HR) events during the period 2000 and 2002 was presented. Results showed that a good indicator was obtained using the maximum of precipitation and the number of population affected by rainfall above 60 mm. As a second part of this pilot project, this study is focused on the analysis of the requests received in the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya as well as in the Delegación of AEMET in the Balearic Islands related to damages caused by the strong wind events (SW) included in the MEDEX database, during the period 2000 and 2002. A wind event is defined as SW when a gust wind above 25 m/s is recorded (33 m/s for elevated stations). Applying the same methodology, the temporal distribution of the requested reports has been analysed. The results obtained are in agreement with the ones presented for HR events: half of the requests were received during the first month after the event happened and during the first six month the number increase by 90%. Also, an analysis of the SW events with higher impact on population has been done. Factors like duration of the event, maximum wind gust, simultaneity with a HR event, population density, exposure, resilience and adaptation measures, have been considered. From the results, the length of the event stands out as a relevant factor. Furthermore, the synergy with a HR event increases the magnitude of the phenomena and risk perception is higher. On the other hand, it is known that areas usually exposed to SW events are more adapted to these situations, and the number of requests

  20. Temporal dynamics of the face familiarity effect: bootstrap analysis of single-subject event-related potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.

  1. Validation of Erosion 3D in Lower Saxony - Comparison between modelled soil erosion events and results of a long term monitoring project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, Jan; Mosimann, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Since 2000 water erosion has been surveyed on 400 ha arable land in three different regions of Lower Saxony (Mosimann et al. 2009). The results of this long-term survey are used for the validation of the soil erosion models such as USLE and Erosion 3D. The validation of the physically-based model Erosion 3D (Schmidt & Werner 2000) is possible because the survey analyses the effects (soil loss, sediment yield, deposition on site) of single thunder storm events and also maps major factors of soil erosion (soil, crop, tillage). A 12.5 m Raster DEM was used to model the soil erosion events.Rainfalldata was acquired from climate stations. Soil and landuse parameters were derived from the "Parameterkatalog Sachsen"(Michael et al. 1996). During thirteen years of monitoring, high intensity storms fell less frequently than expected. High intensity rainfalls with a return period of five or ten years usually occurred during periods of maximum plant cover.Winter events were ruled out because dataon snow melt and rainfallwere not measured. The validation is therefore restricted to 80 events. The validation consists of three parts. The first part compares the spatial distribution of the mapped soil erosion with the model results. The second part calculates the difference in the amount of redistributed soil. The third part analyses off-site effects such as sediment yield and pollution of water bodies. The validation shows that the overall result of erosion 3D is quite good. Spatial hotspots of soil erosion and of off-site effects are predicted correctly in most cases. However, quantitative comparison is more problematic, because the mapping allows only the quantification of rillerosion and not of sheet erosion. So as a rule,the predicted soil loss is higher than the mapped. The prediction of rill development is also problematic. While the model is capable of predicting rills in thalwegs, the modelling of erosion in tractor tracks and headlands is more complicated. In order to

  2. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression. PMID:26257620

  3. Are Vietnam and Chinese stock markets out of the US contagion effect in extreme events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong; Ishaq Bhatti, M.; Henry, Darren

    2017-08-01

    This paper employs Chi-plots, Kendall (K)-plots and three different copula functions to empirically examine the tail dependence between the US stock market and stock markets in Vietnam and China in order to test contagion effects pre- and post- the US subprime mortgage crisis. The results based on data between 2003 and 2011 indicate the presence of left tail dependence before and after the crisis suggesting no change in dependence structure, but there exists stronger left tail dependence between the US and Vietnam stock markets. It is observed that the US and Vietnam stock markets are more prone to crashing than booming together. For the Chinese market, the US and Shanghai stock markets exhibit left tail dependence before the crisis, but no evidence of post-crisis tail dependency. On the contrary, the Shenzhen stock market is independent of the US market before and after the crisis which implies that an extreme event in the US market is less likely to influence the Shenzhen stock market. This suggests that there is significant potential for risk diversification by investing in the Shenzhen market by US investors after the financial crisis. These results have not been documented in the existing literature and provide a new insight into risk diversification between the two important Asian emerging stock markets.

  4. Short-term effects of prosocial video games on aggression: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Teng, Zhaojun; Lan, Haiying; Zhang, Xin; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 min, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP) experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT) which based on Taylor's Aggression Paradigm and contains reaction time and noise intensity chosen as a measure of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group) displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT of noise intensity chosen. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  5. Short-Term Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Aggression: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games increases aggression, whereas exposure to prosocial video games can reduce aggressive behavior. However, little is known about the neural correlates of these behavioral effects. This work is the first to investigate the electrophysiological features of the relationship between playing a prosocial video game and inhibition of aggressive behavior. Forty-nine subjects played either a prosocial or a neutral video game for 20 minutes, then participated in an event-related potential (ERP experiment based on an oddball paradigm and designed to test electrophysiological responses to prosocial and violent words. Finally, subjects completed a competitive reaction time task (CRTT, which is based on Taylor’s Aggression Paradigm and measures both reaction time and noise intensity preference as indices of aggressive behavior. The results show that the prosocial video game group (compared to the neutral video game group displayed smaller P300 amplitudes, were more accurate in distinguishing violent words, and were less aggressive as evaluated by the CRTT (noise intensity preference. A mediation analysis shows that the P300 amplitude evoked by violent words partially mediates the relationship between type of video game and subsequent aggressive behavior. The results support theories based on the General Learning Model. We provide converging behavioral and neural evidence that exposure to prosocial media may reduce aggression.

  6. The effects of the 1996–2012 summer heat events on human mortality in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Výberči Dalibor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of summer heat events on the mortality of the Slovak population, both in total and for selected population sub-groups, are the foci of this study. This research is the first of its kind, focusing on a given population, and therefore one priority was to create a knowledge base for the issue and to basically evaluate existing conditions for the heat-mortality relationship in Slovakia. This article also aims to fill a void in current research on these issues in Europe. In addition to overall effects, we focused individually on the major historical heat events which occurred in the summers of 2007, 2010 and 2012. During the heat events, a non-negligible negative response in mortality was recorded and fatal effects were more pronounced during particularly strong heat events and periods which lasted for two or more days. In general, females and the elderly were the most sensitive groups in the population and mortality was characterized by several specific effects in individual population groups. The most extreme heat periods were commonly followed by a deficit in mortality, corresponding to a short-term mortality displacement, the pattern of which varied in specific cases. In general, displaced mortality appeared to compensate for a large part of heat-induced excess deaths.

  7. Bb4l event generator, interferences and off-shell effects

    CERN Document Server

    Peyruchat, Leo Paul

    2017-01-01

    Proton-proton collisions happening in LHC create lots of data. To understand the underlying physics behind these events, the real data must be compared to simulated events. A new generator,called the bb4l model, is able to simulate collisions happening in LHC with new interesting features regarding process creating two W bosons and two b quarks. One of them is that it takes interferences between different processes into account. Such effects have always been neglected in the case of top pair or single top production, but with the increasing sensitivity of the detectors it is becoming important to know precisely their amplitude. The goal of this study is to separate events generated with bb4l into different categories, and then to look at many variables and look for differences between categories.

  8. Event-related potentials reveal linguistic suppression effect but not enhancement effect on categorical perception of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Yang, Ling; Yu, Yanping; Zhang, Meichao; Shao, Yulan; Zhang, Honghong

    2014-08-01

    The present study used the event-related potential technique to investigate the nature of linguistic effect on color perception. Four types of stimuli based on hue differences between a target color and a preceding color were used: zero hue step within-category color (0-WC); one hue step within-category color (1-WC); one hue step between-category color (1-BC); and two hue step between-category color (2-BC). The ERP results showed no significant effect of stimulus type in the 100-200 ms time window. However, in the 200-350 ms time window, ERP responses to 1-WC target color overlapped with that to 0-WC target color for right visual field (RVF) but not left visual field (LVF) presentation. For the 1-BC condition, ERP amplitudes were comparable in the two visual fields, both being significantly different from the 0-WC condition. The 2-BC condition showed the same pattern as the 1-BC condition. These results suggest that the categorical perception of color in RVF is due to linguistic suppression on within-category color discrimination but not between-category color enhancement, and that the effect is independent of early perceptual processes. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions: An event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Fleck, M.S.; Dobbins, I.G.; Madden, D.J.; Cabeza, R.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effects of healthy aging on hippocampal and rhinal memory functions. Memory for past events can be based on retrieval accompanied by specific contextual details (recollection) or on the feeling that an event is old or new

  10. Management of major bleeding events in patients treated with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin: results from the ROCKET AF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Garg, Jyotsna; Patel, Manesh R; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Goodman, Shaun G; Becker, Richard C; Berkowitz, Scott D; Breithardt, Günter; Hacke, Werner; Halperin, Jonathan L; Hankey, Graeme J; Nessel, Christopher C; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Singer, Daniel E; Califf, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A

    2014-07-21

    There are no data regarding management and outcomes of major bleeding events in patients treated with oral factor Xa inhibitors. Using data from ROCKET AF, we analysed the management and outcomes of major bleeding overall and according to the randomized treatment. During a median follow-up of 1.9 years, 779 (5.5%) patients experienced major bleeding at a rate of 3.52 events/100 patient-years with a similar event rate in each arm (n = 395 rivaroxaban vs. n = 384 warfarin). The median number of transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) per episode was similar in both arms [2 (25th, 75th: 2, 4) units]. Overall, few transfusions of whole blood (n = 14), platelets (n = 10), or cryoprecipitate (n = 2) were used. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was significantly less in the rivaroxaban arm (n = 45 vs. n = 81 units) after adjustment for covariates [odds ratio (OR) 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.66); P ROCKET AF, the use of FFP and PCC was less among those allocated rivaroxaban compared with warfarin. However, use of PRBCs and outcomes after bleeding were similar among patients randomized to rivaroxaban or to warfarin. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Survey of the incidence and effect of major life events on graduate medical education trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars J. Grimm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the incidence of major life events during graduate medical education (GME training and to establish any associations with modifiable activities and career planning. Methods: The authors surveyed graduating GME trainees from their parent institution in June 2013. Demographic information (clinical department, gender, training duration and major life events (marriage, children, death/illness, home purchase, legal troubles, property loss were surveyed. Respondents were queried about the relationship between life events and career planning. A multivariable logistic regression model tested for associations. Results: A total of 53.2% (166/312 of graduates responded to the survey. 50% (83/166 of respondents were female. Major life events occurred in 96.4% (160/166 of respondents. Male trainees were more likely (56.1% [46/82] vs. 30.1% [25/83] to have a child during training (p=0.01. A total of 41.6% (69/166 of responders consciously engaged or avoided activities during GME training, while 31.9% (53/166 of responders reported that life events influenced their career plans. Trainees in lifestyle residencies (p=0.02, those who experienced the death or illness of a close associate (p=0.01, and those with legal troubles (p=0.04 were significantly more likely to consciously control life events. Conclusion: Major life events are very common and changed career plans in nearly a third of GME trainees. Furthermore, many trainees consciously avoided activities due to their responsibilities during training. GME training programs should closely assess the institutional support systems available to trainees during this difficult time.

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation on event-related fields and alpha activity during rhythmic force production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of sleep deprivation (SD) on event-related fields and the distribution of power over the scalp of MEG imaged brain activity was studied during acoustically paced rhythmic force production. At the behavioral level, SD resulted in a reduction of the lag (negative asynchrony) between

  13. Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Placebo and Buprenorphine Effects on Event-Related Potentials in Experimental Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus V; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate placebo and buprenorphine effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) in experimental pain and the potential benefit of population pharmacodynamic modelling in data analysis. Nineteen healthy volunteers received transdermal placebo and buprenorphine......-effects modelling implemented in NONMEM (V7.2.0.). Pharmacodynamic models were developed to adequately describe both placebo and buprenorphine ERP data. Models predicted significant placebo effects, but did not predict significant effects related to buprenorphine concentration. Models revealed that ERPs varied both...

  14. Threshold effects in catchment storm response and the occurrence and magnitude of flood events: implications for flood frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumastuti, D. I.; Struthers, I.; Sivapalan, M.; Reynolds, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the effects of selected catchment storage thresholds upon runoff behaviour, and specifically their impact upon flood frequency. The analysis is carried out with the use of a stochastic rainfall model, incorporating rainfall variability at intra-event, inter-event and seasonal timescales, as well as infrequent summer tropical cyclones, coupled with deterministic rainfall-runoff models that incorporate runoff generation by both saturation excess and subsurface stormflow mechanisms. Changing runoff generation mechanisms (i.e. from subsurface flow to surface runoff) associated with a given threshold (i.e. saturation storage capacity) is shown to be manifested in the flood frequency curve as a break in slope. It is observed that the inclusion of infrequent summer storm events increases the temporal frequency occurrence and magnitude of surface runoff events, in this way contributing to steeper flood frequency curves, and an additional break in the slope of the flood frequency curve. The results of this study highlight the importance of thresholds on flood frequency, and provide insights into the complex interactions between rainfall variability and threshold nonlinearities in the rainfall-runoff process, which are shown to have a significant impact on the resulting flood frequency curves.

  15. Quantifying the effect of trend, fluctuation, and extreme event of climate change on ecosystem productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yupeng; Yu, Deyong; Su, Yun; Hao, Ruifang

    2014-12-01

    Climate change comprises three fractions of trend, fluctuation, and extreme event. Assessing the effect of climate change on terrestrial ecosystem requires an understanding of the action mechanism of these fractions, respectively. This study examined 11 years of remotely sensed-derived net primary productivity (NPP) to identify the impacts of the trend and fluctuation of climate change as well as extremely low temperatures caused by a freezing disaster on ecosystem productivity in Hunan province, China. The partial least squares regression model was used to evaluate the contributions of temperature, precipitation, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to NPP variation. A climatic signal decomposition and contribution assessment model was proposed to decompose climate factors into trend and fluctuation components. Then, we quantitatively evaluated the contributions of each component of climatic factors to NPP variation. The results indicated that the total contribution of the temperature, precipitation, and PAR to NPP variation from 2001 to 2011 in Hunan province is 85 %, and individual contributions of the temperature, precipitation, and PAR to NPP variation are 44 % (including 34 % trend contribution and 10 % fluctuation contribution), 5 % (including 4 % trend contribution and 1 % fluctuation contribution), and 36 % (including 30 % trend contribution and 6 % fluctuation contribution), respectively. The contributions of temperature fluctuation-driven NPP were higher in the north and lower in the south, and the contributions of precipitation trend-driven NPP and PAR fluctuation-driven NPP are higher in the west and lower in the east. As an instance of occasionally triggered disturbance in 2008, extremely low temperatures and a freezing disaster produced an abrupt decrease of NPP in forest and grass ecosystems. These results prove that the climatic trend change brought about great impacts on ecosystem productivity and that climatic fluctuations and

  16. Legacy effects and memory loss: how contingencies moderate the response of rocky intertidal biofilms to present and past extreme events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, Martina; Rindi, Luca; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how historical processes modulate the response of ecosystems to perturbations is becoming increasingly important. In contrast to the growing interest in projecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning under future climate scenarios, how legacy effects originating from historical conditions drive change in ecosystems remains largely unexplored. Using experiments in combination with stochastic antecedent modelling, we evaluated how extreme warming, sediment deposition and grazing events modulated the ecological memory of rocky intertidal epilithic microphytobenthos (EMPB). We found memory effects in the non-clustered scenario of disturbance (60 days apart), where EMPB biomass fluctuated in time, but not under clustered disturbances (15 days apart), where EMPB biomass was consistently low. A massive grazing event impacted on EMPB biomass in a second run of the experiment, also muting ecological memory. Our results provide empirical support to the theoretical expectation that stochastic fluctuations promote ecological memory, but also show that contingencies may lead to memory loss. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: Evidence from two prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartini, Claudio; Barry, Sarah J E; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Lennon, Lucy; Ford, Ian; Morris, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60-79years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998-2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70-82 recruited to a trial of pravastatin vs placebo from 1997 to 9 (followed until 2009). Cold spells were defined as at least three consecutive days when daily mean temperature fell below the monthly 10th percentile specific to the closest local weather station. A time-stratified case-crossover approach was used to estimate associations between cold spells and CVD events. 921 of 4252 men from BRHS and 760 of 2519 participants from PROSPER suffered a first CVD event during follow-up. More CVD events were registered in winter in both studies. The risk ratio (RR) associated with cold spells was statistically significant in BRHS (RR=1.86, 95% CI 1.30-2.65, pspells increased risk of CVD events, independently of cold temperature, in the BRHS only. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary Results from a Model-Driven Architecture Methodology for Development of an Event-Driven Space Communications Service Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher J.; Morgenstern, Robert M.; Israel, David J.; Borky, John M.; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's next generation space communications network will involve dynamic and autonomous services analogous to services provided by current terrestrial wireless networks. This architecture concept, known as the Space Mobile Network (SMN), is enabled by several technologies now in development. A pillar of the SMN architecture is the establishment and utilization of a continuous bidirectional control plane space link channel and a new User Initiated Service (UIS) protocol to enable more dynamic and autonomous mission operations concepts, reduced user space communications planning burden, and more efficient and effective provider network resource utilization. This paper provides preliminary results from the application of model driven architecture methodology to develop UIS. Such an approach is necessary to ensure systematic investigation of several open questions concerning the efficiency, robustness, interoperability, scalability and security of the control plane space link and UIS protocol.

  19. Diversification events and the effects of mass extinctions on Crocodyliformes evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzati, Mario; Montefeltro, Felipe C; Langer, Max C

    2015-05-01

    The rich fossil record of Crocodyliformes shows a much greater diversity in the past than today in terms of morphological disparity and occupation of niches. We conducted topology-based analyses seeking diversification shifts along the evolutionary history of the group. Our results support previous studies, indicating an initial radiation of the group following the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction, here assumed to be related to the diversification of terrestrial protosuchians, marine thalattosuchians and semi-aquatic lineages within Neosuchia. During the Cretaceous, notosuchians embodied a second diversification event in terrestrial habitats and eusuchian lineages started diversifying before the end of the Mesozoic. Our results also support previous arguments for a minor impact of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction on the evolutionary history of the group. This argument is not only based on the information from the fossil record, which shows basal groups surviving the mass extinction and the decline of other Mesozoic lineages before the event, but also by the diversification event encompassing only the alligatoroids in the earliest period after the extinction. Our results also indicate that, instead of a continuous process through time, Crocodyliformes diversification was patchy, with events restricted to specific subgroups in particular environments and time intervals.

  20. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  1. The impact of level of education on vascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from the ADVANCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomster, J I; Zoungas, S; Woodward, M; Neal, B; Harrap, S; Poulter, N; Marre, M; Williams, B; Chalmers, J; Hillis, G S

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between educational level and the risk of all-cause mortality is well established, whereas the association with vascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes is not well described. Any association may reflect a link with common cardiovascular or lifestyle-based risk factors. The relationships between the highest level of educational attainment and major cardiovascular events, microvascular complications and all-cause mortality were explored in a cohort of 11,140 individuals with type 2 diabetes. Completion of formal education before the age of 16 was categorized as a low level of education. Regional differences between Asia, East Europe and Established Market Economies were also assessed. During a median of 5years of follow up, 1031 (9%) patients died, 1147 (10%) experienced a major cardiovascular event and 1136 (10%) a microvascular event. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and risk factors, individuals with lower education had an increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, 95% CI 1.16-1.48, peducation was weakest in Established Market Economies and strongest in East Europe. A low level of education is associated with an increased risk of vascular events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes, independently of common lifestyle associated cardiovascular risk factors. The effect size varies between geographical regions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of weather and time on trauma events determined using emergency medical service registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Wei; Lin, Hsiao-Yu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2015-09-01

    Trauma admissions are associated with weather and temporal factors; however, previous study results regarding these factors are contradictory. We hypothesised that weather and temporal factors have different effects on specific trauma events in an emergency medical service (EMS) system. EMS data from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, were obtained from the fire department of Taipei City and associated with the local weather data. EMS trauma events were categorised into total trauma, traffic accidents (TAs), motorbike accidents (MBAs), and falls. Hourly data on trauma patients were analysed using the zero-inflated Poisson model. The hourly incidence of total trauma increased with the magnitude of precipitation (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.06, 1.09, and 1.11 in light, moderate, and heavy rain, respectively), and this effect was more prominent in fall patients than in patients with other injuries (IRR=1.07, 1.21, and 1.32). However, the hourly incidence of TAs and MBAs was associated only with light rain (IRR=1.11 and 1.06, respectively). An hour of sunshine exposure was associated with an increase in the hourly incidence of all groups, and higher temperatures were associated with an increased hourly incidence of total trauma, TAs, and MBAs, but not falls. The hourly incidence of falls increased only in late fall and winter. Compared with the hourly incidence between 3 am and 7 am, the hourly incidence of all groups plateaued between 7 am and 11 pm and declined from 11 pm to 3 am. During the plateau period, 2 peaks in the incidence of TAs (IRR=5.03 and 5.07, respectively) and MBAs (IRR=5.81 and 5.51, respectively) were observed during 7-11 am and 3-7 pm. The hourly incidence of total trauma, TAs, and MBAs plateaued during workdays, peaked on Fridays, declined on Saturdays, and troughed on Sundays. The incidence of falls increased only on Mondays (IRR=1.09). Weather and temporal factors had different impacts on the incidence of traffic-related accidents and falls

  3. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%, which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens

  4. Dissociable effects of valence and arousal on different subtypes of old/new effect: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang eXu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we utilized the study-test paradigm combined with recognition confidence assessment and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measurements to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on the different subtypes of the old-new effect. We also test the effect of valence and arousal at encoding stage to investigate the underlying mechanism of the effect of the two emotional dimension on different retrieval process. In order to test the effects of valence and arousal on old/new effect precisely, we used the subject-oriented orthogonal design which manipulated valence and arousal independently according to subjects’ verbal reporting to investigate the effects of valence and arousal on old/new effect respectively. Three subtypes of old/new effect were obtained in the test phase, which were FN400, LPC, and late positivity over right frontal. They are supposed to be associated with familiarity, recollection, and post-retrieval processes respectively according to previous studies. For the FN400 component, valence affected mid-frontal negativity from 350 to 500 ms. Pleasant items evoked an enhanced ERP old/new effect relative to unpleasant items. However, arousal only affected LPC amplitude from 500 to 800ms. The old/new effect for high-arousal items was greater than for low-arousal items. Valence also affected the amplitude of a positive-going slow wave at right frontal sites from 800 to 1000 ms, possibly serving as an index of post-retrieval processing. At encoding stage, the valence and arousal also have dissociable effect on the frontal slow wave between 350-800ms and the centro-parietal positivity in 500-800ms. The pleasant items evoked a more positive frontal slow wave relative to unpleasant ones, and the high arousal items evoked a larger centro-parietal positivity relative to low arousal ones. These results suggest that valence and arousal may differentially impact these different memory processes: valence affects familiarity and

  5. Decisions to Attend and Drink at Party Events: The Effects of Incentives and Disincentives and Lifetime Alcohol and Antisocial Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter R; Gerst, Kyle; Lake, Allison; Bogg, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use disorders are associated with patterns of impulsive/risky decision making on behavioral economic decision tasks, but little is known about the factors affecting drinking-related decisions. The effects of incentives and disincentives to attend and drink at hypothetical alcohol-related party events as a function of lifetime (LT) alcohol and antisocial problems were examined in a sample of 434 young adults who varied widely in LT alcohol and antisocial problems. Moderate and high disincentives substantially discouraged decisions to attend the party events and were associated with decisions to drink less at the party events. High versus low party incentives were associated with more attendance decisions. LT antisocial problems were associated with being less deterred from attending by moderate and high disincentives. LT alcohol problems were associated with greater attendance at high party incentive contexts. LT alcohol problems were associated with drinking more at the majority of events; however, the results indicate that young adults with high levels of alcohol problems moderate their drinking in response to moderate and high disincentives. Finally, attendance and drinking decisions on this hypothetical task were significantly related to actual drinking practices. The results suggest that antisocial symptoms are associated with a reduced sensitivity to the potential negative consequences of drinking, while alcohol problems are associated with a greater sensitivity to the rewarding aspects of partying. The results also underline the value of directly assessing drinking-related decisions in different hypothetical contexts as well as assessing decisions about attendance at risky drinking events in addition to drinking amount decisions. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. [The effects of interpretation bias for social events and automatic thoughts on social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Naoki

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that individuals with social anxiety interpret ambiguous social situations negatively. It is, however, not clear whether the interpretation bias discriminatively contributes to social anxiety in comparison with depressive automatic thoughts. The present study investigated the effects of negative interpretation bias and automatic thoughts on social anxiety. The Social Intent Interpretation-Questionnaire, which measures the tendency to interpret ambiguous social events as implying other's rejective intents, the short Japanese version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, and the Anthropophobic Tendency Scale were administered to 317 university students. Covariance structure analysis indicated that both rejective intent interpretation bias and negative automatic thoughts contributed to mental distress in social situations mediated by a sense of powerlessness and excessive concern about self and others in social situations. Positive automatic thoughts reduced mental distress. These results indicate the importance of interpretation bias and negative automatic thoughts in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Implications for understanding of the cognitive features of social anxiety were discussed.

  7. Effects in Plant Populations Resulting from Chronic Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A.; Volkova, Polina Yu.; Vasiliyev, Denis V.; Dikareva, Nina S.; Oudalova, Alla A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Human industrial activities have left behind a legacy of ecosystems strongly impacted by a wide range of contaminants, including radionuclides. Phyto-toxic effects of acute impact are well known, but the consequences of long-term chronic exposure to low pollutant concentrations is neither well understood nor adequately included in risk assessments. To understand effects of real-world contaminant exposure properly we must pay attention to what is actually going on in the field. However, for many wildlife groups and endpoints, there are no, or very few, studies that link accumulation, chronic exposure and biological effects in natural settings. To fill the gaps, results of field studies carried out on different plant species (winter rye and wheat, spring barley, oats, Scots pine, wild vetch, crested hair-grass) in various radioecological situations (nuclear weapon testing, the Chernobyl accident, uranium and radium processing) to investigate effects of long-term chronic exposure to radionuclides are discussed. Because each impacted site developed in its own way due to a unique history of events, the experience from one case study is rarely directly applicable to another situation. In spite of high heterogeneity in response, we have detected several general patterns. Plant populations growing in areas with relatively low levels of pollution are characterized by the increased level of both cytogenetic alterations and genetic diversity. Accumulation of cellular alterations may afterward influence biological parameters important for populations such as health and reproduction. Presented data provide evidence that in plant populations inhabiting heavily contaminated territories cytogenetic damage were accompanied by decrease in reproductive ability. In less contaminated sites, because of the scarcity of data available, it is impossible to establish exactly the relationship between cytogenetic effects and reproductive ability. Radioactive contamination of the plants

  8. Ruminations as predictors of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events in medical rescue workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency service workers are exposed to experienced traumatic events related to the nature of their work. The study aimed at identifying the role of cognitive processes, namely different forms of ruminations, as predictors of consequences of experienced trauma. Material and Methods: The data on 120 medical rescuers (80 men, 40 women who had experienced in their worksite at least 1 traumatic event in the last 5 years, were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 25 to 61 years (mean (M = 38.07; standard deviation (SD = 8.92. The following Polish versions of standardized tools were used: the Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI. Results: The results of regression analyses indicated 2 significant predictors, intrusive rumination for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and deliberate rumination for posttraumatic growth (PTG. Conclusions: Ruminations play an essential role in the occurrence of negative and positive outcomes of experienced trauma. The associations between PTSD and PTG, with different forms of ruminations, may be used in therapy, treating the appearance of intrusive rumination as an opportunity to turn towards active engagement in deliberate rumination, that facilitates the occurrence of posttraumatic growth. Med Pr 2016;67(2:201–211

  9. Extreme Meteorological Events from documentary sources on old Aragon Kingdom, AD1000-1500. Firsts results after a systematic approach to data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Eduard; Barriendos, Mariano

    2010-05-01

    Extreme Meteorological Events from documentary sources on old Aragon Kingdom, AD 1000-1500. Firsts results after a systematic approach to data availability Eduard Rama1, Mariano Barriendos2 1 Research Laboratory on Climate, Scientific Park of Barcelona 2 Department of Modern History, University of Barcelona Research on documentary sources focused on detection and reconstruction of climatic data and extreme meteorological events is an activity with notable tradition on palaeoclimatic discipline. Historical climatology offers a good source of climatic and environmental proxy-data. This information covers past centuries establishing good overlapping with instrumental data availability period. Best qualities of historical information are a high temporal resolution, an exact and reliable datation, and complementary information related to environmental and human impacts. Historical climatology offers a large number of data chronologies for Europe covering historiographical periods from Low Middle Age to Contemporary Age (14th to 20th Centuries). Into framework of EU IP Millennium, a systematic research assumed the challenge to collect data from High Middle Age. Documentary sources are discontinuous and scattered, information is not precise and reliable, but all possible original information can be useful to characterize the Warm Medieval Period, most recent climatic period similar to possible climate of next future, at least concerning thermic conditions. Present work shows a systematic effort on documentary sources of Old Aragon Kingdom (actually, spanish regions of Catalonia, Aragon, Valentia and Balearic Islands), collecting extreme weather events for period AD1000-1500. Historical context of Aragon Kingdom was no easy in this period, focused on recovering territory in front of Muslim Kingdoms (Reconsquista) up to 13th Century from North to South. After this, consolidation of modern institutions and urban network took 14-15th Centuries. Data sources has been all

  10. The effects of discrepant events on the low-level paradigms of high school physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jerome I.

    1999-10-01

    Constructivist learning theory indicates that high school physics students do not enter their physics classrooms empty-headed. Students come with preconceptions that they constructed over time, which are based on their observations of the environment. One function of physics teachers is to facilitate students in altering their preconceptions if they are not in agreement with the currently accepted scientific view. Kuhn described a paradigm shift as a process that scientists undergo when they discard a currently accepted paradigm in favor of a more complete paradigm, because of the new paradigm's greater explanatory power. Physics students may undergo low level paradigm shifts when constructing, or reconstructing, their low level paradigms as they observe small parts of their world. This research was a multiple case study based on eight discrepant event exercises. Twenty-two self selected, untutored first year high school physics students individually performed these exercises. The students' written documents, student interviews, and the researcher's field notes were triangulated to describe the process that emerged as the students described their low level paradigms before and after performing the discrepant events exercises. The following research questions were addressed. Do students employ similar low level paradigms to explain the same physical phenomenon? Do the discrepant events observed by the students have a consequential effect upon their current low level paradigms? Are there specific discrepant events that affect students' low level paradigms to a greater degree compared to other discrepant events that are grounded in the same physical phenomenon? Do students apply scientific terminology, within its proper context, after their exposure to a discrepant event, compared to their utilization of scientific terminology prior to their exposure to the discrepant event? Can the students' low level paradigms be generalized to situations that are beyond the scope

  11. Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and mood management following a cardiac event: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrew M; Tooley, Erin M; Dunsiger, Shira; Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Srour, John Fani; Pagoto, Sherry L; Kahler, Christopher W; Borrelli, Belinda

    2017-04-17

    Smoking cessation following hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) significantly reduces subsequent mortality. Depressed mood is a major barrier to cessation post-ACS. Although existing counseling treatments address smoking and depression independently in ACS patients, no integrated treatment addresses both. We developed an integrated treatment combining gold standard cessation counseling with behavioral activation-based mood management; Behavioral Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers (BAT-CS). The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BAT-CS vs. Standard of Care (SC). Participants were recruited during hospitalization for ACS and were randomly assigned to BAT-CS or SC. The nicotine patch was offered in both conditions. Smoking, mood, and stress outcomes were collected at end-of-treatment and 24-week follow-up. Fifty-nine participants (28 BAT-CS, 31 SC) were recruited over 42 weeks, and assessment completion was above 80% in both conditions. Treatment acceptability and fidelity were high. At 24 week follow-up adjusted odds ratios favoring BAT-CS were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.41-3.93) for 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.42-3.82) for continuous abstinence. Time to first smoking lapse was significantly longer in BAT-CS (62.4 vs. 31.8 days, p = 0.03). At 24-weeks, effect sizes for mood and stress outcomes ranged from η(2)partial of.07-.11, with significant between treatment effects for positive affect, negative affect, and stress. The design of this study proved feasible and acceptable. Results provide preliminary evidence that combining behavioral activation with standard smoking cessation counseling could be efficacious for this high risk population. A larger trial with longer follow-up is warranted. NCT01964898 . First received by clinicaltrials.gov October 15, 2013.

  12. Behavioral activation for smoking cessation and mood management following a cardiac event: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Busch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation following hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS significantly reduces subsequent mortality. Depressed mood is a major barrier to cessation post-ACS. Although existing counseling treatments address smoking and depression independently in ACS patients, no integrated treatment addresses both. We developed an integrated treatment combining gold standard cessation counseling with behavioral activation-based mood management; Behavioral Activation Treatment for Cardiac Smokers (BAT-CS. The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BAT-CS vs. Standard of Care (SC. Methods Participants were recruited during hospitalization for ACS and were randomly assigned to BAT-CS or SC. The nicotine patch was offered in both conditions. Smoking, mood, and stress outcomes were collected at end-of-treatment and 24-week follow-up. Results Fifty-nine participants (28 BAT-CS, 31 SC were recruited over 42 weeks, and assessment completion was above 80% in both conditions. Treatment acceptability and fidelity were high. At 24 week follow-up adjusted odds ratios favoring BAT-CS were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.41–3.93 for 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.42–3.82 for continuous abstinence. Time to first smoking lapse was significantly longer in BAT-CS (62.4 vs. 31.8 days, p = 0.03. At 24-weeks, effect sizes for mood and stress outcomes ranged from η2 partial of.07–.11, with significant between treatment effects for positive affect, negative affect, and stress. Conclusions The design of this study proved feasible and acceptable. Results provide preliminary evidence that combining behavioral activation with standard smoking cessation counseling could be efficacious for this high risk population. A larger trial with longer follow-up is warranted. Trial registration NCT01964898 . First received by clinicaltrials.gov October 15, 2013.

  13. On the effectiveness and efficiency of discrete-event simulation for designing manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, J

    2000-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effectiveness (doing the right thing) and efficiency (doing the thing right) of computer-based discrete-event simulation for designing manufacturing systems. This investigation looked at the use of this technology in the manufacture of discrete components in aerospace, automotive and consumer electrical (white goods) industries and for material handling (warehousing). Continuous and quasi-continuous manufacture have not been investigated and henc...

  14. Valenced Cues and Contexts Have Different Effects on Event-Based Prospective Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Graf; Martin Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when ...

  15. "Against the silence": Development and first results of a patient survey to assess experiences of safety-related events in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwappach David LB

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involvement of patients in the detection and prevention of safety related events and medical errors have been widely recommended. However, it has also been questioned whether patients at large are willing and able to identify safety-related events in their care. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot test a brief patient safety survey applicable to inpatient care in Swiss hospitals. Methods A survey instrument was developed in an iterative procedure. The instrument asks patients to report whether they have experienced specific undesirable events during their hospital stay. The preliminary version was developed together with experts and tested in focus groups with patients. The adapted survey instrument was pilot-tested in random samples of patients of two Swiss hospitals (n = 400. Responders to the survey that had reported experience of any incident were sampled for qualitative interviews (n = 18. Based on the interview, the researcher classified the reported incidents as confirmed or discarded. Results The survey was generally well accepted in the focus groups and interviews. In the quantitative pilot test, 125 patients returned the survey (response rate: 31%. The mean age of responders was 55 years (range 17–91, SD 18 years and 62.5% were female. The 125 participating patients reported 94 "definitive" and 34 "uncertain" events. 14% of the patients rated any of the experienced events as "serious". The definitive and uncertain events reported with highest frequency were phlebitis, missing hand hygiene, allergic drug reaction, unavailability of documents, and infection. 23% of patients reported some or serious concerns about their safety. The qualitative interviews indicate that both, the extent of patients' uncertainty in the classification of events and the likelihood of confirmation by the interviewer vary very much by type of incident. Unexpectedly, many patients reported problems and incidents related to food

  16. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events : Results from 11 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette; Andersen, Zorana J.; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; de Faire, Ulf; de Hoogh, Kees; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Gigante, Bruna; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Meisinger, Christa; Migliore, Enrica; Overvad, Kim; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pekkanen, Juha; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Goran; Pundt, Noreen; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Swart, Wim J. R.; Turunen, Anu W.; Vineis, Paolo; Weimar, Christian; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Forastiere, Francesco

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected,

  17. [Effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis on carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Tao

    2014-03-01

    To explore the effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis (CDABCRBS) on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events. By using open and control method, effect of 4 groups of platelet antagonists, platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin +CDABCRBS on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events of 90 cerebral infarction patients were analyzed. Through survival analysis, there was no statistical difference in the effect of the 4 interventions on the variation of carotid stenosis rates or ischemic cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). The occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular events could be postponed by about 4 months in those treated with platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS and platelet antagonists + atorvastatin +CDABCRBS. By multivariate Logistic analysis, age, hypertension, and clopidogrel were associated with stenosis of extracranial carotid arteries (P cerebrovascular accidents (P cerebrovascular events. CDABCRBS could effectively prolong the occurrence time of ischemic cerebrovascular events.

  18. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  19. [Suicide exposure and its modulatory effects on relations between life events and suicide risk in Chinese college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiubo; Zhao, Jingbo; Xiao, Rong; Yang, Xueling; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    To explore the incidence of suicide exposure and its association with suicide risk in Chinese college students, and study the modulatory effects of suicide exposure on the relations between life events and suicide risks. A total of 8202 college students from 12 Chinese colleges and universities in mainland China completed a cross-sectional survey that included suicidal behaviors questionnaire-revised (SBQ-R), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), suicide exposure questionnaire, social and demographic characteristics questionnaire. The incidence of exposure to suicide events involving close relatives and acquaintances were 3.9% and 11.8% among sampled Chinese college students, respectively. Students exposed to suicide events involving close relatives had significantly higher total SBQ-R scores than those who did not (5.51∓2.44 vs 4.68∓2.11, Psuicide events of acquaintances were also associated with significantly increased total SBQ-R scores (5.51∓2.44 vs 4.68∓2.11, Psuicides events all contributed to significantly increased rates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts in the college students (Psuicide risks (0.11≤r≤0.26, Psuicide events involving close relatives and acquaintances and the interactions of life events and suicide of close relatives for suicide risk were not significant (P>0.05), but exposure to acquaintance suicide events moderated the effects of life events on suicide risk (Pcollege students with a high level of life events and history of acquaintance suicide had the highest risk for suicide. In Chinese college students, the risk of suicide is closely associated with exposure to suicide events and life events, and exposure to suicide events involving acquaintances can modulate the effects of life events on suicide risk.

  20. Effects of strong IMF Bz southward events on the equatorial and mid-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Astafyeva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dayside ionospheric response to five intense geomagnetic storms (Dst<−120 nT that occurred in 2001–2005 was investigated by use of simultaneous TEC measurements by the CHAMP, SAC-C, TOPEX/Jason-1 satellites. Since the satellites passed over different longitudinal sectors and measured TEC in different range of altitudes, it was possible to obtain information about altitudinal and longitudinal ionosphere redistribution during these storms. Severe enhancements (up to ~350% of the equatorial and mid-latitude TEC above ~430 km with concurrent traveling of the equatorial anomaly crests for a distance of 10–15° of latitude were observed during two of the five events analyzed here (6 November 2001 and 8 November 2004. This phenomenon, known as the dayside ionosphere uplift, or the "daytime super-fountain effect", occurred after sudden drop in IMF Bz and consequent penetration of the electric fields to the low-latitude ionosphere. However, the same order Bz negative events caused comparatively weak changes in the dayside TEC (up to ~80 TECU during the other three events of 18 June 2003, 11 February 2004 and 24 August 2005. At the main phase of these storms there were mostly observed formation of the "typical" dual peak structure of the equatorial anomaly rather than the reinforcement of the fountain effect and the anomaly itself. Possible reasons and factors responsible for the development of the extreme ionosphere effects are discussed in the paper.

  1. Physicians' knowledge and attitude towards adverse event reporting system and result to intervention--randomized nested trial among Bulgarian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynova, Veselina; Getov, Ilko N; Naseva, Emilia K; Lebanova, Hristina V; Grigorov, Evgeni E

    2013-08-01

    To identify the factors that influence physicians' under-reporting in Bulgaria and their attitude towards adverse event reporting system and to estimate the role of self-education by providing educational materials. A randomized nested trial among physicians-general practitioners and specialists in Bulgaria was conducted by a validated questionnaire in order to evaluate their knowledge and attitude towards adverse event reporting system. One month after the intervention the participants were re-visited and were asked to answer the same questions again in order to estimate the change in their knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance system and to obtain their evaluation for the materials provided. The response rate was 91. Fifty seven (46.3%) physicians were not familiar with the pharmacovigilance system. The most common reason for non-reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was uncertainty concerning the relationship between the suspected drug and ADRs, the ADRs were already known and the fact that the physician was not aware where they should report. Although 103 (83.7%) respondents in the entry survey and by 102 (82.9%) of those participating in the exit survey consider ADRs reporting as their obligation (p more than 0.05), only 50 (40.7%) and 31 (25.2%), respectively answered that they had ever reported ADRs; 109 (88.6%) of the surveyed physicians assessed the provided educational materials as useful for them. The physicians in Bulgaria have poor knowledge for the pharmacovigilance system; however self-education leads to a better knowledge and positive attitude towards ADRs reporting system. National drug regulatory authority should play a more active role in improving physicians' adherence to the ADRs reporting systems and the developed educational pack can be used in nationwide campaign.

  2. Intrathoracic impedance vs daily weight monitoring for predicting worsening heart failure events: results of the Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, William T; Compton, Steven; Haas, Garrie; Foreman, Blair; Canby, Robert C; Fishel, Robert; McRae, Scott; Toledo, Gloria B; Sarkar, Shantanu; Hettrick, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of changes in intrathoracic impedance has not been compared with standard heart failure (HF) monitoring using daily weight changes. The Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST) prospectively followed 156 HF patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator devices modified to record daily changes in intrathoracic impedance in a blinded fashion for 537±312 days. Daily impedance changes were used to calculate a fluid index that could be compared with a prespecified threshold. True positives were defined as adjudicated episodes of worsening HF occurring within 30 days of a fluid index above threshold or an acute weight gain. Unexplained detections were defined as threshold crossings or acute weight gains not associated with worsening HF. Impedance measurements were performed on >99% of follow-up days, compared with only 76% of days for weight measurements. Sixty-five HF events occurred during follow-up (0.32/patient-year). Forty HF events were detected by impedance but not weight, whereas 5 were detected by weight but not impedance. Sensitivity was greater (76% vs 23%; P<.0001) and unexplained detection rate was lower (1.9 vs 4.3/patient-year; P<.0001) for intrathoracic impedance monitoring at the threshold of 60Ω days compared with acute weight increases of 3 lbs in 1 day or 5 lbs in 3 days and also over a wide range of fluid index and weight thresholds. The sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of intrathoracic impedance monitoring was superior to that seen for acute weight changes. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring represents a useful adjunctive clinical tool for managing HF in patients with implanted devices. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nicotine-dependence-varying effects of smoking events on momentary mood changes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S; Updegrove, Nicole; Rose, Jennifer S; Dierker, Lisa; Tan, Xianming; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Runze; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2015-02-01

    Theories of nicotine addiction emphasize the initial role of positive reinforcement in the development of regular smoking behavior, and the role of negative reinforcement at later stages. These theories are tested here by examining the effects of amount smoked per smoking event on smoking-related mood changes, and how nicotine dependence (ND) moderates this effect. The current study examines these questions within a sample of light adolescent smokers drawn from the metropolitan Chicago area (N=151, 55.6% female, mean 17.7years). Ecological momentary assessment data were collected via handheld computers, and additional variables were drawn from a traditional questionnaire. Effects of the amount smoked per event on changes in positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) after vs. before smoking were examined, while controlling for subject-averaged amount smoked, age, gender, and day of week. ND-varying effects were examined using varying effect models to elucidate their change across levels of ND. The effect of the amount smoked per event was significantly associated with an increase in PA among adolescents with low-to-moderate levels of ND, and was not significant at high ND. Conversely, the effect of the amount smoked was significantly associated with a decrease in NA only for adolescents with low levels of ND. These findings support the role of positive reinforcement in early stages of dependent smoking, but do not support the role of negative reinforcement beyond early stages of smoking. Other potential contributing factors to the relationship between smoking behavior and PA/NA change are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Verification and Quantification of Single Event Effects on High Speed SRAM in Terrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, H.; You, Z.; Williams, T.; Nichols, T.; Attia, J.; Fogarty, T. N.; Kirby, K.; Wilkins, R.; Lawton, R.

    1998-01-01

    As integrated circuits become more sensitive to charged particles and neutrons, anomalous performance due to single event effects (SEE) is a concern and requires experimental verification and quantification. The Center for Applied Radiation Research (CARR) at Prairie View A&M University has developed experiments as a participant in the NASA ER-2 Flight Program, the APEX balloon flight program and the Student Launch Program. Other high altitude and ground level experiments of interest to DoD and commercial applications are being developed. The experiment characterizes the SEE behavior of high speed and high density SRAM's. The system includes a PC-104 computer unit, an optical drive for storage, a test board with the components under test, and a latchup detection and reset unit. The test program will continuously monitor the stored checkerboard data pattern in the SW and record errors. Since both the computer and the optical drive contain integrated circuits, they are also vulnerable to radiation effects. A latchup detection unit with discrete components will monitor the test program and reset the system when necessary. The first results will be obtained from the NASA ER-2 flights, which are now planned to take place in early 1998 from Dryden Research Center in California. The series of flights, at altitudes up to 70,000 feet, and a variety of flight profiles should yield a distribution of conditions for correlating SEES. SEE measurements will be performed from the time of aircraft power-up on the ground throughout the flight regime until systems power-off after landing.

  5. Effect of home testing of international normalized ratio on clinical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Jacobson, Alan; Dolor, Rowena; Edson, Robert; Uyeda, Lauren; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Vertrees, Julia E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Holodniy, Mark; Lavori, Philip

    2010-10-21

    Warfarin anticoagulation reduces thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves, but effective management is complex, and the international normalized ratio (INR) is often outside the target range. As compared with venous plasma testing, point-of-care INR measuring devices allow greater testing frequency and patient involvement and may improve clinical outcomes. We randomly assigned 2922 patients who were taking warfarin because of mechanical heart valves or atrial fibrillation and who were competent in the use of point-of-care INR devices to either weekly self-testing at home or monthly high-quality testing in a clinic. The primary end point was the time to a first major event (stroke, major bleeding episode, or death). The patients were followed for 2.0 to 4.75 years, for a total of 8730 patient-years of follow-up. The time to the first primary event was not significantly longer in the self-testing group than in the clinic-testing group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P=0.14). The two groups had similar rates of clinical outcomes except that the self-testing group reported more minor bleeding episodes. Over the entire follow-up period, the self-testing group had a small but significant improvement in the percentage of time during which the INR was within the target range (absolute difference between groups, 3.8 percentage points; P<0.001). At 2 years of follow-up, the self-testing group also had a small but significant improvement in patient satisfaction with anticoagulation therapy (P=0.002) and quality of life (P<0.001). As compared with monthly high-quality clinic testing, weekly self-testing did not delay the time to a first stroke, major bleeding episode, or death to the extent suggested by prior studies. These results do not support the superiority of self-testing over clinic testing in reducing the risk of stroke, major bleeding episode, and death among patients taking warfarin

  6. [Ruminations as predictors of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events in medical rescue workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina; Juczyński, Zygfryd

    Emergency service workers are exposed to experienced traumatic events related to the nature of their work. The study aimed at identifying the role of cognitive processes, namely different forms of ruminations, as predictors of consequences of experienced trauma. The data on 120 medical rescuers (80 men, 40 women) who had experienced in their worksite at least 1 traumatic event in the last 5 years, were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 25 to 61 years (mean (M) = 38.07; standard deviation (SD) = 8.92). The following Polish versions of standardized tools were used: the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R), the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI). The results of regression analyses indicated 2 significant predictors, intrusive rumination for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and deliberate rumination for posttraumatic growth (PTG). Ruminations play an essential role in the occurrence of negative and positive outcomes of experienced trauma. The associations between PTSD and PTG, with different forms of ruminations, may be used in therapy, treating the appearance of intrusive rumination as an opportunity to turn towards active engagement in deliberate rumination, that facilitates the occurrence of posttraumatic growth. Med Pr 2016;67(2):201-211. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Disentangling the effect of event-based cues on children's time-based prospective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Jonathan; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous time-based prospective memory research, both with children and with other groups, has measured the ability to perform an action with the arrival of a time-dependent yet still event-based cue (e.g., the occurrence of a specific clock pattern) while also engaged in an ongoing activity. Here we introduce a novel means of operationalizing time-based prospective memory and assess children's growing capacities when the availability of an event-based cue is varied. Preschoolers aged 3, 4, and 5years (N=72) were required to ring a bell when a familiar 1-min sand timer had completed a cycle under four conditions. In a 2×2 within-participants design, the timer was either visible or hidden and was either presented in the context of a single task or embedded within a dual picture-naming task. Children were more likely to ring the bell before 2min had elapsed in the visible-timer and single-task conditions, with performance improving with age across all conditions. These results suggest a divergence in the development of time-based prospective memory in the presence versus absence of event-based cues, and they also suggest that performance on typical time-based tasks may be partly driven by event-based prospective memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Adverse Events and Hemodynamic Effects of Adenosine-Based Cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlander, Thomas; Magedanz, Annett; Schmermund, Axel [Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt (Germany); Bramlage, Peter [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Elsaesser, Amelie [University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Mohrs, Oliver K. [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    We wanted to prospectively assess the adverse events and hemodynamic effects associated with an intravenous adenosine infusion in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease and who were undergoing cardiac MRI. One hundred and sixty-eight patients (64 {+-} 9 years) received adenosine (140 {mu}g/kg/min) during cardiac MRI. Before and during the administration, the heart rate, systemic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were monitored using a MRI-compatible system. We documented any signs and symptoms of potential adverse events. In total, 47 out of 168 patients (28%) experienced adverse effects, which were mostly mild or moderate. In 13 patients (8%), the adenosine infusion was discontinued due to intolerable dyspnea or chest pain. No high grade atrioventricular block, bronchospasm or other life-threatening adverse events occurred. The hemodynamic measurements showed a significant increase in the heart rate during adenosine infusion (69.3 {+-} 11.7 versus 82.4 {+-} 13.0 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.001). A significant but clinically irrelevant increase in oxygen saturation occurred during adenosine infusion (96 {+-} 1.9% versus 97 {+-} 1.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The blood pressure did not significantly change during adenosine infusion (systolic: 142.8 {+-} 24.0 versus 140.9 {+-} 25.7 mmHg; diastolic: 80.2 {+-} 12.5 mmHg versus 78.9 {+-} 15.6, respectively). This study confirms the safety of adenosine infusion during cardiac MRI. A considerable proportion of all patients will experience minor adverse effects and some patients will not tolerate adenosine infusion. However, all adverse events can be successfully managed by a radiologist. The increased heart rate during adenosine infusion highlights the need to individually adjust the settings according to the patient, e.g., the number of slices of myocardial perfusion imaging.

  9. Modeling the Effects of Urban Design on Emergency Medical Response Calls during Extreme Heat Events in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Drew A; Vanos, Jennifer K; Kenny, Natasha A; Brown, Robert D

    2017-07-14

    Urban residents are at risk of health-related illness during extreme heat events but the dangers are not equal in all parts of a city. Previous studies have found a relationship between physical characteristics of neighborhoods and the number of emergency medical response (EMR) calls. We used a human energy budget model to test the effects of landscape modifications that are designed to cool the environment on the expected number of EMR calls in two neighborhoods in Toronto, Canada during extreme heat events. The cooling design strategies reduced the energy overload on people by approximately 20-30 W m -2 , resulting in an estimated 40-50% reduction in heat-related ambulance calls. These findings advance current understanding of the relationship between the urban landscape and human health and suggest straightforward design strategies to positively influence urban heat-health.

  10. Effects of the occurrence of a first cardiovascular event on statin adherence in type 2 diabetes: A matched cohort design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, F.M.; Denig, P.; Vegter, S.; Bos, H.J.; Postma, M.J.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Adherence to statin therapy is important for an effective reduction in cardiovascular events. We aimed to assess the effect of the occurrence of a first cardiovascular event on adherence rates in type 2 diabetes patients using a matched cohort design. Methods: A matched cohort study was

  11. Effects of raloxifene on cardiovascular events and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Mosca, Lori; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, on coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer is not established. METHODS: We randomly assigned 10,101 postmenopausal women (mean age, 67.5 years) with CHD or multiple risk factors for CHD to 60 mg of raloxifene...... no significant effect on the risk of primary coronary events (533 vs. 553 events; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.07), and it reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer (40 vs. 70 events; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.83; absolute risk reduction, 1.......2 invasive breast cancers per 1000 women treated for one year); the benefit was primarily due to a reduced risk of estrogen-receptor-positive invasive breast cancers. There was no significant difference in the rates of death from any cause or total stroke according to group assignment, but raloxifene...

  12. Stressful life events and current psychological distress are associated with self-reported hypertension but not with true hypertension: results from a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Flávio D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence linking stress to hypertension has been scarcely documented in population-based studies. Methods Participants were selected through a multi-stage probability sampling and interviewed at home, being submitted to measures of demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP, and risk factors for hypertension. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP-lowering drugs or as self-reported hypertension. Stressful life events were investigated through an inventory of nine major life events occurring in the year preceding the interview. Psychological distress was evaluated through a facial scale of expression of emotion in the last month. Results In the total, 1,484 adult individuals were investigated. Prevalence of hypertension was lower in individuals who reported any stressful life event in comparison with individuals who did not reported an event (34.3 versus 44.2%, P Conclusion Recent stressful life events and current psychological distress are not associated with hypertension. Associations between stress events and distress with self-reported hypertension are not intermediated by effects of stress on blood pressure, and may be ascribed to negative feeling about disease and not to the disease itself.

  13. Adverse events associated with incretin-based drugs in Japanese spontaneous reports: a mixed effects logistic regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Narushima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous Reporting Systems (SRSs are passive systems composed of reports of suspected Adverse Drug Events (ADEs, and are used for Pharmacovigilance (PhV, namely, drug safety surveillance. Exploration of analytical methodologies to enhance SRS-based discovery will contribute to more effective PhV. In this study, we proposed a statistical modeling approach for SRS data to address heterogeneity by a reporting time point. Furthermore, we applied this approach to analyze ADEs of incretin-based drugs such as DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists, which are widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Methods: SRS data were obtained from the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER database. Reported adverse events were classified according to the MedDRA High Level Terms (HLTs. A mixed effects logistic regression model was used to analyze the occurrence of each HLT. The model treated DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, hypoglycemic drugs, concomitant suspected drugs, age, and sex as fixed effects, while the quarterly period of reporting was treated as a random effect. Before application of the model, Fisher’s exact tests were performed for all drug-HLT combinations. Mixed effects logistic regressions were performed for the HLTs that were found to be associated with incretin-based drugs. Statistical significance was determined by a two-sided p-value <0.01 or a 99% two-sided confidence interval. Finally, the models with and without the random effect were compared based on Akaike’s Information Criteria (AIC, in which a model with a smaller AIC was considered satisfactory. Results: The analysis included 187,181 cases reported from January 2010 to March 2015. It showed that 33 HLTs, including pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and cholecystic events, were significantly associated with DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists. In the AIC comparison, half of the HLTs reported with incretin-based drugs favored the random effect

  14. Two successive crustal melting events resulting from extensional exhumation and then thrusting of the Ronda Peridotites (South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Poujol, Marc; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Parat, Fleurice; Monié, Patrick; Pichat, Alexandre; Maziers, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    The Alboran Domain, situated at the western end of the Mediterranean subduction system, is characterized by the Ronda Peridotites, one of the world largest exposures of sub-continental mantle. Using U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) and Ar-Ar dating, we precisely dated two tectonic events associated with the Tertiary exhumation of the Ronda Peridotites. First, shearing along the Crust-Mantle Extensional Shear Zone caused, at ca. 22.5 Ma, mantle exhumation, local partial melting in the deep crust and coeval cooling in the upper crust. Second, the Ronda Peridotites Thrust triggered the final crustal emplacement of the peridotites onto the continental crust at ca. 21 Ma, as testified by granitic intrusions in the thrust hanging-wall. The tectonic evolution of the western Alboran Domain is therefore characterized by a fast switch from a continental lithosphere extension in a backarc setting, with sub-continental mantle exhumation, to a rift inversion by thrusting driven by shortening of the subduction upper plate.

  15. Structured writing about stressful events: exploring potential psychological mediators of positive health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, A A; Smyth, J M; Kaell, A; Hurewitz, A

    2000-11-01

    In a previous study, the authors found that structured writing about stressful events improved symptomatology in 112 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and asthma relative to patients who did not write (J. Smyth, A. Stone, A. Hurewitz, & A. Kaell, 1999). However, little is currently known about the pathways from the intervention to alterations in outcomes. In addition to measuring symptom outcomes after the intervention in the previous study, the authors monitored perceived stress, quality of sleep, affect, substance use, and medication use on a momentary basis for the 7 days prior to writing, during the 3 intervention days, and for the 14 days following the intervention (N = 105). These variables were tested in a secondary data analysis to determine whether they mediated the effects observed in the J. Smyth, A. Stone, et al. study. No evidence was found supporting mediation, and the mechanism underlying structured writing about stressful events remains unknown.

  16. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...

  17. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower......Attentional decline plays a major role in cognitive changes with aging. However, which specific aspects of attention contribute to this decline is as yet little understood. To identify the contributions of various potential sources of age decrements in visual search, we combined response time...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...

  18. Slow slip events, the earthquake cycle, and rheological effects in Nicoya, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Nicholas; Malservisi, Rocco; Dixon, Timothy; Protti, Marino

    2017-04-01

    In February of 2014 a Mw=7.0 slow slip event (SSE) took place beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. This event occurred 17 months after the 5 September 2012, Mw=7.6, earthquake and along the same subduction zone segment, during a period when significant postseismic deformation was ongoing. A second SSE occurred in the middle of 2015, 21 months after the 2014 SSE. SSEs prior to the earthquake were also well-recorded, allowing analysis of SSE behavior during both the late and early stages of the earthquake cycle. The recurrence interval for Nicoya SSEs was unchanged by the earthquake. However, the spatial distribution of slip for the 2014 event differed significantly from previous events, only having deep ( 40 km) slip. Previous events showed both deep and shallow slip. The 2015 SSE marked a return to earlier pattern. However, slip magnitude in 2015 was nearly twice as large (Mw=7.2) as pre-earthquake SSEs. The large amount of shallow slip in the 2015 SSE maybe a result of slip missed during the 2014 SSE. These observations highlight the variability of aseismic strain release throughout the earthquake cycle generating considerable uncertainty when considering long term strain accumulation rates. The deep slip patch in Nicoya is located near the mantle wedge. Serpentinization of the wedge is thought to be one source of fluids, commonly thought to promote SSEs and and seismic tremor. However, the presence of fluids provokes drastic changes in rheology, usually ignored when calculating simple elastic dislocation models of SSEs. Here we explore how simple models using viscoelastic rheology may change the inferred deformation field, leading to mis-estimation of the magnitude of slip, and mis-estimation of long term strain accumulation rates.

  19. Gender differences in stressful life events, social support, perceived stress, and alcohol use among older adults: results from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Paul; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Harrington, Donna

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events, perceived stress, and social support relationships with consumption, at-risk drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) were studied in a population-based sample of current drinkers age 60+ in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (Wave 2; 2004-2005; n = 4,360). Stressful life events were associated with AUD among men and women, and crime victimization among men only. However, greater perceived stress was associated with lower consumption among women and greater odds of AUD in men, highlighting differences in the relationship between stress and alcohol use by gender that may be the result of the stress alcohol link.

  20. Public interest in climate change over the past decade and the effects of the ‘climategate’ media event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R. L.; Goldsmith, Gregory R.

    2014-05-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific consensus concerning anthropogenic climate change, many in the non-expert public perceive climate change as debated and contentious. There is concern that two recent high-profile media events—the hacking of the University of East Anglia emails and the Himalayan glacier melt rate presented in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—may have altered public opinion of climate change. While survey data is valuable for tracking public perception and opinion over time, including in response to climate-related media events, emerging methods that facilitate rapid assessment of spatial and temporal patterns in public interest and opinion could be exceptionally valuable for understanding and responding to these events’ effects. We use a novel, freely-available dataset of worldwide web search term volumes to assess temporal patterns of interest in climate change over the past ten years, with a particular focus on looking at indicators of climate change skepticism around the high-profile media events. We find that both around the world and in the US, the public searches for the issue as ‘global warming,’ rather than ‘climate change,’ and that search volumes have been declining since a 2007 peak. We observe high, but transient spikes of search terms indicating skepticism around the two media events, but find no evidence of effects lasting more than a few months. Our results indicate that while such media events are visible in the short-term, they have little effect on salience of skeptical climate search terms on longer time-scales.

  1. Psychological Effect of a Mass Casualty Event on General Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havron, William S; Safcsak, Karen; Corsa, Joshua; Loudon, Andrew; Cheatham, Michael L

    To evaluate the psychological effect of a mass casualty shooting event on general surgery residents. Three and 7 months following the Pulse nightclub mass casualty shooting, the mental well-being of general surgery residents employed at the receiving institution was evaluated. A voluntary and anonymous screening questionnaire for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) was administered. Responses were stratified into 2 groups; residents who worked (ON-CALL) and residents who did not work (OFF-CALL) the night of the event. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests and are reported as median with interquartile range (IQR) or percentage. Level I trauma center. Thirty-one general surgery residents. Twenty-four residents (77%) returned the 3-month questionnaire: 10 ON-CALL and 14 OFF-CALL. There was no difference in PTSD and MD between the 2 groups (30% vs. 14%; p = 0.61) and (30% vs. 7%; p = 0.27), respectively. Twenty-three of the 24 residents responded to the 7-month questionnaire. Over time, the incidence of PTSD did not resolve in the ON-CALL group, but did resolve in the OFF-CALL group (30% vs. 0%; p = 0.07). There was no significant change in the incidence of MD in either group (30% vs. 8%; p = 0.28). At 7 months postevent, more residents in both groups stated that they had sought counseling (30% vs. 44%; p = 0.65) and (0% vs. 15%; p = 0.22). The emotional toll associated with this mass casualty event had a substantial effect upon the general surgery residents involved. With the incidence of PTSD and MD identified, we believe that all residents should be provided with counseling following such events. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Global Political Events in the Arab Spring on Stock Returns: The Case of Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    İbrahim BOZKURT; Muhammed Veysel KAYA

    2015-01-01

    International events or news have an effect on countries’ internal and external policies and since this effect is reflected on the markets, the decisions of domestic and foreign investors are revised continually...

  3. The effects of working conditions and financial state as job stressors : A comparison of the chronic job stressors and job event stressors of two companies

    OpenAIRE

    小杉, 正太郎; 大塚, 泰正

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of working conditions and the financial state as chronic job stressors and job event stressors. In study 1, the Job Stress Scale was applied to a total of 6,312 employees in an industrial research institute and a construction company to measure chronic job stressors. In study 2, 1,423 employees of these companies filled out the Job Events Checklist to measure job event stressors. Result: Employees in the industrial research institute had more chronic job stress...

  4. The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Baskett, Marissa L; Gross, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Extreme events, which have profound ecological consequences, are changing in both frequency and magnitude with climate change. Because extreme temperatures induce coral bleaching, we can explore the relative impacts of changes in frequency and magnitude of high temperature events on coral reefs. Here, we combined climate projections and a dynamic population model to determine how changing bleaching regimes influence coral persistence. We additionally explored how coral traits and competition with macroalgae mediate changes in bleaching regimes. Our results predict that severe bleaching events reduce coral persistence more than frequent bleaching. Corals with low adult mortality and high growth rates are successful when bleaching is mild, but bleaching resistance is necessary to persist when bleaching is severe, regardless of frequency. The existence of macroalgae-dominated stable states reduces coral persistence and changes the relative importance of coral traits. Building on previous studies, our results predict that management efforts may need to prioritize protection of "weaker" corals with high adult mortality when bleaching is mild, and protection of "stronger" corals with high bleaching resistance when bleaching is severe. In summary, future reef projections and conservation targets depend on both local bleaching regimes and biodiversity.

  5. Using intervention time series analyses to assess the effects of imperfectly identifiable natural events: a general method and example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Carolyn

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intervention time series analysis (ITSA is an important method for analysing the effect of sudden events on time series data. ITSA methods are quasi-experimental in nature and the validity of modelling with these methods depends upon assumptions about the timing of the intervention and the response of the process to it. Method This paper describes how to apply ITSA to analyse the impact of unplanned events on time series when the timing of the event is not accurately known, and so the problems of ITSA methods are magnified by uncertainty in the point of onset of the unplanned intervention. Results The methods are illustrated using the example of the Australian Heroin Shortage of 2001, which provided an opportunity to study the health and social consequences of an abrupt change in heroin availability in an environment of widespread harm reduction measures. Conclusion Application of these methods enables valuable insights about the consequences of unplanned and poorly identified interventions while minimising the risk of spurious results.

  6. Impact of gastrointestinal events on patient-reported outcomes in Asia-Pacific women with osteoporosis: baseline results of the MUSIC OS-AP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, A; Ebeling, P R; Lee, M S; Min, Y K; Mithal, A; Yang, X; Baidya, S; Sen, S; Sajjan, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of gastrointestinal events on patient-reported outcomes and health care resource use among Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The results of this study show that gastrointestinal events decreased adherence, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life in Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to describe the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) events on patient-reported outcomes and health care resource use among Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The MUSIC OS-AP study included an observational cohort study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Women were classified as untreated or treated, with treated patients further classified as new or experienced users. Adherence was measured by the Adherence Evaluation of Osteoporosis treatment (ADEOS) questionnaire, treatment satisfaction by the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (OPSAT) while general health-related and osteoporosis-specific quality of life were measured by the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire and the Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire (OPAQ), respectively. The association of GI events with these outcomes was determined by covariate-adjusted regression analysis of least squares mean differences in the scores of treated patients with and without GI events. Resource utilization was measured as the number of physician visits over the past 3 months, and multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the association of GI events with the likelihood of a visit. The GI event profile, quality of life scores, and resource use were numerically similar in untreated and treated women. The rate of adherence among treated women was higher in experienced than in new users. As indicated by mean scores, experienced users had better quality of life and slightly higher treatment satisfaction and fewer physician visits than new users. Except for adherence in

  7. Event-based prospective memory in children with sickle cell disease: effect of cue distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; Pedroza, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) is the formation of an intention and remembering to perform it in response to a specific event. Currently, EB-PM performance in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is unknown. In this study, we designed a computer-based task of EB-PM; No-Stroke, Silent-Infarct, and Overt-Stroke groups performed significantly below the demographically similar control group without SCD. Cue distinctiveness was varied to determine if EB-PM could be improved. All groups, with the exception of the Overt-Stroke group, performed significantly better with a perceptually distinctive cue. Overall, these results suggest that EB-PM can be improved significantly in many children with SCD.

  8. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  9. Are predictions of cancer response to targeted drugs, based on effects in unrelated tissues, the 'Black Swan' events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Beatrica; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Kurbel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of targeted drugs on normal tissues can predict the cancer response. Rash correlates with efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab and gefitinib and onset of arterial hypertension with response to bevacizumab, sunitinib, axitinib and sorafenib, possible examples of 'Black Swan' events, unexpected scientific observations, as described by Karl Popper in 1935. The proposition is that our patients have individual intrinsic variants of cell growth control, important for tumor response and adverse effects on tumor-unrelated tissue. This means that the lack of predictive side effects in healthy tissue is linked with poor results of tumor therapy when tumor resistance is caused by mechanisms that protect all cells of that patient from the targeted drug effects.

  10. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing of Embedded DSP Cores within Microsemi RTAX4000D Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Christopher E.; Berg, Melanie D.; Friendlich, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for this work is: (1) Accurately characterize digital signal processor (DSP) core single-event effect (SEE) behavior (2) Test DSP cores across a large frequency range and across various input conditions (3) Isolate SEE analysis to DSP cores alone (4) Interpret SEE analysis in terms of single-event upsets (SEUs) and single-event transients (SETs) (5) Provide flight missions with accurate estimate of DSP core error rates and error signatures.

  11. The effects of temporal unpredictability in anticipation of negative events in combat veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alan N; Flagan, Taru M; Wittmann, Marc; Strigo, Irina A; Matthews, Scott C; Donovan, Heather; Lohr, James B; Paulus, Martin P

    2013-04-25

    Exposure to psychological stress during combat can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Anticipation of aversive events is often associated with an intense emotional state in individuals with PTSD. Both the valence (i.e., positive or negative) of the anticipated event and the degree of temporal predictability (i.e., one's ability to predict when an event will occur) have profound effects on an individual's emotional experience. This investigation tested the hypothesis that individuals with combat-related PTSD would show increased activation in the insula and related emotion-processing circuitry when anticipating emotionally significant events such as portrayed in combat-related images, and this heighted response within the insula would be particularly enhanced during temporal unpredictability. About 15 male veterans with PTSD and 15 male veterans with combat-exposure but no current or lifetime history of PTSD (combat exposed controls/CEC) performed a temporal unpredictability anticipation task of unpleasant (combat-related) and pleasant images during fMRI. As expected, greater activation in the bilateral anterior insulae was observed in the PTSD versus the CEC subjects during anticipation of combat-related images when the anticipatory period was of uncertain duration (pcombat-related PTSD in a modest preliminary sized sample. These findings suggest that an excessive anticipatory reaction in individuals with PTSD to temporally unpredictable aversive stimulus may relate to greater perceived threat. These findings are concordant with psychological models of PTSD that focus on the association of PTSD with the experience of decreased predictability and control. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Quality assurance ofallergen-specific immunotherapy during a national outbreak of anaphylaxis: results of a continuous sentinel event surveillance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Frølund, L; Christensen, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for patients with allergic asthma and rhinitis. SCIT may be performed in many different ways and good safety profiles have been published. Other studies, however, have reported high frequencies...

  13. Dynamical Behavior of a Rumor Transmission Model with Psychological Effect in Emergency Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang'an Huo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rumor transmission model with nonmonotonic incidence rate was proposed, which provides excellent explanations of the “psychological” effect with rumor spreading in emergency event. By carrying out a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium and the rumor-endemic equilibrium, we showed that either the number of infective individuals tends to zero as time evolves or the rumor persists. Finally, recommendations for policy makers and consulting advice for related commissions are explored in the case study of crazy rumors propagated for the iodized sail shortage panic in China.

  14. City Branding : The effects of hosting sporting events: An empirical study of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Matthew; Lee, Yen Wiee

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing amount of literature that investigates the various strategies and effects of city branding, but only a limited amount of research has been carried out pertaining to how sporting events can be used as a tool for city branding in a real world setting. By conducting an empirical study of Singapore, this study aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion on city branding by identifying how evaluations of a city differ for certain dimensions of its overall brand when it hosts di...

  15. Health effects of Asian dust events: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Masahiro; Ueda, Kayo; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Michikawa, Takehiro; Onozuka, Daisuke

    2010-05-01

    Asian dust, called 'kosa' in Japan, is the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants originating from the desert areas of China and Mongolia. Although Asian dust has a long history of appearing in Japan, it is only quite recently that there is increasing concern for its possible adverse health effects. We reviewed the epidemiologic evidence of potential health effects of Asian dust events. PubMed was used to search for the following keywords: Asian dust, yellow sand, desert dust, dust storm, sandstorm, mortality, death, morbidity, hospitalization, hospital admission, health, pulmonary and respiratory. The search was limited to the epidemiologic studies published between January 1980 and May 2009. JMEDPlus was used to search for Japanese literature. Seventeen studies were retrieved from PubMed and one study from JMEDPlus. In addition, one study was identified for reviewing from the references of another study. In total, we identified 19 epidemiologic studies (3 for mortality, 13 for hospital visits or admissions and 3 for respiratory functions or symptoms) mainly from Taiwan and Korea. There were many combinations of outcomes and lagged exposures examined, and some suggested possible associations of dust exposure with an increase in mortality and hospital visits and admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, whereas the rest of the studies did not show statistically significant associations. The evidence from these studies was limited because exposure assessments were inadequately described and potential confounders were insufficiently controlled. Well-designed epidemiological studies are required to clarify any potential health effects of Asian dust events in Japan.

  16. Ticagrelor effects on myocardial infarction and the impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Held, Claes; Wojdyla, Daniel M; James, Stefan K; Katus, Hugo A; Husted, Steen; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Cannon, Christopher P; Becker, Richard C; Storey, Robert F; Khurmi, Nardev S; Nicolau, José C; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Ardissino, Diego; Budaj, Andrzej; Morais, Joao; Montgomery, Debra; Himmelmann, Anders; Harrington, Robert A; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-04-22

    This study sought to report the treatment effect of ticagrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) and the strategy for and impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. In PLATO, ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). A clinical events committee (CEC) prospectively defined and adjudicated all suspected MI events, on the basis of events reported by investigators and by triggers on biomarkers. Treatment comparisons used CEC-adjudicated data, and per protocol, excluded silent MI. Overall, 1,299 (610 ticagrelor, 689 clopidogrel) MIs reported by the CEC occurred during the trial. Of these, 1,097 (504 ticagrelor, 593 clopidogrel) contributed to the primary composite endpoint. Site investigators reported 1,198 (580 ticagrelor, 618 clopidogrel) MIs. Ticagrelor significantly reduced overall MI rates (12-month CEC-adjudicated Kaplan-Meier rates: 5.8% ticagrelor, 6.9% clopidogrel; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.95). Nonprocedural MI (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.01) and MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis tended to be lower with ticagrelor. MIs related to coronary artery bypass graft surgery were few, but numerical excess was observed in patients assigned ticagrelor. Analyses of overall MIs using investigator-reported data showed similar results but did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00). In patients with ACS, ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of MI compared with clopidogrel, with consistent results across most MI subtypes. CEC procedures identified more MI endpoints compared with site investigators. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling the Effect of Driving Events on Electrical Vehicle Energy Consumption Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and climate change are some of the main problems that humankind is currently facing. The electrification of the transport sector will help to reduce these problems, but one of the major barriers for the massive adoption of electric vehicles is their limited range. The energy consumption in these vehicles is affected, among other variables, by the driving behavior, making range a value that must be personalized to each driver and each type of electric vehicle. In this paper we offer a way to estimate a personalized energy consumption model by the use of the vehicle dynamics and the driving events detected by the use of the smartphone inertial sensors, allowing an easy and non-intrusive manner to predict the correct range for each user. This paper proposes, for the classification of events, a deep neural network (Long-Short Time Memory which has been trained with more than 22,000 car trips, and the application to improve the consumption model taking into account the driver behavior captured across different trips, allowing a personalized prediction. Results and validation in real cases show that errors in the predicted consumption values are halved when abrupt events are considered in the model.

  18. Unfamiliar voice identification: Effect of post-event information on accuracy and voice ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mary Jessica Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the effect of misleading post-event information (PEI on voice ratings, identification accuracy, and confidence, as well as the link between verbal recall and accuracy. Participants listened to a dialogue between male and female targets, then read misleading information about voice pitch. Participants engaged in verbal recall, rated voices on a feature checklist, and made a lineup decision. Accuracy rates were low, especially on target-absent lineups. Confidence and accuracy were unrelated, but the number of facts recalled about the voice predicted later lineup accuracy. There was a main effect of misinformation on ratings of target voice pitch, but there was no effect on identification accuracy or confidence ratings. As voice lineup evidence from earwitnesses is used in courts, the findings have potential applied relevance.

  19. A framework for estimating the adverse health effects of contamination events in water distribution systems and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael J; Janke, Robert; Magnuson, Matthew L

    2014-03-01

    Intentional or accidental releases of contaminants into a water distribution system (WDS) have the potential to cause significant adverse health effects among individuals consuming water from the system. A flexible analysis framework is presented here for estimating the magnitude of such potential effects and is applied using network models for 12 actual WDSs of varying sizes. Upper bounds are developed for the magnitude of adverse effects of contamination events in WDSs and evaluated using results from the 12 systems. These bounds can be applied in cases in which little system-specific information is available. The combination of a detailed, network-specific approach and a bounding approach allows consequence assessments to be performed for systems for which varying amounts of information are available and addresses important needs of individual utilities as well as regional or national assessments. The approach used in the analysis framework allows contaminant injections at any or all network nodes and uses models that (1) account for contaminant transport in the systems, including contaminant decay, and (2) provide estimates of ingested contaminant doses for the exposed population. The approach can be easily modified as better transport or exposure models become available. The methods presented here provide the ability to quantify or bound potential adverse effects of contamination events for a wide variety of possible contaminants and WDSs, including systems without a network model. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate [ISRCTN64783481

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD Study is examining the effects of long-term fibrate therapy on coronary heart disease (CHD event rates in patients with diabetes mellitus. This article describes the trial's run-in phase and patients' baseline characteristics. Research design and methods FIELD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 63 centres in 3 countries evaluating the effects of fenofibrate versus placebo on CHD morbidity and mortality in 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were to have no indication for lipid-lowering therapy on randomization, but could start these or other drugs at any time after randomization. Follow-up in the study was to be for a median duration of not less than 5 years and until 500 major coronary events (fatal coronary heart disease plus nonfatal myocardial infarction had occurred. Results About 2100 patients (22% had some manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD at baseline and thus high risk status. Less than 25% of patients without CVD had a (UKPDS determined calculated 5-year CHD risk of 30, most were men, two-thirds were aged over 60 years, and substantial proportions had NCEP ATP III features of the metabolic syndrome independent of their diabetes, including low HDL (60%, high blood pressure measurement or treatment for hypertension (84%, high waist measurement (68%, and raised triglycerides (52%. After a 6-week run-in period before randomisation with all participants receiving 200 mg comicronized fenofibrate, there were declines in total and LDL cholesterol (10% and triglycerides (26% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (6.5%. Conclusion The study will show the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist action on CHD and other vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes including substantial numbers with low to moderate CVD risk but with the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The main results of the study will be reported in

  1. Effects of an educational patient safety campaign on patients' safety behaviours and adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L B; Frank, Olga; Buschmann, Ute; Babst, Reto

    2013-04-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives  The study aims to investigate the effects of a patient safety advisory on patients' risk perceptions, perceived behavioural control, performance of safety behaviours and experience of adverse incidents. Method  Quasi-experimental intervention study with non-equivalent group comparison was used. Patients admitted to the surgical department of a Swiss large non-university hospital were included. Patients in the intervention group received a safety advisory at their first clinical encounter. Outcomes were assessed using a questionnaire at discharge. Odds ratios for control versus intervention group were calculated. Regression analysis was used to model the effects of the intervention and safety behaviours on the experience of safety incidents. Results  Two hundred eighteen patients in the control and 202 in the intervention group completed the survey (75 and 77% response rates, respectively). Patients in the intervention group were less likely to feel poorly informed about medical errors (OR = 0.55, P = 0.043). There were 73.1% in the intervention and 84.3% in the control group who underestimated the risk for infection (OR = 0.51, CI 0.31-0.84, P = 0.009). Perceived behavioural control was lower in the control group (meanCon  = 3.2, meanInt  = 3.5, P = 0.010). Performance of safety-related behaviours was unaffected by the intervention. Patients in the intervention group were less likely to experience any safety-related incident or unsafe situation (OR for intervention group = 0.57, CI 0.38-0.87, P = 0.009). There were no differences in concerns for errors during hospitalization. There were 96% of patients (intervention) who would recommend other patients to read the advisory. Conclusions  The results suggest that the safety advisory decreases experiences of adverse events and unsafe situations. It renders awareness and perceived behavioural control without increasing concerns for safety and

  2. The Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) In Uncontrolled Alcohol Drinking and Relapse Behavior Resulting From Exposure to Stressful Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    like drinking in mice. So what does this mean? These results have important i mplications for p ossible ph armacological m edical treatment o f s...Chapel Hill, NC, USA ‡Department of Neurociencia y Ciencias de la Salud , Almeria, Spain §Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North

  3. Quality assurance ofallergen-specific immunotherapy during a national outbreak of anaphylaxis: results of a continuous sentinel event surveillance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Frølund, L; Christensen, M

    2009-01-01

    was calculated at 1.3 per 10 000 injections. DISCUSSION: Our results confirm the good safety profile of SCIT. We applied a sentinel SCIT surveillance system that may offer a means of guaranteeing safety by providing online feedback to all participating clinics when SAEs occur in order to explore their causes...

  4. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...

  5. The Role Of Neuropeptide Y (Npy) in Uncontrolled Alcohol Drinking and Relapse Behavior Resulting from Exposure to Stressful Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    affinity for the CRF1R (Ki < 10 nM) and blocks CRF-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in rodent pituitary and cortical membranes (Lundkvist et al., 1996...naltrexone or the dopamine re-uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 attenuate increased ethanol consumption associated with DID procedures, suggesting a role for...Acute effects of naltrexone and GBR 12909 on ethanol drinking-in-the-dark in C57BL ⁄ 6J mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 192:207–217. Kiefer F, Jahn

  6. Acute effects of Asian dust events on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Do Kyun; Koh, Young Yull

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of Asian dust events on respiratory health in asthmatic children. Fifty-two children with mild asthma were studied for eight consecutive weeks in the spring of 2004 (March 8 to May 2). During the study period, five Asian dust days were identified; we included a lag period of two days following each of the events. Subjects recorded their respiratory symptom diaries and peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily during the study period; and they underwent methacholine bronchial challenge tests. The subjects reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms during the Asian dust days than during the control days. They showed significantly more reduced morning and evening PEF values, and more increased PEF variability (10.1%+/-3.5% vs. 5.5%+/-2.2%) during the Asian dust days than during the control days. Methacholine PC(20) was not significantly different between before and after the study period (geometric mean: 2.82 mg/mL vs. 3.16 mg/mL). These results suggest that the short-term Asian dust events might be associated with increased acute respiratory symptoms and changes in PEF outcomes. However, there might be little long-term influence on airway hyperresponsiveness in children with mild asthma.

  7. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  8. Possible influence of solar extreme events and related geomagnetic disturbances on human cardio-vascular state: Results of collaborative Bulgarian-Azerbaijani studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.; Mustafa, F. R.; Stoilova, I.; Babayev, E. S.; Kazimov, E. A.

    2009-02-01

    This collaborative study is based on the analysis and comparison of results of coordinated experimental investigations conducted in Bulgaria and Azerbaijan for revealing a possible influence of solar activity changes and related geomagnetic activity variations on the human cardio-vascular state. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate of 86 healthy volunteers were measured on working days during a period of comparatively high solar and geomagnetic activity (2799 measurements in autumn 2001 and spring 2002) in Sofia. Daily experimental investigations of parameters of cardio-vascular health state were performed in Azerbaijan with a permanent group of examined persons. Heart rate and electrocardiograms were digitally registered (in total 1532 records) for seven functionally healthy persons on working days and Saturdays, in the Laboratory of Heliobiology at the Medical Center INAM in Baku, from 15.07.2006 to 13.11.2007. Obtained digital recordings were subjected to medical, statistical and spectral analyses. Special attention was paid to effects of solar extreme events, particularly those of November 2001 and December 2006. The statistical method of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis were applied to check the significance of the influence of geomagnetic activity on the cardio-vascular parameters under consideration. Results revealed statistically significant increments for the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of the group with geomagnetic activity increase. Arterial blood pressure values started increasing two days prior to geomagnetic storms and kept their high values up to two days after the storms. Heart rate reaction was ambiguous and not significant for healthy persons examined (for both groups) under conditions with geomagnetic activity changes. It is concluded that heart rate for healthy persons at middle latitudes can be considered as a more stable physiological parameter which is not so sensitive to environmental changes

  9. Evaluating the aerosol indirect effect in WRF-Chem simulations of the January 2013 Beijing air pollution event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Steven; Grell, Georg; Xie, Ying; Wu, Jian-Bin

    2015-04-01

    In January 2013, an unusual weather pattern over Northern China produced unusually cool, moist conditions for the region. Recent peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts report that during this time period, Beijing experienced a historically severe haze and smog event with observed monthly average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations exceeding 225 micrograms per cubic meter. MODIS satellite observations produced AOD values of approximately 1.5 to 2 for the same time. In addition, over eastern and northern China record-breaking hourly average PM2.5 concentrations of more than 700 μg m-3 were observed. Clearly, the severity and persistence of this air pollution episode has raised the interest of the scientific community as well as widespread public attention. Despite the significance of this and similar air pollution events, several questions regarding the ability of numerical weather prediction models to forecast such events remain. Some of these questions are: • What is the importance of including aerosols in the weather prediction models? • What is the current capability of weather prediction models to simulate aerosol impacts upon the weather? • How important is it to include the aerosol feedbacks (direct and indirect effect) in the numerical model forecasts? In an attempt to address these and other questions, a Joint Working Group of the Commission for Atmospheric Sciences and the World Climate Research Programme has been convened. This Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE), has set aside several events of interest and has asked its members to generate numerical simulations of the events and examine the results. As part of this project, weather and pollution simulations were produced at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) chemistry model. These particular simulations include the aerosol indirect effect and are being done in collaboration with a group in China that will produce

  10. Identification of Parton Pairs in a Dijet Event and Investigation of Its Effects on Dijet Resonance Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being able to distinguish parton pair type in a dijet event could significantly improve the search for new particles that are predicted by the theories beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider. To explore whether parton pair types manifesting themselves as a dijet event could be distinguished on an event-by-event basis, I performed a simulation based study considering observable jet variables. I found that using a multivariate approach can filter out about 80% of the other parton pairs while keeping more than half of the quark-quark or gluon-gluon parton pairs in an inclusive QCD dijet distribution. The effects of event-by-event parton pair tagging for dijet resonance searches were also investigated and I found that improvement on signal significance after applying parton pair tagging can reach up to 4 times for gluon-gluon resonances.

  11. Prediction of arguments and adjuncts in aphasia: Effects of event-related and verb-specific knowledge​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Hayes

    2015-05-01

    plausibility (1100-1200ms, see asterisk, Fig. 1a. Early effects of plausibility and argument status for ONs were truly anticipatory, appearing while the sentence was still on-going. Plausibility effects on target gaze were more limited in PWA, appearing at two points following pronoun offset (500-600ms and 1000-1100ms, circled in Fig. 1b. Conversely, argument effects were more widespread for PWAs, although they emerged later (700-900ms and 1000-1100ms, see arrows, Fig. 1b. PWAs also showed a much later interaction effect between plausibility and argument status (at 1800ms, see asterisk, Fig. 1b. These results suggest that older adults rely more on event-related plausibility than on argument status during the processing of locative event participants, and that these effects interact late in processing. The effect of argument status is more prevalent but delayed in PWAs compared to ONs, and the interaction of plausibility and argument status is also present but delayed. This pattern is compatible with findings suggesting that PWAs access verbs’ lexical representations during sentence comprehension[9] and that this access may affect linguistic performance[5], but that lexical access is delayed in PWAs when compared to age-matched controls[7,11]. This slowed lexical access can lead to impairments in syntactic comprehension[3]. The current results indicate that similar effects may also be present in verb-argument prediction and the processing of semantic roles.

  12. Effects of white noise on event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Wakana; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-09-06

    Exposure to auditory white noise has been shown to facilitate human cognitive function. This phenomenon is termed stochastic resonance, and a moderate amount of auditory noise has been suggested to benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. The present study investigated the effects of white noise on the N140 and P300 components of event-related potentials in somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. A Go or No-go stimulus was presented to the second or fifth digit of the left hand, respectively, at the same probability. Participants performed somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms while hearing three different white noise levels (45, 55, and 65 dB conditions). The peak amplitudes of Go-P300 and No-go-P300 in ERP waveforms were significantly larger under 55 dB than 45 and 65 dB conditions. White noise did not affect the peak latency of N140 or P300, or the peak amplitude of N140. Behavioral data for the reaction time, SD of reaction time, and error rates showed the absence of an effect by white noise. This is the first event-related potential study to show that exposure to auditory white noise at 55 dB enhanced the amplitude of P300 during Go/No-go paradigms, reflecting changes in the neural activation of response execution and inhibition processing.

  13. Valenced cues and contexts have different effects on event-based prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Peter; Yu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when they occurred in a valenced context than in the context of neutral pictures, but the effectiveness of valenced cues did not vary across contexts that differed in valence. The finding of an interaction between cue and context valence indicates that their respective influence on event-based prospective memory task performance cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Our findings are not consistent with by the prevailing view which holds that the scope of attention is broadened and narrowed, respectively, by positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Instead, our findings are more supportive of the recent proposal that the scope of attention is determined by the motivational intensity associated with valenced stimuli. Consistent with this proposal, we speculate that the motivational intensity associated with different retrieval cues determines the scope of attention, that contexts with different valence values determine participants' task engagement, and that prospective memory task performance is determined jointly by attention scope and task engagement.

  14. Valenced cues and contexts have different effects on event-based prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Graf

    Full Text Available This study examined the separate influence and joint influences on event-based prospective memory task performance due to the valence of cues and the valence of contexts. We manipulated the valence of cues and contexts with pictures from the International Affective Picture System. The participants, undergraduate students, showed higher performance when neutral compared to valenced pictures were used for cueing prospective memory. In addition, neutral pictures were more effective as cues when they occurred in a valenced context than in the context of neutral pictures, but the effectiveness of valenced cues did not vary across contexts that differed in valence. The finding of an interaction between cue and context valence indicates that their respective influence on event-based prospective memory task performance cannot be understood in isolation from each other. Our findings are not consistent with by the prevailing view which holds that the scope of attention is broadened and narrowed, respectively, by positively and negatively valenced stimuli. Instead, our findings are more supportive of the recent proposal that the scope of attention is determined by the motivational intensity associated with valenced stimuli. Consistent with this proposal, we speculate that the motivational intensity associated with different retrieval cues determines the scope of attention, that contexts with different valence values determine participants' task engagement, and that prospective memory task performance is determined jointly by attention scope and task engagement.

  15. Definition of Capabilities Needed for a Single Event Effects Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2014-12-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is contemplating new regulations mandating testing of the vulnerability of flight-critical avionics to single event effects (SEE). A limited number of high-energy neutron test facilities currently serve the SEE industrial and institutional research community. The FAA recognizes that existing facilities have insufficient test capacity to meet new demand from such mandates; it desires more flexible irradiation capabilities to test complete, large systems and would like capabilities to address greater concerns for thermal neutrons. For this reason, the FAA funded this study by Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) staff with the ultimate aim of developing options for SEE test facilities using high-energy neutrons at the SNS complex. After an investigation of current SEE test practices and assessment of future testing requirements, three concepts were identified covering a range of test functionality, neutron flux levels, and fidelity to the atmospheric neutron spectrum. The costs and times required to complete each facility were also estimated. SEE testing is generally performed by accelerating the event rate to a point where the effects are still dominated by single events and double event causes of failures are negligible. In practice, acceleration factors of as high as 106 are applicable for component testing, whereas for systems testing acceleration factors of 104 seem to be the upper limit. It is strongly desirable that the irradiation facility be tunable over a large range of high-energy neutron fluxes of 102 - 104 n/cm²/s for systems testing and from 104 - 107 n/cm²/s for components testing. The most capable, most flexible, and highest-test-capacity option is a new stand-alone target station named the High-Energy neutron Test Station (HETS). It is also the most expensive option, with a cost to complete of approximately $100 million. Dual test enclosures would

  16. Dialysate Potassium, Serum Potassium, Mortality, and Arrhythmia Events in Hemodialysis: Results From the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaboyas, Angelo; Zee, Jarcy; Brunelli, Steven M; Usvyat, Len A; Weiner, Daniel E; Maddux, Franklin W; Nissenson, Allen R; Jadoul, Michel; Locatelli, Francesco; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Port, Friedrich K; Robinson, Bruce M; Tentori, Francesca

    2017-02-01

    Sudden death is a leading cause of death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. During hemodialysis sessions, the gradient between serum and dialysate levels results in rapid electrolyte shifts, which may contribute to arrhythmias and sudden death. Controversies exist about the optimal electrolyte concentration in the dialysate; specifically, it is unclear whether patient outcomes differ among those treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 mEq/L compared to 2 mEq/L. Prospective cohort study. 55,183 patients from 20 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) phases 1 to 5 (1996-2015). Dialysate potassium concentration at study entry. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between dialysate potassium concentration and both all-cause mortality and an arrhythmia composite outcome (arrhythmia-related hospitalization or sudden death), adjusting for potential confounders. During a median follow-up of 16.5 months, 24% of patients died and 7% had an arrhythmia composite outcome. No meaningful difference in clinical outcomes was observed for patients treated with a dialysate potassium concentration of 3 versus 2 mEq/L (adjusted HRs were 0.96 [95% CI, 0.91-1.01] for mortality and 0.98 [95% CI, 0.88-1.08] for arrhythmia composite). Results were similar across predialysis serum potassium levels. As in prior studies, higher serum potassium level was associated with adverse outcomes. However, dialysate potassium concentration had only minimal impact on serum potassium level measured predialysis (+0.09 [95% CI, 0.05-0.14] mEq/L serum potassium per 1 mEq/L greater dialysate potassium concentration). Data were not available for delivered (vs prescribed) dialysate potassium concentration and postdialysis serum potassium level; possible unmeasured confounding. In combination, these results suggest that approaches other than altering dialysate potassium concentration (eg, education on dietary potassium sources and

  17. Prevalence and effects of life event exposure among undergraduate and community college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Samantha L; Frazier, Patricia A; Shallcross, Sandra L

    2012-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess lifetime and recent exposure to various life events among undergraduate and community college students and to assess the relation between event exposure and a broad range of outcomes (i.e., mental and physical health, life satisfaction, grade point average). Undergraduate students from a midwestern university (N = 842) and a community college (N = 242) completed online measures of lifetime event exposure and outcomes at Time 1 and recent event exposure at Time 2 two months later. Life events assessed included events that did and did not meet the definition of a traumatic event (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder Criterion A1) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) as well as directly (e.g., own life-threatening illness) and indirectly (e.g., others' illness) experienced events. Students reported experiencing many lifetime and recent Criterion A1 and non-A1 events, and community college students reported more events than did university students. Generally, individuals who reported more lifetime events also reported poorer outcomes (e.g., poorer health). The number of non-Criterion A1 and directly experienced events tended to be more strongly correlated with negative outcomes than were the number of Criterion A1 and indirectly experienced events reported. These findings suggest that non-A1 events are important to assess and can be significantly related to outcomes for students.

  18. Comparative Study of Determining of the Responsible Person and the Basis of Compensation in Civil Liability Results from Events Related to Nuclear Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy

  19. An Effective Method for Small Event Detection: Match and Locate (ML) and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low magnitude event is critical and challenging in seismology. Traditional methods of event detection, which rely on phase identification, are usually hindered by low signal to noise ratio (SNR) in small event recordings. We develop a new method, named the match and locate (ML) method, for small event detection. The ML method employs some template events and detects small events through stacking cross-correlograms between waveforms of the template events and potential small event signals in the continuous waveforms over multiple stations and components. Unlike the traditional match filter method which assumes that the template event and slave event are co-located, the ML method scans over potential small event locations around the template, by making relative travel time corrections based on the relative locations of the template event and the potential small event before stacking. It makes event detection more efficient and at the same time relocates the detected event in high-precision. As an example of application and comparison with the matched filter method, we apply the ML and matched filter methods to detect the foreshocks before the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The ML method detects four times more events than the templates and 10% more than the matched filter under the same detection threshold. Up to 42% of the events detected by the ML method are not co-located at the template locations with the largest event separation of 9.4 km. As another example of application, we apply the ML method to search for potential nuclear tests conducted by North Korea in the continuous seismic data recorded in Northeast China, using North Korea's 2009 and 2013 tests as templates. We report detection of a low-yield nuclear test conducted by North Korea in 2010.

  20. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, H B; Arctander, P; Nyakaana, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Siegismund, H R

    2008-09-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa. Contrary to expectations, detailed analyses of four contemporary age-based cohorts showed that the peak poaching epidemic in the 1970s caused detectable temporary genetic impacts, with genetic diversity rebounding as juveniles surviving the poaching era became reproductively mature. This study demonstrates the importance of climatic history in shaping the distribution and genetic history of a keystone species and highlights the utility of coalescent-based demographic approaches in unravelling ancestral demographic events despite a lack of ancient samples. Unique insights into the genetic signature of mid-Holocene climatic change in Africa and effects of recent poaching pressure on elephants are discussed.

  1. Effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate on the P300 event-related potential in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Goro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Shirayama, Yukihiko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Fujisaki, Mihisa; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2010-11-03

    Benzodiazepines carry the risk of inducing cognitive impairments, which may go unnoticed while profoundly disturbing social activity. Furthermore, these impairments are partly associated with the elimination half-life (EH) of the substance from the body. The object of the present study was to examine the effects of etizolam and ethyl loflazepate, with EHs of 6 h and 122 h, respectively, on information processing in healthy subjects. Healthy people were administered etizolam and ethyl loflazepate acutely and subchronically (14 days). The auditory P300 event-related potential and the neuropsychological batteries described below were employed to assess the effects of drugs on cognition. The P300 event-related potential was recorded before and after drug treatments. The digit symbol test, trail making test, digit span test and verbal paired associates test were administered to examine mental slowing and memory functioning. Acute administration of drugs caused prolongation in P300 latency and reduction in P300 amplitude. Etizolam caused a statistically significant prolongation in P300 latency compared to ethyl loflazepate. Furthermore, subchronic administration of etizolam, but not ethyl loflazepate, still caused a weak prolongation in P300 latency. In contrast, neuropsychological tests showed no difference. The results indicate that acute administration of ethyl loflazepate induces less effect on P300 latency than etizolam.

  2. Seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on child-sized dummies during run-off-road events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta

    2017-05-29

    Run-off-road events occur frequently and can result in severe consequences. Several potential injury-causing mechanisms can be observed in the diverse types of run-off-road events. Real-world data show that different types of environments, such as rough terrain, ditch types, and whether multiple events occur, may be important contributing factors to occupant injury. Though countermeasures addressing front seat occupants have been presented, studies on rear seat occupant retention in situations such as run-off-road events are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the seat belt pre-pretensioner effect on rear-seated child-sized anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during 2 different types of run-off-road events. The study was carried out using 2 test setups: a rig test with a vehicle rear seat mounted on a multi-axial robot simulating a road departure event into a side ditch and an in-vehicle test setup with a Volvo XC60 entering a side ditch with a grass slope, driving inside the ditch, and returning back to the road from the ditch. Potential subsequent rollovers or impacts were not included in the test setups. Three different ATDs were used. The Q6 and Q10 were seated on an integrated booster cushion and the Hybrid III (HIII) 5th percentile female was positioned directly on the seat. The seat belt retractor was equipped with a pre-pretensioner (electrical reversible retractor) with 3 force level settings. In addition, reference tests with the pre-pretensioner inactivated were run. Kinematics and the shoulder belt position were analyzed. In rig tests, the left-seated ATD was exposed to rapid inboard lateral loads relative to the vehicle. The displacement for each ATD was reduced when the pre-pretensioner was activated compared to tests when it was inactivated. Maximum inboard displacement occurred earlier in the event for all ATDs when the pre-pretensioner was activated. Shoulder belt slip-off occurred for the Q6 and Q10 in tests where the pre

  3. EUROASPIRE (European Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) III--a comparison of Irish and European results.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, M T

    2009-04-01

    The EUROASPIRE III audit was a Europe-wide study which took place in 2006\\/2007. The objective was to examine the control of risk factors in subjects with established cardiovascular disease. Here, we compare the Irish results to those of the other 21 European countries which participated. Control of blood cholesterol was significantly better in Irish participants, with 73% below the target of 4.5 mmol\\/l. Blood pressure control was less satisfactory in both Irish and European individuals, with an average of 52% of Irish participants not achieving blood pressure targets. Medication usage was high throughout, particularly anti-platelet agents, beta-blockers and, especially in Ireland, statins. Obesity figures were particularly high in Ireland and throughout Europe, with 82% Irish men and women either overweight or obese. Smoking figures in Irish women were also of concern, with 24% continuing to smoke. Cardiac rehabilitation attendance was particularly high in Ireland, with 68% attending; substantially higher than the European figure of 34%. In common with the rest of Europe, current control of body weight and blood pressure in Ireland is unsatisfactory and in need of increased consideration on the part of both patients and healthcare professionals.

  4. Rebound effect of modern drugs: serious adverse event unknown by health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus Zulian

    2013-01-01

    Supported in the Hippocratic aphorism primum non nocere, the bioethical principle of non-maleficence pray that the medical act cause the least damage or injury to the health of the patient, leaving it to the doctor to assess the risks of a particular therapy through knowledge of possible adverse events of drugs. Among these, the rebound effect represents a common side effect to numerous classes of modern drugs, may cause serious and fatal disorders in patients. This review aims to clarify the health professionals on clinical and epidemiological aspects of rebound phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and bibliographic review was held in the PubMed database using the keywords 'rebound', 'withdrawal', 'paradoxical', 'acetylsalicylic acid', 'anti-inflammatory', 'bronchodilator', 'antidepressant', 'statin', 'proton pump inhibitor' and 'bisphosphonate'. The rebound effect occurs after discontinuation of numerous classes of drugs that act contrary to the disease disorders, exacerbating them at levels above those prior to treatment. Regardless of the disease, the drug and duration of treatment, the phenomenon manifests itself in a small proportion of susceptible individuals. However, it may cause serious and fatal adverse events should be considered a public health problem in view of the enormous consumption of drugs by population. Bringing together a growing and unquestionable body of evidence, the physician needs to have knowledge of the consequences of the rebound effect and how to minimize it, increasing safety in the management of modern drugs. On the other hand, this rebound can be used in a curative way, broadening the spectrum of the modern therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of stressful life events on cerebral white matter hyperintensity progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne D; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Payne, Martha E; Beyer, John L; Taylor, Warren D

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to stressful events is associated with both occurrence of depression and also vascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of stress exposure was related to measures of pathological brain aging, specifically white matter hyperintensity volumes, in older adults with and without depression. The sample included 130 depressed and 110 never-depressed older adults aged 60 years or older enrolled in a longitudinal study at an academic medical center. Participants completed clinical assessments, assessment of stressful event exposure and perceived stress, and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 2 years. Analyses examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress measures and white matter hyperintensity volumes. There were no statistically significant relationships observed between cross-sectional baseline stress measures and either baseline hyperintensity volume or 2-year change in hyperintensity volume. However, after controlling for demographic variables and baseline measures, change in stressor exposure was associated with change in hyperintensity volumes. In this analysis, increased stressor exposure was associated with greater increases in white matter hyperintensity volume, while reductions in stressor exposure were associated with less increase in hyperintensity volume. This relationship did not significantly differ based on the presence of either depression or medical comorbidities. This work adds to a growing literature associating exposure to stressful events in later life with more rapid pathological brain aging. Work is needed to understand the physiological mechanisms by which stress exposure has this effect and examine whether stress reduction techniques may modify these observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Impact of Spontaneous Extracranial Bleeding Events on Health State Utility in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaijun; Li, Haiyan; Kwong, Winghan J; Antman, Elliott M; Ruff, Christian T; Giugliano, Robert P; Cohen, David J; Magnuson, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-11

    The impact of different types of extracranial bleeding events on health-related quality of life and health-state utility among patients with atrial fibrillation is not well understood. The ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation With Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 48) Trial compared edoxaban with warfarin with respect to the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism in atrial fibrillation. Data from the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, prospectively collected at 3-month intervals for up to 48 months, were used to estimate the impact of different categories of bleeding events on health-state utility over 12 months following the event. Longitudinal mixed-effect models revealed that major gastrointestinal bleeds and major nongastrointestinal bleeds were associated with significant immediate decreases in utility scores (-0.029 [-0.044 to -0.014; P<0.001] and -0.029 [-0.046 to -0.012; P=0.001], respectively). These effects decreased in magnitude over time, and were no longer significant for major nongastrointestinal bleeds at 9 months, but remained borderline significant for major gastrointestinal bleeds at 12 months. Clinically relevant nonmajor and minor bleeds were associated with smaller but measurable immediate impacts on utility (-0.010 [-0.016 to -0.005] and -0.016 [-0.024 to -0.008]; P<0.001 for both), which remained relatively constant and statistically significant over the 12 months following the bleeding event. All categories of bleeding events were associated with negative impacts on health-state utility in patients with atrial fibrillation. Major bleeds were associated with relatively large immediate decreases in utility scores that gradually diminished over 12 months; clinically relevant nonmajor and minor bleeds were associated with smaller immediate decreases in utility that persisted over 12 months. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00781391. © 2017 The

  7. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  8. Apixaban: Effective and Safe in Preventing Thromboembolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Francesca; Scicchitano, Pietro; Gesualdo, Michele; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Franchini, Carlo; Pia Schiavone, Brigida Immacolata; Corbo, Filomena; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2017-11-17

    Thromboembolic events, principally stroke, represent one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among subjects with atrial fibrillation. Chronic kidney disease determines a further increase of thromboembolic events, bleeding and mortality and complicates the pharmacological management of patients with atrial fibrillation, mainly due to the side effects of antiarrhythmic and anticoagulant drugs with renal excretion. Apixaban is a new oral anticoagulant characterized by good bioavailability and renal elimination accounting for only 25%, showing a safety profile and effectiveness in patients with renal impairment. In this manuscript, we reviewed literature data on the use of apixaban in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in patients with renal failure, in order to clarify an often-debated topic in clinical practice. A PubMed search was performed on the terms atrial fibrillation, apixaban and renal failure with the aim of identifying relevant manuscripts, large randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, and current guidelines. Literature data show that apixaban could represent an interesting alternative to warfarin and other selective antagonists of coagulation factors in patients with impaired renal function. About the risk of major bleeding, apixaban appears to be safer than warfarin in the presence of any degree of renal failure. Apixaban show to be an effective anticoagulant in patients with atrial fibrillation, even superior to warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism regardless of the presence of renal insufficiency. Moreover, Food and Drug Administration allows the use of apixaban in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Development of single-event-effects analysis system at the IMP microbeam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinlong; Du, Guanghua; Bi, Jinshun; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junze; Li, Yaning; Sheng, Lina; Liu, Xiaojun; Ma, Shuyi

    2017-08-01

    Single-event-effects (SEEs) in integrated circuits (ICs) caused by galactic single ions are the major cause of anomalies for a spacecraft. The main strategies to decrease radiation failures for spacecraft are using SEEs less-sensitive devices and design radiation hardened ICs. High energy ion microbeam is one of the powerful tools to obtain spatial information of SEEs in ICs and to guide the radiation hardening design. The microbeam facility in the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) can meet both the liner energy transfer (LET) and ion range requirements for SEEs simulation experiments on ground. In order to study SEEs characteristics of ICs at this microbeam platform, a SEEs analysis system was developed. This system can target and irradiate ICs with single ions in micrometer-scale accuracy, meanwhile it acquires multi-channel SEE signals and maps the SEE sensitive regions online. A 4-Mbit NOR Flash memory was tested with this system using 2.2 GeV Kr ions, the radiation sensitive peripheral circuit regions for SEEs of 1 to 0 and 0 to 1 upset, multi-bit-upset and single event latchup have been obtained.

  10. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalonne L. White-Newsome

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme heat events (EHEs are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

  11. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Tyson B.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Bey, Tareg; Visser, Errol

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering. Methods: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident. Results: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population) and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000). The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000), consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%), basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%), advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%), pharmacy assistants (42.6%), and pharmacists (33.1%). Conclusion: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. PMID:20823971

  12. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welzel, Tyson B MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering.METHODS: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident.RESULTS: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000. The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000, consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%, basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%, advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%, pharmacy assistants (42.6%, and pharmacists (33.1%.CONCLUSION: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:189-196.

  13. Single-Event Effect Testing of the Cree C4D40120D Commercial 1200V Silicon Carbide Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J.-M.; Casey, M. C.; Wilcox, E. P.; Kim, Hak; Topper, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the commercial silicon carbide 1200V Schottky diode manufactured by Cree, Inc. Heavy-ion testing was conducted at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Single Event Effects Test Facility (TAMU). Its purpose was to evaluate this device as a candidate for use in the Solar-Electric Propulsion flight project.

  14. Shock events and flood risk management: a media analysis of the institutional long-term effects of flood events in the Netherlands and Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, M.; Lewandowski, J.; Chorynski, A.; Wiering, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Flood events that have proven to create shock waves in society, which we will call shock events, can open windows of opportunity that allow different actor groups to introduce new ideas. Shock events, however, can also strengthen the status quo. We will take flood events as our object of study.

  15. The Spatial Scaffold: The Effects of Spatial Context on Memory for Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Wynn, Jordana; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Events always unfold in a spatial context, leading to the claim that it serves as a scaffold for encoding and retrieving episodic memories. The ubiquitous co-occurrence of spatial context with events may induce participants to generate a spatial context when hearing scenarios of events in which it is absent. Spatial context should also serve as an…

  16. Sponsorship, Ambushing, and Counter-Strategy: Effects upon Memory for Sponsor and Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael S.; Cornwell, T. Bettina; McAlister, Anna R.; Kelly, Sarah J.; Quinn, Emerald A.; Murray, Krista L.

    2010-01-01

    Corporate sponsorship of sports, causes, and the arts has become a mainstream communications tool worldwide. The unique marketing opportunities associated with major events also attract nonsponsoring companies seeking to form associations with the event (ambushing). There are strategies available to brands and events which have been ambushed;…

  17. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on the cognitive event-related potential p300: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Samuel R M; Marcolin, Marco A; May, Geoffrey; Gjini, Klevest

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review regarding the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the cognitive event-related potential P300. A search was performed of the PubMed database, using the keywords "transcranial magnetic stimulation" and "P300." Eight articles were selected and, after analysis of references, one additional article was added to the list. We found the comparison among studies to be difficult, as the information regarding the effects of TMS on P300 is both scarce and heterogeneous with respect to the parameters used in TMS stimulation and the elicitation of P300. However, 7 of 9 studies found positive results. New studies need to be carried out in order to understand the contribution of these variables and others to the alteration in the latency and amplitude of the P300 wave.

  18. Atmospheric Effects During Solar Energetic Particle Events in Magnetized Regions of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolitz, R.; Lee, C. O.; Dong, C.; Brain, D. A.; Lillis, R. J.; Curry, S.; Larson, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) represent an important if irregular source of energy to the Martian atmosphere. Volume rates of ionization and heating by SEP protons during intense solar events can be modeled to predict energy deposition from fluxes observed by the SEP instrument on MAVEN. ASPEN (Atmospheric Scattering of Protons and Energetic Neutrals) is a 3-D Monte Carlo simulation that tracks energy deposition by a population of protons in an atmosphere, accounting for three-dimensionally varying neutral densities and magnetic fields. ASPEN simulates proton motion using a Runge-Kutta solver to approximate Lorentz force and an adaptive trace algorithm to accurately model collisions in dense and sparse atmospheric regions. ASPEN can be generalized to study different ion fluxes in other regions of the Mars plasma environment, such as SEP oxygen in the atmosphere or penetrating solar wind protons in the corona. In this presentation, ASPEN is used to generate three-dimensional volume rates of ionization and heating using three-dimensionally-varying magnetic and electric fields from the Michigan Mars multi-fluid MHD model (MF-MHD) and altitude-varying neutral densities from the Mars Global Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (M-GITM). We present ionization rates over the crustal magnetic field anomalies in a 120° x 90° region in the Southern Lowlands and the progression of SEP ionization during a SEP ion event observed by MAVEN on 16 May 2016. Ultimately ASPEN results will help shape a comprehensive model of solar wind interactions with Mars.

  19. Incentive effects on event-based prospective memory performance in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; McDaniel, Mark A; Pedroza, Claudia; Chapman, Sandra B; Levin, Harvey S

    2009-03-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the formation of an intention and remembering to perform this intention at a future time or in response to specific cues. PM tasks are a ubiquitous part of daily life. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding PM impairments in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and less empirical evidence regarding effective remediation strategies to mitigate these impairments. The present study employed two levels of a motivational enhancement (i.e., a monetary incentive) to determine whether event-based PM could be improved in children with severe TBI. In a crossover design, children with orthopedic injuries and mild or severe TBI were compared on two levels of incentive (dollars vs. pennies) given in response to accurate performance. All three groups performed significantly better under the high- versus low-motivation conditions. However, the severe TBI group's high-motivation condition performance remained significantly below the low-motivation condition performance of the orthopedic injury group. PM scores were positively and significantly related to age-at-test, but there were no age-at-injury or time-postinjury effects. Overall, these results suggest that event-based PM can be significantly improved in children with severe TBI.

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Control Measures on Reduction of Risk Events in an Edible Oil Factory in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Kolahdouzi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Identification of hazards is one of the first goals of risk analysis. Failure mode and effect analysis method (FMEA is universally defined as efficient procedures for finding potential failures aimed to remove or decrease the risk which is related to them. This study aimed to investigate the effect of control measures on reduction of risk events in an edible oil factory in Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in an edible oil factory in Tehran, Iran. For this, a four-member team of safety engineer experts was formed. Some factory units were selected randomly. After that, in all units, probability, severity and detection probability of hazards in all processes and tasks were assessed based on FMEA method. Regarding to the RPN, some control measures were taken to reduce the risk of events. After 9 months, risk assessment was repeated; primary and secondary RPNs were compared with each other to investigate the effect of interventions. Results: The results showed that highest and lowest probability of hazard were related to installation and can production unit, respectively. The highest and lowest severity of hazard were related to tool and can production unit, respectively. There was a significant difference between the probability of hazard in can-making and filling units, before and after the interventions. There was a significant difference between the severity of hazard in can-making, filling and neutralization units, before and after the interventions. As well, total probability, severity and RPN had a significant difference in all parts of the factory before and after the interventions. Conclusions: According to the results of this study and the overall risk reduction caused by interventional measures, it can be concluded that, FMEA is a successful method for identifying hazards and risk control measures.

  1. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  2. Dermatopathology effects of simulated solar particle event radiation exposure in the porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzari, Jenine K; Diffenderfer, Eric S; Hagan, Sarah; Billings, Paul C; Gridley, Daila S; Seykora, John T; Kennedy, Ann R; Cengel, Keith A

    2015-07-01

    The space environment exposes astronauts to risks of acute and chronic exposure to ionizing radiation. Of particular concern is possible exposure to ionizing radiation from a solar particle event (SPE). During an SPE, magnetic disturbances in specific regions of the Sun result in the release of intense bursts of ionizing radiation, primarily consisting of protons that have a highly variable energy spectrum. Thus, SPE events can lead to significant total body radiation exposures to astronauts in space vehicles and especially while performing extravehicular activities. Simulated energy profiles suggest that SPE radiation exposures are likely to be highest in the skin. In the current report, we have used our established miniature pig model system to evaluate the skin toxicity of simulated SPE radiation exposures that closely resemble the energy and fluence profile of the September, 1989 SPE using either conventional radiation (electrons) or proton simulated SPE radiation. Exposure of animals to electron or proton radiation led to dose-dependent increases in epidermal pigmentation, the presence of necrotic keratinocytes at the dermal-epidermal boundary and pigment incontinence, manifested by the presence of melanophages in the derm is upon histological examination. We also observed epidermal hyperplasia and a reduction in vascular density at 30 days following exposure to electron or proton simulated SPE radiation. These results suggest that the doses of electron or proton simulated SPE radiation results in significant skin toxicity that is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Radiation-induced skin damage is often one of the first clinical signs of both acute and non-acute radiation injury where infection may occur, if not treated. In this report, histopathology analyses of acute radiation-induced skin injury are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of typhoon events on chlorophyll and carbon fixation in different regions of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongxing; He, Lei; Liu, Fenfen; Yin, Kedong

    2017-07-01

    Typhoons play an important role in the regulation of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation in the ocean. Data from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on 35 typhoon events during 2002-2011 are analyzed to examine the effects of typhoon events on variations in sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and depth-integrated primary productivity (IPP) in the East China Sea (ECS). For all 35 typhoon cases, the average SST drops by 0.1 °C in the typhoon influenced regions, and the maximal decrease is 2.2 °C. During the same period, average Chl-a increases by 0.1 mg m-3, with the maximal increase reaching up to 1 mg m-3, and average IPP increases by 32.9 mg C m-2·d-1, with the largest increase being 221 mg C m-2·d-1. The IPP are significantly correlated with SST and Chl-a data, and the correlations become stronger after typhoon passage. On average, nearly one-third of the ECS is affected by typhoons during the 10 year period, and the resident time of the typhoons in the area reach to 38.2 h. Effects of the typhoon events on SST, Chl-a, and IPP manifest differently in the three key sea areas, namely, the coastal water (depths 200 m) regions in the ECS. Specifically, stronger responses are observed in shallow water than in deeper depths. The comparisons between the pre- and post-typhoon periods show that IPP in the post-typhoon period increases by 19.7% and 12.2% in the coastal and continental shelf regions, respectively, but it decreases by 9.4% in the open sea region. Overall, our results reveal that there is a close coupling between Chl-a, SST, and IPP in shallow areas and that typhoon events can have strong effects on carbon fixation in coastal regions.

  4. The Effect of Online Hemodiafiltration on Infections: Results from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoedt, Claire H; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Bots, Michiel L; Blankestijn, Peter J; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; van der Weerd, Neelke C; Penne, E Lars; Mazairac, Albert H A; Levesque, Renée; ter Wee, Piet M; Nubé, Menso J; van den Dorpel, Marinus A

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients have a high risk of infections. The uremic milieu has a negative impact on several immune responses. Online hemodiafiltration (HDF) may reduce the risk of infections by ameliorating the uremic milieu through enhanced clearance of middle molecules. Since there are few data on infectious outcomes in HDF, we compared the effects of HDF with low-flux HD on the incidence and type of infections. We used data of the 714 HD patients (age 64 ±14, 62% men, 25% Diabetes Mellitus, 7% catheters) participating in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST), a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of HDF as compared to low-flux HD. The events were adjudicated by an independent event committee. The risk of infectious events was compared with Cox regression for repeated events and Cox proportional hazard models. The distributions of types of infection were compared between the groups. Thirty one percent of the patients suffered from one or more infections leading to hospitalization during the study (median follow-up 1.96 years). The risk for infections during the entire follow-up did not differ significantly between treatment arms (HDF 198 and HD 169 infections in 800 and 798 person-years respectively, hazard ratio HDF vs. HD 1.09 (0.88-1.34), P = 0.42. No difference was found in the occurrence of the first infectious event (either fatal, non-fatal or type specific). Of all infections, respiratory infections (25% in HDF, 28% in HD) were most common, followed by skin/musculoskeletal infections (21% in HDF, 13% in HD). HDF as compared to HD did not result in a reduced risk of infections, larger studies are needed to confirm our findings. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00205556.

  5. The Effect of Online Hemodiafiltration on Infections: Results from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H den Hoedt

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD patients have a high risk of infections. The uremic milieu has a negative impact on several immune responses. Online hemodiafiltration (HDF may reduce the risk of infections by ameliorating the uremic milieu through enhanced clearance of middle molecules. Since there are few data on infectious outcomes in HDF, we compared the effects of HDF with low-flux HD on the incidence and type of infections.We used data of the 714 HD patients (age 64 ±14, 62% men, 25% Diabetes Mellitus, 7% catheters participating in the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST, a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of HDF as compared to low-flux HD. The events were adjudicated by an independent event committee. The risk of infectious events was compared with Cox regression for repeated events and Cox proportional hazard models. The distributions of types of infection were compared between the groups.Thirty one percent of the patients suffered from one or more infections leading to hospitalization during the study (median follow-up 1.96 years. The risk for infections during the entire follow-up did not differ significantly between treatment arms (HDF 198 and HD 169 infections in 800 and 798 person-years respectively, hazard ratio HDF vs. HD 1.09 (0.88-1.34, P = 0.42. No difference was found in the occurrence of the first infectious event (either fatal, non-fatal or type specific. Of all infections, respiratory infections (25% in HDF, 28% in HD were most common, followed by skin/musculoskeletal infections (21% in HDF, 13% in HD.HDF as compared to HD did not result in a reduced risk of infections, larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00205556.

  6. How consumers are affected by product descriptions in online shopping: Event-related potentials evidence of the attribute framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Zhang, Wuke; Chen, Mingliang

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of the human ability to process information, e-consumers' decisions are likely to be influenced by various cognitive biases, such as the attribute framing effect. This effect has been well studied by numerous scholars; however, the associated underlying neural mechanisms with a critical temporal resolution have not been revealed. Thus, this study applies the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly examine the role of attribute framing in information processing and decision-making in online shopping. The behavioral results showed that participants demonstrated a higher purchase intention with a shorter reaction time under a positive framing condition compared to participants under a negative framing condition. Compared with positive framing messages, the results of ERPs indicated that negative framing messages attracted more attention resources at the early stage of rapid automatic processing (larger P2 amplitude) and resulted in greater cognitive conflict and decision difficulty (larger P2-N2 complex). Moreover, compared with negative messages, positive framing messages allowed consumers to perceive a better future performance of products and classify these products as a categorization of higher evaluation (larger LPP amplitude) at the late cognitive processing stage of evaluation. Based on these results, we provide evidence for a better understanding of how different attribute framing messages are processed and ultimately lead to the framing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Case study of dust event sources from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts: An investigation of the horizontal evolution and topographical effect using numerical modeling and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin; Yue, Xiaoying; Sun, Qinghua; Wang, Shigong

    2017-06-01

    A severe dust event occurred from April 23 to April 27, 2014, in East Asia. A state-of-the-art online atmospheric chemistry model, WRF/Chem, was combined with a dust model, GOCART, to better understand the entire process of this event. The natural color images and aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the dust source region are derived from datasets of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) loaded on a NASA Aqua satellite to trace the dust variation and to verify the model results. Several meteorological conditions, such as pressure, temperature, wind vectors and relative humidity, are used to analyze meteorological dynamic. The results suggest that the dust emission occurred only on April 23 and 24, although this event lasted for 5days. The Gobi Desert was the main source for this event, and the Taklamakan Desert played no important role. This study also suggested that the landform of the source region could remarkably interfere with a dust event. The Tarim Basin has a topographical effect as a "dust reservoir" and can store unsettled dust, which can be released again as a second source, making a dust event longer and heavier. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparative assessment of short-term adverse events in acute heart failure with cystatin C and other estimates of renal function: results from the ASCEND-HF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Dupont, Matthias; Hernandez, Adrian F; Voors, Adriaan A; Hsu, Amy P; Felker, G Michael; Butler, Javed; Metra, Marco; Anker, Stefan D; Troughton, Richard W; Gottlieb, Stephen S; McMurray, John J; Armstrong, Paul W; Massie, Barry M; Califf, Robert M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Starling, Randall C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive values of baseline and changes in cystatin C (CysC) and its derived equations for short-term adverse outcomes and the effect of nesiritide therapy on CysC in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Newer renal biomarkers or their derived estimates of renal function have demonstrated long-term prognostic value in chronic heart failure. CysC levels were measured in sequential plasma samples from 811 subjects with ADHF who were enrolled in the ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) biomarker sub-study (randomized to nesiritide therapy vs. placebo), and followed for all-cause death (180 days) and recurrent hospital stay (30 days). Median CysC levels were 1.49 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.20 to 1.96) mg/l at baseline, 1.56 (IQR: 1.28 to 2.13) mg/l at 48 to 72 h, and 1.58 (IQR: 1.24 to 2.11) mg/l at 30 days. Higher baseline (but not follow-up) CysC levels were associated with increased risk of 30-day adverse events and less improvement in dyspnea after 24 h as well as 180-day mortality, although not incremental to blood urea nitrogen. Worsening renal function (defined as a 0.3 mg/l increase in CysC) occurred in 161 of 701 (23%) patients, but it was not predictive of adverse events. Changes in CysC levels were similar between the nesiritide and placebo groups. Our findings confirmed the prognostic value of baseline CysC levels in the setting of ADHF. However, worsening renal function based on CysC rise was not predictive of adverse events. Nesiritide did not worsen renal function compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple sources of positive- and negative-priming effects: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning; Rammsayer, Thomas H; Stahl, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential correlates of positive priming (PP) and negative priming (NP) were investigated in order to further elucidate the cognitive mechanisms involved. Thirty-six participants performed both an identity- and a location-based priming task. Repeating the target stimulus/location from the immediately preceding display produced behavioral PP. With localization, but not with identification, behavioral NP was observed when the target stimulus/location matched the preceding distractor stimulus/location. Smaller P300 amplitude accompanied identity-based PP, suggesting persisting target-specific activation. The lateralized readiness potential, an index of correct/incorrect response activation, indicated persisting central motor activation as another source of PP. Both location-based PP and NP were accompanied by reduced P1/N1 and P300 amplitudes, pointing to the involvement of inhibition of return in location-based priming. The results support the view that multiple brain processes underlie behavioral priming.

  10. An Effective Semantic Event Matching System in the Internet of Things (IoT) Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhakbani, Noura; Hassan, Mohammed Mehedi; Ykhlef, Mourad

    2017-09-02

    IoT sensors use the publish/subscribe model for communication to benefit from its decoupled nature with respect to space, time, and synchronization. Because of the heterogeneity of communicating parties, semantic decoupling is added as a fourth dimension. The added semantic decoupling complicates the matching process and reduces its efficiency. Our proposed algorithm clusters subscriptions and events according to topic and performs the matching process within these clusters, which increases the throughput by reducing the matching time from the range of 16-18 ms to 2-4 ms. Moreover, the accuracy of matching is improved when subscriptions must be fully approximated, as demonstrated by an over 40% increase in F-score results. This work shows the benefit of clustering, as well as the improvement in the matching accuracy and efficiency achieved using this approach.

  11. Intratumoral Immunocytokine Treatment Results in Enhanced Antitumor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik E.; Lum, Hillary D.; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L.; Schmidt, Brian E.; Furlong, Meghan; Buhtoiarov, Ilia N.; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Colcher, David; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Sondel, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Immunocytokines (IC), consisting of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies fused to the immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), exert significant antitumor effects in several murine tumor models. We investigated whether intratumoral (IT) administration of IC provided enhanced antitumor effects against subcutaneous tumors. Three unique ICs (huKS-IL2, hu14.18-IL2, and GcT84.66-IL2) were administered systemically or IT to evaluate their antitumor effects against tumors expressing the appropriate IC-targeted tumor antigens. The effect of IT injection of the primary tumor on a distant tumor was also evaluated. Here, we show that IT injection of IC resulted in enhanced antitumor effects against B16-KSA melanoma, NXS2 neuroblastoma, and human M21 melanoma xenografts when compared to intravenous (IV) IC injection. Resolution of both primary and distant subcutaneous tumors, and a tumor-specific memory response were demonstrated following IT treatment in immunocompetent mice bearing NXS2 tumors. The IT effect of huKS-IL2 IC was antigen-specific, enhanced compared to IL2 alone, and dose-dependent. Hu14.18-IL2 also showed greater IT effects than IL2 alone. The antitumor effect of IT IC did not always require T cells since IT IC induced antitumor effects against tumors in both SCID and nude mice. Localization studies using radiolabeled 111In-GcT84.66-IL2 IC confirmed that IT injection resulted in a higher concentration of IC at the tumor site than IV administration. In conclusion, we suggest that IT IC is more effective than IV administration against palpable tumors. Further testing is required to determine how to potentially incorporate IT administration of IC into an antitumor regimen that optimizes local and systemic anticancer therapy. PMID:18438664

  12. Building an evaluative culture for effective evaluation and results management

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, John

    2008-01-01

    A weak evaluative culture undermines many attempts at building an effective evaluation and results management regime. This brief outlines practical actions that an organization can take to build and support an evaluative culture, where information on performance is deliberately sought in order to learn how to better manage and deliver programmes and services. Such an organization values empirical evidence on the results it is seeking to achieve.

  13. An examination of the differential effects of the experience of DSM-IV defined traumatic events and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Steven L; Melka, Stephen E; Rodriguez, Benjamin F

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals exposed to traumatic events report similar, if not lower, levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than individuals exposed to nontraumatic stressful life events [J. Anxiety Disord. 19 (2005) 687-698; Br. J. Psychiatry 186 (2005) 494-499]. The current study compared the level of self-reported PTSD symptoms in a large sample (n=668) of trauma and nontrauma exposed college students. Participants were assessed for past trauma history as well as current symptoms of PTSD, depression, social interaction anxiety, and current positive and negative affect. Results indicated that while those who had experienced a traumatic event reported statistically significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms, these differences were no longer clinically significant after other psychological distress factors were accounted for. Additional analyses suggested that those who had experienced events of an interpersonal nature had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms than those who had experienced other types of events.

  14. Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J; Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M; Bethel, M Angelyn; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Belenkov, Yuri; Boolell, Mitradev; Buse, John B; Buckley, Brendan M; Chacra, Antonio R; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Charbonnel, Bernard; Chow, Chun-Chung; Davies, Melanie J; Deedwania, Prakash; Diem, Peter; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian; Fulcher, Gregory R; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gaztambide, Sonia; Giles, Thomas; Horton, Edward; Ilkova, Hasan; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E; Krum, Henry; Laakso, Markku; Leiter, Lawrence A; Levitt, Naomi S; Mareev, Viacheslav; Martinez, Felipe; Masson, Chantal; Mazzone, Theodore; Meaney, Eduardo; Nesto, Richard; Pan, Changyu; Prager, Rudolf; Raptis, Sotirios A; Rutten, Guy E H M; Sandstroem, Herbert; Schaper, Frank; Scheen, Andre; Schmitz, Ole; Sinay, Isaac; Soska, Vladimir; Stender, Steen; Tamás, Gyula; Tognoni, Gianni; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Villamil, Alberto S; Vozár, Juraj; Califf, Robert M

    2010-04-22

    It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 33.1% in the valsartan group, as compared with 36.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.92; P<0.001). Valsartan, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of either the extended cardiovascular outcome (14.5% vs. 14.8%; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.43) or the core cardiovascular outcome (8.1% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14; P=0.85). Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease or risk factors, the use of valsartan for 5 years, along with lifestyle modification, led to a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of diabetes but did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  15. Microbial Quality of Tropical Inland Waters and Effects of Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Raymond L.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel E.; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Novel markers of fecal pollution in tropical waters are needed since conventional methods recommended for other geographical regions may not apply. To address this, the prevalence of thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, coliphages, and enterophages was determined by culture methods across a watershed. Additionally, human-, chicken-, and cattle-specific PCR assays were used to identify potential fecal pollution sources in this watershed. An enterococcus quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was tested and correlated with culture methods at three sites since water quality guidelines could incorporate this technique as a rapid detection method. Various rainfall events reported before sample collection at three sites were considered in the data analyses. Thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, coliphages, and enterophages were detected across the watershed. Human-specific Bacteroides bacteria, unlike the cattle- and chicken-specific bacteria, were detected mostly at sites with the corresponding fecal impact. Enterococci were detected by qPCR as well, but positive correlations with the culture method were noted at two sites, suggesting that either technique could be used. However, no positive correlations were noted for an inland lake tested, suggesting that qPCR may not be suitable for all water bodies. Concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms and bacteriophages were consistently lower after rainfall events, pointing to a possible dilution effect. Rainfall positively correlated with enterococci detected by culturing and qPCR, but this was not the case for the inland lake. The toolbox of methods and correlations presented here could be potentially applied to assess the microbial quality of various water types. PMID:22610428

  16. Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou Ming Dong; LiuJie; Wang Zhi Guang; Jin Yun Fan; Zhu Zhi Yong; Zhen Hong Lou; Liu Chang Long; Chen Xiao Xi; Wei Xin Guo; Zhang Li; Fan You Cheng; Zhu Zhou Rong; Zhang Yiting

    2002-01-01

    Single event effects induced by 15.14 MeV/u sup 1 sup 3 sup 6 Xe ions in different batches of 32k x 8 bits static random access memory are studied. The incident angle dependences of the cross sections for single event upset and single event latch up are presented. The SEE cross sections are plotted versus energy loss instead of linear energy transfer value in sensitive region. The depth of sensitive volume and thickness of 'dead' layer above the sensitive volume are estimated

  17. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  18. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  19. Anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms: A conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Worsley, Lyn; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-10-01

    Resilience has provided a useful framework that elucidates the effects of protective factors to overcome psychological adversities but studies that address the potential contingencies of resilience to protect against direct and indirect negative effects are lacking. These obvious gaps have also resulted in oversimplification of complex processes that can be clarified by moderated mediation associations. This study examines a conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience against indirect effects. Two separate samples were recruited in a cross-sectional survey from Australia and Norway to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire -9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Stressful Negative Life Events Questionnaire and the Resilience Scale for Adults. The final sample sizes were 206 (females=114; males=91; other=1) and 210 (females=155; males=55) for Australia and Norway respectively. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted across the samples. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms in both samples. Conditional indirect effects of exposure to stressful negative life events on depressive symptoms mediated by anxiety symptoms showed that high subgroup of resilience was associated with less effect of exposure to stressful negative life events through anxiety symptoms on depressive symptoms than the low subgroup of resilience. As a cross-sectional survey, the present study does not answer questions about causal processes despite the use of a conditional process modelling. These findings support that, resilience protective resources can protect against both direct and indirect - through other channels - psychological adversities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological distress as a predictor of CHD events in men: the effect of persistence and components of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Amanda; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Marmot, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the role of psychological distress in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD), with particular reference to the persistence of distress symptoms, the contribution that undetected CHD at baseline makes to the observed associations and to the effect of separate components of psychological distress. 5449 men in an occupational cohort (79% of the total), with at least two prior measurements of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), were followed for CHD events (including CHD death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and angina) for (mean) 6.8 years. Psychological distress was measured using the GHQ-30, and general/anxiety, depression and sleep subscales were created based on a principal components analysis. Psychological distress increased the risk of CHD events, with the risk highest in men with recent onset of distress. Age-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.48 (1.03-2.13) for persistent and 1.77 (1.13-2.78) for new distress. Angina events accounted for much of the observed associations. This increased risk was independent of conventional CHD risk factors, markers of underlying CHD, or measures of reporting bias, and it was related to anxiety items and sleep disturbance rather than depressive symptoms. Psychological distress increases the risk of a future diagnosis of angina in men. This risk is not accounted for by the presence of underlying CHD. These results highlight the importance of identifying both the role of underlying atherosclerosis in the pathway linking distress to heart disease and the timing of action of the components of psychological distress.

  1. The effect of tides and storm surges on sediment transport during overwash events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselman, Daan; de Winter, Renske; Hoekstra, Piet; Oost, Albert; McCall, Robert; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2017-04-01

    Storm events generally result in elevated water levels at the meso-tidal Wadden Sea coast, the Netherlands. This can lead to overwash and inundation of parts of the barrier islands. Currently, large parts of the Dutch barriers are closed off by artificial dunes which prevent overwash during storms. In view of future sea-level rise measures to heighten the hinterland of the barriers island are investigated. A hypothesis is that on the long term the cross-shore sediment transport, caused by overwash and inundation events, can contribute to the vertical accretion of the barriers. Therefore, the partial re-opening of the dunes on the barrier island is considered by the Dutch management authorities. We identify the dominant cross-shore hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes during an overwash event to study the potential long-term sediment transport. In addition, we focus on the role of the back-barrier basin on overwash dynamics. An XBeach model was set-up and validated against field data collected during overwash on East-Schiermonnikoog, a non-vegetated tip of a barrier island. The simulated wave heights, periods, water levels and flow velocities agree well with the field data. With the validated XBeach model, simulations are executed for a wide variety of storm and tidal characteristics. From the model simulations we conclude that: (1) The erosion and transport of sediment across the beach crest is mainly driven by the cross-shore currents. Infragravity waves and short waves are less important for the sediment transport over the barrier island. (2) Maximum onshore transport occurs during more gentle storms (storm surge level of 1.5-2.0 m) instead of severe storms (storm surge level of 2.5-3.0 m). (3) For mixed-energy, meso-tidal barrier systems like the Wadden Sea, the dynamics of the back-barrier basin have to be taken into account. Water level gradients across the barrier island are strongly influenced by the tidal phase propagation and the difference in

  2. Effects of monitoring for visual events on distinct components of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Christian H; Petersen, Anders; Bundesen, Claus; Schneider, Werner X

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the environment for visual events while performing a concurrent task requires adjustment of visual processing priorities. By use of Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention, we investigated how monitoring for an object-based brief event affected distinct components of visual attention in a concurrent task. The perceptual salience of the event was varied. Monitoring reduced the processing speed in the concurrent task, and the reduction was stronger when the event was less salient. The monitoring task neither affected the temporal threshold of conscious perception nor the storage capacity of visual short-term memory nor the efficiency of top-down controlled attentional selection.

  3. Effects of monitoring for visual events on distinct components of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the environment for visual events while performing a concurrent task requires adjustment of visual processing priorities. By use of Bundesen's (1990 Theory of Visual Attention (TVA, we investigated how monitoring for an object-based brief event affected distinct components of visual attention in a concurrent task. The perceptual salience of the event was varied. Monitoring reduced the processing speed in the concurrent task, and the reduction was stronger when the event was less salient. The monitoring task neither affected the temporal threshold of conscious perception nor the storage capacity of visual short-term memory nor the efficiency of top-down controlled attentional selection.

  4. Aging memory for pictures: using high-density event-related potentials to understand the effect of aging on the picture superiority effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Brandon A; Waring, Jill D; Beth, Ellen H; McKeever, Joshua D; Milberg, William P; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-01-31

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults.

  5. Effects of oxazepam on affective perception, recognition, and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Gospic, Katarina; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Wiens, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about how rapid electrocortical responses (event-related potentials; ERPs) to affective pictures are modulated by benzodiazepine agonists. The present study investigated effects of oxazepam (20 mg p.o.) on behavioral measures and ERPs associated with affective picture processing during perception and recognition memory retrieval. Forty-three healthy young adults were given oxazepam or placebo treatment under a double-blind experimental procedure. Affective pictures (negatively arousing or neutral) elicited ERP responses and participants rated pictures for emotionality (during incidental encoding) and recognition. Oxazepam did not affect perceptual (P1, P2) or emotional (early posterior negativity and late parietal positivity) ERPs or ratings during perception. However, oxazepam impaired recognition performance and decreased positive mid-frontal ERP component at 420-450 ms for old vs. new pictures. The memory impairment was retained at the delayed memory test. Oxazepam does not selectively influence electrocortical or perceptual indexes of emotional perception or emotional memory. Rather, it blocks memory consolidation independent of valence category. These findings indicate that ERPs can be of use in assessing effects of benzodiazepines on memory-related processes.

  6. Event-related potential correlates of serial-position effects during an elaborative memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J; Johnstone, Stuart S

    2002-10-01

    Twenty undergraduate students participated in an elaborative learning test to evaluate the relationship between electrical brain activity and subsequently recalled and not-recalled words. Data collected from the midline (Fz, Cz, Pz) and lateral scalp sites (F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4) were analysed. The difference between event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by subsequently recalled and not-recalled words, the ERP memory effect, was evaluated for each portion (primacy, plateau and recency) of the serial-position curve (SPC). We compared peak amplitudes for the P1, N1, P2, N400, P3 and frontal positive slow wave (FPSW) components. The electrophysiological data support the hypothesis that different mechanisms underlie primacy and recency effects during free recall paradigms. There was no support for the hypothesis that an association arises between memory and the FPSW when subjects utilise elaborative learning strategies. The P2 component predicted subsequent recall at the primacy portion of the SPC, and P1 predicted recall at the primacy and plateau portions of the curve. The findings suggest that the early positive components of the ERP (i.e. P1 and P2) are useful indices of the differential stimulus processing during elaborative learning which predicts later recall. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. [Differential effects of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes in event-related potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Osorio Forero, Alejandro; Quintero Giraldo, Lina Paola; Parra Sánchez, José Hernán; Varela, Vilma; Restrepo, Francia

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the neurophysiological substrates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a study was performed on of event-related potentials (ERPs) in Colombian patients with inattentive and combined ADHD. A case-control, cross-sectional study was designed. The sample was composed of 180 subjects between 5 and 15 years of age (mean, 9.25±2.6), from local schools in Manizales. The sample was divided equally in ADHD or control groups and the subjects were paired by age and gender. The diagnosis was made using the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Conners and WISC-III test, a psychiatric interview (MINIKID), and a medical evaluation. ERPs were recorded in a visual and auditory passive oddball paradigm. Latency and amplitude of N100, N200 and P300 components for common and rare stimuli were used for statistical comparisons. ADHD subjects show differences in the N200 amplitude and P300 latency in the auditory task. The N200 amplitude was reduced in response to visual stimuli. ADHD subjects with combined symptoms show a delayed P300 in response to auditory stimuli, whereas inattentive subjects exhibited differences in the amplitude of N100 and N200. Combined ADHD patients showed longer N100 latency and smaller N200-P300 amplitude compared to inattentive ADHD subjects. The results show differences in the event-related potentials between combined and inattentive ADHD subjects. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. [The development and effects of an integrated symptom management program for prevention of recurrent cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop and to determine the effects of an integrated symptom management program for prevention of recurrent cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention. Subjects consisted of 58 CAD patients (experimental group: 30, control group: 28). The experimental group participated in an integrated symptom management program for 6 months which was composed of tailored education, stress management, exercise, diet, deep breathing, music therapy, periodical telephone monitoring and a daily log. The control group received the usual care. The experimental group significantly decreased symptom experiences and the level of LDL compared to the control group. The experimental group significantly increased self care activity and quality of life compared to the control group. Although no significant difference was found in cardiac recurrence, the experimental group had fewer recurrences. These results suggest that an integrated symptom management program for prevention of recurrent cardiac events after percutaneous coronary intervention can improve symptom aggravation, recurrent rate, self care activity and quality of life. Nursing interventions are needed to maintain and further enhance the quality of life of these patients and the interventions should be implemented in the overall transition period.

  9. Effect of explicit urban land surface representation on the simulation of the 26 July 2005 heavy rain event over Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether explicit representation of the urban land surface improves the simulation of the record-breaking 24-h heavy rain event that occurred over Mumbai, India on 26 July 2005 as the event has been poorly simulated by operational weather forecasting models. We conducted experiments using the Regional Atmosphere modeling system (RAMS 4.3, coupled with and without explicit urban energy balance model-town energy budget (TEB to study the role of urban land – atmosphere interactions in modulating the heavy rain event over the Indian monsoon region. The impact of including an explicit urban energy balance on surface thermodynamic, boundary layer, and circulation changes are analyzed. The results indicate that even for this synoptically active rainfall event, the vertical wind and precipitation are significantly influenced by heterogeneity in surface temperatures due to urbanization, and the effect is more significant during the storm initiation. Interestingly, precipitation in the upwind region of Mumbai city is increased in the simulation, possibly as a feedback from the sea breeze – urban landscape convergence. We find that even with the active monsoon, the representation of urbanization contributes to local heavy precipitation and mesoscale precipitation distribution over the Indian monsoon region. Additional experiments within a statistical dynamical framework show that an urban model by itself is not the dominant factor for the enhanced rainfall for a Mumbai heavy rain event; the combination of updated SST fields using Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM data with the detailed representation of urban effects simulated by the TEB model created realistic gradients that successfully maintained the convergence zone over Mumbai. Further research will require more detailed morphology data for simulating weather events in such urban regions. The results suggest that urbanization can significantly contribute to extremes in

  10. Monetary incentive effects on event-based prospective memory three months after traumatic brain injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; Pedroza, Claudia; Chapman, Sandra B; Cook, Lori G; Vásquez, Ana C; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-07-01

    Information regarding the remediation of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is scarce. Addressing this, two levels of monetary incentives were used to improve EB-PM in children ages 7 to 16 years with orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 51), or moderate (n = 25) and severe (n = 39) TBI at approximately 3 months postinjury. The EB-PM task consisted of the child giving a specific verbal response to a verbal cue from the examiner while performing a battery of neuropsychological measures (ongoing task). Significant effects were found for age-at-test, motivation condition, period, and group. Within-group analyses indicated that OI and moderate TBI groups performed significantly better under the high- than under the low-incentive condition, but the severe TBI group demonstrated no significant improvement. These results indicate that EB-PM can be significantly improved at 3 months postinjury in children with moderate, but not severe, TBI.

  11. Extreme event archived in the geological record of the Japan Trench: New results from R/V Sonne Cruise SO-251 towards establishing J-TRACK paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Kopf, Achim; Kanamatsu, Toshyia; Moernaut, Jasper; Ikehara, Ken; McHugh, Cecila

    2017-04-01

    Our perspective of subduction zonés earthquake magnitude and recurrence is limited by short historical records. Examining prehistoric extreme events preserved in the geological record is essential towards understanding large earthquakes and assessing the geohazard potential associated with such rare events. The research field of "subaquatic paleoseismology" is a promising approach to investigate deposits from the deep sea, where earthquakes leave traces preserved in stratigraphic succession. However, at present we lack comprehensive data set that allow conclusive distinctions between quality and completeness of the paleoseismic archives as they may relate to different sediment transport, erosion and deposition processes vs. variability of intrinsic seismogenic behavior across different segments. Initially building on what sedimentary deposits were generated from the 2011 Magnitude 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the Japan Trench is a promising study area to investigate earthquake-triggered sediment remobilization processes and how they become embedded in the stratigraphic record. Here we present new results from the recent R/V Sonne expedition SO251 that acquired a complete high-resolution bathymetric map of the trench axis and nearly 2000 km of subbottom Parasound profiles, covering the entire along-strike extent of the Japan Trench from 36° to 40.3° N, and groundtruthed by several nearly 10m long piston cores retrieved from the very deep waters (7 to 8 km below sea level): Several smaller submarine landslide (up to several 100's m of lateral extent) can be identified along the trench axis in the new bathymetric data set. These features were either not yet present, or not resolved in the lower-resolution bathymetric dataset acquired before 2011. Sub-bottom acoustic reflection data reveals striking, up to several meter thick, acoustically transparent bodies interbedded in the otherwise parallel reflection pattern of the trench fill basins, providing a temporal and

  12. The effect of query complexity on Web searching results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Jansen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study of the effects of query structure on retrieval by Web search services. Fifteen queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service in simple query form with no advanced operators (e.g., Boolean operators, phrase operators, etc. and submitted to 5 major search engines - Alta Vista, Excite, FAST Search, Infoseek, and Northern Light. The results from these queries became the baseline data. The original 15 queries were then modified using the various search operators supported by each of the 5 search engines for a total of 210 queries. Each of these 210 queries was also submitted to the applicable search service. The results obtained were then compared to the baseline results. A total of 2,768 search results were returned by the set of all queries. In general, increasing the complexity of the queries had little effect on the results with a greater than 70% overlap in results, on average. Implications for the design of Web search services and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Effect of sample stratification on dairy GWAS results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination and genetic selection are major factors contributing to population stratification in dairy cattle. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sample stratification and the effect of stratification correction on results of a dairy genome-wide association study (GWAS. Three methods for stratification correction were used: the efficient mixed-model association expedited (EMMAX method accounting for correlation among all individuals, a generalized least squares (GLS method based on half-sib intraclass correlation, and a principal component analysis (PCA approach. Results Historical pedigree data revealed that the 1,654 contemporary cows in the GWAS were all related when traced through approximately 10–15 generations of ancestors. Genome and phenotype stratifications had a striking overlap with the half-sib structure. A large elite half-sib family of cows contributed to the detection of favorable alleles that had low frequencies in the general population and high frequencies in the elite cows and contributed to the detection of X chromosome effects. All three methods for stratification correction reduced the number of significant effects. EMMAX method had the most severe reduction in the number of significant effects, and the PCA method using 20 principal components and GLS had similar significance levels. Removal of the elite cows from the analysis without using stratification correction removed many effects that were also removed by the three methods for stratification correction, indicating that stratification correction could have removed some true effects due to the elite cows. SNP effects with good consensus between different methods and effect size distributions from USDA’s Holstein genomic evaluation included the DGAT1-NIBP region of BTA14 for production traits, a SNP 45kb upstream from PIGY on BTA6 and two SNPs in NIBP on BTA14 for protein percentage. However, most of these consensus effects had

  14. High-rate GPS results for the April 2012 Sumatra earthquake sequence, an unusual, complex, and very large intraplate strike-slip event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E. M.; Hermawan, I.; Lay, T.; Yue, H.; Banerjee, P.; Qiu, Q.; Macpherson, K. A.; Feng, L.; Tsang, L. L.; Lubis, A.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    The 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra earthquake was one of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded, and also one of the largest intraplate earthquakes. It was followed 2 hours later by another great earthquake, of Mw 8.2, in a similar location. The events occurred ~400 km from northern Sumatra, on the oceanic side of the Sunda megathrust. The event was recorded by high-rate GPS stations from our 50-station Sumatra GPS Array (SuGAr). We will present the coseismic displacements and constraints on slip obtained from this network. The location of the events is very interesting. Scientists have long been puzzled by the nature and location of the boundary between the Indian and Australian plates in the depths of the Indian Ocean. Because of the resistance provided by the collision of India with Tibet far to the north, the Indian plate is moving relatively northwards at about 1 cm/yr slower than the Australian plate; this difference in velocity causes strain between the Indian and Australian plates. These earthquakes provide important new evidence that this strain is reactivating a system of faults on the seafloor that were inherited from an older geological epoch, and bring up questions about why this deformation appears to be diffuse, rather than behaving as a proper plate boundary. The events also highlight a back-and-forth interaction between the intraplate faults and the Sunda megathrust; the 2004 megathrust event brought these earthquakes ahead in time, but these earthquakes will in turn have stressed the megathrust. Published seismological results have indicated great complexity in the rupture patterns for these events, with a cascading failure of multiple conjugate faults. Surprisingly, the majority of slip seems to have occurred on the WNW-trending, right-lateral faults, rather than the NNE-trending left-lateral faults that are prominent features of the seafloor. The seismological results also show that the ruptures are likely to have extended from the

  15. The effect of sporting events on emergency department attendance rates in a district general hospital in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, A; Millar, L; Murphy, B; Davison, G W; Brown, R; O'Donnell, M E

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have reported a conflicting relationship between the effect of live and televised sporting events on attendance rates to emergency departments (ED). The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship of major sporting events on emergency department attendance rates and to determine the potential effects of such events on service provision. A retrospective analysis of ED attendances to a district general hospital (DGH) and subsequent admissions over a 24-h period following live and televised sporting activities was performed over a 5-year period. Data were compiled from the hospital's emergency record books including the number of attendances, patient demographics, clinical complaint and outcome. Review patients were excluded. Analysis of sporting events was compiled for live local, regional and national events as well as world-wide televised sporting broadcasts. A total of 137,668 (80,445 men) patients attended from April 2002 to July 2007. Mean attendance rate per day was 80 patients (men = 47). Mean admission rate was 13.6 patients per day. Major sporting events during the study period included; Soccer: 4 FA Cup and 1 World Cup (WC) finals; Rugby: 47 Six Nations, 25 Six nations games involving Ireland, 1 WC final, 2 WC semi-finals, 2 WC quarter-finals and 4 WC games involving Ireland; and Gaelic Football [Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)]: 5 All-Ireland finals, 11 semi-finals, 11 quarter-finals and 5 provincial finals. There was a significantly higher patient admission rate during the soccer FA Cup final, Rugby Six Nations and games involving Ireland and for GAA semi- and quarter-final games (p = 0.001-0.01). There was no difference identified in total attendance or non-admission rates for sporting events throughout the study period. Although there was no correlation identified between any of these sporting events and total emergency department attendances (r 0.07), multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that FA Cup final (p

  16. Effect of nateglinide on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M; McMurray, John J

    2010-01-01

    The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown.......The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown....

  17. Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John J; Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.......It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance....

  18. Results from the temporary installation of a small aperture seismic arrayin the Central Apenninesand its merits for local event detectionand location capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boschi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the detection and localisation improvement of a small aperture array in the Northern Apennines, we installed an irregularly spaced test configuration in the vicinity of Città di Castello (CDC for a period of two weeks. The experimental array consisted of nine 3-component stations with inter-station distances between 150 m and 2200 m. Seismic data were digitised at 125 Hz and telemetered to a mobile acquisition, processing and storage centre. The data could only be recorded in trigger mode. The peculiarity of the test array installation was the exclusive use of 3-component sensors at all array sites, which also allowed beamforming for S-phases on the horizontal components. Since the altitudes of the single array sites differed considerably among each other, for f-k analysis and beamforming an elevation correction was included. During the two weeks of operation about 20 local earthquakes with magnitudes ML<2.6, 1 regional, and several teleseismic events were recorded. In addition to these events, the array occasionally triggered on coherent noise-signals generated by local industrial activity. The data analysis was performed by means of f-k analysis and beamforming, providing wavenumber characteristics of the incident plane wave. Typical apparent velocities were determined to be 4.8 km/s and 6 km/s for Pg-phases and ~10 km/s for Pn-phases. We observed local seismic events, which occurred just beneath the array. In these cases wavefronts with unusual high apparent velocities, similar to those found for the Pn-phase, were observed. Since no continuously recorded array data were available, we extrapolated the lower detection magnitude threshold as a result of the SNR improvement due to array beamforming. Compared to the actual detection threshold of MT ~1.6 reached by the national seismic network in this area, a nine element array would improve this value up to MT ~ 0.8.

  19. EFFECT OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE RESULTS OF DOLPHIN SWIMMING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Tošić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the impact of flexibility on the results in swimming, we conducted a study on a sample of 50 female patients aged 11-14 years of age who are in the training process in the swimming clubs „Nis 2005“ and „Sveti Nikola“ in Nis. The study is applied to 14 measuring instruments that were divided into three groups: Measuring instruments for the assessment of flexibility (11; Measuring instruments for assessing the results of swimming (1; Measuring instruments for evaluation of morphological characteristics (2. The regression analysis determined the impact of flexibility on the results in swimming. The regression analysis didn't confirmed the assumption that there is a statistically significant effect of flexibility variables on results in swimming for female swimmers

  20. Vegetation effects on impulsive events in the acoustic signature of fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedinak, Kara M; Anderson, Michael J; Apostol, Kent G; Smith, Alistair M S

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic impulse events have long been used as diagnostics for discrete phenomena in the natural world, including the detection of meteor impacts and volcanic eruptions. Wildland fires display an array of such acoustic impulse events in the form of crackling noises. Exploratory research into the properties of these impulse events revealed information regarding the specific properties of plant material. Unique acoustic frequency bands in the upper end of the sonic spectrum correlated to changes in vegetation properties. The signature of acoustic impulse events as they relate to plant species and plant water stress, were investigated in controlled laboratory combustion experiments. Correlation in the frequency range of 6.0-15.0 kHz was found for both species and water stress, indicating the possibility that a digital filter may be capable of identifying vegetation properties during wildland fire events.

  1. Synergistic effects of an extreme weather event and habitat fragmentation on a specialised insect herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, Katrien; Adriaens, Dries; Jacquemyn, Hans; Honnay, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the main causes of population decline and species extinction worldwide. Furthermore, habitat fragmentation can decrease the ability of populations to resist and to recover from environmental disturbances such as extreme weather events, which are expected to occur at an increasing rate as a result of climate change. In this study, we investigated how calcareous grassland fragmentation affected the impact of the climatically extreme summer of 2003 on egg deposition rates, population size variation and survival of the blue butterfly Cupido minimus, a specialist herbivore of Anthyllis vulneraria. Immediately after the 2003 summer heat wave, populations of the host plant declined in size; this was paralleled with decreases in population size of the herbivore and altered egg deposition rates. In 2006 at the end of the monitoring period, however, most A. vulneraria populations had recovered and only one population went extinct. In contrast, several butterfly populations had gone extinct between 2003 and 2006. Extinction probability was significantly related to initial population size, with small populations having a higher risk of extinction than large populations. These results support the prediction that species of higher trophic levels are more susceptible to extinction due to habitat fragmentation and severe disturbances.

  2. Observational learning: effects of bandwidth knowledge of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badets, A; Blandin, Y

    2005-05-01

    The authors investigated whether bandwidth knowledge of results (KR) during observation of a model's performance enhances motor skill learning. Following a pretest, 2 groups of participants (N = 28) observed a model practicing a timing task. The bandwidth group received KR about the model's performance only when his performance fell outside the criteria for a correct response. The yoked group received KR on the same trials as the bandwidth group did but were not told that the KR was only about incorrect performances. In that way, the authors avoided a confound between bandwidth and relative frequency effects on performance and learning. Following the observation phase, both groups of participants performed 10-min and 24-hr retention tests. Bandwidth KR enabled that group to reduce its performance variability and, to a lesser extent, to enhance its performance accuracy. The authors discuss the results with respect to the powerful effect of qualitative KR through observation.

  3. New results on strong-interaction effects in antiprotonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D; Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; El-Khoury, P; Egger, J P; Gorke, H; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    Lyman and Balmer transitions of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at the low-energy antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. The X-rays were detected using charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and a reflection type crystal spectrometer. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (33 refs).

  4. [ORION®: a simple and effective method for systemic analysis of clinical events and precursors occurring in hospital practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouck, F; Rieger, E; Petit, H; Noël, G; Ravinet, L

    2012-05-01

    Morbimortality review is now recommended by the French Health Authority (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]) in all hospital settings. It could be completed by Comités de retour d'expérience (CREX), making systemic analysis of event precursors which may potentially result in medical damage. As commonly captured by their current practice, medical teams may not favour systemic analysis of events occurring in their setting. They require an easy-to-use method, more or less intuitive and easy-to-learn. It is the reason why ORION(®) has been set up. ORION(®) is based on experience acquired in aeronautics which is the main precursor in risk management since aircraft crashes are considered as unacceptable even though the mortality from aircraft crashes is extremely low compared to the mortality from medical errors in hospital settings. The systemic analysis is divided in six steps: (i) collecting data, (ii) rebuilding the chronology of facts, (iii) identifying the gaps, (iv) identifying contributing and influential factors, (v) proposing actions to put in place, (vi) writing the analysis report. When identifying contributing and influential factors, four kinds of factors favouring the event are considered: technical domain, working environment, organisation and procedures, human factors. Although they are essentials, human factors are not always considered correctly. The systemic analysis is done by a pilot, chosen among people trained to use the method, querying information from all categories of people acting in the setting. ORION(®) is now used in more than 400 French hospital settings for systemic analysis of either morbimortality cases or event precursors. It is used, in particular, in 145 radiotherapy centres for supporting CREX. As very simple to use and quasi-intuitive, ORION(®) is an asset to reach the objectives defined by HAS: to set up effective morbi-mortality reviews (RMM) and CREX for improving the quality of care in hospital settings. By helping the

  5. Sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects during strategy execution: an event-related potential study in arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, Thomas; Dufau, Stéphane; Lemaire, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    When participants accomplish cognitive tasks, they obtain poorer performance if asked to execute a poorer strategy than a better strategy on a given problem. These poorer-strategy effects are smaller following execution of a poorer strategy relative to following a better strategy. To investigate ERP correlates of sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects, we asked participants (n=20) to accomplish a computational estimation task (i.e., provide approximate products to two-digit multiplication problems like 38×74). For each problem, they were cued to execute a better versus a poorer strategy. We found event-related potentials signatures of sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects in two crucial windows (i.e., between 200 and 550 ms and between 850 and 1250 ms) associated with executive control mechanisms and allowing conflict monitoring between the better and the cued strategy. These results have important implications on theories of strategies as they suggest that sequential modulations of poorer-strategy effects involve earlier as well as later mechanisms of cognitive control during strategy execution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE EFFECT OF PANSHARPENING ALGORITHMS ON THE RESULTING ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Agrafiotis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the geometric effects of pansharpening algorithms on automatically generated DSMs and thus on the resulting orthoimagery through a quantitative assessment of the accuracy on the end products. The main motivation was based on the fact that for automatically generated Digital Surface Models, an image correlation step is employed for extracting correspondences between the overlapping images. Thus their accuracy and reliability is strictly related to image quality, while pansharpening may result into lower image quality which may affect the DSM generation and the resulting orthoimage accuracy. To this direction, an iterative methodology was applied in order to combine the process described by Agrafiotis and Georgopoulos (2015 with different pansharpening algorithms and check the accuracy of orthoimagery resulting from pansharpened data. Results are thoroughly examined and statistically analysed. The overall evaluation indicated that the pansharpening process didn’t affect the geometric accuracy of the resulting DSM with a 10m interval, as well as the resulting orthoimagery. Although some residuals in the orthoimages were observed, their magnitude cannot adversely affect the accuracy of the final orthoimagery.

  7. SLC6A4 methylation modifies the effect of the number of traumatic events on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Karestan C; Uddin, Monica; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Aiello, Allison E; Wildman, Derek E; Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2011-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common and debilitating mental disorder that occurs following exposure to a traumatic event. However, most individuals do not develop PTSD following even a severe trauma, leading to a search for new variables, such as genetic and other molecular variation, associated with vulnerability and resilience in the face of trauma exposure. We examined whether serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter genotype and methylation status modified the association between number of traumatic events experienced and PTSD in a subset of 100 individuals from the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study. Number of traumatic events was strongly associated with risk of PTSD. Neither SLC6A4 genotype nor methylation status was associated with PTSD in main effects models. However, SLC6A4 methylation levels modified the effect of the number of traumatic events on PTSD after controlling for SLC6A4 genotype. Persons with more traumatic events were at increased risk for PTSD, but only at lower methylation levels. At higher methylation levels, individuals with more traumatic events were protected from this disorder. This interaction was observed whether the outcome was PTSD diagnosis, symptom severity, or number of symptoms. Gene-specific methylation patterns may offer potential molecular signatures of increased risk for and resilience to PTSD. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Negative life events and mental health of Chinese medical students: the effect of resilience, personality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jiajia; Li, Min; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xin; Miao, Yi; Xu, Ying

    2012-03-30

    The present study was conducted on a large sample of Chinese medical students to test the moderating effect of resilience between negative life events and mental health problems, and investigate the factors that affect the mental health problems of the students. The Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Eysenck Adult Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Social Support Rating Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Symptom Check List were adopted for a survey with 1,998 Chinese medical students as respondents. Mental health problems had a positive correlation with negative life events and neuroticism. On the other hand, mental health problems had a negative correlation with social support, extraversion, and resilience. Regression analysis showed that resilience moderated negative life events and mental health problems. Promoting resilience may be helpful for the adjustment of college students. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Hurricane Katrina and Other Adverse Life Events on Adolescent Female Offenders: A Test of General Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela R; Stein, Judith A; Schaefer-Rohleder, Lacey

    2010-11-01

    This study tested Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) by examining the roles of anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping in mediating the relationship between strain and three outcomes (serious delinquency, minor delinquency, and continued involvement in the juvenile justice system) among adolescent female offenders (N = 261). Strains consisted of adverse life events and exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Greater exposure to Hurricane Katrina was directly related to serious delinquency and maladaptive coping. Hurricane Katrina also had an indirect effect on minor delinquency and Post-Katrina juvenile justice involvement mediated through maladaptive coping. Adverse life events were associated with increased anger, anxiety, and maladaptive coping. Anger mediated the relationship between adverse life events and serious delinquency. Anxiety mediated the relationship between adverse life events and minor delinquency. Maladaptive coping strategies were associated with minor delinquency and juvenile justice involvement. Findings lend support to GST.

  10. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  11. Neurophysiological Effects of Meditation Based on Evoked and Event Related Potential Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nilkamal; Telles, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are a relatively noninvasive method to assess the integrity of sensory pathways. As the neural generators for most of the components are relatively well worked out, EPs have been used to understand the changes occurring during meditation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) yield useful information about the response to tasks, usually assessing attention. A brief review of the literature yielded eleven studies on EPs and seventeen on ERPs from 1978 to 2014. The EP studies covered short, mid, and long latency EPs, using both auditory and visual modalities. ERP studies reported the effects of meditation on tasks such as the auditory oddball paradigm, the attentional blink task, mismatched negativity, and affective picture viewing among others. Both EP and ERPs were recorded in several meditations detailed in the review. Maximum changes occurred in mid latency (auditory) EPs suggesting that maximum changes occur in the corresponding neural generators in the thalamus, thalamic radiations, and primary auditory cortical areas. ERP studies showed meditation can increase attention and enhance efficiency of brain resource allocation with greater emotional control. PMID:26137479

  12. Inverse effectiveness and multisensory interactions in visual event-related potentials with audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Bushmakin, Maxim; Kim, Sunah; Wallace, Mark T; Puce, Aina; James, Thomas W

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that neural responses previously considered to be unisensory can be modulated by sensory input from other modalities. In this regard, visual neural activity elicited to viewing a face is strongly influenced by concurrent incoming auditory information, particularly speech. Here, we applied an additive-factors paradigm aimed at quantifying the impact that auditory speech has on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to visual speech. These multisensory interactions were measured across parametrically varied stimulus salience, quantified in terms of signal to noise, to provide novel insights into the neural mechanisms of audiovisual speech perception. First, we measured a monotonic increase of the amplitude of the visual P1-N1-P2 ERP complex during a spoken-word recognition task with increases in stimulus salience. ERP component amplitudes varied directly with stimulus salience for visual, audiovisual, and summed unisensory recordings. Second, we measured changes in multisensory gain across salience levels. During audiovisual speech, the P1 and P1-N1 components exhibited less multisensory gain relative to the summed unisensory components with reduced salience, while N1-P2 amplitude exhibited greater multisensory gain as salience was reduced, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. The amplitude interactions were correlated with behavioral measures of multisensory gain across salience levels as measured by response times, suggesting that change in multisensory gain associated with unisensory salience modulations reflects an increased efficiency of visual speech processing.

  13. Radiation induced Single Event Effects in the ATLAS MDT-ASD front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C

    2002-01-01

    Single Event Effect (SEE) tests of the MDT-ASD, the ATLAS MDT front-end chip have been performed at the Harvard Cyclotron Lab. The MDT-ASD is an 8-channel drift tube read-out ASIC fabricated in a commercial 0.5um CMOS process (AMOS14TB). The chip contains a 53 bit register which holds the setup information and an associated shift register of the same length plus some additional control logic. 10 test devices were exposed to a 160 MeV proton beam with a fluence of 1.05E9 p.cm-2.s-1 up to >4.4E p.cm-2 per device. After a total fluence of 4.46E13 p.cm-2, 7 soft SEEs (non-permanent bit flips in the registers) and 0 hard/destructive SEE (e.g. latch-ups, SEL) had occurred. The simulated fluence for 10 years of LHC operation at nominal luminosity for worst case location MDT components is 2.67E11 h.cm-2. The rate of SEUs in the ASD setup register for all of ATLAS, derived from these numbers, is 2.4 per day. It is foreseen to update the active registers of the on-detector electronics at regular intervals. Depending on...

  14. Context effects on odor processing: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Joachim H; Wencker, Sonja; Ferstl, Roman; Pause, Bettina M

    2008-07-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of cognitive/emotional bias on central nervous odor processing. Forty-five female participants were divided into three groups and were either led to believe the odor was a natural, healthy extract (positive bias), potentially hazardous (negative bias), or a common test odorant (control). The odor (isobornyl acetate) was presented via a constant-flow olfactometer and the EEG was recorded from 60 scalp locations. In the negative bias condition, participants reported reduced well-being and judged the odor as less pleasant. However, neither the thresholds nor the intensity ratings were changed by the context condition. Chemosensory event-related potential (CSERP) analysis revealed that the latencies of the N1 and P2 components were prolonged in the negative bias condition and shortened in the positive bias condition. Current source densities were most prominent in the frontal lobe in negatively biased participants. The findings show that expecting to perceive an emotionally significant odor affects the early encoding of odors.

  15. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP) evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Wodniecka, Zofia; Tays, William; Alain, Claude; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  16. Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: effects on a healthy worker population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Lorraine C; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Bean, Judy A; Clark, Richard; Johnson, David; Wanner, Adam; Tamer, Robert; Zhou, Yue; Baden, Daniel G

    2005-05-01

    Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to examine the impact of inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins during red tide events on self-reported symptoms and pulmonary function. We recruited a group of 28 healthy lifeguards who are occupationally exposed to red tide toxins during their daily work-related activities. They performed spirometry tests and reported symptoms before and after their 8-hr shifts during a time when there was no red tide (unexposed period) and again when there was a red tide (exposed period). We also examined how mild exercise affected the reported symptoms and spirometry tests during unexposed and exposed periods with a subgroup of the same lifeguards. Environmental sampling (K. brevis cell concentrations in seawater and brevetoxin concentrations in seawater and air) was used to confirm unexposed/exposed status. Compared with unexposed periods, the group of lifeguards reported more upper respiratory symptoms during the exposed periods. We did not observe any impact of exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins, with or without mild exercise, on pulmonary function.

  17. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  18. Constraining the magnitude of the Chiral Magnetic Effect with Event Shape Engineering in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN } = 2.76 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Bratrud, L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. R.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dukhishyam, M.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.

    2018-02-01

    In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the event-by-event variation of the elliptic flow v2 reflects fluctuations in the shape of the initial state of the system. This allows to select events with the same centrality but different initial geometry. This selection technique, Event Shape Engineering, has been used in the analysis of charge-dependent two- and three-particle correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN } = 2.76 TeV. The two-particle correlator 〈 cos ⁡ (φα -φβ) 〉, calculated for different combinations of charges α and β, is almost independent of v2 (for a given centrality), while the three-particle correlator 〈 cos ⁡ (φα +φβ - 2Ψ2) 〉 scales almost linearly both with the event v2 and charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The charge dependence of the three-particle correlator is often interpreted as evidence for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME), a parity violating effect of the strong interaction. However, its measured dependence on v2 points to a large non-CME contribution to the correlator. Comparing the results with Monte Carlo calculations including a magnetic field due to the spectators, the upper limit of the CME signal contribution to the three-particle correlator in the 10-50% centrality interval is found to be 26-33% at 95% confidence level.

  19. Demographic effects of extreme weather events: snow storms, breeding success, and population growth rate in a long-lived Antarctic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Tarroux, Arnaud; Varpe, Øystein; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Tveraa, Torkild; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Weather extremes are one important element of ongoing climate change, but their impacts are poorly understood because they are, by definition, rare events. If the frequency and severity of extreme weather events increase, there is an urgent need to understand and predict the ecological consequences of such events. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of snow storms on nest survival in Antarctic petrels and assess whether snow storms are an important driver of annual breeding success and population growth rate. We used detailed data on daily individual nest survival in a year with frequent and heavy snow storms, and long term data on petrel productivity (i.e., number of chicks produced) at the colony level. Our results indicated that snow storms are an important determinant of nest survival and overall productivity. Snow storm events explained 30% of the daily nest survival within the 2011/2012 season and nearly 30% of the interannual variation in colony productivity in period 1985-2014. Snow storms are a key driver of Antarctic petrel breeding success, and potentially population dynamics. We also found state-dependent effects of snow storms and chicks in poor condition were more likely to die during a snow storm than chicks in good condition. This stresses the importance of considering interactions between individual heterogeneity and extreme weather events to understand both individual and population responses to climate change.

  20. Constraining the magnitude of the Chiral Magnetic Effect with Event Shape Engineering in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Acharya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the event-by-event variation of the elliptic flow v2 reflects fluctuations in the shape of the initial state of the system. This allows to select events with the same centrality but different initial geometry. This selection technique, Event Shape Engineering, has been used in the analysis of charge-dependent two- and three-particle correlations in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV. The two-particle correlator 〈cos⁡(φα−φβ〉, calculated for different combinations of charges α and β, is almost independent of v2 (for a given centrality, while the three-particle correlator 〈cos⁡(φα+φβ−2Ψ2〉 scales almost linearly both with the event v2 and charged-particle pseudorapidity density. The charge dependence of the three-particle correlator is often interpreted as evidence for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME, a parity violating effect of the strong interaction. However, its measured dependence on v2 points to a large non-CME contribution to the correlator. Comparing the results with Monte Carlo calculations including a magnetic field due to the spectators, the upper limit of the CME signal contribution to the three-particle correlator in the 10–50% centrality interval is found to be 26–33% at 95% confidence level.

  1. Long-term effects on nitrogen and benthic fauna of extreme weather events: Examples from two Swedish headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Grandin, Ulf; Stendera, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause an increased frequency of extreme events such as heavy floods and major storms. Such stochastic events have an immediate impact on surface water quality, but the long-term effects are largely unknown. In this study, we assess long-term monitoring data from two Swedish headwater catchments affected by extreme weather events. At one site, where nitrogen effects in soil water, groundwater, and stream water were studied after storm-felling and subsequent forest dieback from bark beetle attack, long-term (> 5 years) but relatively modest (generally extreme geophysical disturbances caused by rainstorm-induced flashflood, only short-term (1 year) effects were revealed both regarding diversity and composition of species.

  2. THE EFFECT OF DEVOTEE-BASED BRAND EQUITY ON RELIGIOUS EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD JAWAD IQBAL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to apply DBBE model to discover the constructs to measure the religious event as a business brand on the bases of devotees’ perception. SEM technique was applied to measure the hypothesized model of which CFA put to analyze the model and a theoretical model was made to measure the model fit. Sample size was of 500. The base of brand loyalty was affected directly by image and quality. This information might be beneficial to event management and sponsors in making brand and operating visitors’ destinations. More importantly, the brand of these religious events in Pakistan can be built as a strong tourism product.

  3. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  4. Effect of obesity on the effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization to reduce the risk of first and recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmia events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepietowska, Barbara; Polonsky, Bronislava; Sherazi, Saadia; Biton, Yitschak; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Aktas, Mehmet; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    2016-07-07

    Obesity is associated with multiple adverse cardiovascular conditions and may increase the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF). There is limited data on the association between obesity and risk of VT/VF requiring appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies and the effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) to reduce risk for VT/VF. The multicenter automatic defibrillator implantation trial with cardiac resynchronization therapy (MADIT-CRT) was design to investigate effectiveness of CRT therapy to reduce cardiovascular outcome for patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. We identified patients enrolled in the MADIT CRT trial as obese (n = 433) and non-obese (n = 845) and analyzed their risk for appropriate device therapy for VT/VF, repeated VT/VF events, fast VT/VF, as well as events after first VT/VF episodes. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Among ICD patients, the risk of first appropriate ICD therapy for VT/VF at 3 years was similar between obese and non-obese patients (23 vs. 21 %, p = 0.76). CRT-D treatment reduced the risk of first appropriate ICD therapy both in non-obese ([HR]; 0.58 [CI]: 0.42-0.79; p obese patients (HR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.5-1.38; p = 0.179) (interaction p value 0.323). Similarly, a significant reduction in the risk of fast VT/VF was observed in non-obese patients ([HR]; 0.49 [CI]: 0.33-0.73; p obese ([HR]; 0.49 [CI]: 0.29-0.81; p Obese and non-obese patients with mild heart failure have a similar risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Obesity in mild heart failure did not diminish the clinical benefit of cardiac resynchronization therapy to reduce risk for appropriate ICD therapy. Clinical trial registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00180271.

  5. Gluon contribution to the Sivers effect. COMPASS results on deuteron target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabelski Adam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sivers effect for gluons is connected to gluon orbital angular momentum which may be the missing part of the nucleon spin puzzle. We present a method of extraction of Sivers effect for gluons from COMPASS SIDIS data on transversely polarised target. In order to access the Sivers effect for gluons photon-gluon fusion (PGF process is used. To enhance the fraction of PGF in the sample high-pT hadron pair events are selected. The method is based on a assumption that there are 3 processes contributing to the muon-nucleon scattering: PGF, leading process and QCD Compton process. Then one performs a weighting procedure which enables to extract the asymmetries for the 3 contributing processes simultaneously. In order to do that a neural network trained by a Monte Carlo to assign to each event 3 probabilities corresponding to the 3 processes is needed. Finaly we show results of Sivers effect for gluons extraction on COMPASS data with transversely polarised deuteron target. APGFsinΦ2h–ΦS = −0.14 ± 0.15 (stat. at ‹XG› = 0.126.

  6. Effects of negative content on the processing of gender information: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Folgueiras, Uxía; Santaniello, Gerardo; López-Bachiller, Cristina; Sebastián, Manuel; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J; Pozo, Miguel A

    2014-12-01

    Previous research on emotion in language has mainly concerned the impact of emotional information on several aspects of lexico-semantic analyses of single words. However, affective influences on morphosyntactic processing are less understood. In the present study, we focused on the impact of negative valence in the processing of gender agreement relations. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read three-word phrases and performed a syntactic judgment task. Negative and neutral adjectives could agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. At an electrophysiological level, the amplitude of a left anterior negativity (LAN) to gender agreement mismatches decreased in negative words, relative to neutral words. The behavioral data suggested that LAN amplitudes might be indexing the processing costs associated with the detection of gender agreement errors, since the detection of gender mismatches resulted in faster and more accurate responses than did the detection of correct gender agreement relations. According to this view, it seems that negative content facilitated the processes implicated in the early detection of gender agreement mismatches. However, gender agreement violations in negative words triggered processes involved in the reanalysis and repair of the syntactic structure, as reflected in larger P600 amplitudes to incorrect than to correct phrases, irrespective of their emotional valence.

  7. Mathematical anxiety effects on simple arithmetic processing efficiency: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, M; Núñez-Peña, M I; Colomé, A

    2013-12-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials to investigate the difficulties that high math anxious individuals face when processing dramatically incorrect solutions to simple arithmetical problems. To this end, thirteen high math-anxious (HMA) and thirteen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with simple addition problems in a verification task. The proposed solution could be correct, incorrect but very close to the correct one (small-split), or dramatically incorrect (large-split). The two groups did not differ in mathematical ability or trait anxiety. We reproduced previous results for flawed scores suggesting HMA difficulties in processing large-split solutions. Moreover, large-split solutions elicited a late positive component (P600/P3b) which was more enhanced and delayed in the HMA group. Our study proposes that the pattern of flawed scores found by previous studies (and that we replicate) has to do with HMA individuals'difficulties in inhibiting an extended processing of irrelevant information (large-split solutions). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Erroneous cardiac ECG-gated PET list-mode trigger events can be retrospectively identified and replaced by an offline reprocessing approach: first results in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Guido; Todica, Andrei; Vai, Alessandro; Lehner, Sebastian; Xiong, Guoming; Mille, Erik; Ilhan, Harun; la Fougère, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    The assessment of left ventricular function, wall motion and myocardial viability using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is widely accepted in human and in preclinical small animal studies. The nonterminal and noninvasive approach permits repeated in vivo evaluations of the same animal, facilitating the assessment of temporal changes in disease or therapy response. Although well established, gated small animal PET studies can contain erroneous gating information, which may yield to blurred images and false estimation of functional parameters. In this work, we present quantitative and visual quality control (QC) methods to evaluate the accuracy of trigger events in PET list-mode and physiological data. Left ventricular functional analysis is performed to quantify the effect of gating errors on the end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and on the ejection fraction (EF). We aim to recover the cardiac functional parameters by the application of the commonly established heart rate filter approach using fixed ranges based on a standardized population. In addition, we propose a fully reprocessing approach which retrospectively replaces the gating information of the PET list-mode file with appropriate list-mode decoding and encoding software. The signal of a simultaneously acquired ECG is processed using standard MATLAB vector functions, which can be individually adapted to reliably detect the R-peaks. Finally, the new trigger events are inserted into the PET list-mode file. A population of 30 mice with various health statuses was analyzed and standard cardiac parameters such as mean heart rate (119 ms ± 11.8 ms) and mean heart rate variability (1.7 ms ± 3.4 ms) derived. These standard parameter ranges were taken into account in the QC methods to select a group of nine optimal gated and a group of eight sub-optimal gated [18F]-FDG PET scans of mice from our archive. From the list-mode files of the optimal gated group, we

  9. The Effect of the Japan 2011 Disaster on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Stocks Worldwide: An Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferstl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This event study investigates the impact of the Japanese nuclear disaster in Fukushima-Daiichi on the daily stock prices of French, German, Japanese, and U.S. nuclear utility and alternative energy firms. Hypotheses regarding the (cumulative abnormal returns based on a three-factor model are analyzed through joint tests by multivariate regression models and bootstrapping. Our results show significant abnormal returns for Japanese nuclear utility firms during the one-week event window and the subsequent four-week post-event window. Furthermore, while French and German nuclear utility and alternative energy stocks exhibit significant abnormal returns during the event window, we cannot confirm abnormal returns for U.S. stocks.

  10. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Germany using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartz Susanne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cost-effectiveness studies of cholinesterase inhibitors have modeled Alzheimer's disease (AD progression and treatment effects through single or global severity measures, or progression to "Full Time Care". This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of donepezil versus memantine or no treatment in Germany by considering correlated changes in cognition, behavior and function. Methods Rates of change were modeled using trial and registry-based patient level data. A discrete event simulation projected outcomes for three identical patient groups: donepezil 10 mg, memantine 20 mg and no therapy. Patient mix, mortality and costs were developed using Germany-specific sources. Results Treatment of patients with mild to moderately severe AD with donepezil compared to no treatment was associated with 0.13 QALYs gained per patient, and 0.01 QALYs gained per caregiver and resulted in average savings of €7,007 and €9,893 per patient from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. In patients with moderate to moderately-severe AD, donepezil compared to memantine resulted in QALY gains averaging 0.01 per patient, and savings averaging €1,960 and €2,825 from the healthcare system and societal perspective, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, donepezil dominated no treatment in most replications and memantine in over 70% of the replications. Donepezil leads to savings in 95% of replications versus memantine. Conclusions Donepezil is highly cost-effective in patients with AD in Germany, leading to improvements in health outcomes and substantial savings compared to no treatment. This holds across a variety of sensitivity analyses.

  11. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Germany using discrete event simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous cost-effectiveness studies of cholinesterase inhibitors have modeled Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and treatment effects through single or global severity measures, or progression to "Full Time Care". This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of donepezil versus memantine or no treatment in Germany by considering correlated changes in cognition, behavior and function. Methods Rates of change were modeled using trial and registry-based patient level data. A discrete event simulation projected outcomes for three identical patient groups: donepezil 10 mg, memantine 20 mg and no therapy. Patient mix, mortality and costs were developed using Germany-specific sources. Results Treatment of patients with mild to moderately severe AD with donepezil compared to no treatment was associated with 0.13 QALYs gained per patient, and 0.01 QALYs gained per caregiver and resulted in average savings of €7,007 and €9,893 per patient from the healthcare system and societal perspectives, respectively. In patients with moderate to moderately-severe AD, donepezil compared to memantine resulted in QALY gains averaging 0.01 per patient, and savings averaging €1,960 and €2,825 from the healthcare system and societal perspective, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, donepezil dominated no treatment in most replications and memantine in over 70% of the replications. Donepezil leads to savings in 95% of replications versus memantine. Conclusions Donepezil is highly cost-effective in patients with AD in Germany, leading to improvements in health outcomes and substantial savings compared to no treatment. This holds across a variety of sensitivity analyses. PMID:22316501

  12. Acute effects of pre-event lower limb massage on explosive and high speed motor capacities and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Ramiz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of pre- performance lower limb massage after warm-up on explosive and high-speed motor capacities and flexibility. Twenty-four physically active healthy Caucasian male subjects volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were from a Physical Education and Sport Department in a large university in Turkey. The study had a counterbalanced crossover design. Each of the subjects applied the following intervention protocols in a randomised order; (a) massage, (b) stretching, and (c) rest. Before (pre) and after (post) each of the interventions, the 10 meter acceleration (AS), flying start 20 meter sprint (FS), 30 meter sprint from standing position (TS), leg reaction time (LR), vertical jump (VJ) and sit & reach (SR) tests were performed. A Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to compare before and after test values within the three interventions (massage, stretching and rest). The data showed a significant worsening, after massage and stretching interventions, in the VJ, LR (only in stretching intervention), AS and TS tests (p performance (p performing 10 minute posterior and 5 minute anterior lower limb Swedish massage has an adverse effect on vertical jump, speed, and reaction time, and a positive effect on sit and reach test results. Key pointsPerforming 10 minute posterior and 5 minute anterior lower limb Swedish massages has an adverse affect on vertical jump, speed, and reaction time and a positive effect on sit and reach test results.According to the present results, long duration massage should not be recommended for warm-ups.Larger subject pools are needed to verify these events.

  13. Vaccination-Related Side Effects, Humoral Immunity, and Adverse Events during the Civilian Smallpox Vaccination Campaign, Arkansas, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Smallpox vaccination has been associated with notable side effects and adverse events. This study assessed the frequency of each among public health workers immunized during the 2003 Arkansas civilian smallpox vaccination campaign to allow individuals and policymakers to make informed decisions whether repeat vaccination, as recommended in 10-year intervals, should be considered. This descriptive study summarizes postvaccination surveillance data for all civilians receiving smallpox vaccine (Dryvax) in Arkansas in 2003. Rates of side effects and adverse events were determined. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers among a subset of public health response team members were also assessed. Of the 1,124 vaccine recipients, 87% had a major take response. Substantial symptomatology, a 2% adverse event rate, a 0.5% hospitalization rate, and zero inadvertent transmission following vaccination were observed. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers increased on average 9-fold from 2.21*10(2) to 2.16*10(3) one month after vaccination. We found no association of age, sex, or racial subgroups with adverse events, hospitalizations, a lower take response rate, or lower postvaccination antibody titers. Prominent side effect profiles and adverse events among study participants seem to support individual and institutional reluctance to vaccinate civilians in the absence of smallpox reemergence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Repetition Priming Effects in Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin Bidialectals: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Aiwen; Chen, Zhuoming; Chang, Yanqun; Zhou, Shu; Wu, Limei; Liu, Yaozhong; Zhang, Guoxiong

    2017-12-01

    The present study adopted a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the bidialectal (bilingual) representation of speakers with different native dialects by event-related potential (ERP) technique. Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectals participated in the study. They were required to judge whether a word was a biological word or not, when the words (target word) were represented under four types of repetition priming conditions: Mandarin (prime)-Mandarin (target), Mandarin (prime)-Cantonese (target), Cantonese (prime)-Cantonese (target) and Cantonese (prime)-Mandarin (target). Results of reaction time and accuracy primarily indicated larger repetition priming effects in Mandarin-Mandarin and Cantonese-Cantonese (within-language) conditions than that in Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin (between-language) conditions. But more importantly, P200 and N400 mean amplitudes revealed distinct repetition priming effects between two types of participants. Specifically, both P200 and N400 indicated that the repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Mandarin condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Cantonese condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, whereas it was opposite for Cantonese-Mandarin participants. In addition, P200 also suggested opposite patterns of repetition priming effects in between-language priming conditions for two groups of participants. The repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Cantonese condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Mandarin condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, while for Cantonese-Mandarin participants, it was opposite (Mandarin-Cantonese < Cantonese-Mandarin). The results implied a clear asymmetric representation of two dialects for proficient bidialectals. They were further discussed in light of native dialect and language use frequency.

  15. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Ahn, Jung-Hwan; Min, Young-Gi

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of the TASER X26 discharge duration in an anesthetized swine model. Fourteen swines were anesthetized and then exposed to TASER X26 discharge for 5 sec (n = 5) or for 10 sec (n = 6). The sham control group (n = 3) was anesthetized and studied using the same protocol except TASER X26 discharges during the experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after TASER discharge and returned to baseline value at 15 min after 5 sec of TASER discharge but did not return to baseline values during the 30-min observation period after 10 sec of TASER discharge. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE MEGA SPORT EVENTS ON TOURISM IN THE BRICS COUNTRIES CASE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iuliana Pop; Adrian Kanovici; Gratiela Ghic; Madalina Andrei

    2016-01-01

      At the beginning of the 21st century, events tourism witnessed an impressive development in a series of countries due to the increase of the spare time and of the people's income, to the cheaper...

  17. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Karin Schagen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.

  18. Interpreting the climatic effects on xylem functional traits in two Mediterranean oak species: the role of extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Rita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean region, the widely predicted rise in temperature, change in the precipitation pattern and increase in the frequency of extreme climatic events are expected to alter the shape of ecological communities and to affect plant physiological processes that regulate ecosystem functioning. Although change in the mean values are important, there is increasing evidence that plant distribution, survival and productivity respond to extremes rather than to the average climatic condition. The present study aims to assess the effects of both mean and extreme climatic conditions on radial growth and functional anatomical traits using long-term tree-ring time series of two co-existing Quercus spp. from a drought-prone site in Southern Italy. In particular, this is the first attempt to apply the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS technique and Bayesian modeling procedures to xylem traits data set, with the aim of i detecting non-linear long-term responses to climate and ii exploring relationships between climate extreme and xylem traits variability in terms of probability of occurrence. This study demonstrates the usefulness of long-term xylem trait chronologies as records of environmental conditions at annual resolution. Statistical analyses revealed that most of the variability in tree-ring width and specific hydraulic conductivity might be explained by cambial age. Additionally, results highlighted appreciable relationships between xylem traits and climate variability more than tree-ring width, supporting also the evidence that the plant hydraulic traits are closely linked to local climate extremes rather than average climatic conditions. We reported that the probability of extreme departure in specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks rises at extreme values of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Therefore, changing frequency or intensity of extreme events might overcome the adaptive limits of vascular transport

  19. Do the Effects of Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in PAD Patients Differ from Other Atherosclerotic Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredos, Pavel; Jezovnik, Mateja Kaja

    2015-06-25

    Atherosclerosis is considered a generalized disease. Similar or identical etiopathogenetic mechanisms and risk factors are involved in various atherosclerotic diseases, and the positive effects of preventive measures on atherogenesis in different parts of the arterial system were shown. However, until know, great emphasis has been placed on the aggressive pharmacological management of coronary artery disease (CHD), while less attention has been devoted to the management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), despite its significant morbidity and mortality. Data on the efficacy of preventive measures in PAD patients have mostly been gained from subgroup analyses from studies devoted primarily to the management of coronary patients. These data have shown that treatment of risk factors for atherosclerosis with drugs can reduce cardiovascular events also in patients with PAD. The effects of some preventive procedures in PAD patients differ from coronary patients. Aspirin as a basic antiplatelet drug has been shown to be less effective in PAD patients than in coronary patients. The latest Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration (ATC) meta-analysis demonstrates no benefit of aspirin in reducing cardiovascular events in PAD. Statins reduce cardiovascular events in all three of the most frequently presented cardiovascular diseases, including PAD to a comparable extent. Recent studies indicate that in PAD patients, in addition to a reduction in cardiovascular events, statins may have some hemodynamic effects. They prolong walking distance and improve quality of life. Similarly, angiotensin enzyme inhibitors are also effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in coronary, cerebrovascular, as well as PAD patients and show positive effects on the walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication. In PAD patients, the treatment of hypertension and diabetes also effectively prevents cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As PAD patients are at a highest risk

  20. Interactive effects of elevation, species richness and extreme climatic events on plant-pollinator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoiss, Bernhard; Krauss, Jochen; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-11-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions are essential for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, but are increasingly affected by global change. The risks to such mutualistic interactions from increasing temperature and more frequent extreme climatic events such as drought or advanced snow melt are assumed to depend on network specialization, species richness, local climate and associated parameters such as the amplitude of extreme events. Even though elevational gradients provide valuable model systems for climate change and are accompanied by changes in species richness, responses of plant-pollinator networks to climatic extreme events under different environmental and biotic conditions are currently unknown. Here, we show that elevational climatic gradients, species richness and experimentally simulated extreme events interactively change the structure of mutualistic networks in alpine grasslands. We found that the degree of specialization in plant-pollinator networks (H2') decreased with elevation. Nonetheless, network specialization increased after advanced snow melt at high elevations, whereas changes in network specialization after drought were most pronounced at sites with low species richness. Thus, changes in network specialization after extreme climatic events depended on climatic context and were buffered by high species richness. In our experiment, only generalized plant-pollinator networks changed in their degree of specialization after climatic extreme events. This indicates that contrary to our assumptions, network generalization may not always foster stability of mutualistic interaction networks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P  0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy.

  2. Attention effects on auditory scene analysis: insights from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, Mona Isabel; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Sounds emitted by different sources arrive at our ears as a mixture that must be disentangled before meaningful information can be retrieved. It is still a matter of debate whether this decomposition happens automatically or requires the listener's attention. These opposite positions partly stem from different methodological approaches to the problem. We propose an integrative approach that combines the logic of previous measurements targeting either auditory stream segregation (interpreting a mixture as coming from two separate sources) or integration (interpreting a mixture as originating from only one source). By means of combined behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures, our paradigm has the potential to measure stream segregation and integration at the same time, providing the opportunity to obtain positive evidence of either one. This reduces the reliance on zero findings (i.e., the occurrence of stream integration in a given condition can be demonstrated directly, rather than indirectly based on the absence of empirical evidence for stream segregation, and vice versa). With this two-way approach, we systematically manipulate attention devoted to the auditory stimuli (by varying their task relevance) and to their underlying structure (by delivering perceptual tasks that require segregated or integrated percepts). ERP results based on the mismatch negativity (MMN) show no evidence for a modulation of stream integration by attention, while stream segregation results were less clear due to overlapping attention-related components in the MMN latency range. We suggest future studies combining the proposed two-way approach with some improvements in the ERP measurement of sequential stream segregation.

  3. Effect of timing of count events on estimates of sea lice abundance and interpretation of effectiveness following bath treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Vanderstichel, R; Boerlage, A S; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2017-03-01

    Effectiveness of sea lice bath treatment is often assessed by comparing pre- and post-treatment counts. However, in practice, the post-treatment counting window varies from the day of treatment to several days after treatment. In this study, we assess the effect of post-treatment lag time on sea lice abundance estimates after chemical bath treatment using data from the sea lice data management program (Fish-iTrends) between 2010 and 2014. Data on two life stages, (i) adult female (AF) and (ii) pre-adult and adult male (PAAM), were aggregated at the cage level and log-transformed. Average sea lice counts by post-treatment lag time were computed for AF and PAAM and compared relative to treatment day, using linear mixed models. There were 720 observations (treatment events) that uniquely matched pre- and post-treatment counts from 53 farms. Lag time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was influenced by season and pre-treatment sea lice levels. During summer, sea lice were at a minimum when counted 1 day post-treatment irrespective of pre-treatment sea lice levels, whereas in the spring and autumn, low levels were observed for PAAM over a longer interval of time, provided the pre-treatment sea lice levels were >5-10. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  5. Effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on the risk of arterial thromboembolic events: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibodies are used in ocular neovascular diseases. A consensus has emerged that intravenous anti-VEGF can increase the risk of arterial thromboembolic events. However, the role of intravitreal anti-VEGF in arterial thromboembolism is controversial. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of intravitreal anti-VEGF on the risk of arterial thromboembolic events. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant randomized clinical trials comparing intravitreal anti-VEGF with controls. Criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis included a study duration of no less than 12 months, the use of a randomized control group not receiving any intravitreal active agent, and the availability of outcome data for arterial thromboembolic events, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and vascular death. The risk ratios and 95% CIs were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: A total of 4942 patients with a variety of ocular neovascular diseases from 13 randomized controlled trials were identified and included for analysis. There was no significant difference between intravitreal anti-VEGF and control in the risk of all events, with risk ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.19 for arterial thromboembolic events, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.55-1.68 for cerebrovascular accidents, 0.69 (95% CI 0.40-1.21 for myocardial infarctions, and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.37-1.27 for vascular death. CONCLUSIONS: The strength evidence suggests that the intravitreal use of anti-VEGF antibodies is not associated with an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events.

  6. No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Agnieszka H; van Strien, Arco J; Verboom, Jana; WallisdeVries, Michiel F; Opdam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics) across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i) trends in distribution patterns, (ii) the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii) the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity), or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat). Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.

  7. No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka H Malinowska

    Full Text Available Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i trends in distribution patterns, (ii the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity, or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat. Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.

  8. No Evidence of the Effect of Extreme Weather Events on Annual Occurrence of Four Groups of Ectothermic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Agnieszka H.; van Strien, Arco J.; Verboom, Jana; WallisdeVries, Michiel F.; Opdam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics) across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i) trends in distribution patterns, (ii) the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii) the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity), or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat). Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest. PMID:25330414

  9. Assessing the Performance of the Photovoltaic Cells on the Effects of Yellow Dust Events and Haze in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Wee, DaeHyun

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the potential effects of the Asian yellow dust Events and haze on the performance of Korean photovoltaic systems. Particulate matters from the Asian yellow dust outbreaks in the deserts of Mongolia and northern China are typically transported to Korea. Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. Hence, we conjecture that the effects of the Asian yellow dust and haze block the incident solar irradiance. The potential reduction of the solar spectral irradiance due to Asian yellow dust events and haze in Korea is investigated using a clear-sky spectral radiation model, and the performance of photovoltaic systems under reduced irradiance is estimated by using a simple analytic model representing typical photovoltaic cells. Comparison of photovoltaic performance under Asian dust events, haze and that under a clear condition is made to evaluate overall influence of the particulate air pollution, respectively.

  10. An Event Related Potentials Study of Semantic Coherence Effect during Episodic Encoding in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâle Battal Merlet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this electrophysiological study was to investigate the processing of semantic coherence during encoding in relation to episodic memory processes promoted at test, in schizophrenia patients, by using the N400 paradigm. Eighteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy participants undertook a recognition memory task. The stimuli consisted of pairs of words either semantically related or unrelated to a given category name (context. During encoding, both groups exhibited an N400 external semantic coherence effect. Healthy controls also showed an N400 internal semantic coherence effect, but this effect was not present in patients. At test, related stimuli were accompanied by an FN400 old/new effect in both groups and by a parietal old/new effect in the control group alone. In the patient group, external semantic coherence effect was associated with FN400, while, in the control group, it was correlated to the parietal old/new effect. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients can process the contextual information at encoding to enhance familiarity process for related stimuli at test. Therefore, cognitive rehabilitation therapies targeting the implementation of semantic encoding strategies can mobilize familiarity which in turn can overcome the recollection deficit, promoting successful episodic memory performance in schizophrenia patients.

  11. Effect of nateglinide on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rury R; Haffner, Steven M; McMurray, John J; Bethel, M Angelyn; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Belenkov, Yuri; Boolell, Mitradev; Buse, John B; Buckley, Brendan M; Chacra, Antonio R; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Charbonnel, Bernard; Chow, Chun-Chung; Davies, Melanie J; Deedwania, Prakash; Diem, Peter; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian; Fulcher, Gregory R; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gaztambide, Sonia; Giles, Thomas; Horton, Edward; Ilkova, Hasan; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E; Krum, Henry; Laakso, Markku; Leiter, Lawrence A; Levitt, Naomi S; Mareev, Viacheslav; Martinez, Felipe; Masson, Chantal; Mazzone, Theodore; Meaney, Eduardo; Nesto, Richard; Pan, Changyu; Prager, Rudolf; Raptis, Sotirios A; Rutten, Guy E H M; Sandstroem, Herbert; Schaper, Frank; Scheen, Andre; Schmitz, Ole; Sinay, Isaac; Soska, Vladimir; Stender, Steen; Tamás, Gyula; Tognoni, Gianni; Tuomilehto, Jaako; Villamil, Alberto S; Vozár, Juraj; Califf, Robert M

    2010-04-22

    The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive nateglinide (up to 60 mg three times daily) or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo, in addition to participation in a lifestyle modification program. We followed the participants for a median of 5.0 years for incident diabetes (and a median of 6.5 years for vital status). We evaluated the effect of nateglinide on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; a core cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure; and an extended cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of the individual components of the core composite cardiovascular outcome, hospitalization for unstable angina, or arterial revascularization. After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P=0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P=0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2% and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P=0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Among persons with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, assignment to nateglinide for 5 years did not reduce the incidence of diabetes or the coprimary composite cardiovascular outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.) 2010

  12. Event trigger identification for biomedical events extraction using domain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deyu; Zhong, Dayou; He, Yulan

    2014-06-01

    In molecular biology, molecular events describe observable alterations of biomolecules, such as binding of proteins or RNA production. These events might be responsible for drug reactions or development of certain diseases. As such, biomedical event extraction, the process of automatically detecting description of molecular interactions in research articles, attracted substantial research interest recently. Event trigger identification, detecting the words describing the event types, is a crucial and prerequisite step in the pipeline process of biomedical event extraction. Taking the event types as classes, event trigger identification can be viewed as a classification task. For each word in a sentence, a trained classifier predicts whether the word corresponds to an event type and which event type based on the context features. Therefore, a well-designed feature set with a good level of discrimination and generalization is crucial for the performance of event trigger identification. In this article, we propose a novel framework for event trigger identification. In particular, we learn biomedical domain knowledge from a large text corpus built from Medline and embed it into word features using neural language modeling. The embedded features are then combined with the syntactic and semantic context features using the multiple kernel learning method. The combined feature set is used for training the event trigger classifier. Experimental results on the golden standard corpus show that >2.5% improvement on F-score is achieved by the proposed framework when compared with the state-of-the-art approach, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed framework. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Immunologic effects of emdogain in humans: one-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Symeon; Peteinaki, Efthymia; Castanas, Elias

    2002-06-01

    Tissue regeneration after therapeutic manipulations is essential in periodontology, oral surgery, and trauma of the periodontal tissues. Local inflammation because of poor oral hygiene also plays a crucial role in the above situations. Local inflammatory reaction, accompanied by the local production of cytokines, profoundly influences bone turnover and regeneration. Several products of low immunogenicity for augmenting tissue regeneration have been recently proposed as boosters of soft and mineralized tissue regeneration. Among them, Emdogain, an amelogenin derivative of porcine origin, has recently been introduced. Clinical results indicate that this product might be a good additive, producing fast tissue regeneration with no apparent clinical side effects. In contrast, very little is known about its in vivo immunologic effects. A previous study showed that Emdogain does not modify the cellular or humoral immune response in vitro. In the present work, performed in 10 patients, only a slight, nonsignificant activation of the immune system occurred during the first year following Emdogain application. Neither cellular immunity nor humoral immune response was significantly modified. In addition, the in vitro response of the patients' lymphocytes to Emdogain was assayed 2 and 12 months postoperative. We did not find any significant specific lymphocyte transformation in the presence of Emdogain, although lymphocytes could be stimulated by nonselective mitogens. These results indicate the immunologic safety of the agent in vivo, at least after 1 year.