Sample records for evaporitic sulfate salts

  1. Mediterranean salt giants beyond the evaporite model: The Sicily perspective (United States)

    Carmelo Manuella, Fabio; Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Hovland, Martin; Johnsen, Hans-Konrad; Rueslåtten, Håkon


    Mediterranean salt giants, occurring both in sub-seafloor and in onshore settings (the "Gessoso Solfifera Group"), are traditionally explained by repeated cycles of desiccation and replenishment of the entire basin. However, such hypotheses are strongly biased by mass balance calculations and geodynamic considerations. In addition, any hypothesis without full desiccation, still based on the evaporite model, should consider that seawater brines start to precipitate halite when 2/3 of the seawater has evaporated, and hence the level of the basin cannot be the same as the adjacent ocean. On the other hand, hydrothermal venting of hot saline brines onto the seafloor can precipitate salt in a deep marine basin if a layer of heavy brine exists along the seafloor. This process, likely related to sub-surface boiling or supercritical out-salting (Hovland et al., 2006), is consistent with geological evidence in the Red Sea "Deeps" (Hovland et al., 2015). Although supercritical out-salting and phase separation can sufficiently explain the formation of several marine salt deposits, even in deep marine settings, the Mediterranean salt giant formations can also be explained by the serpentinization model (Scribano et al., 2016). Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites does not involve seawater salts, and large quantities of saline brines accumulate in pores and fractures of the sub-seafloor serpentinites. If these rocks undergo thermal dehydration, for example, due to igneous intrusions, brines and salt slurries can migrate upwards as hydrothermal plumes, eventually venting at the seafloor, giving rise to giant salt deposits over time. These hydrothermal processes can take place in a temporal sequence, as it occurred in the "Caltanissetta Basin" (Sicily). There, salt accumulation associated with serpentinization started during Triassic times (and even earlier), and venting of heavy brines onto the seafloor eventually occurred in the Messinian via the hydrothermal plume mechanism

  2. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander


    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  3. An evaporite-based high-resolution sulfur isotope record of Late Permian and Triassic seawater sulfate (United States)

    Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Meier, Irene; Wohlwend, Stephan; Brack, Peter; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bläsi, Hansruedi; Wortmann, Ulrich G.; Ramseyer, Karl


    Variations in the sulfur isotope composition of dissolved marine sulfate through time reflect changes in the global sulfur cycle and are intimately related to changes in the carbon and oxygen cycles. A large shift in the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate at the Permian/Triassic boundary has been recognized for long time and a number of studies were carried out to understand the causes and significance of this shift. However, data for the Middle and Late Triassic are very sparse and the stratigraphic evolution of the sulfur isotope composition of seawater is poorly constrained due to the small number of samples analyzed and/or due to the limited stratigraphic intervals studied. Moreover, in the last few years the Triassic timescale has significantly changed due to a wealth of new radiometric and stratigraphic data. In this study we show that for the Late Permian and the Triassic it is possible to obtain a precise reconstruction of the evolution of the sulfur cycle, for parts of it at sub-million year resolution, by analyzing exclusively gypsum and anhydrite deposits. We base our reconstruction on new data from the Middle and Late Triassic evaporites of Northern Switzerland and literature data from evaporites from Germany, Austria, Italy and the Middle East. We propose a revised correlation between the well-dated marine Tethyan sections in northern Italy and the evaporites from Northern Switzerland and from the Germanic Basin calibrated to the newest radiometric absolute age scale. This new correlation allows for a precise dating of the evaporites and constructing a composite sulfur isotope evolution of seawater sulfate from the latest Permian (Lopingian Epoch) to the Norian. We show that a rapid positive shift of approximately 24‰ at the Permian-Triassic boundary can be used to constrain seawater sulfate concentrations in the range of 2-6 mM, thus higher than previous estimates but with less rapid changes. Finally, we discuss two possible evolution scenarios

  4. Laboratory simulations of Mars evaporite geochemistry (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Newsom, Horton; Nelson, Melissa


    Evaporite-rich sedimentary deposits on Mars were formed under chemical conditions quite different from those on the Earth. Their unique chemistries record the chemical and aqueous conditions under which they were formed and possibly subsequent conditions to which they were subjected. We have produced evaporite salt mineral suites in the laboratory under two simulated Martian atmospheres: (1) present-day and (2) a model of an ancient Martian atmosphere rich in volcanic gases. The composition of these synthetic Mars evaporites depends on the atmospheres under which they were desiccated as well as the chemistries of their precursor brines. In this report, we describe a Mars analog evaporite laboratory apparatus and the experimental methods we used to produce and analyze the evaporite mineral suites. The acidic, “paleo-Mars” gas mixture was CO2 with trace amounts of SO2, N2O, and HCl to simulate an atmosphere influenced by volcanic emissions. Brines formed by the interaction of water with an SNC-derived synthetic Mars mineral mix were produced under the acidic Mars atmospheric gas mixture. The brines were then desiccated under the two different simulated Mars conditions in the evaporite apparatus. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy and SEM microprobe analyses reveal that salts precipitated from the brine evaporated under simulated present Mars conditions were chemically different from those formed under the acidic Mars atmosphere conditions. The primary salt precipitated from the brine evaporated under present-day Mars conditions was a hydrated calcium sulfate, with lesser amounts of a magnesium sulfate and aluminum sulfate. Salts precipitated from the brine evaporated under an acidic atmosphere were dominated by magnesium sulfates, with lesser amounts of Na2SO4. These experiments suggest ways that relative cation abundances in Martian sulfate-bearing sediments can indicate the atmospheric and aqueous conditions under which they were formed. We conclude that the

  5. A hydrogen sulfate salt of chlordiazepoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Diesen


    Full Text Available Crystals of the hydrogen sulfate salt of chlordiazepoxide (systematic name: 7-chloro-N-methyl-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-iminium 4-oxide hydrogen sulfate, C16H15ClN3O+·HSO4−, were obtained from a solution of chlordiazepoxide and sulfuric acid in methanol. The structure features chlordiazepoxide molecules that are protonated at the imine N atom. The seven-membered ring adopts a boat conformation with the CH2 group as the prow and the two aryl C atoms as the stern. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 72.41 (6°. In the crystal, the HSO4− anion acts as a bridging group between two chlordiazepoxide cations. The H atom of the protonated imino N forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond with a hydrogen sulfate ion. The anion in turn forms two hydrogen bonds, O—H...O with the anion as donor and N—H...O with the anion as acceptor, to generate an R22(10 loop. Each HSO4− anion connects two chlordiazepoxide moieties of the same chirality.

  6. A global survey of Precambrian evaporites: Implications for Proterozoic paleoenvironments (United States)

    Evans, D. A.


    Evaporites are sedimentary rocks comprising minerals that crystallized from supersaturation of surface waters due to solar-driven desiccation. They, or their metamorphic relics and pseudomorphs, are abundant in the geologic record and document changes in paleoclimate, sealevel, and marine chemistry. Phanerozoic evaporites have been well described and summarized, in no small part due to their role as hydrocarbon seals, as well as sources of salinity in hydrothermal fluids that concentrate metal deposits. Precambrian evaporites are abundant in discrete number of instances but are generally less voluminous; their long-term preservation is limited by subsurface mineral dissolution as well as tectonic crustal recycling. Unlike Precambrian glacial deposits, which have been globally catalogued several times during the past fifty years, Precambrian evaporites have been compiled only partially in a few rare studies. A new, global survey of Precambrian evaporites (mainly pseudomorphs after gypsum, anhydrite, and halite) documents over 100 examples, including ten of Archean age. About 20 deposits have total preserved or estimated salt volumes exceeding 1000 cubic km, and these are restricted to the Proterozoic Era. One of the most impressive episodes of evaporite deposition in the entire geologic record occurred at about 800 Ma, coincident with the onset of Rodinia supercontinental fragmentation. These evaporites are preserved primarily as calcium-sulfates, totalling about 350,000 cubic km in volume. The next major global peak in evaporite deposition occurred in late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian time, totalling more than 1.5 million cubic km of mixed sulfates and halites. These peaks rival the great salt records of the Late Devonian, Late Permian, and Late Jurassic, and the molar volumes of deposited salt are comparable to the current inventory of oceanic salinity. Questions for future consideration include: what does the removal of this much salinity from the oceans, in these

  7. Physical properties of evaporite minerals (United States)

    Robertson, Eugene C.


    The data in the following tables were abstracted from measurements of physical properties of evaporite minerals or of equivalent synthetic compounds. The compounds considered are the halide and sulfate salts which supposedly precipitated from evaporating ocean water and which form very extensive and thick "rock salt" beds. These beds are composed almost entirely of NaCl. In places where the beds are deeply buried and where fractures occur in the overlying rocks, the salt is plastically extruded upward as in a pipe to form the "salt domes". Most of the tables are for NaCl, both the natural (halite) and the synthetic salt, polycrystalline and single crystals. These measurements have been collected for use 1) in studies on storage of radioactive wastes in salt domes or beds, 2) in calculations concerned with nuclear tests in salt domes and beds, and 3) in studies of phenomena in salt of geologic interest. Rather than an exhaustive compilation of physical property measurements, there tables represent a summary of data from accessible sources. As limitations of time have presented making a more systematic and comprehensive selection, the data given may seem arbitrarily chosen. Some of the data listed are old, and newer, more accurate data are undoubtedly available. Halite (an synthetic NaCl) has been very thoroughly studied because of its relatively simple and highly symmetrical crystal structure, its easy availability naturally or synthetically, both in single crystals and polycrystalline, its useful and scientifically interesting properties, and its role as a compound of almost purely ionic bonding. The measurements of NaCl in the tables, however, represent only a small part of the total number of observations; discrimination was necessary to keep the size of the tabulations manageable. The physical properties of the evaporite minerals other than halite and sylvite have received only desultory attention of experiementalists, and appear in only a few tables. The

  8. Role of evaporitic sulfates in iron skarn mineralization: a fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope study from the Xishimen deposit, Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Bi, Shi-Jian; Li, Jian-Wei


    The Xishimen iron skarn deposit in the Handan-Xingtai district, North China Craton, contains 256 Mt @ 43 % Fe (up to 65 %). The mineralization is dominated by massive magnetite ore along the contact zone between the early Cretaceous Xishimen diorite stock and middle Ordovician dolomite and dolomitic limestones with numerous intercalations of evaporitic beds. Minor lenticular magnetite-dominated bodies also occur in the carbonate rocks proximal to the diorite stock. Hydrothermal alteration is characterized by extensive albitization within the diorite stock and extreme development of magnesian skarn along the contact zone consisting of diopside, forsterite, serpentine, tremolite, phlogopite, and talc. Magmatic quartz and amphibole from the diorite and hydrothermal diopside from the skarns contain abundant primary or pseudosecondary fluid inclusions, most of which have multiple daughter minerals dominated by halite, sylvite, and opaque phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectrometry confirm that pyrrhotite is the predominant opaque phase in most fluid inclusions, in both the magmatic and skarn minerals. These fluid inclusions have total homogenization temperatures of 416-620 °C and calculated salinities of 42.4-74.5 wt% NaCl equiv. The fluid inclusion data thus document a high-temperature, high-salinity, ferrous iron-rich, reducing fluid exsolved from a cooling magma likely represented by the Xishimen diorite stock. Pyrite from the iron ore has δ34S values ranging from 14.0 to 18.6 ‰, which are significantly higher than typical magmatic values (δ34S = 0 ± 5 ‰). The sulfur isotope data thus indicate an external source for the sulfur, most likely from the evaporitic beds in the Ordovician carbonate sequences that have δ34S values of 24 to 29 ‰. We suggest that sulfates from the evaporitic beds have played a critically important role by oxidizing ferrous iron in the magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, leading to precipitation of massive

  9. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). This study reviews all LM sites under Title I and Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) and one Decontamination and Decommissioning site to provide (1) a summary of which sites have evaporite deposits, (2) any available quantitative geochemical and mineralogical analyses, and (3) references to relevant reports. In this study, “evaporite” refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, where this term refers to a migration of dissolved constituents to the surface with a resulting salt crust, where “salt” can refer to any secondary precipitate, regardless of constituents. The potential for the formation of evaporites at LM sites has been identified, and may have relevance to plume persistence issues. Evaporite deposits have the potential to concentrate and store contaminants at LM sites that could later be re-released. These deposits can also provide a temporary storage mechanism for carbonate, chloride, and sulfate salts along with uranium and other contaminants of concern (COCs). Identification of sites with evaporites will be used in a new technical task plan (TTP), Persistent Secondary Contaminant Sources (PeSCS), for any proposed additional sampling and analyses. This additional study is currently under development and will focus on determining if the dissolution of evaporites has the potential to hinder natural flushing strategies and impact plume persistence. This report provides an initial literature review on evaporites followed by details for each site with identified evaporites. The final summary includes a table listing of all relevant LM sites regardless of evaporite identification.

  10. Hemi(piperazinediium) hexaaquaaluminium(III) bis(sulfate) tetrahydrate: a new double aluminium sulfate salt. (United States)

    Bataille, Thierry


    Piperazinium aluminium sulfate decahydrate, (C(4)H(12)N(2))(0.5)[Al(H(2)O)(6)](SO(4))(2).4H(2)O, exhibits a crystal structure built from isolated [Al(H(2)O)(6)](3+), SO(4)(2-), C(4)H(12)N(2)(2+) and H(2)O units connected by a complex hydrogen-bond network. The title compound shows strong similarities to many double aluminium sulfates, such as alums and Tutton's salts. However, since its structure is not derived directly from that of these compounds, it is assumed to be a new structure type.

  11. Nanofiltration as energy-efficient solution for sulfate waste in vacuum salt production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald; Steensma, M.; ten Kate, A.; Westerink, J.B.; Demmer, R.L.M.; Bakkenes, H.; Manuhutu, C.F.H.


    In vacuum salt production sulfate is an important impurity, but it is also used to remove other cationic impurities from the raw brine. Removal of excess sulfate is currently done by purging salt crystallizer mother liquor from the brine plant, or crystallizing sodium sulfate through evaporative or

  12. The effect of divalent salt in chondroitin sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranghel, D., E-mail: [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, (Romania); Extreme Light Intrastructure Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Reactorului 30,RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Badita, C. R. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomiştilor 405, CP MG - 11, RO – 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Radulescu, A. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, 85747 Garching (Germany); Moldovan, L.; Craciunescu, O. [National Institute R& D for Biological Sciences, Splaiul Independenţei 296, sector 6, cod 060031, C.P. 17-16, Bucharest (Romania); Balasoiu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, RO-077125, POB-MG6, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, (Romania); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)


    Chondroitin-4 sulfate (CS4) is the main glycosaminoglycan extracted from bovine trachea. CS4 play an important role in osteoarthritis treatment, anticoagulant activity, reduces the degradation of cartilage matrix components, reduces necrosis and apoptosis of chondrocytes and reduces the activity of collagenase. Chondroitin sulfate is also responsible for proteoglycans degradation. Chondroitin sulfate can bind calcium ions with different affinities, depending on their sulfation position. The purpose of this study was to determine the structural properties and the influence of Ca{sup 2+} cations. We carried out measurements on CS4 solutions and mixtures of liquid CS4 with Ca{sup 2+} by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). CS4 have a mass fractal behavior and the addition of a salt (CaCl{sub 2}) in CS4 solutions generates the appearance of a correlation peak due to local ordering between adjacent chains with inter-chain distances between 483 Å and 233 Å for a calcium concentration of 0.01% w/w.

  13. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marketos, G; Spiers, C.J; Govers, R


    .... Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically on the role of creep of rock salt caprocks in response to production-induced differential stresses...

  14. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits (United States)

    Moore, George William


    the sea to the south. Mixing of the two water layers at their interface diluted the lower layer so as to prevent halite formation, but at the same time the depressed solubility of calcium sulfate in the mixture at the interface caused precipitation of gypsum. The upper water layer is believed to have supported a flourishing microscopic biota whose remains descended into semisterile brine below where reducing conditions prevailed. This environment generated the bituminous gypsum rock. At times, microcrystalline calcium carbonate of probable biochemical origin formed in the upper layer and settled below to form limestone laminae such as those of the lower part of the Castile formation. Chemical analyses of Permian and present-day salt were compared with analyses of marine salt as old as Cambrian age to determine if evaporite deposits can contribute information on the geologic history of sea water. The results contain uncertainties that cannot be fully resolved, but they suggest that the ratio between ions in sea water has been approximately constant since Precambrian time. In addition, the abrupt initial appearance of rock salt deposits in Cambrian time suggests that the Precambrian ocean may have been rather dilute, but this apparent relationship also could have been caused by other factors.

  15. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)


    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  16. Impact of rock salt creep law choice on subsidence calculations for hydrocarbon reservoirs overlain by evaporite caprocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marketos, G.; Spiers, C.J.; Govers, R.


    Accurate forward modeling of surface subsidence above producing hydrocarbons reservoirs requires an understanding of the mechanisms determining how ground deformation and subsidence evolve. Here we focus entirely on rock salt, which overlies a large number of reservoirs worldwide, and specifically

  17. 75 FR 56101 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... pesticide can perform its intended function without causing unreasonable adverse effects on human health or... final registration review decision for the pesticide, lauryl sulfate salts (also known as sodium lauryl salts), case 4061. Registration review is EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure...

  18. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey) (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan


    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (< 1km), (ii) their teardrop encased shape and (iii) exacerbated internal halokinetic deformations. The latter specifically include large halokinetic wedges, mega-slumps or inverted mega-flaps. Comparison with siliciclastic mini-basins suggests that strong halokinesis of EMB was triggered by the ductile rheology of their evaporitic infilling. Additional filling and subsequent withdrawal of EMB may have been also increased by (i) the large amount of solutes provided by leaching of the outcropping diapiric structure together with the fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in

  19. 75 FR 37790 - Lauryl Sulfate Salts; Antimicrobial Registration Review Final Work Plan and Proposed Registration... (United States)


    ... pesticide can perform its intended function without unreasonable adverse effects on human health or the... decision for the pesticide lauryl sulfate salts, case number 4061 and opens a public comment period on the proposed decision. Registration review is EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure that...

  20. Amorphous salts formed from rapid dehydration of multicomponent chloride and ferric sulfate brines: Implications for Mars (United States)

    Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, A. Deanne; Gregerson, Jason C.; Jensen, Heidi B.; Reeder, Richard J.; Dyar, M. Darby


    Salts with high hydration states have the potential to maintain high levels of relative humidity (RH) in the near subsurface of Mars, even at moderate temperatures. These conditions could promote deliquescence of lower hydrates of ferric sulfate, chlorides, and other salts. Previous work on deliquesced ferric sulfates has shown that when these materials undergo rapid dehydration, such as that which would occur upon exposure to present day Martian surface conditions, an amorphous phase forms. However, the fate of deliquesced halides or mixed ferric sulfate-bearing brines are presently unknown. Here we present results of rapid dehydration experiments on Ca-, Na-, Mg- and Fe-chloride brines and multicomponent (Fe2(SO4)3 ± Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3) brines at ∼21 °C, and characterize the dehydration products using visible/near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy, mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We find that rapid dehydration of many multicomponent brines can form amorphous solids or solids with an amorphous component, and that the presence of other elements affects the persistence of the amorphous phase under RH fluctuations. Of the pure chloride brines, only Fe-chloride formed an amorphous solid. XRD patterns of the multicomponent amorphous salts show changes in position, shape, and magnitude of the characteristic diffuse scattering observed in all amorphous materials that could be used to help constrain the composition of the amorphous salt. Amorphous salts deliquesce at lower RH values compared to their crystalline counterparts, opening up the possibility of their role in potential deliquescence-related geologic phenomena such as recurring slope lineae (RSLs) or soil induration. This work suggests that a wide range of aqueous mixed salt solutions can lead to the formation of amorphous salts and are possible for Mars; detailed studies of the formation mechanisms, stability and transformation

  1. Effective Henry's law partitioning and the salting constant of glyoxal in aerosols containing sulfate. (United States)

    Kampf, Christopher J; Waxman, Eleanor M; Slowik, Jay G; Dommen, Josef; Pfaffenberger, Lisa; Praplan, Arnaud P; Prévôt, André S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Volkamer, Rainer


    The reversible partitioning of glyoxal was studied in simulation chamber experiments for the first time by time-resolved measurements of gas-phase and particle-phase concentrations in sulfate-containing aerosols. Two complementary methods for the measurement of glyoxal particle-phase concentrations are compared: (1) an offline method utilizing filter sampling of chamber aerosols followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis and (2) positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) data. Ammonium sulfate (AS) and internally mixed ammonium sulfate/fulvic acid (AS/FA) seed aerosols both show an exponential increase of effective Henry's law coefficients (KH,eff) with AS concentration (cAS, in mol kg(-1) aerosol liquid water, m = molality) and sulfate ionic strength, I(SO4(2-)) (m). A modified Setschenow plot confirmed that "salting-in" of glyoxal is responsible for the increased partitioning. The salting constant for glyoxal in AS is K(S)CHOCHO = (-0.24 ± 0.02) m(-1), and found to be independent of the presence of FA. The reversible glyoxal uptake can be described by two distinct reservoirs for monomers and higher molecular weight species filling up at characteristic time constants. These time constants are τ1 ≈ 10(2) s and τ2 ≈ 10(4) s at cAS < 12 m, and about 1-2 orders of magnitude slower at higher cAS, suggesting that glyoxal uptake is kinetically limited at high salt concentrations.

  2. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Norman, Ann-Lise; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Levasseur, Maurice; Thomas, Jennie L.


    Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter 63 %), which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall ( 30 %) (Norman et al., 1999). The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles < 0.49 µm in diameter (15-17 and 17-19 July). The high biogenic fraction of sulfate fine aerosol and similar isotope ratio values of these particles and SO2 emphasize the role of marine organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, algae, bacteria) in the formation of fine particles above the Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  3. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg


    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  4. Evidence for Coexistence of Two Distinct Functional Groups of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Salt Marsh Sediment


    Ibrahim M. Banat; Lindström, E. Börje; Nedwell, David B.; Balba, M. Talaat


    Oxidation of acetate in salt marsh sediment was inhibited by the addition of fluoroacetate, and also by the addition of molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Molybdate had no effect upon the metabolism of acetate in a freshwater sediment in the absence of sulfate. The inhibitory effect of molybdate on acetate turnover in the marine sediment seemed to be because of its inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria which oxidized acetate to carbon dioxide. Sulfide was not recovered from ...

  5. Syn-depositional deformation of the late Zechstein evaporites on the Friesland Platform capturing the early life of a salt giant (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    It is often thought that the deposition of the Zechstein of NE Netherlands took place in a tectonically quiet environment and experienced complex deformation later. While early deformation structures were mostly overprinted by later salt flow, we focused on the Friesland platform, which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. In this study, we analyzed the present structures and deformation history with the help of 3D seismic and well data. Results show that the ZIII AC stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ), and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that late Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic. Spatial correlation of TZ and these syn-depositional depressions also indicate syn-depositional or very early development of thickening in the ZIII-AC stringer. They are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer localized by the active shear zones in the salt.

  6. Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchin, S.


    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of

  7. Evaporite-karst problems and studies in the USA (United States)

    Johnson, K.S.


    Evaporites, including rock salt (halite) and gypsum (or anhydrite), are the most soluble among common rocks; they dissolve readily to form the same types of karst features that commonly are found in limestones and dolomites. Evaporites are present in 32 of the 48 contiguous states in USA, and they underlie about 40% of the land area. Typical evaporite-karst features observed in outcrops include sinkholes, caves, disappearing streams, and springs, whereas other evidence of active evaporite karst includes surface-collapse structures and saline springs or saline plumes that result from salt dissolution. Many evaporites also contain evidence of paleokarst, such as dissolution breccias, breccia pipes, slumped beds, and collapse structures. All these natural karst phenomena can be sources of engineering or environmental problems. Dangerous sinkholes and caves can form rapidly in evaporite rocks, or pre-existing karst features can be reactivated and open up (collapse) under certain hydrologic conditions or when the land is put to new uses. Many karst features also propagate upward through overlying surficial deposits. Human activities also have caused development of evaporite karst, primarily in salt deposits. Boreholes (petroleum tests or solution-mining operations) or underground mines may enable unsaturated water to flow through or against salt deposits, either intentionally or accidentally, thus allowing development of small to large dissolution cavities. If the dissolution cavity is large enough and shallow enough, successive roof failures can cause land subsidence and/or catastrophic collapse. Evaporite karst, natural and human-induced, is far more prevalent than is commonly believed. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Biogenic, anthropogenic and sea salt sulfate size-segregated aerosols in the Arctic summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghahremaninezhad


    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosol sulfate concentrations were measured on board the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic during July 2014. The objective of this study was to utilize the isotopic composition of sulfate to address the contribution of anthropogenic and biogenic sources of aerosols to the growth of the different aerosol size fractions in the Arctic atmosphere. Non-sea-salt sulfate is divided into biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate using stable isotope apportionment techniques. A considerable amount of the average sulfate concentration in the fine aerosols with a diameter  <  0.49 µm was from biogenic sources (>  63 %, which is higher than in previous Arctic studies measuring above the ocean during fall (<  15 % (Rempillo et al., 2011 and total aerosol sulfate at higher latitudes at Alert in summer (>  30 % (Norman et al., 1999. The anthropogenic sulfate concentration was less than that of biogenic sulfate, with potential sources being long-range transport and, more locally, the Amundsen's emissions. Despite attempts to minimize the influence of ship stack emissions, evidence from larger-sized particles demonstrates a contribution from local pollution. A comparison of δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols was used to show that gas-to-particle conversion likely occurred during most sampling periods. δ34S values for SO2 and fine aerosols were similar, suggesting the same source for SO2 and aerosol sulfate, except for two samples with a relatively high anthropogenic fraction in particles  <  0.49 µm in diameter (15–17 and 17–19 July. The high biogenic fraction of sulfate fine aerosol and similar isotope ratio values of these particles and SO2 emphasize the role of marine organisms (e.g., phytoplankton, algae, bacteria in the formation of fine particles above the Arctic Ocean during the productive summer months.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.


    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  10. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 104. Lithium Sulfate and its Double Salts in Aqueous Solutions (United States)

    Sohr, Julia; Voigt, Wolfgang; Zeng, Dewen


    The solubility data for lithium sulfate and its double salts in water are reviewed. Where appropriate, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems are critically evaluated. The best values were selected on basis of these evaluations and presented in tabular form. Fitting equations and plots are provided. The quantities, units, and symbols used are in accord with IUPAC recommendations. The original data have been reported and, if necessary, transferred into the units and symbols recommended by IUPAC. The literature on solubility data is covered up to the end of 2015.

  11. The geochemical and isotopic record of evaporite recycling in spas and salterns of the Basque Cantabrian basin, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iribar, V., E-mail: [Departamento de Geodinamica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Abalos, B. [Departamento de Geodinamica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)


    Graphical abstract: Stable isotopes and hydrochemistry disclose two types of saline groundwater whose source is the dissolution of Triassic (Keuper) or Cretaceous (Wealden) evaporites, that are recycled from the older ones. Display Omitted Highlights: > Saline springs compositions are used to delineate extent of subsurface evaporites. > Origin of Wealden vs. Triassic evaporites constrained using {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4}, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO4} and Cl/Br ratio. > Geological structures and saline water circulation relation. - Abstract: Evaporite outcrops are rare in the Basque Cantabrian basin due to a rainy climate, but saline springs with total dissolved solids ranging from 0.8 to 260 g/L are common and have long been used to supply spas and salterns. New and existing hydrochemistry of saline springs are used to provide additional insight on the origin and underground extent of their poorly known source evaporites. Saline water hydrochemistry is related to dissolution of halite and gypsum from two evaporitic successions (Triassic 'Keuper' and Lower Cretaceous 'Wealden'), as supported by rock samples from outcrops and oil exploration drill cuttings. The {delta}{sup 34}S value of gypsum in the Keuper evaporites and sulfate in the springs is {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4} = 14.06 {+-} 1.07 per mille and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO4} = 13.41 {+-} 1.44 per mille, and the relationship between Cl/Br ratio of halite and water shows that waters have dissolved halite with Br content between 124 and 288 ppm. The {delta}{sup 34}S value of gypsum in the Wealden evaporites and sulfate in the springs is {delta}{sup 34}S{sub SO4} = 19.66 {+-} 1.76 per mille, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SO4} = 14.93 {+-} 2.35 per mille, and the relationship between Cl/Br ratio of halite and water shows that waters have dissolved halite with Br content between 15 and 160 ppm. Wealden evaporites formed in a continental setting after the dissolution of Keuper salt. Gypsum {delta}{sup 34}S

  12. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Petteri eMattila


    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4 production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred Mt of carbon dioxide (CO2. For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 with ammonia (NH3 and CO2, also solid calcium carbonate (CaCO3 is generated. The ammonium sulfate can be utilized as a fertilizer or in other mineral carbonation processes that use magnesium silicate-based rock as feedstock, while calcium carbonate has various uses as e.g. filler material. The reaction extent of the described process was studied by thermodynamic modeling and experimentally as a function of reactant concentrations and temperature. Other essential properties such as purity and quality of the solid products are also followed. Conversion efficiencies of >95% calcium from phosphogypsum to calcium carbonate are obtained. Scalenohedral, rhombohedral and prismatic calcite particles can be produced, though the precipitates contain certain contaminants such as rare earth metals and sulfur from the gypsum. A reverse osmosis membrane cartridge is also tested as an alternative and energy-efficient method of concentrating the ammonium sulfate salt solution instead of the traditional evaporation of the process solution.

  13. Measuring and modeling the salting-out effect in ammonium sulfate solutions. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Endo, Satoshi; Wania, Frank


    The presence of inorganic salts significantly influences the partitioning behavior of organic compounds between environmentally relevant aqueous phases, such as seawater or aqueous aerosol, and other, nonaqueous phases (gas phase, organic phase, etc.). In this study, salting-out coefficients (or Setschenow constants) (KS [M(-1)]) for 38 diverse neutral compounds in ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) solutions were measured using a shared headspace passive dosing method and a negligible depletion solid phase microextraction technique. The measured KS were all positive, varied from 0.216 to 0.729, and had standard errors in the range of 0.006-0.060. Compared to KS for sodium chloride (NaCl) in the literature, KS values for (NH4)2SO4 are always higher for the same compound, suggesting a higher salting-out effect of (NH4)2SO4. A polyparameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER) for predicting KS in (NH4)2SO4 solutions was generated using the experimental data for calibration. pp-LFER predicted KS agreed well with measured KS reported in the literature. KS for (NH4)2SO4 was also predicted using the quantum-chemical COSMOtherm software and the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC. While COSMOtherm generally overpredicted the experimental KS, predicted and experimental values were correlated. Therefore, a fitting factor needs to be applied when using the current version of COSMOtherm to predict KS. AIOMFAC tends to underpredict the measured KS((NH4)2SO4) but always overpredicts KS(NaCl). The prediction error is generally larger for KS(NaCl) than for KS((NH4)2SO4). AIOMFAC also predicted a dependence of KS on the salt concentrations, which is not observed in the experimental data. In order to demonstrate that the models developed and calibrated in this study can be applied to estimate Setschenow coefficients for atmospherically relevant compounds involved in secondary organic aerosol formation based on chemical structure alone, we predicted and compared KS for selected

  14. The role of efflorescent sulfate salts in Indiana’s mine water quality (United States)

    Pope, Jeane; Bayless, E.R.; Olyphant, G.; Branam, T.; Comer, John B.


    Efflorescent sulfate salts (ESS), which form from evaporating acid mine drainage and occur in a wide variety of environments, can significantly alter water quality and are, therefore, important considerations for remediation strategies at coal refuse sites. Many ESS, including melanterite, rozenite, siderotil, copiapite, halotrichite, coquimbite, epsomite, potash alum, and gypsum, are known to occur in Indiana. Because they build up on the gob-pile surface during dry periods and release acidity and metals in storm flushes, it is essential to understand the mineralogical and geochemical parameters that control ESS formation and dissolution in mine settings. The Friar Tuck site, in southwestern Indiana, is an ideal location for demonstrating the role of ESS in the generation of acid mine drainage and is included as a case study in this report. Examination of two gob piles at the site (northwest and southeast), in the same setting but with different mineralogies and depositional and reclamation histories, provides a unique opportunity to consider the transferability of lessons learned about the ESS between different sites.

  15. Air flow and dry deposition of non-sea salt sulfate in polar firn: Paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Cunningham, J.; Waddington, E. D.

    Non-sea salt sulfate aerosol (NSS) is an important factor for the Earth's albedo because it backscatters solar radiation and is the major cloud condensation nucleus over oceans. At Vostok, Antarctica, NSS concentration shows an increase in glacial period ice of 20-46% that cannot be attributed to changes in accumulation rate. The additional NSS may be due to enhanced dry deposition of NSS by topographic windpumping during the windy glacial periods. We model the volume flux of air into snow due to barometric pressure changes and air flow over surface microrelief. The Gormley-Kennedy equation approximately describes how aerosols advected into the snow pack are removed from the air by diffusion to the snow matrix. Barometric pressure and wind speed data from several polar sites have been used to quantify the vertical volume flux of air and mass flux of NSS. Model results indicate that air flow over small sastrugi, wind carved snow dunes commonly found on ice caps, is the dominant dry deposition mechanism for NSS. Paleo wind speed and surface roughness can significantly influence the aerosol record in ice cores.

  16. Mixed sodium nickel-manganese sulfates: Crystal structure relationships between hydrates and anhydrous salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Delyana M.; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N.; Kukeva, Rositsa R.; Markov, Pavel V. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nihtianova, Diana D. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, Radostina K., E-mail: [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    The present contribution provides new structural and spectroscopic data on the formation of solid solutions between hydrated and dehydrated sulfate salts of sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese in a whole concentration range: Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·yH{sub 2}O, 0≤ x≤1.0. Using powder XRD, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), IR and Raman spectroscopy it has been found that double sodium-nickel and sodium-manganese salts form solid solutions Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O with a blödite-type of structure within a broad concentration range of 0≤x≤0.49, while the manganese rich compositions Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (0.97≤x≤1.0) crystallize in the kröhnkite-type of structure. The Ni-based blödites Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O dehydrate between 140 and 260 °C into anhydrous salts Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, 0≤ x≤0.44, with a structure where Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 6} octahedra are bridged into pairs by edge- and corner sharing SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups. Both TEM and EPR methods show that the Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions are homogenously distributed over three crystallographic positions of the large monoclinic cell. The dehydration of the kröhnkite phase Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O yields the alluaudite phase Na{sub 2+δ}Mn{sub 2-δ/2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where the Na-to-Mn ratio decreases and all Ni{sup 2+} dopants are released from the structure. The process of the dehydration is discussed in terms of structural aspects taking into account the distortion degree of the Ni,MnO{sub 6} and SO{sub 4} polyhedra. - Graphical abstract: Thermal dehydration of the blödite phase Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O (0≤ x≤0.49) yields nickel-manganese sulfates Na{sub 2}Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (0≤ x≤0.44) with

  17. Comparative toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm. (United States)

    Caplat, Christelle; Oral, Rahime; Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Mao, Andrea; Barillier, Daniel; Guida, Marco; Della Rocca, Claudio; Pagano, Giovanni


    The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS, but not SA Al(III)- and Zn(II)-exposed embryos vs. controls. Both Al(III) and Zn(II), up to 10 microM, from SA and SS, inhibited mitotic activity and induced mitotic aberrations in exposed embryos. SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant FR increase, unlike Al(III) sulfate overlapping with controls. Both SA-Zn(II) and Zn(II) sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant FR increase. The offspring of SA-Al(III)-exposed sperm displayed a significant DD decrease, unlike Al(III) sulfate exposure. Zinc sulfate sperm exposure resulted in a significant increase in offspring DDs, whereas SA-Zn(II) sperm exposure decreased DDs. Together, exposures to SA-dissolved Al(III) or Zn(II) resulted in lesser, if any toxicity, up to hormesis, compared to SS. Studies of metal speciation should elucidate the present results. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Salt effect on the (polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate) aqueous two-phase system: Relative hydrophobicity of the equilibrium phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luisa A., E-mail: [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Teixeira, Jose A. [IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)


    Highlights: > Gibbs free energy of transfer of a methylene group on PEG 8000 - Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} ATPS. > Influence of salt additive on the hydrophobic character of the coexisting phases. > Partitioning behavior of a series of five sodium salts of DNP-amino acids. > A relationship between {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}), TLL and I of the salt additive was established. - Abstract: The relative hydrophobicity of the phases of several {l_brace}polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 + sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){r_brace} aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs), all containing 0.01 mol . L{sup -1} sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB, pH 7.4) and increasing concentration of a salt additive, NaCl or KCl, up to 1.0 mol . L{sup -1}, was measured by the free energy of transfer of a methylene group between the phases, {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}). The {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) of the systems was determined by partitioning of a homologous series of five sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP) - amino acids with aliphatic side chains in three different tie-lines of each biphasic system. The relative hydrophobicity of the phases ranged from -0.125 to -0.183 kcal . mol{sup -1}, being the NaCl salt the one to provide the more effective changes. The results show that, within each system, there is a linear relationship between the {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) and the tie-line length (TLL), and biphasic systems with high salt additive concentration present the most negative {Delta}G(CH{sub 2}) values. Therefore, the feasibility of establishing a relationship between the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in a given TLL and the ionic strength of the salt additive was investigated and a satisfactory correlation was found for each salt.

  19. Slanic Tuff and associated Miocene evaporite deposits, Eastern Carpathians, Romania (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Barbu, Victor; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Wojtowicz, Artur; Duliu, Octavian


    Miocene tuffs of calcalkaline composition are widespread in the Carpathians, Pannonian and Eastern Alpine realm. Their occurrences are described in outcrops as well as in the subsurface. The presence of such tuffs may offer important criteria for stratigraphic correlations and help to establish the absolute age of deposits and associated climatic and environmental changes. The Green Stone Hill (Muntele Piatra Verde) is situated to the north of Slanic-Prahova salt mine, in the bend region of the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. From bottom to top the section is composed of: marls with Globigerina followed by the so called Slanic tuff, gypsum and salt breccia and, on the top, radiolarian bearing shales. The stratigraphic age of the section is Middle to Upper Badenian (nannoplankton zones NN5 to NN6). XRD investigations of the green Slanic tuff show that the main mineralogical component is clinoptilolite (zeolite) followed by quartz and plagioclase. For this type of tuff there is no crystalline phase, which may be used for radiometric dating. In the middle part of the green tuff interval, we found discrete layers of a much coarser white tuff, with mineralogy consisting of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and clinoptilolite. The white tuff forming distinct layers within the green tuff, has an andesitic composition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite concentrates from the white tuff gives an age of 13.6±0.2Ma, the dated layer being situated below the gypsum and salt breccia. We consider that the age is well constraining the time when the green tuffs were formed at the border of the basin. From this level upwards discrete gypsum layers occurs within the green tuffs, the age may be considered as indicating the base of the evaporitic sequence. To the south-east, from this level upwards evaporites, mainly salt formed. The age suggests that evaporitic deposits formed after the Mid Badenian climatic optimum, evaporitic formation being related to restricted circulation due the drop of sea

  20. Evaporite deposits of Bogota area, Cordillera Oriental, Colombia (United States)

    McLaughlin, Donald H.


    Four evaporite-bearing stratigraphic zones are known in Cretaceous strata of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia north and east of Bogota. The easternmost and oldest zone is probably of Berriasian to Valanginian age. The next oldest is probably late Barremian to early Aptian in age. The third appears to be Aptian. The westernmost and best known sequence in the Sabana de Bogota is Turonian to early Coniacian in age. This youngest sequence contains the thickest salt deposits known in Colombia and is probably the most widespread geographically.Most of the rock salt exposed in the three accessible mines (at Zipaquira, Nemocon, and Upin) has a characteristic lamination of alternating slightly argillaceous and highly argillaceous salt layers of varied but moderate thickness. Black, calcareous claystone, commonly very pyritic, is interbedded conformably with the laminated salt in many places throughout the deposits. Fragments of black claystone derived from the thinner interbeds are ubiquitous in all deposits, both as concordant breccia zones and as isolated clasts.Anhydrite is scarce at Zipaquira and apparently even rarer at Nemocon and Upin. Gypsum is produced at three small deposits in the oldest evaporite zone where it probably was concentrated by leaching of salt initially associated with it.The two intervening evaporite zones are not exposed, but their existence and distribution are indicated by brine springs and locally by "rute," a distinctive black, calcareous mud formed by the leaching of salt beds.Fossils show that the youngest salt-claystone zone, in the Sabana de Bogota, is contemporary with associated hematitic sandstone and siltstone, and with carbonaceous and locally coaly claystone. Although evidence is poor, this same facies relation probably exists within the other three evaporite zones.All salt deposits in this study probably are associated with anticlines, a relation best exemplified by the deposits on the Sabana de Bogota. Within these anticlines the

  1. Effects of Chloride and Sulfate Salts on the Inhibition or Promotion of Sucrose Crystallization in Initially Amorphous Sucrose-Salt Blends. (United States)

    Thorat, Alpana A; Forny, Laurent; Meunier, Vincent; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J


    The effects of salts on the stability of amorphous sucrose and its crystallization in different environments were investigated. Chloride (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 , CuCl 2 , FeCl 2 , FeCl 3 , and AlCl 3 ) and sulfate salts with the same cations (Na 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , CuSO 4 , Fe(II)SO 4 , and Fe(III)SO 4 ) were studied. Samples (sucrose controls and sucrose:salt 1:0.1 molar ratios) were lyophilized, stored in controlled temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions, and monitored for one month using X-ray diffraction. Samples were also analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, microscopy, and moisture sorption techniques. All lyophiles were initially amorphous, but during storage the presence of a salt had a variable impact on sucrose crystallization. While all samples remained amorphous when stored at 11 and 23% RH at 25 °C, increasing the RH to 33 and 40% RH resulted in variations in crystallization onset times. The recrystallization time generally followed the order monovalent cations crystallization.

  2. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal Setschenow salting constants in sulfate, nitrate, and chloride solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waxman, Eleanor M.; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo


    . We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0...

  3. Multiple and regioselective introduction of protected sulfates into carbohydrates using sulfuryl imidazolium salts. (United States)

    Desoky, Ahmed Y; Taylor, Scott D


    Selective incorporation of trichloroethyl (TCE)-protected sulfates into monosaccharides was examined using reagent 2. In general, sulfation of 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of galactosides and glucosides (2-OH versus 3-OH sulfations) proceeded in good to excellent yield and selectivity. Sulfation occurred predominantly at the 2-OH in 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of alpha-glucosides and at the 3-OH in 4,6-O-benzylidene acetals of beta-galactosides and beta-glucosides. Good yields and selectivity was also achieved for the 3-OH in 3,4-diols of glucosides and galactosides. A glucoside bearing a 2-amino moiety and 6-OH group gave mainly the N-sulfated product in good yield. Selective sulfation of the primary 6-OH in galactose and glucose derivatives bearing one or two free secondary hydroxyl groups was also achieved usually in good yield and selectivity. Reagent 2 was also effective for the direct disulfation of diols of glucosides and galactosides, and trisulfated monosaccharides could be prepared from the disulfated compounds.

  4. Interactions between selected bile salts and Triton X-100 or sodium lauryl ether sulfate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ćirin, Dejan M; Poša, Mihalj M; Krstonošić, Veljko S


    .... Bile salt mixed micelles are extensively studied as novel drug delivery systems. The objective of the present investigation is to develop and characterize mixed micelles of nonionic (Triton X-100) or anionic...

  5. Glyoxal and Methylglyoxal Setschenow Salting Constants in Sulfate, Nitrate, and Chloride Solutions: Measurements and Gibbs Energies. (United States)

    Waxman, Eleanor M; Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ziemann, Paul J; Volkamer, Rainer


    Knowledge about Setschenow salting constants, KS, the exponential dependence of Henry's Law coefficients on salt concentration, is of particular importance to predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from soluble species in atmospheric waters with high salt concentrations, such as aerosols. We have measured KS of glyoxal and methylglyoxal for the atmospherically relevant salts (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, NaNO3, and NaCl and find that glyoxal consistently "salts-in" (KS of -0.16, -0.06, -0.065, -0.1 molality(-1), respectively) while methylglyoxal "salts-out" (KS of +0.16, +0.075, +0.02, +0.06 molality(-1)). We show that KS values for different salts are additive and present an equation for use in atmospheric models. Additionally, we have performed a series of quantum chemical calculations to determine the interactions between glyoxal/methylglyoxal monohydrate with Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), and NH4(+) and find Gibbs free energies of water displacement of -10.9, -22.0, -22.9, 2.09, and 1.2 kJ/mol for glyoxal monohydrate and -3.1, -10.3, -7.91, 6.11, and 1.6 kJ/mol for methylglyoxal monohydrate with uncertainties of 8 kJ/mol. The quantum chemical calculations support that SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) modify partitioning, while cations do not. Other factors such as ion charge or partitioning volume effects likely need to be considered to fully explain salting effects.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates...

  7. Geothermal evolution of the evaporite-bearing sequences of the Lesser Himalaya, India (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Singh, B. P.


    Neoproterozoic evaporites occurring in the western part of the Lesser Himalaya in India, coeval to Pakistan, Iran and Oman evaporites, were investigated in order to understand the degree of metamorphism in them and in associated carbonates. The evaporite-bearing succession occurs in association of phyllite, quartzite and carbonate near the Main boundary Thrust. In order to learn the details about the burial history of these evaporite rocks, the Kübler illite crystallinity index (KI) was measured from the illite peaks of the clay minerals separated from the evaporite rocks and it indicated that this section has reached a maximum temperature up to ~300°C. Microthermometric measurements on fluid inclusions present in the associated dolomite show range of homogenization temperatures (Th), from 220 to 280°C, well within the temperature range of anchizone metamorphism. Additionally, dolomite shows a highly negative δ18O signature (mean, -15.5‰PDB), which is more likely related to diagenetic overprint from deep burial conditions rather than original precipitation from 18O-depleted seawater. The evaporites (sulfates and chloride) probably were transformed many times after their precipitation, but they have retained only the features developed during last one or two phases of alteration and deformation as they are continuously susceptible to minor changes in temperatures and stresses. The final temperature range of 42-78°C in sulfates and chloride gives thermal approximation estimate that is not in concordance with the thermal history of the basin and are likely related to conversion of anhydrite into gypsum and recrystallization of halite during exhumation. Highly negative oxygen isotopic composition, homogenization temperatures and KI values equivalent to a high anchizone metamorphism suggest a burial depth of ~10 km for these terminal Neoproterozoic evaporite-bearing sequences of the Lesser Himalaya.

  8. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland). (United States)

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis


    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... (United States)


    ... each pesticide's registration is based on current scientific and other knowledge, including its effects... availability of EPA's proposed registration review decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, and... periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure that each pesticide continues to satisfy the statutory...

  10. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography. (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua


    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Stopped-flow kinetic studies of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt. (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyan; Ge, Zhishen; Jiang, Xiaoze; Hassan, P A; Liu, Shiyong


    The kinetics and mechanism of sphere-to-rod transitions of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles induced by hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), were investigated by stopped-flow with light scattering detection. Spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles transform into short ellipsoidal shapes at low salt concentrations ([PTHC]/[SDS], chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.4). Upon stopped-flow mixing aqueous solutions of spherical SDS micelles with PTHC, the scattered light intensity gradually increases with time. Single exponential fitting of the dynamic traces leads to characteristic relaxation time, tau(g), for the growth process from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles, and it increases with increasing SDS concentrations. This suggests that ellipsoidal micelles might be produced by successive insertion of unimers into spherical micelles, similar to the case of formation of spherical micelles as suggested by Aniansson-Wall (A-W) theory. At chi(PTHC) > or = 0.5, rod-like micelles with much higher axial ratio form. The scattered light intensity exhibits an initially abrupt increase and then levels off. The dynamic curves can be well fitted with single exponential functions, and the obtained tau(g) decreases with increasing SDS concentration. Thus, the growth from spherical to rod-like micelles might proceed via fusion of spherical micelles, in agreement with mechanism proposed by Ikeda et al. At chi(PTHC)=0.3 and 0.6, the apparent activation energies obtained from temperature dependent kinetic studies for the micellar growth are 40.4 and 3.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The large differences between activation energies for the growth from spherical to ellipsoidal micelles at low chi(PTHC) and the sphere-to-rod transition at high chi(PTHC) further indicate that they should follow different mechanisms. Moreover, the sphere-to-rod transition kinetics of sodium alkyl sulfate with varying hydrophobic chain lengths (n=10, 12, 14, and 16) are also studied. The longer the carbon chain

  12. Mineral carbonation of phosphogypsum waste for production of useful carbonate and sulfate salts


    Hannu-Petteri eMattila; Ron eZevenhoven


    Phosphogypsum (CaSO4·2H2O, PG) waste is produced in large amounts during phosphoric acid (H3PO4) production. Minor quantities are utilized in construction or agriculture, while most of the material is stockpiled, creating an environmental challenge to prevent pollution of natural waters. In principle, the gypsum waste could be used to capture several hundred megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2). For example, when gypsum is converted to ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] with ammonia (NH3) and CO2, al...

  13. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt. (United States)

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W


    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  14. Terrestrial Evaporite Analogues for Identifying Extremophiles (Past or Present) from Potential Mars Evaporites (United States)

    Morris, P.; Wentworth, S.; Byrne, M.; Nelman, M.; Longazo, T.; Allen, C.; Brigmon, R.; McKay, D.

    An understanding of terrestrial evaporite microbial biota, their markers and fossilization processes is important for identifying potential present or past life signs from extraterrestrial sources such as Mars meteorites and Mars sample return. Storrs Lake, San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Mono Lake, California and the Dead Sea, Israel represent marine and nonmarine sites for comparative investigative studies of potential Mars analogues. Variations between the sites can be attributed to salinity, pH, water chemistry, and seasonal temperature changes, all of which can affect microbial abundance, fossilization, and mineral formation. Storr's Lake, located at sea level, pH 8, salinity averaging 7 g/l. has extensive stromatolitic structures0 composed of biofilm, rods, filaments, cocci and diatoms. The fossilized organic remains are generally composed of magnesium enriched calcium carbonate. Mono Lake is 2100 meters above sea level, pH and salinity are similar to Storr's Lake, and it has various evaporite and carbonate deposits including tufa structures that vary in height from less than 1 meter to over 4 meters. Algae, cyanobacteria, diatoms, and other microbial forms are present and contribute to t e formation of evaporiteh deposits including tufas. The Dead Sea is 400 m below sea level, pH 6.3 in the upper water mass, salinity averaging 229.9 g/l, and possesses extensive salt deposits with scant evidence of microbial fossilization as large carbonate structures such as tufas and stromatolites are absent. Modern investigative tools can identify microbes from all of these environments, but confirming the presence of fossilized microbes and their biomarkers subsequent to burial and lithification is more difficult. The goal of this study is to identify these biomarkers and test their suitability for identifying extraterrestrial microbial remains.

  15. The Messinian evaporites in the Levant Basin: lithology, deformation and its evolution (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Steinberg, Josh; Reshef, Moshe


    The lithological composition of the Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin remains controversial and salt deformation mechanisms are still not fully understood, due to the lack of high resolution 3D depth seismic data and well logs that record the entire evaporite sequence. We demonstrate how 3D Pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) and intra-salt tomography can lead to improved salt imaging. Using 3D PSDM seismic data with great coverage and deepwater well log data from recently drilled boreholes, we reveal intra-salt reflective units associated with thin clastic layers and a seismic transparent background consisting of uniform pure halite. Structural maps of all internal reflectors are generated for stratigraphy and attributes analysis. High amplitude fan structures in the lowermost intra-salt reflector are observed, which may indicate the source of the clastic formation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). The Messinian evaporite in the Levant Basin comprises six units; the uppermost unit thickens towards the northwest, whereas the other units are uniform in thickness. The top of salt (TS) horizon is relatively horizontal, while all other intra-salt reflectors and base of salt (BS) dip towards the northwest. Different seismic attributes are used for identification of intra-salt deformation patterns. Maximum curvature maps show NW-striking thrust faults on the TS and upper intra-salt units, and dip azimuth maps are used to show different fold orientations between the TS and intra-salt units, which indicate a two-phase deformation mechanism: basin NW tilting as syn-depositional phase and NNE spreading of Plio-Pleistocene overburden as post-depositional phase. RMS amplitude maps are used to identify a channelized system on the TS. An evaporite evolution model during the MSC of the Levant Basin is therefore established based on all the observations. Finally the mechanical properties of the salts will be utilized to explore salt deformation in the Levant Basin

  16. Sulfur-accumulating plants convert sulfate salts from soils into environmentally resilient biominerals (United States)

    Robson, Thomas; Reid, Nathan; Stevens, Jason; Dixon, Kingsley


    Sulfur-accumulator plants (thiophores), which accumulate atypically high sulfur and calcium concentrations in their aerial biomass, may be suitable for revegetating and phytostabilising reactive sulfur-enriched substrates such as mine tailings, acid-sulfate soils and polluted soils. We present biogeochemical insights on thiophores from the Australian Great Sandy Desert, which accumulate up to 40 times as much sulfur (2-5 %S) versus comparator species. X-ray microanalyses revealed this accumulation relates to peculiar gypsum-like mineralisation throughout their foliage, illustrating a mechanism for sulfate removal from soils and sequestration as sparingly soluble biominerals. However, we did not know whether these species treat the excess Ca/S as a waste to be shed with senescent litter and, if so, how resilient these 'biominerals' are to photo-biodegradation once shed and so to what extent the accumulated elements are recycled back into the reactive/bioavailable sulfate reservoir. To address these questions, we sampled four foliage (phyllode) fractions from ten individuals of the thiophore, Acacia bivenosa: healthy mature phyllodes, senescent phyllodes on the branch, recently shed and older, more degraded ground litter. We selected two thiophores (A. bivenosa and A. robeorum) and a non-thiophore (A. ancistrocarpa) for detailed soil/regolith studies. Samples were collected from trenches bisected by each tree, taken from varying depth (20-500 mm) and distance from the stem (0.1-5 m). Dried foliage was cleaned, sectioned for SEM-EDXS examination and elemental compositions of foliage and soils were determined (microwave-assisted acid digestion + ICP-OES/MS). Each species generated a 'halo' of elevated S/Ca in the soil immediately beneath their crowns, although that of A. ancistrocarpa was of minor magnitude. These anomalies were confined to shallow soil (20-50 mm i.e. influenced by litter), suggesting limited S/Ca re-mobilisation from the litter. Foliar elemental

  17. Discovery of the Badenian evaporites inside the Carpathian Arc: implications for global climate change and Paratethys salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Báldi Katalin


    Full Text Available Massive evaporites were discovered in the Soltvadkert Trough (Great Plain, Hungary correlating to the Badenian Salinity Crisis (13.8 Ma, Middle Miocene on the basis of nannoplankton and foraminifera biostratigraphy. This new occurrence from Hungary previously thought to be devoid of evaporites is part of a growing body of evidence of evaporitic basins inside the Carpathian Arc. We suggest the presence of evaporites perhaps in the entire Central Paratethys during the salinity crisis. Different scenarios are suggested for what subsequently happened to these evaporites to explain their presence or absence in the geological record. Where they are present, scenario A suggests that they were preserved in subsiding, deep basins overlain by younger sediments that protected the evaporites from reworking, like in the studied area. Where they are absent, scenario B suggests recycling. Scenario B explains how the supposedly brackish Sarmatian could have been hyper/normal saline locally by providing a source of the excess salt from the reworking and dissolving of BSC halite into seawater. These scenarios suggest a much larger amount of evaporites locked up in the Central Paratethys during the salinity crisis then previously thought, probably contributing to the step-like nature of cooling of the Mid Miocene Climate Transition, the coeval Mi3b.

  18. Characterization of LIBS emission lines for the identification of chlorides, carbonates, and sulfates in salt/basalt mixtures for the application to MSL ChemCam data (United States)

    Anderson, D. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Forni, O.; Clegg, S. M.; Cousin, A.; Thomas, N. H.; Lasue, J.; Delapp, D. M.; McInroy, R. E.; Gasnault, O.; Dyar, M. D.; Schröder, S.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.


    Ancient environmental conditions on Mars can be probed through the identification of minerals on its surface, including water-deposited salts and cements dispersed in the pore space of sedimentary rocks. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analyses by the Martian rover Curiosity's ChemCam instrument can indicate salts, and ChemCam surveys aid in identifying and selecting sites for further, detailed in situ analyses. We performed laboratory LIBS experiments under simulated Mars conditions with a ChemCam-like instrument on a series of mixtures containing increasing concentrations of salt in a basaltic background to investigate the potential for identifying and quantifying chloride, carbonate, and sulfate salts found only in small amounts, dispersed in bulk rock with ChemCam, rather than concentrated in veins. Data indicate that the presence of emission lines from the basalt matrix limited the number of Cl, C, and S emission lines found to be useful for quantitative analysis; nevertheless, several lines with intensities sensitive to salt concentration were identified. Detection limits for the elements based on individual emission lines ranged from 20 wt % carbonate (2 wt % C), 5-30 wt % sulfate (1-8 wt % S), and 5-10 wt % chloride (3-6 wt % Cl) depending on the basaltic matrix and/or salt cation. Absolute quantification of Cl, C, and S in the samples via univariate analysis depends on the cation-anion pairing in the salt but appears relatively independent of matrices tested, following normalization. These results are promising for tracking relative changes in the salt content of bulk rock on the Martian surface with ChemCam.

  19. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer


    Harris, E; SINHA, B; Hoppe, P.; Foley, S.; Borrmann, S.


    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g). However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by h...

  20. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer


    Borrmann, S.; Hoppe, P.; Foley, S.; SINHA, B; Harris, E


    The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g). However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by h...

  1. Formation of Authigenic Sulfates in Cold Dry Glaciers: Terrestrial and Planetary Implications of Sublimites (United States)

    Massé, M.; Rondeau, B.; Ginot, P.; Schmitt, B.; Bourgeois, O.; Mitri, G.


    Salts are common on planetary surfaces, and sulfates have been widely observed on Earth, Mars (Gendrin et al., 2005) and on some of Jupiter's and Saturn's icy moons like Europa (Dalton et al., 2007). These minerals can form under a wide range of conditions, and the determination of sulfate formation processes can provide key elements for deciphering past planetary surface conditions. Most terrestrial sulfates form as evaporites in warm environments with high water/rock ratios, but these conditions are rarely encountered on other planets. Here we describe the formation of cryogenic sulfates in an extreme cold and dry environment: the Guanaco glacier located in the Chilean Andes (Fig.1a, Rabatel et al., 2011). Field analyses reveal that it is a cold-based glacier, its surface temperature remains below 0°C throughout the year, and ablation occurs mostly by sublimation. Ablation creates ice cliffs punctuated of pluricentimetric whitish, tapered crystals embedded in the ice (Fig.1b, c). By Raman and chemistry, they proved to be gypsum, covered by micrometric crystals of jarosite, halotrichite and native sulfur. The euhedral morphology of these soft minerals indicates that they are neoformed and have not been transported in the ice. This is supported by the absence of gypsum crystals in ice cores drilled through the glacier. We infer that the crystallization thus occurred at the glacier surface during ice sublimation and does not involve liquid water. To distinguish this original salt formation process from the more common evaporites, we name these minerals "sublimites". Though this formation process is uncommon and generates minor quantities of sulfates on Earth, it may be dominant on other bodies in the Solar System where sublimation is effective. Examples of planetary sublimites may include gypsum on the North Polar Cap of Mars (Massé et al., 2012), and other sulfates on icy moons where sublimation has been observed (Howard et al., 2008).

  2. Origin of salt additive effect on solute partitioning in aqueous polyethylene glycol-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase system. (United States)

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Mikheeva, Larissa M; Teixeira, José A; Zaslavsky, Boris Y


    Partitioning of a homologous series of dinitrophenylted (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic side chains was examined in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000-sodium sulfate two-phase systems (ATPS) with the additives NaSCN, NaClO4, and NaH2PO4 at concentrations varied from 0.025M up to 0.54M. The differences between the relative hydrophobicities and electrostatic properties of the two phases in all ATPS were estimated. Partitioning of adenine, adenosine mono-, di- and tri-phosphates was also examined in all ATPSs, including those with NaCl additive. Partition coefficients for these compounds and for nonionic organic compounds previously reported [L.A. Ferreira, P. Parpot, J.A. Teixeira, L.M. Mikheeva, B.Y. Zaslavsky, J. Chromatogr. A 1220 (2012) 14.] were analyzed in terms of linear solvent regression relationship. The results obtained suggest that the effects of the salts additives are related to their influence on the water structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaporite karst in Italy: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jo De Waele; Leonardo Piccini; Andrea Columbu; Giuliana Madonia; Marco Vattano; Chiara Calligaris; Ilenia M D'Angeli; Mario Parise; Mauro Chiesi; Michele Sivelli; Bartolomeo Vigna; Luca Zini; Veronica Chiarini; Francesco Sauro; Russell Drysdale; Paolo Forti


    .... More recent and detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia-Romagna and Sicily. Sinkholes related to Permian-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia. This article reviews the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results.

  4. Salting-out extraction of allicin from garlic (Allium sativum L.) based on ethanol/ammonium sulfate in laboratory and pilot scale. (United States)

    Li, Fenfang; Li, Qiao; Wu, Shuanggen; Tan, Zhijian


    Salting-out extraction (SOE) based on lower molecular organic solvent and inorganic salt was considered as a good substitute for conventional polymers aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) used for the extraction of some bioactive compounds from natural plants resources. In this study, the ethanol/ammonium sulfate was screened as the optimal SOE system for the extraction and preliminary purification of allicin from garlic. Response surface methodology (RSM) was developed to optimize the major conditions. The maximum extraction efficiency of 94.17% was obtained at the optimized conditions for routine use: 23% (w/w) ethanol concentration and 24% (w/w) salt concentration, 31g/L loaded sample at 25°C with pH being not adjusted. The extraction efficiency had no obvious decrease after amplification of the extraction. This ethanol/ammonium sulfate SOE is much simpler, cheaper, and effective, which has the potentiality of scale-up production for the extraction and purification of other compounds from plant resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaporite karst in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo De Waele


    Full Text Available Although outcropping rarely in Italy, evaporite (gypsum and anhydrite karst has been described in detail since the early 20th century. Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions, but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche, Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum mines in Piedmont. During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies were carried out in many gypsum areas, resulting in a comprehensive overview, promoting further research in these special karst regions. More recent and detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia-Romagna and Sicily. Sinkholes related to Permian-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia. This article reviews the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results.

  6. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing activity at salt-saturation in the salterns of Ribandar, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    straw-mud plugs in the bandhs. Water gets heated up evaporates in the sun, forming frothy layer at saturation. To speed up crystallization, the pan is seeded with crude salt. In the peak salt producing season, salt is harvested and collected daily.... Part1: Unammended sediment from 3 depths incubated for 24 and 48hrs: Triplicate mini cores from the above intact cores (85 and 330 psu) were prepared corresponding to the three depths by removing the luer tips from plastic disposable syringes (2ml...

  7. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes during heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on sea salt aerosol: a new tool to investigate non-sea salt sulfate production in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann


    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate on sea salt aerosols in the marine environment is highly important because of its effect on the size distribution of sulfate and the potential for new particle nucleation from H2SO4 (g. However, models of the sulfur cycle are not currently able to account for the complex relationship between particle size, alkalinity, oxidation pathway and rate – which is critical as SO2 oxidation by O3 and Cl catalysis are limited by aerosol alkalinity, whereas oxidation by hypohalous acids and transition metal ions can continue at low pH once alkalinity is titrated. We have measured 34S/32S fractionation factors for SO2 oxidation in sea salt, pure water and NaOCl aerosol, as well as the pH dependency of fractionation. Oxidation of SO2 by NaOCl aerosol was extremely efficient, with a reactive uptake coefficient of ≈0.5, and produced sulfate that was enriched in 32S with αOCl = 0.9882±0.0036 at 19 °C. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol was much less efficient than on NaOCl aerosol, suggesting alkalinity was already exhausted on the short timescale of the experiments. Measurements at pH = 2.1 and 7.2 were used to calculate fractionation factors for each step from SO2(g → multiple steps → SOOCl2−. Oxidation on sea salt aerosol resulted in a lower fractionation factor than expected for oxidation of SO32− by O3 (αseasalt = 1.0124±0.0017 at 19 °C. Comparison of the lower fractionation during oxidation on sea salt aerosol to the fractionation factor for high pH oxidation shows HOCl contributed 29% of S(IV oxidation on sea salt in the short experimental timescale, highlighting the potential importance of hypohalous acids in the marine environment. The sulfur isotope fractionation factors measured in this study allow differentiation between the alkalinity-limited pathways – oxidation by O3 and by Cl catalysis (α34 = 1.0163±0.0018 at 19 °C in pure water or 1.0199±0.0024 at pH = 7.2 – which favour the heavy isotope, and

  8. Earth analogs for Martian life - Microbes in evaporites, a new model system for life on Mars (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.


    It is suggested that 'oases' in which life forms may persist on Mars could occur, by analogy with terrestrial cases, in (1) rocks, as known in endolithic microorganisms, (2) polar ice caps, as seen in snow and ice algae, and (3) volcanic regions, as witnessed in the chemoautotrophs which live in ocean-floor hydrothermal vents. Microorganisms, moreover, have been known to survive in salt crystals, and it has even been shown that organisms can metabolize while encrusted in evaporites. Evaporites which may occur on Mars would be able to attenuate UV light, while remaining more transparent to the 400-700 nm radiation useful in photosynthesis. Suggestions are made for the selection of Martian exobiological investigation sites.

  9. Electro-desalination of sulfate contaminated carbonaceous sandstone – risk for salt induced decay during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Sodium-sulphate is known to cause severe stone damage. This paper is focused on removal of this salt from carbonaceous sandstone by electro-desalination (ED). The research questions are related to possible stone damage during ED and subsequently suction cycles are made in distilled water before......, during and after ED. During suction in water the salts are concentrated in the upper part of the sandstone. After 2 days of treatment the average water soluble SO42- concentration was half the initial and for this sample corners were damaged as was the case for the reference stone. After 4 days of ED...... did not happen, though the data material is too scarce to make a final conclusion. In summary, this investigation did support that ED removes the salts without new damaging side effects in the stone....

  10. Mechanical stratification of autochthonous salt: Implications from basin-scale numerical models of rifted margin salt tectonics (United States)

    Ings, Steven; Albertz, Markus


    Deformation of salt and sediments owing to the flow of weak evaporites is a common phenomenon in sedimentary basins worldwide, and the resulting structures and thermal regimes have a significant impact on hydrocarbon exploration. Evaporite sequences ('salt') of significant thickness (e.g., >1km) are typically deposited in many cycles of seawater inundation and evaporation in restricted basins resulting in layered autochthonous evaporite packages. However, analogue and numerical models of salt tectonics typically treat salt as a homogeneous viscous material, often with properties of halite, the weakest evaporite. In this study, we present results of two-dimensional plane-strain numerical experiments designed to illustrate the effects of variable evaporite viscosity and embedded frictional-plastic ('brittle') sediment layers on the style of salt flow and associated deformation of the sedimentary overburden. Evaporite viscosity is a first-order control on salt flow rate and the style of overburden deformation. Near-complete evacuation of low-viscosity salt occurs beneath expulsion basins, whereas significant salt is trapped when viscosity is high. Embedded frictional-plastic sediment layers (with finite yield strength) partition salt flow and develop transient contractional structures (folds, thrust faults, and folded faults) in a seaward salt-squeeze flow regime. Multiple internal sediment layers reduce the overall seaward salt flow during sediment aggradation, leaving more salt behind to be re-mobilized during subsequent progradation. This produces more seaward extensive allochthonous salt sheets. If there is a density difference between the embedded layers and the surrounding salt, then the embedded layers 'fractionate' during deformation and either float to the surface or sink to the bottom (depending on density), creating a thick zone of pure halite. Such a process of 'buoyancy fractionation' may partially explain the apparent paradox of layered salt in

  11. Sulfate burial constraints on the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle. (United States)

    Halevy, Itay; Peters, Shanan E; Fischer, Woodward W


    The sulfur cycle influences the respiration of sedimentary organic matter, the oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans, and the composition of seawater. However, the factors governing the major sulfur fluxes between seawater and sedimentary reservoirs remain incompletely understood. Using macrostratigraphic data, we quantified sulfate evaporite burial fluxes through Phanerozoic time. Approximately half of the modern riverine sulfate flux comes from weathering of recently deposited evaporites. Rates of sulfate burial are unsteady and linked to changes in the area of marine environments suitable for evaporite formation and preservation. By contrast, rates of pyrite burial and weathering are higher, less variable, and largely balanced, highlighting a greater role of the sulfur cycle in regulating atmospheric oxygen.

  12. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh. (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.


    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  13. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.


    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Penny Morris, P; Garriet Smith, G


    Evaporitic environments are found in a variety of depositional environments as early as the Archean. The depositional settings, microbial community and mineralogical composition vary significantly as no two settings are identical. The common thread linking all of the settings is that evaporation exceeds precipitation resulting in elevated concentrations of cations and anions that are higher than in oceanic systems. The Dead Sea and Storrs Lake are examples of two diverse modern evaporitic settings as the former is below sea level and the latter is a coastal lake on an island in the Caribbean. Each system varies in water chemistry as the Dead Sea dissolved ions originate from surface weathered materials, springs, and aquifers while Storrs Lake dissolved ion concentration is primarily derived from sea water. Consequently some of the ions, i.e., Sr, Ba are found at significantly lower concentrations in Storrs Lake than in the Dead Sea. The origin of the dissolved ions are ultimately responsible for the pH of each system, alkaline versus mildly acidic. Each system exhibits unique biogeochemical properties as the extreme environments select certain microorganisms. Storrs Lake possesses significant biofilms and stromatolitic deposits and the alkalinity varies depending on rainfall and storm activity. The microbial community Storrs Lake is much more diverse and active than those observed in the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea waters are mildly acidic, lack stromatolites, and possess a lower density of microbial populations. The general absence of microbial and biofilm fossilization is due to the depletion of HCO{sub 3} and slightly acidic pH.

  15. Point locations and characteristics of evaporite-related potash deposits (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial database of evaporite-related potash deposits and occurrences provides location and descriptive information for 981 deposits and occurrences that are...

  16. Evaluation of Normal and Nanolayer Composite Thermal Barrier Coatings in Fused Vanadate-Sulfate Salts at 1000°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Daroonparvar


    Full Text Available Hot corrosion behavior of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, YSZ/normal Al2O3, and YSZ/nano-Al2O3 coatings was investigated in the presence of molten mixture of Na2SO4 + V2O5 at 1000°C. Microstructural characterization showed that the creation of hot corrosion products containing YVO4 crystals and monoclinic ZrO2 is primarily related to the reaction between NaVO3 and Y2O3 during hot corrosion. The lowest amount of hot corrosion products was observed in YSZ as an inner layer of YSZ/nano-Al2O3 coating. Hence, it can be concluded that the presence of nanostructured Al2O3 layer over the conventional YSZ coating can considerably reduce the infiltration of molten corrosive salts into the YSZ layer during hot corrosion which is mainly related to the compactness of nanostructured alumina layer (including nanoregions in comparison with normal alumina layer.

  17. Suppression of Raman electron spin relaxation of radicals in crystals. Comparison of Cu2+ and free radical relaxation in triglycine sulfate and Tutton salt single crystals. (United States)

    Hoffmann, S K; Goslar, J; Lijewski, S


    Electron spin-lattice relaxation was measured by the electron spin echo method in a broad temperature range above 4.2 K for Cu(2+) ions and free radicals produced by ionizing radiation in triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Tutton salt (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O crystals. Localization of the paramagnetic centres in the crystal unit cells was determined from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra. Various spin relaxation processes and mechanisms are outlined. Cu(2+) ions relax fast via two-phonon Raman processes in both crystals involving the whole phonon spectrum of the host lattice. This relaxation is slightly slower for TGS where Cu(2+) ions are in the interstitial position. The ordinary Raman processes do not contribute to the radical relaxation which relaxes via the local phonon mode. The local mode lies within the acoustic phonon band for radicals in TGS but within the optical phonon range in (NH4)(2)Zn(SO4)2 ⋅ 6H2O. In the latter the cross-relaxation was considered. A lack of phonons around the radical molecules suggested a local crystal amorphisation produced by x- or γ-rays.

  18. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach. (United States)

    Dutt, G B


    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules.

  19. Integrated stratigraphy and chronology of Messinian evaporites from the Levant basin in the deep eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Meilijson, Aaron; Steinberg, Josh; Hilgen, Frits; Bialik, Or; Ilner, Peter; Waldmann, Nicolas; Makovsky, Yizhaq


    The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC) is perceived as an environmental crisis governed by climatic and tectonic controls, affecting global oceans salinity and shaping the Mediterranean's bio-chemical composition. The elaborate and ongoing study of the Mediterranean MSC is mainly focused on marginal and intermediate sections from which material was previously available. This relatively proximal data is also coupled with offshore seismic data and several wells which have penetrated the deep-basin Messinian salt in its uppermost parts, for producing stratigraphic models and hypotheses related to the distal occurrence of the MSC. These offshore assumptions could only be tested by drilling in the deep Mediterranean Sea. In this work we investigate these fascinating deposits from previously inaccessible domains in the deepest realms of the Mediterranean, and correlate this data with the much more abundant and elaborate findings reported from the marginal and intermediate depositional environments. Here we provide for the first time high resolution sedimentological, faunal and geochemical data from the entire massive Messinian evaporite section of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basin. We have analyzed an extensive set of well cuttings while correlating results to well logs and seismic data, and constructed a chronostratigraphic model based on biostratigraphy and astrochronology. We present a detailed account of the pre- and evaporitic Messinian as it occurred in the deep Levant basin, identifying paleo life in the form of diatoms, foraminifera and ostracods within different parts of the section. Our results indicate that salt was deposited during the complete 640 kyr-long MSC, rather than limited to the 50 kyr (stage 2) MSC acme. Moreover, the deep-basin was barren of eukaryotic life throughout most of this duration, at least in the Levant. Thus brine formation, salt precipitation and faunal extinction took place in a non-desiccated basin, having a restricted but often open

  20. Evaporites as a source for oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, B.C.; Benalihioulhaj, S. (Queens Coll., Flushing, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology); Philp, R.P. (Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics)


    Organic matter, present in some sediments, acts as the source for hydrocarbons and has been studied at great length, but organic-rich sediments from hypersaline environments are just beginning to be understood. Many types of organic matter from such restricted environments have been identified, and in this study their maturation pathways and products are being explored. By collecting biologically-identified organic matter produced within modern evaporative environments from a number of different marine and nonmarine settings and carrying out detailed geochemical examination of samples we are gradually beginning to understand these materials. The organic samples collected were from evaporative marine, sabkha, and lacustrine deposits, and have been subjected to two types of artificial maturation, hydrous and confined pyrolysis, over a fairly wide range of temperatures (1500 to 350[degrees]C). The biomarker products of these treatments are being analyzed and followed in great detail. Analyses of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons as well as sulfur compounds in the original and the matured samples provide a comprehensive view of the biomarker assemblages associated with these different depositional environments at different stages of maturity. Infrared spectroscopy and Rock Eval pyrolysis of both the isolated kerogens from both the original and pyrolyzed samples has permitted us to clearly characterize the functional groupings on the one hand and the free hydrocarbons, the potential hydrocarbons, and the oxygenated compounds on the other hand. We have thus been able to demonstrate the potential of the organic matter associated with the different evaporitic environments to act as a good source for oil generation.

  1. Multiple techniques for mineral identification of terrestrial evaporites relevant to Mars exploration (United States)

    Stivaletta, N.; Dellisanti, F.; D'Elia, M.; Fonti, S.; Mancarella, F.


    Sulfates, commonly found in evaporite deposits, were observed on Mars surface during orbital remote sensing and surface exploration. In terrestrial environments, evaporite precipitation creates excellent microniches for microbial colonization, especially in desert areas. Deposits comprised of gypsum, calcite, quartz and silicate deposits (phyllosilicates, feldspars) from Sahara Desert in southern Tunisia contain endolithic colonies just below the rock surface. Previous optical observations verified the presence of microbial communities and, as described in this paper, spectral visible analyses have led to identification of chlorophylls belonging to photosynthetic bacteria. Spectral analyses in the infrared region have clearly detected the presence of gypsum and phyllosilicates (mainly illite and/or smectite), as well as traces of calcite, but not quartz. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has identified the dominant presence of gypsum as well as that of other secondary minerals such as quartz, feldspars and Mg-Al-rich phyllosilicates, such as chlorite, illite and smectite. The occurrence of a small quantity of calcite in all the samples was also highlighted by the loss of CO2 by thermal analysis (TG-DTA). A normative calculation using XRD, thermal data and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has permitted to obtain the mineralogical concentration of the minerals occurring in the samples. The combination of multiple techniques provides information about the mineralogy of rocks and hence indication of environments suitable for supporting microbial life on Mars surface.

  2. Crystal structure of tris(piperidinium hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. Lukianova


    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N+·HSO4−·SO42−, each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen bonds.

  3. Chondroitin Sulfate (United States)

    ... a complex with iron for treating iron-deficiency anemia. Chondroitin sulfate is available as an eye drop ... chondroitin sulfate together with xanthan gum (PRO-148, Laboratorios Sophia, SA de CV, Guadalajara, Mexico) four times ...

  4. Contribution of an ancient evaporitic-type reservoir to lake vostok chemistry (United States)

    de Angelis, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Savarino, J.; Petit, J. R.


    Accretion ice 1 (3538 to 3608 m) contents visible sediment inclusions likely incorporated into ice in a shallow bay upstream Vostok where glacier moves against a relief rise. Ion chromatography measurements indicate that elemental concentrations are linked to inclusions abundances. More than 80% of SO_42- is present as CaSO_4 or MgSO_4. While SO_42- concentrations and the relative proportion of CaSO_4 and MgSO_4 varies in a wide range in accreted ice, concentration profiles of Na and Cl, present as NaCl, are much more regular even along individual crystals. Question rises about the presence of such salts in lake water: The 17O anomaly of sulphate in one samples taken at 3570 m suggests that less than 10% of total sulphate comes from DMS oxidation, ruling out any significant contribution of glacer melt water. Fe concentrations are low (10 ppb) excluding sulphate production from the pyrite oxidation by biogenic in-situ activity. This conclusion is supported by the isotopic signature of 34S. Taken all together, these observations strongly suggest the contribution of an evaporitic-type basin to the lake salinity. Assuming that sediments accumulated in an isolated reservoir prior the lake formation, seismotectonic activated hydrothermal circulation may pulse NaCl rich water with sulphate salts through faults up to their vents in a shallow bay upstream Vostok, where they could be incorporated in the accreted ice and also contribute to lake salinity.

  5. Identification, prediction and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas


    F. Gutiérrez; Cooper, Anthony; Johnson, Kenneth


    Abstract Sinkholes usually have a higher probability of occurrence and a greater genetic diversity in evaporite terrains than in carbonate karst areas. This is because evaporites have a higher solubility, and commonly a lower mechanical strength. Subsidence damage resulting from evaporite dissolution generates substantial losses throughout the world, but the causes are only well-understood in a few areas. To deal with these hazards, a phased approach is needed for sinkhole identification, inv...

  6. Deriving a History of Deposition and Alteration from Phyllosilicate-Sulfate Associations at Gale Crater (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.


    Gale Crater, field site for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, is located in one of the most chlorine- and sulfur-rich areas detected by Odyssey gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) along the dichotomy boundary between Mars' southern cratered highlands and the northern plains. Comparably elevated chlorine and sulfur abundances occur in Arabia Terra, where modeling and MER Opportunity observations suggest that groundwater upwelling led to evaporite salt precipitation. In a deep crater such as Gale upwelling may have produced playa systems. High GRS sulfur at Gale Crater is supported by visible-infrared spectra in Gale's central mound consistent with Mg-sulfates (kieserite and polyhydrated), interstratified with smectite. There is a significant (~20 m) section with abundant nontronite and little or no evidence of hydrated sulfate in the lower mound. Mineral stratification at Gale promises the possibility of capturing a transition in sedimentary environment between phyllosilicate- and sulfate-dominated deposition. Sedimentary fabrics, textures, and mineralogy all bear on determining sedimentary history and Gale will provide an exceptionally detailed history through Curiosity's instrument suite. Should the clay minerals at Gale be limited to nontronite and other smectites, with little evidence of chlorite or mixed layer chlorite/smectite, limits can be placed on the extent of interaction with Mg-sulfate solutions. Gale has evidence of being at one time completely filled and a lack of chloritic forms would be particularly limiting on occurrence and composition of paleo-groundwater. Complete infilling of Gale would likely result in past burial temperatures, at the deep elevation of the landing site, favoring chloritization of smectite if concentrated Mg-sulfate groundwater were present. Sedimentary history at Gale may be further constrained by absence or presence of Ca-sulfates, which should form by cation exchange between smectite and Mg-enriched brines if the

  7. Bacterial and Archaeal Lipids Recovered from Subsurface Evaporites of Dalangtan Playa on the Tibetan Plateau and Their Astrobiological Implications (United States)

    Cheng, Ziye; Xiao, Long; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Huan; Li, Jingjing; Huang, Ting; Xu, Yi; Ma, Nina


    Qaidam Basin (Tibetan Plateau) is considered an applicable analogue to Mars with regard to sustained extreme aridity and abundant evaporites. To investigate the possibility of the preservation of microbial lipids under these Mars analog conditions, we conducted a mineralogical and organic geochemistry study on samples collected from two Quaternary sections in Dalangtan Playa, northwestern Qaidam Basin, which will enhance our understanding of the potential preservation of molecular biomarkers on Mars. Two sedimentary units were identified along two profiles: one salt unit characterized by a predominance of gypsum and halite, and one detrital unit with a decrease of gypsum and halite and enrichment in siliciclastic minerals. Bacterial fatty acids and archaeal acyclic diether and tetraether membrane lipids were detected, and they varied throughout the sections in concentration and abundance. Bacterial and archaeal biomolecules indicate a dominance of Gram-positive bacteria and halophilic archaea in this hypersaline ecosystem that is similar to those in other hypersaline environments. Furthermore, the abundance of bacterial lipids decreases with the increase of salinity, whereas archaeal lipids showed a reverse trend. The detection of microbial lipids in hypersaline environments would indicate, for example on Mars, a high potential for the detection of microbial biomarkers in evaporites over geological timescales.

  8. Frictional properties and slip stability of active faults within carbonate-evaporite sequences: The role of dolomite and anhydrite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scuderi, M.M.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Collettini, C.; Marone, C.


    Seismological observations show that many destructive earthquakes nucleate within, or propagate through, thick sequences of carbonates and evaporites. For example, along the Apennines range (Italy) carbonate and evaporite sequences are present at hypocentral depths for recent major earthquakes

  9. Origin of deformed halite hopper crystals, pseudomorphic anhydrite cubes and polyhalite in Alpine evaporites (Austria, Germany). (United States)

    Leitner, C; Neubauer, F; Marschallinger, R; Genser, J; Bernroider, M

    The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation represents an Upper Permian to Lower Triassic evaporitic rift succession of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps). Although the rocksalt body deposits are highly tectonised, consisting mainly of protocataclasites and mylonites of halite and mudrock, the early diagenetic history can be established from non-tectonised mudrock bodies: Cm-sized euhedral halite hopper crystals formed as displacive cubes within mud just during shallow burial. The crystals were deformed by subsequent compaction. Later, migrating fluids led to the replacement of halite by anhydrite retaining the shapes of deformed halite cubes. Polyhalite formed from subsequent enhanced fluid migration. Mudrock provided water by dewatering, while potassium and magnesium were dissolved from primary salt minerals. When these fluids interacted with sulphates, polyhalite precipitated. 40Ar/39Ar analyses date the polyhalite from within the retaining shapes of deformed halite hopper-shaped cubes from two localities to ca. 235-232 Ma (Middle Triassic). At this time, ca. 20-25 Ma after sedimentation, polyhalite crystallised at shallow levels.

  10. Transition from marine deep slope deposits to evaporitic facies of an isolated foreland basin: case study of the Sivas Basin (Turkey) (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Legeay, Etienne; Lopez, Michel; Bonnel, Cédric; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    probably fed from shallow water evaporitic platforms developing contemporaneously along the borders of the halite-? and gypsum-saturated basin. Finally, the reworked evaporites are sealed by a thick (> 100 m) chaotic and coarse crystalline gypsum mass, carrying folded rafts and boudins of carbonate and gypsum beds. Such unit is interpreted as a gypsiferous caprock resulting from the leaching of significant amount of halite deposits. Gypsum crystals are secondary and grew from the hydration of anhydrite grains left as a residual phase after the leaching of halite. The halite probably formed in a perennial shallow hypersaline basin fed in solute by marine seepages. This former halite sequence is interpreted to have triggered mini-basin salt tectonics during the Oligo-Miocene. The described facies and proposed scenario of the Tuzhisar Formation in the central part of the Sivas Basin may find analogies with other Central Anatolian Basins (e.g. the Ulukisla Basin) or with other basin-wide salt accumulations in the world (e.g. in the Carpathian Foredeep).

  11. Assessment of an enhanced geothermal system targeting the Prairie Evaporite Formation of the Williston Basin in SW Manitoba (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut; Niloofar, Firoozy


    Canada has a large potential for geothermal energy production. High thermal resources are recognized at the volcanic belt within the Canadian Cordillera due to the difference between the oceanic and the continental heat flux which creates a border with high heat flow (as high as 150°C/km) along the volcanic belt. However, also regions with lower heat flow such as the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is of interest for geothermal usage. The Williston Basin as part of the WCSB shows low thermal gradients of 25-40°C/km. The geology and lithology of Williston Basin show the presence of halite, potassium salts and carbonate wedges within the Prairie Evaporite formation. Halite is the mineral form (salt) of sodium chloride (NaCl) which decreases thermal resistance providing paths of heat transfer to the surface and has 2-3 times higher thermal conductivity comparing to other types of minerals. The potential of a proposed enhanced geothermal system (EGS) to provide adequate energy to a 10-megawatt electricity production plant was investigated. Borehole data from the Manitoban part of the Williston Basin were collected, and two numerical models were built. One model was created for Tilston, SW Manitoba and the second at a generic site in southern Saskatchewan. Geology differs between the sites in terms of layer thicknesses and their depths. The geological sequence is identical. Both sites contain the Prairie Evaporite which consists mainly of halite. The low thermal resistance of the Prairie Evaporite is assumed to be the driving force behind a relatively high temperature at a low depth, which translates into a lower drilling cost to reach the desired layer. The Prairie Evaporite Formation is located at the Tilston site at a depth of 1.5 km with a reservoir thickness of 118 m, while the similar generic's reservoir is present at a depth of 3 km. The design suggested a two well system having one injection and one pumping well. Saline formations are impermeable and

  12. SSeismic imaging of Messinian Evaporites in the Ionian Basin (United States)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Del Ben, Anna; Forlin, Edy; Geletti, Riccardo; Mocnik, Arianna; Saule, Marco


    The understanding of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) as a Mediterranean basin-wide event requires an improved knowledge of the stratigraphy in the deep basins and continental margins. The seismic markers of the deposition of Messinian evaporites in the deep Mediterranean basins identify two end-members in the Western Mediterranean basins and in the Levant Basin. In the Western Mediterranean a consistent succession of three seismo-stratigraphic units in the deep basins, the so called seismic trilogy, can be correlated across thousands of kilometers in the Algero-Balearic and Provençal basins with a fairly constant distribution of the Lower Unit, the Mobile Unit, and the overlying Upper Unit. In the Levant Basin, one single seismostratigraphic unit defines the MSC, composed of up to 6 alternations of a transparent and layered seismic units. The causes of the these different seismic expressions of the MSC are presently under investigation. Here we report on the seismic signal analysis performed on vintage multichannel seismic reflection profiles from the Ionian Basin, that is located immediately down-flow from the sill separating the Western Mediterranean Basins and the Levant Basin during the postulated re-flooding of the Mediterranean at the end of the MSC. Given the intense post-Messinian tectonic deformation induced plate convergence below the Calabrian and Hellenic margins, the challenge in this area is the identification of an undisturbed deep sea evaporitic sequence where the data quality allows a reliable reconstruction of the seismic units. With the aid of a extensive velocity analysis and pre-stack migration in time and depth domains, we have been able to define a third type of deep basin Messinian seismic sequence characterizing the Ionian Basin. This is composed by a very thin (one or two high amplitude reflectors) and discontinuous Lower Unit, that makes up basal lens-shaped bodies overlain by a nearly 1 km-thick Mobile Unit, typically composed of a

  13. McCauley Sinks: A compound breccia pipe in evaporite karst, Holbrook Basin, Arizona, U.S.A (United States)

    Neal, J.T.; Johnson, K.S.


    The McCauley Sinks, in the Holbrook basin of northeastern Arizona, are comprised of some 50 individual sinkholes within a 3-km-wide depression. The sinks are grouped in a semi-concentric pattern of three nested rings. The outer ring is an apparent tension zone containing ring fractures. The two inner rings are semi-circular chains of large sinkholes, ranging up to 100 m across and 50 m deep. Several sub-basins within the larger depression show local downwarping and possible incipient sinkholes. Permian Kaibab Formation limestone is the principal surface lithology; the limestone here is less than 15 m thick and is near its easternmost limit. Although surface rillenkarren are present, and the sinks are seen in the Kaibab limestone outcrops, the Kaibab is mainly a passive rock unit that has collapsed into solution cavities developed in underlying salt beds. Beneath the Kaibab is Coconino Sandstone, which overlies the Permian Schnebly Hill Formation, the unit containing the evaporite rocks-principally halite in the Corduroy Member. Evaporite karst in this part of the Holbrook basin is quite different from the eastern part, probably because of the westward disappearance of the Holbrook anticline, a structure that has major joint systems that help channel water down to the salt beds farther to the east. Also, the McCauley Sinks are near the western limits of the evaporites. The structure at McCauley Sinks suggests a compound breccia pipe, with multiple sinks contributing to the inward-dipping major depression. The Richards Lake depression, 5 km southeast of McCauley Sinks, is similar in form and size but contains only a single, central sinkhole. An apparent difference in hydrogeology at McCauley Sinks is their proximity to the adjacent, deeply incised, Chevelon Canyon drainage, but the hydrologic connections are unknown. The 3-km-wide McCauley Sinks karst depression, along with five other nearby depressions, provide substantial hydrologic catchment. Because of widespread

  14. The noncommensal bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) ameliorates dextran sulfate (Sodium Salt)-Induced Ulcerative Colitis by influencing mechanisms essential for maintenance of the colonic barrier function. (United States)

    Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Hult, Lene T Olsen; Spetalen, Signe; Kaldhusdal, Magne; Christofferesen, Trine Eker; Bengtsson, Oskar; Romarheim, Odd Helge; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor


    Dietary inclusion of a bacterial meal has recently been shown to efficiently abolish soybean meal-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon. The objective of this study was to investigate whether inclusion of this bacterial meal in the diet could abrogate disease development in a murine model of epithelial injury and colitis and thus possibly have therapeutic potential in human inflammatory bowel disease. C57BL/6N mice were fed ad libitum a control diet or an experimental diet containing 254 g/kg of body weight BioProtein, a bacterial meal consisting of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), together with the heterogenic bacteria Ralstonia sp., Brevibacillus agri, and Aneurinibacillus sp. At day 8, colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ad libitum in the drinking water for 6 days. Symptoms of DSS treatment were less profound after prophylactic treatment with the diet containing the BioProtein. Colitis-associated parameters such as reduced body weight, colon shortening, and epithelial damage also showed significant improvement. Levels of acute-phase reactants, proteins whose plasma concentrations increase in response to inflammation, and neutrophil infiltration were reduced. On the other, increased epithelial cell proliferation and enhanced mucin 2 (Muc2) transcription indicated improved integrity of the colonic epithelial layer. BioProtein mainly consists of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) (88%). The results that we obtained when using a bacterial meal consisting of M. capsulatus (Bath) were similar to those obtained when using BioProtein in the DSS model. Our results show that a bacterial meal of the noncommensal bacterium M. capsulatus (Bath) has the potential to attenuate DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing colonic barrier function, as judged by increased epithelial proliferation and increased Muc2 transcription.

  15. Mechanism of groundwater inrush hazard caused by solution mining in a multilayered rock-salt-mining area: a case study in Tongbai, China (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Shi, Tingting; Chen, Zhihua; Xiang, Liu; Xiang, Shaopeng; Yang, Muyi


    The solution mining of salt mineral resources may contaminate groundwater and lead to water inrush out of the ground due to brine leakage. Through the example of a serious groundwater inrush hazard in a large salt-mining area in Tongbai County, China, this study mainly aims to analyse the source and channel of the inrushing water. The mining area has three different types of ore beds including trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dihydrate, also sodium sesquicarbonate dihydrate, with the formula Na2CO3 × NaHCO3 × 2H2O, it is a non-marine evaporite mineral), glauber (sodium sulfate, it is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates) and gypsum (a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with chemical formula CaSO4 × 2H2O). Based on characterisation of the geological and hydrogeological conditions, the hydrochemical data of the groundwater at different points and depths were used to analyse the pollution source and the pollutant component from single or mixed brine by using physical-chemical reaction principle analysis and hydrogeochemical simulation method. Finally, a possible brine leakage connecting the channel to the ground was discussed from both the geological and artificial perspectives. The results reveal that the brine from the trona mine is the major pollution source; there is a NW-SE fissure zone controlled by the geological structure that provides the main channels through which brine can flow into the aquifer around the water inrush regions, with a large number of waste gypsum exploration boreholes channelling the polluted groundwater inrush out of the ground. This research can be a valuable reference for avoiding and assessing groundwater inrush hazards in similar rock-salt-mining areas, which is advantageous for both groundwater quality protection and public health.

  16. Deformation and transport processes in salt rocks : An experimental study exploring effects of pressure and stress relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhammad, Nawaz|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357286537


    The presence of evaporitic formations in sedimentary basins, often dominated by the salt mineral halite, is of great influence on the structural style developed during tectonic events. On a somewhat smaller scale, salt rocks often host a variety of deep solution mined caverns, which are increasingly

  17. Potassium isotope fractionation between K-salts and saturated aqueous solutions at room temperature: Laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Kwon, Kideok D.; Li, Shilei; Beard, Brian L.


    Improvements in mass spectrometry have made it possible to identify naturally occurring K isotope (39K/41K) variability in terrestrial samples that can be used in a variety of geological and biological applications that involve cycling of K such as clay or evaporite formation. However, our ability to interpret K isotope variability is limited by a poor understanding of how K isotopes are fractionated at low temperatures. In this study, we conducted recrystallization experiments of eight K-salts in order to measure the K isotope fractionation factor between the salt and the saturated K solution (Δ41Kmin-sol). Measured Δ41Kmin-sol are +0.50‰ for K2CO3·1.5H2O, +0.32‰ for K2SO4, +0.23‰ for KHCO3, +0.06‰ for K2C2O4·H2O, +0.02‰ for KCl, -0.03‰ for K2CrO4, -0.15‰ for KBr, and -0.52‰ for KI. Overall the Δ41Kmin-sol decreases with increasing r for K in crystals, where r is the average distance between a K atom and its neighboring atoms of negative charge. Salts with monovalent anions and salts with divalent anion complexes define different linear trends with distinct slopes on a plot of Δ41Kmin-sol - r. We applied ab initio lattice dynamics and empirical crystal-chemistry models to calculation of K isotope fractionation factors between K salts; both methods showed that the calculated inter-mineral K isotope fractionation factors (Δ41Kmin-KCl) are highly consistent with experimentally derived Δ41Kmin-KCl under the assumption of consistent β factors for different saturated K solutions. Formulations for the crystal-chemistry model further indicate that both anion charge and bond length r are the principle controlling factors for K isotope fractionation, and the K isotope fractionation factors correlate with r following a 1/r3 relationship. Our experiment and theoretical study confirms the existence of significant equilibrium K isotope fractionation at ambient conditions, and the K isotope fractionation factors for halides and sulfate obtained in this

  18. Relations entre les types de dépôts évaporitiques et la présence de couches riches en matière organique (roches-mères potentielles Relationship Between Different Types of Evaporitic Deposits and the Occurrence of Organic-Rich Layers (Potential Source Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson G.


    -rich layers in low areas (hollows, calcium sulfate in medium-thickness areas which may also be contemporaneous with organicrich layers in low areas, followed by infilling by halite in deep and low-lying central areas. Superposed on these successive phases - at least during the formation of carbonates then sulfates - are vertical salinity gradients (stratified water system. When mapped, such deposits have a centripetal increasing saline polarity. When they are situated in a carbonate context, such basin-center evaporites are often associated with reef systems that may have thrived as a ring-like belt (cf. Silurian Salina, Michigan. Because of the thin organic-rich layers in low-lying areas, reef systems and the salt overburden, such basins are often prolific with hydrocarbons. The third type of evaporitic deposits is represented by basin-margin evaporites. In such a system, the basin center remains starved - even insatiable - for long periods of time. Sedimentation remains marine, often characterized by the presence of plankton and nekton alone and by a more or less constantly high organic content. Around the basin, marginal shelves are built and are even sometimes quite wide, accompagnied by built-up systems (banks or reefs, then by lagoonal, carbonate and evaporitic facies, and finally by continental detritals. The deposits have a centrifugal increasing saline polarity that is irreducibly opposed to the reverse polarity of the basin-center deposits. The deficit in the most soluble salts is significant, even considerable, involving brine outflow downward from these evaporitic appendages that must have been formed by the back-reef shelves. The inflow of water from these evaporitic appendages can only be constantly accompanied by nutrients throughout the entire basin. The outflow of brines enhances the continuing existence of a system with two water bodies. Because of this adjustment and the durable nature of the system, the prolificity of such basins in organic matter may have

  19. Barium Sulfate (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  20. Evaporite karst of Albania: main features and cases of environmental degradation (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Qiriazi, Perikli; Sala, Skender


    The present paper focuses on the description of the main evaporite karst areas of Albania, and on their environmental problems. Even though the majority of the karst areas in Albania is represented by carbonates, evaporites crop out significantly at several sites, and deserve a specific attention for their morphological, karstic and speleological peculiarities. Vulnerability of karst is well marked by pollution and degradation problems in regions such as Dumre (central Albania), where some tens of lakes of karst origin are present in the Permian-Triassic evaporites. Water pollution with negative effects on the local ecosystems, and anthropogenic changes of the natural karst landscape in the last century resulted in intense environmental degradation at Dumre. Messinian evaporites crop out in the Kavaja area (near the Adriatic coast), and at other sites in central-southern Albania. In these areas, surface karst morphology is characterized by a number of dolines, ponors and blind valleys, which often correspond to inlet points of subterranean drainages and caves. Notwithstanding these peculiarities, and the relevance of the area for biospeleological studies, many caves have been destroyed by quarrying activities, resulting in severe losses to the natural heritage. Following a general description of the evaporite karst areas of Albania, the paper focuses on the present situation of the evaporites in the country, which is frequently affected by degradation and environmental losses in the karst landscape, and pollution of the aquifers.

  1. Salt Profile in Sedimentary Deposits: an archive of past climate and tectonics (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.


    In hyper-arid environments, paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental studies typically evaluate paleosol-based proxies such as morphology, variation of remnant vegetations, and geochemical and isotopic signatures of minerals to reveal the plaeoclimatic changes. Limited works utilized geochemical/isotopic approaches in sedimentary deposits which barely experience pedogenic processes. The objectives of this work are to evaluate the isotopic systematics and total chemistry of salts as function of depth within unsolidated sediments in an effort to reconstruct paleoclimatic conditions of Atacama Desert. Results of this work will demonstrate techniques that can also be applied in other hyper-arid environments (e.g., Antarctica, Mars). We report a study on a ~75 meter thick core from alluvial sedimentary deposits (Atacama Gravels) in the eastern margin of the central depression of Atacama desert, North Chile. This work combines mineralogical/geochemical/isotopic approaches to decipher the depositional conditions and the climatic conditions during and between sedimentation events. Our main focus is on the soluble sulfate, nitrate, chloride profiles through the sediments. These salt deposits likely originated from seasalts, atmospherically produced salts and/or salts from nearby evaporite deposits. The sources of salts are likely affected by offshore oceanic currents that may vary the seasalt input, or by regional tectonic or orogenic changes that may vary the terrestrial sources and their ratio with seasalt input. The outflux of the salts in these deposits are mainly due to groundwater drainage, and microbial facilitated salt consumption (e.g. sulfate reduction, denitrification), both of which are indicative of paleoclimatic conditions. Thus, the salt profile within the sediments records regional paleo-climate, global oceanic current setting, and regional tectonic activity. Morphological and mineralogical studies show that the target "gravel" consists of two main suites of

  2. Control of Cambrian evaporites on fracturing in fault-related anticlines in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt (United States)

    Carminati, Eugenio; Aldega, Luca; Bigi, Sabina; Corrado, Sveva; D'Ambrogi, Chiara; Mohammadi, Peyman; Shaban, Ali; Sherkati, Shahram


    Orientation and distribution of fractures in the Oligocene-Early Miocene Asmari Formation (a major reservoir rock of the Zagros petroleum system) were investigated in two anticlines of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt. The Sim and Kuh-e-Asmari anticlines developed in the areas of the Zagros characterized by the occurrence and absence of Cambrian evaporites at the bottom of the stratigraphic pile, respectively. The aim was to outline major differences in terms of fracture spacing and saturation. Organic matter maturity and clay minerals-based geothermometers suggest that the depth of deformation for the top of the Asmari Formation in the Kuh-e-Asmari anticline was in the range of 1.5-2.7 km assuming a geothermal gradient of 22.5 °C/km. The Asmari Formation in the Sim anticline probably experienced a slightly deeper sedimentary burial (maximum 3 km) with a geothermal gradient of 20 °C/km. The spacing of fractures is generally 2-3 times larger (i.e., strain accommodated by fracturing is smaller) in the Sim anticline than in the Kuh-e-Asmari anticline. This is consistent with regional geological studies, analogue, and numerical models that suggest that thrust faults geometry and related folds are markedly different in the absence or presence of a weak decòllement (evaporites). The larger spacing in the Sim anticline is also consistent with higher temperature predicted for the Asmari Formation in this area. By contrast, the orientation of fractures with respect to the fold axes is the same in both anticlines. The fracture systems are rather immature in both anticlines. The amount and density of fractures in the twofolds are controlled by regional (occurrence/absence of salt and probably different burial), rather than local features (fold geometry).

  3. Microbial characterization of microbial ecosystems associated to evaporites domes of gypsum in Salar de Llamara in Atacama desert. (United States)

    Rasuk, Maria Cecilia; Kurth, Daniel; Flores, Maria Regina; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel; Farias, Maria Eugenia


    The Central Andes in northern Chile contains a large number of closed basins whose central depression is occupied by saline lakes and salt crusts (salars). One of these basins is Salar de Llamara (850 m a.s.l.), where large domed structures of seemingly evaporitic origin forming domes can be found. In this work, we performed a detailed microbial characterization of these domes. Mineralogical studies revealed gypsum (CaSO(4)) as a major component. Microbial communities associated to these structures were analysed by 454 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and compared between winter and summer seasons. Bacteroidetes Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes remained as the main phylogenetic groups, an increased diversity was found in winter. Comparison of the upper air-exposed part and the lower water-submerged part of the domes in both seasons showed little variation in the upper zone, showing a predominance of Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), Rhodospirillales (Alphaproteobacteria), and Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes). However, the submerged part showed marked differences between seasons, being dominated by Proteobacteria (Alpha and Gamma) and Verrucomicrobia in summer, but with more diverse phyla found in winter. Even though not abundant by sequence, Cyanobacteria were visually identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which also revealed the presence of diatoms. Photosynthetic pigments were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, being more diverse on the upper photosynthetic layer. Finally, the system was compared with other endoevaporite, mats microbialite and Stromatolites microbial ecosystems, showing higher similitude with evaporitic ecosystems from Atacama and Guerrero Negro. This environment is of special interest for extremophile studies because microbial life develops associated to minerals in the driest desert all over the world. Nevertheless, it is endangered by mining activity associated to copper and lithium extraction; thus, its

  4. Calcareous nannofossil events in the pre-evaporitic Messinian (United States)

    Negri, Alessandra; Lozar, Francesca


    During the Messinian (7.2 to 5.3 Ma) the Mediterranean area experienced fast and deep climatic and eustatic structural changes. The stratigraphic framework for this interval is relatively well constrained and the beginning of the Messinian salinity crisis dated at 5.97 Ma determine a duration of at least 1.2 Ma for the pre-evaporitic Messinian that is object of this study. Several sites (Faneromeni, Pissouri, Polemi Fanantello borehole, Lemme, Pollenzo, Govone, Moncalvo; Wade and Bown, 2006; Kouwenhoven et al 2006, Morigi et al 2007, Lozar et al 2010, Dela Pierre et al 2011) show similar calcareous nannofossil record behavior, with several Sphenolithus spp. peaks recognised at different quotes in each of the sections. Aim of the present work is to compare the calcareous nannofossil data achieved in the above mentioned sections: interestingly, the occurrence of strongly oligotypic assemblages related to high salinity and unstable environments, appear to correlate precisely among the investigated sites and occur immediately before the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis, then offering the possibility to use them as bioevents for regional correlation. References Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Gennari, R., Irace, A., Lozar, F., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Natalicchio, M., Roveri, M., Violanti, D., 2011. The record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): The Alba section revisited. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 310, 238-255. Kouwenhoven, T.J., Morigi, C., Negri, A., Giunta, S., Krijgsman, W., Rouchy, J.M., 2006 Paleoenvironmental evolution of the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian: Constraints from integrated microfossil data of the Pissouri Basin (Cyprus). Marine Micropaleontology 60, 17-44. Lozar, F., Violanti, D., Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Irace, A., Martinetto, E., Trenkwalder, S., 2010. Calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers herald the Messinian

  5. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)


    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  6. Evaporites and the Salinity of the Ocean During the Phanerozoic: Implications for Climate, Ocean Circulation and Life (United States)

    Floegel, S.; Hay, W. W.; Migdisov, A.; Balukhovsky, A. N.; Wold, C. N.; Soeding, E.


    A compilation of data on volumes and masses of evaporite deposits is used as the basis for reconstruction of the salinity of the ocean in the past. Chloride is tracked as the only ion essentially restricted to the ocean, and past salinities are calculated from reconstructed chlorine content of the ocean. Models for ocean salinity through the Phanerozoic are developed using maximal and minimal estimates of the volumes of existing evaporite deposits, and constant and declining volumes of ocean water through the Phanerozoic. We conclude that there have been significant changes in the mean salinity of the ocean accompanying a general decline throughout the Phanerozoic. The greatest changes are related to major extractions of salt into the ocean basins which developed during the Mesozoic as Pangaea broke apart. Unfortunately, the sizes of these salt deposits are also the least well known. The last major extractions of salt from the ocean occurred during the Miocene, shortly after the large scale extraction of water from the ocean to form the ice cap of Antarctica. However, these two modifications of the masses of H2O and salt in the ocean followed in sequence and did not cancel each other out. Accordingly, salinities during the Early Miocene were reconstructed to be between 37‰ and 39‰. The Mesozoic was a time of generally declining salinity associated with the deep sea salt extractions of the North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (Middle to Late Jurassic) and South Atlantic (Early Cretaceous). The earliest of the major extractions of the Phanerozoic occurred during the Permian. There were few large extractions of salt during the earlier Paleozoic. The models suggest that this was a time of relatively stable but slowly increasing salinities ranging through the upper 40‰'s into the lower 50‰'s. Higher salinities for the world ocean had profound consequences for the thermohaline circulation of the ocean in the past. In the modern ocean, with an average salinity of

  7. Can COSMOTherm Predict a Salting in Effect? (United States)

    Toivola, Martta; Prisle, Nønne L; Elm, Jonas; Waxman, Eleanor M; Volkamer, Rainer; Kurtén, Theo


    We have used COSMO-RS, a method combining quantum chemistry with statistical thermodynamics, to compute Setschenow constants (K S ) for a large array of organic solutes and salts. These comprise both atmospherically relevant solute-salt combinations, as well as systems for which experimental data are available. In agreement with previous studies on single salts, the Setschenow constants predicted by COSMO-RS (as implemented in the COSMOTherm program) are generally too large compared to experiments. COSMOTherm overpredicts salting out (positive K S ), and/or underpredicts salting in (negative K S ). For ammonium and sodium salts, K S values are larger for oxalates and sulfates, and smaller for chlorides and bromides. For chloride and bromide salts, K S values usually increase with decreasing size of the cation, along the series Pr 4 N + salting in is predicted only for oxalic acid in sodium and ammonium oxalate, and sodium sulfate, solutions. COSMOTherm was thus unable to replicate the experimentally observed salting in of glyoxal in sulfate solutions, likely due to the overestimation of salting out effects. By contrast, COSMOTherm does qualitatively predict the experimentally observed salting in of multiple organic solutes in solutions of alkylaminium salts.

  8. Simulation de la sédimentation dans un bassin évaporitique à niveau d'eau sous influence eustatique. Application au bassin paléogène de Mulhouse (Alsace, France Simulation of Sedimentation in an Evaporitic Basin At Water Level under Eustatic Influence. Application to the Paleogene Mulhouse Basin (Alsace, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier B.


    hydrologic balance during the two types of sedimentation are governed by the sums of sinusoidal functions. The program computes the contents of calcium sulfate, sodium chloride and potassium in the water in the mesh as a function of the hydrologic deficit or excess. Depending on the salinities computed, the program determines whether salts were precipitated as well as the sedimented thicknesses. The main results obtained are represented by lithologic columns as a function of the cumulative thicknesses and of time. This program also includes a module for testing the functions simulating the production-degradation of organic matter. The distribution and origin of organic matter depend on variations in organic production, on the rate of degradation of the organic matter and on its dilution by sedimentary influxes and chemical precipitates. By checking the lithology, the model can be used to determine the climatic and eustatic factors compatible with the sedimentary recording. It thus gives access to accumulation rates. When these rates are known, it thus becomes possible to test the validity of the assumed relations between productivity, degradation, climate and eustatism by comparing the results provided by the model with geochemical data. This model has been applied to part of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene evaporitic series in the Mulhouse basin (France, Fig. 3. This part of the series (Sel IV-Sel V corresponds to a succession of cyclothems formed by an alternation of sometimes potassic halite beds and argillo-anhydritic beds (Fig. 4. These beds were themselves formed by an alternation of evaporitic and shaly horizons. The organic matter, which is present solely in the shaly horizons, reveals a rhythmic vertical evolution (Fig. 5. The applications of the model to cored cyclothems from the Max borehole shows that evaporitic sedimentation can be controlled (Figs. 7-8 by :(a Climatic variations resulting from the sum of three sine curves with respective periods of 13,000, 500

  9. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)


    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  10. Sedimentary cycles in coal and evaporite basins and the reconstruction of Paleozoic climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, F.J.G.


    This thesis deals with large-scale processes controlling the formation of sedimentary cycles in coal and evaporite basins and their relation to large-scale fluctuations of Palaeozoic climate. Coal-clastic cycles dominate Pennsylvanian sequences in palaeo-equatorial basins from Euramerica. They

  11. Effects of brief and intermediate exposures to sulfate submicron aerosols and sulfate injections on cardiopulmonary function of dogs and tracheal mucous velocity of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackner, M.A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL); Dougherty, R.L.; Chapman, G.A.; Cipley, J.; Perez, D.; Kwoka, M.; Reinhart, M.; Brito, M.; Schreck, R.


    Pulmonary mechanics of anesthetized dogs were not changed or were minimally altered by breathing the following compounds as submicron aerosols in concentrations up to 17.3 mg/m/sup 3/ for 7.5 min: (1) sodium chloride (as a control), (2) sodium sulfate, (3) ammonium sulfate, (4) zinc sulfate, (5) zinc ammonium sulfate, (6) ammonium bisulfate, (7) aluminum sulfate, (8) manganese sulfate, (9) nickel sulfate, (10) copper sulfate, (11) ferrous fulfate, and (12) ferric sulfate. Submicron aerosols of these compounds in concentrations of 4.1 to 8.8 mg/m/sup 3/, administered for 4 h to anesthetized dogs, did not affect mechanics of breathing, hemodynamics, and arterial blood gases. In conscious sheep, tracheal mucous velocity was not altered by exposure to the submicron aerosols of the sulfate compounds. None of these compounds, injected iv in a dose of 1 mg, had adverse effects on mechanics of breathing, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, or arterial blood gases. In 100-mg injections, zinc sulfate and zinc ammonium sulfate produced a fall in cardiac output, systemic hypotension, hypoxemia, and metabolic acidosis. Copper sulfate at this dose produced pulmonary hypertension, a fall in cardiac output, hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, and a decrease of specific total respiratory conductance. It is concluded that submicron aerosols of sulfate salts do not have adverse cardiopulmonary effects when administered in high concentrations for up to 4 h. However, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of zinc sulfate, zinc ammonium sulfate, and copper sulfate aerosols might have adverse cardiopulmonary effects.

  12. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars. (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek


    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  13. How rheological heterogeneities control the internal deformation of salt giants. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    Salt giants, like the North European Zechstein, consist of several evaporation cycles of different evaporites with highly diverse rheologies. Common Potassium and Magnesium (K-Mg) salt are typically 10 to 100 times less viscous as halite while stringers consisting of anhydrite and carbonates are about 100 times more viscous. In most parts, these mechanically layered bodies experienced complex deformation, resulting in large scale internal folding with ruptured stringers and shear zones, as observed in seismic images. Furthermore, locally varying evaporation history produced different mechanical stratigraphies across the salt basin. Although most of these extraordinary soft or strong layers are rather thin (pillow. Strain is accumulated in the soft layers leading to stronger salt flow near these layers and extensive deformation inside of them. Thus, if a soft layer is present near a stringer, it will experience more deformation. Additionally, the strong strain concentration in the soft layers could decouple parts of the salt body from the main deformation.

  14. Dietary Salt Exacerbates Experimental Colitis. (United States)

    Tubbs, Alan L; Liu, Bo; Rogers, Troy D; Sartor, R Balfour; Miao, Edward A


    The Western diet is characterized by high protein, sugar, fat, and low fiber intake, and is widely believed to contribute to the incidence and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, high sodium chloride salt content, a defining feature of processed foods, has not been considered as a possible environmental factor that might drive IBD. We set out to bridge this gap. We examined murine models of colitis on either a high salt diet (HSD) or a low salt diet. We demonstrate that an HSD exacerbates inflammatory pathology in the IL-10-deficient murine model of colitis relative to mice fed a low salt diet. This was correlated with enhanced expression of numerous proinflammatory cytokines. Surprisingly, sodium accumulated in the colons of mice on an HSD, suggesting a direct effect of salt within the colon. Similar to the IL-10-deficient model, an HSD also enhanced cytokine expression during infection by Salmonella typhimurium This occurred in the first 3 d of infection, suggesting that an HSD potentiates an innate immune response. Indeed, in cultured dendritic cells we found that high salt media potentiates cytokine expression downstream of TLR4 activation via p38 MAPK and SGK1. A third common colitis model, administration of dextran sodium sulfate, was hopelessly confounded by the high sodium content of the dextran sodium sulfate. Our results raise the possibility that high dietary salt is an environmental factor that drives increased inflammation in IBD. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. The stability of sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals near ambient conditions and their significance in environmental and planetary sciences (United States)

    Chou, I-Ming; Seal, Robert R.; Wang, Alian


    Sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals are abundant and ubiquitous on the surface of the Earth and also on other planets and their satellites. The humidity-buffer technique has been applied to study the stability of some of these minerals at 0.1MPa in terms of temperature-relative humidity space on the basis of hydration-dehydration reversal experiments. Updated phase relations in the binary system MgSO"4-H"2O are presented, as an example, to show how reliable thermodynamic data for these minerals could be obtained based on these experimental results and thermodynamic principles. This approach has been applied to sulfate and hydrated sulfate minerals of other metals, including Fe (both ferrous and ferric), Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, and Cu. Metal-sulfate salts play important roles in the cycling of metals and sulfate in terrestrial systems, and the number of phases extends well beyond the simple sulfate salts that have thus far been investigated experimentally. The oxidation of sulfide minerals, particularly pyrite, is a common process that initiates the formation of efflorescent metal-sulfate minerals. Also, the overall abundance of iron-bearing sulfate salts in nature reflects the fact that the weathering of pyrite or pyrrhotite is the ultimate source for many of these phases. Many aspects of their environmental significance are reviewed, particularly in acute effects to aquatic ecosystems related to the dissolution of sulfate salts during rain storms or snow-melt events. Hydrous Mg, Ca, and Fe sulfates were identified on Mars, with wide distribution and very large quantities at many locations, on the basis of spectroscopic observations from orbital remote sensing and surface explorations by rovers. However, many of these findings do not reveal the detailed information on the degree of hydration that is essential for rigorous interpretation of the hydrologic history of Mars. Laboratory experiments on stability fields, reactions pathways, and reaction rates of hydrous

  16. Railway deformation detected by DInSAR over active sinkholes in the Ebro Valley evaporite karst, Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J P Galve; C Castañeda; F Gutiérrez


    ...) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques. This area is affected by evaporite karst and the analysed railway corridors traverse active sinkholes that produce deformations in these infrastructures...

  17. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes. (United States)

    Evans, David A D


    Palaeomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and palaeoclimate zones. Proterozoic glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial palaeomagnetic latitudes can be explained by 'snowball Earth' episodes, high orbital obliquity or markedly non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present a global palaeomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly remains the most viable model for low-latitude Proterozoic ice ages. Efforts to reconstruct Proterozoic supercontinents are strengthened by this demonstration of a consistently axial and dipolar geomagnetic reference frame, which itself implies stability of geodynamo processes on billion-year timescales.

  18. Sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions of Upper Triassic sulfates from Northerm Apennines (Italy): palaeogeographic and hidrogeochemical implications


    Boschetti, T.; Cortecchi, G.; Toscani, L.; Iacumin, P.


    Upper Triassic bedded evaporite sulfate of the Burano Formation outcropping at Cerreto Pass between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna in the Northern Apennines were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions, yielding d34S and d18O values of 15.5±0.4‰ and 10.8±1.2‰, respectively (mean ±99% confidence intervals). Combining these values with those of other Burano Formation sulfate deposits along the Apennine chain, mean for d34S and d18O values are obtained (15.2±0.2‰ and 10.9±0.5‰, respectiv...

  19. Sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions of Upper Triassic sulfates from northern Apennines (Italy) : paleogeographic and hydrogeochemical implications


    Boschetti, T.


    Upper Triassic bedded evaporite sulfate of the Burano Formation outcropping at Cerreto Pass between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna in the Northern Apennines were analyzed for sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions, yielding d34S and d18O values of 15.5±0.4‰ and 10.8±1.2‰, respectively (mean ±99% confidence intervals). Combining these values with those of other Burano Formation sulfate deposits along the Apennine chain, mean for d34S and d18O values are obtained (15.2±0.2‰ and 10.9±0.5‰, respectiv...

  20. Geochemical study of evaporite and clay mineral-oxyhydroxide samples from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookins, D.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Geology


    Samples of clay minerals, insoluble oxyhydroxides, and their host evaporites from the WIPP site have been studied for their major and minor elements abundances, x-ray diffraction characteristics, K-Ar ages, and Rb-Sr ages. This study was undertaken to determine their overall geochemical characteristics and to investigate possible interactions between evaporates and insoluble constituents. The evaporite host material is water-soluble, having Cl/Br ratios typical of marine evaporites, although the Br content is low. Insoluble material (usually a mixture of clay minerals and oxyhydroxide phases) yields very high Cl/Br ratios, possibly because of Cl from admixed halide minerals. This same material yields K/Rb and Th/U ratios in the normal range for shales; suggesting little, if any, effect of evaporite-induced remobilization of U, K, or Rb in the insoluble material. The rare-earth element (REE) data also show normal REE/chondrite (REE/CHON) distribution patterns, supporting the K/Rb and Th/U data. Clay minerals yield K-Ar dates in the range 365 to 390 Ma and a Rb-Sr isochron age of 428 {+-} 7 Ma. These ages are well in excess of the 220- to 230-Ma formational age of the evaporites, and confirm the detrital origin of the clays. The ages also show that any evaporite or clay mineral reactions that might have occurred at or near the time of sedimentation and diagenesis were not sufficient to reset the K-Ar and Rb-Sr systematics of the clay minerals. Further, x-ray data indicate a normal evaporitic assemblage of clay minerals and Fe-rich oxyhydroxide phases. The clay minerals and other insoluble material appear to be resistant to the destructive effects of their entrapment in the evaporites, which suggests that these insoluble materials would be good getters for any radionuclides (hypothetically) released from the storage of radioactive wastes in the area.

  1. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods. (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J


    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  2. Influence of rock salt impurities on limestone aggregate durability : final report. (United States)


    Non-durable coarse aggregate in concrete pavement can break down under repeated freeze-thaw cycles. : Application of rock salt may increase the severity of exposure conditions because of trace compounds, such as calcium : sulfate, in rock salt. Concr...

  3. Influence of rock salt impurities on limestone aggregate durability : technical summary. (United States)


    Non-durable coarse aggregate in concrete pavement can break down under : repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Application of rock salt may increase the severity of : exposure conditions because of trace compounds, such as calcium sulfate, in rock : salt. Con...

  4. Origin and permeability of deep ocean salts (United States)

    Hovland, M.; Rueslåtten, H.


    Large, buried salt bodies occur in numerous offshore rift-related sedimentary basins, worldwide. For most practical purposes, the conventional evaporite (solar evaporation of seawater) theory is adequate for explaining these occurrences. However, a new model for their formation has now been published (Hovland et al., 2006; 2007, 2008). This model relies on the properties of supercritical water, a fluid which does not dissolve salt (within specific temperature and pressure ranges). The model predicts that some of the large volumes of salt occurring underground in the Red Sea and also in the Mediterranean Sea, formed by forced hydrothermal circulation of seawater down to depths where it became superctical (i.e., temperatures above 405°C, and pressures above 300 bars). Thus, salt precipitated under-ground and filled up cracks and crevices and also formed massive accumulations, which partly flowed upwards as dense, hot brines, precipitating more solid salts upon cooling. In addition, Holness and Lewis (1997) have shown experimentally that salt bodies subjected to high pressures and elevated temperatures, acquire a permeability comparable to sand. This is because the crystalline structure of salt (halite) attains dihedral angles between salt crystals less than 60° at higher temperatures and pressures, allowing water to form continuous strings around all salt crystals. This allows hot dense brines to migrate through the salt. Thus, the salt may act as conduits for flow of brines and salt slurries from previously accumulated salt in the subsurface. If these brines reach the sea floor, they can also form brine-pools and layered salt bodies on the sea floor. An IODP Pre-proposal (No. 741-pre) is now actively promoting drilling some targets in order of checking out this new theory against the conventional evaporite model. It is hoped that European scientists will take up this question and actively promote drilling into salt bodies, for example in the Red Sea (The

  5. Effects of divalent cations on bovine testicular hyaluronidase catalyzed transglycosylation of chondroitin sulfates. (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Takagaki, Keiichi; Majima, Mitsuo; Iwafune, Mito; Suto, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiko


    Glycosaminoglycans were prepared as salts of different divalent cations and tested as donors in bovine testicular hyaluronidase catalyzed transglycosylation reactions. All of the metal cations examined had similar binding efficiency of divalent cations to hyaluronan. However, cations bound with different efficiencies to chondroitin sulfate species and the differences were marked in the case of chondroitin 6-sulfate; the numbers of cations bound per disaccharide unit were estimated to be 0.075 for Mn, 1.231 for Ba, 0.144 for Zn, and 0.395 for Cu. While barium salt of chondroitin sulfates enhanced transglycosylation, the zinc salt of chondroitin sulfates inhibited transglycosylation. Therefore, by selecting the proper divalent cation salt of chondroitin sulfates as a donor in the transglycosylation reaction it is possible to improve the yields of the products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subsurface geology of a potential waste emplacement site, Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah (United States)

    Hite, R.J.


    The Salt Valley anticline, which is located about 32 km northeast of Moab, Utah, is perhaps one of the most favorable waste emplacement sites in the Paradox basin. The site, which includes about 7.8 km 2, is highly accessible and is adjacent to a railroad. The anticline is one of a series of northwest-trending salt anticlines lying along the northeast edge of the Paradox basin. These anticlines are cored by evaporites of the Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation of Middle Pennsylvanian age. The central core of the Salt Valley anticline forms a ridgelike mass of evaporites that has an estimated amplitude of 3,600 m. The evaporite core consists of about 87 percent halite rock, which includes some potash deposits; the remainder is black shale, silty dolomite, and anhydrite. The latter three lithologies are referred to as 'marker beds.' Using geophysical logs from drill holes on the anticline, it is possible to demonstrate that the marker beds are complexly folded and faulted. Available data concerning the geothermal gradient and heatflow at the site indicate that heat from emplaced wastes should be rapidly dissipated. Potentially exploitable resources of potash and petroleum are present at Salt Valley. Development of these resources may conflict with use of the site for waste emplacement.

  7. Re-evaluation of salt deposits. BGR investigates subhorizontally-bedded salt layers; Salzvorkommen neu bewertet. BGR untersucht flach lagernde salinare Schichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Joerg [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Fachbereich ' ' Geologisch-geotechnische Erkundung' ' ; Fahland, Sandra [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Fachberech ' ' Geotechnische Sicherheitsnachweise' '


    The search for a site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste was restarted in 2013. All of the potential host rocks existing in Germany must be re-evaluated and compared as a result. The list now also includes so-called ''subhorizontally-bedded evaporite formations''. BGR is analysing today's knowledge base on these salt deposits as part of the BASAL project.

  8. Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov., a haloarchaeon isolated from sea salt in Baja California, Mexico, Western Australia and Naxos, Greece (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Landheim, Ragnhild; Sanchez-Porro, Cristina; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Gruber, Claudia; Legat, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio; Radax, Christian; Ihara, Kunio; White, Melisa R.; Stan-Lotter, Helga


    Three halophilic isolates, strains Halo-G*T, AUS-1 and Naxos II, were compared. Halo-G* was isolated from an evaporitic salt crystal from Baja California, Mexico, whereas AUS-1 and Naxos II were isolated from salt pools in Western Australia and the Greek island of Naxos, respectively. Halo-G*T had been exposed previously to conditions of outer space and survived 2 weeks on the Biopan facility. Chemotaxonomic and molecular comparisons suggested high similarity between the three strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strains clustered with Halorubrum species, showing sequence similarities of 99.2–97.1 %. The DNA–DNA hybridization values of strain Halo-G*T and strains AUS-1 and Naxos II are 73 and 75 %, respectively, indicating that they constitute a single species. The DNA relatedness between strain Halo-G*T and the type strains of 13 closely related species of the genus Halorubrum ranged from 39 to 2 %, suggesting that the three isolates constitute a different genospecies. The G+C content of the DNA of the three strains was 65.5–66.5 mol%. All three strains contained C20C20 derivatives of diethers of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglyceromethylphosphate and phosphatidylglycerolsulfate, together with a sulfated glycolipid. On the basis of these results, a novel species that includes the three strains is proposed, with the name Halorubrum chaoviator sp. nov. The type strain is strain Halo-G*T (=DSM 19316T =NCIMB 14426T =ATCC BAA-1602T). PMID:19567575

  9. A new Hypothesis for the Origin and Redistribution of Sulfates in the Equatorial Region of Western Mars (United States)

    Fan, C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Wolff, J. A.; Fairen, A. G.


    The formation of sulfates on Mars has been under debate since they were identified by several Mars missions starting from the 1970s. We propose that sulfates formed as evaporites in enclosed standing bodies of water in the Valles Marineris area following the early alteration of Martian basaltic crust, were then elevated by the Tharsis uplift, and transported together with rock materials to Meridiani Planum by periodic outbursts of water, where they were deposited as sediments. The proposed model comprehensively addresses all forms of sulfate occurrences near the equator in the western Martian hemisphere and relates it to physiographic processes (volcanic, tectonic and sedimentary) affecting the Martian surface (Fan et al. 2008). Fan, C., Schulze-Makuch, D., Wolff, J.A., and Fairen, A.G. (2008) A new hypothesis for the origin and redistribution of sulfates in the equatorial region of Western Mars. Geophysical Research Letters 35, L06201, doi:10.1029/2007GL033079

  10. INNER SALTS (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  11. Characteristics and geological significance of Re-Os isotopic system of evaporites in Mboukoumassi deposit, the Republic of Congo (United States)

    Zhao, Xianfu; Wang, Zongqi; Liu, Chenglin; Li, Chao; Jiao, Pengcheng; Zhao, Yanjun; Zhang, Fan


    Evaporite dating has been an open problem. The study investigates the Re-Os isotopic system in the organic-rich sedimentary rocks to constrain the infilling of sedimentary basin and related geological events. In the Mboukoumassi potash deposit in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) in West Africa, several layers of organic-rich dark shale were found in the evaporite series. Through drilling core, the dark shale in the evaporite is found to satisfy the requirements of Re-Os isotope test. The result shows that the Re-Os isochron age of the dark shale in the study area ranges from 78.7 ± 1.1 to 96 ± 7 Ma, which is the first precise age of the Mboukoumassi potash deposit in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), West Africa. Therefore, the age of deposition of this set of evaporite may be Cenomanian-Turonian, which is younger than the age previously thought (around 113-125Ma, Aptian). The Re-Os isotopic dating technique used for the pioneering study on the precise dating of the Mboukoumassi potash deposit provides a new approach to the study of the sedimentary age of ancient evaporite deposits. The initial 187Os/188Os value decreasing from 2.02 ± 0.21 to 0.982 ± 0.03 for the core sample reflects the source rock chang along the core, and this is consistent with the geological evolution of the basin.

  12. Sulfation of the bikunin chondroitin sulfate chain determines heavy chain·hyaluronan complex formation. (United States)

    Lord, Megan S; Day, Anthony J; Youssef, Peter; Zhuo, Lisheng; Watanabe, Hideto; Caterson, Bruce; Whitelock, John M


    Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (IαI) is a complex comprising two heavy chains (HCs) that are covalently bound by an ester bond to chondroitin sulfate (CS), which itself is attached to Ser-10 of bikunin. IαI is essential for the trans-esterification of HCs onto hyaluronan (HA). This process is important for the stabilization of HA-rich matrices during ovulation and some inflammatory processes. Bikunin has been isolated previously by anion exchange chromatography with a salt gradient up to 0.5 M NaCl and found to contain unsulfated and 4-sulfated CS disaccharides. In this study, bikunin-containing fractions in plasma and urine were separated by anion exchange chromatography with a salt gradient of 0.1-1.0 M NaCl, and fractions were analyzed for their reactivity with the 4-sulfated CS linkage region antibody (2B6). The fractions that reacted with the 2B6 antibody (0.5-0.8 M NaCl) were found to predominantly contain sulfated CS disaccharides, including disulfated disaccharides, whereas the fractions that did not react with this antibody (0.1-0.5 M NaCl) contained unsulfated and 4-sulfated CS disaccharides. IαI in the 0.5-0.8 M NaCl plasma fraction was able to promote the trans-esterification of HCs to HA in the presence of TSG-6, whereas the 0.1-0.5 M NaCl fraction had a much reduced ability to transfer HC proteins to HA, suggesting that the CS containing 4-sulfated linkage region structures and disulfated disaccharides are involved in the HC transfer. Furthermore, these data highlight that the structure of the CS attached to bikunin is important for the transfer of HC onto HA and emphasize a specific role of CS chain sulfation.

  13. Influence of pre-salt topographic features on supra-salt deformation in Mediterranean basins: Geology vs. physical models (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Gratacós, Oscar; Roca, Eduard; Muñoz, Josep Anton; Esestime, Paolo; Rodriguez, Karyna; Yazmin Piragauta, Mary; Feliu, Nil


    The presence of a thick Messinian evaporite unit is a well known feature of the Mediterranean basins. This salt unit is composed of three sub-units (Lower, Mobile and Upper Units) in the Northwest Mediterranean. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean it is characterized by a multilayered evaporite sequence. In both regions the salt acted as a detachment favoring the downslope gravitational failure of the overlying sediments in a thin-skinned deformation regime (e.g. Liguro-Provençal or Levant basins). As a result, these salt-bearing passive margins exhibit the classical three-domain structural zonation characterized by upslope extension, intermediate translation and downslope contraction. Nevertheless, the presence of pre-salt reliefs (e.g. irregularly eroded palaeotopography or volcanic edifices) is rather common in the translational domain of the Northwestern Mediterranean (e.g. Liguro-Provençal and West Corsica margins). In this scenario, pre-salt reliefs act as flow barriers and hinder salt drainage. When their summit lies close or above the top salt, these structures may partially or fully block salt flow. They also disrupt locally the structural zonation of the passive margin and constrain cover deformation. In contrast, in the Eastern Mediterranean the Eratosthenes seamount is characterized by a large scale submerged massif (ca. 120 km in size) that significantly influenced the structural evolution of the surrounding areas. This inherited relief acted as a buttress and deflected the Messinian salt flow constraining supra-salt deformation (e.g. Levant Basin and Nile margin). In addition, the geometry of the Eratosthenes seamount also restrained the structural style of the allochthonous salt that was expulsed during the development of the Cyprus subduction zone to the north. Using an experimental approach (sandbox models) and new analysis techniques, we investigate salt and supra-salt deformation in response to two different types of pre-salt relief: 1

  14. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling


    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  15. Enhanced Sulfate Management in HLW Glass Formulations VSL12R2540-1 REV 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, Wing [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Matlack, Keith S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) tanks that are scheduled to provide the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) with waste feeds contain significant amounts of sulfate. The sulfate content in the LAW feeds is sufficiently high that a separate molten sulfate salt phase may form on top of the glass melt during the vitrification process unless suitable glass formulations are employed and sulfate levels are controlled. Since the formation of the salt phase is undesirable from many perspectives, mitigation approaches had to be developed. Considerable progress has been made and reported by the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) in enhancing sulfate incorporation into LAW glass melts and developing strategies to manage and mitigate the risks associated with high-sulfate feeds.

  16. Using sulfate oxygen isotopes to quantify sulfate formation pathways in the atmosphere: Lessons learned and open questions (United States)

    Alexander, B.


    The abundance of sulfate aerosol in the troposphere has implications for climate, air pollution, acid rain, and pH-dependent chemical reactions. The chemical formation mechanism of sulfate aerosol influences its abundance and its number and size distribution, with implications for both its direct and indirect climate impacts. Sulfate is mainly produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of its precursor, SO2. The oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 x δ18O) of sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) reflects the relative importance of different oxidants in the production of sulfate because the oxidants transfer unique oxygen isotope signatures to the oxidation product. Unlike δ18O, processes such as emissions, transport, and deposition do not directly impact the Δ17O value of sulfate. Comparison of observed and modeled Δ17O(SO42-) thus provides a unique means to assess a model's representation of the chemistry of sulfate formation. Large-scale models tend to produce reasonable agreement with observations of sulfate concentrations, but tend to overestimate observations of SO2. These models include gas-phase oxidation of SO2 by the hydroxyl radical, and in-cloud oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and ozone, while neglecting other, potentially important oxidation pathways. Comparison of modeled and observed Δ17O(SO42-) in the Arctic have shown that metal-catalyzed oxidation of SO2 in clouds is the dominant sulfate formation pathway in the northern mid- to high-latitudes during winter. Additional comparisons of modeled and observed Δ17O(SO42-) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) have enabled quantification of the role of sea salt aerosol for sulfate formation rates. These processes tend to increase sulfate formation rates while decreasing modeled concentrations of SO2, and tend to decrease the importance of sulfate formation in the gas-phase which is a prerequisite for new particle formation in the atmosphere. Halogen-containing oxidants such as HOBr have also been

  17. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R


    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  18. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China (United States)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.


    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  19. Identification, prediction, and mitigation of sinkhole hazards in evaporite karst areas (United States)

    Gutierrez, F.; Cooper, A.H.; Johnson, K.S.


    Sinkholes usually have a higher probability of occurrence and a greater genetic diversity in evaporite terrains than in carbonate karst areas. This is because evaporites have a higher solubility and, commonly, a lower mechanical strength. Subsidence damage resulting from evaporite dissolution generates substantial losses throughout the world, but the causes are only well understood in a few areas. To deal with these hazards, a phased approach is needed for sinkhole identification, investigation, prediction, and mitigation. Identification techniques include field surveys and geomorphological mapping combined with accounts from local people and historical sources. Detailed sinkhole maps can be constructed from sequential historical maps, recent topographical maps, and digital elevation models (DEMs) complemented with building-damage surveying, remote sensing, and high-resolution geodetic surveys. On a more detailed level, information from exposed paleosubsidence features (paleokarst), speleological explorations, geophysical investigations, trenching, dating techniques, and boreholes may help in investigating dissolution and subsidence features. Information on the hydrogeological pathways including caves, springs, and swallow holes are particularly important especially when corroborated by tracer tests. These diverse data sources make a valuable database-the karst inventory. From this dataset, sinkhole susceptibility zonations (relative probability) may be produced based on the spatial distribution of the features and good knowledge of the local geology. Sinkhole distribution can be investigated by spatial distribution analysis techniques including studies of preferential elongation, alignment, and nearest neighbor analysis. More objective susceptibility models may be obtained by analyzing the statistical relationships between the known sinkholes and the conditioning factors. Chronological information on sinkhole formation is required to estimate the probability of

  20. Determination of Sulfate by Conductometric Titration: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Garcia, Jennifer; Schultz, Linda D.


    The classic technique for sulfate analysis in an undergraduate quantitative analysis lab involves precipitation as the barium salt with barium chloride, collection of the precipitate by gravity filtration using ashless filter paper, and removal of the filter paper by charring over a Bunsen burner. The entire process is time-consuming, hazardous,…

  1. Dry Climate as Major Factor Controlling Formation of Hydrated Sulfate Minerals in Valles Marineris on Mars (United States)

    Szynkiewicz, A.


    In this study, a model for the formation of hydrated sulfate salts (Mg-Ca-Na sulfates) in the Rio Puerco watershed of New Mexico, a terrestrial analog site from the semi-arid Southwest U.S., was used to assess the origin and climate condition that may have controlled deposition of hydrated sulfates in Valles Marineris on Mars. In this analog site, the surface accumulation of sulfate minerals along canyon walls, slopes and valley surfaces closely resemble occurrences of hydrated sulfates in Valles Marineris on Mars. Significant surface accumulations of Mg-Ca-Na sulfates are a result of prevailing semiarid conditions and a short-lived hydrological cycle that mobilizes sulfur present in the bedrock as sulfides, sulfate minerals, and atmospheric deposition. Repeating cycles of salt dissolution and re-precipitation appear to be the underpinning processes that serve to transport sulfate from bedrock to sulfate salts (e.g., efflorescences) and into surface water. This process occurs in the shallow surface environment and is not accompanied by deep groundwater flow because of prevailing dry conditions and low annual precipitation. Generally, close resemblance of surface occurrence and mineralogical composition of sulfate salts between the studied terrestrial analog and Valles Marineris suggest that a similar sulfate cycle, involving limited water activity during formation of hydrated sulfates, was once present in Valles Marineris. Measured as efflorescence, the distributed surface mass of hydrated sulfates in Valles Marineris is relatively small (4 to 42%) when compared to terrestrial settings with higher surface accumulation of sulfate minerals such as the White Sands gypsum dune field. Under semi-arid conditions similar to the studied analog in the Rio Pueurco watershed, it would take only 100 to 1,000 years to activate an equivalent flux of aqueous sulfate in Valles Marineris, when comparing terrestrial annual sulfate fluxes from the Rio Puerco watershed with the amount

  2. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the NE Netherlands (United States)

    Raith, A. F.; Strozyk, F.; Visser, J.; Urai, J. L.


    The growth of salt structures is controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. The potassium-magnesium salts (K-Mg salts) carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than halite: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, intrasalt anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers) are much stronger than halite. These rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important control on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. In this study, we use high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, thus we are able to assess the role of extreme rheological heterogeneities on salt structure growth. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite-Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that faulting and the generation of depressions on the top Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under the influence of differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the

  3. Coupling Landscape Evolution with Active Salt Deformation in the Needles District, Utah (United States)

    Kravitz, K.; Upton, P.; Tucker, G. E.; Mueller, K. J.; Roy, S. G.


    Active salt systems are commonly driven by variations in thickness of overlying units that drive salt from areas of high to low pressure. This often takes the form of differential loading from sedimentation, such as along passive margins, but some systems are driven primarily by differential unloading from erosion, a driving force that changes spatially and temporally on a scale of tens of meters. The Grabens within the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park is an active salt system driven by incision of the Colorado River and its tributaries into an evaporite sequence. We used numerical models to 1) investigate the scale and patterns of salt flow in relation to current topography in the region, and 2) explore feedbacks between salt deformation and erosion. Models exploring feedbacks between salt flow and current topography indicate that the rate of salt flow into the River canyon depends strongly on canyon width. Experiments with a three-dimensional geomechanical model demonstrate the rate of salt flow into the Colorado River canyon is dependent on canyon width, and predict areas of diapirism associated with tributary junctions. Salt also responds to variations in topography on a scale of tens of meters when the overburden is weak, influencing salt flow toward tributaries beneath individual grabens. Fully coupled models, in which erosion patterns both drive and are influenced by flow in a simple 2D viscous salt horizon, suggest that landscape evolution can be strongly influenced by shallow salt tectonics. Models testing salt deformation and erosion use the pressure gradient induced by an eroding landscape to calculate salt flux. Initially, headward erosion in side tributaries is faster above salt, but over time, salt flow into the canyon and side tributaries slows headward erosion, and the rate of canyon widening increases. As seen from the topographic models, canyon widening induces higher rates of salt flow into the canyon, creating a strong feedback

  4. Possible evaporite karst in an interior layered deposit in Juventae Chasma, Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Baioni


    Full Text Available This paper describes karst landforms observed in an interior layered deposit (ILD located within Juventae Chasma a trough of the Valles Marineris, a rift system that belongs to the Tharsis region of Mars. The ILD investigated is characterized by spectral signatures of kieserite, an evaporitic mineral present on Earth. A morphologic and morphometric survey of the ILD surface performed on data of the Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE highlighted the presence of depressions of various shapes and sizes. These landforms interpreted as dolines resemble similar karst landforms on Earth and in other regions of Mars. The observed karst landforms suggest the presence of liquid water, probably due to ice melting, in the Amazonian age.

  5. A halite-siderite-anhydrite-chlorapatite assemblage in Nakhla: mineralogical evidence for evaporites on Mars (United States)

    Bridges, J. C.; Grady, M. M.


    We report the results of a study of a halite-siderite-anhydrite-chlorapatite assemblage in the SNC (martian) meteorite Nakhla. These minerals are found associated with each other in interstitial areas, halite often being adjacent to or enclosing siderite. We suggest the halite and other minerals are martian in origin because the conditions of fall preclude significant amounts of terrestrial contamination or weathering having taken place; textures indicate that the minerals within this assemblage crystallised at the same stage as some silicate and oxide minerals within the Nakhla parent ; the association with siderite which previous studies have shown has carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions incompatible with an origin on Earth. Siderite has the range of compositions CaCO3 0.1-5.7, MgCO3 2.0-40.9, FeCO3 23.2-87.0, MnCO3 1.0-39.9 mol. %. There are two compositional groupings: high-MnCO3 (( 30 mol %) and low-MnCO3/high-FeCO3, with a gap identified between the two. This may be a miscibility gap or, alternatively, the 2 compositional groupings may mark separate generations of carbonate. We have not found any textural evidence for the latter explanation but acceptance of the presence of a miscibility gap would require independent work on Fe-Mn carbonates to verify its existence. Trace element abundances have been determined by ion microprobe analysis on 3 siderite and 1 anhydrite grains. Siderite has LREE (2.2 - 7.3 x C1) > HREE (0.32 - 0.79 x C1) without Ce or Eu anomalies and the anhydrite has a similar pattern. These abundances reflect the source composition rather than partitioning or complexing controls. They are not typical of hydrothermal signatures which generally do not have such smooth REE abundance patterns. The nature of the mineral assemblage suggests that its source rocks on Mars were evaporites. These may be common in the craters and flood plains of the martian southern highlands. Two models are suggested in this paper to explain the incorporation of

  6. Hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates. (United States)

    Hu, Dawei; Li, Chunlin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Jianmin; Ye, Xingnan; Li, Ling; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xinming; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Hu, Zhongyang


    The hygroscopicity and optical properties of alkylaminium sulfates (AASs) were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer coupled to a cavity ring-down spectrometer and a nephelometer. AAS particles do not exhibit a deliquescence phenomenon and show a monotonic increase in diameter as the relative humidity (RH) ascends. Hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) for 40, 100 and 150 nm alkylaminium sulfate particles do not show an apparent Kelvin effect when RH is less than 45%, whereas GFs of the salt aerosols increase with initial particle size when RH is higher than 45%. Calculation using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule suggests that hygroscopic growth of triethylaminium sulfate-ammonium sulfate mixtures is non-deliquescent, occurring at very low RH, implying that the displacement of ammonia by amine will significantly enhance the hygroscopicity of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols. In addition, light extinction of AAS particles is a combined effect of both scattering and absorption under dry conditions, but is dominated by scattering under wet conditions.

  7. Recharged or modified-connate water in a carbonate bed within an evaporite aquitard, Texas panhandle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.


    Hydraulic-head data and numerical modeling suggest that ground water in the Palo Duro Basin area of the Texas Panhandle has leaked downward through a Permian evaporite-carbonate-shale aquitard. Chemical composition of brine in a carbonate bed of the San Andres Formation within the aquitard gives ambiguous evidence of ground-water leakage. San Andres ground water varies chemically from potable Ca-HCO/sub 3/- and Ca-SO/sub 4/-type waters in the nonhalitic sections of the San Andres Formation below the Pecos Plains of eastern New Mexico to Na-Ca-Cl brine within the Palo Duro Basin. The composition of the 336 to 384 g/L brine can be explained by solution of dolomite, anhydrite, and halite, accompanied by exchange of some sodium for calcium. The brine is near oxygen isotopic equilibrium with San Andres dolomite. Problems with this recharged-water explanation are identification of the water-rock reaction that replaces dissolved sodium with calcium and the reaction that enriches deltaD of San Andres brine by 30 per thousand to 40 per thousand relative to modern regional meteoric water. Problems with explaining San Andres brine as modified-connate water are that hydraulic-head data and numerical modeling suggest leakage occurs and that ion ratios in brine differ from ion ratios in evaporatively concentrated, diagenetically modified seawater. However, because leakage rates are slow and variable, some modified-connate brine could be mixed with leaking recharged water, making interpretation difficult. Leakage rate and extent of flushing of old brine depend on whether flow is through fractures or through intergranular pore space in the evaporite aquitard.

  8. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban


    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  9. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig


    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  10. Seed salt-soluble protein expression as marker of local Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It appears that, this globulin protein is related to salt tolerance and could be used as SDS-AGE markers for differentiating between tolerating and sensible M. ciliaris populations to salt stress. Keywords: Oran Great Sebkha, annual Medicago ciliaris, seed storage salt-soluble proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate- poly acrylamide ...

  11. The origin of salt-encased sediment packages: Observations from the SE Precaspian Basin (Kazakhstan) (United States)

    Fernandez, Naiara; Duffy, Oliver B.; Hudec, Michael R.; Jackson, Martin P. A.; Burg, George; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Dooley, Tim P.


    Intrasalt sediment packages containing siliciclastic sediments, carbonate sediments, or non-halite evaporites such as gypsum or anhydrite are common within most salt sequences. Intrasalt sediment packages may have been deposited before, during, or after salt deposition and be incorporated into the salt by various processes. Understanding the origin and evolution of intrasalt sediment packages may yield important insights into the tectonic and geodynamic history of the basin, and also into the understanding of salt tectonics. Despite the importance of intrasalt sediment packages, currently there is no systematic description of their possible origins and their distinguishing criteria. This work is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the possible origins of intrasalt sediment packages, as well as criteria to determine if they originated as subsalt, suprasalt or intrasalt sequences. The second part examines how sediment packages that originated on top of salt, such as minibasins, can be encased within salt. Four key encasement processes are proposed: a) salt expulsion from beneath a minibasin experiencing density-driven subsidence; b) salt expulsion from beneath adjacent subsiding minibasins; c) salt expulsion associated with lateral shortening; d) override of minibasins by a salt sheet sourced from elsewhere. The third part of the paper presents a case study from the SE Precaspian Basin, Kazakhstan, where, using a borehole-constrained 3D seismic reflection dataset, the proposed criteria are applied to an area with abundant, newly discovered sediment packages within salt.

  12. Reinterpretation of Halokinetic Features in the Ancestral Rocky Mountains Paradox Salt Basin, Utah and Colorado (United States)

    Thompson, J. A.; Giles, K. A.; Rowan, M. G.; Hearon, T. E., IV


    The Paradox Basin in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado is a foreland basin formed in response to flexural loading by the Pennsylvanian-aged Uncompaghre uplift during the Ancestral Rocky Mountain orogen. Thick sequences of evaporites (Paradox Formation) were deposited within the foreland basin, which interfinger with clastic sediments in the foredeep and carbonates around the basin margin. Differential loading of the Pennsylvanian-Jurassic sediments onto the evaporites drove synsedimentary halokinesis, creating a series of salt walls and adjacent minibasins within the larger foreland basin. The growing salt walls within the basin influenced patterns of sediment deposition from the Pennsylvanian through the Cretaceous. By integrating previously published mapping with recent field observations, mapping, and subsurface interpretations of well logs and 2D seismic lines, we present interpretations of the timing, geometry, and nature of halokinesis within the Paradox Basin, which record the complex salt tectonic history in the basin. Furthermore, we present recent work on the relationships between the local passive salt history and the formation of syndepositional counter-regional extensional fault systems within the foreland. These results will be integrated into a new regional salt-tectonic and stratigraphic framework of the Paradox Basin, and have broader implications for interpreting sedimentary records in other basins with a mobile substrate.

  13. Albian salt-tectonics in Central Tunisia: Evidences for an Atlantic-type passive margin (United States)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bouillin, Jean-Pierre; Ouali, Jamel; Dumont, Thierry; Latil, Jean-Louis; Chihaoui, Abir


    Tunisia is part of the south-Tethyan margin, which comprises Triassic evaporites and a thick series of Jurassic and Cretaceous, mainly marine deposits, related to the Tethyan rifting evolution. A survey of various Cretaceous outcrops of central Tunisia (Kasserine-El Kef area), combined with literature descriptions, shows that the style of Albian deformation changes from the proximal (South) to the distal part (North) of the margin. The southern part is dominated by tilted blocks and growth faults, which evolve to the north to turtle-back and roll-over structures. Farther North, deformation is dominated by the extrusion of diapirs and salt walls. Such a distribution of deformation strongly suggests that the whole sedimentary cover glided northward on the Triassic evaporites during Albian times, as described for the Atlantic passive margin or for the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, these halokinetic structures have been folded during Alpine compressional tectonics.

  14. Mechanical Controls on Halokinesis in Layered Evaporite Sequences: Insights from 2D Geomechanical Forward Models (United States)

    Goteti, Rajesh; Agar, Susan M.; Brown, John P.; Ball, Philip; Zuhlke, Rainer


    Mechanical stratification in LES (Layered Evaporate Sequences) can have a distinct impact on structural and depositional styles in rifted margin salt tectonics. The bulk mechanical response of an LES under geological loading is dependent, among other factors, on the relative proportions of salt and sediment, salt mobility and sedimentation rate. To assess the interactions among the aforementioned factors in a physically consistent manner, we present 2D, large-strain finite element models of an LES salt minibasin and diapirs. Loading from the deposition of alternating salt and sediment layers (i.e., LES), gravity and a prescribed geothermal gradient provide the driving force for halokinesis in the models. To accurately capture the mechanical impact of stratification within the modeled LES, salt is assigned a temperature-dependent visco-plastic rheology, whereas the sediments are assigned a non-associative cap-plasticity model that supports both compaction and shear localization. Perturbations in the initial salt-sediment interface are used to initiate the salt diapirs. Model results suggest that active diapirism in the basal halite layer initiates when the pressure at the base of the incipient salt diapir exceeds that beneath the minibasin. Vertical growth of the diapir is also accompanied by its lateral expansion at higher structural levels where it preferentially intrudes the adjacent pre- and syn-kinematic salt layers. This pressure pumping of deeper salt into shallow salt layers, can result in rapid thickness changes between successive sediment layers within the LES. Caution needs to be exercised as such thickness changes observed in seismic images may not be entirely due to the shifting of depocenters but also due to the lateral pumping of salt within the LES. The presence of salt layers at multiple structural levels decouples the deformation between successive clastic layers resulting in disharmomic folding with contrasting strain histories in the sedimentary

  15. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, W.


    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  16. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.


    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their hep......Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell....... Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent...... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  17. Experimental approach to domino-style basement fault systems with evaporites during extension and subsequent inversion (United States)

    Ferrer, Oriol; McClay, Ken


    Salt is mechanically weaker than other sedimentary rocks in rift basins. During extension it commonly acts as a strain localizer, decoupling supra- and sub-salt deformation. In this scenario the movement of the subsalt faults combined with the salt migration commonly constraint the development of syncline basins. The shape of these synclines is basically controlled by the thickness and strength of the overlying salt section, as well as by the shapes of the extensional faults, and the magnitudes and slip rates along the faults. The inherited extensional structure, and particularly the continuity of the salt section, plays a key role if the rift basin is subsequently inverted. This research utilizes scaled physical models to analyse the interplay between subsalt structures and suprasalt units during both extension and inversion in domino-style basement fault systems. The experimental program includes twelve analogue models to analyze how the thickness and stratigraphy of the salt unit as well as the thickness of the pre-extensional cover constraint the structural style during extension and subsequent inversion. Different models with the same setup have been used to examine the kinematic evolution. Model kinematics was documented and analyzed combining high-resolution photographs and sub-millimeter resolution scanners. The vertical sections carried out at the end of the experiments have been used to characterize the variations of the structures along strike using new methodologies (3D voxel models in image processing software and 3D seismic). The experimental results show that after extension, rift systems with salt affected by domino-style basement faults don't show the classical growth stratal wedges. In this case synclinal basins develop above the salt on the hangingwall of the basement faults. The evolution of supra- and subsalt deformation is initially decoupled by the salt layer. Salt migrates from the main depocenters towards the edges of the basin constraining

  18. Thickness of Jurassic evaporite facies in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins of northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas (evapisoafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines (isopachs) that describe the thickness of Jurassic age evaporite facies (Gaurdak formation) in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins

  19. Jurassic evaporite facies of the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins in northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas (evapfacafg.shp) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polygons that describe the spatial extent of Jurassic age evaporite facies (Gaurdak formation) in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins.

  20. Characterization of organic-rich material in an evaporitic environment: the Lower Oligocene of the Mulhouse basin (Alsace, France) (United States)

    Gely, J.-P.; Blanc-Valleron, M.-M.; Fache-Dany, F.; Schuler, M.; Ansart, M.


    Evaporitic sediments from the Max borehole (Mulhouse Potash Basin, southern Rhine Graben) were studied over an interval of about 40 m in the vicinity of sylvite beds. Total organic carbon (TOC) analyses of 450 samples showed that marly layers interbedded within the evaporites have TOC values that fluctuate in a rhythmic manner; the highest values are found near the top of the clay—anhydrite layers and the lowest values are recorded near the top of the halite-rich beds. Geochemical (elemental analysis of kerogen, gas chromatography of bitumen) and palynological studies of 26 samples showed that the organic matter is mainly of algal origin (A and B groups). A third category of organic material (C group) may have been derived from a mixture of continental supply and in situ bacterial productivity.

  1. Natural and historic heritage of the Bochnia Salt Mine (South Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Wiewiorka


    Full Text Available The Bochnia Salt Mine, presented in this paper, is situated ca. 40 km E of Cracow, in the southern part of the Neogene Carpathian Foredeep, close to the Carpathian edge. In this region the rock-salt deposits formed as a result of the Late Miocene folding and local tectonic thickening of Badenian evaporites. The Bochnia deposit, situated in the almost vertical N limb of the Bochnia Anticline, stretches ca. 7 km WE, but only 15-200 m NS. Salt mining in Bochnia began in the thirteenth c. and continued until 1990. The historic part of the mine, since 1995 operated by a company supplying health and tourism services, is an officially listed monument of historic heritage. Legal protection also comprises 27 sites of key value for the geology of the deposit. These documentation sites record the whole profile of the evaporite series and the adjacent beds, main and minor tectonic structures, as well as mineralogical curiosities, such as fibrous halite and enterolithic anhydrite. For some years, efforts have been made to enter the Bochnia Salt Mine, in 2008 visited by over 140 000 tourists, on the UNESCO World List of Cultural and Natural Heritage.

  2. A co-crystal between benzene and ethane: a potential evaporite material for Saturn's moon Titan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Maynard-Casely


    Full Text Available Using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, the structure of a co-crystal between benzene and ethane formed in situ at cryogenic conditions has been determined, and validated using dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations. The structure comprises a lattice of benzene molecules hosting ethane molecules within channels. Similarity between the intermolecular interactions found in the co-crystal and in pure benzene indicate that the C—H...π network of benzene is maintained in the co-crystal, however, this expands to accommodate the guest ethane molecules. The co-crystal has a 3:1 benzene:ethane stoichiometry and is described in the space group R\\bar 3 with a = 15.977 (1 Å and c = 5.581 (1 Å at 90 K, with a density of 1.067 g cm−3. The conditions under which this co-crystal forms identify it is a potential that forms from evaporation of Saturn's moon Titan's lakes, an evaporite material.

  3. Volcanic sequence in Late Triassic – Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic rocks from Galeana, NE Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Gómez, E.M.; Velasco-Tapia, F.; Ramírez-Fernández, J.A.; Jenchen, U.; Rodríguez-Saavedra, P.; Rodríguez-Díaz, A.A.; Iriondo, A.


    In northeastern Mexico, volcanic rocks interbedded with Late Triassic–Jurassic siliciclastic and evaporitic strata have been linked to magmatic arcs developed in the Pangea western margin during its initial phase of fragmentation. This work provides new petrographic and geochemical data for volcanism included in the El Alamar and Minas Viejas formations outcropping in the Galeana region. Andesitic dykes and sills (n= 10) in the El Alamar redbeds show SiO2= 47.5–59.1% and MgO= 1.2–4.2%, as well as a geochemical affinity to island arc magmas. This work represents the first report of this tectonic setting in the region. Geological and petrographic evidence suggest that this arc system likely developed after ~220 and before ~193Ma. Trachy-andesitic and rhyodacitic domes (n= 20) associated with the Minas Viejas gypsum-carbonates sequence show SiO2= 61.8–82.7% and MgO= 0.1–4.0% with a tectonic affinity to continental arc. A rhyodacite sample from this region has been dated by U-Pb in zircon, yielding an age of 149.4 ± 1.2Ma (n= 21), being the youngest age related to this arc. Finally, we propose a threestep model to explain the tectonic evolution from Late Triassic island arc to Jurassic continental arc system in the northeastern Mexico.

  4. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock. (United States)

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A; García-Gil, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Sánchez-Navarro, José Á


    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate (United States)

    Young, Jay A.


    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  6. Salt tectonics on propagating passive roof detachments: The case of the Sivas Basin (Turkey) (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Kergaravat, Charlie; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ribes, Charlotte; Pichat, Alexandre; Callot, Jean-Paul


    The Sivas Basin is located in a particular position at the junction of three crustal domains: the Pontides to the North, the Anatolide - Tauride platforms to the South, and the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex to the West. This Tertiary basin is formed during the closure of the Northern branch of Neotethys. In regard to subsurface data, this basin developed over an ophiolitic basement obducted from the North during the Late Cretaceous, outcropping mainly to the North and South of the basin boundaries. Following the campanian obduction, the basin infill starts with the development of carbonate platforms directly on the topographic highs of ophiolitic basement, comparable to the present day Omanese ophiolite. Onset of Tauride compression results in a general deepening of the southern basin during Paleocene to Eocene, with the deposition of thick marine deposits. From the southern edge to the central part, we recognized proximal and coarse marine deposits passing to turbidites and volcanoclastic alternances. The late Eocene records a very quick shallowing due to the onset of the Taurus retro-arc development, marked by a thick evaporitic sequence over a wide area, followed by a continental clastic succession, grading northward into evaporites. The Oligocene and Miocene stages are characterized by the northwqrd migration of the foreland basin, associated to the emplacement of salt controlled mini-basins, on top of the evaporitic sequence north of the former foreland through, mostly with continental filling, except a transgression at Aquitanian. The facies evolution of the Sivas Basin is closely related to the tectonic setting. The southern part of the basin corresponds to the Taurus retro-arc during Eocene to Oligocene times, resulting into the development of the foreland through and northward directed thrusts. This process allows for the development of slices of Eocene turbidites, thus modifying deeply the Eocene to Oligocene paleogeography, and depositional

  7. Dissolved organic nitrogen removal during water treatment by aluminum sulfate and cationic polymer coagulation. (United States)

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul


    Coagulation of three surface waters was conducted with aluminum salt and/or cationic polymer to assess dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) removal. Coagulation with aluminum sulfate removed equal or slightly lower amounts of DON as compared to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). At aluminum sulfate dosages up to 5mg per mg DOC, the cationic polymer improved DON removal by an additional 15% to 20% over aluminum sulfate alone. At very high aluminum sulfate dosages (>8 mg aluminum sulfate per mg DOC), however, the cationic polymer addition negligibly increased DON removal. Molecular weight fractionation before and after coagulation experiments indicated that cationic polymer addition can increase the removal of all molecular weight fractions of DON with the highest molecular weight fraction (>10,000 Da) being preferentially removed. Results indicated that the DON added as part of the cationic polymer was almost completely removed at optimum aluminum sulfate and polymer doses.

  8. Sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation under extremely natron-alkaline conditions by syntrophic associations from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Abbas, B.; Tourova, T.P.; Bumazhkin, B.K.; Kolganova, T.V.; Muyzer, G.


    So far, anaerobic sulfate-dependent acetate oxidation at high pH has only been demonstrated for a low-salt-tolerant syntrophic association of a clostridium ‘Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum’ and its hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing partner Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Anaerobic enrichments

  9. Tracing Sources Of Nitrate And Sulfate In The Bow River, Alberta Canada, Using Isotope Techniques (United States)

    Chao, J.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.


    between +17 and +20‰ indicating that sulfate is mainly derived from dissolution of evaporite minerals in the headwaters. Downstream of Lake Louise, sulfate concentrations increased with decreasing δ34S- SO4 values. The Bow River downstream of Calgary showed δ34S-SO4 values between +7 and -1‰ whereas tributaries in the irrigation districts had δ34S-SO4 values between +1 and -13‰. These are isotopic values typically found in sulfate derived from oxidation of reduced sulfur species. The sulfur isotope values of the wastewater effluent discharged at Calgary were between -2 and +6‰. The trend of increasing sulfate concentrations with flow distance accompanied by decreasing δ34S-SO4 values suggests there is a mixture of sulfate sources from dissolution of sulfate minerals in the headwaters, municipal effluent in Calgary, and oxidation of pyrite or other reduced sulfur species in the irrigation districts. The result suggests that Bow River in the irrigation districts is affected by sulfate sources from the oxidation of reduced sulfur and the wastewater effluent in Calgary. In Calgary above the wastewater treatment plant, sulfate mainly comes from dissolution of evaporite in the Rock Mountains. We conclude that isotopic techniques can enhance the understanding of the sources and the transport of nitrate and sulfate in the Bow River.

  10. Sources of Size Segregated Sulfate Aerosols in the Arctic Summer (United States)

    Ghahremaninezhadgharelar, R.; Norman, A. L.; Abbatt, J.; Levasseur, M.


    Aerosols drive significant radiative forcing and affect Arctic climate. Despite the importance of these particles in Arctic climate change, there are some key uncertainties in the estimation of their effects and sources. Aerosols in six size fractions between CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic, during July 2014. A cascade impactor fitted to a high volume sampler was used for this study and was modified to permit collection of SO2 after aerosols were removed from the gas stream. The isotopic composition of sulfate aerosols and SO2 was measured and apportionment calculations have been performed to quantify the contribution of biogenic as well as anthropogenic sources to the growth of different aerosol size fractions in the atmosphere. The presence of sea salt sulfate aerosols was especially high in coarse mode aerosols as expected. The contribution of biogenic sulfate concentration in this study was higher than anthropogenic sulfate. Around 70% of fine aerosols (CCGS) Amundsen in the Arctic, during July 2014. A cascade impactor fitted to a high volume sampler was used for this study and was modified to permit collection of SO2 after aerosols were removed from the gas stream. The isotopic composition of sulfate aerosols and SO2 was measured and apportionment calculations have been performed to quantify the contribution of biogenic as well as anthropogenic sources to the growth of different aerosol size fractions in the atmosphere. The presence of sea salt sulfate aerosols was especially high in coarse mode aerosols as expected. The contribution of biogenic sulfate concentration in this study was higher than anthropogenic sulfate. Around 70% of fine aerosols (<0.49 μm) and 86% of SO2 were from biogenic sources. Concentrations of biogenic sulfate for fine aerosols, ranging from 18 to 625 ng/m3, were five times higher than total biogenic sulfate concentrations measured during Fall in the same region (Rempillo et al., 2011). A comparison of the isotope ratio for SO2 and fine

  11. Salting-out in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Liquids and K3PO4: Aqueous Biphasic Systems and Salt Precipitation


    Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna; Canongia Lopes, Jos? N.; Visak, Zoran P.; Trindade, J.; Rebelo, Lu?s P. N.


    The salting-out effect produced by the addition of potassium phosphate, K3PO4 to aqueous solutions of water-miscible ionic liquids, viz. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate, or 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ( alkyl = butyl, octyl or decyl) is investigated. The effects are analyzed using both the corresponding temperature-composition pseudo-binary and composition ternary phase diagrams. Different regions of liquid-liquid and solid-liquid...

  12. The solubilities of phosphate and sulfate salts in supercritical water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.

    Inorganic compounds are regularly present in aqueous streams. To understand their influence and behavior on these streams at supercritical conditions, little to no property data is available, which can be used as starting point for further research or application design. Since inorganic compounds

  13. Geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems in an urban alluvial aquifer with evaporitic bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Schneider, Eduardo A. [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), C/ Manuel Lasala no. 44, 9B, 50006 Zaragoza (Spain); García-Gil, Alejandro, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Vázquez-Suñè, Enric [GHS, Institute of Environmental Assessment & Water Research (IDAEA), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18–26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sánchez-Navarro, José Á. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/ Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)


    In the last decade, there has been an extensive use of shallow geothermal exploitations in urban environments. Although the thermal interference between exploitations has been recently studied, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the geochemical impacts of those systems on the aquifers where they are installed. Groundwater flow line scale and well-doublet scale research work has been conducted at city scale to quantify the geochemical interaction of shallow geothermal exploitations with the environment. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on data obtained from a monitoring network specifically designed to control and develop aquifer policies related to thermal management of the aquifer. The geochemical impacts were evaluated from a thermodynamic point of view by means of saturation index (SI) calculations with respect to the different mineral species considered in the system. The results obtained indicate limited geochemical interaction with the urban environment in most of the situations. However, there are some cases where the interaction of the groundwater heat pump installations with the evaporitic bedrock resulted in the total disablement of the exploitation system operation wells. The application of the tool proposed proved to be pragmatic in the evaluation of geochemical impacts. Injection of water into the aquifer can trigger an important bedrock gypsum and halite dissolution process that is partly responsible for scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain in the vicinity of injection wells. - Highlights: • We studied geochemical impacts of groundwater heat pump systems. • We have sampled a monitoring network in an energetically exploited urban aquifer. • A limited geochemical interaction has been found in most of the exploitations. • Reinjection into the aquifer produces an important bedrock gypsum dissolution. • Scaling in well casing pipes and collapse of the terrain have been observed.

  14. Evaporites as a source for oil. Progress report, November 15, 1988--November 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, B.C.; Benalihioulhaj, S. [Queens Coll., Flushing, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology; Philp, R.P. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics


    Organic matter, present in some sediments, acts as the source for hydrocarbons and has been studied at great length, but organic-rich sediments from hypersaline environments are just beginning to be understood. Many types of organic matter from such restricted environments have been identified, and in this study their maturation pathways and products are being explored. By collecting biologically-identified organic matter produced within modern evaporative environments from a number of different marine and nonmarine settings and carrying out detailed geochemical examination of samples we are gradually beginning to understand these materials. The organic samples collected were from evaporative marine, sabkha, and lacustrine deposits, and have been subjected to two types of artificial maturation, hydrous and confined pyrolysis, over a fairly wide range of temperatures (1500 to 350{degrees}C). The biomarker products of these treatments are being analyzed and followed in great detail. Analyses of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons as well as sulfur compounds in the original and the matured samples provide a comprehensive view of the biomarker assemblages associated with these different depositional environments at different stages of maturity. Infrared spectroscopy and Rock Eval pyrolysis of both the isolated kerogens from both the original and pyrolyzed samples has permitted us to clearly characterize the functional groupings on the one hand and the free hydrocarbons, the potential hydrocarbons, and the oxygenated compounds on the other hand. We have thus been able to demonstrate the potential of the organic matter associated with the different evaporitic environments to act as a good source for oil generation.

  15. Interaction between continental sedimentation and salt tectonic in Emirhan and Karayün minibasins, (the Sivas Basin, Turkey). (United States)

    Ribes, Charlotte; Kergaravat, Charlie; Bonnel, Cédric; Datillo, Paolo; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    Interactions between salt tectonic and sedimentation are of primary interest to understand the formation and evolution of mini-basins, as well as the complex sedimentary architecture related to interplay between evaporite flow and sediment transport and deposition. The Sivas basin, located on the Central Anatolian plateau (Turkey), is an elongated Oligo-Miocene sag basin that developed in an orogenic context above the complex Taurus-Pontides suture. The core of the basin presents evaporite-related structures which developed following the deposition of the thick evaporitic Hafik Formation (Early Oligocene). This part of the basin shows numerous mini-basins separated by evaporites structures such as welds, glaciers and diapirs of various shapes. The filling of these mini-basins began during the late Oligocene with continental red clastics (Karayün Fm.), capped by shallow marine deposits (Karacaören Fm.) during the Middle Miocene. Our work is focused on the Emirhan and Karayün minibasins, which show a 4km sedimentary pile surrounded by evaporites structures. Based on sedimentary sections and geological field mapping, we defined three major sedimentological sequences characterized by first general sediment progradation, from distal facies as alluvial plain to proximal facies such as fluvial and alluvial system. Then the minibasins record a retrogradation with a progressive disconnection from the fluvial system, locally associated to lacustrine deposits. The last stage of evolution is a regional transgression, characterized by shallow marine deposit such as lagoonal facies. Despite this same trend, several differences have been identified between the two minibasins. Six units corresponding to six facies associations are defined in both minibasins. Limits of these units coincide with an imbalance of sedimentation, evidenced by strong connection from sediment source or disconnection. The geometry of sedimentary units present an important variability, either sub

  16. Fabrication of sulfated nanofilter membrane based on carboxymethyl cellulose. (United States)

    Gasemloo, Sima; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosravi, Morteza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Gharbani, Parvin


    The aim of this study is to prepare sulfated carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) nanofilter membrane using sulfur trioxide pyridine complex (SO3/pyridine) as sulfating agent and glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent onto polysulfone supporting membrane. The prepared nanofilter was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and zeta potential. To evaluate the prepared nanofilter, various amounts of SO3/Pyridine were used and efficiency of them was investigated. The results showed that increasing the sulfate groups raised the flux from 13.87 to 29.54 L/(m2·h-1), whereas percentage rejection was increased during the separation of salt aqueous solutions and then decreased. It can be concluded that, SCMC-GA-2 (with molar ratio of SO3/pyridine to CMC of 1) shows high separation efficiency in acidic conditions and improves the hydrophilicity and charge density of the filter.

  17. A study of titanium sulfate flocculation for water treatment. (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Wen; Gao, Nai-Yun; Tao, Tao


    There are limited studies available on titanium salt flocculation. In this research, coagulation experiments of titanium sulfate were conducted using both distilled water and kaolin clay suspension. Results showed that titanium sulfate flocculation was most effective in the pH range 4-6, and negligible concentrations of titanium were found in the well-flocculated water. The floc isoelectric point (IEP) was found to be near pH 5. Measurements showed that the titanium flocs possessed greater density, diameter and settling velocity than the aluminum flocs. The titanium flocs were composed of TiO(OH)(2), which would change from the amorphous phase into anatase titanium dioxide under elevated temperatures. Floc images showed the structural similarity of titanium and aluminum flocs. Laboratory results and a pilot experiment showed that titanium sulfate could be an alternative coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionic Liquid Matrix for Direct UV-MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Dermatan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides (United States)

    Laremore, Tatiana N.; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.


    Polyanionic oligosaccharides such as dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) exhibit poor ionization efficiencies and tend to undergo thermal fragmentation through the loss of SO3 under conventional ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) conditions. A new ionic liquid matrix (ILM), a guanidinium salt of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, facilitates direct UV-MALDI mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of underivatized DS and CS oligosaccharides up to a decasaccharide in their common form as sodium salts. The resulting mass spectra show very low extent of fragmentation through an SO3 loss. The new ILM is suitable for MALDI-MS analysis of mixtures containing oligosaccharides with different numbers of sulfo groups. PMID:17297962

  19. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.


    dust. The Moessbauer parameters are not definitive for mineralogical speciation (other than octahedrally-coordinated Fe(3+) but are consistent with a schwertmannite-like phase (i.e., a nanophase ferric oxide). The high oxidation state and values of Moessbauer parameters (center shift and quadrupole splitting) for the high-SO3 samples imply ferric sulfate (i.e., oxidized sulfur), although the hydration state cannot be constrained. In no case is there an excess of SO3 over available cations (i.e., no evidence for elemental sulfur), and Fe sulfide (pyrite) has been detected in only one Gusev sample. The presence of both high-SiO2 (and low total iron and SO3) and high SO3 (and high total iron as ferric sulfate) can be accommodated by a two-step geochemical model developed with the Geochemist's Workbench. (1) Step 1 is anoxic acid sulfate leaching of Martian basalt at high water-to rock ratios (greater than 70). The result is a high-SiO2 residue0, and anoxic conditions are required to solubilize Fe as Fe(2+). (2) Step 2 is the oxic precipitation of sulfate salts from the leachate. Oxic conditions are required to produce the high concentrations of ferric sulfate with minor Mg-sulfates and no detectable Fe(2+)-sulfates.

  20. Salt deposits in Los Medanos area, Eddy and Lea counties, New Mexico (United States)

    Jones, C.L.; with sections on Ground water hydrology, Cooley; and Surficial Geology, Bachman


    The salt deposits of Los Medanos area, in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico, are being considered for possible use as a receptacle for radioactive wastes in a pilot-plant repository. The salt deposits of the area. are in three evaporite formations: the Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations, in ascending order. The three formations are dominantly anhydrite and rock salt, but some gypsum, potassium ores, carbonate rock, and fine-grained clastic rocks are present. They have combined thicknesses of slightly more than 4,000 feet, of which roughly one-half belongs to the Salado. Both the Castile and the Rustler are-richer in anhydrite-and poorer in rock salt-than the Salado, and they provide this salt-rich formation with considerable Protection from any fluids which might be present in underlying or overlying rocks. The Salado Formation contains many thick seams of rock salt at moderate depths below the surface. The rock salt has a substantial cover of well-consolidated rocks, and it is very little deformed structurally. Certain geological details essential for Waste-storage purposes are unknown or poorly known, and additional study involving drilling is required to identify seams of rock salt suitable for storage purposes and to establish critical details of their chemistry, stratigraphy, and structure.

  1. Engineering aspects of the salt diapirs; Aspectos de engenharia do diapirismo de sal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Ricardo Garske [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento


    From the viewpoint of drilling and well bore integrity, salt presents new significant challenges of geomechanical nature. Saline rocks have a characteristic feature of deforming slowly over time, phenomenon known as creep. Salt bodies affect present geomechanical environment by change of the local stress state. This is due mainly by the fact that salt is not able to withstand deviatoric stresses. In particular, changes in stresses can happen in the vicinity of salt bodies which are of enough magnitude to affect the fracture gradient and well bore stability, the salt-sediment interface region being the one which concentrates the majority of drilling difficulties. During the drilling of an evaporitic section in an oil well, the accumulated strain over a time period can be enough to restrain the passing of the drilling column and even stuck it in an irretrievable way. After the well has been cased, the salt creep can manifest undesirably causing, in some situations, constraints to passing tools along the casing or even causing its rupture by collapse. In order to address this issue, this work seeks to assess how saline structures affect the present geomechanics environment through changes in the local state of stresses, in addition to the consequences to well bore drilling arising from this modified stress state inside and close to the salt. A historic summary is also presented concerning operational problems in well bore drilling in regions influenced by salt movement. (author)

  2. Detailed predictive mapping of acid sulfate soil occurrence using electromagnetic induction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beucher, Amélie; Boman, A; Mattbäck, S

    Acid sulfate soils are often called the nastiest soils in the world (Dent & Pons, 1995). Releasing a toxic combination of acidity and metals into the recipient watercourses and estuaries, these soils represent a crucial environmental problem. Moreover, these soils can have a considerable economic......).Since acid sulfate soils contain large amounts of soluble salts, they yield strong electromagnetic (EM) anomalies, appearing as diffuse and round-shaped high electrical conductivity (EC) areas. EM induction data collected from an EM38 proximal sensor hence enabled the refined mapping of acid sulfate...

  3. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.


    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  4. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E


    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  5. Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Quist, W.J.; Granneman, S.J.C.; van Hees, R.P.J.


    This paper describes some of the most important results of a four year PhD research on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and suitable

  6. Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Lubelli, B.; van Hees, R.P.J.; Laue, S.


    This paper presents the most important results of a research project which
    focused on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate
    salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging
    salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and

  7. Evaporite caprock integrity: an experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure. (United States)

    Smith, Megan M; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A


    We present characterization and geochemical data from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO(2)-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO(2)-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well as porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO(2)-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO(2)-enhanced oil recovery operations.

  8. Rubidium, Strontium, Bromide, and Total Iodine Concentrations Consolidate Evidence for Seawater Dissolution of the Jurassic Louann Salt as the Source of the Orca Basin Brine (United States)

    Schijf, J.


    A profile of filtered seawater and brine samples was collected in the summer of 2003 from a depth of 1500 m down to the bottom of the anoxic, hypersaline Orca Basin (northern Gulf of Mexico). Using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), these samples were analyzed for alkali cations (Na+, K+, Rb+), alkaline earth cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+), and the major anions chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO42-). Major ion concentrations in the brine are consistent with previous studies, confirming that Na plus Cl make up more than 95% of its composition, hence governing its density and hydrodynamic stability. Binary mixing plots across the interface between deep Gulf of Mexico seawater and the anoxic brine are generally linear, but display substantial deviations from conservative behavior at the steepest part of the pycnocline for all analytes except Na, Cl, and Ca. Negative deviations signify localized cation removal by an adsorption or ion-exchange process, probably associated with the dense layers of particles that are trapped there. Especially strong Mg removal may be indicative of dolomitization, whereby the concomitant release of Ca counters its adsorption, resulting in zero net Ca removal. A positive deviation for sulfate is attributed to bacterial sulfide oxidation. Concentrations of Rb, Sr, and Ba in the homogeneous brine, reported here for the first time, are enriched by factors of 1.5, 1.4, and ~9, respectively, with respect to the overlying seawater. Unlike Ca and Sr, Ba concentrations in the brine are clearly controlled by the solubility of its sulfate salt (barite), causing a maximum of 670 nmol/kg at the interface. Several independent lines of evidence, for example downward decreasing salinity gradients in the sediment pore waters, seismic surveys revealing salt exposure on the upper slope, and the discovery of a brine river flowing into the Orca Basin, suggest that the brine is formed outside the basin, most likely by

  9. On the origin of salt in the Caspian Sea (United States)

    Esin, Nikolay; Esin, Nikolay V.; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina


    salt turned into a evaporites. A similar phenomenon occurred in the Mediterranean Sea at the beginning of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Yesin (Esin), 1987). Thus there was the accumulation of salt in the Caspian Sea and in the lakes of Elton and Baskunchak. Later the continental salt (with continental runoff) accumulated in the Caspian Sea. And same time there was a gradual periodically washout of salt. In the periods of melting of the continental glaciations the level of the Caspian Sea rose and there was the salt outflow in the Black Sea, and then into the Mediterranean Sea. References 1. Svitoch, A.A. Bol'shoi Kaspii: stroenie i istoriia razvitiia [The Great Caspian Sea: Structure and History]. Moskovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet imeni M.V. Lomonosova [MSU], Moscow, - 2014, - 271 p. (In Russian) 2. Yesin (Esin) N.V., Dmitriyev V.A. On the possible mechanism of formation of the Messinian evaporites in the Mediterranean Sea // International Geology Review. USA. - DOI:10.1080/00206818709466143. - 1987, - pp. 258-263.

  10. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.


    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  11. Inverse modeling of groundwater flow in the semiarid evaporitic closed basin of Los Monegros, Spain (United States)

    Samper-Calvete, F. J.; García-Vera, M. A.

    Only minor attention has been given in the past to the study of closed-basin hydrogeology in evaporitic environments, because these basins usually contain poor-quality groundwater. The motivation for hydrogeological research in the Los Monegros area in northeastern Spain was the approval in 1986 of a large irrigation project in the Ebre River basin. The irrigation of 60,000 ha is planned, partly in an evaporitic closed basin containing playa lakes. The project has given rise to environmental concerns. The evaluation of the hydrologic impacts of irrigation requires quantifying properly the hydrogeology of the area. With the available information, a conceptual hydrogeological model was formulated that identifies two main aquifers connected through a leaky aquitard. On the basis of the conceptual model, a numerical model was calibrated under steady-state conditions using the method of maximum-likelihood automatic parameter estimation (Carrera and Neuman, 1986a). The calibrated model reproduces the measured hydraulic heads fairly well and is consistent with independent information on groundwater discharge. By the solution of the inverse problem, reliable parameter estimates were obtained. It is concluded that anisotropy plays a major role in some parts of the lower aquifer. The geometric average of model conductivity is almost two orders of magnitude larger than the average conductivity derived from small-scale field tests. This scale effect in hydraulic conductivity is consistent with the findings of Neuman (1994) and Sánchez-Vila et al. (1996). Résumé Dans le passé, on s'est peu intéresséà l'hydrogéologie des bassins fermés en milieu évaporitique, parce que ces bassins possèdent en général de l'eau souterraine de qualité médiocre. L'intérêt porté aux recherches hydrogéologiques dans la région de Los Monegros, dans le nord-est de l'Espagne est dûà l'approbation en 1986 d'un vaste projet d'irrigation dans le bassin de l'Ebre. L'irrigation de 60000

  12. Surface Corrosion and Microstructure Degradation of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles in Sulfate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuman Zhang


    Full Text Available The hydration products of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement are different from those of Portland cement. The degradation of CSA cement subjected to wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution was studied in this paper. The surface corrosion was recorded and the microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Cl− have an effect on the stability of ettringite. In the initial period of sulfate attack, salt crystallization is the main factor leading to the degradation of CSA cement specimens. The decomposition and the carbonation of ettringite will cause long-term degradation of CSA cement specimens under wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution. The surface spalling and microstructure degradation increase significantly with the increase of wet-dry cycles, sulfate concentration, and water to cement ratio. Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride reduce the degradation when the concentration of sulfate ions is a constant value.

  13. Palaeoredox indicators from the organic-rich Messinian early post-evaporitic deposits of the Apennines (Central Italy) (United States)

    Sampalmieri, G.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Cosentino, D.; Lo Mastro, S.


    Bottom redox conditions in marine and lacustrine ancient basins are often inferred by the occurrence of peculiar sedimentological structures and microfaunal assemblages. The co-occurrence, in such environments, of authigenic uranium, framboidal pyrite, barite and Fe-Mn nodules and encrustations, provides a good constraint for palaeo reconstructions. Authigenic uranium is a common constituent of hydrocarbon source rocks: it forms at the sediment-water interface under oxygen-deficient conditions and accumulates together with organic matter (OM). Its precipitation is triggered by the reduction of the soluble U6+ion in seawater to insoluble U4+. With respect to black shales, uranium content has even been used to estimate the TOC. Also authigenic pyrite forms under anoxic conditions and replaces organic matter: 1) the increase in pyrite content and in organic matter are directly correlated; 2) the size distribution of framboidal pyrite (consistent with sulphate-reducing bacterial activity) is considered a measure of redox conditions within the sediment. Barite is an authigenic mineral related to Corg content, since its organic precipitation is triggered by sulphate-reduction processes occurring in decaying OM-bearing microenvironments. Finally, also Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide are typical indicators of redox conditions. About 6 My ago the Mediterranean Sea underwent a giant event of concentration referred to as Messinian Salinity Crisis, which can be roughly subdivided into an evaporitic and a post evaporitic phase. The post evaporitic phase (p-ev; 5.61-5.33 Ma) developed in a context of humid conditions and can be further distinguished into two steps: p-ev1 (early post evaporitic phase) and p-ev2 (late post evaporitic phase). Previous works focused on pev2, which is interpreted to represent the establishment of brackish water conditions (Lago-Mare biofacies). In other respects, the palaeoenvironment of p-ev1 deposits, mostly represented by resedimented evaporitic deposits or

  14. Differential Toxicities of Nickel Salts to the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Meyer, Dean; Birdsey, Jennifer M; Wendolowski, Mark A; Dobbin, Kevin K; Williams, Phillip L


    This study focused on assessing whether nickel (Ni) toxicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was affected by the molecular structure of the Ni salt used. Nematodes were exposed to seven Ni salts [Ni sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4·6H2O), Ni chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O), Ni acetate tetrahydrate (Ni(OCOCH3)2·4H2O), Ni nitrate hexahydrate (N2NiO6·6H2O), anhydrous Ni iodide (NiI2), Ni sulfamate hydrate (Ni(SO3NH2)2·H2O), and Ni fluoride tetrahydrate (NiF2·4H2O)] in an aquatic medium for 24 h, and lethality curves were generated and analyzed. Ni fluoride, Ni iodide, and Ni chloride were most toxic to C. elegans, followed by Ni nitrate, Ni sulfamate, Ni acetate, and Ni sulfate. The LC50 values of the halogen-containing salts were statistically different from the corresponding value of the least toxic salt, Ni sulfate. This finding is consistent with the expected high bioavailability of free Ni ions in halide solutions. We recommend that the halide salts be used in future Ni testing involving aquatic invertebrates.

  15. Salt-affected soils of the Barguzin Depression (United States)

    Chernousenko, G. I.; Pankova, E. I.; Kalinina, N. V.; Ubugunova, V. I.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Ubugunov, V. L.; Tsyrempilov, E. G.


    Factual materials on salt-affected soils in the Barguzin Depression (Buryat Republic) are generalized. A geomorphic map of the depression has been developed. The distribution of salt-affected soils and the specificity of salinization in different geomorphic regions are characterized. These soils tend to be developed within the low lacustrine-alluvial plain of the depression, on the floodplain of the Barguzin River and its tributaries. Smaller areas of salt-affected soils are found on the river terraces. They are virtually absent on ancient sandy ridged terraces (kuituns). The genesis and chemistry of soil salinization are mainly related to the discharge of slightly saline deep water along tectonic faults and fissures. An additional source of soil salinity is represented by surface water flows. The presence of permafrost preventing the leaching of salts and the cryoarid climate favoring the migration of salts toward the soil surface during the dry spring and early summer periods and during the soil freezing in the winter contribute to the soil salinization. Slightly saline hydromorphic solonchakous soils predominate among salt-affected soils of the depression; the portion of semihydromorphic saline soils is smaller. Automorphic saline soils rarely occur in the depression. Strongly saline soils— solonchaks—are widespread within lacustrine depressions around salt lakes. Soils of the soda and sulfate salinization predominate. The content of chlorides is small; their increased amounts, as well as the presence of sulfates, are indicative of the discharge of dee ground water onto the surface. The soda type of salinization is also related to the discharge of deep stratal water with further transformation of salt solutions during freeze-thaw cycles. Under anaerobic conditions, the formation of soda is favored the processes of sulfate reduction.

  16. Microbial Diversity in a Hypersaline Sulfate Lake: A Terrestrial Analog of Ancient Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Pontefract


    Full Text Available Life can persist under severe osmotic stress and low water activity in hypersaline environments. On Mars, evidence for the past presence of saline bodies of water is prevalent and resulted in the widespread deposition of sulfate and chloride salts. Here we investigate Spotted Lake (British Columbia, Canada, a hypersaline lake with extreme (>3 M levels of sulfate salts as an exemplar of the conditions thought to be associated with ancient Mars. We provide the first characterization of microbial structure in Spotted Lake sediments through metagenomic sequencing, and report a bacteria-dominated community with abundant Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, as well as diverse extremophiles. Microbial abundance and functional comparisons reveal similarities to Ace Lake, a meromictic Antarctic lake with anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters. Our analysis suggests that hypersaline-associated species occupy niches characterized foremost by differential abundance of Archaea, uncharacterized Bacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Potential biosignatures in this environment are discussed, specifically the likelihood of a strong sulfur isotopic fractionation record within the sediments due to the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria. With its high sulfate levels and seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, Spotted Lake is an analog for ancient paleolakes on Mars in which sulfate salt deposits may have offered periodically habitable environments, and could have concentrated and preserved organic materials or their biomarkers over geologic time.

  17. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation. (United States)

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe


    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  18. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pica

    Full Text Available Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  19. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.


    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  20. Deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts with high mechanical contrasts. Core analysis revealing strain concentrations and the development of fracturing and folding into a tectonic mélange. (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.


    In fully developed evaporite cycles, effective viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude are possible between different layers, but the structures and mechanics in evaporites with such extreme mechanical stratification are not well understood. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt We analyzed a unique carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) - and bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) - rich drill core from the Zechstein III-1b subunit in the Veendam Pillow in the Netherlands, which has a complex tectonic history with multiple phases of extension and compression as shown by seismic reflection data. Salt withdrawal followed by convergent flow into the salt pillow produced ruptures and folds in the underlying ZIII- Anhydrite-Carbonate Stringer and formed the outer shape of the soft ZIII-1b layer. The slabbed core was analyzed by macroscale photography, bulk chemical methods, XRD and optical microscopy. Results show high strain in the weaker bischofite- and carnallite- rich layers, with associated dynamic recrystallization at very low differential stress, completely overprinting the original texture. Stronger layers formed by alternating beds of halite and carnallite show complex recumbent folding on different scales commonly interrupted by sub-horizontal shear zones with brittle deformation, veins and boudinage. We attribute this tectonic fragmentation to be associated with a softening of the complete ZIII-1b subunit during its deformation. The result is a tectonic mélange with cm - to 10m size blocks with internal folds and boudinage. We infer that these structures and

  1. The Alpine Haselgebirge Formation, Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria): Permo-Scythian evaporites in an alpine thrust system (United States)

    Spötl, Christoph


    Multiphase-deformed and weakly metamorphosed Permo-Scythian evaporites of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps) of Austria were deposited in an aborted rift arm of the northwest Tethys. They represent marine precipitates laid down in a basin surrounded by alluvial fans and mudflats. Mean bromide values of halite (13 ± 53 ppm) as well as S-isotope ratios of sulphate minerals ( +14 ± 0.9ℵ CDT) indicate that the contribution of non-marine waters to the marine brine composition was insignificant. The most striking feature is the Haselgebirge structure, a chaotic mélange of shales, silt and sandstones, anhydrites, carbonates and scarce magmatites (Kirchner, 1980) embedded in a clayey halite matrix. This mélange resulted from severe tectonization caused by a variety of deformational processes (halokinesis, diapirism, gravitational sliding and alpine thrust tectonics).

  2. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack (United States)

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    tests, the combined sulfate attack tests captured performance risks and complex damage mechanisms associated with the SCC pore structure and constituent materials. Sodium sulfate attack with wetting-drying cycles and/or partial immersion under temperate-hot conditions synergistically caused significant damage to specimens, especially to quaternary cementitious systems having very fine pore structure, due to the build-up of salt crystals and sulfate reaction products. The deleterious effects of sulfate reaction products and salt crystallization on all cementitious systems were more severe under the combined sodium sulfate and freezing-thawing exposure, with a potential of sudden brittle failure. Laboratory experiments in the current work documented evidence for the occurrence of thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA) in cementitious systems containing limestone filler, not only under cold but also under temperate-hot conditions, which made specimens more vulnerable to damage in the combined sulfate attack tests. The field-like combined exposure of sodium sulfate, cyclic environments and flexural loading had synergistic effects on SCC specimens and caused the coexistence of multiple-complex degradation mechanisms (sulfate attack, TSA, stress-corrosion, salt crystallization, surface scaling and corrosion of surface steel fibres) depending on the mixture design variables. The current thesis demonstrates that relying only on sulfate immersion tests to evaluate the performance of cement-based materials can be risky. It also shows that linear and deterministic modeling of the performance of concrete structures under external sulfate attack is unrealistic. Fuzzy and adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference systems developed in the current thesis accurately and rationally predicted the serviceability, deterioration in engineering properties and time to failure of the SCC mixtures under the various sulfate attack exposure regimes adopted in the integrated testing approach. A durability evaluation

  3. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gryp


    Full Text Available If chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden.

  4. The persistence of a chlorophyll spectral biosignature from Martian evaporite and spring analogues under Mars-like conditions (United States)

    Stromberg, J. M.; Applin, D. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Rice, M.; Berard, G.; Mann, P.


    Spring and evaporite deposits are considered two of the most promising environments for past habitability on Mars and preservation of biosignatures. Manitoba, Canada hosts the East German Creek (EGC) hypersaline spring complex, and the post impact evaporite gypsum beds of the Lake St. Martin (LSM) impact. The EGC complex has microbial mats, sediments, algae and biofabrics, while endolithic communities are ubiquitous in the LSM gypsum beds. These communities are spectrally detectable based largely on the presence of a chlorophyll absorption band at 670 nm however, the robustness of this feature under Martian surface conditions was unclear. Biological and biology-bearing samples from EGC and LSM were exposed to conditions similar to the surface of present day Mars (high UV flux, 100 mbar, anoxic, CO2 rich) for up to 44 days, and preservation of the 670 nm chlorophyll feature and chlorophyll red-edge was observed. A decrease in band depth of the 670 nm band ranging from ~16 to 80% resulted, with correlations seen in the degree of preservation and the spatial proximity of samples to the spring mound and mineral shielding effects. The spectra were deconvolved to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mastcam science filter bandpasses to investigate the detectability of the 670 nm feature and to compare with common mineral features. The red-edge and 670 nm feature associated with chlorophyll can be distinguished from the spectra of minerals with features below ~1000 nm, such as hematite and jarosite. However, distinguishing goethite from samples with the chlorophyll feature is more problematic, and quantitative interpretation using band depth data makes little distinction between iron oxyhydroxides and the 670 nm chlorophyll feature. The chlorophyll spectral feature is observable in both Pancam and Mastcam, and we propose that of the proposed EXOMARS Pancam filters, the PHYLL filter is best suited for its detection.

  5. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile. (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana B; Rasuk, Maria C; Visscher, Pieter T; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G; Patterson, Molly M; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E


    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity.

  6. Microbial diversity in sediment ecosystems (evaporites domes, microbial mats and crusts of hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Fernandez


    Full Text Available We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea in bulk samples and, in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity.

  7. Microbial Diversity in Sediment Ecosystems (Evaporites Domes, Microbial Mats, and Crusts) of Hypersaline Laguna Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana B.; Rasuk, Maria C.; Visscher, Pieter T.; Contreras, Manuel; Novoa, Fernando; Poire, Daniel G.; Patterson, Molly M.; Ventosa, Antonio; Farias, Maria E.


    We combined nucleic acid-based molecular methods, biogeochemical measurements, and physicochemical characteristics to investigate microbial sedimentary ecosystems of Laguna Tebenquiche, Atacama Desert, Chile. Molecular diversity, and biogeochemistry of hypersaline microbial mats, rhizome-associated concretions, and an endoevaporite were compared with: The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by pyrosequencing to analyze the total microbial diversity (i.e., bacteria and archaea) in bulk samples, and in addition, in detail on a millimeter scale in one microbial mat and in one evaporite. Archaea were more abundant than bacteria. Euryarchaeota was one of the most abundant phyla in all samples, and particularly dominant (97% of total diversity) in the most lithified ecosystem, the evaporite. Most of the euryarchaeal OTUs could be assigned to the class Halobacteria or anaerobic and methanogenic archaea. Planctomycetes potentially also play a key role in mats and rhizome-associated concretions, notably the aerobic organoheterotroph members of the class Phycisphaerae. In addition to cyanobacteria, members of Chromatiales and possibly the candidate family Chlorotrichaceae contributed to photosynthetic carbon fixation. Other abundant uncultured taxa such as the candidate division MSBL1, the uncultured MBGB, and the phylum Acetothermia potentially play an important metabolic role in these ecosystems. Lithifying microbial mats contained calcium carbonate precipitates, whereas endoevoporites consisted of gypsum, and halite. Biogeochemical measurements revealed that based on depth profiles of O2 and sulfide, metabolic activities were much higher in the non-lithifying mat (peaking in the least lithified systems) than in lithifying mats with the lowest activity in endoevaporites. This trend in decreasing microbial activity reflects the increase in salinity, which may play an important role in the biodiversity. PMID:27597845

  8. Gravitational salt tectonics above a rising basement plateau offshore Algeria (United States)

    Gaullier, Virginie; Vendeville, Bruno C.; Besème, Grégoire; Legoux, Gaetan; Déverchère, Jacques; Lymer, Gaël


    Seismic data (survey "MARADJA 1", 2003) offshore the Algerian coast have imaged an unexpected deformation pattern of the Messinian salt (Mobile Unit; MU) and its sedimentary overburden (Messinian Upper Unit and Plio-Quaternary) above an actively rising plateau in the subsalt basement. From a geodynamic point of view, the region is undergoing crustal convergence, as attested by the Boumerdes earthquake (2003, magnitude 6.8). The rise of this plateau, forming a 3D promontory restricted to the area offshore Algiers, is associated with that geodynamic setting. The seismic profiles show several subsalt thrusts (Domzig et al. 2006). The data provided additional information on the deformation of the Messinian mobile evaporitic unit and its Plio-Quaternary overburden. Margin-perpendicular profiles show mostly compressional features (anticlines and synclines) that had little activity during Messinian times, then grew more during Plio-Quaternary times. A few normal faults are also present, but are not accompanied by salt rise. By contrast, margin-parallel profiles clearly show that extensional, reactive salt diapiric ridges (symptomatic with their triangular shape in cross section) formed early, as early as the time of deposition of the Messinian Upper Unit, as recorded by fan-shaped strata. These ridges have recorded E-W, thin-skinned gravity gliding above the Messinian salt, as a response to the rise of the basement plateau. We tested this hypothesis using two analogue models, one where we assumed that the rise of the plateau started after Messinian times (initially tabular salt across the entire region), the second model assumed that the plateau had already risen partially as the Messininan Mobile Unit was deposited (salt initially thinner above the plateau than in the adjacent regions). In both experiments, the rise of the plateau generated preferential E-W extension above the salt, combined with N-S shortening. Extension was caused by gravity gliding of the salt from

  9. Sulfate decomposition by bacterial leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveci, N.; Delaloglu, C.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)


    Sulfate disposal is the main problem of many industrial effluents, such as excess sulfuric acid, gypsum, coal desulfurization byproducts, acid-mine waters, and general metallurgical effluents. It has been established that sulfate present in wastes can be converted to elemental sulfur by bacterial mutualism. This study presents the results of an investigation of the industrial feasibility of utilizing a biological system capable of converting hydrous calcium sulfate (gypsum) to elemental sulfur. Gypsum, which was used in this study, is a byproduct of the fertilizer industry. The biological system is referred to as a bacterial mutualism, and involves Desulfovibrio desulfuricans for sulfate conversion and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum for hydrogen sulfide conversion. Bacterial mutualism and utilization of sulfate were investigated by means of a two-stage anaerobic system. In the first stage, a gas purge system was used for sulfate conversion to sulfide, and it was found that maximum conversion is 34%. In the second stage, a static culture system was used for sulfide conversion to sulfur with a conversion of 92%. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Sea salt irradiation experiments relevant to the surface conditions of ocean worlds such as Europa and Enceladus (United States)

    Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert W.


    We have conducted a set of laboratory experiments to measure changes in NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and mixtures of these salts, as a function of exposure to the temperature, pressure, and radiation conditions relevant to ice covered ocean worlds in our solar system. Reagent grade salts were placed onto a diffuse aluminum target at the end of a cryostat coldfinger and loaded into an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The samples were then cooled to 100 K and the chamber pumped down to ~10-8 Torr, achieving conditions comparable to the surface of several moons of the outer solar system. Samples were subsequently irradiated with 10 keV electrons at an average current of 1 µA.We examined a range of conditions for NaCl including pure salts grains (~300 µm diameter), salt grains with water ice deposited on top, and evaporites. For the evaporites saturated salt water was loaded onto the cryostat target, the chamber closed, and then slowly pumped down to remove the water, leaving behind a salt evaporate for irradiation.The electron bombardment resulted in the trapping of electrons in halogen vacancies, yielding the the F- and M- color centers. After irraditiation we observed yellow-brown discoloration in NaCl. KCl was observed to turn a distinct violet. In NaCl these centers have strong absorptions at 450 nm and 720 nm, respectively, providing a highly diagnostic signature of otherwise transparent alkali halides, making it possible to remotely characterize and quantify the composition and salinity of ocean worlds.

  11. Triassic salt sheets of Mezzouna, Central Tunisia: New comments on Late Cretaceous halokinesis and geodynamic evolution of the northern African margin (United States)

    Dhahri, Ferid; Boukadi, Noureddine


    Two discrete Triassic salt sheets have been discovered within the Coniacian-Santonian series near the salt wall of Mezzouna, central Tunisia. The structure and the lithology of these sheets suggest two halokinetic episodes giving respectively 1) Triassic evaporitic rocks flows over a sloped basin floor resulting in probable salt glacier, and 2) redeposition of erosional debris from the nearby salt wall of Mezzouna, transported and then deposited next to the wall. This finding is used to precise the halokinetic events and the geodynamic evolution of the northern African margin near the Pelagian block between southeastern Tunisia and Tripolitania during Late Cretaceous. A discussion of the halokinesis-related structures is also attempted with emphasize of their genetic mechanisms and temporal development as inferred from geological mapping and new field data.

  12. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.


    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  13. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension


    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  14. Low-salt diet (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  15. Salting Constants of Small Organic Molecules in Aerosol-Relevant Salts and Application to Aerosol Formation in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Waxman, E.; Carlton, A. M. G.; Ziemann, P. J.; Volkamer, R. M.


    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from small water-soluble molecules such as glyoxal and methyl glyoxal is a topic of emerging interest. Results from recent field campaigns, e.g. Waxman et al. (2013, GRL) and Knote et al. (2014, ACP), show that these molecules can form significant SOA mass as a result of 'salting-in'. Salting-in happens when a molecule's solubility increases with salt concentration and salting-out is the reverse. Salting effects modify the solubility exponentially with increasing salt concentration, and thus the effective Henry's law constant can strongly modify partitioning, and multiphase chemical reaction rates in aerosol water. Moreover, the solubility in aerosol water cannot easily inferred based on the solubility in cloud water, as the salting effects could change the solubility by a factor of 104 or more. In this work, we have devised and applied a novel experimental setup to measure salting constants using an ion trap mass spectrometer. We focus on small, water soluble molecules like methyl glyoxal and similar compounds and measure salting constants for aerosol-relevant salts including ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride. The Setschenow salting-constant values are then used to parameterize the effects of salting in CMAQ. We present a series of sensitivity studies of the effects that inorganic aerosols have on the SOA formation from small soluble molecules in the southeastern United States.

  16. Polyhalite microfabrics in an Alpine evaporite mélange: Hallstatt, Eastern Alps (United States)

    Schorn, Anja; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred


    In the Hallstatt salt mine (Austria), polyhalite rocks occur in 0.5–1 m thick and several metre long tectonic lenses within the protocataclasite to protomylonite matrix of the Alpine Haselgebirge Fm.. Thin section analysis of Hallstatt polyhalites reveals various fabric types similar to metamorphic rocks of crust-forming minerals, e.g. quartz and feldspar. Polyhalite microfabrics from Hallstatt include: (1) polyhalite mylonites, (2) metamorphic reaction fabrics, (3) vein-filling, fibrous polyhalite and (4) cavity-filling polyhalite. The polyhalite mylonites contain a wide range of shear fabrics commonly known in mylonitic quartzo–feldspathic shear zones within the ductile crust and developed from a more coarse-grained precursor rock. The mylonites are partly overprinted by recrystallised, statically grown polyhalite grains. Metamorphic reaction fabrics of polyhalite fibres between blödite (or astrakhanite) [Na2Mg(SO4)2.4H2O] and anhydrite have also been found. According to previous reports, blödite may occur primarily as nodules or intergrown with löweite. Reaction fabrics may have formed by exsolution, (re-)crystallisation, parallel growth or replacement. This fabric type was only found in one sample in relation with the decomposition of blödite at ca. 61 °C in the presence of halite or slightly above, testifying, therefore, a late stage prograde fabric significantly younger than the main polyhalite formation. PMID:26806997

  17. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K


    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  18. Thermodynamic data for modeling acid mine drainage problems: compilation and estimation of data for selected soluble iron-sulfate minerals (United States)

    Hemingway, Bruch S.; Seal, Robert R.; Chou, I-Ming


    Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs energy of formation, and entropy values have been compiled from the literature for the hydrated ferrous sulfate minerals melanterite, rozenite, and szomolnokite, and a variety of other hydrated sulfate compounds. On the basis of this compilation, it appears that there is no evidence for an excess enthalpy of mixing for sulfate-H2O systems, except for the first H2O molecule of crystallization. The enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation of each H2O molecule of crystallization, except the first, in the iron(II) sulfate - H2O system is -295.15 and -238.0 kJ?mol-1, respectively. The absence of an excess enthalpy of mixing is used as the basis for estimating thermodynamic values for a variety of ferrous, ferric, and mixed-valence sulfate salts of relevance to acid-mine drainage systems.

  19. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.


    in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...... produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated...... disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional...

  20. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium for water + poly(Ethylene glycol + salt aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G. Sé


    Full Text Available The NRTL (nonrandom, two-liquid model, expressed in mass fraction instead of mole fraction, was used to correlate liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous two-phase polymer-salt solutions. New interaction energy parameters for this model were determined using reported data on the water + poly(ethylene glycol + salt systems, with different molecular masses for PEG and the salts potassium phosphate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate. The correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium is quite satisfactory.

  1. Sulfur and strontium isotopic compositions of carbonate and evaporite rocks from the late Neoproterozoic–early Cambrian Bilara Group (Nagaur-Ganganagar Basin, India): Constraints on intrabasinal correlation and global sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Strauss, H.

    deposits of terminal Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian age. Lithological and geochemical results suggest the coeval nature of the Bilara Group and Hanseran Evaporite Group. Fluctuations in the sulfur isotopic composition may at least partially be attributed...

  2. Use of solubility diagrams of salt systems for evaluation of solubility products and free energy of salts formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumok, V.N.; Kuleshova, O.M. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))


    A recommended scheme of using the Kusik-Meissner equations for assessment of the solubility product (SP) and free energy of the salt formation from the solubility diagrams of water-salt systems is described. Values of an adjusting parameter of an approximation equation for calculating the stoichiometric coefficients of activity of salts (nitrates, sulfates, chlorides) of Cs, Be, Sr, Cd, Sc, Y, La, Th, UO/sub 2//sup +2/ and other metals are presented. Data on SP calculation at 25 deg C are given for the BeSO/sub 4/-UO/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. The method is recommended for a wide application in estimation of thermodynamic properties of salts.

  3. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.


    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  4. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.


    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  5. Geochemical evidence for cryptic sulfur cycling in salt marsh sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Jennifer V.; Antler, Gilad; Turchyn, Alexandra V.


    Cryptic sulfur cycling is an enigmatic process in which sulfate is reduced to some lower-valence state sulfur species and subsequently quantitatively reoxidized; the rate and microbial energetics of this process and how prevalent it may be in the environment remain controversial. Here we investig......Cryptic sulfur cycling is an enigmatic process in which sulfate is reduced to some lower-valence state sulfur species and subsequently quantitatively reoxidized; the rate and microbial energetics of this process and how prevalent it may be in the environment remain controversial. Here we...... investigate sulfur cycling in salt marsh sediments from Norfolk, England where we observe high ferrous iron concentrations with no depletion of sulfate or change in the sulfur isotope ratio of that sulfate, but a 5‰ increase in the oxygen isotope ratio in sulfate, indicating that sulfate has been through...... a reductive cycle replacing its oxygen atoms. This cryptic sulfur cycle was replicated in laboratory incubations using 18O-enriched water, demonstrating that the field results do not solely result from mixing processes in the natural environment. Numerical modeling of the laboratory incubations scaled...

  6. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallis, S.M.


    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr/sup 90/, Cs/sup 137/, and Pu/sup 239/. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 150/sup 0/C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated.

  7. Low temperature geothermal systems in carbonate-evaporitic rocks: Mineral equilibria assumptions and geothermometrical calculations. Insights from the Arnedillo thermal waters (Spain). (United States)

    Blasco, Mónica; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F


    Geothermometrical calculations in low-medium temperature geothermal systems hosted in carbonate-evaporitic rocks are complicated because 1) some of the classical chemical geothermometers are, usually, inadequate (since they were developed for higher temperature systems with different mineral-water equilibria at depth) and 2) the chemical geothermometers calibrated for these systems (based on the Ca and Mg or SO4 and F contents) are not free of problems either. The case study of the Arnedillo thermal system, a carbonate-evaporitic system of low temperature, will be used to deal with these problems through the combination of several geothermometrical techniques (chemical and isotopic geothermometers and geochemical modelling). The reservoir temperature of the Arnedillo geothermal system has been established to be in the range of 87±13°C being the waters in equilibrium with respect to calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, quartz, albite, K-feldspar and other aluminosilicates. Anhydrite and quartz equilibria are highly reliable to stablish the reservoir temperature. Additionally, the anhydrite equilibrium explains the coherent results obtained with the δ18O anhydrite - water geothermometer. The equilibrium with respect to feldspars and other aluminosilicates is unusual in carbonate-evaporitic systems and it is probably related to the presence of detrital material in the aquifer. The identification of the expected equilibria with calcite and dolomite presents an interesting problem associated to dolomite. Variable order degrees of dolomite can be found in natural systems and this fact affects the associated equilibrium temperature in the geothermometrical modelling and also the results from the Ca-Mg geothermometer. To avoid this uncertainty, the order degree of the dolomite present in the Arnedillo reservoir has been determined and the results indicate 18.4% of ordered dolomite and 81.6% of disordered dolomite. Overall, the results suggest that this multi-technique approach

  8. The sulfur-isotopic compositions of benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes as a proxy for thermochemical sulfate reduction (United States)

    Amrani, Alon; Deev, Andrei; Sessions, Alex L.; Tang, Yongchun; Adkins, Jess F.; Hill, Ronald J.; Moldowan, J. Michael; Wei, Zhibin


    Compound-specific analyses of the 34S/32S isotope ratios of individual organosulfur compounds in Upper Jurassic oil and condensate samples from the Smackover Fm. reveal differences of up to ˜50‰ between compounds. There is a clear distinction between oils altered by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) versus those that are not. Oils that did experience TSR exhibit significant 34S enrichment of benzothiophenes (BTs) compared to dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), while in unaltered oils these compounds have similar isotopic compositions. The δ34S values of BTs are close to those of sulfate-bearing evaporites of the Smackover Fm., whereas the δ34S values of DBTs are spread over a wider range and gradually approach those of the BTs. Gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments using three representative oils show that isotopic alteration readily occurs under TSR conditions and can significantly affect the δ34S values of individual compounds. Our results indicate that BTs can be a sensitive tracer for TSR as they form readily under TSR conditions, with large 34S enrichments relative to the bulk oil. In contrast, DBTs exhibit relatively small changes in δ34S, preserving their original δ34S values longer than do BTs because of their greater thermal stability and slow rate of formation. We propose that comparison of the δ34S values of BT and DBT can be used to detect TSR alteration of oils from the very early stages up to highly altered oils. The approach should find numerous uses in petroleum exploration, as well as for understanding the basic reaction mechanisms and kinetics of thermochemical sulfate reduction and secondary sulfur incorporation into oils.

  9. Thrust and fold tectonics and the role of evaporites in deformation in the Western Kuqa Foreland of Tarim Basin, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuping Chen; Liangjie Tang; Zhijun Jin [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). Basin and Reservoir Research Center; Key Lab. for Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Education Ministry in Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China); Chengzao Jin [PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Xuejun Pi [Tarim Oilfield Co., PetroChina Co. Ltd., Korla, Xinjiang (China)


    The Kuqa foreland between the Tarim basin and the Tianshan Mountains is rich in oil and gas. Based on field work and seismic profiles, the structural styles and their formation mechanisms were determined, and the role of evaporites in the deformation was demonstrated. The main structural styles in the overburden are detachment folds, large scale nappes, triangle zones, gentle and wide synclines, fault-propagation folds and pop-ups. The main structures in the substrate are small-scale thrust faults, duplexes, pop-ups and fault-bend and fault-propagation folds, and formed mainly at the end of the Pliocene under north-south compression. The evaporite layer in the lower section of the Paleogene is the decollement zone for the disharmonic deformations in the overburden and in the substrate. The detachment along the evaporite layer made it possible for compressive stresses to be transmitted farther in the overburden than in the substrate. Deformation in the overburden is more extensive than in the substrate at the leading edge of deformation. At the trailing edge of deformation, the structural highs in the overburden closely correspond to those in the substrate, which is of significance for petroleum exploration in the western Kuqa foreland. (author)

  10. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K


    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  11. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate (United States)

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.


    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  12. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie


    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  13. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin


    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  14. Analyses of Recent Sediment Surface Dynamic of a Namibian Kalahari Salt Pan Based on Multitemporal Landsat and Hyperspectral Hyperion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Milewski


    Full Text Available This study combines spaceborne multitemporal and hyperspectral data to analyze the spatial distribution of surface evaporite minerals and changes in a semi-arid depositional environment associated with episodic flooding events, the Omongwa salt pan (Kalahari, Namibia. The dynamic of the surface crust is evaluated by a change-detection approach using the Iterative-reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IR-MAD based on the Landsat archive imagery from 1984 to 2015. The results show that the salt pan is a highly dynamic and heterogeneous landform. A change gradient is observed from very stable pan border to a highly dynamic central pan. On the basis of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion images, the current distribution of surface evaporite minerals is characterized using Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA. Assessment of field and image endmembers revealed that the pan surface can be categorized into three major crust types based on diagnostic absorption features and mineralogical ground truth data. The mineralogical crust types are related to different zones of surface change as well as pan morphology that influences brine flow during the pan inundation and desiccation cycles. These combined information are used to spatially map depositional environments where the more dynamic halite crust concentrates in lower areas although stable gypsum and calcite/sepiolite crusts appear in higher elevated areas.

  15. Correlation of second virial coefficient with solubility for proteins in salt solutions. (United States)

    Mehta, Chirag M; White, Edward T; Litster, James D


    In this work, osmotic second virial coefficients (B(22)) were determined and correlated with the measured solubilities for the proteins, α-amylase, ovalbumin, and lysozyme. The B(22) values and solubilities were determined in similar solution conditions using two salts, sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate in an acidic pH range. An overall decrease in the solubility of the proteins (salting out) was observed at high concentrations of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. However, for α-amylase, salting-in behavior was also observed in low concentration sodium chloride solutions. In ammonium sulfate solutions, the B(22) are small and close to zero below 2.4 M. As the ammonium sulfate concentrations were further increased, B(22) values decreased for all systems studied. The effect of sodium chloride on B(22) varies with concentration, solution pH, and the type of protein studied. Theoretical models show a reasonable fit to the experimental derived data of B(22) and solubility. B(22) is also directly proportional to the logarithm of the solubility values for individual proteins in salt solutions, so the log-linear empirical models developed in this work can also be used to rapidly predict solubility and B(22) values for given protein-salt systems. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Salting-out in Aqueous Solutions of Ionic Liquids and K3PO4: Aqueous Biphasic Systems and Salt Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís P. N. Rebelo


    Full Text Available The salting-out effect produced by the addition of potassium phosphate, K3PO4to aqueous solutions of water-miscible ionic liquids, viz. 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliumethyl sulfate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate, or 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (alkyl = butyl, octyl or decyl is investigated. The effects areanalyzed using both the corresponding temperature–composition pseudo-binary andcomposition ternary phase diagrams. Different regions of liquid-liquid and solid-liquidphase demixing are mapped. The phase behavior is interpreted taking into account thecomplex and competing nature of the interactions between the ionic liquid, the inorganicsalt and water. In the case of solutions containing 1-octyl- or 1-decyl-3-methylimidazoliumchloride, the smaller magnitude of the salting-out effects is explained in terms of thepossibility of self-aggregation of the ionic liquid.

  17. Iminium Salts by Meerwein Alkylation of Ehrlich’s Aldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Laus


    Full Text Available 4-(Dimethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated at the N atom by dialkyl sulfates, MeI, or Me3O BF4. In contrast, ethylation by Et3O BF4 occurs selectively at the O atom yielding a quinoid iminium ion. 4-(Diethylaminobenzaldehyde is alkylated only at O by either Et or Me oxonium reagent. The iminium salts are prone to hydrolysis giving the corresponding hydrotetrafluoroborates. Five crystal structures were determined.

  18. Identification and applicability of analogues for a safety case for a HLW repository in evaporites: results from a NEA workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, U.; Wolf, J. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Brunswick (Germany); Steininger, W. [Project Management Agency Karslruhe Water Technology and Waste Management, PTKA-WTE, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Miller, B. [AMEC, The Renaissance Center, Warrington (United Kingdom)


    A workshop was held in September 2012 in Braunschweig, Germany, to discuss the potential for natural and anthropogenic analogue studies to contribute to safety cases for radioactive waste repositories constructed in salt formations. Presentations were given on many analogue sites and systems from different countries. Discussions at the workshop then addressed the following aspects that are particularly relevant to the safety concept for radioactive waste disposal in salt: (1) the long-term integrity of rock salt formations, (2) the integrity of technical barriers, and (3) microbial, chemical and transport processes. A diverse range of natural systems were discussed as potential analogues for the integrity of rock salt. These included the deformation of anhydrite layers in rock salt; the response of rock salt to mechanical and thermal loads; and the isotopic signatures of syngenetic waters contained in fluid inclusions. Some anthropogenic examples drawn from the oil and gas industries, and from hazardous waste disposal, were proposed as analogues for the integrity of (geo)technical barriers. A broad range of studies on natural and anthropogenic salt-brine systems were identified as potential analogues for the radionuclide sorption and (co)precipitation process that may take place in the repository near and far fields, as well as for understanding the significance of hydrocarbons and microbial processes. It was evident from discussions at the workshop that there are some specific technical issues that may benefit from further analogue study, particularly the compaction of crushed salt backfill, the viability of microbes in the near-field, the stability of plugs and seals, the deformation of anhydrite, and isotope signatures in fluid inclusions. (authors)

  19. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.


    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  20. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity anisotropy of salt diapirs: Implications for wellbore stability and seismic processing (United States)

    Vargas-Meleza, Liliana; Healy, David


    A set of ten evaporite samples collected from outcrops in a single diapiric province in Cape Breton Island (Canada) have been tested for seismic velocity anisotropy using three methods: 1) conventional ultrasonic pulse transmission method, where velocities are found from the travel times and the known dimensions of the samples. In order to obtain the entire suite of elastic constants, both P- and S-wave velocity measurements were taken in three different directions of cuboid rock samples. Velocities have been measured under dry, ambient conditions of temperature and pressure in halite-, gypsum- and anhydrite-dominated samples; 2) optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on thin sections to define the spatial distribution of minerals, their crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO); and 3) a numerical 'rock-recipe' approach based on Tatham et al. (2008) to calculate seismic velocity anisotropy using arbitrary composites of evaporite minerals and different CPOs. These three methods are then compared to understand the controlling factors of the anisotropic elastic properties. The elasticity data are used to guide geomechanical modeling for wellbore stability and to provide insights for the seismic data processing and seismic imaging of salt diapirs. Reference Tatham, D.J., Lloyd, G.E., Butler, R.W.H. and Casey, M, 2008, Amphibole and lower crustal seismic properties: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 267, 118-128.

  1. Measurements of the Suitability of Large Rock Salt Formations for Radio Detection of High-Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odian, Allen C.


    We have investigated the possibility that large rock salt formations might be suitable as target masses for detection of neutrinos of energies about 10 PeV and above. In neutrino interactions at these energies, the secondary electromagnetic cascade produces a coherent radio pulse well above ambient thermal noise via the Askaryan effect. We describe measurements of radio-frequency attenuation lengths and ambient thermal noise in two salt formations. Measurements in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in an evaporite salt bed in Carlsbad, NM yielded short attenuation lengths, 3-7 m over 150-300 MHz. However, measurements at United Salt's Hockley mine, located in a salt dome near Houston, Texas yielded attenuation lengths in excess of 250 m at similar frequencies. We have also analyzed early ground-penetrating radar data at Hockley mine and have found additional evidence for attenuation lengths in excess of several hundred meters at 440 MHz. We conclude that salt domes, which may individually contain several hundred cubic kilometer water-equivalent mass, provide attractive sites for next-generation high-energy neutrino detectors.

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. (a...

  3. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart


    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in glomerular inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, A.L.; Vlag, J. van der; Lensen, J.F.M.; Wijnhoven, T.J.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Berden, J.H.M.


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoproteins consisting of a core protein to which linear heparan sulfate side chains are covalently attached. These heparan sulfate side chains can be modified at different positions by several enzymes, which include N-deacetylases, N- and

  7. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture of...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate. (United States)


    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS...

  10. Density-dependent groundwater flow and dissolution potential along a salt diapir in the Transylvanian Basin, Romania (United States)

    Zechner, Eric; Danchiv, Alex; Dresmann, Horst; Mocuţa, Marius; Huggenberger, Peter; Scheidler, Stefan; Wiesmeier, Stefan; Popa, Iulian; Zlibut, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Florian


    Salt diapirs and the surrounding sediments are often involved in a variety of human activities, such as salt mining, exploration and storage of hydrocarbons, and also storage of radioactive waste material. The presence of highly soluble evaporitic rocks, a complex tectonic setting related to salt diapirsm, and human activities can lead to significant environmental problems, e.g. land subsidence, sinkhole development, salt cavern collapse, and contamination of water resources with brines. In the Transylvanian town of Ocna Mures. rock salt of a near-surface diapir has been explored since the Roman ages in open excavations, and up to the 20th century in galleries and with solution mining. Most recently, in 2010 a sudden collapse in the adjacent Quaternary unconsolidated sediments led to the formation of a 70-90m wide salt lake with a max. depth of 23m. Over the last 3 years a Romanian-Swiss research project has led to the development of 3D geological and hydrogeological information systems in order to improve knowledge on possible hazards related to uncontrolled salt dissolution. One aspect which has been investigated is the possibility of density-driven flow along permeable subvertical zones next to the salt dome, and the potential for subsaturated groundwater to dissolve the upper sides of the diapir. Structural 3D models of the salt diapir, the adjacent basin sediments, and the mining galleries, led to the development of 2D numerical vertical density-dependent models of flow and transport along the diapir. Results show that (1) increased rock permeability due to diapirsm, regional tectonic thrusting and previous dissolution, and (2) more permeable sandstone layers within the adjacent basin sediments may lead to freshwater intrusion towards the top of the diapir, and, therefore, to increased potential for salt dissolution.

  11. Sodium sulfate impacts feeding, specific dynamic action, and growth rate in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea. (United States)

    Soucek, David John


    Sodium sulfate is a ubiquitous salt that reaches toxic concentrations due to mining and other industrial activities, yet is currently unregulated at the Federal level in the United States. Previous studies have documented reduced growth of clams downstream of sulfate-dominated effluents, altered bioenergetics in filter-feeding invertebrates, and interactions between sulfate and other toxicants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if sodium sulfate affects the bioenergetics of the filter-feeding, freshwater bivalve, Corbicula fluminea, and the mechanism by which the effects are elicited. In addition to measuring effects on feeding, respiration and growth rates, I evaluated the relative sensitivity of a green algae consumed by clams to determine if top-down or bottom-up effects might be exhibited under field conditions. This study demonstrated that sodium sulfate had no effect on basal metabolic rates, but significantly reduced the feeding, post-feeding metabolic, and growth rates of C. fluminea. The proposed mechanism for these impacts is that filtering rates are reduced upon exposure, resulting in reduced food consumption and therefore, preventing increased metabolic rates normally associated with post-feeding specific dynamic action (SDA). In the field, these effects may cause changes in whole stream respiration rates and organic matter dynamics, as well as alter uptake rates of other food-associated contaminants like selenium, the toxicity of which is known to be antagonized by sulfate, in filter-feeding bivalves.

  12. Surface Enrichment by Conventional and Polymerizable Sulfated Nonylphenol Ethoxylate Emulsifiers in Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive (United States)

    Jilin Zhang; Yuxi Zhao; Matthew R. Dubay; Steven J. Severtson; Larry E. Gwin; Carl J. Houtman


    Comparisons of properties are made for pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) generated via emulsion polymerization using both conventional and reactive emulsifiers. The emulsifiers are ammonium salts of sulfated nonylphenol ethoxylates with similar chemical structures and hydrophilic−lipophilic balances. The polymerizable surfactant possesses a reactive double...

  13. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of salt controlled minibasin in a fold-an-thrust belt setting Example from the Sivas Basin Turkey and physical model. (United States)

    Kergaravat, Charlie; Ribes, Charlotte; Darnault, Romain; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude


    The aim of this study is to present the influence of regional shortening on the evolution of a minibasin province and the associated foldbelt geometry based on a natural example, the Sivas Basin, then compared to a physical experiment. The Sivas Basin in the Central Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is a foreland fold-and-thrust belt, displaying in the central part a typical wall and basin province characterized by spectacularly exposed minibasins, separated by continuous steep-flanked walls and diapirs over a large area (45x25 km). The advance of the orogenic wedge is expressed within the second generation of minibasins by a shortening-induced squeezing of diapirs. Network of walls and diapirs evolve form polygonal to linear pattern probably induced by the squeezing of pre-existing evaporite walls and diapirs, separating linear primary minibasins. From base to top of secondary minibasins, halokinetic structures seem to evolve from small-scale objects along diapir flanks, showing hook and wedges halokinetic sequences, to large stratigraphic wedging, megaflap and salt sheets. Minibasins show progressively more linear shape at right angle to the regional shortening and present angular unconformities along salt structures related to the rejuvenation of pre-existing salt diapirs and walls probably encouraged by the shortening tectonic regime. The advance of the fold-and-thrust belts during the minibasins emplacement is mainly expressed during the late stage of minibasins development by a complex polygonal network of small- and intermediate-scale tectonic objects: (1) squeezed evaporite walls and diapirs, sometimes thrusted forming oblique or vertical welds, (2) allochthonous evaporite sheets, (3) thrusts and strike-slip faults recording translation and rotation of minibasins about vertical axis. Some minibasins are also tilted, with up to vertical position, associated with both the salt expulsion during minibasins sinking, recorded by large stratigraphic wedge, and the late

  14. Composition of fluid inclusions in Permian salt beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A. (United States)

    Roedder, E.; d'Angelo, W. M.; Dorrzapf, A.F.; Aruscavage, P. J.


    Several methods have been developed and used to extract and chemically analyze the two major types of fluid inclusions in bedded salt from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Data on the ratio K: Ca: Mg were obtained on a few of the clouds of tiny inclusions in "chevron" salt, representing the brines from which the salt originally crystallized. Much more complete quantitative data (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Cl, SO4 and Br) were obtained on ??? 120 individual "large" (mostly ???500 ??m on an edge, i.e., ??? ??? 1.6 ?? 10-4 g) inclusions in recrystallized salt. These latter fluids have a wide range of compositions, even in a given piece of core, indicating that fluids of grossly different composition were present in these salt beds during the several (?) stages of recrystallization. The analytical results indicating very large inter-and intra-sample chemical variation verify the conclusion reached earlier, from petrography and microthermometry, that the inclusion fluids in salt and their solutes are generally polygenetic. The diversity in composition stems from the combination of a variety of sources for the fluids (Permian sea, meteoric, and groundwater, as well as later migrating ground-, formation, or meteoric waters of unknown age), and a variety of subsequent geochemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and rock-water interaction. The compositional data are frequently ambiguous but do provide constraints and may eventually yield a coherent history of the events that produced these beds. Such an understanding of the past history of the evaporite sequence of the Palo Duro Basin should help in predicting the future role of the fluids in the salt if a nuclear waste repository is sited there. ?? 1987.

  15. Rheological characterization of hair shampoo in the presence of dead sea salt. (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, B; Mohameed, H A; Sa'id, M; Snobar, T


    In Jordan, a growing industry has been established to produce different types of Dead Sea (DS) cosmetics that have DS salt (contains mainly NaCl, KCl, and MgCl(2)) in their formulas. In this work, the effect of DS salt on the rheology of hair shampoo containing the sodium lauryl ether sulfate as a main active matter was studied. The effects of DS salt and active matter concentration, and the temperature and time of salt mixing, on the rheological properties of hair shampoo were investigated. The salt-free shampoo showed a Newtonian behavior at 'low active matter' (LAM) and shear thinning at 'high active matter' (HAM). The presence of DS salt changed the rheological behavior of LAM shampoo from Newtonian (for the salt-free shampoo) to shear thinning. On the other hand, the behavior of HAM shampoo switched from shear thinning to Newtonian behavior in the presence of high concentration of DS salt. The addition of DS salt increased the apparent viscosity of shampoo to reach a maximum value that corresponded to a salt concentration of 1.5 wt.%. Further addition of DS salt led to a decrease in the shampoo viscosity to reach a value less than that of the salt-free sample at high salt concentration. Changing the mixing temperature (25-45 degrees C) and mixing time (15-120 min) of DS salt with shampoo has no significant influence on the rheological behavior. However, the mixing process increased the apparent viscosity of salt-free shampoo. The power law model fitted well the flow curves of hair shampoo with and without DS salt.

  16. Evaporite karst geohazards in the Delaware Basin, Texas: review of traditional karst studies coupled with geophysical and remote sensing characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W. Stafford


    Full Text Available Evaporite karst throughout the Gypsum Plain of west Texas is complex and extensive, including manifestations ranging from intrastratal brecciation and hypogene caves to epigene features and suffosion caves. Recent advances in hydrocarbon exploration and extraction has resulted in increased infrastructure development and utilization in the area; as a result, delineation and characterization of potential karst geohazards throughout the region have become a greater concern. While traditional karst surveys are essential for delineating the subsurface extent and morphology of individual caves for speleogenetic interpretation, these methods tend to underestimate the total extent of karst development and require surficial manifestation of karst phenomena. Therefore, this study utilizes a composite suite of remote sensing and traditional field studies for improved karst delineation and detection of potential karst geohazards within gypsum karst. Color InfraRed (CIR imagery were utilized for delineation of lineaments associated with fractures, while Normalized Density Vegetation Index (NDVI analyses were used to delineate regions of increased moisture flux and probable zones of shallow karst development. Digital Elevation Models (DEM constructed from high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data were used to spatially interpret sinkholes, while analyses of LiDAR intensity data were used in a novel way to categorize local variations in surface geology. Resistivity data, including both direct current (DC and capacitively coupled (CC resistivity analyses, were acquired and interpreted throughout the study area to delineate potential shallow karst geohazards specifically associated with roadways of geohazard concern; however, detailed knowledge of the surrounding geology and local karst development proved essential for proper interpretation of resistivity inversions. The composite suite of traditional field investigations and remotely sensed karst

  17. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N


    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  18. SALT for Language Acquisition. (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane


    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  19. The use of anions with sulfate function in electrolyte for lithium battery. Study of transport mechanism; Utilisation d'anions a fonction sulfate dans des electrolytes pour batterie au lithium. Etude des mecanismes de transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, Ch.


    Lithium salts based on oligo-ether sulfate were synthesized and characterised. They incorporate oxy-ethylene units which enable the lithium cation salvation and, potentially, their use as ionic liquids. Their properties as lithium salts dissolved in liquid or polymer electrolytes were evaluated. Their electrochemical and thermal stabilities are sufficient for lithium battery application. Due to their weak dissociation in POE, their conductivities are fairly low. On the other hand, they have high cationic transference numbers. In mixture with usual salts as LiTFSI, they provide a good compromise between conductivities/transference number/cost. The second part of this study deals with the synthesis and characterisation of an ionomer with sulfate function and polyether backbone. The electrochemical, physical and chemical properties of this material show that it could be used as polymer electrolyte. Its potential as cross-linked gelled polymer electrolyte is outstanding. Structural analyses on an ionomeric monocrystal have been corroborated with quantum chemistry calculations. (author)

  20. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))


    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  1. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.


    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  2. Water purification using organic salts (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.


    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  3. A novel reverse osmosis membrane by ferrous sulfate assisted controlled oxidation of polyamide layer (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Raviya, Mayur R.; Gauswami, Maulik V.


    With growing desalination capacity, it is very important to evaluate the performance of thin film composite reverse osmosis (TFC RO) membrane in terms of energy consumption for desalination. There is a trade-off between salt rejection and water-flux of TFC RO membrane. This article presents a novel approach of analyzing the effect of mixture of an oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite and a reducing agent ferrous sulfate on virgin TFC RO membrane. Experiments were carried out by varying the concentrations of both sodium hypochlorite and ferrous sulfate. The negative charge was induced on the membrane due to the treatment of combination of sodium hypochlorite and ferrous sulfate, thereby resulting in higher rejection of negative ions due to repulsive force. Membrane treated with 1000 mg l‑1 sodium hypochlorite and 2000 mg l‑1 ferrous sulfate showed the best salt rejection i.e. 96.23%. The characterization was carried out to understand the charge on the membrane surface by Zeta potential, morphology of membrane surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness features by atomic force microscope (AFM) and chemical structural changes by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis.

  4. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming


    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Halotolerant Soil Fungi from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma (United States)

    EVANS, Sarah; HANSEN, Ryan W.; SCHNEEGURT, Mark A.


    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) of Oklahoma is an inland terrestrial hypersaline environment where saturated brines leave evaporite crusts of NaCl. The current report examines the fungal community, complementing earlier reports on the bacterial and archaeal communities. Twenty-five fungal isolates from GSP soils were obtained on medium containing 10% NaCl and characterized. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, all of the isolates fall within the Ascomycetes, with a predominance of Trichocomaceae, represented by Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium species. Representatives of Anthrinium, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Fusarium, and Ulocladium also were isolated. Overall the isolates were widely halotolerant, with best growth observed at lower salinities and no halophilism. The fungal genera observed were all cosmopolitan, without strong specialization. Taken together, these results support the conclusion that hypersaline environments do not have a characteristic community, in contrast to what was observed at the GSP for bacteria and archaea. PMID:25249710

  6. Gypsum scarps and asymmetric fluvial valleys in evaporitic terrains. The role of river migration, landslides, karstification and lithology (Ebro River, NE Spain) (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; Gutiérrez, F.


    Most of the Spanish fluvial systems excavated in Tertiary evaporitic gypsum formations show asymmetric valleys characterized by a stepped sequence of fluvial terraces on one valley flank and kilometric-long and > 100-m high prominent river scarp on the opposite side of the valley. Scarp undermining by the continuous preferential lateral migration of the river channel toward the valley margin leads to vertical to overhanging unstable slopes affected by a large number of slope failures that become the main geological hazard for villages located at the toe of the scarps. Detailed mapping of the gypsum scarps along the Ebro and Huerva Rivers gypsum scarps demonstrates that landslides and lateral spreading processes are predominant when claystones crop out at the base of the scarp, while rockfalls and topples become the dominant movement in those reaches where the rock mass is mainly constituted by evaporites. The dissolution of gypsum nodules, seasonal swelling and shrinking, and dispersion processes contribute to a decrease in the mechanical strength of claystones. The existence of dissolution-enlarged joints, sinkholes, and severely damaged buildings at the toe of the scarp from karstic subsidence demonstrates that the interstratal karstification of evaporites becomes a triggering factor in the instability of the rock mass. The genesis of asymmetric valleys and river gypsum scarps in the study area seem to be caused by the random migration of the river channel in the absence of lateral tilting related to tectonics or dissolution-induced subsidence. Once the scarp is developed, its preservation depends on the physicochemical properties of the substratum, the ratio between bedrock erosion and river incision rates, and climatic conditions that favour runoff erosion versus dissolution.

  7. Salting Effects as an Illustration of the Relative Strength of Intermolecular Forces (United States)

    Person, Eric C.; Golden, Donnie R.; Royce, Brenda R.


    This quick and inexpensive demonstration of the salting of an alcohol out of an aqueous solution illustrates the impact of intermolecular forces on solubility using materials familiar to many students. Ammonium sulfate (fertilizer) is added to an aqueous 35% solution of isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol and water) containing food coloring as a…

  8. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment (United States)

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.


    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  9. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT


    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  10. The Agost Basin (Betic Cordillera, Alicante province, Spain): a pull-apart basin involving salt tectonics (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Estévez, Antonio; Martín-Rojas, Ivan; Guerrera, Francesco; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Serrano, Francisco; Tramontana, Mario


    The Agost Basin is characterized by a Miocene-Quaternary shallow marine and continental infilling controlled by the evolution of several curvilinear faults involving salt tectonics derived from Triassic rocks. From the Serravallian on, the area experienced a horizontal maximum compression with a rotation of the maximum stress axis from E-W to N-S. The resulting deformation gave rise to a strike-slip fault whose evolution is characterized progressively by three stages: (1) stepover/releasing bend with a dextral motion of blocks; (2) very close to pure horizontal compression; and (3) restraining bend with a sinistral movement of blocks. In particular, after an incipient fracturing stage, faults generated a pull-apart basin with terraced sidewall fault and graben subzones developed in the context of a dextral stepover during the lower part of late Miocene p.p. The occurrence of Triassic shales and evaporites played a fundamental role in the tectonic evolution of the study area. The salty material flowed along faults during this stage generating salt walls in root zones and salt push-up structures at the surface. During the purely compressive stage (middle part of late Miocene p.p.) the salt walls were squeezed to form extrusive mushroom-like structures. The large amount of clayish and salty material that surfaced was rapidly eroded and deposited into the basin, generating prograding fan clinoforms. The occurrence of shales and evaporites (both in the margins of the basin and in the proper infilling) favored folding of basin deposits, faulting, and the formation of rising blocks. Later, in the last stage (upper part of late Miocene p.p.), the area was affected by sinistral restraining conditions and faults must have bent to their current shape. The progressive folding of the basin and deformation of margins changed the supply points and finally caused the end of deposition and the beginning of the current erosive systems. On the basis of the interdisciplinary results

  11. Overview of the geophysical studies in the Dead Sea coastal area related to evaporite karst and recent sinkhole development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Ezersky


    Full Text Available Since the early 80s, a progressively increasing number of sinkholes appeared along the Dead Sea coastal line. It has been found that their appearance is strongly correlating with the lowering of the Dead Sea level taking place with the rate of approximately 1 m/yr. Location of areas affected by sinkhole development corresponds to location of the salt formation deposited during the latest Pleistocene, when the Lake Lisan receded to later become the Dead Sea. Water flowing to the Dead Sea from adjacent and underlying aquifers dissolves salt and creates caverns that cause ground subsidence and consequent formation of sinkholes. Before subsidence, these caverns are not visible on the surface but can be investigated with surface geophysical methods. For that, we applied Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR, Transient Electromagnetic (TEM Seismic refraction and reflection, Multichannel Analysis of Surface waves (MASW, microgravity and magnetic surveys and their combinations. Our geophysical results allowed us to locate the salt formation and to detect caverns in salt thus contributing to better understanding sinkhole development mechanisms. Comparison of sinkhole appearance along the western DS shore derived from the recent database (2017 shows that predictions made on the base of geophysical data (2005-2008 are now confirmed thus demonstrating efficiency of our study. In this paper, we briefly present a summary of up to date knowledge of the geology and hydrogeology of Dead Sea basin, of the physical properties of the salt rock and the most popular models explaining mechanisms of sinkhole development. We also share our experience gained during geophysical studies carried out in the framework of national and international research projects in this area for the last 20 years.

  12. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.


    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the tyrosylprotein...... sulfotransferases (TPSTs).Traditionally, Tyr sulfation has been analyzed by incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate into target cells followed by purification of the target protein. Subsequently, the protein is degraded enzymatically or by alkaline hydrolysis followed by thin-layer electrophoresis to demonstrate...

  13. Amine salts of nitroazoles (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.


    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  14. What Are Bath Salts? (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  15. Sulfate transporters in the plant’s response to drought and salinity: regulation and possible functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine eGallardo


    Full Text Available Drought and salinity are two frequently combined abiotic stresses that affect plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Sulfate, and molecules derived from this anion such as glutathione, play important roles in the intrinsic responses of plants to such abiotic stresses. Therefore, understanding how plants facing environmental constraints re-equilibrate the flux of sulfate between and within different tissues might uncover perspectives for improving tolerance against abiotic stresses. In this review, we took advantage of genomics and post-genomics resources available in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the model legume species Medicago truncatula to highlight and compare the regulation of sulfate transporter genes under drought and salt stress. We also discuss their possible function in the plant’s response and adaptation to abiotic stresses and present prospects about the potential benefits of mycorrhizal associations, which by facilitating sulfate uptake may assist plants to cope with abiotic stresses. Several transporters are highlighted in this review that appear promising targets for improving sulfate transport capacities of crops under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  16. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal. (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N


    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  17. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake. (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun


    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  18. Investigations of novel unsaturated bile salts of male sea lamprey as potential chemical cues (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Li, Weiming


    Sulfated bile salts function as chemical cues that coordinate reproduction in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. 7α, 12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) is the most abundant known bile salt released by sexually mature male sea lampreys and attracts ovulated females. However, previous studies showed that the male-produced pheromone consists of unidentified components in addition to 3kPZS. Here, analysis of water conditioned with mature male sea lampreys indicated the presence of 4 oxidized, unsaturated compounds with molecular weights of 466 Da, 468 Da, and 2 of 470 Da. These compounds were not detectable in water conditioned with immature male sea lampreys. By using mass spectrometry, 4 A-ring unsaturated sulfated bile salts were tentatively identified from male washings as 2 4-ene, a 1-ene, and a 1,4-diene analogs. These were synthesized to determine if they attracted ovulated female sea lampreys to spawning nests in natural streams. One of the novel synthetic bile salts, 3 keto-1-ene PZS, attracted ovulated females to the point of application at a concentration of 10-12 M. This study reveals the structural diversity of bile salts in sea lamprey, some of which have been demonstrated to be pheromonal cues.

  19. Enterovirus 71 uses cell surface heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan as an attachment receptor. (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun


    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor.

  20. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei


    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  1. The sulfate-rich and extreme saline sediment of the ephemeral tirez lagoon: a biotope for acetoclastic sulfate-reducing bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. (United States)

    Montoya, Lilia; Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Amils, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Nuria; Marín, Irma


    Our goal was to examine the composition of methanogenic archaea (MA) and sulfate-reducing (SRP) and sulfur-oxidizing (SOP) prokaryotes in the extreme athalassohaline and particularly sulfate-rich sediment of Tirez Lagoon (Spain). Thus, adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase α (aprA) and methyl coenzyme M reductase α (mcrA) gene markers were amplified given that both enzymes are specific for SRP, SOP, and MA, respectively. Anaerobic populations sampled at different depths in flooded and dry seasons from the anoxic sediment were compared qualitatively via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint analysis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed the detection of SRP belonging to Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, and Peptococcaceae in ∂-proteobacteria and Firmicutes and SOP belonging to Chromatiales/Thiotrichales clade and Ectothiorhodospiraceae in γ-proteobacteria as well as MA belonging to methylotrophic species in Methanosarcinaceae and one hydrogenotrophic species in Methanomicrobiaceae. We also estimated amino acid composition, GC content, and preferential codon usage for the AprA and McrA sequences from halophiles, nonhalophiles, and Tirez phylotypes. Even though our results cannot be currently conclusive regarding the halotolerant strategies carried out by Tirez phylotypes, we discuss the possibility of a plausible "salt-in" signal in SRP and SOP as well as of a speculative complementary haloadaptation between salt-in and salt-out strategies in MA.

  2. The Sulfate-Rich and Extreme Saline Sediment of the Ephemeral Tirez Lagoon: A Biotope for Acetoclastic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenic Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Montoya


    Full Text Available Our goal was to examine the composition of methanogenic archaea (MA and sulfate-reducing (SRP and sulfur-oxidizing (SOP prokaryotes in the extreme athalassohaline and particularly sulfate-rich sediment of Tirez Lagoon (Spain. Thus, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS reductase α (aprA and methyl coenzyme M reductase α (mcrA gene markers were amplified given that both enzymes are specific for SRP, SOP, and MA, respectively. Anaerobic populations sampled at different depths in flooded and dry seasons from the anoxic sediment were compared qualitatively via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprint analysis. Phylogenetic analyses allowed the detection of SRP belonging to Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfohalobiaceae, and Peptococcaceae in ∂-proteobacteria and Firmicutes and SOP belonging to Chromatiales/Thiotrichales clade and Ectothiorhodospiraceae in γ-proteobacteria as well as MA belonging to methylotrophic species in Methanosarcinaceae and one hydrogenotrophic species in Methanomicrobiaceae. We also estimated amino acid composition, GC content, and preferential codon usage for the AprA and McrA sequences from halophiles, nonhalophiles, and Tirez phylotypes. Even though our results cannot be currently conclusive regarding the halotolerant strategies carried out by Tirez phylotypes, we discuss the possibility of a plausible “salt-in” signal in SRP and SOP as well as of a speculative complementary haloadaptation between salt-in and salt-out strategies in MA.

  3. Sinkholes and caves related to evaporite dissolution in a stratigraphically and structurally complex setting, Fluvia Valley, eastern Spanish Pyrenees. Geological, geomorphological and environmental implications (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Fabregat, Ivan; Roqué, Carles; Carbonel, Domingo; Guerrero, Jesús; García-Hermoso, Fernando; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio


    Evaporite karst and sinkhole development is analysed in a geologically complex area of NE Spain, including four evaporite units with different characteristics and affected by compressional and extensional tectonic structures. The exposed paleosinkholes, including remarkable Early Pleistocene paleontological sites, provide valuable information on the subsidence mechanisms and reveal the significant role played by interstratal karstification in the area. These gravitational deformation structures, including hectometre-scale bending folds and oversteepened normal faults, strongly suggest that the present-day compressional regime inferred in previous studies may be largely based on the analysis of non-tectonic structures. Two gypsum caves ca. 1 km long show that passages with restricted cross-sectional area may produce large breccia pipes and sinkholes thanks to the removal of breakdown boulders by high-competence episodic floods. Moreover, the upward progression of cave ceilings by paragenesis and condensation dissolution contributes to increase the probability of sinkhole occurrence. An inventory of 135 sinkholes together with their geological and geomorphological context has been developed. This data base has been used to infer several properties of the sinkholes with practical implications: a magnitude and frequency scaling relationship, spatial distribution patterns, dominant controlling factors and risk implications.

  4. The impact of droughts and climate change on sinkhole occurrence. A case study from the evaporite karst of the Fluvia Valley, NE Spain. (United States)

    Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Bach, Joan; Fabregat, Ivan


    This work introduces the concept that sinkhole frequency in some karst settings increases during drought periods. This conception is tested in a sector of the Fluvia River valley in NE Spain, where subsidence phenomena is related to the karstification of folded Eocene evaporite formations. In the discharge areas, the evaporites behave as confined aquifers affected by hypogene karstification caused by aggressive artesian flows coming form an underlying carbonate aquifer. A sinkhole inventory with chronological data has been constructed, revealing temporal clusters. Those clusters show a good correlation with drought periods, as revealed by precipitation, river discharge and piezometric data. This temporal association is particularly obvious for the last and current drought starting in 1998, which is the most intense of the record period (1940-present). Climatic projections based on recent studies foresee an intensification of the droughts in this sector of NE Spain, which could be accompanied by the enhancement of the sinkhole hazard and the associated risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Compressional salt tectonics in the early stages of the South Pyrenean foreland basin (United States)

    Burrel, Laura; Teixell, Antonio


    Salt tectonics in the Pyrenees has been widely documented for the Cretaceous extensional episode, defining the existence of salt walls and minibasins along the northern and southern Pyrenean paleomargins. The original geometry of these salt structures was heavily overprinted by shortening during the Alpine orogeny, but restored models have been documented. Other features explored regarding salt tectonics are the big domic or equidimensional diapirs that evolved during the Late Tertiary and still retain their shape in the southern Pyrenees. In either case, the Triassic Keuper evaporite layer is the source layer for the diapiric structures, which is also traditionally recognized as the main detachment level for the external Pyrenean thrust belts. In this work we focus on the role played by salt during the early stages of Alpine compression, which has been comparatively much less investigated. The Late Cretaceous to Eocene early foreland basin of the Southern Pyrenees shows evidence of salt movement that is often overlooked due to the most evident imprint of thrusts and associated fault-related folds. In this preliminary study we report field examples that shed some light on the interplay between halokinesis and buckling in the low-strain compressional regime during the early stages of the Pyrenean orogeny. Also we discuss how the growing salt structures control the local subsidence and the sediment dispersal patterns within the basin. We describe cases of salt-related geometries in the Eocene basins of the southern Pyrenees in areas as the footwall of the Montsec thrust -the Ager basin-, the External Sierras south of the Jaca basin, and the Pobla de Segur and Senterada intramontane conglomerate deposits on the Boixols and Nogueres thrust sheets. The examples are separate, but they offer a wide range of geometries such as tight synclines, vertical and overturned fold limbs, growth strata, and fault boundaries that can be interpreted as thrust welds. These serve as a

  6. Study of calcium carbonate and sulfate co-precipitation

    KAUST Repository

    Zarga, Y.


    Co-precipitation of mineral based salts in scaling is still not well understood and/or thermodynamically well defined in the water industry. This study focuses on investigating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and sulfate mixed precipitation in scaling which is commonly observed in industrial water treatment processes including seawater desalination either by thermal-based or membrane-based processes. Co-precipitation kinetics were studied carefully by monitoring several parameters simultaneously measured, including: pH, calcium and alkalinity concentrations as well as quartz microbalance responses. The CaCO3 germination in mixed precipitation was found to be different than that of simple precipitation. Indeed, the co-precipitation of CaCO3 germination time was not anymore related to supersaturation as in a simple homogenous precipitation, but was significantly reduced when the gypsum crystals appeared first. On the other hand, the calcium sulfate crystals appear to reduce the energetic barrier of CaCO3 nucleation and lead to its precipitation by activating heterogeneous germination. However, the presence of CaCO3 crystals does not seem to have any significant effect on gypsum precipitation. IR spectroscopy and the Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) were used to identify the nature of scales structures. Gypsum was found to be the dominant precipitate while calcite and especially vaterite were found at lower proportions. These analyses showed also that gypsum crystals promote calcite crystallization to the detriment of other forms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan


    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  8. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model. (United States)

    Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Yeung-Ju; Park, Eui Seong; Park, Kun-Young


    The effects of Korean solar salt on an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer C57BL/6 mouse model were studied. Korean solar salt samples (SS-S, solar salt from S salt field; SS-Yb, solar salt from Yb salt field), nine-time-baked bamboo salt (BS-9x, made from SS-Yb), purified salt (PS), and SS-G (solar salt from Guérande, France) were orally administered at a concentration of 1% during AOM/DSS colon cancer induction, and compared for their protective effects during colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. SS-S and SS-Yb suppressed colon length shortening and tumor counts in mouse colons. Histological evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining also revealed suppression of tumorigenesis by SS-S. Conversely, PS and SS-G did not show a similar suppressive efficacy as Korean solar salt. SS-S and SS-Yb promoted colon mRNA expression of an apoptosis-related factor and cell-cycle-related gene and suppressed pro-inflammatory factor. SS-Yb baked into BS-9x further promoted these anti-carcinogenic efficacies. Taken together, the results indicate that Korean solar salt, especially SS-S and SS-Yb, exhibited anti-cancer activity by modulating apoptosis- and inflammation-related gene expression during colon carcinogenesis in mice, and bamboo salt baked from SS-Yb showed enhanced anti-cancer functionality.

  9. Site Assessment for Astroparticle Detector Location in Evaporites of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice Copper Ore Mine, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Slizowski


    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to evaluate the possibilities of excavating a chamber for the Glacier detector, a cylinder with a 74 m diameter and 38 m height filled with 100 kT of liquid argon, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper ore mine in the Legnica-Glogow Copper Area (LGOM. Two potential locations were analyzed in a rock salt layer more than 100 m thick at the depth of 1000 m and in the anhydrite layer of about 100 m thick at the depth of 650 m, both lying above the copper ore deposit. The numerical analyses, based on geological, geophysical, and geomechanical research, were carried out to determine the behavior of the system of the chamber and surrounding rock mass. Two creep laws have been adopted for rock salt in the numerical models, Norton and Lubby2. Their coefficients have been adjusted for in situ measurements of the mine galleries convergence starting from the results of laboratory tests. Displacement and stresses of the rock salt in the chamber vicinity are much greater for the Lubby2 law. The displacements indicated at the chamber contour are the reason that the alternative location in the anhydrite layer was more advantageous.

  10. Adult sea lamprey tolerates biliary atresia by altering bile salt composition and renal excretion (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Ying; Lionarons, Daniël A.; Hagey, Lee; Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.


    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a genetically programmed animal model for biliary atresia as it loses its bile ducts and gallbladder during metamorphosis. However, in contrast to patients with biliary atresia or other forms of cholestasis who develop progressive disease, the post-metamorphosis lampreys grow normally to adult size. To understand how the adult lamprey thrives without the ability to secrete bile, we examined bile salt homeostasis in larval and adult lampreys. Adult livers were severely cholestatic with levels of bile salts >1 mM, but no evidence of necrosis, fibrosis, or inflammation. Interestingly, both larvae and adults had normal plasma levels (~10 μM) of bile salts. In larvae, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) was the predominant bile salt, whereas the major bile salts in adult liver were sulfated C27 bile alcohols. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that PZS was highly toxic. Pharmacokinetic studies in free-swimming adults revealed that ~35% of intravenously injected bromosulfophthalein (BSP) was eliminated over a 72 hr period. Collection of urine and feces demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including biliverdin, bile salts and BSP, were predominantly excreted via the kidney with minor amounts also detected in feces. Gene expression analysis detected marked up-regulation of orthologs of known organic anion and bile salt transporters in the kidney with lesser effects in the intestine and gills in adults compared to larvae. These findings indicate that adult lampreys tolerate cholestasis by altering hepatic bile salt composition, while maintaining normal plasma bile salt levels predominantly through renal excretion of bile products. Therefore, we conclude that strategies to accelerate renal excretion of bile salt and other toxins should be beneficial for patients with cholestasis. PMID:23175353

  11. Liquid-liquid equilibrium of water + PEG 8000 + magnesium sulfate or sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems at 35°C: experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Castro


    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems is a highly efficient technique for separation and purification of biomolecules due to the mild properties of both liquid phases. Reliable data on the phase behavior of these systems are essential for the design and operation of new separation processes; several authors reported phase diagrams for polymer-polymer systems, but data on polymer-salt systems are still relatively scarce. In this work, experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data on water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + magnesium sulfate and water + polyethylene glycol 8000 + sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were obtained at 35°C. Both equilibrium phases were analyzed by lyophilization and ashing. Experimental results were correlated with a mass-fraction-based NRTL activity coefficient model. New interaction parameters were estimated with the Simplex method. The mean deviations between the experimental and calculated compositions in both equilibrium phases is about 2%.

  12. Safety assessment of 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and its salt, 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate, are used as coupling agents in oxidative hair dyes. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the ingredient. The Expert Panel concluded that 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole and 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate are safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations. The Expert Panel cautioned that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed.

  13. Great Salt Lake, Utah (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.


    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  14. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson


    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  15. Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation. (United States)

    Benatti, Cláudia Telles; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Lenzi, Ervim


    Chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent has proven to be a viable alternative to the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants in mixed waste chemicals, but the sulfate concentration in the treated liquor was still above the acceptable limits for effluent discharge. In this paper, the feasibility of sulfate removal from complex laboratory wastewaters using barium and calcium precipitation was investigated. The process was applied to different wastewater cases (two composite samples generated in different periods) in order to study the effect of the wastewater composition on the sulfate precipitation. The experiments were performed with raw and oxidized wastewater samples, and carried out according to the following steps: (1) evaluate the pH effect upon sulfate precipitation on raw wastewaters at pH range of 2-8; (2) conduct sulfate precipitation experiments on raw and oxidized wastewaters; and (3) characterize the precipitate yielded. At a concentration of 80 g L(-1), barium precipitation achieved a sulfate removal up to 61.4% while calcium precipitation provided over 99% sulfate removal in raw and oxidized wastewaters and for both samples. Calcium precipitation was chosen to be performed after Fenton's oxidation; hence this process configuration favors the production of higher quality precipitates. The results showed that, when dried at 105 degrees C, the precipitate is composed of hemidrate and anhydrous calcium sulfate ( approximately 99.8%) and trace metals ( approximately 0.2%: Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ag, Mg, K, Na), what makes it suitable for reuse in innumerous processes.

  16. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product...

  17. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  18. Metabolic flexibility of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Zhang, Weinwen; Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.


    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic

  19. Sulfation of naringenin by Cunninghamella elegans. (United States)

    Ibrahim, A R


    A new flavonoid sulfate, naringenin-7-sulfate, was obtained by fermentation of naringenin using the fungus Cunninghamella elegans NRRL 1392 in 23% yield. Structural elucidation of the metabolite was achieved using EIMS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy beside acid and enzyme hydrolyses.

  20. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.


    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  1. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above.

  2. Sulfhaemoglobinaemia caused by ferrous sulfate. (United States)

    Derbas, Laith; Warsame, Mohamed; Omar, Mohannad Abu; Zafar, Yousaf; Howell, Gregory


    A 78-year-old man was referred from his primary care clinic to the emergency department due to bluish discolouration of his lips and decreased oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry. The patient was asymptomatic. Physical exam was normal except for lip cyanosis. A CT pulmonary angiogram was negative for pulmonary embolism. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis with co-oximetry showed low oxyhaemoglobin, normal partial pressure of oxygen and methaemoglobinaemia, but an unexplained 'gap' in total haemoglobin saturation. This gap was felt to be due to sulfhaemoglobinaemia. After a thorough review of his medications, ferrous sulfate was stopped which resulted in resolution in patient's cyanosis and normalisation of his ABG after 7 weeks. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  4. Soluble salt sources in medieval porous limestone sculptures: A multi-isotope (N, O, S) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, W., E-mail: [BRGM, Direction des Laboratoires, Unité Isotopes, BP 6009, F-45060 Orléans cedex 2 (France); Rolland, O., E-mail: [Montlouis-sur-Loire (France); Proust, E.; Montech, A.T. [BRGM, Direction des Laboratoires, Unité Isotopes, BP 6009, F-45060 Orléans cedex 2 (France)


    The sources and mechanisms of soluble salt uptake by porous limestone and the associated degradation patterns were investigated for the life-sized 15th century “entombment of Christ” sculpture group located in Pont-à-Mousson, France, using a multi-isotope approach on sulphates (δ{sup 34}S and δ{sup 18}O) and nitrates (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). The sculpture group, near the border of the Moselle River, is within the potential reach of capillary rise from the alluvial aquifer. Chemical analyses show a vertical zonation of soluble salts with a predominance of sulphates in the lower parts of the statues where crumbling and blistering prevail, and higher concentrations of nitrates and chloride in the high parts affected by powdering and efflorescence. Isotope fingerprints of sulphates suggest a triple origin: (1) the lower parts are dominated by capillary rise of dissolved sulphate from the Moselle water with characteristic Keuper evaporite signatures that progressively decreases with height; (2) in the higher parts affected by powdering the impact of atmospheric sulphur becomes detectable; and (3) locally, plaster reparations impact the neighbouring limestone through dissolution and re-precipitation of gypsum. Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes suggest an organic origin of nitrates in all samples. N isotope signatures are compatible with those measured in the alluvial aquifer of the Moselle River further downstream. This indicates contamination by sewage or organic fertilisers. Significant isotopic contrasts are observed between the different degradation features depending on the height and suggest historical changes of nitrate sources. - Highlights: • We use S, N and O isotopes to distinguish salt sources in limestone sculptures. • Vertical zonation of degradation is linked to capillary rise and air pollution. • Sulphate salts in lower parts are derived from river/groundwater. • Sulphate salts in higher parts show signature of air pollution. • Nitrates

  5. Mineral resource of the month: salt (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.


    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  6. Hydrometric, Chemical, and Multi-Isotope Approaches to Assess the Water Balance and the Sources and Fate of Nitrate and Sulfate in the South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada (United States)

    Mayer, B.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Ferguson, P. R.; Rock, L.; McCallum, J. E.; Veizer, J.


    River water, seasonally sampled at 25 stations along the South Saskatchewan River and its tributaries between the headwaters in Alberta and mouth near Prince Albert (Saskatchewan), was analyzed for its chemical and isotopic composition (δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC, δ15Nnitrate, δ18Onitrate, δ34Ssulfate, δ18Osulfate). Using a water-isotope mass balance approach we estimated that circa 7% (35 mm) of the annual precipitation (490 mm) in the watershed is subject to evaporation, while circa 51% (247 mm) is returned to the atmosphere via transpiration. In order to identify the sources and the fate of sulfate and nitrate along the river, riverine sulfate and nitrate fluxes were calculated by combining hydrometric data with concentration measurements. Sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope measurements were used to determine the causes of marked changes in sulfate and nitrate fluxes with increasing flow distance. Geologic (evaporite) sulfate was the predominant sulfate source in the headwaters, while sulfate from anthropogenic sources in urban areas and from pyrite oxidation in the tills of agricultural regions caused markedly elevated sulfate fluxes with increasing distance. Nitrate fluxes in the headwater section were low and N and O stable isotope data indicated that the nitrate was mainly derived from nitrification in forest soils. With increasing flow distance, there was clear evidence of nitrate loading from municipal waste water sources. Downstream of major urban centers, nitrate flux data indicated active nitrogen assimilation particularly during the summer months. There was also evidence for influx of manure-derived nitrate with agricultural return flows in some areas of the South Saskatchewan River basin. Additional tracer techniques (e.g. B isotopes) would have been desirable to better differentiate nitrate loading from urban and agricultural sources. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that stable isotope techniques are an effective tool for constraining water

  7. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge


    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  8. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.


    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  9. Assessment of aggression, sexual behavior and fertility in adult male rat following long-term ingestion of four industrial metals salts. (United States)

    Bataineh, H; Al-Hamood, M H; Elbetieha, A M


    1. The effect of long-term ingestion of the industrial metals salts, manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride was investigated on aggression, sexual behavior and fertility in male rat. Adult male rats ingested solutions of these salts along with drinking water at a concentration of 1000 p.p.m. for 12 weeks. 2. Male rat sexual behavior was suppressed after the ingestion of manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride. The ingestion of solutions of these salts markedly prolonged the intromission and ejaculation latencies. Aluminum chloride and copper chloride reduced the copulatory efficiency. 3. Male rat aggression was also abolished after the ingestion of manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride. The ingestion of solutions of these salts markedly suppressed lateralizations, boxing bouts, fight with stud male and ventral presenting postures. 4. Fertility was reduced in male rats ingested with lead acetate. The total number of resorptions was increased in female rats impregnated by males ingested with manganese sulfate and lead acetate. 5. Body, absolute or relative testes, seminal vesicles weights were dropped in adult male rats ingested with manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride. However, the absolute or relative preputial gland weights were not affected. Collectively, these results suggest that the long-term ingestion of manganese sulfate, aluminum chloride, lead acetate and copper chloride would have adverse effects on sexual behavior, territorial aggression, fertility and the reproductive system of the adult male rat.

  10. Mechanism for salt scaling (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  11. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini


    -five percent of the gas is estimated to be from late cracking of oil in the source rock. Lewan (2002) concluded that much of the thermogenic gas produced in this basin is the result of cracking of oil to gas in deeply buried reservoirs. The efficiency of expulsion, migration and trapping has been estimated to range from 0.5 to 10 percent for certain basins (Schmoker, 1994: Zimmerman, 1999). The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin is 910 billion barrels using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated is 1,540 billion barrels using the Platte River software application. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 3,130 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 4,050 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Seventy-five percent of the gas is estimated to be from late cracking of oil in the source rock. Claypool and Mancini (1989) report that the conversion of oil to gas in reservoirs is a significant source of thermogenic gas in this basin. The Manila and Conecuh Subbasins are oil-prone. Although these subbasins are thermally mature for oil generation and expulsion, they are not thermally mature for secondary, non-associated gas generation and expulsion. The gas produced from the highly productive gas condensate fields (Big Escambia Creek and Flomaton fields) in these subbasins has been interpreted to be, in part, a product of the cracking of oil to gas and thermochemical reduction of evaporite sulfate in the reservoirs (Claypool and Mancini, 1989). The areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior Salt Basins with high potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs (>15,000 ft) have been identified. In the North Louisiana Salt Basin, these potential reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous facies, especially the Smackover, Cotton Valley, Hosston, and Sligo units. The estimate of the secondary, non-associated gas generated from cracking of oil in the source

  12. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.


    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  13. Laboratory studies of binary salt CVD in combustion gas environments (United States)

    Liang, Baishen; Rosner, D. E.


    A flash-evaporation technique is used to obtain vapor deposition characteristics for the binary alkali sulfates K2SO4 + Na2SO4 at 1 atm above 1100 K. The experimental equipment and techniques are described, and preliminary results are reported which indicate that this experimental technique meets most of the research requirements for studying multicomponent systems of current interest. The various deposition rate effects of introducing additives and the relevant inferences of condensate composition are presented, and the theoretical implications are discussed. It is concluded that alkali sulfate deposition and vaporization in combustion environments are inevitably influenced by chemical reactions such as hydroxide formation, and that solution nonideality is important even for homologous alkali-salt mixtures.

  14. Drilling the Messinian Salinity Crisis as a Model Analogue for Dolomite Deposition at the End of Massive Salt Deposition Events (United States)

    McKenzie, Judith A.; Aloisi, Giovanni; Anjos, Sylvia; Latgé, Ricardo; Matsuda, Nilo; Bontognali, Tomaso; Vasconcelos, Crisogono


    Sedimentologic and stratigraphic studies of the Lower Cretaceous sequence, deposited in the economically important Campos Basin, southeast Brazil, document the occurrence of ~20-m-thick dolomite intervals overlying the "massive salt" megasequences of the Lagoa Feia Formation. This stratigaphic succession marks the Aptian/Albian transition from extreme evaporitic conditions of the Lagoa Feia Formation to shallow marine conditions of the Macaé Formation, related to the early opening of the South Atlantic. The facies change from evaporites to dolomite is interpreted as a product of dolomitization resulting from the refuxing of hypersaline fluids from shallow embayments with intense evaporation (Latgé, 2001). Although the reflux model provides a mechanism to produce fluids with geochemical composition favorable for dolomite precipitation, it cannot account for all of the factors required to promote dolomite precipitation. In this study, we propose a different model to explain the post-evaporite deposition of massive dolomite based on the study of sequences deposited at the end Messinian Salinity Crisis, which were recovered from the deep basins of the Mediterranean Sea during DSDP/ODP drilling campaigns. At most of these deep-water sites, the cored interval contained unusual dolomite deposits overlying the uppermost evaporite sections. For example, the upper Messinian sedimentary sequence at DSDP Site 374 comprises non-fossiliferous dolomitic mudstone overlying dolomitic mudstone/gypsum cycles, which in turn overlie anhydrite and halite (Hsü, Montadert et al., 1978). We postulate that the end Messinian dolomite is a product of microbial activity under extreme hypersaline conditions. In the last 20 years, research into the factors controlling dolomite precipitation under Earth surface conditions has led to the development of new models involving the metabolism of microorganisms and associated biofilms to overcome the kinetic inhibitions associated with primary

  15. Chemical models for martian weathering profiles: Insights into formation of layered phyllosilicate and sulfate deposits (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.; Mironenko, Mikhail V.


    Numerical chemical models for water-basalt interaction have been used to constrain the formation of stratified mineralogical sequences of Noachian clay-bearing rocks exposed in the Mawrth Vallis region and in other places on cratered martian highlands. The numerical approaches are based on calculations of water-rock type chemical equilibria and models which include rates of mineral dissolution. Results show that the observed clay-bearing sequences could have formed through downward percolation and neutralization of acidic H2SO4-HCl solutions. A formation of weathering profiles by slightly acidic fluids equilibrated with current atmospheric CO2 requires large volumes of water and is inconsistent with observations. Weathering by solutions equilibrated with putative dense CO2 atmospheres leads to consumption of CO2 to abundant carbonates which are not observed in clay stratigraphies. Weathering by H2SO4-HCl solutions leads to formation of amorphous silica, Al-rich clays, ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, and minor titanium oxide and alunite at the top of weathering profiles. Mg-Fe phyllosilicates, Ca sulfates, zeolites, and minor carbonates precipitate from neutral and alkaline solutions at depth. Acidic weathering causes leaching of Na, Mg, and Ca from upper layers and accumulation of Mg-Na-Ca sulfate-chloride solutions at depth. Neutral MgSO4 type solutions dominate in middle parts of weathering profiles and could occur in deeper layers owing to incomplete alteration of Ca minerals and a limited trapping of Ca to sulfates. Although salts are not abundant in the Noachian geological formations, the results suggest the formation of Noachian salty solutions and their accumulation at depth. A partial freezing and migration of alteration solutions could have separated sulfate-rich compositions from low-temperature chloride brines and contributed to the observed diversity of salt deposits. A Hesperian remobilization and release of subsurface MgSO4 type solutions into newly

  16. Experiment Analysis of Concrete’s Mechanical Property Deterioration Suffered Sulfate Attack and Drying-Wetting Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian


    Full Text Available The mechanism of concrete deterioration in sodium sulfate solution is investigated. The macroperformance was characterized via its apparent properties, mass loss, and compressive strength. Changes in ions in the solution at different sulfate attack periods were tested by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. The damage evolution law, as well as analysis of the concrete’s meso- and microstructure, was revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and computed tomography (CT scanning equipment. The results show that the characteristics of concrete differed at each sulfate attack period; the drying-wetting cycles generally accelerated the deterioration process of concrete. In the early sulfate attack period, the pore structure of the concrete was filled with sulfate attack products (e.g., ettringite and gypsum, and its mass and strength increased. The pore size and porosity decreased while the CT number increased. As deterioration progressed, the swelling/expansion force of products and the salt crystallization pressure of sulfate crystals acted on the inner wall of the concrete to accumulate damage and accelerate deterioration. The mass and strength of concrete sharply decreased. The number and volume of pores increased, and the pore grew more quickly resulting in initiation and expansion of microcracks while the CT number decreased.

  17. [Aluminum forms in acid sulfate soils]. (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, S; Feng, Y


    With the method of sequential extraction, the extractable noncrystalline aluminum in Acid Sulfate Soils was fractionized into exchangeable Al (ExAl), absorbed inorganic hydroxy-Al(HyAl), organic complexed Al(OrAl), Fe oxide bound Al (DCBAl), interlayered Al(InAl) and noncrystalline aluminosilicate(NcAl) with average of 1.79, 2.51, 4.17, 4.14, 4.31 and 8.66 g, respectively. In actual Acid Sulfate Soils, the amount of different forms Al followed the order of NcAl > OrAl > InAl > DCBAl > ExAl > HyAl, but in potential acid sulfate soils, NcAl > InAl > DCBAl > HyAl > OrAl > ExAl. The average of the total extractable noncrystalline Al was 35.57 g, which covered 25.04% of the total amount of Al in Acid Sulfate Soils. The characteristic of extractable noncrystalline Al in Acid Sulfate Soils was the high proportion of active aluminum, such as ExAl, HyAl and OrAl. All forms of Al were closely related to the corresponding properties and ecological characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soils. The strong acid environment of actual Acid Sulfate Soils induced over-released Al, which transformed to active Al and resulted in Al toxicity.

  18. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  19. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton


    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  20. Molecular indicators for palaeoenvironmental change in a Messinian evaporitic sequence (Vena del Gesso, Italy) II. Stratigraphic changes in abundances and (13)C contents of free and sulphur-bound skeletons in a single marl bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kenig, F.; Frewin, N.L.; Hayes, J.M.


    The extractable organic matter of 10 immature samples from a marl bed of one evaporitic cycle of the Vena del Gesso sediments (Gessoso-solfifera Fm., Messinian, Italy) was analyzed quantitatively for free hydrocarbons and organic sulphur compounds. Nickel boride was used as a desulphurizing agent to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Henny


    Full Text Available A lactate enriched mixed sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB culture was examined for the reduction of Cr(VI in a continuous flow system. The influent was mineral salts media added with lactate and sulfate with amounts of 8 and 6 mM respectively as electron donor and electron acceptor. The SRB culture was allowed to stabilize in the column before adding the Cr(VI to the influent. Chromium and sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation were examined by measuring the concentrations of Cr(Vl, sulfate and lactate in the influent and the effluent over time. The experiment was discontinued when Cr(VI concentration in the effiuent was breakthrough. In the absence of Cr(VI, sulfate was not completely reduced in the column, although lactate was completely oxidized and acetate as an intermediate product was not often detected. Almost all of Cr(VI loaded was reduced in the column seeded with the SRB culture at influent Cr(VI concentrations of 192,385 and769 mM. There was no significant Cr(VI loss in the control column, indicating that Cr(VI removal was due to the reduction of Cr(VI to Cr (lll by the SRB culture. The instantaneous Cr(VI removal decreased to a minimum of 32%, 24 days after the influent Cr(VI concentration was increased to 1540 mM, ancl sulfate removal efficiency decreased to a minimum of 17%. The SRB population in the column decreased 100 days after C(VI was added to the column. The total mass of Cr(VI reduced was approximately 878 mmol out of 881 mmol of Cr(Vl loaded in 116 days. The results clearly show that our developed SRB culture could reduced Cr(Vl considerably.

  2. Simulation-based Analysis of the Differences in the Removal Rate of Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulfates by Electrokinetic Desalination Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Due to their abundance in the natural environment, chloride, nitrate and sulfate salts are considered the main responsible for the salt-induced decay processes in building materials and sculptures. Electro-desalination techniques, enhanced with carbonated clay buffer poultice placed between...... than chlorides and nitrates. A physicochemical model for electrochemically-induced reactive-transport processes is described and used for a theoretical analysis of the influence of the chemical interactions on the removal rate of the target ions. Simulations for the electro-desalination of a brick...

  3. Lowering Salt in Your Diet (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  4. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  5. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.


    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  6. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Marietou, Angeliki


    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  7. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts


    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie


    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  8. Iron salts in solid state and in frozen solutions as dosimeters for low irradiation temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Lartigue, J. [Facultad de Quimica UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Ramos, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Mosqueira, G.F. [Direccion General de Divulgacion de la Ciencia de la UNAM, A.P. 70-487, C:P, D.F. Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Negron-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A.P. 70-543 C.P.4510, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    The aim of this work is to study the irradiation of iron salts in solid state (heptahydrated ferrous sulfate) and in frozen acid solutions. The study is focused on finding their possible use as dosimeters for low temperature irradiations and high doses. The analysis of the samples was made by UV-visible and Moessbauer spectroscopies. The output signal was linear from 0 to 10 MGy for the solid samples, and 0-600 Gy for the frozen solutions. The obtained data is reproducible and easy to handle. For these reasons, heptahydrate iron sulfate is a suitable dosimeter for low temperature and high irradiation doses, in solid state, and in frozen solution.

  9. Effects of ammonium salts on oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Pilinszky


    Full Text Available Oleaster (Russian olive, Elaeagnus angustifolia trees are highly tolerant against a variety of abiotic stresses (water, temperature, salt, and other chemicals. Therefore, they can be used for rehabilitation of contaminated and/or low quality soils (brownfields, dump sites, wastelands, etc.. In order to study responses of oleaster to environmental stress in vivo and in vitro, we successfully sterilized and initiated its callus cultures, regenerated shoots and roots and finally whole plants from the callus. Application of ammonium (in the form of sulfate salt to the regenerated plantlets at concentrations higher than 10 mg L-1 inhibited root growth, reduced the leaf chlorophyll content and the activity of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. At the same time, it induced activities of the stress marker enzyme glutathione S-transferase in the root and shoot tissues of the plant.

  10. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems (United States)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.


    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  11. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  12. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  13. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  14. Genetic Adaptation to Salt Stress in Experimental Evolution of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Aifen; Hillesland, Kristina; He, Zhili; Joachimiak, Marcin; Zane, Grant; Dehal, Paramvir; Arkin, Adam; Stahl, David; Wall, Judy; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong; Baidoo, Edward; Benke, Peter; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila


    High salinity is one of the most common environmental stressors. In order to understand how environmental organisms adapt to salty environment, an experiment evolution with sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough was conducted. Control lines and salt-stressed lines (6 lines each) grown in minimal medium LS4D or LS4D + 100 mM NaCl were transferred for 1200 generations. The salt tolerance was tested with LS4D supplemented with 250 mM NaCl. Statistical analysis of the growth data suggested that all lines adapted to their evolutionary environment. In addition, the control lines performed better than the ancestor with faster growth rate, higher biomass yield and shorter lag phase under salty environment they did not evolve in. However, the salt-adapted lines performed better than the control lines on measures of growth rate and yield under salty environment, suggesting that the salt?evolved lines acquired mutations specific to having extra salt in LS4D. Growth data and gene transcription data suggested that populations tended to improve till 1000 generations and active mutations tended to be fixed at the stage of 1000 generations. Point mutations and insertion/deletions were identified in isolated colonies from salt-adapted and control lines via whole genome sequencing. Glu, Gln and Ala appears to be the major osmoprotectant in evolved salt-stressed line. Ongoing studies are now characterizing the contribution of specific mutations identified in the salt-evolved D. vulgaris.

  15. Nanobelt formation of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate via a soft chemistry process. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzhi; Sun, Qunhui; Hu, Zeshan; Deng, Yulin


    The nanobelt formation of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) via a soft chemistry approach using carbonate salt and magnesium sulfate as reactants was successfully demonstrated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion X-ray spectra (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the MHSH nanobelts possessed a thin belt structure (approximately 50 nm in thickness) and a rectangular cross profile (approximately 200 nm in width). The MHSH nanobelts suffered decomposition under electron beam irradiation during TEM observation and formed MgO with the pristine nanobelt morphology preserved. The formation process of the MHSH nanobelts was studied by tracking the morphology of the MHSH nanobelts during the reaction. A possible chemical reaction mechanism is proposed.

  16. Can magnesium sulfate therapy impact lactogenesis? (United States)

    Haldeman, W


    This case report describes a patient who ingested magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) for approximately four days as a treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension. Stage II lactogenesis was delayed until the tenth postpartum day at which point the patient's breasts became fully engorged. No explanation for this delay was found, other than the possibility that magnesium sulfate treatment impeded lactogenesis. Implications for professionals who care for lactating women are discussed.

  17. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: The Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: Fluid inclusion and isotope study (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.


    simply by the evaporation of seawater to halite saturation and requires a dilution of more than two times by meteoric water. The higher K/Na values in fluid inclusions from barite suggest that the brines interacted with K-rich rocks in the basement or siliciclastic sediments in the basin. Carbonate gangue minerals (ankerite and calcite) have δ13C and δ18O values that are close to the carbonate host rock and indicate fluid equilibrium between carbonate host rocks and hydrothermal brines. The δ34S values for sphalerite and galena fall within a narrow range (1 to 10 ‰) with a bulk value of 7.5 ‰, indicating a homogeneous source of sulfur. The δ34S values of barite are also relatively homogeneous (22 ‰), with 6 ‰ higher than the δ34S of local and regional Triassic evaporites (15 ‰). The latter are believed to be the source of sulfate. Temperature of deposition together with sulfur isotope data indicate that the reduced sulfur in sulfides was derived through thermochemical sulfate reduction of Triassic sulfate via hydrocarbons produced probably from Late Cretaceous source rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Bou Jaber barite (0.709821 to 0.711408) together with the lead isotope values of Bou Jaber galena (206Pb/204Pb = 18.699 to 18.737;207Pb/204Pb = 15.635 to 15.708 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.321 to 38.947) show that metals were extracted from homogeneous crustal source(s). The tectonic setting of the Bou Jaber ore deposit, the carbonate nature of the host rocks, the epigenetic style of the mineralization and the mineral associations, together with sulfur and oxygen isotope data and fluid inclusion data show that the Bou Jaber lead-zinc mineralization has the major characteristics of a salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit with superimposed events of fluorite and of barite deposition. Field relations are consistent with mineral deposition during the Eocene–Miocene Alpine orogeny from multiple hydrothermal events: (1) Zn

  18. A salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type deposit: the Bou Jaber Pb-Zn-Ba-F deposit, Tunisia: fluid inclusion and isotope study (United States)

    Bouhlel, Salah; Leach, David L.; Johnson, Craig A.; Marsh, Erin; Salmi-Laouar, Sihem; Banks, David A.


    evaporation of seawater to halite saturation and requires a dilution of more than two times by meteoric water. The higher K/Na values in fluid inclusions from barite suggest that the brines interacted with K-rich rocks in the basement or siliciclastic sediments in the basin. Carbonate gangue minerals (ankerite and calcite) have δ13C and δ18O values that are close to the carbonate host rock and indicate fluid equilibrium between carbonate host rocks and hydrothermal brines. The δ34S values for sphalerite and galena fall within a narrow range (1 to 10 ‰) with a bulk value of 7.5 ‰, indicating a homogeneous source of sulfur. The δ34S values of barite are also relatively homogeneous (22 ‰), with 6 ‰ higher than the δ34S of local and regional Triassic evaporites (15 ‰). The latter are believed to be the source of sulfate. Temperature of deposition together with sulfur isotope data indicate that the reduced sulfur in sulfides was derived through thermochemical sulfate reduction of Triassic sulfate via hydrocarbons produced probably from Late Cretaceous source rocks. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the Bou Jaber barite (0.709821 to 0.711408) together with the lead isotope values of Bou Jaber galena (206Pb/204Pb = 18.699 to 18.737; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.635 to 15.708 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.321 to 38.947) show that metals were extracted from homogeneous crustal source(s). The tectonic setting of the Bou Jaber ore deposit, the carbonate nature of the host rocks, the epigenetic style of the mineralization and the mineral associations, together with sulfur and oxygen isotope data and fluid inclusion data show that the Bou Jaber lead-zinc mineralization has the major characteristics of a salt diapir-related Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposit with superimposed events of fluorite and of barite deposition. Field relations are consistent with mineral deposition during the Eocene-Miocene Alpine orogeny from multiple hydrothermal events: (1) Zn-Pb sulfides formed by mixing of two fluids: one

  19. Toxicity of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate to Macrobrachium lamarrel (H. Miline Edwards) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murti, R.; Shukla, G.S.


    Macrobrachium lamarrei were exposed to six different concentrations of copper sulfate and zinc sulfate solutions. The specimens showed increased activity immediately after their transfer to the test solutions. They subside their activity very soon in copper sulfate, whereas in zinc sulfate they remain active for about 2 hr frequently coming to the surface of the toxic solution. In both cases, profuse secretion of mucus has been noted on the whole body surface, but most pronounced in the gill region. The 96 h LC/sub 50/ values of copper sulfate (0.247 mg/l) and zinc sulfate (3.188 mg/l) show that copper is thirteen times more toxic to this species than zinc. The minimum concentration of zinc sulfate to initiate slight mortality was 1 mg/l while for copper the corresponding value was as low as 0.01 mg/l. The first mortality in copper sulfate solution of 0.5 mg/l was noted after 4 hr exposure in contrast to zinc sulfate where it required 6 hr in 15 mg/l solutions. 27 references, 2 tables.

  20. Biogenic barite preciptiation at micromolar ambient sulfate (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Pryer, H. V.; Nielsen, S.; Ricketts, R. D.


    Earth's early oceans were essentially devoid of sulfate, yet barium sulfate (barite) deposits are common to ancient sediments. Most explanations for this `barite paradox' overlook biogenic barite precipitation—the dominant vector of particulate barium cycling in modern seawater—as the ancient oceans were presumably strongly undersaturated with respect to barite. We tested whether biogenic barite could indeed precipitate at trace sulfate by examining the particulate multi-element and Ba-isotopic geochemistry of one of the largest trace-sulfate ecosystems on Earth: Lake Superior. Despite exceptional levels of barite undersaturation in Lake Superior, we find unambiguous evidence of biogenic barite precipitation that is correlated with the depths of greatest organic matter remineralization in the water column. The overall pattern of particulate barium cycling in Lake Superior is strikingly similar to that seen in the open ocean, supporting the critical role of particle-associated `microenvironments' that become rich in respired sulfate as protected sites of biogenic barite formation. Our observations offer a microbially-mediated mechanism for barite formation at micromolar ambient sulfate and thus also a potential resolution to the barite paradox in the ancient oceans.

  1. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil


    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  2. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A


    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  3. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM


    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  4. Microemulsion of Molten Salts (United States)


    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  5. Participation of Taxifolin in the Protection of Soya Seeds from the Effects of Heavy Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available A correlation was revealed between the specific activity of peroxidases and their multiple forms during the germination of soya seeds (Glycine max (L. Merrill in the presence of heavy metal salts. It was shown that lead and cadmium sulfates cause emergence of new forms of the enzyme with high electrophoretic mobility, which indicates that the identified enzyme forms are involved in the molecular mechanism of adaptation to oxidative stress. Addition of taxifolin (dihydroquercetin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant, to the salts of heavy metals caused decrease in the specific activity of peroxidases and favored emergence of new forms of the enzyme, which were absent in the control samples.

  6. Aqueous origins of bright salt deposits on Ceres (United States)

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.


    Bright materials have been reported in association with impact craters on Ceres. The abundant Na2CO3 and some ammonium salts, NH4HCO3 and/or NH4Cl, were detected in bright deposits within Occator crater with Dawn near infrared spectroscopy. The composition and appearance of the salts suggest their aqueous mobilization and emplacement after formation of the crater. Here we consider origins of the bright deposits through calculation of speciation in the H-C-N-O-Na-Cl water-salt type system constrained by the mass balance of observed salts. Calculations of chemical equilibria show that initial solutions had the pH of ∼10. The temperature and salinity of solutions could have not exceeded ∼273 K and ∼100 g per kg H2O, respectively. Freezing models reveal an early precipitation of Na2CO3·10H2O followed by minor NaHCO3. Ammonium salts precipitate near eutectic from brines enriched in NH4+, Cl- and Na+. A late-stage precipitation of NaCl·2H2O is modeled for solution compositions with added NaCl. Calculated eutectics are above 247 K. The apparently unabundant ammonium and chloride salts in Occator's deposits imply a rapid emplacement without a compositional evolution of solution. Salty ice grains could have deposited from post-impact ballistic plumes formed through low-pressure boiling of subsurface solutions. Hydrated and ammonium salts are unstable at maximum temperatures of Ceres' surface and could decompose through space weathering. Occator's ice-free salt deposits formed through a post-depositional sublimation of ice followed by dehydration of Na2CO3·10H2O and NaHCO3 to Na2CO3. In other regions, excavated and exposed bright materials could be salts initially deposited from plumes and accumulated at depth via post-impact boiling. The lack of detection of sulfates and an elevated carbonate/chloride ratio in Ceres' materials suggest an involvement of compounds abundant in the outer solar system.

  7. Impact of Oral Zinc Sulfate on Uncomplicated Neonatal Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nabavizadeh


    Full Text Available Background & aim: Jaundice is one of the most significant problems to consider in the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of oral zinc sulfate on uncomplicated neonatal jaundice using comparison of effect of just phototherapy with the effect of combination of phototherapy and oral zinc sulfate.   Methods: The present double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 78 normal term neonates with the age of 2-7 days who were admitted for uncomplicated jaundice in neonatal ward of Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences. These infants were divided to experimental group (40 cases and control group (38 cases using block random allocation. In the control group, phototherapy was done alone and experimental group received elemental zinc orally as 10 mg daily for 5 days in combination with phototherapy.  The total bilirubin serum levels were measured at the beginning of the study , 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after the beginning of the study, discharge, and one week after discharge. The collected data were analyzed by the Chi Square test, independent t-test, and analysis of variance with repeated measurement.   Results: There were no significant statistical difference between the experimental group and control group in sex, age, birth weight, hemoglobin, reticulocyte percentage, G6PD deficiency, and of serum total bilirubin level at the beginning of study(p>0.05. Analysis of variance with repeated measurement showed that there were no significant statistical difference between the total bilirubin serum level at 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours after beginning of the study, discharge, and one week after discharge (p>0.05. Also, the mean of hospitalization duration was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05.   Conclusion: Although oral zinc salts inhibit the enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin, however probably not effective in the treatment of neonatal physiologic

  8. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab


    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  9. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt


    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...

  10. The efficacy of nebulized salbutamol, magnesium sulfate, and salbutamol/magnesium sulfate combination in moderate bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Kose, Mehmet; Ozturk, Mehmet Adnan; Poyrazoğlu, Hakan; Elmas, Tuba; Ekinci, Duygu; Tubas, Filiz; Kurt, Tuba; Goktas, Mehmet Akif


    The aim of this paper is to compare the effect of nebulized magnesium sulfate to nebulized salbutamol and salbutamol/magnesium sulfate on successful discharge from the emergency department. A total of 56 infants were included in this double-blinded, prospective study. Infants were grouped according to the nebulized treatment they received: group 1-salbutamol/normal saline, group 2-magnesium sulfate and normal saline, and group 3-salbutamol plus magnesium sulfate. Heart beat, bronchiolitis, clinical severity scores (CSS), and oxygen saturation of the patients were determined before and after nebulization (0, 1, 4 h). The patients were monitored for adverse reactions. Post-treatment mean CSS results were significantly lower than pre-treatment scores in all groups at 4 h with no significant difference within groups. CSS scores were lower in the salbutamol/magnesium sulfate group when compared with the magnesium sulfate and salbutamol groups (3.4 (2.4-4.3), 4.7 (3.8-5.7), 4.0 (3.2-4.3)). CSS were significantly lower than those from the magnesium sulfate group. Nebulized magnesium sulfate plus salbutamol may have additive effects for improving the short-term CSS.

  11. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception


    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit


    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  12. Structure of the Western Gulf of Mexico Salt Canopy Surface Imaged by Regional 2D Multichannel Seismic Data (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Robla, V.; Emmet, P. A.


    bathymetry. Basement structures, original evaporite deposition, and sediment depositional history are considered as potential controls on the varying salt structural styles at the edge of the GoM canopy.

  13. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti


    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  14. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  15. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans


    Holla, Robert


    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  16. Copper sulfate pentahydrate reduced epithelial cytotoxicity induced by lipopolysaccharide from enterogenic bacteria. (United States)

    Feyzi, Adel; Delkhosh, Aref; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Cheraghi, Omid; Khakpour, Mansour; Barekati-Mowahed, Mazyar; Soltani, Sina; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Kazemi, Masoumeh; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Namdarian, Reza


    The over usage of multiple antibiotics contributes to the emergence of a whole range of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria causing enterogenic infections in poultry science. Therefore, finding an appropriate alternative natural substance carrying an antibacterial capacity would be immensely beneficial. It has been previously discovered that the different types of cupric salts, especially copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), to carry a potent bactericidal capacity. We investigated the neutralizing effect of CuSO4·5H2O (6.25μg/ml) on the reactive oxygen species generation, and expression of MyD88, an essential adaptor protein of Toll-like receptor, and NF-κB in three intestinal epithelial cell lines exposed to 50ng/ml lipopolysaccharide. In order to find the optimal cupric sulfate concentration without enteritis-inducing toxicity, broiler chickens were initially fed with water containing 0.4, 0.5, and 1mg/l during a period of 4days. After determination of appropriate dosage, two broiler chickens and turkey flocks with enteritis were fed with cupric compound for 4days. We found that cupric sulfate can lessen the cytotoxic effect of lipopolysaccharide by reducing the reactive oxygen species content (psulfate. The copper sulfate in doses lower than 0.4mg/ml expressed no cytotoxic effect on the liver, kidney, and the intestinal tract while a concentration of 0.5 and 1mg/ml contributed to a moderate to severe tissue injuries. Pearson Chi-Square analysis revealed the copper cation significantly diminished the rate of mortality during 4-day feeding of broiler chicken and turkey with enteritis (p=0.000). Thus, the results briefed above all confirm the potent anti-bactericidal feature of cupric sulfate during the course of enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma (United States)


    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles). The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock. The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule). The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge near its crest also appears

  18. Co-existence of Methanogenesis and Sulfate Reduction with Common Substrates in Sulfate-Rich Estuarine Sediments. (United States)

    Sela-Adler, Michal; Ronen, Zeev; Herut, Barak; Antler, Gilad; Vigderovich, Hanni; Eckert, Werner; Sivan, Orit


    The competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogens over common substrates has been proposed as a critical control for methane production. In this study, we examined the co-existence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction with shared substrates over a large range of sulfate concentrations and rates of sulfate reduction in estuarine systems, where these processes are the key terminal sink for organic carbon. Incubation experiments were carried out with sediment samples from the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Yarqon (Israel) estuary with different substrates and inhibitors along a sulfate concentrations gradient from 1 to 10 mM. The results show that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction can co-exist while the microbes share substrates over the tested range of sulfate concentrations and at sulfate reduction rates up to 680 μmol L-1 day-1. Rates of methanogenesis were two orders of magnitude lower than rates of sulfate reduction in incubations with acetate and lactate, suggesting a higher affinity of sulfate reducing bacteria for the available substrates. The co-existence of both processes was also confirmed by the isotopic signatures of δ34S in the residual sulfate and that of δ13C of methane and dissolved inorganic carbon. Copy numbers of dsrA and mcrA genes supported the dominance of sulfate reduction over methanogenesis, while showing also the ability of methanogens to grow under high sulfate concentration and in the presence of active sulfate reduction.

  19. Desulfohalophilus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely halophilic sulfate- and arsenate-respiring bacterium from Searles Lake, California (United States)

    Blum, Jodi Switzer; Kulp, Thomas R.; Han, Sukkyun; Lanoil, Brian; Saltikov, Chad W.; Stolz, John F.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.


    A haloalkaliphilic sulfate-respiring bacterium, strain SLSR-1, was isolated from a lactate-fed stable enrichment culture originally obtained from the extreme environment of Searles Lake, California. The isolate proved capable of growth via sulfate-reduction over a broad range of salinities (125–330 g/L), although growth was slowest at salt-saturation. Strain SLSR-1 was also capable of growth via dissimilatory arsenate-reduction and displayed an even broader range of salinity tolerance (50–330 g/L) when grown under these conditions. Strain SLSR-1 could also grow via dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. Growth experiments in the presence of high borate concentrations indicated a greater sensitivity of sulfate-reduction than arsenate-respiration to this naturally abundant anion in Searles Lake. Strain SLSR-1 contained genes involved in both sulfate-reduction (dsrAB) and arsenate respiration (arrA). Amplicons of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from DNA extracted from Searles Lake sediment revealed the presence of close relatives of strain SLSR-1 as part of the flora of this ecosystem despite the fact that sulfate-reduction activity could not be detected in situ. We conclude that strain SLSR-1 can only achieve growth via arsenate-reduction under the current chemical conditions prevalent at Searles Lake. Strain SLSR-1 is a deltaproteobacterium in the family Desulfohalobiacea of anaerobic, haloalkaliphilic bacteria, for which we propose the name Desulfohalophilus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov., sp. nov.

  20. Possible salt tectonics in Ariadnes Colles ? (United States)

    Wendt, L.; Gasselt, S. V.; Neukum, G.


    the foot of the hill. On other knobs, the basaltic material can be found on higher elevations or even at the top. Directly beneath it, the hill exhibits a bright layer that follows the topography with a constant thickness. This layer appears to be harder than the remainder of the light-toned material. Below it, the hills consist of bulk, massive, indurated material. Both the outer layer and the bulk light-toned material are heavily dissected by joints. These joints are partly oriented in a rectangular pattern, but in many cases the exposed outer side of the crust shows a polygonal pattern. Discussion The formation process of the material forming the knobs is poorly constrained. The location of the features below the high stand of a lake proposed by [1] and their light colour are consistent with a formation as an evaporite in a standing body of water, as proposed by [3], who suggested halite as a possible material. The possible detection of sulphate absorbtion features by [5] supports the interpretation of an evaporitic origin.. The development of the individual knobs appears to follow a regional tectonic framework, as suggested by the angular outer boundaries of the individual hills [3]. The observation of a highly jointed, light toned layer superimposed on the bright material in the centre of the knobs that rises from below the basaltic cover between the hills suggests that the hills were not formed by differential displacement along faults and subsequent erosion along these zones of weakness, but by local uplift caused by internal deformation of the light-toned material. Combining these observations, our leading hypothesis is the formation of the lighttoned material by evaporation, followed by uplift of the hills by salt-tectonic movement. Future work We will test this hypothesis and investigate possible alternative processes using spectral data from OMEGA and CRISM flanked by geologic mapping and age determinations based on HRSC and HiRISE imagery. Acknowledgement

  1. LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.


    The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

  2. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate (United States)

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil


    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  3. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai


    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J


    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  5. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R


    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  6. The "DREAM" IODP project to drill the Mediterranean Salt Giant on the Balearic Promontory (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Aloisi, Giovanni; Maillard, Agnès; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Huebscher, Christian; Kuroda, Junichiro


    Salt giants preserving kilometer-thick evaporite layers are the sedimentary expression of extreme environmental events of global relevance. Despite their global occurrence and general importance on Earth, there is currently no complete stratigraphic record through an un-deformed salt giant of marine origin. Similarly, there is a significant lack of knowledge about the factors controlling salt giants deposition, their early evolution, the impact they exert on the isostatic response of continental margins and on sub-salt formations, and the unprecedented deep biosphere they may harbor. The Mediterranean Messinian salt giant, which formed 5.5 Myrs ago, is one of the youngest salt giant on Earth and is currently lying below the Plio-Quaternary cover in a relatively un-deformed state close to its original depositional configuration. This salt giant is thus accessible by drilling and forms an ideal case study that could be used as a reference for older salt giants. However, since its discovery in 1970 during the DSDP Leg XIII, and despite 40 years or multi-disciplinary researches, this salt giant is still not fully understood and remains one of the longest-living controversies in Earth Science. In this context, the IODP DREAM project aims at exploring the Mediterranean salt giant by drilling with the JOIDES Resolution a transect of 4 sites on the southern margin of the Balearic promontory (Western Mediterranean). We identified this area as likely the only place in the Mediterranean where we could implement a shallow-to-deep transect of non-riser drilling sites. Due to the geological history and pre-structuration of the Promontory, MSC deposits are found preserved in a series of sedimentary basins lying at different water depths between the present-day coastline and the deep central salt basins. DREAM thus offers a unique opportunity to sample several hundred of meters of material forming the Mediterranean salt giant in varied water depths. This unique sedimentary record

  7. The promotion of geomorphosites on salt from Sovata - Praid and Turda using cultural and scientific tourism (United States)

    Toma, B.; Irimus, I.; Petrea, D.


    The paper highlights the role of geomorphosites on salt, in experts and specialists training, in geography of tourism and planning, namely, the involvement of educational factor in defining managerial and marketing skills of future specialists in training. Geographical area of investigation belongs to the Transylvanian tectonic basin, overlapped to saliferous tectonic area from eastern Transylvania, represented by Praid - Sovata - Corund anticline and Sic -Cojocna - Turda anticline, analysis is focused on the Praid - Sovata and Turda diapirs. Saliferous area Praid - Sovata - Corund is situated on the contact area of the Transylvanian Basin with neo-eruptiv mountain chain of Eastern Carpathians, Calimani - Gurghiu - Harghita, and at the contact of Târnavelor Plateau with the orogen alignment of Gurghiu - Harghita Mountains. The salt body, in the horizontal plane, has a quasi-circular shape, slightly ellipsoidal, with diameters of 1.2 and 1.4 km, and is estimated to have a burial depth of 2.6 to 2.8 km. The salt massif from Praid, pierce the Mio-Pliocene blanket around and appears at the surface as diapir, flanked by sedimentary rocks that are partially covered by extrusive post-Pliocene volcanic formations and Quaternary deposits. Evaporitic deposits presents a varied lithology represented by gypsum, anhydrite, salt rock, potassium salt and celestine. The salt massif from Turda develops on the anticline Sic -Cojocna - Turda, oriented NE - SW, 2 km NE of Turda's downtown. It has an elongated shape, about 4 km, with widths ranging from 700 m to 200 m and also with a thickness ranging from 750 m to over 1000 m. In terms of stratigraphy, the salt massif is surrounded by deposits belonging to Badenian, Sarmatian and Quaternary. Due to salt dissolution by meteoric waters, carsto-saline lakes were formed, and due to ceiling collapse, because of an intensive exploitation, and infiltrations of rainwater and rivers, antropo-salted lakes were formed. The water and mud of

  8. Two planets: Earth and Mars - One salt model: The Hydrothermal SCRIW-Model (United States)

    Hovland, M. T.; Rueslaatten, H.; Johnsen, H. K.; Indreiten, T.


    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth's surface-environment can be regarded as 'water-friendly' and 'salt hostile', the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, 'salt-friendly'. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed 'evaporites', meaning that they formed by the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, with a similar model, as surface water, representing a large ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (i.e., a pressure, P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will form a supercritical water 'vapor' (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (above 400 C and 300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the

  9. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, BB; Weber, A.; Zopfi, J.


    Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35...... the process was very sluggish with turnover times of methane within the sulfate-methane transition zone of 20 yr or more. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea...... oxidation accounted for 7-11% of the total sulfate reduction in slope and deep-sea sediments. Although this methane-driven sulfate reduction shaped the entire sulfate gradient, it was only equivalent to the sulfate reduction in the uppermost 1.5 cm of surface sediment. Methane oxidation was complete, yet...

  10. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  11. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension (United States)


    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  12. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)


    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  13. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics


    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  14. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter–spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hara


    Full Text Available Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br−, and iodine. Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14–3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl−, Br−, and iodine in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS SO42−. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  15. Frost flowers and sea-salt aerosols over seasonal sea-ice areas in northwestern Greenland during winter-spring (United States)

    Hara, Keiichiro; Matoba, Sumito; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Yamasaki, Tetsuhide


    Sea salts and halogens in aerosols, frost flowers, and brine play an important role in atmospheric chemistry in polar regions. Simultaneous sampling and observations of frost flowers, brine, and aerosol particles were conducted around Siorapaluk in northwestern Greenland during December 2013 to March 2014. Results show that water-soluble frost flower and brine components are sea-salt components (e.g., Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Br-, and iodine). Concentration factors of sea-salt components of frost flowers and brine relative to seawater were 1.14-3.67. Sea-salt enrichment of Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, and halogens (Cl-, Br-, and iodine) in frost flowers is associated with sea-salt fractionation by precipitation of mirabilite and hydrohalite. High aerosol number concentrations correspond to the occurrence of higher abundance of sea-salt particles in both coarse and fine modes, and blowing snow and strong winds. Aerosol number concentrations, particularly in coarse mode, are increased considerably by release from the sea-ice surface under strong wind conditions. Sulfate depletion by sea-salt fractionation was found to be limited in sea-salt aerosols because of the presence of non-sea-salt (NSS) SO42-. However, coarse and fine sea-salt particles were found to be rich in Mg. Strong Mg enrichment might be more likely to proceed in fine sea-salt particles. Magnesium-rich sea-salt particles might be released from the surface of snow and slush layer (brine) on sea ice and frost flowers. Mirabilite-like and ikaite-like particles were identified only in aerosol samples collected near new sea-ice areas. From the field evidence and results from earlier studies, we propose and describe sea-salt cycles in seasonal sea-ice areas.

  16. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław


    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  17. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.


    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  18. Diaqua(triethanolaminecopper(II sulfate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Zhong Li


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cu(C6H15NO3(H2O2]SO4·H2O, contains a complex cation, a sulfate anion and one uncoordinated water molecule. In the complex cation, the CuII ion is coordinated by five O atoms (three of which are from the triethanolamine ligand and two from coordinated water molecules and one N atom of the triethanolamine ligand in a typical Jahn–Teller-distorted octahedral geometry. Classical intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the cation, the sulfate anion and the water molecule into a two-dimensional network.

  19. Relationship Between Salt Intake, Salt-Taste Threshold and Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many studies have found an association between sodium intake and blood pressure. Salt taste threshold is thought to be another marker of sodium intake. Objective: This study sought to assess two markers of sodium intake, 24-hour-urinary sodium and salt-taste threshold. We also determined the relationship ...

  20. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.


    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  1. [Discussion on barium sulfate turbidity as arbitration inspection method for sulfate in drinking water]. (United States)

    Wei, Bin; Wang, Qin; He, Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Min; Liu, Yueyue


    To evaluate the suitability of barium sulfate turbidity in Standard examination methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750.5-2006) as arbitration inspection method of sulfate in drinking water by evaluation of uncertainty. The expanded uncertainty of determination result for the unknown water sample was given by evaluating all uncertainty components in process of determination of barium sulfate turbidity. The determination result of the unknown water sample is 250 mg/L , with the expanded uncertainty of 42 mg/L (kappa = 2). This method could not accurately determine the amount of sulfate which is close to health standard limited in drinking water, at the same time, it' s unsuitable as arbitration inspection method of sulfate in drinking water. Because the expanded uncertainty of determination results of the unknown water sample by barium sulfate turbidity is so big, with the confidence regions of sulfate of 208-292 mg/L. So, evaluating uncertainty of the determination results is helpful to choose the suitable arbitration inspection method.

  2. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.


    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  3. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit (United States)

    ... same amount of sodium as table salt. Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table ... substitute — and get too much sodium. Also, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Although potassium can lessen some ...

  4. Enzymatic sulfation of steroids. XI. The extensive purification and some properties of hepatic sulfotransferase III from female rats. (United States)

    Singer, S S; Bruns, L


    Our earlier studies showed that livers from female rats contained three glucocorticoid sulfating enzymes we named sulfotransferases I, II, and III, (STI, STII, and STIII, respectively). In this report STIII from female Charles River CD rats was purified 1010- to 1300-fold compared with liver homogenates. The most highly purified STIII fraction electrophoresed as a single protein band. The molecular weight of STIII was 68 300 +/- 4900. Its pH optimum for cortisol sulfation was pH 6.0 +/- 0.1. However, it was routinely assayed at pH 6.8 for reasons enumerated in the text. Cortisol sulfation by STIII proceeded by either an ordered sequential mechanism or by an Iso Theorell-Chance mechanism at pH 6.8. The Km's for cortisol and the reaction coenzyme, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate were 6.48 +/- 0.78 and 6.78 +/- 1.26 microM, respectively. Comparison of the ability of the enzyme to sulfate 40 microM cortisol, estradiol-17 beta, testosterone, deoxycorticosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone, showed that the glucocorticoid was sulfated preferentially. Interestingly, its cortisol sulfotransferase activity was inhibited by a number of steroids. p-Hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibition studies indicated the presence of essential sulfhydryl groups in STIII. The enzyme was activated by divalent Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Mg, Mn, and Ni salts. It was inactivated by Zn2+ and Cd2+ salts. The text compares STIII from female rats with other steroid sulfotransferases including the major glucocorticoid sulfotransferase from male rats.

  5. A simple chemical method for the determination of dermatan sulfate in the presence of chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate. (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Kanada, K; Tsuji, A


    A simple chemical method for the determination of individual mucopolysaccharides in mixtures of dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfates by means of a single reagent was established, utilizing the difference in reaction rates of these polysaccharides with orcinol. To each 1 ml of a sample mixture of standard dermatan sulfate and standard chondroitin sulfate (either 4- or 6-sulfate) was added 3 ml of orcinol reagent and the resulting solution was heated in a boiling-water bath. After 20 and 60 min reaction, absorbances at 660 nm were measured and the concentrations of individual mucopolysaccharides were calculated. High reproducibility was observed for the determination of dermatan sulfate in the presence of chondroitin sulfates. In addition, orcinol reaction for 90 min employing D-glucuronolactone as a standard appeared to be of practical value in the estimation of the uronic acid content of these mucopolysaccharides.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malwina Kolano; Danuta Flisiak


    .... The present article introduces strength-strain properties of white rock salt, building the nucleus of northeastern edge anticline, and pink rock salt that belongs to the series of youngest rock salt...

  7. Another glimpse over the salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction in acetonitrile/water mixtures. (United States)

    Valente, Inês Maria; Gonçalves, Luís Moreira; Rodrigues, José António


    The use of the salting-out effect in analytical chemistry is very diverse and can be applied to increase the volatility of the analytes in headspace extractions, to cause the precipitation of proteins in biological samples or to improve the recoveries in liquid-liquid extractions. In the latter, the salting-out process can be used to create a phase separation between water-miscible organic solvents and water. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) is an advantageous sample preparation technique aiming HPLC-UV analysis when developing analytical methodologies. In fact, some new extraction methodologies like QuEChERS include the SALLE concept. This manuscript discusses another point of view over SALLE with particular emphasis over acetonitrile-water mixtures for HPLC-UV analysis; the influence of the salting-out agents, their concentration and the water-acetonitrile volume ratios were the studied parameters. α-dicarbonyl compounds and beer were used as test analytes and test samples, respectively. The influence of the studied parameters was characterized by the obtained phase separation volume ratio and the fraction of α-dicarbonyls extracted to the acetonitrile phase. Results allowed the distribution of salts within three groups according to the phase separation and their extractability: (1) chlorides and acetates, (2) carbonates and sulfates and (3) magnesium sulfate; of all tested salts, sodium chloride had the highest influence on the α-dicarbonyls fraction extracted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid ferrous ammonium sulfate as a dosimeter at low temperatures and high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-calderon, J.M.; Ramos B, S.; Negron M, A. [Mexico Univ. Nacional Autonoma, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares (Mexico)


    This paper presents the results obtained from a study of the radiation induced oxidation of crystalline ferrous ammonium sulfate with gamma rays at 295 K, 263 K and 77 K and doses from 0 to 300 kGy. The radiation induced decomposition of ferrous ammonium sulfate has been studied by the dissolution of the irradiated salt in 0,8 N sulfuric acid. The main product is ferric ion (Fe{sup 3+}) and its molar concentration was determined spectrophotometrically in the UV region at 304 nm. The optical density values showed a linear dependence with dose, indicating that the data obtained might be used to create a calibrating curve. Color in irradiated salt changes from blue to green, yellow and orange according to the absorbed dose. The accuracy and the reproducibility of the system were tested. In addition, some other characteristics make possible the use of this system as a dosimeter, similar to Fricke chemical dosimeter, for studies and works at low temperatures and high doses. (authors)

  9. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies of sodium lauryl ether sulfate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Leidi C.; Silva, Volnir O.; Quina, Frank H., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Moreira Junior, Paulo F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tcacenco, Celize M. [Fundacao Instituto de Ensino para Osasco (FIEO/UNIFIEO), SP (Brazil). Centro Universitario FIEO. Centro de Estudos Quimicos


    Aggregation numbers (N{sub Ag}) of micelles of the commercial anionic detergent sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), with an average of two ethylene oxide subunits, were determined at 30 and 40 deg C by the time-resolved fluorescence quenching method with pyrene as the fluorescent probe and the N-hexadecylpyridinium ion as the quencher. The added-salt dependent growth of SLES micelles ({gamma} = 0.11-0.15, where {gamma} is the slope of a plot of log aggregation number vs. log [Y{sub aq}] and [Y{sub aq}] is the sodium counterion concentration free in the intermicellar aqueous phase) is found to be significantly lower than that of sodium alkyl sulfate micelles ({gamma} ca. 0.25), a difference attributed to the larger headgroup size of SLES. The I{sub 1}/I{sub 3} vibronic intensity ratio and the rate constant for intramicellar quenching of pyrene show that the pyrene solubilization microenvironment and the intramicellar microviscosity are insensitive to micelle size or the presence of added salt. (author)

  10. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... (United States)


    ... on human health or the environment. Through this program, EPA is ensuring that each pesticide's registration is based on current scientific and other knowledge, including its effects on human health and the..., human health, farm worker, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and...

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)


    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  12. Bile salts secretion in cirrhosis. (United States)

    Correia, J P; Areias, E; Meneses, L; Tiago, E


    The bile salts secretion was studied in ten normal subjects and sixteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, in a basal period and during 60 minutes after Secretin injection. Total bile salts were measured by a modification of the enzymatic method of Iwata and Yamasaki and the individual bile salts were separated by silica gel thin-layer chromatography. During the 60 minutes after Secretin the mean concentration was 2.88 +/- 2.58 muM/ml in normals and 1.96 +/- 1.25 muM/ml in cirrhotics. The difference is not significant. During the first 20 minutes however the concentration was higher than 3 muM/ml in 8 out of 10 normals and lower than 2 muM/ml in 10 out 16 cirrhotics. The ratios of tri-to dihydroxy bile salts was similar in both groups. The ratios between bile salts conjugated with glycine and with taurine was higher in normals, and the ratio between free to conjugated bile salts was higher in cirrhotics. The lower concentration of total bile salts immediatly after Secretin, the higher proportion of taurin conjugates and of free bile salts could be important factors in the difficulties of fact digestion and absorption frequently found in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

  13. Compressibility of granulated rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.


    Crushed rock salt will be used extensively at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as a material for backfilling underground openings. This document addresses one of the characteristics of crushed salt which must be known to assess the consequences of its usage, namely, compressibility.

  14. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.


    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  15. History Leaves Salts Behind (United States)


    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which uses curium-244 to assess the elemental composition of rocks and soil. Only portions of the targets' full spectra are shown to highlight the significant differences in elemental concentrations between 'McKittrick' and 'Tarmac.' Intensities are plotted on a logarithmic scale.A nearby rock named Guadalupe similarly has extremely high concentrations of sulfur, but very little bromine. This 'element fractionation' typically occurs when a watery brine slowly evaporates and various salt compounds are precipitated in sequence.

  16. Salt resistant crop plants. (United States)

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark


    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Systemic Amantadine Sulfate on Malondialdehyde and Total Thiol Levels in Rat Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züleyha Yalniz-Akkaya


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (sulfhydryl, SH levels in rat corneas after intraperitoneal injection of amantadine sulfate. Methods: A total of 12 Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: control group (n = 6 and amantadine group (n = 6. Balanced salt solution (1 mL, 0.9% NaCl, twice/day was injected into rats in control group. Amantadine sulfate (2 mg/1 mL, twice/day was injected into rats in amantadine group. In each group, two rats were injected for 1 week, two received injections for 1 month, and two rats received injections for 3 months. The corneas were homogenized and MDA and SH levels were measured spectroflourometrically. Results: In control group, median MDA and SH levels were 2.37 (range, 0.92-3.60 and 25.35 (range, 6.30-54.0 nmol/mg, respectively. In amantadine group, median MDA and SH levels were 3.57 (range, 1.25-5.92 and 32.65 (range, 3.30-48.3 nmol/mg, respectively. The difference between this two groups regarding MDA (P = 0.14 and SH (P = 1.0 levels was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Systemically administered amantadine sulfate seems not to cause MDA and SH imbalance in rat corneas.

  18. Plasmin Regulation through Allosteric, Sulfated, Small Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A. Al-Horani


    Full Text Available Plasmin, a key serine protease, plays a major role in clot lysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Heparin, a natural polydisperse sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is known to allosterically modulate plasmin activity. No small allosteric inhibitor of plasmin has been discovered to date. We screened an in-house library of 55 sulfated, small glycosaminoglycan mimetics based on nine distinct scaffolds and varying number and positions of sulfate groups to discover several promising hits. Of these, a pentasulfated flavonoid-quinazolinone dimer 32 was found to be the most potent sulfated small inhibitor of plasmin (IC50 = 45 μM, efficacy = 100%. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric inhibition of plasmin by these inhibitors. Studies also indicated that the most potent inhibitors are selective for plasmin over thrombin and factor Xa, two serine proteases in coagulation cascade. Interestingly, different inhibitors exhibited different levels of efficacy (40%–100%, an observation alluding to the unique advantage offered by an allosteric process. Overall, our work presents the first small, synthetic allosteric plasmin inhibitors for further rational design.

  19. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) (United States)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four strains of eri, Samia cynthia ricini Lepidoptera: Saturniidae that can be identified morphologically and maintained at North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat were characterized based on their protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA by random ...

  1. Intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Al-Ajmi


    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, known asthmatic since seven years, developed severe bronchospasm in the preop-erative period. Bronchospasm remained unresponsive to the inhaled beta-agonist plus anticholinergic, IV ami-nophylline and hydrocortisone but responded quickly with magnesium sulfate® ( PSI, KSA infusion 1.25gm in 100ml normal saline over 20 minutes and another 1.25 gm over next 30 minutes as the initial infusion showed improvement in her clinical symptoms. Within half an hour of administering the 1st infusion of magnesium sulfate (1.25 gm the respiratory rate started reducing, rhonchi became less, SpO 2 came upto 92% and re-mained always above 90%. Encouraged by this result IV magnesium sulfate 2.5 gm in 500 ml normal saline was infused over next 24 hours along with alternate salbutamol and ipratropium nebulization every 6 hourly. With this treatment regimen the patient became asymptomatic within next 24 hours with normal clinical parameters and FEV 1 value. Hence it may be concluded that IV magnesium sulfate can be considered for patients with acute severe asthma who do not respond to standard therapeutic medications.

  2. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 582.5230 Section 582.5230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community level. KEY WORDS: Nalgonda Technique, Aluminium sulfate, Aluminium hydroxide, Fluoride, Drinking water. INTRODUCTION. Fluoride is a common constituent in natural waters or wastewaters. It may originate from either natural geological sources or industries that use fluoride-containing compounds as raw.

  8. Thermophilic methanol utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorissen, Helene Petronel


    The deposition of sulfuroxyaninons like sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate by man causes severe environmental problems like anaerobiosis of surface water and acid rain. The classical way of treatment of sulfuroxyanions containing waste streams like flue- gases is a chemical process in which the


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These effects were found to be significant (P<0.05). Eye care practitioners should advise their patients to desist from abusing laxatives and other over-the-counter drugs and should consider its effects during analysis of visual test finding for effective patient care. Magnesium sulfate, Laxatives, Accommodation, Convergence, ...

  10. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.


    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees C. As a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic

  12. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ... (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  13. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana


    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  14. Salt Effect Accelerates Site-Selective Cysteine Bioconjugation (United States)


    Highly efficient and selective chemical reactions are desired. For small molecule chemistry, the reaction rate can be varied by changing the concentration, temperature, and solvent used. In contrast for large biomolecules, the reaction rate is difficult to modify by adjusting these variables because stringent biocompatible reaction conditions are required. Here we show that adding salts can change the rate constant over 4 orders of magnitude for an arylation bioconjugation reaction between a cysteine residue within a four-residue sequence (π-clamp) and a perfluoroaryl electrophile. Biocompatible ammonium sulfate significantly enhances the reaction rate without influencing the site-specificity of π-clamp mediated arylation, enabling the fast synthesis of two site-specific antibody–drug conjugates that selectively kill HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Computational and structure–reactivity studies indicate that salts may tune the reaction rate through modulating the interactions between the π-clamp hydrophobic side chains and the electrophile. On the basis of this understanding, the salt effect is extended to other bioconjugation chemistry, and a new regioselective alkylation reaction at π-clamp cysteine is developed. PMID:27725962

  15. Distribution and metabolism of quaternary amines in salt marshes (United States)

    King, Gary M.


    Quaternary amines such as glycine betaine (GBT) are common osmotically active solutes in much of the marine biota. GBT is accumulated by various bacteria, algae, higher plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in response to salinity or water stresses; in some species, GBT occurs at tens to hundreds of millimolar concentrations and can account for a significant fraction of total nitrogen. Initial studies suggest that GBT is readily converted to two potential methane precursors, trimethylamine (TMA) and acetate, in anoxic sediments. TMA is apparently the most important methane precursor in surface sediments containing sulfate reducing bacteria. In salt marshes, the bulk of the methane formed may be due to the metabolism of TMA rather than other substrates. Current research is focussed on testing this hypothesis and on determining the role of quaternary amino osmoregulatory solutes in methane fluxes from marine environments. Preliminary studies have dealt with several problems: (1) determination of GBT concentrations in the dominant flora and fauna of salt marshes; (2) synthesis of radiolabelled GBT for metabolic studies; and (3) determination of fates of BGT in marine sediments using radiotracers. Both GC and HPLC techniques have been used to assay GBT concentrations in plant and animal tissues. S. alterniflora is probably the only significant source of GBT (and indirectly of methane) since the biomass and distribution of most other species is limited. Current estimates suggest that S. alterniflora GBT could account for most of the methane efflux from salt marshes.

  16. Modeling calcium sulfate chemistries with applications to Mars (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Catling, D. C.; Kargel, J. S.; Crowley, J. K.


    On Mars, evidence indicates widespread calcium sulfate minerals. Gypsum (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) seems to be the dominant calcium sulfate mineral in the north polar region of Mars. On the other hand, anhydrite (CaSO4) and bassanite (CaSO4ṡ0.5H2O) appear to be more common in large sedimentary deposits in the lower latitudes. The tropics are generally warmer and drier, and at least locally show evidence of acidic environments in the past. FREZCHEM is a thermodynamic modeling tool used for assessment of equilibrium involving high salinity solutions and salts, designed especially for low temperatures below 298 K (with one version adapted for temperatures up to 373 K), and we have used it to investigate many Earth, Mars, and other planetary science problems. Gypsum and anhydrite were included in earlier versions of FREZCHEM and our model Mars applications, but bassanite (the CaSO4 hemihydrate) has not previously been included. The objectives of this work are to (1) add bassanite to the FREZCHEM model, (2) examine the environments in which thermodynamic equilibrium precipitation of calcium sulfate minerals would be favored on Mars, and (3) use FREZCHEM to model situations where metastable equilibrium might be favored and promote the formation or persistence of one of these phases over the others in violation of an idealized equilibrium state. We added a bassanite equation based on high temperatures (343-373 K). A Mars simulation was based on a previously published Nasbnd Casbnd Mgsbnd Clsbnd SO4 system over the temperature range of 273 to 373 K. With declining temperatures, the first solid phase under equilibrium precipitation is anhydrite at 373 K, then gypsum forms at 319 K (46 °C), and epsomite (MgSO4ṡ7H2O) at 277 K. This sequence could reflect, for example, the precipitation sequence in a saturated solution that is slowly cooled in a deep, warm aquifer. Because FREZCHEM is based on thermodynamic equilibrium, a crude approach to problems involving metastable equilibria is

  17. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.


    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  18. Modeling of the salt effects on hydrophobic adsorption equilibrium of protein. (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Yan


    A two-state protein model is proposed to describe the salt effects on protein adsorption equilibrium on hydrophobic media. This model assumes that protein molecules exist in two equilibrium states in a salt solution, that is, hydrated and dehydrated states, and only the dehydrated-state protein can bind to hydrophobic ligands. In terms of the two-state protein hypothesis and the steric mass-action theory, protein adsorption equilibrium on hydrophobic media is formulated by a five-parameter equation. The model is demonstrated with the adsorption of bovine serum albumin to Phenyl Sepharose gels as a model system. The effects of salt type (sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and ammonium sulfate) on the model parameters are discussed. Then, the model formulism is simplified in terms of the small magnitude of the protein dehydration equilibrium constant in the model. This simplification has returned the model derived on the basis of the two-state protein hypothesis to its original mechanism of salt effects on the hydrophobic adsorption of protein. This simplified model also creates satisfactory prediction of protein adsorption isotherms.

  19. The Importance of Sulfate Adenylyl Transferase in S and O Fractionation by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Johnston, D. T.; Bradley, A. S.


    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is critical to the oxidation of organic matter in modern and ancient oceans, and plays an important role in regulating the redox state of the Earth's surface. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate and of sulfate minerals reflect the biogeochemical processes that cycle sulfur, of which MSR is among the most important. MSR is a multi-enzymatic reaction network that partitions the isotopes of sulfur and oxygen as a consequence of both the flux of sulfate through this biochemical network and the fractionation imposed by each individual enzyme. MSR affects the δ18O of residual, extracellular sulfate mainly by the equilibration of the MSR intermediate sulfite with extracellular water (Antler et al., 2013 GCA, Wankel et al., 2013 Geobiol). A series of oxidative and exchange reactions catalyzed by APS reductase (APSr), sulfate adenylyl transferase (Sat), and sulfate transporters promote the conversion of water-equilibrated intracellular sulfite to extracellular sulfate. The flux of sulfoxy anions via these proteins will be, at least in part, dependent on the activity of these enzymes. To test this, we examined sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation in genetically engineered mutants of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). In these mutants, the activity of Sat has been artificially increased by perturbing the (i) transcriptional repressor Rex and (ii) its binding site upstream of the gene encoding Sat (Christensen et al., 2015 J. Bacteriol). It was predicted that this would minimize the back reaction of Sat, enhance the intracellular pool of APS, and minimize the equilibration between sulfite and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both mutants, along with the wild type DvH were grown in batch culture made with water enriched in 18O. Samples were collected throughout batch growth, and we report the evolution of the S and O isotopic composition of sulfate, and of the S isotopic

  20. Influence of microbial bile salt desulfation upon the fecal excretion of bile salts in gnotobiotic rats. (United States)

    Eyssen, H; Van Eldere, J; Parmentier, G; Huijghebaert, S; Mertens, J


    The fecal excretion of intraperitoneally injected 24-14C-labeled taurocholate (TCA), taurolithocholate (TLCA) and the respective 3-sulfate esters (TCA-3-S; TLCA-3-S), were compared in germfree (GF) rats, conventional (CV) rats, and in gnotobiotic rats associated with Clostridium Cl-8 or this same strain Cl-8 plus the bile desulfating Clostridium S1, respectively. TCA and TLCA were about two times more rapidly excreted by CV animals than by GF animals; the time required for 50% excretion of total label injected (t 1/2) was 6.6 days vs 14.9 for TCA, and 4.4 vs 8.9 for TLCA. In GF and in CV animals, TCA-3-S and TLCA-3-S were excreted more rapidly than their nonsulfated analogues; the t 1/2 values of TCA-3-S and TCA were 2.7 days vs 14.9 in GF rats, and 3.1 vs 6.6 days in CV animals. The t 1/2 values of TLCA-3-S and TLCA were 2.7 days vs 8.9 in GF rats, and 1.5 vs 4.4 days in CV rats. In gnotobiotic rats associated with Clostridium strains S1 + Cl-8, fecal bile salts were nearly 100% deconjugated and desulfated and the 50% excretion times of TCA-3-S and TLCA-3-S approximated to those of TCA and TLCA in GF animals. T 1/2 of TCA-3-S in gnotobiotic S1 + Cl-8 animals was 12.2 days vs 14.9 for TCA in GF animals. In gnotobiotic S1 + Cl-8 animals the t 1/2 of TLCA and TLCA-3-S was 12.5 and 11.0 days, respectively. These results illustrate clearly the important effect the intestinal microflora has upon the metabolic half-life of bile salts. Moreover, they demonstrate that desulfation of bile salts by the intestinal microflora takes place in intestinal segments from where a certain degree of reabsorption is still possible, and thus point to the fact that microbial desulfation is an important variable in the overall elimination of bile salts.

  1. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....1204 Kanamycin sulfate injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of kanamycin sulfate injection...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum potassium sulfate. 582.1129 Section 582.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1129 - Aluminum potassium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum potassium sulfate. 182.1129 Section 182.1129 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1129 Aluminum potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum potassium sulfate. (b...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use...

  8. Citric acid wastewater as electron donor for biological sulfate reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Garcia Encia, P.A.; Muyzer, G.


    Citrate-containing wastewater is used as electron donor for sulfate reduction in a biological treatment plant for the removal of sulfate. The pathway of citrate conversion coupled to sulfate reduction and the microorganisms involved were investigated. Citrate was not a direct electron donor for the

  9. The role of sulfated steroid hormones in reproductive processes. (United States)

    Geyer, Joachim; Bakhaus, Katharina; Bernhardt, Rita; Blaschka, Carina; Dezhkam, Yaser; Fietz, Daniela; Grosser, Gary; Hartmann, Katja; Hartmann, Michaela F; Neunzig, Jens; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios; Schuler, Gerhard; Shihan, Mazen; Wrenzycki, Christine; Wudy, Stefan A; Bergmann, Martin


    Sulfated steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or estrone-3-sulfate, have long been regarded as inactive metabolites as they cannot activate classical steroid receptors. Some of them are present in the blood circulation at quite high concentrations, but generally sulfated steroids exhibit low membrane permeation due to their hydrophilic properties. However, sulfated steroid hormones can actively be imported into specific target cells via uptake carriers, such as the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT, and, after hydrolysis by the steroid sulfatase (so-called sulfatase pathway), contribute to the overall regulation of steroid responsive organs. To investigate the biological significance of sulfated steroid hormones for reproductive processes in humans and animals, the research group "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" was established by the German Research Foundation DFG (FOR1369). Projects of this group deal with transport of sulfated steroids, sulfation of free steroids, desulfation by the steroid sulfatase, effects of sulfated steroids on steroid biosynthesis and membrane receptors as well as MS-based profiling of sulfated steroids in biological samples. This review and concept paper presents key findings from all these projects and provides a broad overview over the current research on sulfated steroid hormones in the field of reproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 529.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate solution. (United States)


    ... gentamicin solution for approximately 10 minutes at atmospheric pressure. Eggs can also be treated by warming... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate solution. 529.1044b Section 529... Gentamicin sulfate solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  11. 21 CFR 520.2158a - Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. 520.2158a... Streptomycin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Solution containing 25 percent streptomycin sulfate. (b... administer for more than 4 days. Prepare fresh solution daily. Calves: Withdraw 2 days before slaughter. As...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1 1...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1044c - Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. 520.1044c Section 520.1044c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Gentamicin sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. Each gram of gentamicin sulfate soluble powder...

  14. Conformations of gelatin in trivalent chromium salt solutions: Viscosity and dynamic light scattering study (United States)

    Qiao, Congde; Zhang, Jianlong; Kong, Aiqun


    An investigation of the influences of pH, salt type, and salt concentration on the conformations of gelatin molecules in trivalent chromium salt solutions was performed by viscosity and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. It was found that the viscosity behaviors as polyelectrolytes or polyampholytes depended on the charge distribution on the gelatin chains, which can be tuned by the value of pH of the gelatin solution. The intrinsic viscosity of gelatin in basic chromium sulfate aqueous solution at pH = 2.0 first decreased and then increased with increasing Cr(OH)SO4 concentration, while a monotonic decrease of the intrinsic viscosity of gelatin was observed in CrCl3 solution. However, the intrinsic viscosity of gelatin at pH = 5.0 was found to be increased first and then decreased with an increase in salt concentration in Cr(OH)SO4 solution, as well as in CrCl3 solution. We suggested that the observed viscosity behavior of gelatin in trivalent chromium salt solutions was attributed to the comprehensive effects of shielding, overcharging, and crosslinking (complexation) caused by the introduction of the different counterions. In addition, the average hydrodynamic radius ( R h ) of gelatin molecules in various salt solutions was determined by DLS. It was found that the change trend of R h with salt concentration was the same as the change of intrinsic viscosity. Based on the results of the viscosity and DLS, a possible mechanism for the conformational transition of gelatin chains with external conditions including pH, salt concentration, and salt type is proposed.

  15. Biotoxicity of Mars Analog Soils: Microbial, Dispersal into Desiccated Soils Versus Emplacement in Salt or Ice Inclusions Fluids (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Ming, Doutlas W.; Golden, D. C.


    Recent evidence from the Opportunity and Spirit rovers and the Mars Express mission suggests that the soils on Mars might be very high in biotoxic materials including sulfate salts, chlorides, and acidifying agents. Yet, very little is known about how the chemistries of Mars soils might affect the survival and growth of terrestrial microorganisms. The primary objectives of the research included: (1) prepare and characterize Mars analog soils amended with potential biotoxic levels of sulfates, chlorides, and acidifying minerals; and (2) use the simulants to conduct a series of toxicology assays to determine if terrestrial microorganisms from spacecraft can survive direct exposure to the biotoxic soils.

  16. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Maalouf


    Full Text Available Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt.

  17. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Li; Desheng Chen; Guozhi Zhang; Hongxin Zhao; Tao Qi; Weijing Wang; Lina Wang; Yahui Liu


    The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA...

  18. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.


    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  19. Does stress induce salt intake? (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Turner, Anne I; Nowson, Caryl A


    Psychological stress is a common feature of modern day societies, and contributes to the global burden of disease. It was proposed by Henry over 20 years ago that the salt intake of a society reflects the level of stress, and that stress, through its effect on increasing salt intake, is an important factor in the development of hypertension. This review evaluates the evidence from animal and human studies to determine if stress does induce a salt appetite and increase salt consumption in human subjects. Findings from animal studies suggest that stress may drive salt intake, with evidence for a potential mechanism via the sympatho-adrenal medullary system and/or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In contrast, in the few laboratory studies conducted in human subjects, none has found that acute stress affects salt intake. However, one study demonstrated that life stress (chronic stress) was associated with increased consumption of snack foods, which included, but not specifically, highly salty snacks. Studies investigating the influence of chronic stress on eating behaviours are required, including consumption of salty foods. From the available evidence, we can conclude that in free-living, Na-replete individuals, consuming Na in excess of physiological requirements, stress is unlikely to be a major contributor to salt intake.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.


    This report describes the results of studies related to the incorporation of sulfate in high level waste (HLW) borosilicate glass produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A group of simulated HLW glasses produced for earlier sulfate retention studies was selected for full chemical composition measurements to determine whether there is any clear link between composition and sulfate retention over the compositional region evaluated. In addition, the viscosity of several glasses was measured to support future efforts in modeling sulfate solubility as a function of predicted viscosity. The intent of these studies was to develop a better understanding of sulfate retention in borosilicate HLW glass to allow for higher loadings of sulfate containing waste. Based on the results of these and other studies, the ability to improve sulfate solubility in DWPF borosilicate glasses lies in reducing the connectivity of the glass network structure. This can be achieved, as an example, by increasing the concentration of alkali species in the glass. However, this must be balanced with other effects of reduced network connectivity, such as reduced viscosity, potentially lower chemical durability, and in the case of higher sodium and aluminum concentrations, the propensity for nepheline crystallization. Future DWPF processing is likely to target higher waste loadings and higher sludge sodium concentrations, meaning that alkali concentrations in the glass will already be relatively high. It is therefore unlikely that there will be the ability to target significantly higher total alkali concentrations in the glass solely to support increased sulfate solubility without the increased alkali concentration causing failure of other Product Composition Control System (PCCS) constraints, such as low viscosity and durability. No individual components were found to provide a significant improvement in sulfate retention (i.e., an increase of the magnitude

  1. Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan


    Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose,

  2. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception. (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit


    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  3. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction. (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A


    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  4. Messinian post-evaporitic paleogeography of the Po Plain-Adriatic region by 3D numerical modeling: implications for the Central Mediterranean desiccation during the MSC (United States)

    Amadori, Chiara; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Di Giulio, Andrea; Fantoni, Roberto; Ghielmi, Manlio; Sternai, Pietro; Toscani, Giovanni


    In the last decades the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) has been the topic of a number of studies, in particular in onshore areas, as they offer a unique opportunity to analyze the controlling factors and the geological consequences of the estimated 1.5 km sea-level drop. During the MSC, the geometry of western and eastern sides of the Mediterranean basin was similar to the present day basin while, important changes took place in the central portion as a consequence of the (still ongoing) tectonic activity of the Apennine domain. Recent high-resolution 2D seismo-stratigraphic and 1D backstripping analysis by Eni E&P group described a step-wise sea-level lowering during evaporitic and post-evaporitic MSC phases in the Po Plain-Northern Adriatic foreland (PPAF), with a sea-level drop not exceeding 900 m. Thanks to a dense grid of 2D seismic profiles, integrated with ca. 200 well logs (confidential data, courtesy of ENI E&P), a 3D reconstruction of the entire northern PPAF basin geometry and the facies distribution during the Latest Messinian time has been carried out. In this study, we performed a 3D backstripping and lithospheric scale uplift calculations of the northern PPAF basin testing the 800-900m of sea-level draw down. The resulted restored Latest Messinian paleotopography (corresponding to the bottom Pliocene in the most of the study area) and related shoreline position, strongly fit with the recentmost continental/marine facies distribution maps. The latest Messinian morphology shows deep marine basins persisting during the entire MSC period, filled by clastic turbiditic sediments and a wide emerged area along the Southern Alps margin and Friulian-Venetian basin. A 3D reconstruction of the Latest Messinian surface shows peculiar river incisions along the Southern Alps margin; these V-shape canyons perfectly fit with the present day fluvial network, dating back the drainage origin at least at the Messinian acme. Moreover, if in a well-constrained marginal

  5. Effect of magnetic field on the crystallization of zinc sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. B. Freitas


    Full Text Available The effect of magnetic field on the crystallization of diamagnetic zinc sulfate was investigated in a series of controlled batch cooling experiments. Zinc sulfate solutions were exposed to magnetic fields of different intensities, up to a maximum of 0.7T. A clear influence of magnetic field on the following zinc sulfate crystallization parameters was found: an increase in saturation temperature, a decrease in metastable zone width, and an increase in growth rate and average crystal size. These effects were observed for the diamagnetic zinc sulfate, but not in similar, previously reported experiments for paramagnetic copper sulfate.

  6. Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion (United States)

    Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.


    There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

  7. Silage supports sulfate reduction in the treatment of metals- and sulfate-containing waste waters. (United States)

    Wakeman, Kathryn D; Erving, Leena; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja L; Puhakka, Jaakko A


    Silage was used as source of carbon and electrons for enrichment of silage-degrading and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from boreal, acidic, metals-containing peat-bog samples and to support their use in batch and semi-batch systems in treatment of synthetic waste water. Sulfidogenic silage utilization resulted in a rapid decrease in lactate concentrations; concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate increased concomitantly. Synthetic waste water consisting of Mn, Mg and Fe (II) ions inhibited sulfate reduction at concentrations of 6 g/l, 8 g/l and 1 g/l respectively. During treatment, Mn and Mg ions remained in solution while Fe ions partially precipitated. Up to 87 mg sulfate was reduced per gram of silage. Sulfate reduction rates of 34, 22 and 6 mg/l/day were obtained at temperatures of 30, 20 and 9 °C respectively. In semi-batch reactors operated at low pH, the iron precipitation capacity was controlled by sulfate reduction rates and by partial loss of hydrogen sulfide to the gas phase. Passive reactor systems should, therefore, be operated at neutral pH. Metals tolerant, silage-fermenting (predominantly species belonging to genus Clostridium) and sulfate reducing bacteria (including a species similar to the psychrotolerant Desulfovibrio arcticus) were obtained from the peat bog samples. This work demonstrates that silage supports sulfate reduction and can be used as a low cost carbon and electron source for SRB in treatment of metals-containing waste water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz


    To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

  9. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.


    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  10. Sulfation, the Up-and-Coming Post-Translational Modification: Its Role and Mechanism in Protein–Protein Interaction (United States)

    Woods, Amina S.; Wang, Hay-Yan J.; Jackson, Shelley N.


    Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification entailing covalent attachment of sulfate to tyrosine residues. It takes place in the trans-Golgi, is necessary for the bioactivity of some proteins, and improves their ability to interact with other proteins. In the present work, we show that a protein containing a sulfated tyrosine with a delocalized negative charge forms a salt bridge with another protein if it has two or more adjacent arginine residues containing positive delocalized charges. These noncovalent complexes are so stable that, when submitted to collision induced dissociation, the peptides forming the complex dissociate. Just one covalent bond fragments, the covalent bond between the tyrosine oxygen and the SO3 sulfur, and is represented by the appearance of a new peak (basic peptide + SO3), suggesting that in some instances covalent bonds will break down before the noncovalent bonds between the arginine guanidinium and SO3 dissociate. The data implies that the dissociation pathway is preferred; however, fragmentation between tyrosine and the sulfate residue is a major pathway. PMID:17256885

  11. Rapid subsidence in damaging sinkholes: Measurement by high-precision leveling and the role of salt dissolution (United States)

    Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, F.; Merino, J.; Carbonel, D.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Guerrero, J.; Fabregat, I.


    Investigations dealing with subsidence monitoring in active sinkholes are very scarce, especially when compared with other ground instability phenomena like landslides. This is largely related to the catastrophic behaviour that typifies most sinkholes in carbonate karst areas. Active subsidence in five sinkholes up to ca. 500 m across has been quantitatively characterised by means of high-precision differential leveling. The sinkholes occur on poorly indurated alluvium underlain by salt-bearing evaporites and cause severe damage on various human structures. The leveling data have provided accurate information on multiple features of the subsidence phenomena with practical implications: (1) precise location of the vaguely-defined edges of the subsidence zones and their spatial relationships with surveyed surface deformation features; (2) spatial deformation patterns and relative contribution of subsidence mechanisms (sagging versus collapse); (3) accurate subsidence rates and their spatial variability with maximum and mean vertical displacement rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.8 cm/yr and 1.9 to 26.1 cm/yr, respectively; (4) identification of sinkholes that experience continuous subsidence at constant rates or with significant temporal changes; and (5) rates of volumetric surface changes as an approximation to rates of dissolution-induced volumetric depletion in the subsurface, reaching as much as 10,900 m3/yr in the largest sinkhole. The high subsidence rates as well as the annual volumetric changes are attributed to rapid dissolution of high-solubility salts.

  12. Surface water sulfate dynamics in the northern Florida Everglades. (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Waldon, Michael G; Meselhe, Ehab A; Arceneaux, Jeanne C; Chen, Chunfang; Harwell, Matthew C


    Sulfate contamination has been identified as a serious environmental issue in the Everglades ecosystem. However, it has received less attention compared to P enrichment. Sulfate enters the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), a remnant of the historic Everglades, in pumped stormwater discharges with a mean concentration of approximately 50 mg L(-1), and marsh interior concentrations at times fall below a detection limit of 0.1 mg L(-1). In this research, we developed a sulfate mass balance model to examine the response of surface water sulfate in the Refuge to changes in sulfate loading and hydrological processes. Meanwhile, sulfate removal resulting from microbial sulfate reduction in the underlying sediments of the marsh was estimated from the apparent settling coefficients incorporated in the model. The model has been calibrated and validated using long-term monitoring data (1995-2006). Statistical analysis indicated that our model is capable of capturing the spatial and temporal variations in surface water sulfate concentrations across the Refuge. This modeling work emphasizes the fact that sulfate from canal discharge is impacting even the interior portions of the Refuge, supporting work by other researchers. In addition, model simulations suggest a condition of sulfate in excess of requirement for microbial sulfate reduction in the Refuge.

  13. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    Sulfate reduction was measured with the (SO42-)-S-35-tracer technique in slurries of sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, where seasonal temperatures range from 0 degrees to 15 degrees C. The incubations were made at temperatures from 0 degrees C to 80 degrees C in temperature increments of 2 degrees...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...

  14. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei


    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...... of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of delta S-34 values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer...... Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans....

  15. Citric acid wastewater as electron donor for biological sulfate reduction. (United States)

    Stams, Alfons J M; Huisman, Jacco; Garcia Encina, Pedro A; Muyzer, Gerard


    Citrate-containing wastewater is used as electron donor for sulfate reduction in a biological treatment plant for the removal of sulfate. The pathway of citrate conversion coupled to sulfate reduction and the microorganisms involved were investigated. Citrate was not a direct electron donor for the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Instead, citrate was fermented to mainly acetate and formate. These fermentation products served as electron donors for the sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate reduction activities of the reactor biomass with acetate and formate were sufficiently high to explain the sulfate reduction rates that are required for the process. Two citrate-fermenting bacteria were isolated. Strain R210 was closest related to Trichococcus pasteurii (99.5% ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence similarity). The closest relative of strain S101 was Veillonella montepellierensis with an rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.7%. Both strains had a complementary substrate range.

  16. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eLing


    Full Text Available Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of passive CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from ten depths ranging from 0-20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia. Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling.

  17. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation (United States)

    Ling, Yu-Chen; Bush, Richard; Grice, Kliti; Tulipani, Svenja; Berwick, Lyndon; Moreau, John W.


    Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of “passive” CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from 10 depths ranging from 0 to 20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia). Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical, and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling. PMID:26191042

  18. Microbiology of solar salt ponds (United States)

    Javor, B.


    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  19. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.


    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  20. Homolytic reduction of onium salts. (United States)

    Fensterbank, Louis; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Malacria, Max; Ollivier, Cyril


    Onium salts have proved to be efficient sources of carbon-centered radicals. They can undergo homolytic reduction by single electron transfer (SET) and participate in subsequent synthetic transformations. This review aims to provide an overview on the behavior of onium salts including diazonium, sulfonium, selenonium, telluronium, phosphonium and iodonium cations toward various reductive methods such as radiolysis, electrolysis, photolysis or the use of SET reagents. Mechanistic and synthetic aspects are presented. Applications in polymers and materials science are not covered.

  1. Microplastics in Spanish Table Salt


    I?iguez, Maria E.; Conesa, Juan A.; Fullana, Andres


    Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures use...

  2. Colloidal titration of aqueous zirconium solutions with poly(vinyl sulfate) by potentiometric endpoint detection using a toluidine blue selective electrode. (United States)

    Sakurada, Osamu; Kato, Yasutake; Kito, Noriyoshi; Kameyama, Keiichi; Hattori, Toshiaki; Hashiba, Minoru


    Zirconium oxy-salts were hydrolyzed to form positively charged polymer or cluster species in acidic solutions. The zirconium hydrolyzed polymer was found to react with a negatively charged polyelectrolyte, such as poly(vinyl sulfate), and to form a stoichiometric polyion complex. Thus, colloidal titration with poly(vinyl sulfate) was applied to measure the zirconium concentration in an acidic solution by using a Toluidine Blue selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode as a potentiometric end-point detecting device. The determination could be performed with 1% of the relative standard deviation. The colloidal titration stoichiometry at pH < or = 2 was one mol of zirconium per equivalent mol of poly(vinyl sulfate).

  3. Glucosamine sulfate--environmental antibacterial activity. (United States)

    Rozin, Alexander P


    We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk (every media of 20 ml) left opened for 1 week with and without Arthryl supplements 1,500 mg, the content of one package of the medication. A similar volume (20 ml) is ingested in taking the medication. Experiments with three repeatable results were taken for consideration. Arthryl inhibited environmental bacterial colonies' growth in every media but fungi growth was not impaired. Milk stayed liquid for the whole week with supplement of the Arthryl compared with sour milk transformation without Arthryl. Sample B showed inhibitory properties of the bacterial colonies on the fungi growth. The sample with Arthryl showed progressive growth of fungi without bacterial growth after 10 days of follow up compared with bacterial growth on media without Arthryl. Glucosamine sulfate as a new trademark Arthryl has environmental antibacterial properties but does not inhibit growth of fungal colonies.

  4. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations. (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E


    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 1. Review and Agglomeration Regime Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul; Jensen, Anker Degn


    This paper, and two associated papers [Hede, P. D.; Jensen, A. D.; Bach, P. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 48, 1905 and 1914], address the fluid-bed coating of placebo enzyme granules (i.e., sodium sulfate cores, with a size range of 400-500 mu m) using two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA......-TiO2. The coating experiments were conducted in a medium-scale top-spray MP-1 fluid bed, and many rheological experiments were performed on the coating formulations to support the interpretation of the fluid-bed coating results. In this first part of the study, a thorough introduction to the inorganic...... salt and polymer film coating is provided, along with a presentation of the equipment and materials being used in this and the following papers. Results from agglomeration studies over a broad range of process conditions are presented, showing that the tendency toward agglomeration is always less...

  6. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de


    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  7. Monitoring of Deformations Induced by Crystal Growth of Salts in Porous Systems Using Microscopic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (United States)

    Gülker, G.; Jarad, A. El; Hinsch, K. D.; Juling, H.; Linnow, K.; Steiger, M.; Brüggerhoff, St.; Kirchner, D.

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) has been used to monitor microdeformations and surface microstructure changes produced by crystallization or hydration pressure of magnesium sulfate in a porous material. Samples of fritted glass were chosen as a standard porous substrate because of its mean grain size, its porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass samples, soaked with salt solution, were exposed to changes in relative humidity of the surrounding air. The full-field ESPI measurements were combined with cryogenic SEM visualizations. Results from these investigations were partly not expected theoretically and give new insight in the underlying salt phase transition processes.

  8. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  9. Exraction and separation of CERIUM(IV/FLUORINE in fluoride-bearing cerium sulfate solution with fluoride coordination agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li


    Full Text Available In this paper the extraction and separation of cerium/fluorine in fluoride-bearing cerium sulfate solution with fluoride coordination agent has been studied. The UV-vis spectra suggest that Zr6+ and Al3+ can scrub the F- from [CeF2] 2+ complex. The separation and conductivity studies show that aluminum salt is the most suitable fluoride coordination agent, and an ion-exchange reaction is involved between Ce4+/ [CeF2] 2+ and hydrogen ion.

  10. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M


    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...... showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests...

  11. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard


    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... and product distribution under high temperature conditions. In the present work, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer for deriving a kinetic model to describe the process. The yields of SO2 and SO3...... of different sulfates indicated that ammonium sulfate has clearly strongest sulfation power towards KCl at temperatures below 800oC, whereas the sulfation power of ferric and aluminum sulfates exceeds clearly that of ammonium sulfate between 900 and 1000oC. However, feeding gaseous SO3 was found to be most...

  12. Structural evolution of the Namakdan salt diapir in the Zagros fold-thrust belt: The Persian Gulf, Iran (United States)

    Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Hashemifar, Ghasem; Shafiei Bafti, Amir


    Intersalt and host roch structures of the the Namakdan diapir were studied and compared with available 14C and OSL dated sediments to determine the structural evolution and uplift pattern of the diapir. The Namakdan salt diapir is situated on Qeshm Island in the east of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran, north of the Persian Gulf. This nearly circular diapir with ~ 7 km diameter penetrates the crest of Salkh anticline and is embedded by steep-dip bedding of the Miocene Mishan and Aghajari Formations, which demonstrates the concentric internal structure of the diapir. The intraformational unconformities of country rocks were developed due to the Zagros shortening and salt diapirism, which demonstrate their syn-tectonic sedimentation. In addition, the dip of these unconfromities and also bedding of the country rocks decrease upward. The Namakdan diapir is partly covered by gypsum/anhydrite residuals, dolomite, marine limestone, and tilted marine terraces. The salt belong to the Hormuz Complex, consisted of predominantly halite, gypsum, anhydrite, dolomite, shale, sandstone, and volcanic-volanoclastic blocks, which was deposited in the Late Proterozoic-Middle Cambrian evaporitic rift basins. The Hormuz Complex is not only the cause of many salt diapir oil/gas fields but is also considered to have been a major source rock for generation of younger reservoirs. Thus, the salt diapirs of the Zagros play an important role in generation of the oil/gas reservoirs in this strategic area, so determination of structural style and evolution of the salt diapirs are vital in oil/gas exploration and development. The upright folds are developed in the salt beds due to upward movement and minor extrusion of the salt rocks due to its low viscosity. The dip of country rock beds increase toward to the diapir rim, so that the beds shows a vertical and even overturned attitude in vicinity of the diapir. Differential uplift pattern of the diapir was deduced in rim-to-center profiles by

  13. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  14. Increased enantioselectivity and remarkable acceleration of lipase-catalyzed transesterification by using an imidazolium PEG-alkyl sulfate ionic liquid. (United States)

    Itoh, Toshiyuki; Matsushita, Yuichi; Abe, Yoshikazu; Han, Shi-Hui; Wada, Shohei; Hayase, Shuichi; Kawatsura, Motoi; Takai, Shigeomi; Morimoto, Minoru; Hirose, Yoshihiko


    Several types of imidazolium salt ionic liquids were prepared derived from poly(oxyethylene)alkyl sulfate and used as an additive or coating material for lipase-catalyzed transesterification in an organic solvent. A remarkably increased enantioselectivity was obtained when the salt was added at 3-10 mol % versus substrate in the Burkholderia cepacia lipase (lipase PS-C)-catalyzed transesterification of 1-phenylethanol by using vinyl acetate in diisopropyl ether or a hexane solvent system. In particular, a remarkable acceleration was accomplished by the ionic liquid coating with lipase PS in an iPr(2)O solvent system while maintaining excellent enantioselectivity; it reached approximately 500- to 1000-fold acceleration for some substrates with excellent enantioselectivity. A similar acceleration was also observed for IL 1-coated Candida rugosa lipase. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry experiments of the ionic-liquid-coated lipase PS suggest that ionic liquid binds with lipase protein.

  15. Microbial colonization of Ca-sulfate crusts in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert: implications for the search for life on Mars. (United States)

    Wierzchos, J; Cámara, B; de Los Ríos, A; Davila, A F; Sánchez Almazo, I M; Artieda, O; Wierzchos, K; Gómez-Silva, B; McKay, C; Ascaso, C


    The scarcity of liquid water in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert makes this region one of the most challenging environments for life on Earth. The low numbers of microbial cells in the soils suggest that within the Atacama Desert lies the dry limit for life on our planet. Here, we show that the Ca-sulfate crusts of this hyperarid core are the habitats of lithobiontic micro-organisms. This microporous, translucent substrate is colonized by epilithic lichens, as well as endolithic free-living algae, fungal hyphae, cyanobacteria and non photosynthetic bacteria. We also report a novel type of endolithic community, "hypoendoliths", colonizing the undermost layer of the crusts. The colonization of gypsum crusts within the hyperarid core appears to be controlled by the moisture regime. Our data shows that the threshold for colonization is crossed within the dry core, with abundant colonization in gypsum crusts at one study site, while crusts at a drier site are virtually devoid of life. We show that the cumulative time in 1 year of relative humidity (RH) above 60% is the best parameter to explain the difference in colonization between both sites. This is supported by controlled humidity experiments, where we show that colonies of endolithic cyanobacteria in the Ca-sulfate crust undergo imbibition process at RH >60%. Assuming that life once arose on Mars, it is conceivable that Martian micro-organisms sought refuge in similar isolated evaporite microenvironments during their last struggle for life as their planet turned arid. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev


    Full Text Available Summary. The concentrated sodium sulfate solution is formed during the processing of waste battery scrap. A promising way to further treatment of the concentrated salt solution could be the conversion of these salts into acid and bases by electrodialysis, that can be reused in the same technical process cycle. For carrying out the process of conversion of salts into the corresponding acid and base several cells schemes with different combinations of cation, anion and bipolar membranes are used. At this article a comparative analysis of these cells is carried out. In the cells there were used the membranes МC-40, МА-41 and МB-2I. Acid and base solutions with higher concentration may be obtained during the process of electrodialysis in the circulation mode, when a predetermined amount of salt in the closed loop is run through a set of membranes to obtain the desired concentration of the product. The disadvantages of this method are the high cost of buffer tanks and the need to work with small volumes of treated solutions. In industrial applications it is advisable to use continuous electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, since this configuration allows to increase the number of repeating sections, which is necessary to reduce the energy costs. The increase of the removal rate of salts can be achieved by increasing the process steps, and to produce a more concentrated products after the conversion step can be applied electrodialysis-concentrator or evaporator.

  17. Sulfated fucan as support for antibiotic immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo P.M.


    Full Text Available Xylofucoglucuronan from Spatoglossum schröederi algae was tested as a support for antibiotic immobilization. The polysaccharide (20 mg in 6 ml was first activated using carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propylcarbodiimide methiodide (20 mg in 2 ml, under stirring for 1 h at 25ºC and pH from 4.5 to 5.0. After adjusting the pH to 8.0, either gentamicin or amikacin (62.5 mg in 1.25 ml was then immobilized on this chemically modified polysaccharide with shaking for 24 h in a cold room. Infrared spectra of the activated carbodiimide xylofucoglucuronan showed two bands to carbonyl (C = O at 1647.9 and 1700.7 cm-1 and to amide (CÝ-NH2 groups (1662.8 and 1714.0 cm-1. Microbial characterization of the derivatives was carried out by the disk diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae incorporated in Müller Hinton medium. Inhibition halos of bacterial growth were observed for the antibiotics immobilized on this sulfated heteropolysaccharide before and after dialysis. However, the halos resulting from the samples after dialysis were much smaller, suggesting that dialysis removed either non-covalently bound antibiotic or other small molecules. In contrast, bacterial growth was not inhibited by either xylofucoglucuronan or its activated form or by gentamicin or amikacin after dialysis. An additional experiment was carried out which demonstrated that the sulfated heteropolysaccharide was hydrolyzed by the microorganism. Therefore, the antibiotic immobilized on xylofucoglucuronan can be proposed as a controlled drug delivery system. Furthermore, this sulfated heteropolysaccharide can be extracted easily from sea algae Spatoglossum schröederi.

  18. Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner


    Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.

  19. Immobilization of calcium sulfate contained in demolition waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambroise, J. [Laboratoire Genie Civil et Ingenierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Batiment J. Tuset, 12, Avenue des Arts, 69 621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Pera, J. [Laboratoire Genie Civil et Ingenierie Environnementale (LGCIE), Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Batiment J. Tuset, 12, Avenue des Arts, 69 621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail:


    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study undertaken to examine the treatment of demolition waste containing calcium sulfate by means of calcium sulfoaluminate clinker (CSA). The quantity of CSA necessary to entirely consume calcium sulfate was determined. Using infrared spectrometry analysis and X-ray diffraction, it was shown that calcium sulfate was entirely consumed when the ratio between CSA and calcium sulfate was 4. Standard sand was polluted by 4% calcium sulfate. Two solutions were investigated: {center_dot}either global treatment of sand by CSA, {center_dot}or immobilization of calcium sulfate by CSA, followed by the introduction of this milled mixture in standard sand. Regardless of the type of treatment, swelling was almost stabilized after 28 days of immersion in water.

  20. Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction


    Lovley, D. R.; Coates, J D; Woodward, J. C.; Phillips, E


    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to 1 (mu)M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [(sup14)C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as (sup14)CO(inf2). Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate r...

  1. Applications of heparin and heparan sulfate microarrays. (United States)

    Yin, Jian; Seeberger, Peter H


    Carbohydrate microarrays have become crucial tools for revealing the biological interactions and functions of glycans, primarily because the microarray format enables the investigation of large numbers of carbohydrates at a time. Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin are the most structurally complex glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this chapter, we describe the preparation of a small library of HS/heparin oligosaccharides, and the fabrication of HS/heparin microarrays that have been used to establish HS/heparin-binding profiles. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), and chemokines were screened to illuminate the very important biological functions of these glycans. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh (United States)

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J


    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to −31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  3. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  4. Renal localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan by immunohistochemistry.


    Klein, D. J.; Oegema, T. R.; Eisenstein, R.; Furcht, L.; Michael, A. F.; Brown, D. M.


    Glomerular localization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS-proteoglycan) has been studied immunohistochemically with a highly purified antiserum to bovine aorta HS-proteoglycan core protein. The specificity of the antiserum was enhanced by consecutive fibronectin and chondroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (CS-DS proteoglycan) affinity chromatography. The affinity-purified HS-proteoglycan antibody lacked cross-reactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with CS-DS prot...

  5. Chemoenzymatic Preparation and Biophysical Properties of Sulfated Quercetin Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Valentová


    Full Text Available Sulfated quercetin derivatives are important authentic standards for metabolic studies. Quercetin-3′-O-sulfate, quercetin-4′-O-sulfate, and quercetin-3-O-sulfate as well as quercetin-di-O-sulfate mixture (quercetin-7,3′-di-O-sulfate, quercetin-7,4′-di-O-sulfate, and quercetin-3′,4′-di-O-sulfate were synthetized by arylsulfotransferase from Desulfitobacterium hafniense. Purified monosulfates and disulfates were fully characterized using MS and NMR and tested for their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD radical scavenging, Folin-Ciocalteau reduction (FCR, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and anti-lipoperoxidant activities in rat liver microsomes damaged by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Although, as expected, the sulfated metabolites were usually less active than quercetin, they remained still effective antiradical and reducing agents. Quercetin-3′-O-sulfate was more efficient than quercetin-4′-O-sulfate in DPPH and FCR assays. In contrast, quercetin-4′-O-sulfate was the best ferric reductant and lipoperoxidation inhibitor. The capacity to scavenge ABTS+• and DMPD was comparable for all substances, except for disulfates, which were the most efficient. Quantum calculations and molecular dynamics simulations on membrane models supported rationalization of free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition. These results clearly showed that individual metabolites of food bioactives can markedly differ in their biological activity. Therefore, a systematic and thorough investigation of all bioavailable metabolites with respect to native compounds is needed when evaluating food health benefits.

  6. Isolation of a sulfate reducing bacterium and its application in sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the removal rate of sulfate in actual tannery wastewater reached 89.66% which was 12.13% higher than the treatment without inoculating the isolated SRB when the initial SO42- concentration was 1069 mg/L. The experiment demonstrates that C. freundii could be selected as a new biomaterial to remove ...

  7. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.


    A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

  8. Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon; Lawson, Daniel B.


    A process for recovering zinc/rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at C., separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream.

  9. Purification, structural characterization and antiproliferative properties of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate from tunisian fish skins. (United States)

    Krichen, Fatma; Volpi, Nicola; Sila, Assaâd; Maccari, Francesca; Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Bougatef, Ali


    Chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate GAGs were extracted and purified from the skins of grey triggerfish (GTSG) and smooth hound (SHSG). The disaccharide composition produced by chondroitinase ABC treatment showed the presence of nonsulfated disaccharide, monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S, and disulfated disaccharides in different percentages. In particular, the nonsulfated disaccharide ΔDi0S of GTSG and SHSG were 3.5% and 5.5%, respectively, while monosulfated disaccharides ΔDi6S and ΔDi4S were evaluated to be 18.2%, 59% and 14.6%, 47.0%, respectively. Capillary elecrophoresis analysis of GTSG and SHSG contained 99.2% and 95.4% of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate, respectively. PAGE analysis showed a GTSG and SHSG having molecular masses with average values of 41.72KDa and 23.8KDa, respectively. HCT116 cell proliferation was inhibited (p<0.05) by 70.6% and 72.65% at 200μg/mL of GTSG and SHSG respectively. Both GTSG and SHSG demonstrated promising antiproliferative potential, which may be used as a novel, effective agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic hyperthermia heating of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by low temperature ferrous sulfate based method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejabhiram Yadavalli


    Full Text Available A facile low temperature co-precipitation method for the synthesis of crystalline cobalt ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate salt as the precursor has been discussed. The prepared samples were compared with nanoparticles prepared by conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods using ferric nitrate as the precursor. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of cubic spinel cobalt ferrites when dried at 110 °C as opposed to conventional methods which required higher temperatures/pressure for the formation of the same. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies of these powders revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20-30 nm which were comparable to those prepared by conventional methods. Magnetic measurements confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the cobalt ferrites with low magnetic remanance. Further magnetic hyperthermia studies of nanostructures prepared by low temperature method showed a rise in temperature to 50 °C in 600 s.

  11. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... sulfate proteoglycans previously described....

  12. An Instrument to Measure Aircraft Sulfate Particle Emissions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerodyne is developing a sulfate detection instrument, based on the Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrophotometer (TILDAS) technology and...

  13. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))


    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  14. Mine water treatment with limestone for sulfate removal. (United States)

    Silva, Adarlêne M; Lima, Rosa M F; Leão, Versiane A


    Limestone can be an option for sulfate sorption, particularly from neutral mine drainages because calcium ions on the solid surface can bind sulfate ions. This work investigated sulfate removal from mine waters through sorption on limestone. Continuous stirred-tank experiments reduced the sulfate concentration from 588.0mg/L to 87.0mg/L at a 210-min residence time. Batch equilibrium tests showed that sulfate loading on limestone can be described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum loading of 23.7mg/g. Fixed-bed experiments were utilized to produce breakthrough curves at different bed depths. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was applied, and it indicated sulfate loadings of up to 20.0gSO(4)(2-)/L-bed as the flow rate increased from 1 to 10mL/min. Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and dose-response models, predicted a maximum particle loading of 19mg/g. Infrared spectrometry indicated the presence of sulfate ions on the limestone surface. Sulfate sorption on limestone seems to be an alternative to treating mine waters with sulfate concentrations below the 1200-2000mg/L range, where lime precipitation is not effective. In addition, this approach does not require alkaline pH values, as in the ettringite process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Tang, Y.


    The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42 - are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42 - is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions (HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42 -. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels

  16. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth


    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique....

  17. Phenazin-5-ium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph deGeorge


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt, C12H9N2+·HSO4−·H2O, comprises inversion-related pairs of phenazinium ions linked by C—H...N hydrogen bonds. The phenazinium N—H atoms are hydrogen bonded to the bisulfate anions. The bisulfate anions and water molecules are linked by O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions into a structural ladder motif parallel to the a axis.

  18. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.


    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  19. Salt tectonics in Santos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, David G.; Nielsen, Malene; Raven, Madeleine [Maersk Oil and Gas, Copenhagen (Denmark); Menezes, Paulo [Maersk Oil and Gas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    From Albian to end Cretaceous times, the inboard part of the Santos Basin in Brazil was affected by extension as salt flowed basinwards under the effect of gravity. Salt rollers, flip-flop salt diapirs and the famous Albian Gap were all formed by this process. Outboard of these extensional structures, contraction was taken up in a wide zone of thickened salt where salt collected. The overburden was carried on top of the salt as it flowed down-dip, with up to 40 km of translation recorded in Albian strata. (author)

  20. Microwave-induced Bismuth Salts-mediated Synthesis of Molecules of Medicinal Interests. (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Chavez, Ashlee; Banik, Bimal K


    Bismuth salts-mediated reactions have become a powerful tool for the synthesis of diverse medicinally-significant compounds because of their low-toxicity (non-toxic) and Lewis acidic capacity. In fact, LD50 of bismuth nitrate is lower than table salt. On the other hand, microwave-induced chemical synthesis is considered as a major greener route in modern chemistry. A total of 139 publications (including a few authentic web links) have been reviewed mainly to discuss bismuth salts-induced electrophilic aromatic substitution, protection-deprotection chemistry of carbonyl compounds, enamination, oxidation, carbohydrate chemistry, hydrolysis, addition-elimination route, Paal-Knorr reaction, Clauson-kaas synthesis, Michael addition, aza-Michael addition, Hantzsch reaction, Biginelli reaction, Ferrier rearrangement, Pechmann condensation, Diels-Alder and aza-Diels- Alder reactions, as well as effects of microwave irradiation in a wide range of chemical transformations. Bismuth salts-mediated reactions are developed for the synthesis of diverse organic molecules of medicinal significance. Reactions conducted with bismuth salts are environmentally benign, economical, rapid and high yielding. Microwave irradiation has accelerated these reactions significantly. It is believed that bismuth salts released corresponding acids in the media during the reaction. However, a coordination of bismuth salt to the electronegative atom is also observed in the NMR study. Bismuth has much less control (less attractive forces) over anions (for example, halides, nitrate, sulfate and triflates) compared to alkali metals. Therefore, it forms weak bond with electronegative atoms more readily and facilitates the reactions significantly. Many products obtained via bismuth salts-mediated reactions are medicinally active or intermediate for the synthesis of biologically active molecules including antifungal, anti-parasitic, anticancer and antibacterial agents, as well as agents to prevent