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Sample records for evansi diptera psychodidaein

  1. Genetic analysis of a recently detected urban population of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidaein Colombia Análisis genético de una población urbana de Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, recientemente detectada en Colombia

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    Eduar Elías Bejarano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar is the vector of the parasite Leishmania infantum in rural zones of Northern Colombia. An attempt was made to determine the origin of a recently detected urban population of Lutzomyia evansi by genetically characterizing specimens from seven geographically distinct localities in the Colombian Caribbean. Insect specimens were collected in rural and urban environments of areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis or free of the disease. Nine polymorphic sites, nine nucleotide haplotypes and a single aminoacid haplotype were found within the 315 bp fragment sequenced, corresponding to the 3' end of the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Paired genetic distances between the haplotypes, estimated with the Kimura two-parameters model, varied from 0,0032-0,0194. Analysis revealed low genetic variability between specimens from urban and rural localities. Several of the sand flies collected in the city of Sincelejo (department of Sucre, where autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis cases have appeared in recent years, were genetically similar to those of a rural focus of the disease (El Contento, on the neighboring department of Córdoba. The epidemiological implications of this finding for Leishmania infantum transmission in the Colombian Caribbean are discussed.Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar es el insecto transmisor del parásito Leishmania infantum en zonas rurales del norte de Colombia. Con el propósito de establecer el probable origen de una población urbana del vector, detectada en años recientes, se caracterizaron genéticamente ejemplares de Lutzomyia evansi de siete localidades geográficas del Caribe Colombiano. Los flebotomíneos fueron recolectados en ambientes rurales y urbanos de zonas endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniasis visceral. Dentro del fragmento secuenciado de 315 pb correspondiente al extremo 3' del gen mitocondrial citocromo b, se encontraron nueve sitios polimórficos, nueve haplotipos nucleot

  2. [Morphological abnormalities in the cibarium of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) caught in Trujillo, Venezuela].

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    Méndez-de Daboín, Yolanda; Oviedo-Araújo, Milagros; González-Pérez, Adalberto; Suárez-Hernández, Jorge; Sandoval, Claudia M; Cazorla, Dalmiro

    2015-01-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is a recognized vector of Leishmania infantum in Colombia and Venezuela. To describe and illustrate the morphological abnormalities in Lu. evansi females captured in a rural focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Trujillo, Venezuela. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, Shannon traps and aspiration in resting places. The identification was performed according to Young & Duncan (1994) and drawings were made using a microscope with camara lucida . Abnormalities in the cibarium of Lu. evansi were detected in 4 (0.12%) females of the 3,477 adults that were studied. Lutzomyia evansi can have uncommon morphological variants associated with an increase in the number of teeth in the cibarium and their arrangement, which may lead to errors in the taxonomic identification of anomalous specimens. The study of such deformities can serve to avoid taxonomic identification errors.

  3. Rearing and Colonization of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, a Vector of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Colombia

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    James Montoya-Lerma

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The sandfly Lutzomyia evansi from a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Colombia was reared and maintained under laboratory conditions for five generations. The average time for total development was 41.8 days (range = 35.1- 49.6 at 25 oC and 89-95% of relative humidity. The mean number of eggs laid was lower in laboratory bred females either in pots (13.2 eggs/female or vials (29.9 eggs/female than in wild caught females (33.4 eggs/female. Immature mortality, mainly due to fungal and mite contamination, was higher during the first two instars than in the remaining immature stages. Adults were robust and healthy although difficult to feed on hamster or chick skin membrane. In summary, Lu. evansi is a colonizable species but requires specific conditions.

  4. Rearing and colonization of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

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    Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena-Peña, H; Jaramillo-Salazar, C

    1998-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia evansi from a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Columbia was reared and maintained under laboratory conditions for five generations. The average time for total development was 41.9 days (range = 35.1-49.6) at 25 degrees C and 89-95% of relative humidity. The mean number of eggs laid was lower in laboratory bred females either in pots (13.2 eggs/female) or vials (29.9 eggs/female) than in wild caught females (33.4 eggs/female). Immature mortality, mainly due to fungal and mite contamination, was higher during the first two instars than in the remaining immature stages. Adults were robust and healthy although difficult to feed on hamster or chick skin membrane. In summary, Lu. evansi is a colonizable species but requires specific conditions.

  5. Genetic analysis of a recently detected urban population of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae in Colombia

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    Eduar Elías BEJARANO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar es el insecto transmisor del parásito Leishmania infantum en zonas rurales del norte de Colombia. Con el propósito de establecer el probable origen de una población urbana del vector, detectada en años recientes, se caracterizaron genéticamente ejemplares de Lutzomyia evansi de siete localidades geográficas del Caribe Colombiano. Los flebotomíneos fueron recolectados en ambientes rurales y urbanos de zonas endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniasis visceral. Dentro del fragmento secuenciado de 315 pb correspondiente al extremo 3’ del gen mitocondrial citocromo b, se encontraron nueve sitios polimórficos, nueve haplotipos nucleotídicos y un solo haplotipo aminoacídico. Las distancias genéticas pareadas entre los haplotipos, estimadas con el modelo de Kimura de dos parámetros, oscilaron entre 0,0032 y 0,0194. El análisis reveló la existencia de una baja variabilidad genética entre especímenes de localidades urbanas y rurales. Varios de los flebotomíneos recolectados en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Sincelejo, departamento de Sucre, donde en años recientes aparecieron casos autóctonos de leishmaniasis visceral, fueron genéticamente similares a los de El Contento, en el cercano departamento de Córdoba, foco rural de la enfermedad. Se discuten las implicaciones epidemiológicas de este hallazgo para la transmisión de Leishmania infantum en el Caribe Colombiano.

  6. Effect of a second bloodmeal on the oesophagus colonization by Leishmania mexicana complex in Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Alejandra Vivenes

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration and colonization of the oesophagus by Leishmania mexicana parasites were enhanced after digestion of a second bloodmeal intake in Lutzomyia evansi. This event has epidemiological significance since it affects the infection susceptibility of this sand fly species, which is a proven vector of L. chagasi in Colombian and Venezuelan visceral leishmaniasis foci. Also, it may explain the host seeking behaviour displayed by some partially bloodfed flies found inside houses.

  7. Anomalías morfológicas en los dientes del cibario de Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela

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    Yolanda Méndez-de Daboín

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Lutzomyia evansi es un reconocido vector de Leishmania infantum en Colombia y Venezuela. Objetivo. Describir e ilustrar las anomalías morfológicas presentes en el cibario de hembras de Lu. evansi capturadas en un foco rural de leishmaniasis visceral en Trujillo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos. Para la captura de los flebótomos se utilizaron tres diferentes métodos (trampa Shannon, trampas de luz del tipo CDC y capturas en reposo. En la identificación taxonómica se siguió la clave de Young & Duncan (1994 y los diseños biológicos se hicieron utilizando un microscopio óptico con cámara clara. Resultados. En 3.477 especímenes de Lu. evansi se detectaron cuatro (0,12 % hembras con diferentes anomalías en el cibario. Conclusión. Algunos especímenes de Lu. evansi pueden presentar anomalías morfológicas relacionadas con aumento del número de los dientes en el cibario y con su disposición. La detección de estas anomalías en poblaciones naturales de Lu. evansi puede evitar dificultades y confusiones en el momento de la identificación taxonómica de los especímenes teratomorfos, reduciendo así el riesgo de incurrir en errores taxonómicos.

  8. Dosis diagnóstica y umbral de resistencia de Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, a dos insecticidas utilizados en salud pública en Colombia: deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina

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    Caterine HENRIQUEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los insecticidas son una herramienta importante para el control de los insectos transmisores de microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la dosis diagnóstica de deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina en el flebotomíneo Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, vector de Leishmania infantum en Colombia. Los insectos se recolectaron en la Estación Experimental de Fauna Silvestre de Colosó, Sucre, un área de reserva natural que no ha sido sometida a presión con insecticidas. Los bioensayos se realizaron en botellas de vidrio, siguiendo el método simplificado de determinación de resistencia del CDC. En los experimentos, se usaron hembras silvestres de L. evansi que fueron expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de los insecticidas por espacio de 80 minutos, tiempo de duración de la prueba. Los valores de dosis diagnóstica hallados fueron 0,00035% para lambdacihalotrina y 0,0007% para deltametrina, con un umbral de resistencia de diez minutos para ambos insecticidas, tiempo en el cual se alcanza una mortalidad del 100%. Los datos de tiempo-mortalidad indican que la lambdacihalotrina tiene un efecto letal sobre L. evansi en menor concentración que la deltametrina, mientras que la última fue menos tóxica.

  9. Feeding success of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae) experimentally exposed to small mammal hosts in an endemic focus of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia.

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    Adler, Gregory H; Becerra, María Teresa; Travi, Bruno L

    2003-12-01

    Lutzomyia evansi is the vector of Leishmania chagasi in northern Colombia. Differences in feeding success were revealed, when this phlebotomine sand fly was fed on five species of small mammal hosts from an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis. In each trial, 50 female sand flies were provided access to similar-sized depilated areas of the hind foot of each of 44 individual mammals and allowed to feed for 30 minutes. The number of engorged sand flies was counted at the end of each trial and compared among host species by analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Sand flies fed least successfully on Sciurus granatensis, a common squirrel in the endemic area. It has not been found infected with L. chagasi. Intermediate numbers of sand flies engorged on Heteromys anomalus and Zygodontomys brevicauda, but these two mammals have not been found infected with L. chagasi and are not expected to be important in transmission. Sand flies fed most successfully on Didelphis marsupialis and Proechimys canicollis. These are the two most abundant mammals in the endemic area and frequently are infected. Results provided further evidence that these two species are the wild mammals with the greatest impact on transmission of L. chagasi in northern Colombia.

  10. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidaein a focus of Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis in northeastern Colombia

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    Bruce Alexander

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand fly fauna of two coffee plantations in a Leishmania-endemic area of Norte de Santander, Colombia was studied. Regular insect collections using a variety of methods were made for three and a half years. Information was obtained on diurnal resting sites, host range and seasonal abundance for 17 species, of wich five (Lutzomyia spinicrassa, Lu. serrana,Lu. shannoni, Lu. ovallesi and Lu. gomezi were far more numerous than the others, anthropophilic and present throughout the year. The behaviour of these and the remaining 12 species is discussed in relation to their potential role in transmission of Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis in the area.

  11. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... serum proteins in g/dl using a refractometer, haematocrit ... evansi IgG titer by indirect ELISA immunoassay, from both infected ... disease can be observed and the three characteristic stages, ... trypanosomosis caused by T. evansi have used horses .... The parasitemia as estimated by DME and MHCT for.

  12. Proteomics of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rodents.

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    Roy, Nainita; Nageshan, Rishi Kumar; Pallavi, Rani; Chakravarthy, Harshini; Chandran, Syama; Kumar, Rajender; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Yadav, Suresh Chandra; Tatu, Utpal

    2010-03-22

    Trypanosoma evansi infections, commonly called 'surra', cause significant economic losses to livestock industry. While this infection is mainly restricted to large animals such as camels, donkeys and equines, recent reports indicate their ability to infect humans. There are no World Animal Health Organization (WAHO) prescribed diagnostic tests or vaccines available against this disease and the available drugs show significant toxicity. There is an urgent need to develop improved methods of diagnosis and control measures for this disease. Unlike its related human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi whose genomes have been fully sequenced T. evansi genome sequence remains unavailable and very little efforts are being made to develop improved methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. With a view to identify potential diagnostic markers and drug targets we have studied the clinical proteome of T. evansi infection using mass spectrometry (MS). Using shot-gun proteomic approach involving nano-lc Quadrupole Time Of Flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry we have identified over 160 proteins expressed by T. evansi in mice infected with camel isolate. Homology driven searches for protein identification from MS/MS data led to most of the matches arising from related Trypanosoma species. Proteins identified belonged to various functional categories including metabolic enzymes; DNA metabolism; transcription; translation as well as cell-cell communication and signal transduction. TCA cycle enzymes were strikingly missing, possibly suggesting their low abundances. The clinical proteome revealed the presence of known and potential drug targets such as oligopeptidases, kinases, cysteine proteases and more. Previous proteomic studies on Trypanosomal infections, including human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi, have been carried out from lab grown cultures. For T. evansi infection this is indeed the first ever proteomic study reported thus far. In addition to providing a glimpse into the

  13. Proteomics of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rodents.

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    Nainita Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi infections, commonly called 'surra', cause significant economic losses to livestock industry. While this infection is mainly restricted to large animals such as camels, donkeys and equines, recent reports indicate their ability to infect humans. There are no World Animal Health Organization (WAHO prescribed diagnostic tests or vaccines available against this disease and the available drugs show significant toxicity. There is an urgent need to develop improved methods of diagnosis and control measures for this disease. Unlike its related human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi whose genomes have been fully sequenced T. evansi genome sequence remains unavailable and very little efforts are being made to develop improved methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. With a view to identify potential diagnostic markers and drug targets we have studied the clinical proteome of T. evansi infection using mass spectrometry (MS.Using shot-gun proteomic approach involving nano-lc Quadrupole Time Of Flight (QTOF mass spectrometry we have identified over 160 proteins expressed by T. evansi in mice infected with camel isolate. Homology driven searches for protein identification from MS/MS data led to most of the matches arising from related Trypanosoma species. Proteins identified belonged to various functional categories including metabolic enzymes; DNA metabolism; transcription; translation as well as cell-cell communication and signal transduction. TCA cycle enzymes were strikingly missing, possibly suggesting their low abundances. The clinical proteome revealed the presence of known and potential drug targets such as oligopeptidases, kinases, cysteine proteases and more.Previous proteomic studies on Trypanosomal infections, including human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi, have been carried out from lab grown cultures. For T. evansi infection this is indeed the first ever proteomic study reported thus far. In addition to providing a

  14. Epidemiology of camel trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Mauritania and its control strategies for sustainable livestock production

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    Dia Mamadou Lamine [CNERV, Nouakchott (Mauritania)], E-mail: mldsb@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Camel trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by hematophagious diptera such as Tabanidae, Stomoxyinae, and Hippoboscidae. In its acute form, the disease results in a generalized weakness. The animal lies down as of the least effort; milk production falls with the abortion of females. At times, the animal dies after a prolonged decubitus. However, in 80% cases, the disease is observed in its chronic form, which is characterized by considerable economic losses resulting from abortions, reduction of milk production, loss weight, and cachexia. Due to its extremely dry conditions Mauritania remains a favourable environment for camels as preferred livestock species of considerable economic importance. The animals are kept by shepherds who are very mobile in the field in search of good pastures and water points. Unfortunately, this pastoral system is reported to expose dromedaries to numerous pathologic conditions, especially camel trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi. Our investigations from 1993 to 1997 showed that T. evansi is present in the dromedaries in Mauritania. According the haematocrit centrifuge technique the parasite prevalence rate ranged from 1.1 to 13.6 % while seroprevalence varied from 13% to 36.7% according to the CATT test. In the Trarza region, as consequence of a good rainy season we more recently observed an abundance of tabanids and stomoxes hence a favourable ecology of T. evansi vectors, and subsequently an outbreak of camel trypanosomosis. Prevalence rate was 17.6% using buffy coat examination and 58.8% with the CATT. In many herds, numerous abortions were recorded and all breeders registered very important milk production losses. In order to limit the infections due to T. evansi, two control strategies for camel husbandry could be practiced in the Trarza region. The first is 'northern strategy' with the potential of lowering pastures availability and usage. However, it has the advantage of avoiding the direct and

  15. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris

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    Karina Muñoz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent.

  16. Multiple evolutionary origins of Trypanosoma evansi in Kenya.

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    Christine M Kamidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi is the parasite causing surra, a form of trypanosomiasis in camels and other livestock, and a serious economic burden in Kenya and many other parts of the world. Trypanosoma evansi transmission can be sustained mechanically by tabanid and Stomoxys biting flies, whereas the closely related African trypanosomes T. brucei brucei and T. b. rhodesiense require cyclical development in tsetse flies (genus Glossina for transmission. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origins of T. evansi. We used 15 polymorphic microsatellites to quantify levels and patterns of genetic diversity among 41 T. evansi isolates and 66 isolates of T. b. brucei (n = 51 and T. b. rhodesiense (n = 15, including many from Kenya, a region where T. evansi may have evolved from T. brucei. We found that T. evansi strains belong to at least two distinct T. brucei genetic units and contain genetic diversity that is similar to that in T. brucei strains. Results indicated that the 41 T. evansi isolates originated from multiple T. brucei strains from different genetic backgrounds, implying independent origins of T. evansi from T. brucei strains. This surprising finding further suggested that the acquisition of the ability of T. evansi to be transmitted mechanically, and thus the ability to escape the obligate link with the African tsetse fly vector, has occurred repeatedly. These findings, if confirmed, have epidemiological implications, as T. brucei strains from different genetic backgrounds can become either causative agents of a dangerous, cosmopolitan livestock disease or of a lethal human disease, like for T. b. rhodesiense.

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites and Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, R.A.; Chandrawathani, P.; Rosli, M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism is common in buffalo calves. The effect of helminths on growth was studied by administration of an anthelmintic to buffalo calves following natural infections with gastrointestinal parasites. In studies conducted on calves belonging to an institute and a smallholder farmer, the treated calves showed improved weight gains. Serial parasitic examinations showed these animals had moderate to high faecal counts with Strongyloides, Toxocara vitulorum and Haemonchus eggs and Eimeria oocytes. In another study, there was no live weight advantage in treated over untreated calves. Few animals in this study had evidence of parasites and even those which were infested had low faecal egg counts. Hence, in general, helminths at certain levels of infection do affect the live weight gains of young buffalo calves. The prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi, as assessed parasitologically using the haematocrit centrifugation technique and mice inoculation, was 2.7 and 1%, respectively, in cattle and buffaloes. The serological prevalence using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was 35 and 2% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Éxito de la alimentación de Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae expuestos experimentalmente a reservorios mamíferos pequeños en un foco endémico de Leishmania chagasi en el norte de Colombia

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    Gregory H. Adler

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Un método sencillo de laboratorio reveló diferencias en el éxito de alimentación de Lutzomyia evansi, el vector de Leishmania chagasi en el norte de Colombia, cuando se alimentó sobre cinco especies de pequeños mamíferos de un foco endémico de leishmaniasis visceral, en los que éstos podrían actuar como reservorios. En cada ensayo, a 50 flebótomos hembra se les permitió alimentarse durante 30 minutos sobre un área similar de piel depilada de la pata posterior en 44 mamíferos. El número de flebótomos alimentados se comparó entre especies a través de un análisis de varianza y de la prueba de Tukey de comparaciones múltiples. Los flebótomos escasamente se alimentaron sobre Sciurus granatensis, una ardilla común en el área endémica que no se ha encontrado infectada con Leishmania chagasi. En otros dos mamíferos que hasta el presente han sido negativos para L. chagasi (Heteromys anomalus y Zygodontomys brevicauda, los flebótomos se alimentaron en bajos números. En cambio, los flebótomos se alimentaron en altas proporciones sobre Didelphis marsupialis y Proechimys canicollis, los dos mamíferos más abundantes en el área endémica y que se hallan infectados con L. chagasi. Los resultados aportaron evidencia adicional que estas dos especies de mamíferos silvestres serían una fuente de sangre común para los flebótomos y que, por lo tanto, pueden tener gran impacto sobre la transmisión de L. chagasi en el norte de Colombia.

  19. Studies on the epidemiology of Trypanosoma evansi in buffaloes in Indonesia

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    Payne, R.C.; Partoutomo, S.; Sukanto, I.P.

    1990-01-01

    Observations on buffaloes imported into Indonesia from Australia indicate that infections with Trypanosoma evansi were the possible causes of illness and death. In February 1986, 657 feral buffalo were imported from the Northern Territory, Australia, for distribution to smallholder farms in Central Java. Two locations were selected in which groups of buffaloes could regularly be examined and their response to infection with T. evansi monitored. In the first location, T. evansi was detected in an imported buffalo 2 months after distribution and Nagarol (Suramin; Bayer) was given to all the animals in the area as a prophylactic. In the second location, Trypamidium (isometamidium chloride; Specia) was used as a prophylactic when T. evansi was detected. Twelve of the 131 buffaloes under observation died in the first location and T. evansi was thought to be the cause of death in three animals. In the second location, 33 out of 45 buffaloes died; evidence of infection with T. evansi was detected in 25 animals. Serum samples were subjected to the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay to detect T. evansi antibodies. The results showed that imported buffaloes were seronegative on arrival, but seroconversion occurred at both locations. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomes in Venezuela: evidences of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax infections.

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    Ramírez-Iglesias, J R; Eleizalde, M C; Reyna-Bello, A; Mendoza, M

    2017-06-01

    In South America Trypanosoma evansi has been determined by molecular methods in cattle from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru, reason for which the presence of this parasite is not excluded in Venezuelan livestock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform parasitological and molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomosis in small livestock units from two regions in this country. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by MHCT and the molecular by PCR using genus-specific ITS1 primers that differentiate T. vivax and T. evansi infections. 47 cattle were evaluated in the "Laguneta de la Montaña" sector, Miranda State, where 3 animals were diagnosed as positive (6.4 %) by MHCT and 14 (30 %) by PCR as Trypanosoma spp., out of which 9 animals resulted positive for T. vivax , 3 for T. evansi and 2 with double infections. Whilst in the "San Casimiro" sector, State of Aragua, out of the 38 cattle evaluated 7 animals were diagnosed as positive (18.4 %) by MHCT and 19 (50 %) by PCR, determining only the presence of T. evansi in this locality. The molecular diagnosis by PCR using ITS1 primers allowed T. evansi detection in cattle field populations, which suggests the possible role of these animals as reservoirs in the epidemiology of the disease caused by T. evansi in Venezuela.

  1. Trypanocidal activity of human plasma on Trypanosoma evansi in mice Atividade tripanocida do plasma humano sobre Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos

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    Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test an alternative protocol with human plasma to control Trypanosoma evansi infection in mice. Plasma from an apparently 27-year-old healthy male, blood type A+, was used in the study. A concentration of 100 mg.dL-1 apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1 was detected in the plasma. Forty mice were divided into four groups with 10 animals each. Group A comprised uninfected animals. Mice from groups B, C and D were inoculated with a T. evansi isolate. Group B was used as a positive control. At three days post-infection (DPI, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with human plasma. A single dose of 0.2 mL plasma was given to those in group C. The mice from group D were administered five doses of 0.2 mL plasma with a 24 hours interval between the doses. Group B showed high increasing parasitemia that led to their death within 5 DPI. Both treatments eliminated parasites from the blood and increased the longevity of animals. An efficacy of 50 (group C and 80% (group D of human plasma trypanocidal activity was found using PCR. This therapeutic success was likely achieved in the group D due to their higher levels of APOL1 compared with group C.Este estudo teve como objetivo testar um protocolo alternativo com plasma humano para controlar a infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos. O plasma foi oriundo de um homem aparentemente saudável, com idade entre 27 anos e tipo de sangue A+. Foi detectada uma concentração de 100 mg.dL -1 de apolipoproteína L1 (APOL1 no plasma. Quarenta camundongos foram divididos em quatro grupos, contendo dez animais cada. Grupo A, composto de animais não infectados. Os roedores dos grupos B, C e D foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com um isolado de T. evansi. O Grupo B foi usado como um controle positivo. Três dias pós-infecção (DPI, os camundongos foram tratados com plasma humano. Uma dose única de 0,2 mL de plasma foi administrada nos roedores do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo D receberam cinco

  2. Presencia en Isla Fuerte, Bolívar de Lutzomyia evansi vector de leishmaniosis visceral Presense of lutzomyia evansi vector of visceral leishmaniosis in Isla Fuerte, Colombia

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    Ivan Darío Vélez

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un Inventario de fauna flebotomínea en Isla Fuerte, Bolívar, costa caribe colombiana. Se demostró por primera vez en dicha Isla la presencia de Lu. evansi, Lu. gomezi y Lu. trinidadensis. La presencia de Lu. Evansi (91.7% de las 73 capturas, vector principal de la leishmaniosis visceral en la costa caribe colombiana, convierte a Isla Fuerte en una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniosis visceral.

    An inventory was made of phiebotomidae fauna in Isla Fuerte, Bolívar, on the caribbean colombian coast. The presence of Lu. evansi was demonstrated for the first time in that island and this species constituted 91.7% of 73 captures. Therefore the island becomes a potential risk for transmission of visceralleish. maniosis since Lu. evansi its main vector.

  3. Comparative vectorial efficiency of Lutzomyia evansi and Lu. longipalpis for transmitting Leishmania chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Lerma, J; Cadena, H; Oviedo, M; Ready, P D; Barazarte, R; Travi, B L; Lane, R P

    2003-01-01

    The infection rates and development of Leishmania chagasi in two sandfly species, Lutzomyia evansi and Lutzomyia longipalpis, were evaluated under natural and experimental conditions. Natural infection rates of Lu. evansi in San Andrés de Sotavento (Colombia) and Montañas de Peraza (Venezuela) (0.05 and 0.2%, respectively) were similar to those previously recorded for this species in Colombia and Venezuela and for Lu. longipalpis in many foci of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL). Both sand fly species were able to support the development of two Colombian strains of L. chagasi experimentally acquired from dogs, hamsters or membrane feeders. However, the experimental infection rates and the sequence of parasite development in the guts of these sand flies revealed that parasite colonisation, differentiation, migration and attachment were more frequent and uniform in Lu. longipalpis than in Lu. evansi. This is consistent with a more recent association between L. chagasi and Lu. evansi, and these results might help to explain the irregularity of AVL outbreaks in foci where Lu. evansi has been reported as the sole vector. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, p<0.001) but a considerably higher sensitivity (98.1% versus 84.4%, χ(2)=33.39, p<0.001). We conclude that the Surra Sero K-SeT may become an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi for sensitive detection of antibodies against T. evansi in domestic animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diptera: Agromyzidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's.

  6. First report of surra (Trypanosoma evansi infection in a Tunisian dog

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    Rjeibi Mohamed Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of surra, is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment. Animals exhibit nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight and abortion. In the present survey, a blood sample was collected in Sousse (Central Tunisia from a dog that presented clinical signs of trypanosomiasis. Giemsa-stained blood smears and PCR were performed. ITS1 sequences from blood had 99.8 and 99.5% homology with published T. evansi sequences from cattle and camels, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. evansi in a Tunisian dog.

  7. Humoral immune response of horses experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi/ Resposta imune humoral de eqüinos infectados experimentalmente com Trypanosoma evansi

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    Lúcia Padilha Cury Thomaz de Aquino

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Six adult horses were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi (106 parasites. Three other adult horses served as negative control. Serum samples of the experimentally infected horses with T. evansi and non-infected controls horses were obtained before inoculation, and daily thereafter until 14 days post infection (DPI. After that time the serum samples were obtained weekly. Sera of the infected and non-infected control horses was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of antibodies against T. evansi. Both ELISA and IFAT detected trypanosomal antibodies shortly after infection and showed progressive increases in antibodies levels during early stages of infection. The responses started on the eighth and eleventh DPI. Maximum IFAT and ELISA values were reached after four weeks of infection and were maintained at this level until the end of the period of study.Seis eqüinos foram inoculados com 106 tripomastigota sangüícolas de Trypanosoma evansi. Três outros animais foram mantidos como testemunhas. Amostras de soro sangüíneo foram obtidas de todos os animais, antes da inoculação, e diariamente até o 14º dia pós inoculação (DPI; após este período uma vez por semana. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti- T. evansi, foram realizadas através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI e do ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática (ELISA. A resposta imune humoral, detectada através da RIFI e do ELISA, iniciou-se, em média, a partir do oitavo DPI, alcançando títulos máximos após quatro semanas de evolução, e os titulos de anticorpos anti- T. evansi mantiveram-se elevadas até o término das observações.

  8. Diptera: Tephritidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flávia Queiroz de Oliveira1*, José Bruno Malaquias2, Wennia Rafaelly de Souza Figueiredo3,. Jacinto de Luna Batista4, Eduardo Barbosa Beserra1 and Robério de Oliveira4. 1Universidade Estadual da Paraíba (UEPB), campus I/Campina Grande, Bodocongó, Paraíba, ...

  9. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dipetalonema evansi (LEWIS, 1882) in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazmand, Alireza; Eigner, Barbara; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyedhossein; Harl, Josef; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Despite the economic importance of camels, the parasites that affect them have not received adequate attention so far and molecular studies are scarce compared to other livestock. In this study, we characterized peripheral blood microfilariae in 200 healthy one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) from south-east Iran by microscopy and molecular tools to receive a more detailed insight into prevalence and species that affect them. Moreover, adult specimens of the filarial nematode Dipetalonema evansi were collected from the carcass of an infected animal. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and blood was also spotted on Whatman FTA(®) cards for DNA analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted, and PCR was carried out for the detection of filaroid helminths, followed by sequence analysis of positive samples. Four samples were positive for microfilariae by microscopy, while 16 animals (8 %) were positive by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed D. evansi in all cases. Phylogenetic analysis of a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence of filaroid nematodes showed that most species in a single genus cluster in the same clade; however, D. evansi and D. gracile are not monophyletic and branch rather at the base of the tree. Further studies on the life cycle of D. evansi, specifically the identification of intermediate host(s), have become feasible with the provision of the first specific COI sequences in this study.

  10. Drought-Stressed Tomato Plants Trigger Bottom-Up Effects on the Invasive Tetranychus evansi.

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    Miguel G Ximénez-Embún

    Full Text Available Climate change will bring more drought periods that will have an impact on the irrigation practices of some crops like tomato, from standard water regime to deficit irrigation. This will promote changes in plant metabolism and alter their interactions with biotic stressors. We have tested if mild or moderate drought-stressed tomato plants (simulating deficit irrigation have an effect on the biological traits of the invasive tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi. Our data reveal that T evansi caused more leaf damage to drought-stressed tomato plants (≥1.5 fold for both drought scenarios. Mite performance was also enhanced, as revealed by significant increases of eggs laid (≥2 fold at 4 days post infestation (dpi, and of mobile forms (≥2 fold and 1.5 fold for moderate and mild drought, respectively at 10 dpi. The levels of several essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, valine and free sugars in tomato leaves were significantly induced by drought in combination with mites. The non-essential amino acid proline was also strongly induced, stimulating mite feeding and egg laying when added to tomato leaf disks at levels equivalent to that estimated on drought-infested tomato plants at 10 dpi. Tomato plant defense proteins were also affected by drought and/or mite infestation, but T. evansi was capable of circumventing their potential adverse effects. Altogether, our data indicate that significant increases of available free sugars and essential amino acids, jointly with their phagostimulant effect, created a favorable environment for a better T. evansi performance on drought-stressed tomato leaves. Thus, drought-stressed tomato plants, even at mild levels, may be more prone to T evansi outbreaks in a climate change scenario, which might negatively affect tomato production on area-wide scales.

  11. Estimación del tiempo de desarrollo de Lutzomyia evansi bajo condiciones experimentales

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    Claudia Martínez Suárez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar el tiempo promedio de desarrollo de Lutzomyia evansi. Materiales y métodos: Se inició una colonia de Lutzomyia evansi con individuos recolectados en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Sincelejo (Colombia. La colonia fue mantenida en el laboratorio durante tres generaciones filiales bajo condiciones experimentales promedio de 26ºC de temperatura y 94% de humedad relativa. Resultados: La duración del desarrollo de Lutzomyia evansi fue de 36 a 45 días. El tiempo requerido para el desarrollo de los huevos fue en promedio de 6,75 días (rango de 6 a 8 días. La duración en promedio de los diferentes estadios larvales fue 5,75 días en larvas de primer estadio (rango de 5 a 8 días, 5,75 días en larvas de segundo estadio (rango de 4 a 7 días, 5 días en larvas de tercer estadio (rango de 4 a 7 días y 7 días en larvas de cuarto estadio (rango de 6 a 8 días. En la fase de pupa, la duración en promedio fue de 9,75 días (rango de 7 a 17 días. Conclusiones: El tiempo promedio requerido para el desarrollo de Lutzomyia evansi, comprendido desde la alimentación sanguínea de la hembra madre hasta la emergencia del adulto, es de 40 días.

  12. Using of essential oils in the treatment of mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi

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    Matheus D. Baldissera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of copaiba, andiroba and aroeira essential oils for controlling trypanosomosis by Trypanosoma evansi with mice as experimental model. Materials and methods. Sixty-six mice were divided into eleven groups (A to L with six animals each. Group A was the unique composed by healthy and uninfected animals (negative control. Animals in groups B to L were inoculated with 0.1 mL of blood containing 2.7 x 106 trypanosomes. Group B was used as a positive control without treatment. In experiment were tested copaiba (C, D and E, andiroba (F, G and H and aroeira (I, J and L oils at doses of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mL kg-1 to infected mice (T. evansi. Results. These protocols did not provide curative efficacy; however, the mice treated with highest dose of copaiba showed a significant increase in the longevity when compared others groups. Conclusions. Previously in our studies, these essential oils have shown trypanocidal activity in vitro, but when they were tested in vivo in mice infected with T. evansi, this trypanocidal activity, or the curative effect was not found, being only able to prolong the lifespan of the animals treated with copaiba oil.

  13. Evaluation of In Vitro Activity of Essential Oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

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    Nathan Habila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from Cymbopogon citratus (CC, Eucalyptus citriodora (EC, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (ED, and Citrus sinensis (CS were obtained by hydrodistillation process. The EOs were evaluated in vitro for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb and Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi. The EOs were found to possess antitrypanosomal activity in vitro in a dose-dependent pattern in a short period of time. The drop in number of parasite over time was achieved doses of 0.4 g/ml, 0.2 g/mL, and 0.1 g/mL for all the EOs. The concentration of 0.4 g/mL CC was more potent at 3 minutes and 2 minutes for Tbb and T. evansi, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of the EOs revealed presence of Cyclobutane (96.09% in CS, 6-octenal (77.11% in EC, Eucalyptol (75% in ED, and Citral (38.32% in CC among several other organic compounds. The results are discussed in relation to trypanosome chemotherapy.

  14. Cytokine gene expression and pathology in mice experimentally infected with different isolates of Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, P; Sengupta, P P; Das, Sangita; Ligi, M; Shome, B R; Rahman, H

    2016-11-01

    Aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine gene expression in liver, kidney and spleen and histopathological changes in mice infected with buffalo and dog isolates of Trypanosoma evansi. Forty-four Swiss albino mice was divided into eleven groups of four mice each and injected subcutaneously with 1 × 10 5 trypanosomes of buffalo and dog isolate to twenty mice each, four mice served as control. Mice were examined for clinical signs, blood smear for trypanosome counts. Blood for PCR, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, testis and abdominal muscle for histopathology and liver, kidney, spleen for cytokine gene expression studies, were collected. Mice showed dullness, lethargy, hunched back, sluggish movements on D4 and D5 in buffalo and dog isolate, respectively. Parasite count in blood varied between the two isolates of T. evansi. By PCR, trypanosome DNA was detected on D1 and D2 for buffalo and dog isolate, respectively. Splenomegaly was observed in mice infected with buffalo isolate but not with dog isolate. Histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen and heart of mice but no changes in testis and abdominal muscles. Blood vessels of liver, heart, lung showed presence of trypanosomes in mice infected with buffalo isolate but not for dog isolate. Cytokine gene expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased in liver, kidney and spleen in both these isolates. However, the buffalo isolate exhibited pronounced increase in cytokine gene expression when compare to dog isolate of T. evansi. Anti-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-10 showed 50-60 and 10-20 folds increment in buffalo and dog isolates, respectively. This is the first report of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 cytokine changes in mice infected with T. evansi. A variation in pathogenicity between buffalo and dog isolates was recorded indicating buffalo isolate of T. evansi remained more pathogenic in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

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    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  16. Diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da; Tochetto, Camila; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Pierezan, Felipe; Rissi, Daniel Ricardo; Santurio, Janio Morais; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era ...

  17. Structural differences in gut bacteria communities in developmental stages of natural populations of Lutzomyia evansi from Colombia's Caribbean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael José; Jaramillo, Natalia Gil; Cadavid-Restrepo, Gloria; Soto, Sandra I Uribe; Herrera, Claudia Ximena Moreno

    2016-09-13

    Lutzomyia evansi, a phlebotomine insect endemic to Colombia's Caribbean coast, is considered to be the main vector of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the region. Although insects of this species can harbor pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms in their intestinal microbiota, there is little information available about the diversity of gut bacteria present in Lutzomyia evansi. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with Lutzomyia evansi guts in immature and adult stages of natural populations from the department of Sucre (Caribbean coast of Colombia). Sand flies were collected from two locations (peri-urban and jungle biotype) in the Department of Sucre (Caribbean coast of Colombia). A total of 752 Lutzomyia evansi intestines were dissected. In this study, 125 bacterial strains were isolated from different culture media (LB Agar, MacConkey Agar). Different methods were used for bacterial identification, including ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences. The genetic profiles of the bacterial populations were generated and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to compare them with total gut DNA. We also used PCR and DNA sequence analysis to determine the presence of Wolbachia endosymbiont bacteria and Leishmania parasites. The culture-dependent technique showed that the dominant intestinal bacteria isolated belong to Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Shinella and Paenibacillus in the larval stage; Lysobacter, Microbacterium, Streptomyces, Bacillus and Rummeliibacillus in the pupal stage; and Staphylococcus, Streptomyces, Brevibacterium, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter and Pantoea in the adult stage. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the fingerprint patterns of the PCR-TTGE bands in bacterial communities from immature and

  18. Infecção via oral por Trypanosoma evansi em animais de laboratório Oral infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rats and mice

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a infecção de Trypanosoma evansi pela via oral em ratos e camundongos, através de sangue contaminado de ambas as espécies. Dez ratos e dez camundongos foram alocados em quatro grupos iguais A e B (ratos, C e D (camundongos. Os grupos A e C receberam sangue contaminado de um rato e o grupo B e D de um camundongo, através de uma sonda. O volume de sangue administrado foi de 0,2ml, o qual apresentava uma concentração de 10(7 tripanossomas ml-1. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatura e umidade constantes (25°C e 80% UR, sendo realizados esfregaços sanguíneos diários para identificar o período pré-patente e a evolução do parasita na circulação. Nos grupos A e B, o período pré-patente variou de 19 a 25 dias, e o período entre a detecção dos parasitas e a morte dos animais foi em média de 12,7 dias. Os camundongos do grupo C e D não apresentaram infecção pelo parasita, sendo estes avaliados por 60 dias. Os ratos foram susceptíveis a infecção por T. evansi pela via oral; entretanto, os camundongos não se contaminaram com o protozoário por via digestiva.In this research, Trypanosoma evansi infection was tested in rats and mice by oral ingestion of contaminated blood. Groups of ten rats and ten mice were disposed in four experimental groups: A and B (rats, C and D (mice. The groups A and C were contaminated by rat-contaminated blood; B and C groups by mouse-contaminated blood. The blood was given using a probe filled with 0.2ml of contaminated blood with 10(7 trypanosomes ml-1. These animals were maintained at constant temperature and humidity (25°C and 80% UR. Dairy blood smear were done to identify the prepatent period and evolution of parasite in the circulation. In the A and B groups, the pre latency period varied from 19 to 25 days and the period of parasite detection and animals death was an average of 12.7 days. The C and D groups did not present infection by the parasite even when evaluated for 60 days

  19. Resposta eritropoética de ratos em diferentes graus de parasitemia por Trypanosoma evansi Erithropoietic response in Trypanosoma evansi infected rats with different parasitaemia intensity

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    Patrícia Wolkmer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Trypanosoma evansi é um protozoário hemoflagelado que causa, em várias espécies, uma doença caracterizada por altos níveis de parasitemia, com rápido desenvolvimento de anemia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a relação entre o grau de parasitemia e a alteração na eritropoese de ratos (Rattus norvegicus da linhagem Wistar infectados experimentalmente com T. evansi. Foram utilizados 42 ratos, dos quais 36 foram inoculados pela via intraperitoneal com 0,2ml de sangue, contendo 2,5 x 104 parasitas. Seis ratos não-inoculados foram utilizados como controles. Após inoculação, a parasitemia foi avaliada a cada 12h. Os grupos para análise foram estipulados de acordo com a média de tripanossomas em 10 campos homogêneos focados aleatoriamente, sendo: A, controle; B, animais que apresentaram um grau de parasitemia entre 1-10 tripanossomas/campo; C, ratos com 11-20 tripanossomas/campo; D, ratos com 21-30 tripanossomas/campo; E, ratos com 31-40 tripanossomas/campo; F, 41-50 tripanossomas/campo; e G, ratos com mais de 51 tripanossomas/campo. Quando os animais apresentaram o número de protozoários equivalente ao grupo, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para realização de hemograma e dosagem de ferro, e foi realizada citologia de medula óssea para avaliação da relação mielóide:eritróide. A análise estatística mostrou redução significativa das hemácias e do hematócrito a partir de 31 tripanossomas/campo (grupos E, F e G; PTrypanosoma evansi is a flagellate protozoan that causes a disease characterized by high parasitemia and acute anemia in various species. This study was aimed at evaluating and establishing a relationship between different parasitemia levels and eritropoyesis in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by T. evansi. Forty two animals were used. In 36 animals parasites were inoculated by intraperitoneal blood injection of 0.2ml containing 2.5x104 parasites. Six non-inoculated animals

  20. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, A A; Ate, I U; Lawal, A I; Adamu, S

    2016-03-15

    Twenty pregnant Yankasa ewes were assigned to three groups to determine the effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy. Groups A and B comprising seven ewes each were infected with approximately 1.0 × 10(6) cells of T evansi per ewe through venepuncture at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Group C comprising six ewes served as uninfected control. There was slight pyrexia in the infected groups (groups A and B) but was absent in group C. The mean body weight, glucose concentration, and packed cell volume of ewes in group A were not significantly different from those in group C throughout the study. There was also no significant difference in mean glucose concentration between groups B and C. However, in group B, mean body weight was significantly (P ewes in group A was significantly (P ewes in group B decreased significantly (P ewes in the infected groups (groups A and B) compared with those in group C. However, there were significant (P ewes in group B compared with ewes in groups A and C. Mice inoculation with blood from infected ewes postpartum was parasitemic 18 to 25 days pi, for ewes in group B, whereas none of the mice in groups A and C were parasitemic. Lambs born from the infected groups (groups A and B) were also aparasitemic for 40 days postpartum. It was therefore concluded that the T evansi isolate used caused mild trypanosomosis when infected at third trimester, whereas ewes infected at second trimester were resistant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

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    Márcio M. Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6 and infected group (rabbits 7-12. Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI. Increased activity (P0.05 was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits.O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o papel das colinesterases como marcadores inflamatórios nas fases aguda e crônica da infecção por T. evansi em coelhos infectados experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos adultos, fêmeas, da raça Nova Zelândia, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo controle, com seis animais (coelhos 1-6, e um grupo infectado, com seis animais (coelhos 7-12. Os animais pertencentes ao grupo infectados receberam, pela via intraperitoneal, 0,5 mL de sangue de rato contendo 108 tripanossomas por animal. Amostras do sangue utilizado para avaliação das colinesterases foram coletadas nos dias 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 e 118 pós-inoculação (PI. Aumento (P0,05 foi observada nas estruturas encefálicas. O aumento de atividade da AChE e BChE provavelmente tenha finalidade pró-inflamatória, a fim de reduzir as concentrações de acetilcolina, neurotransmissor que apresenta propriedade anti-inflamatória. Portanto, as colinesterases podem ser marcadores inflamatórios na infec

  2. The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) as a reservoir host for Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, G A; Wells, E A; Angel, D

    1976-10-01

    Discovery of two ill horses and three dogs naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi near an experimental station in the Eastern Plains of Colombia led to a search for reservoir hosts of the parasite. Infection was detected in 8/33 healthy capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), none of the remaining 14 horses, and none of 32 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), 18 paca (Cuniculus paca) and 20 spiny rats (Proechimys sp.). Contrary to common opinion, the results indicated a carrier state in the capybara. Diagnosis was based on morphology, behaviour in albino rats, and pathogenicity and host range in domestic animals.

  3. Making antigen of trypanosoma evansi and its examination by catt (card agglutination test) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, M; Irtisam; Estikoma Dyah; Yulia Ernawati; Boky, J.T

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was carried out for making antigen (Ag) of T. evansi by using experimental animals rats and guinea pigs for for developing parasites, and in cattle for making immune serum and normal serum. The parasites were irradiated by gamma rays ( 60 Co) at a dose of 300 Gy. The determination of antigen was done by using Card Agglutination Test (CATT) to the field samples serum of cattle. The results obtained showed that antigen was good enough potently and stable at minus 70 0 C storage during five months. (author)

  4. The Effect Of Inoculation Dose Of trypanosoma Evansi On Blood Value In Animal Hosts f Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, M.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to obtain the information and its relation between a number of parasites and pathogenity in mice. The pathogenity of T. evansi was depend on the exchange of blood value of infected mice. The parasites was irradiated by gamma rays 6 O C o with the dose of and 300 Gy. The dose of inoculation were 1 x 10 5 , 5 x 10 5 and 1 x 10 6 parasites per mice. The results obtained showed that a number of parasites were inoculated caused the drop of blood value of mice. The number of parasites and irradiation were also significant effect to the blood value (P<0.01)

  5. Reproductive performance of seven strains of the tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) at five temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotoh, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Pallini, A.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker et Pritchard occurs on solanaceous plants, and causes serious damage to a variety of crops in Africa and Europe. In 2001 this species was also found in Japan, on nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), and its invasion to solanaceous of agricultural imp...

  6. Efficacy Study of Novel Diamidine Compounds in a Trypanosoma evansi Goat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingwater, Kirsten; Gutierrez, Carlos; Bridges, Arlene; Wu, Huali; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Ali Ekangu, Rosine; Kumar, Arvind; Ismail, Mohamed; Boykin, David; Brun, Reto

    2011-01-01

    Three diamidines (DB 75, DB 867 and DB 1192) were selected and their ability to cure T. evansi experimentally infected goats was investigated. A toxicity assessment and pharmacokinetic analysis of these compounds were additionally carried out. Goats demonstrated no signs of acute toxicity, when treated with four doses of 1 mg/kg/day (total dose 4 mg/kg). Complete curative efficacy of experimentally infected goats was seen in the positive control group treated with diminazene at 5 mg/kg and in the DB 75 and DB 867 groups treated at 2.5 mg/kg. Drug treatment was administered once every second day for a total of seven days. Complete cure was also seen in the group of goats treated with DB 75 at 1.25 mg/kg. DB 1192 was incapable of curing goats at either four-times 2.5 mg/kg or 1.25 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the treatment failures of DB 1192 were due to sub-therapeutic compound levels in goat plasma, whilst compound levels for DB 75 and DB 867 remained well within the therapeutic window. In conclusion, two diamidine compounds (DB 75 and DB 867) presented comparable efficacy at lower doses than the standard drug diminazene and could be considered as potential clinical candidates against T. evansi infection. PMID:21698106

  7. Molecular Confirmation of Trypanosoma evansi and Babesia bigemina in Cattle from Lower Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Elhaig, Abdelfattah Selim, Mohamed M. Mahmoud and Eman K El-Gayar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis and babesiosis are economically important vector-borne diseases for animal health and productivity in developing countries. In Egypt, molecular epidemiological surveys on such diseases are scarce. In the present study, we examined 475 healthy and 25 clinically diagnosed cattle from three provinces in Lower Egypt, for Trypanosoma (T. and Babesia (B. infections using an ITS1 PCR assay that confirmed Trypanosoma species presence and an 18S rRNA assay that detected B. bigemina. Results confirmed Trypanosoma spp. and B. bigemina presence in 30.4% and 11% individuals, respectively, with eight animals (1.6% being co-infected with both hemoparasites. Subsequent type-specific PCRs revealed that all Trypanosoma PCR positive samples corresponded to T. evansi and that none of the animals harboured T. brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense. Nucleotide sequencing of the variable surface glycoprotein revealed the T. evansi cattle strain to be most closely related (99% nucleotide sequence identity to strains previously detected in dromedary camels in Egypt, while the 18S rRNA gene phylogeny confirmed the presence of a unique B. bigemina haplotype closely related to strains from Turkey and Brazil. Statistically significant differences in PCR prevalence were noted with respect to gender, clinical status and locality. These results confirm the presence of high numbers of carrier animals and signal the need for expanded surveillance and control efforts.

  8. PRESENCIA DE Wolbachia y Leishmania EN UNA POBLACION DE Lutzomyia evansi PRESENTE EN LA COSTA CARIBE DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael J. Vivero-Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia evansi es importante en salud pública por su participación en la trasmisión de la leishmaniasis visceral y cutánea en la costa caribe de Colombia. Diversos estudios se han desarrollado sobre la poblaciones naturales de Lutzomyia evansi, sin embargo pocos estudios han explorado en profundidad la detección de microorganismos simbióticos (ej. Wolbachia y de manera simultánea la presencia de Leishmania sp.. El endosimbionte Wolbachia ha sido propuesto en la actualidad como control biológico de insectos vectores de diversas enfermedades tropicales. En el presente estudio el ADN de tres especies del género Lutzomyia colectadas en el municipio de Ovejas (Departamento de Sucre fue evaluado para detectar la infección natural por la bacteria Wolbachia y la presencia de parásitos del género Leishmania. El ADN total de 176 individuos adultos y 34 inmaduros (larvas y pupas de Lu. evansi, fue utilizado para evaluar la detección de Wolbachia mediante amplificación por PCR del gen WSP (Proteína Mayor de la Superficie de Wolbachia y la infección por Leishmania mediante amplificación por PCR de segmentos de los genes HPSN70 (Proteína de Choque Térmico. Se encontró un grupo de machos infectado de forma natural por Wolbachia y nueve grupos de hembras con infección natural por Leishmania, todos pertenecientes a Lutzomyia evansi. El análisis filogenético de la secuencia del gen WSP de Wolbachia indica la ubicación de la cepa detectada dentro del supergrupo B (haplogrupo wLeva y su relación con haplotipos previamente reportados de Lutzomyia evansi y Lutzomya dubitans. Una región de 418 pb del gen HSP-70N fue secuenciada y mostró similaridad con secuencias de Leishmania luego de realizar el análisis en BlastN. Se confirma la presencia de Wolbachia en poblaciones silvestres de machos de L. evansi y la infección natural por Leishmania spp. en hembras de la misma especie cuya infección por Wolbachia resulto negativa.

  9. African trypanosomiasis with special reference to Egyptian Trypanosoma evansi: is it a neglected zoonosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Khater, Mai Kh A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosomes (including humans) are blood and sometimes tissue parasites of the order Kinetoplastida, family Trypanosomatidae, genus Trypanosoma, principally transmitted by biting insects where most of them undergo a biological cycle. They are divided into Stercoraria with the posterior station inoculation, including T. cruzi, both an extra- and intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease, a major human disease affecting 15 million people and threatening 100 million people in Latin America, and the Salivaria with the anterior station inoculation, mainly African livestock pathogenic trypanosomes, including the agents of sleeping sickness, a major human disease affecting around half a million people and threatening 60 million people in Africa. Now, T. evansi was reported in man is it required to investigate its zoonotic potential?

  10. Ocorrência de Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no município de Cruz Alta, RS, Brasil Occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in equines in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Adriel Zanette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no município de Cruz Alta, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, abordando aspectos epidemiológicos e sinais clínicos da infecção. A tripanosomose ocorreu em uma propriedade rural no município de Cruz Alta. Ao exame clínico, observou-se que quatro dos animais apresentavam marcha oscilante, com incoordenação dos membros posteriores. No entanto, eles estavam em bom estado nutricional, sem febre, bem hidratados e alimentavam-se normalmente. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue das éguas para hemograma, sendo identificado aumento das proteínas plasmáticas, leucocitose, eosinofilia e linfocitose em animais com sinais clínicos. No esfregaço sangüíneo periférico, observou-se a forma flagelada do T. evansi em três dos eqüinos.This study aimed at describing the occurrence of Trypanosoma evansi in equines from the city of Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, relating epidemiological aspects and clinical signs of the infection. The tripanosomiasis occurred in a rural area of Cruz Alta, RS. Clinical signs presented by four animals were stiff and incoordinated gait of the pelvic members, although they were in good nutritional status, without fever, well-hydrated and eating normally. Blood samples were collected from the mares for hemogram. Increased levels of plasmatic proteins, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and limphocytosis were observed in animals with clinical signs. Flagellated forms of T. evansi were observed in the blood smear of three animals.

  11. Profil Protein Trypanosoma evansi dari Daerah Geografis Berbeda di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014 dengan Sodium Dodecil Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI PROTEIN PROFILE OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS ORIGIN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrine Ekawasti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surra outbreak in 2012 has led to more than 1,700 animals have died in the province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT Indonesia. Surra case sporadically continues throughout the year in various areas, especially Kalimantan, Banten as well as other areas. Some reports reveal differences in protein profiles among multiple isolates of T. evansi. Therefore the purpose of this research were to find out the protein profile of each isolate T. evansi in Indonesia and the possible biological differences among them. Eleven isolates originating from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, Banten, Lampung and Bengkulu has been isolated and purified Using DEAE. Trypanosoma isolate were frezeethawing repeatedly to obtain soluble protein. Furthermore, soluble protein is treated with heating or without heating and then each was run on SDS PAGE with Coomassie Blue staining. The protein profiles of all isolates were compared each other. The results showed that eleven isolates of T. evansi in Indonesia has a very diverse protein profile. Then for the purposes of development of diagnostic kit can be used whole lysate cell (WCL as stock antigen in serological test process.

  12. Variabilidad genética en Lutzomyia ( verrucarum evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, vector de Leishmaniosis visceral americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Porter

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, Lutzomyia longipalpis
    (Lutz y Neiva, 1912 y Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938, son los
    vectores de Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, en el neotrópico. Lu. evansi ha sido incriminada como vector en zonas rurales de la Costa Caribe Colombiana, y algunas zonas de Venezuela y Nicaragua. A pesar de que esta especie reviste gran importancia en Salud Pública, no existen a la fecha estudios sobre su variabilidad genética, desconociéndose si existe o no flujo genético entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas, endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniosis visceral (LV. Con base en los genes mitocondriales Citocromo b, RNA de transferencia para Serina, subunidades uno y cuatro de la NADH deshidrogenasa, se estudió la variabilidad genética entre las distintas poblaciones de Lu. evansi en la Costa Caribe, incluyendo la población
    geográficamente aislada de Isla Fuerte, y una población de Venezuela.

     

  13. Trypanosoma evansi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitaemia in the untreated control and the treated rats were monitored using Haematocrit Centrifuge Technique. (HCT) twice weekly. Two rats from each group were sacrificed at 45 dpi; visceral ... Protozoology laboratory of the Department of. Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Ahmadu Bello. University, Zaria for ...

  14. Aceturato de diminazeno e dipropionato de imidocarb no controle de infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente Diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era iniciado o tratamento com as drogas (dia zero. O estudo foi dividido em dois protocolos terapêuticos e os fármacos foram administrados via intramuscular. O primeiro protocolo foi aplicado nos grupos A, B, C e D e o segundo protocolo nos grupos E, F, G e H. O grupo controle foi identificado como grupo I, não medicados. No primeiro protocolo, os ratos receberam uma dose única dos fármacos no dia zero e sempre que se observasse T. evansi na circulação periférica. No segundo protocolo, os roedores receberam as mesmas doses, no entanto, por cinco dias consecutivos. No primeiro protocolo, os dois princípios ativos não apresentaram eficácia curativa, ocorrendo reincidência da parasitemia após alguns dias do tratamento. No segundo protocolo, o aceturato de diminazeno eliminou a forma tripomastigota da circulação e os ratos foram eutanasiados após 90 dias do início do tratamento. Os roedores tratados com dipropionato de imidocarb apresentaram recidiva da infecção após 30 dias. Na histopatologia não se observou alteração renal e hepática relacionada à doença ou aos medicamentos testados. Com base nos resultados, foi concluído que o aceturato de diminazeno, quando administrado por cinco dias consecutivos, é efetivo no tratamento da tripanossomose em ratos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of diminazene aceturate and imidocarb dipropionate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in rats (Rattus norvegicus

  15. antigen from irradiated Trypanosoma evansi and its correlation with antibody forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, Suharni; Arifin, Muchson

    1998-01-01

    In this research parasites of T. evansi was weakened by gamma irradiation dose of 300 Gy. This antigen being before being used was coupled/bounded with a carrier (Freund's adjuvant). West star rats of 3 months old were as used as treated animal. These animal were divided into 4 groups contained 5 rats. Group I (Control) was untreated animals, Group II (radiation) the animals were irradiated with a low dose 0.5 Gy. Group III Immunization) the animals were immunized with irradiated antigen, and Group IV (Immunization and radiation) the animal were immunized and then irradiated with a low dose of 0.5 Gy. Immunization were done by intraperitoneal route with irradiated antigen (0.5-1ml). These results were as follows : the polyclonal antibody forming of Group I (control), Group II (Radiation), Group III (Immunization), and Group IV (Immunization and radiation) were 6.34; 5.96; and 5.88 mg/ml, respectively. Group III (Immunization) Yielded polyclonal antibody a little higher than the other treated animals. Even though the antigen was coupled with a carrier, it seemed that it did not influence the parasites variant antigenic types (VTA). (author)

  16. Estudo sorológico de infecções experimentais por Trypanosoma evansi, em cobaias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Goulart de Oliveira

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparamos os métodos de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI, Imunodifusão Radial Dupla e Aglutinação, para a pesquisa de anticorpos em soros, na tripanossomíase experimental por Trypanosoma evansi, em cobaias. Foram obtidas 20 amostras de soro correspondentes às 4 primeiras semanas de infecção. A IFI foi positiva em apenas 6 animais, com títulos variando de 1:4 a 1:16. Os títulos mais altos foram observados na 3ª semana pós-infecção. Anticorpos aglutinantes foram observados a partir da 1ª semana pós-infecção e, após a 2ª semana, todos os animais apresentaram reação de aglutinação positiva, com títulos variando de 1:8.000 a 1:250.000. O tratamento dos soros com 2-Mercapto-etanol inibiu a reação de aglutinação, sugerindo ser IgM a principal classe dos anticorpos presentes no soro dos animais infectados. Não se constatou a presença de anticorpos precipitantes durante todo o curso da infecção.

  17. Aceturato de diminazeno e dipropionato de imidocarb no controle de infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em Rattus norvegicus infectados experimentalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Aleksandro Schafer da; Tochetto,Camila; Zanette,Régis Adriel; Pierezan,Felipe; Rissi,Daniel Ricardo; Santurio,Janio Morais; Monteiro,Silvia Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do aceturato de diminazeno e do dipropionato de imidocarb no controle da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) infectados experimentalmente. Cinqüenta e quatro ratos machos foram inoculados via intraperitonial com 104 tripomastigotas de T. evansi/animal. Os ratos foram monitorados diariamente por meio de esfregaço sanguíneo periférico. No momento em que se observassem oito protozoários por campo microscópico de 1000x, era ...

  18. Experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in donkeys: hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes Infecção experimental em jumentos com Trypanosoma evansi: alterações hematológicas, bioquímicas e histopatológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Cadioli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Five adult donkeys were experimentally infected with Brazilian strain of Trypanosoma evansi originally isolated from a naturally infected dog to study the hematological biochemical and histopathological alterations during the evolution of the disease. The course of the experimental infection was followed up to 145 days. Hematological analyses of the infected donkeys revealed a marked decline in hemoglobin, packed-cell volume, and erythrocyte count. Anemia was observed after successive peaks of parasitemia. Biochemical analyses showed increased levels of icterus index, serum globulins and decreased serum albumin and glucose values. All infected donkeys revealed enlargement of spleen and its white pulp, enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes and lungs congestion. The main histopathological features consisted of meningoencephalitis. Demyelination in some areas of the cerebellum pediculus and neuropil vacuolization were observed. This study showed that donkeys infected with a Brazilian strain of T. evansi developed a chronic disease.Cinco jumentos, adultos foram infectados experimentalmente com cepa brasileira de Trypanosoma evansi, isolada de um cão naturalmente infectado, com o intuito de observar as alterações hematológicas, bioquímicas e histopatológicas durante a evolução da enfermidade. O curso da infecção experimental foi de 145 dias. Análise hematológica dos jumentos infectados revelou declínio nos valores de hemoglobina, hematócrito e contagem total de eritrócitos. Notou-se anemia após sucessivos picos de parasitemia. Análise bioquímica indicou aumento dos níveis de índice ictérico, globulinas séricas e diminuição dos valores séricos de albumina e glicose. Todos os jumentos infectados apresentaram aumento do baço e de sua polpa branca, aumento de linfonodos mediastínicos e congestão pulmonar. Meningoencefalite foi o principal achado histopatológico. Em algumas áreas do pedículo cerebelar foram observadas

  19. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  20. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae, a widespread agricultural pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi, an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1 species prevalence; (2 modelling method; and (3 variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive

  1. ACETURATO DE DIMINAZENO LIPOSSOMAL NO TRATAMENTO DA INFECÇÃO POR Trypanosoma evansi: TESTES in vitro E in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Belmonte Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar lipossomas de aceturato de diminazeno em testes in vitro e in vivo visando o controle de Trypanosoma evansi. O teste in vitro foi realizado em meio de cultura nas concentrações de 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2 e 3 μg/mL de aceturato de diminazeno convencional (C-DMZ) e lipossomal (L-DMZ). Para os testes in vivo foram utilizados 114 ratos (Rattus norvegicus) divididos em seis grupos (A, B, C, D, E e F) em dois experimentos, um para aval...

  2. A Possible Role for Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa and Wild Pigs in Spread of Trypanosoma evansi from Indonesia to Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Reid

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Movement of transmigrants and livestock from western Indonesia to southeastern areas of Irian Jaya near the border with Papua New Guinea may pose a risk of introducing Trypanosoma evansi into Papua New Guinea via feral Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa and wild pigs which inhabit these areas in large numbers. Pilot experimental studies were conducted to observe infection in pigs and Rusa deer with a strain of T. evansi isolated in Indonesia. Parasitaemia and signs of clinical disease were monitored each second day for 120 days. Trypanosomes were observed in haematocrit tubes at the plasma-buffy coat interface of jugular blood of deer and pigs on 86% and 37% of sampling occasions respectively. Parasitaemia was at a high level in deer for 35% of the time but for only 11.5% of the time in pigs. Results indicate that both Rusa deer and pigs have a high tolerance for infection with T. evansi. The deer suffered mild anaemia evidenced by a 25% reduction in packed cell volume (PCV 14 days after infection which coincided with the initial peak in parasitaemia. However, PCV had returned to pre infection values by the end of the experiment. The pigs showed no change in PCV. There were no visual indications of disease in either species and appetite was not noticeably affected. It was concluded that both Rusa deer and pigs were capable reservoir hosts for T. evansi but that Rusa deer, with their more persistent higher levels of parasitaemia, have more potential to spread T. evansi into Papua New Guinea from West Irian than pigs.

  3. PCR-Based Detection of Trypanosoma evansi Infection in Semi-Captive Asiatic Black Bears (Ursus thibetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Shahid, Safia Janjua*, Fakhar-i-Abbas and Jan Schmidt Burbach1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical signs, viz lethargy, increased heart rate and reduced appetite, making trypanosomiasis a possible differential diagnosis, were found in five out of twenty semi-captive Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus in a sanctuary, located in Kund, District Sawabi, KPK, Pakistan. Microscopic examination of blood samples of bears expressing clinical signs and symptoms revealed the presence of haemoflagellates, which was found to be trypanosomes. Subsequently, the PCR technique was exploited to screen for the presence of trypanosomal species in all bears’ blood samples. Blood samples from 20 individual bears were screened using three sets of primers specific to Trypanosoma evansi species. Three primer pairs used are equally effective in successful detection of the parasite. Two out of five, diseased bears died prior to any trypanosoma specific medication while the rest were given an administered dose of Melarsomine (Immiticide. The treated bears survived and were assured to be aparasitemic on post-treatment examination after six weeks.

  4. Effect of zinc supplementation on E-ADA activity, seric zinc, and cytokines levels of Trypanosoma evansi infected Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Oliveira, Camila B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Leal, Marta L R; Thomé, Gustavo R; Zanini, Daniela; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Nunes, Matheus A G; Dressler, Valderi L; Monteiro, Silvia G; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on the ecto-adenosine deaminase activity (E-ADA), zinc seric levels and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL -10) on rats experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Four groups with 10 rats each were used as negative controls (groups A and B), while the animals from the groups C and D were infected intraperitoneally with 0.1 mL of cryopreserved blood containing 1.4 × 10(4) of trypanosomes. Animals of groups B and D received two doses of Zinc (Zn) at 5 mg kg(-1), subcutaneously, on the 2nd and 7th day post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected on days 5 (n = 5) and 15 PI (n = 5). Zn supplementation was able to increase the rat's longevity and to reduce their parasitemia. It was observed that seric Zn levels were increased on infected animals under Zn supplementation. Animals that were infected and supplemented with Zn showed changes in E-ADA activity and in cytokine levels (P ADA activity, as well as reduced the concentration of cytokines. Infected animals from groups C and D showed increased levels of cytokines. Finally, we observed that Zn supplementation led to a modulation on cytokine's level in rats infected by T. evansi, as well as in E-ADA activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility of Mice to Trypanosoma evansi Treated with Human Plasma Containing Different Concentrations of Apolipoprotein L-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfa, Vinicius R.; Otto, Mateus A.; Gressler, Lucas T.; Tavares, Kaio C.S.; Lazzarotto, Cícera R.; Tonin, Alexandre A.; Miletti, Luiz C.; Duarte, Marta M.M.F.; Monteiro, Silvia G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1). For this experiment, a strain of T. evansi and human plasma (plasmas 1, 2, and 3) from 3 adult males clinically healthy were used. In vivo test used 50 mice divided in 5 groups (A to E) with 10 animals in each group. Animals of groups B to E were infected, and then treated with 0.2 ml of human plasma in the following outline: negative control (A), positive control (B), treatment with plasma 1 (C), treatment with plasma 2 (D), and treatment with plasma 3 (E). Mice treated with human plasma showed an increase in longevity of 40.9±0.3 (C), 20±9.0 (D) and 35.6±9.3 (E) days compared to the control group (B) which was 4.3±0.5 days. The number of surviving mice and free of the parasite (blood smear and PCR negative) at the end of the experiment was 90%, 0%, and 60% for groups C, D, and E, respectively. The quantification of APOL1 was performed due to the large difference in the treatments that differed in the source plasma. In plasmas 1, 2, and 3 was detected the concentration of 194, 99, and 115 mg/dl of APOL1, respectively. However, we believe that this difference in the treatment efficiency is related to the level of APOL1 in plasmas. PMID:22355213

  6. Uveíte associada à infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em cães no município de Uruguaiana, RS, Brasil Uveíte associated to the infection by Trypanosoma evansi in dogs from Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Santalucia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se, neste trabalho, as alterações oculares de dois cães naturalmente infectados por Trypanosoma evansi. Os animais apresentaram, ao exame oftalmológico, teste lacrimal de Schirmer I normal, teste de fluoresceína negativo, quemose, hiperemia conjuntival, secreção mucopurulenta, miose, edema de córnea, pressão intraocular diminuída e efeito Tyndall positivo. No esfregaço sanguíneo, foram identificadas formas tripomastigotas, classificadas como pertencentes à espécie T. evansi. Pelos resultados aqui apresentados, concluímos quanto à necessidade de realização de avaliação oftalmológica completa em cães apresentando uveíte, incluindo exames parasitológicos específicos para hemoparasitas.This paper describes the ocular alterations of two dogs naturally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. The animals presented to an ophthalmologic examination, normal Schirmer tear test , negative fluorescein test, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, mucopurulent discharge, miosis, corneal edema, intraocular pressure decreased and positive Tyndall effect. In blood smears, trypomastigotes were identified, classified as belonging to the species T. evansi. By the results presented here, it was concluded that there is a necessity of performing a complete ophthalmological examination in dogs with uveitis, including parasitological examination specific to hemoparasites.

  7. Astrocytic and microglial response and histopathological changes in the brain of horses with experimental chronic Trypanosoma evansi infection Resposta astrocítica e microglial e alterações histopatológicas no sistema nervoso central de eqüinos infectados cronicamente com Trypanosoma evansi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Regina Lemos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize astrocytic and microglial response in the central nervous system (CNS of equines experimentally infected with T. evansi. The experimental group comprised males and females with various degrees of crossbreeding, ages between four and seven years. The animals were inoculated intravenously with 10(6 trypomastigotes of T. evansi originally isolated from a naturally infected dog. All equines inoculated with T. evansi were observed until they presented symptoms of CNS disturbance, characterized by motor incoordination of the pelvic limbs, which occurred 67 days after inoculation (DAI and 124 DAI. The animals in the control group did not present any clinical symptom and were observed up to the 125th DAI. For this purpose the HE histochemical stain and the avidin biotin peroxidase method was used. Lesions in the CNS of experimentally infected horses were those of a wide spread non suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis.The severity of lesions varied in different parts of the nervous system, reflecting an irregular distribution of inflammatory vascular changes. The infiltration of mononuclear cells was associated with anisomorphic gliosis and reactive microglia was identified. The intensity of the astrocytic response in the CNS of the equines infected by T. evansi characterizes the importance of the performance of these cells in this trypanosomiasis. The characteristic gliosis observed in the animals in this experiment suggests the ability of these cells as mediators of immune response. The parasite, T. evansi, was not identified in the nervous tissues.Este estudo objetivou caracterizar a participação astrocítica e microglial no sistema nervoso central (SNC de eqüinos experimentalmente infectados com T. evansi. O grupo experimental foi formado por machos e fêmeas com vários graus de cruzamentos e idade variando entre quatro e sete anos. Os animais foram inoculados com 10(6 tripomastigotas de T. evansi, originalmente

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE DE TRÊS COMPOSTOS DO ÓLEO DE MELALEUCA SOBRE O Trypanosoma evansi

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade tripanocida do terpinen-4-ol, gama-(γ)-terpinen e alfa-(α)-terpinen contra o Trypanosoma evansi in vitro e in vivo. Os testes in vitro foram realizados em meio de cultura contendo T. evansi, utilizando-se três concentrações de cada composto (0.5, 1.0 e 2.0%) de forma individual e em associação. A contagem de tripomastigotas vivas foi realizada em câmara de Neubauer após 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas pós-incubação. A partir dos testes in vitro, foi...

  9. Susceptibility of geographically isolated populations of the Tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard to commonly used acaricides on tomato crops in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Toroitich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in Kenya continue to raise concerns of difficulty in managing Tetranychus evansi, the most widespread pest species of tomato applying the most commonly used acaricides. This invasive pest species is not only found in Kenya, but in Eastern and Southern Africa, as well as parts of Europe and Asia. In the current study, populations of T. evansi were collected from farms in the four major tomato-growing areas of Kenya (Loitoktok, Kibwezi, Athi-River and Subukia and their susceptibility compared to a laboratory culture (ICIPE that had been maintained for three years without exposure to acaricides. Susceptibility of T. evansi eggs and adults (contact and residual to Brigade (bifenthrin, Dimethoate (dimethoate, Karate (lambdacyhalothrin, Kelthane (dicofol, Omite (propargite and Polytrin (profenofos+ cypermethrin was tested in the laboratory using respective manufacturer’s recommended concentrations. Dimethoate resulted in variable ovicidal mortality while Kelthane, Brigade, Karate, Omite and Polytrin had high mortality across all populations. Similarly, adult contact and residual mortality was lower than that of the other chemicals when exposed to Dimethoate regardless of the location. Furthermore, it also had no residual effect on the mites from ICIPE and Kibwezi. On the other hand, Kelthane was most lethal against the mites from all locations followed by Brigade and Polytrin in that order. Omite caused significantly lower mortality on mites from Subukia while Karate produced variable effects on mites from Kibwezi, Loitoktok and Subukia. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  10. Estimating the impact of Trypanosoma evansi infection (surra) on buffalo population dynamics in southern Philippines using data from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargantes, A P; Mercado, R T; Dobson, R J; Reid, S A

    2009-08-01

    Despite the widespread problem with surra (Trypanosoma evansi) in livestock, there are no published studies on its impact on host populations, probably because of the large financial and time cost involved in performing longitudinal studies. During 2002-6, a cross-sectional survey for T. evansi infection involving 1732 buffaloes from 71 villages in southern Philippines was carried out. Other livestock animals (horses, cattle and goats) in every surveyed village were also tested for infection with T. evansi but domestic buffaloes were the primary survey target. Seroprevalence ranged from 6% to 21% and 13% to 100% for buffaloes in low and high risk areas, respectively. Key demographic parameters were estimated from the age structured distributions of the sampled buffalo population for each sex. All areas were dominated by females (69%) and the annual calving rate for areas of 100% and low seroprevalence was 15% and 47%, respectively. Males were removed at a relatively high annual rate of 27% in all areas. In the main reproductive years (4-10) female removal/mortality was financial losses due to reduced fertility, high mortality/removal rate and the necessity to import replacement buffaloes.

  11. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Desquesnes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of “surra,” is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. It is thought to derive from Trypanosoma brucei by deletion of the maxicircle kinetoplastic DNA (genetic material required for cyclical development in tsetse flies. It is mostly mechanically transmitted by tabanids and stomoxes, initially to camels, in sub-Saharan area. The disease spread from North Africa towards the Middle East, Turkey, India, up to 53° North in Russia, across all South-East Asia, down to Indonesia and the Philippines, and it was also introduced by the conquistadores into Latin America. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles, and elephants. It found a new large range of wild and domestic hosts in Latin America, including reservoirs (capybaras and biological vectors (vampire bats. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines, and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment, and exhibits nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight, abortion, and death, which are variable from one host and one place to another; however, its immunosuppressive effects interfering with intercurrent diseases or vaccination campaigns might be its most significant and questionable aspect.

  13. EFICÁCIA DE TRÊS MEDICAMENTOS NO CONTROLE DA INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL POR TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI EM RATOS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) LINHAGEM WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rovaina Laureano Doyle

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou verificar os achados laboratoriais e histológicos da infecção experimental por Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, 1888, em ratos (Rattus norvegicus) da linhagem Wistar, testando a eficácia de três medicamentos. Foram utilizados 40 ratos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 cada, sendo cada grupo composto por 5 machos e cinco fêmeas, os quais foram tratados com três quimioterápicos distintos após a detecção de parasitemia superior a oit...

  14. ACETURATO DE DIMINAZENO ASSOCIADO AO SELENITO DE SÓDIO E A VITAMINA E: TESTES IN VITRO E EM RATOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE INFECTADOS COM Trypanosoma evansi

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Alberto Tonin

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a utilização de um tratamento padrão contra a infecção causada pelo T. evansi, baseado na utilização do aceturato de diminazeno associado ao selenito de sódio e a vitamina E. Os testes in vitro mostraram um efeito tripanocida relacionados ao tratamento com aceturato de diminazeno e selenito de sódio; contudo a vitamina E não gerou nenhum efeito nocivo sobre o tripanossomas. Experimentos in vivo utilizaram um total de 72 fêmeas adultas de rato...

  15. Control of Trypanosoma evansi in buffalo in Indonesia: Identification of infected animals by Ag- and Ab-ELISA tests and treatment with diminazene aceturate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckins, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to control effectively infections with Trypanosoma evansi it is necessary to identify all infected individuals, including not only animals with patent infections but also those with non-patent infections. In order to provide a reliable means of diagnosing infected individuals, a combination of Ab-ELISA, Ag-ELISA and parasitological tests were used to identify for treatment groups of buffalo from Central Java, Indonesia in an area in which trypanosomosis caused by T. evansi is endemic. The animals were divided into four groups, Group A comprised animals positive by both Ab- and Ag-ELISA and/or parasitological examination. Group B consisted of animals positive by Ag-ELISA and Group C by Ab-ELISA only. Group D was a control group of animals that were negative by both serological and parasitological tests. All of Group A were treated with diminazene aceturate and the prevalence and incidence of infection in the four groups determined over approximately 12 months. The prevalence of infection declined in Group A declined from 100% to <25% in four months and remained at this low level until the end of the study. In the other groups, the serological prevalence increased up to 50%, although in Group D, the initially uninfected group, the increase was lower. Although treatment was effective in reducing the prevalence of infection, the cumulative incidence in the four groups was found to be similar. (author)

  16. Surtos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e patológicos Outbreaks of trypanosomiasis in horses by Trypanosoma evansi in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma evansi foram diagnosticados em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul entre 2003 e 2004. Em uma propriedade (Propriedade A com 125 eqüinos, 52 morreram. A Propriedade A recebeu ao redor de 80 éguas de outras propriedades para cobertura. Dessas, 66 adoeceram e 56 morreram após voltarem para suas propriedades de origem. A doença clínica observada em 21 eqüinos caracterizava-se por emagrecimento (apesar de apetite voraz, letargia, incoordenação e instabilidade dos membros pélvicos, atrofia das grandes massas musculares dos membros pélvicos, fraqueza muscular e palidez das mucosas. Exemplares de T. evansi foram observados na corrente sangüínea de 4 eqüinos. Anemia normocítica normo-crômica, com hematócritos que variavam de 15-31%, e leuco-citose por linfocitose associada à presença de linfócitos atípicos foram observadas em vários eqüinos. Altos níveis de anticorpos contra T. evansi foram detectados em 6 eqüinos da Propriedade A. Oito eqüinos desenvolveram um quadro neurológico encefálico caracterizado por andar em círculos, ataxia, cegueira, hiperexcitabilidade, quedas, embotamento, déficits proprioceptivos e desvio da cabeça. Um eqüino desenvolveu "posição de cão sentado". Nas 13 necropsias, havia espleno-megalia, linfadenomegalia, hiperplasia linfóide no baço e linfo-nodo, atrofia das grandes massas musculares dos membros pélvicos, edema e malacia na substância branca e cinzenta do encéfalo. Histologicamente, uma panencefalite devastadora foi observada nos 7 casos e caracterizada por marcado edema, desmielinização, necrose e infiltrado perivascular de 6-10 camadas de células linfoplasmocitárias afetando tanto a substância branca quanto a cinzenta. Muitos plasmócitos do infiltrado inflamatório continham numerosos grânulos eosinofílicos no citoplasma (células de Mott. Lesões semelhantes foram observadas na medula espinhal do eqüino que desenvolveu "posição de c

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine l...

  18. Variant surface glycoproteins from Venezuelan trypanosome isolates are recognized by sera from animals infected with either Trypanosoma evansi or Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Uzcanga, Graciela L; Perrone, Trina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Carrasquel, Liomary; Arias, Laura P; Escalona, José L; Cardozo, Vanessa; Bubis, José

    2015-01-15

    Salivarian trypanosomes sequentially express only one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) on their cell surface from a large repertoire of VSG genes. Seven cryopreserved animal trypanosome isolates known as TeAp-ElFrio01, TEVA1 (or TeAp-N/D1), TeGu-N/D1, TeAp-Mantecal01, TeGu-TerecayTrino, TeGu-Terecay03 and TeGu-Terecay323, which had been isolated from different hosts identified in several geographical areas of Venezuela were expanded using adult albino rats. Soluble forms of predominant VSGs expressed during the early infection stages were purified and corresponded to concanavalin A-binding proteins with molecular masses of 48-67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropohoresis, and pI values between 6.1 and 7.5. The biochemical characterization of all purified soluble VSGs revealed that they were dimers in their native form and represented different gene products. Sequencing of some of these proteins yielded peptides homologous to VSGs from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi and established that they most likely are mosaics generated by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis showed that all purified VSGs were cross-reacting antigens that were recognized by sera from animals infected with either T. evansi or Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax. The VSG glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol cross-reacting determinant epitope was only partially responsible for the cross-reactivity of the purified proteins, and antibodies appeared to recognize cross-reacting conformational epitopes from the various soluble VSGs. ELISA experiments were performed using infected bovine sera collected from cattle in a Venezuelan trypanosome-endemic area. In particular, soluble VSGs from two trypanosome isolates, TeGu-N/D1 and TeGu-TeracayTrino, were recognized by 93.38% and 73.55% of naturally T. vivax-infected bovine sera, respectively. However, approximately 70% of the sera samples did not recognize all seven purified proteins. Hence, the

  19. Unusual way of feeding by the deutonymph of Neottialges evansi (Actinotrichida, Astigmata, Hypoderatidae), a subcutaneous parasite of cormorants, revealed by fine structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Gerd; Kanarek, Gerard; Dabert, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The parasitic deutonymphs of hypoderatid mites live within the subcutaneous layer of their avian hosts, where they become greatly engorged despite not having functional mouthparts. The method by which they take up nutrients has been mysterious up to now. Here, we report on the morphology of hypoderatid deutonymphs using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and describe structures that may resolve the mystery. The deutonymph of Neottialges evansi (Hypoderatidae) from the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is a simply organized stage lacking both mouthparts and a functional foregut. The structure of midgut and hindgut indicate that they are not capable of processing food. The midgut consists of highly branching flat cells and rarely shows a lumen. Almost the entire space between integument, gut remnants and other organs (synganglion, developing gonads) is filled by huge cells containing protein and glycogen granules and numerous lipid inclusions. The anal opening is minute. The structure of the cuticle and epidermis suggests that nutrients are not absorbed through the general integument. Thus the two main existing hypotheses about feeding modes in hypoderatid deutonymphs, anal vs. integumentary food absorbtion, are not supported. We suggest instead that two pairs of genital papillae showing peculiar microanatomical features are actively involved in movement of liquid materials between host and mite and most probably are the nutrient-intake organs. J. Morphol. 277:1368-1389, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Taxonomic Study of Species Formerly Identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and Resurrection of An. costai (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 10: 169-187. 1962. Entomologia medica, vol. I. Parte Geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Faculdade de Higiene e...Ronderos. 1962. Mosquitos de la Re- Ortiz, I. 1968. Apuentes de entomologia medica: 10s mos- publica Argentina. I. Tribu Anophelini (Diptera - Culic

  1. Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in peninsular Malaysia. ... Abstract. A survey was carried out in mango orchards in Peninsular Malaysia with aimed to determine the ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Identificación de Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) grupo verrucarum por medio de microscopia electrónica de sus huevos

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra A, Diana; Vélez B, Iván Darío; Uribe S, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    En Colombia la microscopia electrónica de huevos de phlebotomineos para determinación de especies es nueva. Debido a la diversidad de especies e importancia médica del grupo verrucarum se estudiaron cuatro de estas especies: Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana y Lutzomyia longiflocosa. El modelo de superficie del huevo es poligonal. Lutzomyia youngi y Lutzomyia columbiana exhibieron un modelo pentagonal o hexagonal, Lutzomyia evansi polígonos elongados y Lutzomyia longifl...

  3. Evidence for anthropophily in five species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from northern Colombia, revealed by molecular identification of bloodmeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina, Luís E; Verbel-Vergara, Daniel; Romero-Ricardo, Luís; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Paternina-Gómez, Margaret; Martínez, Lily; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the bloodmeal sources of phlebotomine sand flies is fundamental to determining which species are anthropophilic and understanding the transmission of Leishmania parasites in natural epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to identify sand fly bloodmeals in the mixed leishmaniasis focus of the department of Sucre, northern Colombia. In all 141 engorged female sand flies were analyzed, after being captured in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary habitats with Shannon and CDC traps and by active searching in diurnal resting sites. Bloodmeals were identified by sequencing and analysis of a 358bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (CYB) and a 330bp fragment of the nuclear gene prepronociceptin (PNOC). Using both genes 105 vertebrate bloodmeals were identified, with an efficiency of 72% for CYB but only 7% for PNOC. Ten species of vertebrates were identified as providing bloodmeal sources for 8 sand fly species: Homo sapiens (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia micropyga, Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia atroclavata), Equus caballus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis), Equus asinus (L. evansi and L. panamensis), Bos taurus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Tamandua mexicana (L. shannoni and Lutzomyia trinidadensis), Proechimys guyanensis (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Mabuya sp. (Lutzomyia micropyga), Anolissp. (L. micropyga), Sus scrofa (L. evansi and Lutzomyia gomezi) and Gallus gallus (L. evansi). Cattle, donkeys, humans and pigs were significantly more important than other animals (P=0.0001) as hosts of L. evansi, this being the most abundant sand fly species. The five Lutzomyia species in which blood samples of human origin were detected included L. micropyga and L. atroclavata, constituting the first evidence of anthropophily in both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  5. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  6. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  7. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  8. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different

  9. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  10. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  11. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  12. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  13. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  14. Comprehensive inventory of true flies (Diptera) at a tropical site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian V. Brown; Art Borkent; Peter H. Adler; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Kevin Barber; Daniel Bickel; Stephanie Boucher; Scott E. Brooks; John Burger; Zelia L. Burington; Renato S. Capellari; Daniel N. R. Costa; Jeffrey M. Cumming; Greg Curler; Carl W. Dick; John H. Epler; Eric Fisher; Stephen D. Gaimari; Jon Gelhaus; David A. Grimaldi; John Hash; Martin Hauser; Heikki Hippa; Sergio Ibanez-Bernal; Mathias Jaschhof; Elena P. Kameneva; Peter H. Kerr; Valery Korneyev; Cheslavo A. Korytkowski; Giar-Ann Kung; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Owen Lonsdale; Stephen A. Marshall; Wayne Mathis; Verner Michelsen; Stefan Naglis; Allen L. Norrbom; Steven Paiero; Thomas Pape; Alessandre Pereira-Colavite; Marc Pollet; Sabrina Rochefort; Alessandra Rung; Justin B. Runyon; Jade Savage; Vera C. Silva; Bradley J. Sinclair; Jeffrey H. Skevington; John O. Stireman; John Swann; F. Christian Thompson; Pekka Vilkamaa; Terry Wheeler; Terry Whitworth; Maria Wong; D. Monty Wood; Norman Woodley; Tiffany Yau; Thomas J. Zavortink; Manuel A. Zumbado

    2018-01-01

    Estimations of tropical insect diversity generally suffer from lack of known groups or faunas against which extrapolations can be made, and have seriously underestimated the diversity of some taxa. Here we report the intensive inventory of a four-hectare tropical cloud forest in Costa Rica for one year, which yielded 4332 species of Diptera, providing the first...

  15. Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective chemical control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pests in mango orchards in northern Côte-d'Ivoire. OR N'depo, N Hala, A N'da Adopo, F Coulibaly, PK Kouassi, JF Vayssieres, M de Meyer ...

  16. Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Drosophila melanogaster: Practical uses in cell and molecular biology in: Goldstein LSB (Eds). Methods in cell biology. Academic Press Inc. p. 555. Henry W, Dey SK, Varma R (2009). The salivary gland chromosomes of the Himalayan Black fly Simulium (Simulium) dentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zool. Sci.

  17. Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Brasileira de Malariologia e Doenças Tropicais 16, 329–348. Forattini, O.P. (1962) Entomologia médica. Parte geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Vol.1...Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 52, 671–673. Schultz, J., Müller, T., Achtziger, M., Seibel, P.N., Dandekar, T

  18. Phytosanitary treatments against Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera: Tephritidae): current situation and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003, it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent destroying fruits and creating re...

  19. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  20. Registros nuevos de especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae en el departamento de Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gregorio Estrada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los insectos asociados a la epidemiología de la leishmaniasis, en la Costa Caribe colombiana, se ha concentrado en los departamentos de Sucre y Córdoba, por consiguiente existe un escaso conocimiento de la fauna de flebotomíneos del resto de la región. En la presente nota se presentan cuatro nuevos registros de Lutzomyia spp., para el departamento de Cesar. Los insectos fueron colectados con dos trampas de luz tipo CDC, equipadas con LED de color azul, en el Balneario Hurtado de la ciudad de Valledupar, Cesar. Se recolectaron en total 50 flebotomíneos, los cuales estuvieron representados por las especies Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (38 %, L. evansi (28 %, L. trinidadensis (14 %, L. venezuelensis (10 %, L. micropyga (6 % y L. rangeliana (2 %. Como primeros registros para el departamento sobresalen L. evansi, L. venezuelensis, L. micropyga y L. rangeliana, con lo que se eleva a ocho el número de especies reportadas hasta la fecha en el Cesar. Entre los nuevos registros se destaca el hallazgo de L. evansi, reconocido vector de Leishmania spp. en la Costa Caribe de Colombia.

  1. Variación temporal de especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae en el área urbana de Sincelejo (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Fernanda Lambraño Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la diversidad y la variación temporal de especies de Lutzomyia en el área urbana de Sincelejo (Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se seleccionaron siete barrios de Sincelejo, capital del departamento de Sucre. Durante un año se realizaron muestreos quincenales y mensuales con trampas de luz tipo CDC y Shannon respectivamente, las cuales fueron instaladas en ambientes peridomiciliarios. Se analizó la diversidad de especies, así como la relación de la abundancia con variables climáticas. Resultados: Se colectaron en total 2064 ejemplares, correspondientes a siete especies de Lutzomyia: Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia dubitans, Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis, Lutzomyia rangeliana, Lutzomyia panamensis y Lutzomyia trinidadensis. Lutzomyia evansi fue la más abundante, con el 79,7% del total de los flebotomíneos colectados, seguida por Lutzomyia gomezi, que representó el 10,5%. La mayor abundancia de Lutzomyia evansi se registró en mayo, septiembre y diciembre. El análisis estadístico mostró una correlación positiva y significativa entre la abundancia de esta especie y la precipitación acumulada el mes anterior a la colecta. Conclusión: Lutzomyia evansi es la especie más abundante en Sincelejo, y su abundancia está directamente relacionada con las lluvias con un retraso de un mes.

  2. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [es

  5. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  6. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  7. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  8. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  9. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  10. Seleção para alto teor de acilaçúcares em genótipos de tomateiro e sua relação com a resistência ao ácaro vermelho (Tetranychus evansi e à traça (Tuta absoluta Selection towards high acylsugar levels in tomato genotypes and its relationship with resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus evansi and to the South American pinworm (Tuta absoluta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Victor Nippes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das estratégias do melhoramento do tomateiro, no Brasil, visando à resistência a pragas, tem sido a utilização de aleloquímicos presentes nos folíolos. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho, estudar os níveis de resistência a dois artrópodos-pragas [traça do tomateiro (Tuta absoluta e ácaros (Tetranychus evansi], em genótipos previamente selecionados com base apenas no seu teor foliar de acilaçúcares. Foram selecionadas 11 plantas contrastantes quanto aos níveis de acilaçúcares nos folíolos, de uma população F3RC2, derivada do cruzamento interespecífico Lycopersicon esculentum Mill 'TOM-584' x Lycopersicon pennellii (Correll D'Arcy 'LA-716'. Esses genótipos, juntamente com os genitores TOM-584 e LA-716, foram submetidos a ensaios de repelência/resistência a artrópodos-pragas. No teste de repelência ao ácaro T. evansi, as plantas com altos teores de acilaçúcares se comportaram de forma semelhante ao genitor resistente LA-716. As magnitudes das correlações foram negativas e significativas, confirmando assim a associação entre altos teores do aleloquímico e a resistência (repelência ao ácaro, avaliada pela distância percorrida. No ensaio realizado com a traça do tomateiro, os genótipos foram avaliados para danos nas plantas e lesões nos folíolos. Os genótipos contendo alto teor de acilaçúcares, demonstraram bons níveis de resistência a Tuta absoluta, não diferindo significativamente do acesso selvagem LA-716. Em todas as épocas de avaliação, os teores de acilaçúcares mostraram-se alta e negativamente correlacionados com os níveis de dano causados pela traça. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram a eficiência da seleção de genótipos de tomateiro com elevados teores de acilaçúcares nos folíolos, visando à resistência a artrópodos-praga.Selection for high foliar levels of allelochemicals has been proposed as a suitable strategy for breeding tomatoes for arthropod pest resistance. In the

  11. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  12. Identificación de Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae grupo verrucarum por medio de microscopia electrónica de sus huevos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sierra A

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la microscopia electrónica de huevos de phlebotomineos para determinación de especies es nueva. Debido a la diversidad de especies e importancia médica del grupo verrucarum se estudiaron cuatro de estas especies: Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana y Lutzomyia longiflocosa. El modelo de superficie del huevo es poligonal. Lutzomyia youngi y Lutzomyia columbiana exhibieron un modelo pentagonal o hexagonal, Lutzomyia evansi polígonos elongados y Lutzomyia longiflocosa un modelo poligonal frecuentemente rectangular. La microscopia electrónica de huevos es confiable para identificar especies del grupo verrucarum.The value of Colombian phlebotomine eggs for species determination was studied with a scanning electron microscope. The species diversity and medical importance of the verrucarum group were the bases to select Lutzomyia youngi, Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana and Lutzomyia longiflocosa. The egg surface was poligonal. Lutzomyia youngi, and Lutzomyia columbiana had pentagonal or hexagonal patterns; Lutzomyia evansi elongated polygons and Lutzomyia longiflocosa irregular polygonal sculpturing, frequently rectangular. Egg scanning electron microscopy is reliable to identify species of the verrucarum group.

  13. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  14. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  16. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  17. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  18. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  19. Clinodiplosis costai, uma nova espécie galhadora (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada com Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart (Sapindaceae Clinodiplosis costai, a new galler species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Paullinia weinmanniaefolia Mart (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria C. Maia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinodiplosis costai, uma nova espécie de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera que induz galhas em folhas jovens de Paullinia weinmanniaefolia é descrita (larva, macho e fêmea com base em material do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil.Clinodiplosis costai, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induces galls on young leaves of Paullinia weinmanniaefolia is described (larva, male and female based on material from Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil.

  20. Um novo gênero e espécie de Schizomyiina (Diptera, Cedidomyiidae associados com Piperaceae no Brasil A new genus and species of Schizomyiina (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Piperaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available Parametasphondylia piperis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini, Schizomyiina, um novo gênero e espécie galhadora associada com Piper sp. (Piperaceae é descrita e ilustrada (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material obtido em Minas Gerais, Brasil.Parametasphondylia piperis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini, Schizomyiina, a new gall maker genus and species associated with Piper sp. (Piperaceae is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male and female based on material obtained from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  1. New records of long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from Armenia, with description of Campsicnemus armeniacus sp.n.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Negrobov, O. P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Oboňa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-75 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Dolichopodidae * distributions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  2. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  3. Fauna flebotomina (Diptera: Psychodidae del estado Falcón, Venezuela

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    Dalmiro J. Cazorla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la composición, abundancia y dispersión de la fauna flebotomina en focos endémicos de leishmaniasis en el estado Falcón, Venezuela. Se emplearon 5 métodos de captura, en 41 localidades ubicadas entre los 0 y 1584 m. Se colectaron 6273 especímenes, pertenecientes a 17 especies de Lutzomyia y 1 de Brumptomyia. De éstas, 10 especies (55,56% fueron reconocidas por poseer hábitos antropofílicos. Lutzomyia evansi (52,37% resultó ser la especie más abundante. Se presenta la diversidad y el rango de dispersión de las especies flebotominas a lo largo de la transecta altitudinal, y se discute su posible significancia en la transmisión de las leishmaniasis en el estado Falcón.

  4. New records of diptera families Anisopodidae, Bibionidae, Dixidae, Ptychopteridae and Scatopsidae from Armenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Dvořák, L.; Haenni, J.-P.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2017), s. 61-67 ISSN 0341-8391 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity hotspots * Armenia * Diptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2016 http://pfeil-verlag.de/publikationen/spixiana-zeitschrift-fuer-zoologie-band-40/

  5. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  6. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  7. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  8. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  9. Records of Limoniidae and Pediciidae (Diptera) from Armenia, with the first Armenian checklist of these families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oboňa, J.; Starý, J.; Manko, P.; Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Papyan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 585 (2016), s. 125-142 ISSN 1313-2989 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Limoniidae * Pediciidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2016 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=8330

  10. Thalassomya gutae sp. n., a new marine chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae) from the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Caroline Silva Neubern; Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    One new species of Thalassomya Schiner, 1856 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae), T. gutae sp. n. is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The specimen was collected in the marine zone between tidemarks, in southeastern Brazilian coast and is the first species of this genus recorded to Brazil.

  11. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E.

  12. Two new species of Quichuana Knab (Diptera: Syrphidae) from the paramo ecosystems in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Augusto L; Ricarte, Antonio; Wolff, Marta

    2017-03-20

    Two new species of Quichuana Knab (Diptera: Syrphidae), Quichuana citara Montoya & Wolff sp. n. and Quichuana nigropilosa Montoya & Ricarte sp. n. are described from highlands of the Colombian Andes. Images of type material, including drawings of male genitalia are provided. An adjustment for the latest identification key for the Quichuana species and distribution maps for those species occurring in Colombia are given.

  13. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3...

  14. Psychoda surcoufi, een motmug van compost, nieuw voor Nederland (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.

    2009-01-01

    Psychoda surcoufi, a mothfly of compost, new to the Netherlands (Diptera: Psychodidae) Psychoda surcoufi Tonnoir, 1922 is reported as a new species for the Dutch checklist. Adults were collected in large numbers in a compost barrel from late February until April 2009, together with P. albipennis

  15. Systematics and phylogeny of Centrioncidae, a new afromontane family of Diptera (Schizophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments are put forward for the erection of a new family of Diptera, named Centrioncidae. Centrioncus prodiopsis, its only previously described representative, was originally placed in the Sepsidae and later transferred to the Diopsidae. This species is now redescribed and five more Centrioncus

  16. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  17. Attraction of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephitidae) to white light in the presence and absence of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of tephritid fruit flies to light and its role in fly biology and management has received little attention. Here, the objective was to show that western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is attracted to white light in the presence and absence of ammo...

  18. Amazonimyia gigantea gen. n., sp. n., a new Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Wiedenbrug, Sofia

    2015-04-15

    A new genus, Amazonimyia, is established for a species of the tribe Pentaneurini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) from the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil. Generic diagnoses for adult male and pupa are provided together with descriptions of a new species, Amazonimyia gigantea.

  19. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

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    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  20. Primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vasconcelos

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. This work makes reference to the first record of Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae found in carambola fruits (Averrhoa carambola L. in a residential yard located in the county of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. The emerged flies were preserved in flasks containing 70% alcohol and identified by the characteristics of the anterior left leg and the male’s genitalia.

  1. First record of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae in the state of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adaime

    2017-12-01

    Resumo. Registra-se pela primeira vez a presença de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae no estado do Acre, Brasil, a partir de frutos de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e de caramboleira (Averrhoacarambola L., aumentando o conhecimento dos registros geográficos dessa mosca na Amazônia brasileira.

  2. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758 is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837. 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  3. Übersicht der bisher in Europa beobachteten, an Spinnen (Araneae) parasitierenden Fliegen (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuels, Martin

    1998-01-01

    A list of european parasitic flies (Diptera) and their prey is presented. The Hippoboscidae: Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus, 1758) is described as an accidental parasite of Alopecosa striatipes (C.L. Koch, 1837). 24 species of parsitic flies and 20 spider host species are listed.

  4. Description of the Immature Stages of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Neiva & Pinto) (Diptera: Culicidae) Maria Anice Mureb Sallum/+, Richard C Wilkerson* Núcleo de Pesquisa Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia ...Taxonômica e Sistemática em Entomologia Médica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. The following specimens were used for setal counts and measurements (the

  5. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  6. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed.

  8. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global...... biodiversity is challenging, but significant advances have been made in the last few decades. Since Hennig first discussed the monophyly of major groupings, Diptera has attracted much study, but most researchers have used non-numerical qualitative methods to assess morphological data. More recently......, quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used on both morphological and molecular data. All previous quantitative morphological studies addressed narrower phylogenetic problems, often below the suborder or infraorder level. Here we present the first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships...

  9. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  10. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  11. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Mila 26 – Maliuc area (Danube Delta, Romania – preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIOTEASA Florian-Liviu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preliminary results of the survey of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae in Maliuc - Mila 26 area, in 2006. A number of 1,255 mosquitoes, belonging to 14 species have beencaptured in three investigation sites. The results of the data-analysis were used for drawing up the annual dynamics of the various mosquito species from a specific location in Maliuc - Mila 26 area for the period April –September.

  12. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  13. The species of the genus Diamesa (Diptera, Chironomidae) known to occur in Italian Alps and Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Urbanelli, Sandra; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Some rare species from Italian Alps, belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here redescribed as adult males, because only old, incomplete descriptions are available for these taxa. Terminology of male genitalia is reviewed, diagnostic features are illustrated in detail, and notes on biology and geographical distribution of the examined species are provided. An identification key to the known adult males is presented.

  14. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  15. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

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    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  16. Age estimation of Calliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae using cuticular hydrocarbon analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, H E; Butcher, J B; Adam, C D; Day, C R; Falko, P D

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted daily from the larvae of two closely related blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The hydrocarbons were then analysed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), with the aim of observing changes within their chemical profiles in order to determine the larval age. The hydrocarbons were examined daily for each species from 1 day old larvae until pupariation. The results show significant chemical changes occ...

  17. Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae na cidade de Recife capturados com isca luminosa

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    Frederico S. Barbosa

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Heleidae were recorded frorn a mangrove area in the town of Recife, Brazil. The midges were collected by 6 light traps during the period of a whole year, 1954-1955. The predominant species were C. maruim, C. guyanensis and C. insignis. The first one represented 73.7% of the total collected. Seasonal variations were markedly observed, with higher number of midges appearing during the period of March to July.

  18. [Means of the formation of gonotrophic relations in blood-sucking Diptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarina, N A

    1987-01-01

    Gonotrophic relations in low and higher bloodsucking Diptera are fundamentally different that results from an initial type of feeding and trophic behaviour. Trophic behaviour of low dipterous hematophages and gonotrophic harmony peculiar to them can be traced from entomophagy, that is from the predatory mode of life on account of small insects. By the type of the trophic behaviour low bloodsucking Diptera are predators with a typical moment contact with the prey. More primitive is a type of gonotrophic harmony characteristic of hunters for diffusely spread prey (incomplete blood portion provides the maturation of incomplete portion of eggs). Hunting for diffusely spread prey is characteristic of entomophages too. The appearance of gregarious ruminants facilitates the possibility of repeated contacts with prey and blood satiation threshold increases. This is a higher type of gonotrophic harmony providing a maximum realization of potential fecundity. The initial saprophagy of higher Diptera is associated with another type of trophic behaviour (long contact with food substratum) that is a prerequisite for quite a different way of evolution of host-parasite relationships in higher Diptera. This leads to more close connections with the host and excludes gonotrophic harmony. Females were the first to begin the exploitation of vertebrate animals. This is connected with the peculiarities of their behaviour during egg laying such as the stay near animals for laying eggs into fresh dung. Autogeneity, nectarophagy and aphagia are homologous phenomena which reflect the loss of an animal component of food or both components at the level of non-specialized saprophagy rather than secondary loss of bloodsucking. The scheme of gonotrophic relations is given.

  19. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  20. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

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    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  1. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu

    2006-01-01

    is eliminated in larvae carrying mutations in molting defective (mld), a gene encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein that is required for production of ecdysone during Drosophila larval development. Intriguingly, mld is not present in the Bombyx mori genome, and we have identified only one spook homolog in both...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  2. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

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    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.

  3. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  4. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a species endemic to Eastern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the r...

  5. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

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    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  6. Passage of ingested Mansonella ozzardi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) microfilariae through the midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Turell, Michael J; Chadee, Dave D

    2007-01-01

    When virus and microfilariae are ingested concurrently by a mosquito, microfilariae (mf) may penetrate the mosquito midgut and introduce virus directly into the mosquito hemocoel, allowing mosquitoes to become infectious much sooner than normal and enhancing transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. Mansonella ozzardi (Manson) is a benign filarial nematode parasite of humans in Latin America and is transmitted by black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Because M. ozzardi and dengue are sympatric, we wanted to know whether M. ozzardi mf had the ability to penetrate the midgut of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and thus play a potential role in the enhancement of dengue transmission. To test this, the F1 progeny from locally collected Ae. aegypti were fed on M. ozzardi-infected human males in an endemic village in northern Trinidad. Mosquitoes were dissected at various times after feeding and examined for mf in the midguts and thoraces. Microfilariae penetrated the midguts of 43% of 63 mosquitoes that ingested mf. Overall, 11% of mf penetrated the midgut by 17 h after being ingested. The intensity of midgut penetration was positively correlated to the numbers of mf ingested. Because midgut penetration is a key requirement for mf enhancement to occur, the potential exists that M. ozzardi could be involved in the enhancement of dengue virus transmission.

  7. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  8. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  10. Análise cladística de Euprepina Hull (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of Euprepina Hull, 1971 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae, a Neotropical genus that includes ten species, was made. The cladogram was obtained from eight studied species, based on a data matrix with 21 characters, using the program Hennig86. Character states were polarized following outgroup analysis, and an hypothetical ancestor was included in the analysis in order to root the tree. The options used, "ie*" and "xs w", resulted in four most parsimonious trees with ci = 79, ri = 80 and length 115. The monophiletism of Euprepina was supported by two synapomorphies.

  11. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil Note on the culicidae (Diptera: Culicidae of the River Purus Basin, Acre, Amazonian, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae collections were made on the Pedro Peixoto Colonization Project in the State of Acre, Brazil. Four thousand, five hundred and eighty-eight (4,588 specimens were collected and fifty-three (53 species or group recognised. The occurrence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi is given special emphasis.

  12. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  13. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  14. Lutzomyia abonnenci and Lutzomyia olmeca (Diptera: Psychodidae, New Records for the Department of Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Romero Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Entre los departamentos de la costa Caribe de Colombia, Sucre tiene la mayor diversidad de especies del género Lutzomyia, dentro de las que se encuentran algunas asociadas al ciclo epidemiológico de la leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral. Por su importancia en salud pública, es necesario monitorear periódicamente estas comunidades de flebotomíneos, lo que motivó el desarrollo de un estudio entomológico en el municipio de Colosó, departamento de Sucre, en diciembre de 2009, 2010 y 2011. Los muestreos se realizaron con un aspirador eléctrico en sitios de reposo diurno, durante la noche se emplearon dos trampas de luz CDC y una trampa Shannon. Se recolectaron 566 flebotomíneos pertenecientes a 14 especies del género Lutzomyia, como sigue: Lu. evansi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. micropyga, Lu. gomezi, Lu. cayennensis cayennensis, Lu. trinidadensis, Lu. venezuelensis, Lu. serrana, Lu. abonnenci, Lu. migonei, Lu. dubitans, Lu. olmeca bicolor, Lu. atroclavata y Lu. ovallesi. El 48,2 % de los flebotomíneos recolectados se obtuvo con trampa Shannon, el 36,6 % con trampas CDC y el 15,2 % con aspirador eléctrico. Se destacan Lu. abonnenci y Lu. o. bicolor, especies ampliamente distribuidas en Colombia, como nuevos registros para el Departamento de Sucre.

  15. [New findings on the geographic distribution of the verrucarum group (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2003-09-01

    The incrimination of sand flies belonging to verrucarum species group in the leishmaniasis transmission underscores the need for a detailed information on the geographical distribution of these species. The current listing adds 34 new records that extend significantly the knowledge of the geographical distribution of the verrucarum group in Colombia. The most important new records pertain to Lutzomyia spinicrassa in the tropical dry forest of the Atlantic coast, Lutzomyia ovallesi in the Orinoco and Amazon River watersheds regions of Colombia, and the sympatric occurrence of Lutzomyia spinicrassa and Lutzomyia quasitownsendi in the eastern chain of the Andes mountains. Additionally, the municipal and altitudinal distributions are compiled for 19 new species recorded for Colombia. The series townsendi of the verrucarum group generally restricted to premontane and lower montane zones based on distribution data on Lutzomyia longiflocosa, L. quasitownsendi, Lutzomyia sauroida, L. spinicrassa, Lutzomyia torvida, Lutzomyia townsendi and Lutzomyia youngi. The series verrucarum is distributed from the tropical lowland to the montane zones, and includes species with wide geographical range (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana, L. ovallesi, Lutzomyia nuneztovari, Lutzomyia nevesi), and species of highly endemic distribution (Lutzomyia andina, Lutzomyia disiuncta, Lutzomyia moralesi, Lutzomyia antioquiensis). Members of the series pia (Lutzomyia pia, Lutzomyia limafalcaoae) and the series serrana (Lutzomyia serrana) occur from the tropical lowlands to the lower montane zones. The altitudinal divergences may be intrinsically tied to speciation process, especially as it relates to the climatic and geologic events that have affected the flora and fauna of the Andean region.

  16. Impact of habitat degradation on phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) of tropical dry forests in Northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travi, Bruno L; Adler, Gregory H; Lozano, Margarita; Cadena, Horacio; Montoya-Lerma, James

    2002-05-01

    We examined changes in the phlebotomine fauna resulting from human intervention in a tropical dry forest of Northern Colombia where visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic. A natural forest reserve (Colosó) and a highly degraded area (San Andrés de Sotavento [SAS]) were sampled monthly for 8 mo using Shannon traps, sticky traps, and resting-site collections. Overall abundances were higher in Colosó (15,988) than in SAS (2,324). and species richness of phlebotomines was greater in the forest reserve (11 species) than in the degraded habitat (seven species). Fisher alpha, a measure of diversity, reinforced this trend. Both sand fly communities were dominated by Lutzomyia evansi (Nuòez-Tovar), vector of Leishmania chagasi (Cunha & Chagas), representing 92 and 81% of all captures in Colosó and SAS, respectively. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the common vector of visceral leishmaniasis, accounted for 4-7% of the sand fly community. Lutzornyia panamensis (Shannon) and Lutzomya gomezi (Nitzulescu), putative vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna), had low abundances at both study sites. The zoophilic species Lutzomyia cayennensis (Floch & Abonneuc) and Lutzomyia trinidadensis (Newstead) were present in variable numbers according to trapping methods and site. Habitat degradation negatively affected sand fly communities, but medically important species were able to exploit modified environments, thereby contributing to Lishmania endemicity.

  17. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  18. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  19. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  20. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se......The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology...

  1. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 2. The Dendrophilus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 29, Number 4, 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    or reservoirs of eight viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika ...suggested that Ae. deboeri may be the jungle vector of the yellow fever virus in Langata. A edes Aedes Aedes Aedes (Stegomyia) demeilloni Edwards... Aedes (Stegomyia) Iedgeri (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 13: 92-113. Aedes (Stegomyia) bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae), the yellow fever virus

  2. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with the appearance of urban Leishmaniasis in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Uribe, Sandra; Rojas, Winston; Dario Velez, Iván

    2002-07-01

    Although once associated only with rural areas, the American leishmaniasis vectors now appear to be associated also with urban and suburban areas of the Neotropics. Following the appearance of the first autochthonous visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the urban area of the city of Sincelejo, Colombia, a preliminary entomological survey of the sand fly species composition was performed using Shannon and CDC light traps. A total of 486 sand flies representing six Lutzomyia species were collected. L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. gomezi, known vectors of Leishmania spp. were the predominant sand fly species around dwellings. The finding of these species in relation to the appearance of the first cases of leishmaniasis in the city mentioned is discussed.

  3. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with the appearance of urban leishmaniasis in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar Elías Bejarano

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Although once associated only with rural areas, the American leishmaniasis vectors now appear to be associated also with urban and suburban areas of the Neotropics. Following the appearance of the first autochthonous visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the urban area of the city of Sincelejo, Colombia, a preliminary entomological survey of the sand fly species composition was performed using Shannon and CDC light traps. A total of 486 sand flies representing six Lutzomyia species were collected. L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. gomezi, known vectors of Leishmania spp. were the predominant sand fly species around dwellings. The finding of these species in relation to the appearance of the first cases of leishmaniasis in the city mentioned is discussed.

  4. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  5. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  6. Effects of seasonality and resource limitation on organic matter turnover by Chironomidae (Diptera) in southern Appalachian headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Romito; Susan Eggert; Jeffrey Diez; J. Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Despite their high abundance, secondary production, and known reliance on detrital material, the role of chironomids (Diptera) in fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) dynamics has not been well quantified. We conducted field trials using fluorescent pigment markers to estimate seasonal rates of consumption, annual secondary production, assimilation efficiency (AE),...

  7. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal Delsio

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  8. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  9. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    All flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 X 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,348 species. These amount to more than half the number...

  10. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  11. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  12. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  13. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  14. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  15. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  16. Attraction, oviposition preferences, and olfactory responses of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera) to various host-based substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh market sweet corn produced in Florida is threatened by larval damage by Euxesta stigmatias Loew, E. eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition and attraction bioassays were desig...

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    2018-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...

  18. New species of Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) reared from larvae of Keroplatidae fungus gnats (Diptera) in a Dutch orchid greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humala, Andrei E.; Kruidhof, Marjolein; Woelke, Joop

    2017-01-01

    A new parasitoid wasp species belonging to the genus Megastylus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Orthocentrinae) found in an orchid nursery in The Netherlands is described and illustrated: Megastylus woelkei sp. nov. It was reared from parasitized larvae of fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae). The

  19. Low-dose irradiation with modified atmosphere packaging for mango against the Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation and vapor–heating treatments are commonly used to disinfest the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae), and other pests on mango fruits before export from Thailand to foreign markets. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) used during export of mangoes create...

  20. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  1. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  2. Second Supplement to A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    104. Brunhes, J. 1977a. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores I. - Inventaire, &partition et description de quatre esptces ou sous-espscies...nouvelles. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 15:131-152. Brunhes, J. 1977b. Les moustiques de l’archipel des Comores 11. - Description de...Dieng. 1978. Aedes (Stegomyia) neoafricanus un nouvelle espzcie de moustique capture’e au Sgne’gal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae), Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M

  3. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W

    2000-07-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.

  4. Gastric and intestinal myiasis due to Ornidia obesa (Diptera: Syrphidae in humans. First report in colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasis are parasitic infestations of animals and humans tissues and is caused by fly larvae. This kind of infestation has Public Health importance. In the Colombian biomedical literature the reports about myiasis in humans are scarce. In this paper, we report two cases of patients with gastrointestinal myiasis where the etiologic agents involved were Ornidia obesa and Ornidia sp (Diptera: Syrphidae. The taxonomic identification of the larvae was done at the Colombian Institute of Tropical Medicine and taxonomic confirmation was done at the laboratory of medicine veterinary and Zoology of Sao Pablo University. These two cases of myiasis are of first report in Colombia

  5. Bioefficacy of Insect Growth Regulators Against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidea) From Sarawak, Malaysia: A Statewide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Koon Weng; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lee, Han Lim; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-28

    The susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse; Diptera: Culicidea) larvae collected from 13 districts in Sarawak state, Malaysia was evaluated against five insect growth regulators (IGRs) namely, methoprene, pyriproxyfen, diflubenzuron, cyromazine, and novaluron. Field populations of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to methoprene, pyriproxyfen, cyromazine and novaluron with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging from 0.19-0.38, 0.05-0.14, 0.50-0.95, and 0.75-1.00, respectively. Nevertheless, tolerance towards diflubenzuron (0.33-1.33) was observed in this study. In general, these IGRs exhibited promising results and can be used as alternative control agents against field populations of Ae. albopictus in Sarawak, Malaysia.

  6. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  7. Protomedetera, a new genus from the Oriental and Australasian realms (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Medeterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chufei; Grootaert, Patrick; Yang, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Protomedetera gen. n. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), a new genus of the subfamily Medeterinae, is described from the Oriental and Australasian realms based on four new species. Protomedetera singaporensis Grootaert & Tang, sp. n. is designated as type of the new genus. The genus is peculiar because of the small body size, the small globular first flagellomere (postpedicel), the simple male genitalia with indistinct or small epandrial lobe and half-hidden cercus. The following four new species are described and illustrated: P. biconvexa sp. n. , P. biseta sp. n. , P. glabra sp. n. , and P. singaporensis sp. n. A key to the species of the new genus is provided.

  8. Fecundity and life table of different morphotypes of Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Kumar, V; Ranjan, A; Das, P

    2011-10-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) have shown some morphological variations in India and its subcontinents. The variable egg laying capacity was found in different morphotypes of P. argentipes with maximum in type III followed by type I and II. The fecundity was enhanced by providing 25% glucose soaked filter paper surface in all types. However, significant increase was found in type-I (P < 0.05). The differences in fecundity indicate the biological variations among P. argentipes population. The findings will be helpful in searching out the sibling species among P. argentipes population.

  9. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  10. Parasitism of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend (Diptera: Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Castro-Guedes

    2018-04-01

    Resumo. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas é uma espécie de Coccinellidae originária do Nordeste da Ásia e utilizada como agente de controle biológico de afídeos. Como é uma espécie invasora é muito importante conhecer seus inimigos naturais. Dessa forma, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro de Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend(Diptera: Tachinidae parasitando H. axyridis no sul do Brasil.

  11. On the biology of Symbiocladius rhithrogenae (ZAVREL, 1924) (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Chornohora Mts., Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilka, W.; Klonowska-Olejnik, M.; Godunko, Roman J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2007), s. 285-291 ISSN 0032-3780 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Grant - others:Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) BW/V/INOS/4/06; Institute of Environmental Sciences(PL) DS/WBiNoZ/INoS/756/06; INTAS Fellowship Grant for Young Scientists(BE) 05-109-4162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Symbiocladius rhithrogenae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  12. Diptera, Muscidae, Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder: Primeiro Registro para o Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. Cariocamyia maculosa Snyder, is a muscid fly with records from Colombia and Brazil (Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions. In a survey of Diptera saprophagous in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, with animal organic bait were collected 46 specimens of C. maculosa. This is the first record of the species to Bahia and Northeastern of Brazil. The forensic importance and the anthropized status of C. maculosa have not been detached in the specialized literature and new studies should be improved to corroborate these conditions.

  13. First description of the immature stages of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA J THYSSEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages oí Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae are described. Egg morphology and structures such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles, and the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax from first, second and third instar larvae are characterized, using light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is abundant in Neotropical forests and, because of its necrophagous behavior, is of substantial medico-legal importance for estimating the postmortem interval in criminal investigations. Information presented herein may be useful to differentiate among eggs and larvae of closely related species and to supplement the database for blowfly identification

  14. Review of the genera Stenopyrgota Malloch and Tropidothrinax Enderlein (Diptera, Pyrgotidae

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    Ramon Luciano Mello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the genera Stenopyrgota Malloch and Tropidothrinax Enderlein (Diptera, Pyrgotidae. The Neotropical genera Stenopyrgota Malloch, 1929 and Tropidothrinax Enderlein, 1942 are reviewed. The genus Stenopyrgota is composed by the species S. mexicana Malloch, 1929 and S. crassitibia Aczél, 1956. The monotypic genus Tropidothrinax is composed by the species T. boliviensis Enderlein, 1942. The species of Stenopyrgota and Tropidothrinax are redescribed and illustrations of the main taxonomic characters are given. Illustrations of the type material of the species covered by this paper are presented for the first time.

  15. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  16. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  17. Report of Sphenochernes camponoti (Beier, 1970 (Pseudoscorpiones, Chernetidae in phoresy on Fanniidae (Diptera

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    André Felipe de Araujo Lira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoresy is a common dispersal behavior among pseudoscorpions. Neotropical pseudoscorpions, mainly from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, are known for their dispersal relationships with beetles and flies. Here, we report phoretic association among nymphs of Sphenochernes camponoti (Chernetidae and Fannia flies (F. pusio, F. yenhedi, and F. canicularis (Diptera, Fanniidae. Twelve flies, each carrying a young pseudoscorpion, were collected in Caatinga vegetation in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Sphenochernes camponoti is a myrmecophilous pseudoscorpion that lives in Camponotus and Acromyrmex colonies. Despite its association with ants, this pseudoscorpion uses other winged arthropods to disperse. This is the first report of phoresy by Sphenochernes camponoti.

  18. Natural infection of Lutzomyia neivai and Lutzomyia sallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Leishmania infantum chagasi in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Quaresma, Patrícia F; Lima, Ana C V M R; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2009-09-01

    Natural infections with Leishmania were found in females of the phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto) (= Nyssomyia neivai) and Lutzomyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho) (= Evandromyia sallesi) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Lassance, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Promastigotes were found in the pyloric region of the former species and in the abdominal midgut of the latter species. Insects found to be infected by microscopic examination were macerated in saline solution and inoculated into hamsters. Subsequent analysis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed both isolates to belong to the species Leishmania infantum chagasi Cunha & Chagas.

  19. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  20. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  1. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [es

  2. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  3. Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae new pest of mango (Mangifera indica L. in Cuba

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    Jorge Luís Rodríguez Tapia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The diptera grouped in the family Cecidomyiidae, are considered important pests in the crop of mango (Mangifera indica L.. In the period of 2013-15, prospections were carried out in patios and plantations of several localities of Cuba (Havana, Artemisa, Mayabeque, Ciego de Ávila and Santiago de Cuba, during the stages of vegetative and floral sprouting, to evaluate the presence of insects. Thirteen samplings were made and 25 young leaves and 10 floral shoots were collected per sample, for a total of 325 young leaves and 130 floral shoots in which the number of galls, larvae, pupae and adults of an agallero insect was determined. A total of 2 423 galls were found in young leaves, which represented an average of 7.5 guts per leaf. A total of 207 larvae, 60 pupae and 40 adults were counted among diptera males and females. The morphological characters of the collected insects allowed identifying Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt, belonging to the family Cecidomyiidae, as the cause of the galls in the young leaves and floral shoots in the mango areas sampled.

  4. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Pinto e Vairo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Chave pictórica para a identificação das espécies de Sarcophagidae (Diptera de potencial importância forense do sul do Brasil. Espécies da subfamília Sarcophaginae são importantes para a entomologia forense devido ao seu hábito necrófago. Este trabalho apresenta uma chave pictórica para a identificação de 22 espécies de Sarcophaginae de 10 gêneros encontradas na região sul do Brasil. São fornecidas fotografias dos principais estruturas das espécies, principalmente da terminália masculina.

  5. First records of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic cases in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Pinto, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Ventura, Francesco; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and associated fitness costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiang Hao; Zairi, Jaal

    2013-03-01

    Insecticide resistance has become a serious issue in vector management programs. Information on insecticidal resistance and its associated mechanisms is important for successful insecticide resistance management. The selection of a colony of permethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), originating from Penang Island, Malaysia, yielded high larval-specific resistance to permethrin and cross-resistance to deltamethrin. Synergism assays showed that the major mechanism underlying this resistance involves cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The resistance is autosomal, polygenically inherited and incompletely dominant (D = 0.26). Resistant larvae were reared under different conditions to assess the fitness costs. Under high larval density, larval development time of the resistant SGI strain was significantly longer than the susceptible VCRU strain. In both high- and low-density conditions SGI showed a lower rate of emergence and survival compared with the VCRU strain. Resistant larvae were more susceptible to predation by Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The body size of SGI females reared under high-density conditions was larger compared with females of the susceptible strain. SGI females survived longer when starved than did VCRU females. The energy reserve upon eclosion was positively correlated with the size of the adults.

  7. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  9. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Daniela Vergara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  10. Fruit Flies of the Genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) From Some Localities of Paraguay: New Records, Checklist, and Illustrated Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Osmar René; Fariña, Nelson Librado; Lopes, Gleidyane Novaes; Uramoto, Keiko; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study deals with fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected in McPhail traps in the municipalities of Concepción, Belén, Horqueta, Loreto (state of Concepción) and Santa Rosa (state of Misiones), Paraguay. In total, 17 species were captured, 9 of which are new records for Paraguay. All morphological characters used for species identification are illustrated. RESUMEN. Se estudió las especies de moscas de las frutas del género Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae), colectadas en trampas tipo McPhail en las localidades de Concepción, Belén, Horqueta (Departamento de Concepción) y Santa Rosa (Departamento de Misiones). En total fueron capturadas 17 especies, de las cuales nueve especies corresponden a nuevos registros para el Paraguay. Todos los caracteres morfológicos para la identificación de las especies fueron ilustrados. PMID:25525098

  11. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical me...

  12. Identification and Transcription Profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): Developmental Regulation and Environmental Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Identification and transcription profiling of NDUFS8 in Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae): developmental regulation and environmental response...7205 Email lmzhao@ufl.edu Abstract: The cDNA of a NADH dehydrogenase-ubiquinone Fe-S protein 8 subunit (NDUFS8) gene from Aedes (Ochlerotatus...information useful for developing dsRNA pesticide for mosquito control. Keywords: Aedes taeniorhynchus, AetNDUFS8, mRNA expression, development

  13. Remarkable fly (Diptera) diversity in a patch of Costa Rican cloud forest: Why inventory is a vital science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art Borkent; Brian V. Brown; Peter H. Adler; Dalton de Souza Amorim; Kevin Barber; Daniel Bickel; Stephanie Boucher; Scott E. Brooks; John Burger; Zelia L. Burington; Renato S. Capellari; Daniel N. R. Costa; Jeffrey M. Cumming; Greg Curler; Carl W. Dick; John H. Epler; Eric Fisher; Stephen D. Gaimari; Jon Gelhaus; David A. Grimaldi; John Hash; Martin Hauser; Heikki Hippa; Sergio Ibanez-Bernal; Mathias Jaschhof; Elena P. Kameneva; Peter H. Kerr; Valery Korneyev; Cheslavo A. Korytkowski; Giar-Ann Kung; Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte; Owen Lonsdale; Stephen A. Marshall; Wayne N. Mathis; Verner Michelsen; Stefan Naglis; Allen L. Norrbom; Steven Paiero; Thomas Pape; Alessandre Pereira-Colavite; Marc Pollet; Sabrina Rochefort; Alessandra Rung; Justin B. Runyon; Jade Savage; Vera C. Silva; Bradley J. Sinclair; Jeffrey H. Skevington; John O. Stireman; John Swann; F. Christian Thompson; Pekka Vilkamaa; Terry Wheeler; Terry Whitworth; Maria Wong; D. Monty Wood; Norman Woodley; Tiffany Yau; Thomas J. Zavortink; Manuel A. Zumbado

    2018-01-01

    Study of all flies (Diptera) collected for one year from a four-hectare (150 x 266 meter) patch of cloud forest at 1,600 meters above sea level at Zurquí de Moravia, San José Province, Costa Rica (hereafter referred to as Zurquí), revealed an astounding 4,332 species. This amounts to more than half the number of named species of flies for all of Central America....

  14. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  15. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  16. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

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    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  17. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VERGARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.

  18. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant...

  19. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  20. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  1. Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Lin, Xiaolong; Liu, Yuedan; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae), Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. and Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n., are described from China and the male imagines are illustrated. Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. can be separated from the so far known species by having very short and small, spatulate superior volsella with two long setae, whereas Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n. is easily separated from the other species of Stenochironomus by the following characters: wings transparent, body yellow, superior volsella finger-like, with nine long setae, elongated inferior volsella with four long setae and one well developed terminal spine; tergite IX with 10−15 long setae medially. A key to the males of Stenochironomus occurring in China is given. PMID:25685018

  2. Integrating DNA barcodes and morphology for species delimitation in the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F L; Wiedenbrug, S

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we use DNA barcodes for species delimitation to solve taxonomic conflicts in 86 specimens of 14 species belonging to the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae), from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Molecular analysis of cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences supported 14 cohesive species groups, of which two similar groups were subsequently associated with morphological variation at the pupal stage. Eleven species previously described based on morphological criteria were linked to DNA markers. Furthermore, there is the possibility that there may be cryptic species within the Corynoneura group, since one group of species presented internal grouping, although no morphological divergence was observed. Our results support DNA-barcoding as an excellent tool for species delimitation in groups where taxonomy by means of morphology is difficult or even impossible.

  3. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  4. Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae in different diets

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    WERMELINGER E. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.

  5. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  6. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J

    2007-11-01

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.

  7. Morphology and Developmental Rate of the Blow Fly, Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae: Forensic Entomology Applications

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    Nophawan Bunchu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Diptera: Calliphoridae is a forensically important blow fly species presented in many countries. In this study, we determined the morphology of all stages and the developmental rate of H. ligurriens reared under natural ambient conditions in Phitsanulok province, northern Thailand. Morphological features of all stages based on observing under a light microscope were described and demonstrated in order to use for identification purpose. Moreover, development time in each stage was given. The developmental time of H. ligurriens to complete metamorphosis; from egg, larva, pupa to adult, took 270.71 h for 1 cycle of development. The results from this study may be useful not only for application in forensic investigation, but also for study in its biology in the future.

  8. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  9. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  10. Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy from Costa Rica: descriptions and first records (Diptera, Muscidae

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    MS. Couri

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.

  11. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

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    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  12. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

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    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  13. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), a species endemic to Eastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Jorge Alberto; Ortiz, Mario Iván; Guhl, Felipe

    2008-08-01

    The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%), Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira) (20.9%), and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (13.5%) were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October), marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.

  14. First record of spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Montenegro

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    Snježana Hrnčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is an invasive pest originating from Southeast Asia. It was detected for the first time in Europe in 2008 (Spain and Italy and subsequently in other European countries. It is a highly polyphagous pest that infests healthy, ripening fruit and presents a serious threat to fruit production, particularly of soft skinned fruit. In the first half of October 2013, a new fruit fly species was unexpectedly detected in Tephri traps baited with the three-component female-biased attractant BioLure that is regularly used for monitoring the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera: Tephritidae in Montenegro. Brief visual inspection identified the new species as the spotted wing drosophila D. suzukii. The pest was first recorded in several localities on the Montenegrin seacoast around Boka Kotor Bay. After the finding, all Drosophila specimens were collected from traps for further laboratory observation. A quick follow-up monitoring of other Tephri traps was carried out within the next few days on the rest of the seacoast (localities from Tivat to Ulcinj. Additionally, Tephri traps were set up around Lake Skadar and in the city of Podgorica, as well as on fresh fruit markets in Podgorica. The results of this preliminary study showed that D. suzukii was present in all surveyed locations and adults were captured until late December. Both sexes were found in traps with BioLure. Our data show that D. suzukii is present in southern parts of Montenegro and there is a serious threat of its further spreading, particularly towards northern parts of the country where the main raspberry and blueberry production is placed. The results also show that Tephri traps baited with BioLure can be used for detection and monitoring of spotted wing drosophila.

  15. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea

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    Torsten Dikow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.

  16. Presence and Potential Distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Katja; Ivovic, Vladimir; Glasnovic, Peter; Buzan, Elena

    2017-11-07

    In Slovenia, two invasive mosquito species are present, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera: Culicidae). In this study, we examined their actual distribution and suitable habitats for new colonizations. Data from survey of species presence in 2013 and 2015, bioclimatic variables and altitude were used for the construction of predictive maps. We produced various models in Maxent software and tested two bioclimatic variable sets, WorldClim and CHELSA. For the variable selection of A. albopictus modeling we used statistical and expert knowledge-based approach, whereas for A. j. japonicus we used only a statistically based approach. The best performing models for both species were chosen according to AIC score-based evaluation. In 2 yr of sampling, A. albopictus was largely confined to the western half of Slovenia, whereas A. j. japonicus spread significantly and can be considered as an established species in a large part of the country. Comparison of models with WorldClim and CHELSA variables for both species showed models with CHELSA variables as a better tool for prediction. Finally, we validated the models performance in predicting distribution of species according to collected field data. Our study confirms that both species are co-occurring and are sympatric in a large part of the country area. The tested models could be used for future prevention of invasive mosquitoes spreading in other countries with similar bioclimatic conditions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  18. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  19. Identification of the species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) from the Balkan Peninsula using wing geometric morphometrics, with the revision of status of C. melanopa redi Vujic, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francuski, Lj.; Vujic, A.; Kovacevic, A.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates phenotypic differentiation patterns among four species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric approach. Herein, wing geometric morphometrics established species boundaries that confirm C. melanopa and C.

  20. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  1. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  2. Development of an attract-and-kill strategy for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): evaluation of attracticidal spheres under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous fruit fly that attacks soft-skinned fruits. Originally from Asia, D. suzukii has successfully invaded the United States as well as European and South American countries. Currently, calendar-based insecticide applicat...

  3. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  4. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates in the Netherlands : comparing cattle, sheep and the black-light suction trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Host preference is an important determinant of feeding behaviour in biting insects and a critical component in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates using tethered livestock at pasture

  5. Interkingdom cues by bacteria associated with conspecific and heterospecific eggs of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) potentially govern succession on carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate animal behavior related to succession on ephemeral resources is critical for elucidating food web dynamics and nutrient recycling. Blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonization and utilization of vertebrate carrion serve as a model for such studies, as the...

  6. Direct multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the identification of six Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae), including major Leishmania vectors of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  7. Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  8. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  9. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  10. Catalogue of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) types housed in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Lamas, Carlos josÉ Einicker

    2018-04-20

    This paper provides a catalogue of the type specimens of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). Label information and type condition of the six type specimens (three holotypes and three paratypes) of four species are provided, along with high resolution images of the types and their labels.

  11. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  12. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Alida D.; Dos Santos, Thiago V.; Gangadin, Anielkoemar; Samjhawan, Ashok; Mans, Dennis R. A.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.)

  13. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...

  14. A review of recorded host plants of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera)dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the Oriental fruit fly, is regulated through the Plant Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. 7701-7772) and relevant Parts and Subparts of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR – Agriculture). Presented herein is a compre...

  15. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol

  16. Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2016-12-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R 0 ), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d -1 ), 1.0759 (d -1 ), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars. La mosca soldado negro, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), fue alimentada en una dieta artificial (salvado de trigo y alimento para pollos) en el laboratorio a 28ºC (estados inmaduros) y en un invernadero a 28ºC (adultos). Los datos fueron recopilados y analizados en base a la tabla de vida de ambos sexos, edad y etapa. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r), tasa finita de crecimiento (λ), la tasa neta de reproducción (R 0 ) y el tiempo medio generacional (T) fueron 0.0759 (d), 1.0759 (d), 68.225 crías, y 55.635 (d), respectivamente. El valor reproductivo máximo de las hembras se produjo a los 54 días. Sólo 6 de las 21 hembras fueron capaces de poner huevos con éxito. El número de huevos por hembra varió de 236 a un máximo de 1088 huevos. Hemos demostrado que cuando han sido criados en una dieta artificial, las larvas de H. illucens durante el primer instar son más susceptibles a perecer que los instares posteriores. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Parasitismo entre especies (Diptera, Hymenoptera en los nidos de Stictia signata (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available S. signata es una de las avispas de la arena más frecuentemente observada en los cayos y las costas de Cuba. Las hembras construyen los nidos en la arena y los abastecen con moscas, para alimentar a la descendencia. Se describe la conducta de dos especies: Liohippelates n. sp. circa collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae y Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae para penetrar al interior de los nidos de S. signata. Las observaciones se efectuaron durante 1989 hasta 1991, en playa Caimito, sur de la provincia de La Habana, Cuba. Liohippelates cleptoparasitó el 100% de los nidos. Sus larvas necrófagas se alimentaron de los restos de las presas dejadas por la larva de S. signata, sin afectarla. Sólo en un caso la larva mostró signos de mortalidad, porque además del número alto de cleptoparásitos inmaduros, habían 53 moscas adultas alimentándose de los fluidos corporales de las presas. Hexacola sp. fue un parasitoide de las larvas de Liohippelates, en el interior de las celdillas. A pesar del elevado cleptoparasitismo, la población del esfécido se mantuvo elevada durante los años de observación.Stictia signata is one of the most frequently observed sand wasps in the Cuban keys and coasts. Females build their nests in the sand and supply them with flies to feed offspring. Here, I describe the behavior of two species, Liohippelates n. sp. near collusor (Diptera: Chloropidae and Hexacola sp. (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae, which enter the nests of S. signata. The observations were carried out from 1989 through 1991 in Caimito beach, Southern Havana province, Cuba. Liohippelates inhabited 100% of the nests. Its necrofagous larvae fed on the remnants of prey left by the larva of S. signata, without affecting the larva. Only in one case did the larva show signs of mortality because, apart from the high number of immature cleptoparasites, there were 53 adult flies feeding on prey body fluids. Hexacola sp. parasitized the larvae of Liohippelates within the

  18. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  19. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  20. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera em Área de Caatinga

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    Eduardo Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.

  1. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  2. An updated checklist of the Culicidae (Diptera) of Morocco, with notes on species of historical and current medical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trari, Bouchra; Dakki, Mohamed; Harbach, Ralph E

    2017-06-01

    An updated checklist of the mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) recorded in Morocco from 1916 to 2016 is provided, including synonyms and synonymous usage for each species. Forty-three species belonging to seven genera are recorded so far: Anopheles (9), Aedes (12) Coquillettidia (2), Culex (12), Culiseta (5), Orthopodomyia (1) and Uranotaenia (2). Traditional and equivalent names in the polyphyletic concept of Aedes are provided for the aedine species. The historical importance and current potential threat of mosquitoes to human health in Morocco is reviewed. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Cytogenetic comparison of chironomid midge Glyptotendipes glaucus (Meigen, 1818 (Diptera, Chironomidae populations from Northwest Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional characters of polythene chromosomes and chromosomal rearrangements in salivary glands of 177 larvae of Glyptotendipes glaucus (Diptera, Chironomidae from reservoirs of Russia and Ukraine (Chernobyl have been analysed. Similarity of the populations studied based on a pool of chromosomal reorganizations has been established. The general types of inversions in chromosomal arms A, B, D and E have been detected. Influence of radioactive pollution (Chernobyl on functional changes of a nucleus, Balbiani rings, puffs, morphology of disks and interdisks is revealed.

  4. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-01-01

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [es

  5. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  6. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco.

  7. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  8. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  9. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae

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    Caihua Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga.

  10. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  11. Bacteria and Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Tree Hollows From the Iberian Mediterranean Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A

    2017-02-01

    Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  13. Identifying insects with incomplete DNA barcode libraries, African fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; Breman, Floris C; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general working strategy to deal with incomplete reference libraries in the DNA barcoding identification of species. Considering that (1) queries with a large genetic distance with their best DNA barcode match are more likely to be misidentified and (2) imposing a distance threshold profitably reduces identification errors, we modelled relationships between identification performances and distance thresholds in four DNA barcode libraries of Diptera (n = 4270), Lepidoptera (n = 7577), Hymenoptera (n = 2067) and Tephritidae (n = 602 DNA barcodes). In all cases, more restrictive distance thresholds produced a gradual increase in the proportion of true negatives, a gradual decrease of false positives and more abrupt variations in the proportions of true positives and false negatives. More restrictive distance thresholds improved precision, yet negatively affected accuracy due to the higher proportions of queries discarded (viz. having a distance query-best match above the threshold). Using a simple linear regression we calculated an ad hoc distance threshold for the tephritid library producing an estimated relative identification error DNA barcodes and should be used as cut-off mark defining whether we can proceed identifying the query with a known estimated error probability (e.g. 5%) or whether we should discard the query and consider alternative/complementary identification methods.

  14. A new genus and species of Australian Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) tolerant to mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2017-05-09

    For over 25 years an undescribed Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) has been known to dominate the lotic invertebrate assemblage associated with long-term polluting mine adits in Captains Flat, on the Molonglo River, southern New South Wales, Australia. Although known in all life stages, it has been impossible to allocate the species to any described genus. Renewed interest in the taxonomy of the Tanypodinae, particularly associated with molecular investigations and pollution indicator status warrants formal description. All stages conform to tribe Pentaneurini, but each life stage differs in morphological resemblance. Yarrhpelopia Cranston gen. n. is proposed for the taxon previously referred to under the informal code name of 'genus A'. The genus name derives from south-east Australian aboriginal word yarrh, in recognition of its core distribution and presence in flowing waters. A single species, A. norrisi Cranston sp. n., is described, acknowledging the late Professor Richard Norris, an influential Australian limnologist. Larvae dominate the benthos immediately adjacent to mine adits that continue to leach heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper and lead) into downstream sediments. A wider distribution includes cleaner near pristine, eastern Australian rivers between 30° and 42°S, but these records are excluded from the type series pending molecular insights into species limits.

  15. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  16. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  17. DNA Barcoding for Species Identification of Insect Skins: A Test on Chironomidae (Diptera) Pupal Exuviae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrem, Torbjørn; Stur, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chironomidae (Diptera) pupal exuviae samples are commonly used for biological monitoring of aquatic habitats. DNA barcoding has proved useful for species identification of chironomid life stages containing cellular tissue, but the barcoding success of chironomid pupal exuviae is unknown. We assessed whether standard DNA barcoding could be efficiently used for species identification of chironomid pupal exuviae when compared with morphological techniques and if there were differences in performance between temperate and tropical ecosystems, subfamilies, and tribes. PCR, sequence, and identification success differed significantly between geographic regions and taxonomic groups. For Norway, 27 out of 190 (14.2%) of pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality chironomid sequences that match species. For Costa Rica, 69 out of 190 (36.3%) Costa Rican pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality sequences, but none matched known species. Standard DNA barcoding of chironomid pupal exuviae had limited success in species identification of unknown specimens due to contaminations and lack of matching references in available barcode libraries, especially from Costa Rica. Therefore, we recommend future biodiversity studies that focus their efforts on understudied regions, to simultaneously use morphological and molecular identification techniques to identify all life stages of chironomids and populate the barcode reference library with identified sequences.

  18. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  19. Cytogenetic characteristics of Chironomus balatonicus Devai, Wulker, Scholl (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Chernobyl region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailova, P.; Petrova, N.

    1994-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis was carried out on a population of Chironomus balatonicus (Chironomidae, Diptera) from Chernobyl, a highly radioactive area of the Kiev region. Several chromosomal aberrations were established unique to a population of Chironomus balatonicus living in an area contaminated by radioactive waste. Five new heterozygous inversions, deficiencies in arms C, D, E, F and chromatid breaks were found in the irradiated population but not in nonirradiated populations. A pericentric inversion in chromosome AB occurred at a relatively high frequency. Genome aberrations expressed by a heterochromatized 'B' chromosome were evident. In the irradiated and nonirradiated populations common inversions occurred showing variation in their frequency depending on specific environmental conditions. The somatic and also the germ cells were characterized by a number of heteropycnotic nuclei and vacuolized chromosomes. Both the somatic and germ cells showed changes in the structural and functional organization of heterochromatin and this was particularly marked in the telomeric sectors of the chromosomes. The heterochromatin which is extremely sensitive to radioactivity appears to protect euchromatin from adverse environmental conditions

  20. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-05-09

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future.

  1. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  2. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-05-04

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools.

  3. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  4. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  5. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  6. Representatividade do gênero Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e três espécies de Lopesia Rübsaamen (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são conhecidas, todas como indutoras de galhas. A maioria das espécies é Neotropical, também com distribuição Neártica, Afrotropical e Australasiana. A diversidade do gênero no Brasil é avaliada com base na literatura e dados da coleção de Cecidomyiidae do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. O gênero está representado no Brasil por 23 espécies (18 descritas e 5 não determinadas, o que corresponde a 78% do total de espécies descritas e 95% da fauna neotropical fauna. Estes dados mostram que o gênero é representado no Brasil. A maioria das espécies (78% induz galhas foliares. Gema e caule foram outros órgãos vegetais galhados. As espécies estão associadas a dez famílias botânicas, sendo mais comuns em Burseraceae, Clusiaceae e Fabaceae. A maior parte foi coletada em Mata Atlântica, principalmente em restinga, e o Rio de Janeiro suporta o maior número de espécies registradas. A distribuição geográfica de três espécies é ampliada.

  7. Effects of the antibiotics Gentamicin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; Silva, Débora C; Figueiredo, Adriana L; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Aguiar, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich (Diptera: Tachinidae and the evolutionary timescale of Tachinid flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhao

    Full Text Available Tachinid flies are natural enemies of many lepidopteran and coleopteran pests of forests, crops, and fruit trees. In order to address the lack of genetic data in this economically important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Palaearctic tachinid fly Elodia flavipalpis Aldrich, 1933. Usually found in Northern China and Japan, this species is one of the primary natural enemies of the leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae, which are major pests of various fruit trees. The 14,932-bp mitochondrial genome was typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. However, its control region is only 105 bp in length, which is the shortest found so far in flies. In order to estimate dipteran evolutionary relationships, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 58 mitochondrial genomes from 23 families. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods supported the monophyly of both Tachinidae and superfamily Oestroidea. Within the subsection Calyptratae, Muscidae was inferred as the sister group to Oestroidea. Within Oestroidea, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae formed a sister clade to Oestridae and Tachinidae. Using a Bayesian relaxed clock calibrated with fossil data, we estimated that Tachinidae originated in the middle Eocene.

  9. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  10. Bionomics of Neolasioptera aculeatae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, a promising biological control candidate against Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mc KAY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspecciones de campo realizadas sobre Parkinsonia aculeata L. en el Norte-centro de Argentina entre 2008 y 2011 revelaron la presencia del mosquito agallícola Neolasioptera aculeatae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae. La presencia de las agallas de N. aculeatae está restringida a la distribución norte de P. aculeata. La disección de agallas recolectadas a lo largo del año, reveló la presencia de larvas y/o pupas en distintos estados fenológicos de P. aculeata. La emergencia de adultos de N. aculeatae tuvo lugar 13 a 34 días desde la recolección en el campo y se extendió por un período promedio de 22 días. Entre once especies de leguminosas inspeccionadas en el campo, adultos de N. aculeatae emergieron únicamente de agallas recolectadas sobre P. aculeata. Los atributos biológicos y el restringido conjunto de plantas hospederas utilizadas en el campo, hacen de N. aculeatae un agente promisorio para el control biológico de P. aculeata.

  11. Assessing the Risk of Establishment of Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the United States and Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Yee, Wee L; Neven, Lisa G

    2018-05-28

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) (Rosaceae) in Europe and Asia. In 2016, R. cerasi was detected in Ontario, Canada, and in 2017 in New York State, USA, the first records of this pest in North America. The initial detections in Canada caused concern for the major cherry-growing states of Michigan, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. Establishment of R. cerasi in the United States could restrict cherry exports to other markets and increase costs needed for fly control, but it is unknown if R. cerasi can establish in U.S. commercial cherry regions. Here, we used the CLIMEX ecological niche model to determine the risk of establishment of R. cerasi in the United States and globally. Within the United States under a no-irrigation scenario, R. cerasi would establish in the East and West Coasts; however, under an irrigation scenario, its distribution would expand to the major cherry-growing regions in the interior of central and eastern Washington and in California. Results also showed that if introduced, R. cerasi would likely establish in eastern China, Japan, the Koreas, Australia, New Zealand, South America, South Africa, Mexico, and Canada. Host plant (Prunus spp. and Lonicera spp. [Caprifoliaceae]) presence, although not included in models, would affect fly establishment. Our results stress the importance of surveying for R. cerasi to prevent its spread and establishment within the United States and other countries.

  12. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  13. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  15. Phenotypic polymorphism of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may lead to species misidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Maicon D; Savino, André G; Paulo, Daniel F; Mendes, Felipe M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana M L; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2015-01-01

    Species identification is an essential step in the progress and completion of work in several areas of biological knowledge, but it is not a simple process. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of certain species, morphological characters are not always sufficiently distinguishable. As a result, it is necessary to combine several methods of analysis that contribute to a distinct categorization of taxa. This study aimed to raise diagnostic characters, both morphological and molecular, for the correct identification of species of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) recorded in the New World, which has continuously generated discussion about its taxonomic position over the last century. A clear example of this situation was the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Brazilian territory in 2012. However, the morphological polymorphism and genetic variability of Chrysomya albiceps studied here show that both species (C. rufifacies and C. albiceps) share very similar character states, leading to misidentification and subsequent registration error of species present in our territory. This conclusion is demonstrated by the authors, based on a review of the material deposited in major scientific collections in Brazil and subsequent molecular and phylogenetic analysis of these samples. Additionally, we have proposed a new taxonomic key to separate the species of Chrysomya found on the American continent, taking into account a larger number of characters beyond those available in current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  17. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

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    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  19. ECOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    PARRA-HENAO GABRIEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During the months of June to September 2006, collections of tabanids (Diptera:Tabanidae and ticks were conducted in the Caucasia municipality, Antioquia,Colombia. Tabanids were caught on horses during daylight using hand nets and pots atthe ecotone zone between secondary forests and paddock habitats. Ticks were collecteddirectly from cattle by hand. The purpose of the study was to identify possible vectorsof bovine trypanosomosis, and register the diversity and abundance of tabanids inthe zone. The arthropods were brought to the laboratory for taxonomic determinationand protozooans searching in proboscis, midgut, and salivary glands of flies. Inthe case of ticks, protozoans were searched in hemolymph. One hundred and fortytabanids belonging to four genera and nine species were caught. Among the species,Lepiselaga crassipes was the most abundant (43.6%, with the highest abundancein July and a biting peak at 14:00 h. The highest diversity of tabanids was observedduring September. Three tabanids were found infected with flagellates morphologicallycompatible with Trypanosoma vivax. 315 ticks belonging to Boophilus microplusspecies were collected, all of them negative to flagellates. These results suggest T.vivax transmission by tabanids in the study area. However, the specific status ofthe parasites should be determined by molecular techniques and the transmissionmechanism should be established too by controlled studies

  20. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  2. Effects of Persea americana Mill. seed extracts on the postembryonic development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscoide

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    Silvia del C. Molina Bertrán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The synthetic insecticides used to control Diptera are harmful to the environment and humans. Extracts and compounds from plants are a more sustainable source for the development of bio-insecticides. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of Persea americana Mill seeds as an alternative control of the species Musca domestica. Methods: The extracts were obtained by two methods, the Shaker (S and the Soxhlet extraction (SE method, using 94% ethanol as the solvent. Also, the qualitative chemical composition was determined by phytochemical screening. The effect of the two extracts on the post-embryonic development of the fly as well as the adulticidal effect was evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of metabolites such as alkaloids, coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, sugars and amino acids. The influence on the post-embryonic development of M. domestica was demonstrated, especially on the viability of larvae and neolarvae to adults; however, the effect on the weight and duration of each period was low. The adulticidal effects of the extracts were determined by the lethal concentration 50(LC50 of 2.910 mg/100 mL and 3.944 mg/100 mL for the S and SE extracts, respectively. Conclusions: Both extracts showed their insecticidal effects against Musca domestica, but the extract elaborated by S method showed greater influence diminishing viability and better adulticidal effect.

  3. Molecular variation and distribution of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) complex in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Bahramali, Golnaz

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the known malaria vectors in south and southeastern Iran. Earlier ITS2 sequences analysis of specimens from Iran demonstrated only a single genotype that was identical to species Y in India, which is also the same as species T. We identified 2 haplotypes in the An. fluviatilis populations of Iran based on differences in nucleotide sequences of D3 domain of the 28S locus of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of sequence data from 44 Iranian specimens with those publicly available in the Genbank database showed that all of the 28S-D3 sequences from Kazeroun and Khesht regions in Fars Province were identical to the database entry representing species U in India. In other regions, all the individuals showed heterozygosity at the single nucleotide position, which identifies species U and T. It is argued that the 2 species may co-occur in some regions and hybridize; however, the heterozygosity in the 28S-D3 locus was not reflected in ITS2 sequences and this locus for all individuals was identical to species T. This study shows that in a newly diverged species, like members of An. fluviatilis complex, a single molecular marker may not be sufficiently discriminatory to identify all the taxa over a vast geographical area. In addition, other molecular markers may provide more reliable information for species discrimination.

  4. Feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; de Oliveira, Luis Claudio Motta; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Morone, Fernanda; Lorosa, Elias Seixas

    2012-07-01

    Blood-feeding sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the eastern region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were analyzed by precipitin technique. One hundred fifty-four female mosquitoes collected by CDC traps in the Navegantes municipality 13-15 February 2005 reacted to one or more of eight antisera, including chicken, dog, goat, sheep, horse, opossum, human and rodent antisera. One hundred thirty-seven specimens (89%) reacted to only one source, and 17 (11%) specimens reacted to two sources. Among the 137 specimens reacting to only one source, reactions to rodent (50.4%), sheep (5.8%), chicken (5.1%), goat (5.1%), dog (2.2%), horse (3.6%), and human (3.6%) antisera were observed. The analyzed species demonstrated a high degree of opportunistic feeding behavior in relation to host preference. Results are compared with results from similar studies, and the low proportion of reactions to human antisera is discussed.

  5. Effects of contaminants of emerging concern on Megaselia scalaris (Lowe, Diptera: Phoridae) and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Marcus J; Rothman, Jason A; Jones, Michael B; McFrederick, Quinn S; Gan, Jay; Trumble, John T

    2017-08-15

    Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae). Larvae were reared on artificial diets spiked with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Female flies showed no oviposition preference for treated or untreated diets. Larvae exposed to caffeine in diets showed increased mortality, and larvae fed antibiotics and hormones showed signs of slowed development, especially in females. The normal sex ratio observed in M. scalaris from control diets was affected by exposure to caffeine and pharmaceutical mixture treatments. There was an overall effect of treatment on the flies' microbial communities; notably, caffeine fed insects displayed higher microbial variability. Eight bacterial families accounted for approximately 95% of the total microbes in diet and insects. Our results suggest that CECs at environmentally relevant concentrations can affect the biology and microbial communities of an insect of ecological and medical importance.

  6. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  7. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-12-05

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-01-01

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [es

  9. Description of Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Peruvian Equadorean interandean areas

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    Eunice A. Bianchi Galati

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.

  10. Macrogeographic population structuring in the cosmopolitan agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, M; Delatte, H; Backeljau, T; De Meyer, M

    2010-07-01

    The macrogeographic population structure of the agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated in order to identify the geographic origin of the species and reconstruct its range expansion. Individuals of B. cucurbitae were collected from 25 worldwide-distributed localities (n = 570) and genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. The Bayesian clustering reveals that B. cucurbitae can be subdivided into five main groups corresponding to populations from (i) the African continent, (ii) La Réunion, (iii) Central Asia, (iv) East Asia and (v) Hawaii. The proportions of inter-regional assignments and the higher values of genetic diversity in populations from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh suggest that B. cucurbitae originated in Central Asia and expanded its range to East Asia and Hawaii on one hand and to Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean on the other. A number of outliers (10-19 specimens according to different clustering algorithms) show high levels of admixture (Q > 0.70) with populations from different regions and reveal complex patterns of inter-regional gene flow. Anthropogenic transport is the most plausible promoter of this large-scale dispersal. The introduction of individuals from geographically distant sources did not have a relevant role in the most recent African invasions, which originated from the expansion of local populations. These results could provide a useful background to better evaluate invasion risks and establish priorities for the management of this cosmopolitan agricultural pest.

  11. Primer reporte de miasis hospitalaria por Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae en Costa Rica

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    Lucía Quesada-Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. Una paciente de 91 años de edad, con signos de inmunosupresión, afectación grave de la función pulmonar y asistencia respiratoria mecánica, presentó larvas en ambas fosas nasales al séptimo día después del ingreso hospitalario. Varios ejemplares fueron recolectados y procesados para su identificación. La identificación taxonómica de los ejemplares recolectados estableció que la especie de los muscomorfos correspondía a L. cuprina. Conclusión. El presente constituye el primer caso de miasis hospitalaria por L. cuprina en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica y el primero registrado en Latinoamérica.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.690

  12. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2017-06-01

    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Erika M; Márialigeti, K; Fodor, A; Lucskai, A; Farkas, R

    2005-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is the primary agent of cutaneous myiasis of sheep in northern Europe, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As the application of chemicals has several disadvantages, alternative control measures of traumatic myiasis of livestock must be developed. In this study, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as potential biocontrol agents against second instar larvae of Lucilia sericata was considered. The following nematode species were tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (IS 5, HHU 1, Hmol, HNC 1, HAZ 36, Hbrecon, HHU 2, HAZ 29, HHP 88, HHU 3, HHU 4 and HGua), Steinernema intermedia, NC513 strain of S. glaserii, S. anomali, S. riobrave, Steinernema sp. and 5 strains of S. feltiae (22, Vija Norway, HU 1, scp, and IS 6). None of the examined EPN species or strains showed larvicidal efficacy at 37 degrees C (no killing effect was observed in the case of the two heat-tolerant strains--H. bacteriophora and S.feltiae) against L. sericata larvae. At lower temperatures (20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) only strains of S. feltiae were found to be active. The overall odds ratios calculated for L. sericata maggots to contract S. feltiae nematode infection show significant (p nematode occurred in the cadavers.

  14. Susceptibility of pest Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera: Tachinidae) to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-06-01

    Susceptibility of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and its endoparasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. In the residual toxicity test, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, and oxamyl were highly toxic to N. viridula. Thiamethoxam was moderately toxic to these insects. Each of the four insecticides was highly toxic to T. pennipes after prolonged tarsal contact with dried residues of these chemicals. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on food covered with insecticide residues, none of the insecticides were toxic to adults of this stink bug, but acetamiprid, dicrotophos, and thiamethoxam were moderately toxic to the nymphs. In the oral toxicity test, where N. viridula fed on a gel-food containing insecticides, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam were highly toxic to this stink bug. In an oral toxicity test using contaminated sugar water, all of the insecticides were highly toxic to T. pennipes. Because insecticides were as toxic, or more toxic, to T. pennipes than to N. viridula, it is extremely important to conserve this parasitoid by applying these insecticides for control of southern green stink bugs only when the pest reaches economic threshold.

  15. Progress on the artificial rearing of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Bueno, L.; Guzman Duenas, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating post-harvest quarantine treatments for fruits in Colombia, we have established experimental colonies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at the Colombian Agricultural Institute (ICA), plant quarantine Laboratory Ibague (Tol.) at 24 deg. C, 70-80% RH, and 10 hr light. The procedures and results refer only to A. fraterculus from September 1994 to September 1996. The first adults, obtained from Coffea arabica L. cherries, were initially multiplied in fruits and later put on artificial diet. The handling procedures, diets and data collected are adapted from those established by USDA-ARA 1981, Celedonio et al. 1989, Gonzalez et al. Martinez et al. 1987, and others, that were used for Anastrepha spp. The average percentages of recuperation between stages that were hatched 66.0±1.0; first to third instar larvae 28.12±14.4; third instar larvae to pupae 81.80±3.0; pupae to adult 75.82±3.4. Additional data related to partial mortality of the stages are also discussed. The average recuperation from eggs to third instar larvae of 17.57%, and from eggs to emerged adults of 9.5±4.9, is low and indicates the necessity of doing basic research to improve the procedures. (author)

  16. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

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    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  17. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  18. Intrapuparial Development of Sarconesia Chlorogaster (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for Postmortem Interval Estimation (PMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flissak, J C; Moura, M O

    2018-02-28

    Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is an endemic blow fly species of forensic importance in South America, and whose duration of pupal development is about 70% of the total immature development time. Therefore, morphological changes during this stage, if refined, may provide greater accuracy and reliability in the calculation of minimum postmortem interval. Considering the importance of this species, the main objective of this work was to identify and describe temporal intrapuparial morphological changes of S. chlorogaster. The development of S. chlorogaster reared on an artificial diet and at two constant temperatures (20 and 25ºC) was monitored. Every 8 h until the end of the pupal stage, 10 pupae were killed, fixed, and had their external morphology described and photographed. Of the 29 morphological characteristics described, 13 are potentially informative for estimating the age of S. chlorogaster. In general, body shape (presence or absence of tagmatization), general coloration, visible presence of the mouth hook (portion of the mandible), thoracic appendages, change in eye color, and bristle formation are the most useful characteristics for determining specific age. The results presented here make it possible to estimate the postmortem interval of a corpse using intrapuparial morphological characters, expanding one's ability to estimate postmortem interval.

  19. Quantifying pteridines in the heads of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Reiskind, M H; Guisewite, L M; Denning, S S; Watson, D W

    2017-11-01

    In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value. In this study we applied an age-grading technique to estimate the age of adults of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Phormia regina (Meigen), based on the temperature-dependent accumulation of pteridines in the compound eyes, when reared at temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C. Age could be estimated for all species*sex*rearing temperature combinations (mean r 2 ±SE: 0.90±0.01) for all but P. regina reared at 5.4°C. These models can be used to increase the precision of post-CI estimates for remains found indoors, and the high r 2 values of 22 of the 24 regression equations indicates that this is a valid method for estimating the age of adult blow flies at temperatures ≥15°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  1. A key and checklist to the Neotropical forensically important "Little House Flies" (Diptera: Fanniidae

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    Diana Grisales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fanniidae (Insecta: Diptera is a relatively small family (ca. 350 spp. with five genera, of which Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Euryomma Stein, 1899 have Neotropical distributions. Some of these species are almost always found in forensic studies. Forensically relevant species have been neglected, despite recent forensic studies that suggest their importance for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI. Thus, current and updated keys to identify adults or larvae on carcasses are unavailable for the most important species. While immature stages are important in estimating PMI, evidence suggests that adults (Fanniidae as well as other families may also be useful for this purpose. Here we provide a key to males of the species of Fanniidae (found on corpses and other decomposing organic matter with a checklist of species that have been used in forensics in the Neotropical region. The key comprises all 38 species of Fannia and Euryomma that have already been successfully used in forensics, and species that are potentially useful for estimating PMI. These records were found after reviews of the literature and data from entomological collections. Photographs and illustrations of the main characters in the key are provided.

  2. Chemotaxonomic Profile and Intraspecific Variation in the Blow Fly of Forensic Interest Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2017-01-01

    Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Checklist and key identification of Chironomidae Larvae (Insecta: Diptera in Marbor River (Isfahan, Iran

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    Azam Karami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chironomidae (Diptera which are distributed worldwide, are the most abundant and diverse insects in many freshwater ecosystems, as well as inland waters of Iran. However, very few researches were done for identification of this group in Iran, and there is a poor knowledge of their faunal diversity distribution in this country. To investigate chironomid larvae in Marbor river, Isfahan Province, seasonal samplings were done (2003-2004 in five selected sites along the river course, using Dredge sampler 3 times for every site. After collecting, the samples were preserved in formaldehyde at the site. Samples were sorted out in laboratory and the Chironomidae larvae were identified down to the generic level using the identification keys, and light and phase-contrast microscopes. Results revealed 39 genera from four subfamilies in Marbor River: Chironominae (15 genera, Diamesinae (2 genera, Orthocladiinae (17 genera and Tanypodinae (5 genera. From these, 13 genera were reported for the first time in Iran. An identification key for the taxon in Marbor river was provided.

  4. Activity of a lipid synthesis inhibitor (spiromesifen in Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Hayette Bouabida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of spiromesifen against the most abundant and investigated mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Aitken, 1954 (Diptera, Culicidae. Methods: Culiseta longiareolata larvae were collected from untreated areas located at Tébessa (Northeast Algeria. A commercial formulation of spiromesifen (Oberon® 240 SC was tested at different concentrations ranging between 238 and 1428 μg/L on newly molted fourth-instar larvae under standard laboratory conditions according to Word Health Organization recommendations. The effects were examined on the mortality, the morphometric measurements, two biomarkers (catalase and malondialdehyde, and the biochemical composition of larvae, respectively. Results: The compound exhibited insecticidal activity. Moreover, it disturbed growth and several morphological aberrations were observed. It also affected body volume, biomarkers and contents of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. A marked effect on lipids and malondialdehyde was noted, confirming its primary mode of action on lipid synthesis. Conclusions: Spiromesifen appears less potent than other insecticides tested such as the insect growth disruptors. Keywords: Culiseta longiareolata, Spiromesifen, Toxicity, Biochemical composition, Biomarkers

  5. Survival of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Truvia and Other Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W

    2017-07-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Complex interactions envolving a gall midge Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, phytophagous modifiers and parasitoids

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    Fernando Fortunato Faria Ferraz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae induces a gall in lateral and apical shoots in the plant Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk (Myrtaceae which is used and modified by two eulophid wasps species. In both cases the gall former species suffer high rate of attack exceeding the importance of parasitoid species as mortality factors. In this study these interactions are described and their effects as mortality of gall former. The intensity of occurrence of the two eulophid species as modifiers and of microhymenopteran parasitoids, and the relative importance of these species as mortality agents of the M. maricaensis larvae is compared. This comparison reveals that two modifiers species found in the gall tissue modification causing the death of the M. maricaensis larva and it is a more important factor of mortality than the cecidomyiid larva parasitism. The fluctuation of the number of each type of gall along the year was monitored in the research field and confirmed in numerical and in synchronic terms of occurrence of the galls; the importance of the species of the gall modifier eulophids, particularly one of these species, as factors of mortality of the M. maricaensis larvae and justified our comparing the relationship between these species and M. maricaensis as similar to the parasitoid-host relationship. The gall shape modification by one of the eulophids allows the occurrence of other inquiline insect species, what means that this gall modification becomes it more heterogeneous and allows the increase of the species richness to the system.

  7. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  8. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  9. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

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    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  10. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  12. Fine structure and distribution pattern of antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas; Bahia-Nascimento, Ana Cristina; Pinto, Luciana Conceição; Leal, Cynthia de Sousa; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2008-11-01

    The specific aims of this work were to examine the antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) adults and to characterize their typology and topography, with special attention to olfactory sensilla. The surfaces of the antennal segments of Lu. longipalpis males and females were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lu. longipalpis used in the current study were obtained from a colony originating from Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Microtrichiae and 11 subtypes of sensilla were observed and characterized according to the following categories: five subtypes of trichoid sensilla (short, medium, long blunt-tipped, long pointed-tipped, and apical), two coeloconic sensilla (grooved and praying hands), and campaniform, chaetic, basiconic, and squamiform sensilla. SEM analyses showed few differences between males and females in the typology, topography, and quantity of antennal sensilla described. The current study is the first to identify several categories of antennal sensilla of the genus Lutzomyia and their distribution patterns. The identification of these sensillar types may be important in planning future electrophysiological studies to develop alternative measures of control and monitoring of Lu. longipalpis.

  13. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control.

  15. Genetic variation of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Florida and the Caribbean using microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Dean, David; Beerli, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Caribbean fruit fly, is indigenous to Florida and the Greater Antilles where it causes economic losses in fruit crops, including citrus. Because of the geographic separation of many of its native locations and anecdotal descriptions of regional differences in host preferences, there have been questions about the population structure of A. suspensa. Seven DNA microsatellite markers were used to characterize the population genetic structure of A. suspensa, in Florida and the Caribbean from a variety of hosts, including citrus. We genotyped 729 A. suspensa individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, Cayman Island, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. The investigated seven loci displayed from 5 to 19 alleles, with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.05 to 0.83. There were five unique alleles in Florida and three unique alleles in the Caribbean samples; however, no microsatellite alleles were specific to a single host plant. Genetic diversity was analyzed using F(ST) and analysis of molecular variance and revealed low genetic diversity between Florida and Caribbean samples and also between citrus and noncitrus samples. Analyses using migrate revealed there is continuous gene flow between sampling sites in Florida and the Caribbean and among different hosts. These results support previous comparisons based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I locus indicating there is no genetic differentiation among locations in Florida and the Caribbean and that there is no separation into host races.

  16. Inability of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to overwinter in the Judean hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israely, Nimrod; Ritte, Uzi; Oman, Samuel D

    2004-02-01

    The overwintering potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in cold winter areas within its northern distribution is a key element in understanding its ecology. Recent studies have suggested that although originating in tropical Africa, the fly has become adapted to the cold weather that prevails within its northernmost areas of distribution. We address the question of whether the Mediterranean fruit fly has expanded its overwintering range to include the mountains of central Israel. Doing so would imply that the fly has developed either a behavioral or a physiological mechanism to cope with low temperature and/or damp conditions in combination with cold. We monitored adult populations year round, sampling fruit, calculating expected emergence days for overwintering flies, and studying adults captured within dense and sparse apple orchards. We also performed several manipulative experiments to study preimago ability to survive the winter under natural or seminatural conditions. The study was conducted in the central mountains of Israel at 700-m altitude from 1994 to 2003. Comparison experiments also were conducted at 400 m and at sea level. Our results show 1) no adults captured during the winter and spring, 2) an absence of new infestations during the winter and spring, and 3) inability of preimago stages to overwinter in the central mountains of Israel. Thus, we conclude that the fly does not overwinter in the central mountains of Israel. We discuss the ecological and applied significance of our findings.

  17. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  18. A Single Swede Midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Larva Can Render Cauliflower Unmarketable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Chase A; Hodgdon, Elisabeth A; Zuckerman, Samuel G; Shelton, Anthony M; Chen, Yolanda H

    2018-05-01

    Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is an invasive pest causing significant damage on Brassica crops in the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada. Heading brassicas, like cauliflower, appear to be particularly susceptible. Swede midge is difficult to control because larvae feed concealed inside meristematic tissues of the plant. In order to develop damage and marketability thresholds necessary for integrated pest management, it is important to determine how many larvae render plants unmarketable and whether the timing of infestation affects the severity of damage. We manipulated larval density (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20) per plant and the timing of infestation (30, 55, and 80 d after seeding) on cauliflower in the lab and field to answer the following questions: 1) What is the swede midge damage threshold? 2) How many swede midge larvae can render cauliflower crowns unmarketable? and 3) Does the age of cauliflower at infestation influence the severity of damage and marketability? We found that even a single larva can cause mild twisting and scarring in the crown rendering cauliflower unmarketable 52% of the time, with more larvae causing more severe damage and additional losses, regardless of cauliflower age at infestation.

  19. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-08-01

    The biology of the 10 species of Leucophora (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) recorded in the Neotropics remains unknown. The large majority of the studied species so far are kleptoparasites of bees and wasps. Here, we report the first observations of Leucophora andicola (Bigot) and Leucophora peullae (Malloch) visiting the nests of ground-nesting sweat bees Corynura (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Chilean Patagonia. Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests. The overall behavior closely resembles that observed for many other species of the genus. Excavations of some bee nests returned only two dipteran puparia, possibly of Leucophora, suggesting a low parasitism rate. One male of L. peullae was also collected at the bee aggregation. This is the first report of host association for any Leucophora from the Neotropics and the first report of any anthomyiid fly associated with augochlorine bees.

  20. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest.

  1. Unexpected diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in tourist caves in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James

    2017-11-01

    Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.

  2. Synthetic Sex Pheromone Attracts the Leishmaniasis Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Traps in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D. P.; Bandi, K. K.; Brazil, R. P.; Oliveira, A. G.; Hamilton, J.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world’s burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly as vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of AVL, Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies, attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results demonstrate the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world’s most important neglected diseases, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. Then by formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, demonstrating the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  3. Anthropophily of Lutzomyia wellcomei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  5. Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera:Hippoboscidae on Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gredilha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia, representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis.The record of Pseudolynchia canariensis on two Rufous Crab-Hawk in situ taken care of the Hospital Veterinarian of the RioZoo Foundation. The nineteen collected specimens had been identified in the Laboratory of Diptera, Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The findings of P canariensis out natural hosty (Columba livia it represents a contribution to the studies of the family Hippoboscidae considering that it does not have records about native birds of the american continent parasitized by P canariensis.

  6. Distribucion geografica de Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, vector de la batonellosis humana en el Peru Geographical distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae vector of human bartonellosis in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G. Caceres

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector natural de la verruga peruana o enfermedad de Carrión es una especie propia del Perú. Su distribución geográfica esta entre los paralelos 5º y 13º25' de latitud Sur, se encuentra en los valles Occidentales e Interandinos de los Andes. La distribución altitudinal de Lu. verrucarum en los diversos valles es variable; asi: Occidentales, desde 1100 hasta 2980 msnm e Interandinos, de 1200 a 3200 msnm. En ciertas áreas verrucógenas no hay correlación entre la presencia de Lu. verrucarum y la enfermedad de Carrión lo que suguiere la existencia de vectores secundarios.Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae; the natural vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, agent of human bartonellosis (peruvian verruga or Carrion's disease, is a native specie of Peru; its geographic distribution occurres between latitudes 5º and 13º 25' South: in the Occidental and Interandean valleys of the Andean. The altitudinal distribution of Lu. verrucarum in the different valleys is as follows: Occidental between 1100 and 2980 m sea level and Interandean from 1200 to 3200 m sea level. Some discrepancies between the distribution of Carrion's disease and Lu. verrucarum suggest the existence of secondary vectors in certain areas where Lu. verrucarum is not present

  7. Occurrence of Microcerella halli (Engel (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in snake carrion in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Microcerella halli (Engel (Diptera, Sarcophagidae em uma Carcaça de Cobra no Sudeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de C. Moretti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of 27 second-instar larvae of the flesh fly Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in a carcass of a snake usually called as Urutu, Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae is reported. The snake was kept in captivity in a snake farm in Morungaba, São Paulo state, Brazil. Descriptions of reptile carcass colonization by insects and general biological data of this flesh fly are scarce and this necrophagic behavior is described for the first time in literature.A ocorrência de 27 larvas de segundo estádio do sarcofagídeo Microcerella halli (Engel, 1931 (Diptera, Sarcophagidae em uma carcaça de urutu Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae é relatada. A cobra era mantida em cativeiro em um serpentário no município de Morungaba, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrições de colonização de carcaças de répteis por insetos e dados gerais da biologia deste sarcofagídeo são escassos, e este comportamento necrófago é descrito pela primeira vez na literatura.

  8. Novedades en la distribución geográfica del grupo verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae en Colombia.

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    Eduar Elías Bejarano

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available La incriminación de especies de Lutzomyia del grupo verrucarum Theodor, 1965, en la transmisión de leishmaniosis en Colombia ha puesto de manifiesto la necesidad de conocer en detalle su distribución geográfica. Este trabajo pretende contribuir a su conocimiento mediante la incorporación de 34 registros nuevos, entre los que sobresalen el hallazgo de Lutzomyia spinicrassa en un bosque seco tropical de la Costa Atlántica, la presencia de Lutzomyia ovallesi en la Orinoquia y Amazonia y la simpatría de L. spinicrassa y Lutzomyia quasitownsendi en la Cordillera Oriental. Complementariamente, este artículo recopila y sintetiza la distribución municipal y altitudinal de las 19 especies registradas en el país. Los datos compilados muestran que la serie townsendi (L. spinicrassa, Lutzomyia longiflocosa, L. quasitownsendi, Lutzomyia sauroida, Lutzomyia torvida, Lutzomyia townsendi, Lutzomyia youngi está generalmente asociada con los pisos altitudinales premontano y montano bajo, mientras la serie verrucarum hace presencia desde el piso tropical hasta el montano con taxones de extenso ámbito geográfico (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana, L. ovallesi, Lutzomyia nuneztovari, Lutzomyia nevesi y taxones de distribución endémica (Lutzomyia andina, Lutzomyia disiuncta, Lutzomyia moralesi, Lutzomyia antioquiensis. De otro lado, los representantes de la serie pia (Lutzomyia pia, Lutzomyia limafalcaoae y de la serie serrana (Lutzomyia serrana aparecen desde el piso tropical hasta el montano bajo. Se postula que las divergencias en los rangos altitudinales podrían estar relacionadas intrínsecamente con el origen de las especies, derivándose de fenómenos climáticos y geológicos que han afectado la flora y fauna de la región andina.

  9. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the Forensic Entomologist

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    Simão D. Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.

  10. Diptera: Tephritidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... In Brazil, the search for alternatives for the manage- ment of ... The products were applied to the plates with the aid of a pipette. The mortality rate ... number of applications performed on eggs, larvae, and pupae, respectively.

  11. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... In spite of availability of such robust genetic and ... several novel species reflecting high degree of endemism, sexual dimorphism and host .... Trap bait: Small containers baited with yeasted banana or other fermenting fruits as ...

  12. Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry

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    Camila de Oliveira Ferreira Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mendes C.deO.F., Silva A.C., Leal L.C.deS.R., Barbosa C.G & Bittencourt A.J. [Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry.] Biologia de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae em subprodutos da indústria sucroalcoleira. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:23-30, 2016. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23.890-000, Brasil. E-mail: camilamendes1009@gmail.com Stomoxys calcitrans fly is one of the dipterans of importance for livestock farming due to the considerable economic losses it determines worldwide. An aspect that favors the occurrence of this insect's outbreaks in Brazil is the generation of large quantities of by-products from the alcohol industry, such as vinasse, sugarcane straw, bagasse, filtercake and ashes. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible interference of vinasse and ashes on the immature stages of S. calcitrans, by comparing the biological parameters observed with or without the presence of these substrates. In Experiment I, three groups of 50 eggs were deposited in a diet composed of one kilogram of chopped cane and 250mL, 500mL and 1L of vinasse (groups 1, 2 and 3. In the control groups, distilled water was added to the chopped cane in the same proportions used in the groups treated with vinasse. In Experiment II, three groups of 50 larvae from eight to 10 days of emergence were deposited on a diet composed of cane, vinasse and ashes. The ashes were used in the proportion of 1, 2 and 3% (groups 1, 2 and 3 of sugar cane (100g and vinasse was used in the proportion of 100mL for all groups and their respective controls. The control group contained only sugarcane and vinasse. Both experiments were kept in a climatized chamber (27 ± 1°C and 70-80% RH, and three replications were performed. After Experiment I, it was verified that

  13. Biology of immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae in sugarcane and vinasse

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    Otávia Reis e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva O.R., Andriotti P.A., Leal L.C.S.R. & Bittencourt A.J. [Biology of immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae in sugarcane and vinasse.] Biologia de estágios imaturos de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae em cana de açúcar e vinhoto. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:45-50, 2015. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: bittenc@ufrrj.br To evaluate the effect of vinasse associated with sugarcane in the preoviposition, oviposition and immature stages of S. calcitrans, flies were collected, divided into groups of 15 (six cages and maintained in BOD (26.5±1°C/80% RH. The rearing media (77g of cane was deposited into beaker and stored for three days of fermentation. The vinasse was added in proportions of 1Kg/2L, 1kg/1L and 1Kg/0.5L; Groups I, II and III, and a Control (water for each group with vinasse. The adults were exposed to vinasse in cages, containing blood, water and 10g of the diet. The eggs were deposited in Petri dishes with moistened filter paper (0.5mL distilled water and a drop of blood. The hatched larvae (24h were counted and transferred to beakers containing diet. On the tenth day, the L3 were counted, weighed and returned to the diet. The pupae were removed on the 15th day post-oviposition and deposited in Petri dishes into the cage for emergence of adults. The preoviposition lasted four days and oviposition in Groups I (16 days and II (20 days was longer when compared to Group III (11 days. Larval viability showed how critical this stage is, as at the highest concentration of vinasse, viability was lower than in its control (Group I-2.4%/Control I-29%. Fungal contamination occurred in Group II, affecting larval viability (0.51% and the following stages, being lower than its control (8.75%. In Group III (19

  14. Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms of Iran

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    K. Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical

  15. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable.

  16. First colony of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae successfully established under laboratory conditions in Argentina

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    Maricel ANGULO LEWYLLE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas de los establos, Stomoxys calcitrans (L. (Diptera:Muscidae son insectos hematófagos que representan un problema, no solo por su hemato - fagia y transmisión de patógenos, sino además, porque su impacto económico en las producciones pecuarias es relevante. En Argentina aún no existe una cría de la plaga. El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y describir la primera cría de Stomoxys calcitrans en el país y registrar la duración de cada estadio bajo condi - ciones controladas de laboratorio. Los adultos fueron exitosamente criados en una cámara de cría (28 ± 1 ºC y 47 ± 1 %RH bajo un fotoperiodo de 14 h: 10 h (Luz: Oscuridad, mientras que los estadios inmaduros se criaron a 25 ± 2 ºC y luz na - tural. El ciclo desde los huevos hasta la emergencia de adultos duró 16,75 ± 2,9 días. El tiempo de desarrollo requerido para alcanzar el nuevo estado fue de: 2,0 ± 0,8, 6,75 ± 1,3 y 7,75 ± 1,7 días para huevos, larvas y pupas; respectivamente. Los adultos vivieron 16,5 ± 1,91 días. El período de preoviposición fue de 5,0 ± 0,8 días. La supervivencia de larvas y pupas fue de 93,28% y 70,25%, respectivamen - te. Estos resultados pueden ser usados como referencia por otras colonias que se establecieren en un futuro en el país.

  17. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  18. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  20. Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Del Serrone, Paola; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. In the African region, it vectors the Rift Valley fever virus, while in the USA it transmits West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus. In this study, DNA barcoding was used to explore the genetic variation of Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from 88 geographical regions. We presented a comprehensive approach analyzing the effectiveness of two gene markers, i.e. CO1 and 16S rRNA. The high threshold genetic divergence of CO1 (0.47%) gene was reported as an ideal marker for molecular identification of this mosquito vector. Furthermore, null substitutions were lower in CO1 if compared to 16S rRNA, which influenced its differentiating potential among Indian haplotypes. NJ tree was well supported with high branch values for CO1 gene than 16S rRNA, indicating ideal genetic differentiation among haplotypes. TCS haplotype network revealed 14 distinct clusters. The intra- and inter-population polymorphism were calculated among the global and Indian Cx. quinquefasciatus lineages. The genetic diversity index Tajima' D showed negative values for all the 4 intra-population clusters (G2-4, G10). Fu's FS showed negative value for G10 cluster, which was significant and indicated recent population expansion. However, the G2-G4 (i.e. Indian lineages) had positive values, suggesting a bottleneck effect. Overall, our research firstly shed light on the genetic differences among the haplotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus species complex, adding basic knowledge to the molecular ecology of this important mosquito vector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Fábio C Abdalla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval development of Physocephala (Diptera, Conopidae in the bumble bee Bombus morio (Hymenoptera, Apidae. In the summer of 2012, a high incidence of conopid larvae was observed in a sample of female B. morio collected in remaining fragments of semidecidual forest and Cerrado, in the municipality of Sorocaba, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The larval development of conopid flies was studied, beginning at the larval instars (LO to L3 and PUP, until the emergence of the imago under laboratory conditions and inside the host. At the first instar, or LO, the microtype larvae measured less than 1 mm in length. During the transition from L1 to L3, the larvae grew in length. At L3, the larvae doubled their length (4 mm and then started to develop both in length and width, reaching the PUP stage with 10 mm in length and 7 mm in width. The main characteristic that differentiates L3 from the early instars is the larger body size and the beginning of posterior spiracle development. The development from PUP to puparium took less than 24h. The bees died ten days after the fly oviposition, or just before full PUP development. The early development stages (egg-LO to L1 were critical for larva survival. The pupa was visible between the intersegmental sternites and, 32 days after pupation, a female imago of Physocephala sp. emerged from one bee. The puparium and the fly measured approximately 10 mm in length. In a single day of collection, up to 45% of the bumble bees collected were parasitized by conopid flies.

  4. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  5. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  6. Description of a Neotropical New Species of OxysarcodexiaTownsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

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    Carina Souza

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Uma nova espécie de Oxysarcodexia Townsend, 1917 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae é descrita com base em espécimes machos. As espécies deste gênero de sarcofagídeos apresentam distribuição majoritariamente Neotropical, com algumas espécies ocorrendo também nas regiões Neártica, Australásia e Oceânica. As espécies deste gênero podem ser encontradas associadas à matéria orgânica em decomposição (fezes de mamíferos ou aves – espécies coprófilas e podem apresentar importância forense quando associadas a carcaças (fauna atraída e, em alguns casos, espécies que se criam. Fotografias digitais do hábito em vista lateral e da terminália em vistas lateral, posterior e ventral são apresentadas. Oxysarcodexia mineirensis sp. n. pertence ao “grupo Xarcophaga” (i.e. possui o falo alargado postero-distalmente e contém similaridades com Oxysarcodexia favorabilis (Lopes, 1935 devido à conformação da terminália, especialmente o formato do falo, semelhante a uma flor.

  7. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  8. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. The column separated 9 [th] fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is identified and validated, it may be synthesized and formulated as a product.

  9. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

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    Marcelo Henrique de Carvalho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800. For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0, and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates. Populational parameters such as the intrinsic growth rate (r and the finite growth rate (lambda were calculated as well.Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae é uma espécie de mosca-varejeira de considerável importância médico-sanitária que foi introduzida acidentalmente no Brasil nos anos 70. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da ecologia populacional desta espécie, analisando aspectos demográficos de adultos mantidos sob condições experimentais. Gaiolas de C. megacephala foram montadas com quatro diferentes densidades larvais (100, 200, 400 e 800. Para cada gaiola, foram confeccionadas duas tabelas: uma com parâmetros demográficos para a estimativa da expectativa de vida na idade inicial (e0, e outra com as estimativas de taxa reprodutiva e idade média de reprodução. Parâmetros populacionais tais como a taxa intrínseca de crescimento (r e a taxa finita de crescimento (lambda foram também calculados.

  10. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  11. Chronology of the Intrapuparial Development of the Blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Souza, Mônica; Couri, Márcia S; Aguiar, Valeria M

    2018-04-12

    Insects display different patterns of development, and blow flies have one of the most specialized patterns of intrapuparial development of all. In forensic entomology, pupae can be used as a tool to estimate the minimum postmortem time interval (minPMI). We analyzed the intrapuparial development of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Caloricidade), whose larvae had been fed pig lungs and reared in a climate-controlled room at 28°C day/26°C night, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12 h of photophase and monitored daily. After the third-instar larvae abandoned their diet, the process of pupariation and pupation was monitored. At pre-established times, five pupae were collected, euthanized, and fixed in 5% formaldehyde, inside polypropylene test tubes with caps. Since they were the first, they were classified as 0 h pupae. Twelve collections occurred until the emergence of the adults, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 30, 48, 54, 72, 78, 96, and 99 h (n = 84). The fixed pupae were dissected under the microscope, with the aid of anatomical tweezers and hypodermic needles, and photographed. The stages of metamorphosis and the morphological alterations occurring during the process were identified, described, and recorded before and after pupation. These phases were: pupation, larval pupal apolysis, cryptocephalic, phanerocephalic, pharate adult, emergence, and adult. The cryptophalic phase occurred between 4 and 6 h after pupation; the phanerocephalic phase between 6 and 10 h after; the pharate adult phase between 24 and 96 h after; and the imago/emergence phase 99 h after pupation.

  12. Monitoring hymenoptera and diptera pollinators in a sub-tropical forest of southern punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.; Sajjad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bees (Hymenoptera) and flies (Diptera) play an essential role in natural and agricultural ecosystems as pollinators of flowering plants while pollinators are declining around the world. Colored pan traps and Malaise traps have widely been used for monitoring pollinators. However, their efficiencies may vary with landscapes and type of fauna in a particular habitat. A yearlong study was carried out during 2009 to investigate the relative efficacy of colored pan traps and Malaise traps towards sampling flies and bees for the first time in a sub-tropical wildlife sanctuary Pirowal of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Fifteen pan traps (5 each of 3 colors i.e. white, red and blue) were deployed against one Malaise trap for 7 hours (9:00-16:00 hrs) on fortnightly basis. For the comparison and confirmation of an insect as a floral visitor, collection with the hand net was also performed. It was concluded that hand net collection is essential to have a comprehensive list of floral visitors of an area as the maximum number (63) of species and their abundance (5428 individuals) were recorded with it. Malaise trap collected only 671 individuals of 48 species. Although blue, yellow and white pan traps caught 46, 51 and 35 species but the numbers of individuals (1383) were fairly higher than that of Malaise traps. Keeping in view the cost effectiveness and better performance of colored pan traps, we recommend species specific pan trap colors when targeting certain groups or species, nevertheless variety of pan colors should be used when sampling overall biodiversity. We generalize these findings for both bees and flies due to similar collection pattern i.e. the maximum abundance and diversity in hand net method followed by pan traps and Malaise traps. (author)

  13. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control.

  14. Insecticide toxicity to oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is influenced by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuying; Jin, Tao; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of environmental factors (temperature, dose, dietary source, and feeding density) on the insecticide tolerance of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The results indicated that the toxicities of trichlorphon and abamectin to B. dorsalis increased with an increase in temperature. At 15-35 degrees C, the toxicity of beta-cypermethrin decreased with an increase in temperature at low doses (0.82 and 1.86 mg/L), but was similar at a high dose (4.18 mg/L). These results demonstrated that the temperature coefficient of beta-cypermethrin was related to both temperature and dosage. The insecticide sensitivity of B. dorsalis reared on different dietary sources was significantly different. Trichlorphon sensitivity of B. dorsalis fed on banana was the highest with an LC50 of 1.61 mg/L, followed by on apple, carambola, semiartificial diet, pear, mango, guava, orange, and papaya. With an increasing feeding density, the sensitivity of B. dorsalis adults to trichlorphon increased, while the sensitivities of B. dorsalis adults to abamectin and beta-cypermethrin decreased. The differences between LC50 values of insects reared at densities of 10 and 13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet to trichlorphon, abamectin and beta-cypermethrin were not significant. This result suggested that representative toxicity could be obtained by using adults developed at a feeding density between 10-13 eggs/g of semiartificial diet. Adult body weight was positively correlated with the LC50 value of trichlorphon, but was negatively correlated with the toxicities of abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. These results suggested that the effects of adult body weight on the toxicity of insecticides were different among different chemicals.

  15. Structural characterization of acetylcholinesterase 1 from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, I V; Balbino, V Q; Valenzuela, J G; Sonoda, I V; Ramalho-Ortigão, J M

    2007-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in cholinergic impulse transmission, and it is the target enzyme for organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Two genes, AceI and AceII, have been characterized from different insect species, and point mutations in either gene can lead to significant resistance to these classes of insecticides. In this report, we describe the partial characterization of the AceI gene from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae), and we show that the possibility exists for the development of a resistant phenotype to organophosphates and carbamates in sand flies. Our results point to the presence of a single AceI gene in L. longipalpis (LlAce1) and that AChE activity is inhibited by organophosphorus at a concentration of 5 x 10(-5) M. Regarding insecticide resistance, analysis of the truncated LlAce1 cDNA suggests that a single missense mutation leading to a glycine-to-serine substitution at amino acid position 119 (G119S) may arise in L. longipalpis, similar to what has been detected in Anopheles gambiae s.s. Another missense mutation involved in resistant phenotypes, F331W, detected in Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, is less likely to occur in L. longipalpis, because it faces codon constraint in this sand fly species. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of the deduced amino acid sequence of the truncated LLAChE1 with that of An. gambiae and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus also suggests that similar structural modifications due to the missense amino acid changes in the active site gorge are detected in all three insects.

  16. Effective sampling range of a synthetic protein-based attractant for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Espinoza, Hernán R; Kendra, Paul E; Abernathy, Robert; Midgarden, David; Heath, Robert R

    2010-10-01

    Studies were conducted in Honduras to determine effective sampling range of a female-targeted protein-based synthetic attractant for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Multilure traps were baited with ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures (three-component attractant) and sampled over eight consecutive weeks. Field design consisted of 38 traps (over 0.5 ha) placed in a combination of standard and high-density grids to facilitate geostatistical analysis, and tests were conducted in coffee (Coffea arabica L.),mango (Mangifera indica L.),and orthanique (Citrus sinensis X Citrus reticulata). Effective sampling range, as determined from the range parameter obtained from experimental variograms that fit a spherical model, was approximately 30 m for flies captured in tests in coffee or mango and approximately 40 m for flies captured in orthanique. For comparison, a release-recapture study was conducted in mango using wild (field-collected) mixed sex C. capitata and an array of 20 baited traps spaced 10-50 m from the release point. Contour analysis was used to document spatial distribution of fly recaptures and to estimate effective sampling range, defined by the area that encompassed 90% of the recaptures. With this approach, effective range of the three-component attractant was estimated to be approximately 28 m, similar to results obtained from variogram analysis. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on sampling range, which was approximately 15 m greater upwind compared with downwind from the release point. Geostatistical analysis of field-captured insects in appropriately designed trapping grids may provide a supplement or alternative to release-recapture studies to estimate sampling ranges for semiochemical-based trapping systems.

  17. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Epsky, Nancy D; Heath, Robert R

    2010-04-01

    Release-recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (torula yeast/borax) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava, Psidium guajava L., grove and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h and 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24-h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (percentage of capture) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which relative trapping efficiency was > or = 25%. This corresponded to the area in which 90% of the recaptures occured. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.

  18. Seasonal Reproductive Biology of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Temperate Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Gottardello, Angela; Dalton, Daniel T; Tait, Gabriella; Rendon, Dalila; Ioriatti, Claudio; Gibeaut, David; Rossi Stacconi, M Valerio; Walton, Vaughn M

    2018-02-08

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a key pest of sweet cherry and small fruits worldwide. The present studies were designed to describe the reproductive physiology in both sexes, through dissections of their reproductive organs. We extensively dissected female D. suzukii throughout the season from 2013 to 2016 and classified the reproductive status flies based on five recognizable ovarian maturation stages: 1) no ovaries; 2) unripe ovaries 3) ripening eggs in ovarioles; 4) mature eggs in ovarioles; and 5) mature eggs in the abdomen. Development was examined as a function of calendar days as well as degree-days (DD). Results obtained from winter collections revealed that females collected from November to March contained a lower percentage of mature eggs than females collected from April to September. These data suggest that environmental conditions during the dormant period induce reproductive diapause. Oogenesis likely increased with an increase in mean monthly temperatures and DD. The first overwintered females with mature eggs were dissected as early as 21 February 2014 in Trento (7 DD). Additionally, we found that a low proportion of males (less than 50%) had sperm in their testes between January and March, yet during the same period females already have sperm stored in their spermathecal. Ivy berries was an alternative but unfavorable non-crop host during the late dormant period, as evidenced by emergence of smaller adults when compared to individuals emerging from cherry fruits. This study showed that D. suzukii females have great potential for oviposition early in the season, posing a risk to early season maturing crop hosts. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  20. Genome Instability of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae from Polluted Water Basins in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ilkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chironomus riparius Mg. (Chironomidae, Diptera collected from two polluted water basins in Bulgaria, the Maritsa and Chaya Rivers (adjacent to Plovdiv and Asenovgrad respectively, a small pool (near Plovdiv plus controls reared in the laboratory were studied. High concentrations of the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Cd were recorded in the sediments of the polluted stations. Marked somatic structural chromosome aberrations were found in C. riparius salivary polytene chromosomes from the field stations and their frequency was significantly higher (p<0.01 compared to the control. The observed somatic chromosome changes are discussed as a response of the chironomid genome to aquatic pollution. A new cytogenetic index based on the number of aberrations found in larvae from polluted regions in comparison with the control was applied to the data to more easily evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Our study of a polluted site near the River Chaya showed that the somatic index was very high at 3.35 for 2010 and 11.66 for 2013 compared to 0.5 in the control. The cytogenetic index was effective in showing that all studied sites were highly polluted in comparison with the control. To determine the mechanism involved in the concentration of aberration breakpoints within specific regions of the chironomid polytene chromosome the FISH method was applied. The localization of a transposable element TFB1 along the polytene chromosomes of C. riparius was analyzed and the sites of localization were compared with breakpoints of chromosome aberrations. A significant correlation (p<0.05 was found which shows that most of the aberrations do not appear randomly but are concentrated in sites rich in transposable elements.

  1. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females.

  3. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  4. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical Region. 1. The Africanus Group of Species (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 26, Number 1, 1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    BANGOURA and A. LORAND. 1979. Isolements d’arbovirus au Senegal oriental a partir de moustiques (1972-1977) et notes sur l’epidemiologie des virus...Dengue 2 au Senegal oriental: Une poussee epizootioque en milieu selvatique; isolements du virus a partir de moustiques et d’un singe et...neoafticanus une nouvelle espece de moustique capturee au Senegal Oriental (Diptera: Culicidae). Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M. Ser. Entomol. Med. Parasitol. 16

  6. The Mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in Southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 24, Number 1, 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Pathol. Exot. 53: 531-542. 1968. Contribution a I’etude des moustiques du Maroc (Diptera, Culicidae) six especes nouvelles pour le pays. Cah. ORSTOM...quelques moustiques du Maroc. Arch. inst. Pasteur Maroc 2: 361-365. 1957. Sur Culex torrentium Martini. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 32: 438-442...De Grandpre, A.D. and D. D’E. De Charmoy 1900(1901). Les moustiques : anatomie et biologie. Contribution a I’etude des Culicides et principalement

  7. Description and Comparison of Morphological Structures of the Eggs of Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and Related Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-20

    major vector of malaria in China ; however, its vectorial capacity is unknown in the ROK. The other remaining four Anopheles species are not considered to...morphometry and morphology of Anopheles aconitus Form B and C eggs under scanning electron microscope. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo...and its genetic identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 378, 1–14. RUEDA ET AL.40 · Zootaxa 2268 © 2009

  8. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀ , Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀ , Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀ . Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp . (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on

  9. Exploring New Thermal Fog and Ultra-Low Volume Technologies to Improve Indoor Control of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) JAMES F. HARWOOD,1,2 MUHAMMAD FAROOQ,1 ALEC G. RICHARDSON,1 CARL W. DOUD,1 JOHN L. PUTNAM,3 DANIEL E...vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efÞciently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue...immediate knockdown of vector populations that may lower the risk of infection and allow other suppression strategies to be implemented. KEY WORDS Aedes

  10. A new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae parasitoid of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera, Otitidae attacked Bt sweet corn in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana E. Gallardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Euxestophaga Gallardo, a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae and Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n. from Argentina, are described and illustrated. This new genus belongs to the Ganaspini and morphologically resembles Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander. A key to differentiate these genera is given. Specimens were reared from pupae of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera: Otitidae, attacked Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province and other in Tucumán province (Argentina.

  11. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  12. Breeding sites and species association of the main Bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus vectors, the Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Losson, Bertrand; Saegerman, Claude; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and, as recently discovered, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases that affect domestic and wild ruminants have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. The substrates that are suitable for larval development of the main vector species are still relatively unknow...

  13. Diversidad, distribución y especificidad floral de nemestrínidos (Diptera) en el noroeste de la Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    DEVOTO, MARIANO; MEDAN, DIEGO

    2006-01-01

    Tangle-veined flies (Nemestrinidae) constitute a primitive and rather widespread family among Diptera. The genus Trichophthalma occurs in Australia and South America and is the only one in the family with a typically Gondwanian, disjoint distribution. The ecology and distribution of most southern South American species of this genus remains virtually unknown. We studied the diversity, distribution and flower specificity of flower-visiting species of the genus Trichophthalma in the temperate f...

  14. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

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    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  15. Lista das espécies de Culicidae (Diptera depositadas na Coleção de Entomologia Pe. J. S. Moure Species list of the Culicidae (Diptera deposited at the Entomological Collection "Pe. J. S. Moure"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Tissot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in

  16. Historical biogeography of the Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera: A commentary on the age of the family Biogeografia histórica de Fanniidae (Insecta, Diptera: Un comentario sobre la edad de la familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER LOWENBERG-NETO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a study on Fanniidae biogeography, Dominguez & Roig-Juñent (2011 argued that the family had a Pangeic origin, Late Jurassic/early Cretaceous (~146 Ma. However, recent literature on Diptera supports that Schizophora radiation occurred during Cenozoic. Fanniidae is a widespread taxon and it was interpreted under the maximum vicariance paradigm; the consequence was an analysis with no alternative hypothesis, but Pangeic origin. We verified that Fanniidae historical narrative was incongruent with the Gondwana sequential break-up. A second analysis, assuming the Fanniidae origin during early Paleocene (65 Ma, showed congruence with recent geological events and with the Muscidae diversification, a closely related Muscoidea family. Our hypothesis suggests that the Fanniidae originated in Paleogene and they were affected by few events of vicariance and several expansions during Cenozoic.En un estudio sobre biogeografía de Fanniidae, Domínguez & Roig-Juñent (2011 argumentaron que la familia era de origen Pangeico, Jurásico superior/Cretáceo inferior (~146 Ma. Sin embargo, literatura reciente sobre Diptera, confirma que la radiación de Schizophora ocurrió durante el Cenozoico. Fanniidae es un taxón ampliamente distribuido y fue interpretado bajo el paradigma de máxima vicarianza; la consecuencia, fue un análisis sin hipótesis alternativas, pero de origen pangeico. Nosotros verificamos que la narrativa histórica de Fanniidae es incongruente con la quiebra secuencial de Gondwana. Un segundo análisis, asumiendo el origen de Fanniidae durante el Paleoceno inferior (65 Ma, mostró congruencia con eventos geológicos recientes y con la diversificación de Muscidae, una familia de Muscoidea próximamente relacionada. Nuestra hipótesis sugiere que Fanniidae se originó en el Paleógeno y fueron afectados por pocos eventos de vicarianza y muchas expansiones durante el Cenozoico.

  17. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

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    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  18. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-08-31

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed.

  19. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  20. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp. and Lutzomyia (57 spp.. Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N. whitmani, L. (N. flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  1. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically Important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K; Carter, David O; Turner, Helen

    2016-11-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, nonbleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High-content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported. PMID:28890657

  3. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Patton (Diptera: Culicidae in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mahmoud Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  5. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  6. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

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    M. de S.,Jr. MENDONÇA

    Full Text Available The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae. The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC.

  7. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC).

  8. Standardization of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae) female trapping for use in sterile insect programmes. Catamarca, Argentina, 1995-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattuone, M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess Ceratitis capitata Wied. (medfly) female trapping with new traps and attractants in varying ecological conditions as part of a co-ordinated international programme. Trials were carried out between 1995 and 1997, using seven types of traps baited with the various combination of sexual and food attractants. Different methods for insects retention were also tested. For these trials, protocols established by the International Atomic Energy Agency were followed. The Jackson Trap with Trimedlure plugs proved to be the most efficient for capture of medfly males, while International Pheromone's McPhail Trap was the most efficient for the capture of females, when used with a combination of all three new attractants (FA-3) consisting of ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine plus the toxicant DDVP for insect retention. The new traps and attractants also captured flies belonging to genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). (author)

  9. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, non-bleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. PMID:27706817

  10. Influence of adding borax and modifying pH on effectiveness of food attractants for melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P F; Rousse, P; Ryckewaert, P; Fabre, F; Quilici, S

    2004-06-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most damaging pest of cucurbits in Reunion Island. The influence of adding borax and modifying pH on the effectiveness of different food attractants for both sexes of the melon fly is analyzed by a release-recapture method in field cages. Adding borax to protein hydrolysates Nulure and Buminal strongly reduced their attractiveness for B. cucurbitae. Acidification of 5% Buminal solution (from pH 6 to pH 3) doubled its attractiveness for melon fly. Conversely, Torula yeast at pH 10.5 was significantly more attractive than the standard Torula yeast at pH 9 (28% of captured flies compared with 17%). However, a further pH increase of the yeast solution does not improve its attractiveness. The results are discussed in relation to other studies on pH modification of various baits for Tephritidae.

  11. Checklist das espécies de Lauxaniidae (Insecta, Diptera do estado do Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Cristina Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO Lauxaniidae é uma das maiores famílias de Diptera Schizophora, com distribuição mundial, muito abundante nas áreas tropicais. A família está composta por cerca de 1.550 espécies. Os adultos apresentam o corpo pequeno a relativamente grande (2-11 mm, com coloração variada, muitas vezes com marcas, manchas, listras ou padrões reticulados. As larvas são conhecidas como saprófagas, alimentando-se em uma variedade de matéria vegetal em decomposição e mesmo em capítulos de flores. Adultos são raspadores de fungos em folhas. A fauna brasileira de Lauxaniidae compreende, até o momento, 74 espécies das quais 8 possuem registro assinalado para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul.

  12. Additions to the Diptera Acalyptrata fauna (Anthomyzidae, Stenomicridae, Carnidae, Milichiidae, Heleomyzidae of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of five species of Diptera Acalyptrata representing novelties for the faunas of Bohemia or Moravia (Czech Republic and Slovakia are given with discussion on their significance to the biodiversity knowledge of local faunas and a summary of their biology, distribution and identification with new information obtained from the material examined. Stiphrosoma humerale Roháček & Barber, 2005 (Anthomyzidae and Stenomicra cogani Irwin, 1982 (Stenomicridae are new additions to the dipterous fauna of Slovakia. Records of Meoneura alpina Hennig, 1948 (Carnidae and Milichia speciosa Meigen, 1830 (Milichiidae are the first from Bohemia and represent new northernmost distribution limits of these species; those of Heleomyza (Anypotacta setulosa (Czerny, 1924 are the first from Moravia. Macrophotographs of all these species are presented to document the specimens recorded and/or to facilitate identification of these uncommon species. In addition, new records of S. humerale from Russia: E Siberia and of M. speciosa from Greece: Peloponnesse are given.

  13. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

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    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  14. High altitude Chironomidae (Diptera of Serra da Estrela (Portugal: Additions to the Portuguese and Iberian Peninsula fauna

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    Rieradevall, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Chironomidae (Diptera fauna list for headwater streams of high altitude areas in Serra da Estrela (Portugal is presented, doubling the previously established species richness for the region. The findings include 17 new records for Portugal, which represent an increase to 219 species for the Continental Portugal Chironomidae fauna. Two new records were detected for the Iberian Peninsula: one species (Tvetenia duodenaria, and one subgenus –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–; and the presence of the genus Natarsia is confirmed. The last two occurrences correspond to monoespecific taxa of the Palearctic region. However, as taxonomic identification has been based on larval material, instead of pupae, pupal exuviae or imagoes, species level assignment is still uncertain.

    Se presenta una lista de especies de Chironomidae (Diptera recolectadas en los ríos de cabecera de zonas de alta montaña en la Serra da Estrela (Portugal. Con esta aportación se duplica la riqueza de especies regional conocida hasta el momento y se eleva la fauna de quironómidos del Portugal continental a 219 especies. Se incluyen dos nuevas citas para la Península Ibérica, una especie (Tvetenia duodenaria y un subgénero –Psectrocladius (Mesopsectrocladius–, y se confirma la presencia del género Natarsia. En los dos últimos casos se trata de larvas de taxones hasta el momento monoespecíficos en la región paleárctica, pero al no haberse recolectado pupas o adultos no se puede asegurar la identificación específica.

  15. Modeling the Environmental Suitability for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammi L; Haque, Ubydul; Monaghan, Andrew J; Eisen, Lars; Hahn, Micah B; Hayden, Mary H; Savage, Harry M; McAllister, Janet; Mutebi, John-Paul; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2017-11-07

    The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States. The predictive models for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus had an overall accuracy of 0.84 and 0.85, respectively. Cumulative growing degree days (GDDs) during the winter months, an indicator of overall warmth, was the most important predictive variable for both species and was positively associated with environmental suitability. The number (percentage) of counties classified as environmentally suitable, based on models with 90 or 99% sensitivity, ranged from 1,443 (46%) to 2,209 (71%) for Ae. aegypti and from 1,726 (55%) to 2,329 (75%) for Ae. albopictus. Increasing model sensitivity results in more counties classified as suitable, at least for summer survival, from which there are no mosquito records. We anticipate that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus will be found more commonly in counties classified as suitable based on the lower 90% sensitivity threshold compared with the higher 99% threshold. Counties predicted suitable with 90% sensitivity should therefore be a top priority for expanded mosquito surveillance efforts while still keeping in mind that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may be introduced, via accidental transport of eggs or immatures, and potentially proliferate during the warmest part of the year anywhere within the geographic areas delineated by the 99% sensitivity model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work

  16. Effect of Vapor Heat Treatment on the Mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Quality of Mango cv. Arumanis

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    Tri Wulan Widya Lestari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arumanis is a superior export variety mango from Indonesia. One inhibiting factor on the production of this fruit variety is the infestation of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae fruit fly. Vapor heat treatment was recommended by ISPM No. 28 of 2007 as an effective treatment in eradicating fruit flies. This research was aimed to find out the optimum temperature and the duration of vapor heat treatment on the mortality of egg and larvae of B. dorsalis. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Vapor Heat Treatment, BBPOPT, Jatisari, from October 2016 to January 2017. The observed parameters were temperature, duration of treatment, mortality of egg and larvae of fruit fly, and fruit quality. The results showed that vapor heat treatment at 47°C for 40 minutes (min was effective to reduce the number of eggs and larvae of B. dorsalis and had no negative impact on the fruit quality.   Intisari Buah mangga varietas Arumanis merupakan varietas mangga ekspor unggulan Indonesia. Salah satu faktor pembatas produksi buah mangga varietas Arumanis adalah lalat buah B. dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae. Perlakuan uap panas direkomendasikan oleh ISPM Nomor 28 tahun 2007 sebagai tindakan perlakuan yang efektif dalam mengeradikasi lalat buah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui suhu dan waktu optimum perlakuan uap panas terhadap mortalitas telur dan larva B. dorsalis pada buah mangga varietas Arumanis tanpa merusak kualitas buah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Vapor Heat Treatment, BBPOPT, Jatisari, pada Oktober 2016 sampai dengan Januari 2017. Parameter yang diamati adalah suhu, lamanya waktu perlakuan, mortalitas telur dan larva lalat buah, dan kualitas buah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan uap panas pada suhu 47°C selama 40 menit terbukti efektif membunuh telur dan larva B. dorsalis dan tidak berdampak negatif terhadap kualitas buah.

  17. Determination of Mosquitoes Fauna (Culicidae: Diptera in Poldokhtar County of Lorestan Province, 2015

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    Zahirnia A H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insects as the largest category of arthropods include numerous groups and families that the most important of them belong to order Diptera, family Culicidae. Because of feeding on the human's blood, a number of species of this family have been known as responsible for the transmission of pathogens for many diseases such as malaria, filariasis, encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue fever in the world. Given that no research has been conducted to determine the fauna of existing mosquitoes in the city of Poldokhtar, Lorestan Province, the present study aimed to exactly determine the mosquitoes' fauna in this city to perform appropriate prevention measures. Methods: In this faunistic and cross-sectional descriptive study, four urban areas and four rural areas in four geographic directions in the city of Poldokhtar were determined. In each urban area, two places and in each designated rural area, four places including two human places and two animal places were selected. From the early of April 2015 to the early of January 2016, larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes of the Culicidae family were collected. Sampling methods for larvae, pupae and mature were ladling, night catch, total and hand catch with an aspirator. Characteristics including the name of the collector, date of collection, code related to habitat, habitat status (permanent or temporary, type of vegetation cover, type of substrate, and the situation of sunlight were recorded in the related form. The samples were identified by resources and valid identification keys. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally, 5392 mosquito adults of the Culicidae family including 1818 mosquito adults and 3574 larvae in designated areas in the city as well as four rural areas were collected. The three genera Anopheles (21.9%, Culex (64.6%, and Culiseta (13.5% were diagnosed. Also, from three genera, 12 species were identified as follows: Culex theiler, Cx

  18. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

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    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  19. Modelling the Northward Expansion of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae under Future Climate Scenarios.

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    Anna Zuliani

    Full Text Available Climate change is affecting the distribution of pathogens and their arthropod vectors worldwide, particularly at northern latitudes. The distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae plays a key role in affecting the emergence and spread of significant vector borne diseases such as Bluetongue (BT and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD at the border between USA and Canada. We used 50 presence points for C. sonorensis collected in Montana (USA and south-central Alberta (Canada between 2002 and 2012, together with monthly climatic and environmental predictors to develop a series of alternative maximum entropy distribution models. The best distribution model under current climatic conditions was selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and included four predictors: Vapour Pressure Deficit of July, standard deviation of Elevation, Land Cover and mean Precipitation of May. This model was then projected into three climate change scenarios adopted by the IPCC in its 5th assessment report and defined as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5. Climate change data for each predictor and each RCP were calculated for two time points pooling decadal data around each one of them: 2030 (2021-2040 and 2050 (2041-2060. Our projections showed that the areas predicted to be at moderate-high probability of C. sonorensis occurrence would increase from the baseline scenario to 2030 and from 2030 to 2050 for each RCP. The projection also indicated that the current northern limit of C. sonorensis distribution is expected to move northwards to above 53°N. This may indicate an increased risk of Culicoides-borne diseases occurrence over the next decades, particularly at the USA-Canada border, as a result of changes which favor C. sonorensis presence when associated to other factors (i.e. host and pathogen factors. Recent observations of EHD outbreaks in northern Montana and southern Alberta supported our projections and

  20. The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Iker; Ruiz, María F; Sánchez, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila

  1. Structure of Drosophilidae Assemblage (Insecta, Diptera in Pampa Biome (São Luiz Gonzaga, RS

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    Jean Lucas Poppe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Pampa (the southernmost end of the country is currently a highly modified environment because of increasing agricultural activities. In many places, only small parts of grasslands remain inside an agricultural landscape. Drosophilidae (Diptera have been widely used as a potential bioindicators to monitor the effects of anthropogenic changes in natural environments. However, the fauna of Drosophilidae in the Pampa Biome from natural and disturbed environments, still remains largely unknown. The present study represents one of the first attempts to fill this gap, showing results from monthly collections in the municipality of São Luiz Gonzaga (28º24'28"S, 54º57'39"W, in the Brazilian Pampa. A species inventory was carried out in two contrasting environments, an urban zone and a forest remnant (rural zone. In both areas banana-baited traps were used to capture adult drosophilids. The identification was made using external morphology and male terminalia. In total, 13,379 drosophilids were analyzed (rural zone: N = 8,812 and Sobs = 25; urban zone: N = 4,567 and Sobs = 16. In the present study, 16 (60% out of 26 species were found exclusively or preferentially in the forest. The period of highest richness was between the months of June to November (roughly winter and spring, and the period of lowest richness was from December to May (roughly summer and autumn. An analysis of cluster by the Coefficient of Jaccard showed that species composition slightly changes when the period of the year with higher temperatures (from January to May is compared with the period with lower temperatures (from June to October. The species abundances were also highly affected by seasonality, as revealed by the Morisita Index, since the samples clustered into similar groups in consecutive periods and in the same season, showing the seasonal preference of some species. The time component was a determinant in the diversity of the assemblage, surpassing the

  2. Developmental Acclimation of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Its Effect on Diapause and Winter Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Loeb, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of developmental conditions on adult morphology, reproductive arrest, and winter stress tolerance of the invasive pest of small fruit, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Cooler rearing temperatures (15 °C) resulted in larger, darker "winter morph" (WM) adults than "summer morph" flies reared at optimal temperatures (25 °C). Abdominal pigmentation scores and body size measurements of laboratory-reared WMs were similar to those of D. suzukii females captured in late autumn in Geneva, NY. We evaluated reproductive diapause and cold hardiness in live-captured D. suzukii WMs as well as WMs reared in the laboratory from egg to adult under four developmental conditions: static cool temperatures (SWM; 15 °C, 12:12 h L:D), fluctuating temperatures (FWM; 20 °C L: 10 °C D, 12:12 h L:D), and static cool temperatures (15 °C, 12:12 h L:D) followed by posteclosion chilling (CWM; 10 °C) under short-day (SD; 12:12 h L:D) or long-day photoperiods (LD; 16:8 h L:D). Live-captured D. suzukii WMs and CWMs had longer preoviposition times than newly eclosed summer morph adults, indicating a reproductive diapause that was not observed in SWMs or FWMs. Additionally, recovery after acute freeze stress was not different between CWM-SD females and live captured WM females. More 7-d-old CWMs survived 0, -1, or - 3 °C freeze stress than summer morph adults, and more CWM-SD adults survived -3 °C freeze stress than CWM-LD adults. Survival after -3 °C freeze stress was significantly higher in diapausing, CWMs than nondiapausing SWMs and FWMs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Stallknecht, David E; Allison, Andrew B; Carter, Deborah L; Drolet, Barbara S; Klement, Eyal; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-17

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4-16 days post feeding (dpf). Midges with a virus titer of ≥ 10(2.7) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50))/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14-16 dpf midges. From 4-16 dpf, 45% (156/350) of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>10(7) TCID(50)/ml) were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10-16 dpf, 32% (35/109) of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥ 10(2.7) TCID(50)/midge). Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14-16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates that North America has a susceptible ruminant and

  4. Caso de miiasis orbitaria severa humana por Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae asociada con carcinoma espinocelular en el estado Falcón, Venezuela | A case of human severe orbital myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae associated with spinocellular carcinoma in Falcón state, Venezuela

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    Leonardo Tortolero Low

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the parasitism of organs and tissues due to fly larvae of the order Diptera. A report is made of a case in a 70 years old man from La Vela, Falcon State, Venezuela, with severe orbital myiasis associated to a spinocellular carcinoma. The patient attended the emergency room of the Universitary Hospital of Coro, Falcon State, with a cavitary tumor with perforations in the right eyeball with suppurative and foul-smelly discharge. 160 larvae instars II and III were collected, and identified as Cochliomyia hominivorax (“screwworm” (Diptera: Calliphoridae. The patient was treated with debridement and intravenous antibiotic therapy (Ampicillin/Sulbactam; Clindamycin. Myiasis should be considered potentially when the patient has open extensive lesions such as malignant wounds.

  5. Predatory behavior of long-legged flies (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) and their potential negative effects on the parasitoid biological control agent of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera:Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact of biological control agents such as parasitoids can be improved by determining best times for release when predation pressures will be reduced. Large populations of long-legged predatory flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) impose heavy predation pressure on inundative releases of the parasitoid ...

  6. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    VC Maia

    Full Text Available Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae. The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  7. Determinação de idade cronológica de Calliphoridae (Diptera através da deposição pós-emergencial de quitina

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    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro Filho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for chronological age determination based on mesothoracic post-phragma post-emergence deposition of chitin is used for Chrysomya putoria and Phaenicia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The age of these species were obtained by the maximum period of deposition which were of 11-12 days.

  8. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  9. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae) from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, S P C

    2011-05-01

    Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae). The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  10. Parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors from Southern of Goias State / Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no Sul do estado de Goiás

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    Gefferson José Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report parasitoids of Diptera collected in traps of different colors in the south of Goias state. Twelve traps two as of each color were used, painted yellow, black, red, white, green and blue were used two as of each color. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. Between March and December 2006, 17 parasitoid specimens were collected from the yellow trap, 15 from the blue trap, 12 from the white trap, 37 from the black trap, one from the green trap and three from the red trap. The parasitoids did not present any preference for any of the trap colors (F=0.772; P=0.58. The most frequently collected parasitoid species was Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, with 80.0%.O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os parasitóides de Diptera coletados em armadilhas de diferentes cores no sul do estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas 12 armadilhas duas de cada tipo pintadas de amarelo preto, vermelho, branco, verde e azul. As pupas dos dípteros foram isoladas pelo método de flutuação, individualizadas em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência dos parasitóides. Foram coletados no período de março a dezembro de 2006, 17 exemplares de parasitóides na armadilha amarela, 15 na armadilha azul, 12 na armadilha branca, 37 na armadilha preta, um exemplar na armadilha verde e três na armadilha vermelha. Os parasitóides não apresentaram atração por nenhuma das cores das armadilhas (F= 0,772; P=0,58. A espécie de parasitóide mais freqüente foi Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae com 80,0%.

  11. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs; Esterilizacao de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) com raios-X para programas de tecnica do inseto esteril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-07-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional {gamma} radiation from {sup 60}Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of {gamma} rays (thus, a RBE{approx}1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of {gamma} rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE{approx}1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE{approx}0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE{approx}1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and {gamma} rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no

  12. Sobrevivência de pupas de Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório Survival of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae pupae after submersion in laboratory

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    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre Maio e Junho de 2008 foi observado a sobrevivência das pupas de Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae após submersão em laboratório. Para este experimento foram utilizadas 480 pupas de mesma idade, sendo estas divididas em oito grupos: o controle não foi submerso e os demais grupos foram submersos de um a sete dias. O aumento do período de submersão diminui a sobrevivência, com um dia de submersão a sobrevivência é de 80%, com dois dias 40%, é de 30% a partir do terceiro dia, no quarto dia cai para 23,34% e no quinto dia fica em 10%. Após este período a mortalidade sobe para 100%. Este padrão pode ser explicado pela curva "U-shaped" que ocorre no consumo de O2 durante o período pupal, onde o consumo é maior no início e no final do período pupal. O tempo de submersão também afeta o tempo de desenvolvimento, aumentando o período pupal. Estes dados têm o potencial para serem utilizados em investigações envolvendo Entomologia Forense, para a estimativa do tempo de submersão de um cadáver.Between May and June of 2008, the survival of the pupae of Lucilia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae was observed after submersion in laboratory. For this experiment 480 pupae of same age were used, these were divided in eight groups: the group control was not submerged and the other groups were submerged from one to seven days. The increase of the submersion period reduces the survival, with one day of submersion the survival is of 80%, with two days 40%, of 30% with three days, in the fourth day it falls to 23,34% and in the fifth day it is 10%. After this period the mortality rises to 100%. This pattern can be explained by the curve "U-shaped" that happens in the consumption of O2 during the pupal period, where the consumption is larger at the beginning and at the end of the pupal period. The time of submersion also affects the development time, increasing the pupal period. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of

  13. Spring and early summer phenology and detection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.T.; Katsoyannos, B.I.; Carey, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious fruit pests world-wide, infesting more than 300 plant species (Liquido et al. 1991). Many studies on population dynamics of C. capitata have been conducted in the tropics (Vargas et al. 1983, Nishida et al. 1985, Eskafi and Kolbe 1990, Harris et al. 1993) and in the Mediterranean area (Rivnay 1951, Benfatto et al. 1989, Campos et al. 1989, Fimiani 1989, Cayol and Causse 1992, Michelakis 1992, Israely et al. 1997, Katsoyannos et al. 1998a). However, there are no detailed studies on the seasonal occurrence and population dynamics of the fly in the most temperate parts of its distribution. The population build up of the fly is mostly determined by host fruit abundance and availability, and by environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. In northern Greece, which is within the northern limits of the fly's distribution, winter temperatures are unfavourable for C. capitata survival (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). In addition, there is a gap in host fruit availability from near December until the following May. However, C. capitata has developed a remarkable ability to survive in such climates (though suffering high mortality), predominantly as larvae within certain host fruits that become infested at the end of autumn and remain in the orchards until the following spring (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The prolonged larval period, especially that of the 1st and the 2nd instars, due to low temperatures, enables the fly to survive long periods of unfavourable conditions (Papadopoulos et al. 1998). The few adults emerging in spring, may live as long as 3 months and can oviposit a high number of eggs in artificial oviposition substrates (Papadopoulos et al. 1996). The importance of some key factors - late spring and early summer maturing host fruits - for the re-establishment of the C. capitata population has been suggested (Cayol 1996, Israely et al

  14. Actividad repelente de aceites esenciales contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Elsa Nieves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los repelentes naturales de extractos de plantas han mostrado eficacia contra diferentes especies de insectos. El presente estudio evaluó la acción repelente de aceites esenciales extraídos de ocho especies de plantas contra las picaduras de Lutzomyia migonei, vector de Leishmania. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación, utilizando una trampa de Clevenger, a partir de Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plectranthus amboinicus y Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Los ensayos de repelencia se realizaron sobre humanos en condiciones de laboratorio, frente a hembras de L. migonei provenientes de colonia, utilizando el método de la mano en la jaula. Los aceites con efecto repelente también se ensayaron con distintos voluntarios y concentraciones. Se determinó el porcentaje de protección y el tiempo de protección. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum fueron los más efectivos. El aceite de P. amboinicus presentó efecto de repelencia satisfactorio, sin embargo, ocasionó picazón y toxicidad en la piel. Los aceites de P. marginatum, H. suaveolens y P. racemosa no evidenciaron efecto repelente; el resto de los aceites presentaron repelencia significativa en grado variable. Los aceites de P. caeruleocanum y C. zeylanicum mostraron un 95% de protección de 3h contra las picaduras de L. migonei. El aceite de P. caeruleocanum presentó el mayor tiempo de protección, de más de 4h y de 2h en concentraciones de 50% y 10%, respectivamente. Los resultados sugieren que el aceite P. caeruleocanum podría ser un potencial candidato como repelente natural contra la picadura de dípteros posibles transmisores de Leishmania.Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae. Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some

  15. Estimativa de entropia de Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae em condições artificiais

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimativa de entropia de Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae em condições artificiais. O conceito de entropia (H foi adaptado da mecânica estatística para a demografia para quantificar o impacto da mortalidade na expectativa de vida e demonstrar quantitativamente a tendência da mortalidade em populações experimentais. Isto foi verificado para 160 casais de Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 mantidos em câmara climatizada a 24,8ºC ± 0,6ºC, umidade relativa do ar entre 70 e 80% e fotofase de 12 horas. Nestas condições, machos e fêmeas apresentaram valores de H intermediários aos valores teóricos de H = 0 e H = 0,5 demonstrando que para esta espécie, a curva de sobrevivência é do tipo retangular. A distribuição da mortalidade por idade específica indicou que a força desse parâmetro age de dois modos sobre os adultos desta espécie. Em um, a mortalidade tem maior força nos intervalos compreendidos entre a emergência dos adultos e o 10º dia após este processo. No segundo modo, a força de mortalidade é maior entre o 20º e 30º dias após a emergência, sendo que pequenas variações na mortalidade causam maior impacto na sobrevivência das fêmeas do que nos machos.Entropy estimation in Muscina stabulans (Fallén (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions. Entropy (H as a concept in demography was adapted from that of physics to quantify the impact of mortality on life expectancy and to quantitatively demonstrate mortality tendencies in experimental populations. Entropy was estimated for 160 pairs of Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 in a climate-controlled chamber (24.8ºC ± 0.6ºC, relative humidity 70 - 80%, 12 h photophase. Both sexes had H values intermediate to those theoretically expected (0.0 - 0.5, showing that the survival curve is rectangular. The age-specific mortality distribution shows that mortality affects adults of this species in two ways. First, mortality is higher for 10 days from pupal

  16. Sexual Competitiveness, Field Survival, and Dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fruit Flies Irradiated at Different Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortiz, Uriel; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge

    2018-04-02

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is used in area-wide pest management programs for establishing low pest prevalence and/or areas free of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). The aim of this technique is to induce high levels of sterility in the wild population, for this the released insects must have a high sexual competitiveness and field dispersal. However, radiation decreases these biological attributes that do not allow it to compete successfully with wild insects. In this study the sexual competitiveness, field survival and dispersal of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart; Diptera: Tephritidae) irradiated at 0, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy were evaluated in laboratory. A dose of 60 Gy produced 98% sterility, whereas doses of 70 and 80 Gy produced 99% sterility. Sexual competitiveness was assessed in field cages, comparing males irradiated at 0, 50, 60, 70, and 80 Gy against wild males for mating with wild fertile females. Males irradiated at 50 and 60 Gy achieved more matings than those irradiated at 70 and 80 Gy. Wild males were more competitive than mass-reared males, even when these were not irradiated (0 Gy). There was no effect of irradiation on mating latency, yet wild males showed significantly shorter mating latency than mass-reared males. Female remating did not differ among those that mated with wild males and those that mated with males irradiated with different doses. The relative sterility index (RSI) increased from 0.25 at 80 Gy to 0.37 at 60 Gy. The Fried competitiveness index was 0.69 for males irradiated at 70 Gy and 0.57 for those irradiated at 80 Gy, which indicates that a 10 Gy reduction in the irradiation dose produces greater induction of sterility in the wild population. There were no significant differences in field survival and dispersal between flies irradiated at 70 or 80 Gy. Reducing the irradiation dose to 60 or 70 Gy could improve the performance of sterile males and the effectiveness of the SIT. Our results also distinguish between the

  17. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.Efeito de fatores ambientais sobre o desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de pupas de Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Espécies de Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 são encontradas em corpos em decomposição, usualmente nas fases fresca, inchamento e murcha. Entre estas espécies, Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 pode ser encontrada em carcaças de ratos e coelhos. A influência de fatores ambientais sobre pupas de O. albuquerquei não tinha sido avaliada até o momento. Desta maneira, o foco deste trabalho foi motivado pela necessidade por modelos de previsão do desenvolvimento de insetos necrófagos em função de fatores abióticos. Colônias de O. albuquerquei foram mantidas em laboratório para a obtenção de pupas. Até o décimo dia de cada mês, 200

  18. Redescription of Cadrema pallida var. bilineata (de Meijere, 1904 (Diptera: Chloropidae and its role as pollinator and carrion feeder from Indian Sunderbans

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    Sankarsan Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunderbans, the UNESCO World Heritage Site is one of the largest mangrove forests in the World. This unique tidal halophytic mangrove ecosystem is also spread over the neighbouring country- Bangladesh. This ecosystem supports a variety of halophytic mangrove species and provides shelter and food to many faunal components (Chakraborty, 2011. Till date, several studies have been made on dipteran fauna from SBR which was altogether compiled by Mitra (2013. Further, Mitra et al. (2014, 2015 added some more records of the Diptera from this area. Apart from documenting the dipteran insects, we attempted here their functional contribution towards sustainability of this sensitive ecosystem.

  19. Desenvolvimento Pós-embrionário de Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae em Diferentes Dietas, sob Condições de Laboratório

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    José Mario d'Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-embryonic Development of Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Muscidae, in Different Diets, under Laboratory Conditions - The performance of various diets (bovine meat, fish- sardine, shrimp, dog faeces, and banana in Ophyra aenescens development was evaluated. The biology was studied in an incubator (BOD at 27±1oC and 80±10% of RH. The developmental time from larvae to adult, the developmental time and viability of larvae and pupae, the weight of pupae as well as the sex ratio of the emerging adults were also determined. Beef and shrimp were the more efficient diets for rearing O. aenescens.

  20. The colonization of carrion by soldier fly, Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in a tropical forest in Malaysia: a new potential species for minimum PMI estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Omar, B

    2012-12-01

    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.

  1. Occurrence of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus and P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae on parica in Para State, Brazil Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus e P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae em paricá, no Estado do Pará

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    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This is the first register of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein e P. chuni Enderlein (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae attacking parica trees [Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S. F. Blake var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby] in Paragominas, Para State, Brazil. Whereas Para State has the largest area with parica plantation in Brazil, there is a risk of these insects become important pests of this crop.


    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71

    As ocorrências de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein e P. chuni Enderlein são registradas pela primeira vez em reflorestamentos com paricá [Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S. F. Blake var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby] no Estado do Pará, Município de Paragominas. Considerando que o Pará possui a maior área plantada de paricá no Brasil, existe o risco de esses insetos tornarem-se pragas importantes dessa cultura.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71

  2. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  3. Wing morphometrics as a possible tool for the diagnosis of the Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cann, Joannes; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Jordaens, Kurt; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Previous attempts to resolve the Ceratitis FAR complex (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa, Diptera, Tephritidae) showed contrasting results and revealed the occurrence of five microsatellite genotypic clusters (A, F1, F2, R1, R2). In this paper we explore the potential of wing morphometrics for the diagnosis of FAR morphospecies and genotypic clusters. We considered a set of 227 specimens previously morphologically identified and genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci. Seventeen wing landmarks and 6 wing band areas were used for morphometric analyses. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences both across morphospecies and genotypic clusters (for both males and females). Unconstrained and constrained ordinations did not properly resolve groups corresponding to morphospecies or genotypic clusters. However, posterior group membership probabilities (PGMPs) of the Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC) allowed the consistent identification of a relevant proportion of specimens (but with performances differing across morphospecies and genotypic clusters). This study suggests that wing morphometrics and PGMPs might represent a possible tool for the diagnosis of species within the FAR complex. Here, we propose a tentative diagnostic method and provide a first reference library of morphometric measures that might be used for the identification of additional and unidentified FAR specimens.

  4. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  5. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866 (Diptera: Phoridae on Different Substrates

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    Abesh Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M. scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n=3. One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111=15.79873, p=0.000000917, width (F(2,111=14.60528, p=0.00000234, and biomass (F(2,111=37.01727, p=0.000000000000482 of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M. scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects.

  6. Use of Chironomidae (Diptera) Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae as a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol for Water Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M; Egan, Alexander T; Mazack, Jane E; Bouchard, R William; Rufer, Moriya M; Ferrington, Leonard C

    2015-07-24

    Rapid bioassessment protocols using benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been successfully used to assess human impacts on water quality. Unfortunately, traditional benthic larval sampling methods, such as the dip-net, can be time-consuming and expensive. An alternative protocol involves collection of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE). Chironomidae is a species-rich family of flies (Diptera) whose immature stages typically occur in aquatic habitats. Adult chironomids emerge from the water, leaving their pupal skins, or exuviae, floating on the water's surface. Exuviae often accumulate along banks or behind obstructions by action of the wind or water current, where they can be collected to assess chironomid diversity and richness. Chironomids can be used as important biological indicators, since some species are more tolerant to pollution than others. Therefore, the relative abundance and species composition of collected SFPE reflect changes in water quality. Here, methods associated with field collection, laboratory processing, slide mounting, and identification of chironomid SFPE are described in detail. Advantages of the SFPE method include minimal disturbance at a sampling area, efficient and economical sample collection and laboratory processing, ease of identification, applicability in nearly all aquatic environments, and a potentially more sensitive measure of ecosystem stress. Limitations include the inability to determine larval microhabitat use and inability to identify pupal exuviae to species if they have not been associated with adult males.

  7. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Cryptic species in the nuisance midge Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the status of Tripedilum Kieffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Spies, Martin

    2016-02-15

    Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse, 1889), originally described from Australia, is an apparently widespread species of Chironomidae (Diptera) that can attain nuisance densities in some eutrophic water bodies. Appropriate management depends upon the identity and ability to distinguish from potential cryptic taxa. A morphological study of larvae, pupae and adults of both sexes confirmed P. nubifer as widely distributed and frequently abundant, but also revealed two previously cryptic species of limited distribution in northern Australia. These species are described as new and illustrated in all stages here. Polypedilum quasinubifer Cranston sp. n. is described from north-west Queensland, Australia and also from Thailand and Singapore. Polypedilum paranubifer Cranston sp. n. is known only from retention ponds of a uranium mine in Northern Territory, Australia. Unusual morphological features of P. nubifer including alternate Lauterborn organs on the larval antenna, cephalic tubules on the pupa and frontal tubercles on the adult head are present in both new species as well. Newly slide-mounted types of Polypedilum pelostolum Kieffer, 1912 (lectotype designated here) confirm synonymy to Chironomus nubifer Skuse, 1889, examined also as newly-slide mounted types. Reviewed plus new evidence does not support recognition of Tripedilum Kieffer, 1921 as a separate taxon; therefore, Tripedilum is returned to junior synonymy with Polypedilum s. str.

  9. Additions to the aquatic diptera (Chaoboridae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Tipulidae) fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.

    2004-01-01

    The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.

  10. Exploring the utility of DNA barcoding in species delimitation of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ruilei; Sun, Bingjiao; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-02-16

    In this study, we tested the utility of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) as the barcode region to deal with taxonomical problems of Polypedilum (Tripodura) non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae). The 114 DNA barcodes representing 27 morphospecies are divided into 33 well separated clusters based on both Neighbor Joining and Maximum Likelihood methods. DNA barcodes revealed an 82% success rate in matching with morphospecies. The selected DNA barcode data support 37-64 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on the methods of Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and Poisson Tree Process (PTP). Furthermore, a priori species based on consistent phenotypic variations were attested by molecular analysis, and a taxonomical misidentification of barcode sequences from GenBank was found. We could not observe a distinct barcode gap but an overlap ranged from 9-12%. Our results supported DNA barcoding as an ideal method to detect cryptic species, delimit sibling species, and associate different life stages in non-biting midges.

  11. Karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and chromosomal polymorphism peculiarities of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake, Central Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmokov, Mukhamed Kh.; Akkizov, Azamat Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on the karyotype characteristics, larval morphology and features of chromosomal polymorphism of a population of Glyptotendipes salinus Michailova, 1983 (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Tambukan Lake (on the northern macroslope of the central Caucasus) are presented. It was found that diagnostic larval characters of Glyptotendipes salinus from Caucasus in general are similar to those described in previous studies, but with some significant differences. By some morphological characteristics Caucasian larvae appeared to be closer to Glyptotendipes barbipes than to ones provided for European larvae of Glyptotendipes salinus by Contreras-Lichtenberg (1999). Obtained morphological data make possible to conclude that Caucasian population of Glyptotendipes salinus can be a markedly diverged population of the species, probably even subspecies. In the Caucasian population 12 banding sequences were found: two in arms A, B, C, E, and G, and one in arms D and F. Eight of these are already known for this species, and four, salA2, salB2, salEX, and salG3, are described for the first time. Genetic distances between all the previously studied populations of Glyptotendipes salinus were measured using Nei criteria (1972). The population of the central Caucasus occupies a distinct position on the dendrogram compared with populations from Altai and Kazakhstan. All the obtained morphological and cytogenetic data can indicate the plausible relative isolation and complexity of the Caucasus from the viewpoint of microevolution. More researches are required in other parts of Caucasus and other geographically distant regions for more specific allegations. PMID:28123679

  12. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations.

  13. Time of Death Revealed by Hydrocarbons of Empty Puparia of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Liang-Xing; Luo, Hao; Wang, Dian; Lv, Jun-Yao; Xu, Xiao-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is crucial for investigating homicide. However, there are currently only limited methods available. Especially, once the PMI exceeds the duration of pre-adult development of the flies with the adult emergence, its determination is very approximate. Herein, we report the regular changes in hydrocarbon composition during the weathering process of the puparia in the field in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), one of the common species of necrophagous flies. Correlation analysis showed that the relative abundance of nearly all of the branched alkanes and alkenes decreased significantly with the weathering time. Especially, for 9 of the peaks, over 88% of the variance in their abundance was explained by weathering time. Further analysis indicated that the regular changes caused mainly by the different weathering rates of various hydrocarbons. Additionally, the weathering rates were found to depend on the chemical structure and molecular weight of the hydrocarbons. These results indicate strongly that hydrocarbon analysis is a powerful tool for determining the weathering time of the necrophagous fly puparia, and is expected to markedly improve the determination of the late PMI. PMID:24039855

  14. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

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    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  15. Mitochondrial markers for molecular identification of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) involved in transmission of arboviral disease in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Shelley; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A; Cooper, Alan; Holmes, Edward C

    2005-01-01

    Correct classification of the insect vector is central to the study of arboviral disease. A simple molecular method for identification of the main vectors of the mosquito-borne viruses, dengue, yellow fever, and Rift Valley fever in Senegal, West Africa, was developed. We present a system in which the five mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) responsible for the majority of flaviviral disease transmission in Senegal can be reliably identified using small amounts of DNA coextracted during flaviviral screening procedures, via an easy amplification of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase c subunit I or II (COI or COII, respectively). We observed that despite very similar morphology, the two cryptic disease vector species Aedes furcifer Edwards and Aedes taylori Edwards are highly divergent at the molecular level. This sequence variation was used as a basis for the development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism system for the differentiation of the two species. We also present the first investigation of the phylogeny of the culicine mosquitoes based on all COI and COII sequences currently available. There seems to be very low intraspecific variation in both genes, whereas interspecific variation is high. As a consequence, COI and COII are ideal candidates for the molecular identification of disease vectors to species level, whereas deeper divergences remain equivocal by using these genes. This system provides a new technique for the accurate identification of culicine disease vectors in West Africa and provides a basis for the expansion of such methods into the study of a range of diseases.

  16. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

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    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.

  17. Detection of Dengue Virus in Bat Flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of Common Vampire Bats, Desmodus rotundus, in Progreso, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundes-Gallegos, Judith; Salas-Rojas, Monica; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Perea-Martínez, Leonardo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani Y; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; García-Baltazar, Anahi; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Zuñiga, Gerardo; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus) and 8 tissue samples of D. rotundus by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR using FlaviPF1S, FlaviPR2bis, and FlaviPF3S primers specific for NS5, a gene highly conserved among flaviviruses. Phylogenetic inference analysis performed using the maximum likelihood algorithm implemented in PhyML showed that six sequences clustered with DENV (bootstrap value = 53.5%). Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation.

  18. Pupal deposition and ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae): Trichobius sp. (caecus group) in a Mexican cave habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Katharina; Dick, Carl W; Patterson, Bruce D; Whiting, Michael F; Gruwell, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    We studied the deposition of pupae of the winged bat fly Trichobius sp. (caecus group; Diptera), an ectoparasite of Natalus stramineus (Chiroptera, Natalidae), in a natural cave in Tamaulipas, Mexico. For the first time, we show a strong spatial segregation of populations of a streblid bat fly at different stages of development. Using molecular techniques we were able to match developmental stages to adults. Only 5 pupae were present in the main bat roosts. The overwhelming majority occurred exclusively in the bat flyway passages at a considerable distance from roosting bats. Pupal density corresponded positively with the average flight height of bats in the cave passage. Taken together, observations suggest that these ectoparasites must actively seek out their hosts by moving onto passing or roosting bats. The scarceness of pupae in the main roost may be dictated by environmental constraints for their development. The estimated population of viable pupae far exceeds the population of imagoes on the bats, and predation on adults by spiders is common.

  19. Interdisciplinary workshop yields new entomological data for forensic sciences: Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Albert, A Midori; Byrd, Jason H; Hall, David W

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Workshops are used for educating law enforcement personnel on the application of entomological, anthropological, and botanical techniques to gather forensically important information from a body recovery site. From 8 to 11 June 2004, such a workshop was conducted in the metropolitan area of Charlotte, NC, by the American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College. For this workshop, three pig carcasses weighing individually between 40 and 60 kg were placed in the field 4 June, whereas three pigs similar in size were placed in the field 7 June. During the afternoon session on 11 June, workshop participants collected three Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) third instar larvae from a pig carcass placed in the field on 7 June. These data represent the first records of this forensically important insect in North Carolina; furthermore, these data provide evidence of this species expansion into new geographic regions of the United States. This finding is an example of the benefits derived from an experiential and interdisciplinary approach to educating death scene investigators. Learners acquired new knowledge, put it into practice through the "body" recovery exercise, and ultimately contributed to science by way of the discovery and first documentation of a forensically important insect previously not known to inhabit North Carolina.

  20. Identification of forensically important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species using the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2008-05-20

    The identification of forensically important blowflies of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may be hampered by their close morphological similarities, especially as immatures. In contrast to most previous studies, the utility of a nuclear rather than mitochondrial genetic marker was investigated to solve this problem. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced from all nine Chrysomya species known from Australia. Difficulties encountered with direct sequencing of ITS2 for Chrysomya flavifrons necessitated cloning prior to sequencing for this species, which revealed a low level (0-0.23%) of intraindividual variation. Five restriction enzymes (DraI, BsaXI, BciVI, AseI and HinfI) were identified that were able to differentiate most members of the genus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed characteristic restriction profiles for all species except the closely related species pairs Chrysomya latifrons+Chrysomya semimetallica and Chrysomya incisuralis+Chrysomya rufifacies. Ch. incisuralis and Ch. rufifacies were able to be separated using the size differences resulting from amplification of the entire ITS region. The lack of intraspecific ITS2 sequence variation among eight Ch. incisuralis specimens was verified by the identical restriction profiles generated from these specimens. A DNA-based approach, such as PCR-RFLP, has the capacity to be useful for the identification of forensic entomological evidence in cases where morphological characters are unreliable.

  1. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  2. DNA damage and transcriptional changes induced by tributyltin (TBT) after short in vivo exposures of Chironomus riparius (Diptera) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a widespread environmental contaminant in aquatic systems whose adverse effects in development and reproduction are related to its well-known endocrine-disrupting activity. In this work, the early molecular effects of TBT in Chironomus riparius (Diptera) were evaluated by analyzing its DNA damaging potential and the transcriptional response of different endocrine-related genes. Twenty-four-hour in vivo exposures of the aquatic larvae, at environmentally relevant doses of TBT, revealed genotoxic activity as shown by significant increases in DNA strand breaks quantified with the comet assay. TBT was also able to induce significant increases in transcripts from the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the ultraspiracle gene (usp) (insect ortholog of the retinoid X receptor), the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene and the E74 early ecdysone-inducible gene, as measured by real-time RT-PCR. In contrast, the expression of the vitellogenin (vg) gene remained unaltered, while the hsp70 gene appeared to be down-regulated. The ability of TBT to up-regulate hormonal target genes provides the first evidence, at genomic level, of its endocrine disruptive effects and also suggests a mechanism of action that mimics ecdysteroid hormones in insects. These data reveal for the first time the early genomic effects of TBT on an insect genome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae, a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in Dominican amber

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    Poinar George

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amber fossils can be used to trace the history of disease-vector associations because microorganisms are preserved "in situ" inside the alimentary tract and body cavity of blood-sucking insects. Results Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Phlebotomidae: Diptera is described from Dominican amber as a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. The fossil sand fly differs from all previously described extinct and extant members of the genus by the following combination of characters: Sc forked with the branches meeting the costa and radius veins; wing L/W value of 4.1; a δ value of 18; a ratio β/α value of 0.86, and the shape and size of the spatulate rods on the ninth sternite. The trypanosomatid is characterized by the structure of its promastigotes, amastigotes and paramastigotes and its transmission by an extinct species of sand fly. Conclusion Morphological characters show that the fossil sand fly is a new extinct species and that it is host to a digenetic species of trypanosomatid. This study provides the first fossil evidence that Neotropical sand flies were vectors of trypanosomatids in the mid-Tertiary (20–30 mya.

  4. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  5. Spatial variation in host feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, T C; Lemenager, D A; Kluh, S; Carroll, B D; Lothrop, H D; Reisen, W K

    2012-07-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) is now endemic in California across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. Because different avian hosts have varying competence for WNV, determining the blood-feeding patterns of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. We investigated the blood-feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and members of the Culex pipiens L. complex from southern to northern California. Nearly 100 different host species were identified from 1,487 bloodmeals, by using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). Cx. tarsalis fed on a higher diversity of hosts and more frequently on nonhuman mammals than did the Cx. pipiens complex. Several WNV-competent host species, including house finch and house sparrow, were common bloodmeal sources for both vector species across several biomes and could account for WNV maintenance and amplification in these areas. Highly competent American crow, western scrub-jay and yellow-billed magpie also were fed upon often when available and are likely important as amplifying hosts for WNV in some areas. Neither species fed frequently on humans (Cx. pipiens complex [0.4%], Cx. tarsalis [0.2%]), but with high abundance, both species could serve as both enzootic and bridge vectors for WNV.

  6. Influence of Bloodmeal Source on Reproductive Output of the Potential West Nile Vector, Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Berna; Durmaz, Esra; Alten, Bulent

    2014-11-01

    Culex theileri Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) has a wide Afrotropical, southern Palaearctic, northern Oriental, and European distribution. It is mainly considered as a mammophilic mosquito and also feeds on birds and serves as a vector for various zoonotic diseases including West Nile virus. Despite its broad distribution and evidence indicating that Cx. theileri is a competent vector of human and domestic animal pathogens, basic biological and ecological features of this species have not been well investigated. We evaluated the impact of bloodmeal source (human, chicken, cow, and a double bloodmeal such as human and cow or chicken and cow and mixed bloodmeals [cow, chicken, and human] via artificial feeding) on fecundity, hatching rates, developmental times, and viability from egg to adult for laboratory colonized Cx. theileri. Fecundity in mosquitoes that took a chicken bloodmeal, a double bloodmeal and mixed bloodmeals was significantly higher than in females fed on a single cow or single human blood. This is the first study about the bloodmeal sources effect on laboratory-reared Cx. theileri populations and these findings contribute to our understanding of the impact of bloodmeal source on reproduction in Cx. theileri. As it is known that Cx. theileri is a vector for West Nile virus, the potential impacts of bloodmeal source on virus transmission are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  7. Patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and container productivity measured using pupal and Stegomyia indices in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Weinberg, D; Coto, H D; Gaspe, M S; Gürtler, R E

    2009-09-01

    A citywide control program of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mainly based on the use of larvicides reduced infestations but failed to achieve the desired target levels in Clorinda, northeastern Argentina, over 5 yr of interventions. To understand the underlying causes of persistent infestations and to develop new control tactics adapted to the local context, we conducted two pupal surveys in a large neighborhood with approximately 2,500 houses and recorded several variables for every container inspected in fall and spring 2007. In total, 4,076 lots and 4,267 containers were inspected over both surveys, and 8,391 Ae. aegypti pupae were collected. Large tanks used for potable water storage were the most abundant and the most productive type of container, accounting for 65-84% of all the pupae collected. Therefore, large tanks were key containers and candidates for improved targeted interventions. Multivariate analysis showed that containers located in the yard, at low sun exposure, unlidded, filled with rain water, and holding polluted water were all more likely to be infested by larvae or pupae. When only infested containers were considered, productivity of pupae was most closely associated with large tanks and rain water. A stochastic simulation model was developed to calculate the expected correlations between pupal and Stegomyia indices according to the characteristics of the distribution of larvae and pupae per container and the spatial scale at which the indices were computed. The correlation between pupal and Stegomyia indices is expected to increase as infestation levels decline.

  8. Moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em um pomar de goiabeira, no semiárido brasileiro

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    Elton Lucio Araujo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae são pragas-chave na cultura da goiabeira Psidium guajava L., com predominância de diferentes espécies de acordo com a região produtora no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e analisar parâmetros faunísticos das moscas-das-frutas obtidas em um pomar de goiabeira, no município de Cruzeta, Rio Grande do Norte, situado no semiárido brasileiro. As moscas-das-frutas foram coletadas semanalmente, com auxílio de armadilhas McPhail, tendo como atrativo proteína hidrolisada a 5% v/v. Foram registradas cinco espécies no pomar estudado: Ceratitis capitata (Wied., Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart e Anastrepha dissimilis Stone. Ceratitis capitata foi a espécie mais frequente, constante e dominante, considerada como uma praga invasiva, potencial em pomares de goiabeira no semiárido brasileiro.

  9. Odonate Nymphs: Generalist Predators and their Potential in the Management of Dengue Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Waseem Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the den­gue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was eval­uated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with in­creasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages. 

  10. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.

  11. Evidence to support a conspecific nature of allopatric cytological races of Anopheles nitidus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

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    Songsawatkiat, Siripan; Baimai, Visut; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Otsuka, Yasushi; Taai, Kritsana; Hempolchom, Chayanit; Srisuka, Wichai; Poolphol, Petchaboon; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2014-01-01

    Metaphase karyotype investigation on two allopatric strains of Anopheles nitidus Harrison, Scanlon, and Reid (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Thailand during 2011-2012. Five karyotypic forms, i.e., Form A (X1, Y1), Form B (X1, Y2), Form C (X2, Y3), Form D (X1, X3, Y4), and Form E (X1, X2, X3, Y5) were obtained from a total of 21 isofemale lines. Forms A, B, and C were confined to Phang Nga Province, southern Thailand, whereas Forms D and E were restricted to Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Cross-mating experiments among the five isofemale lines, which were representative of five karyotypic forms of An. nitidus, revealed genetic compatibility by providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2 generations. The results suggest that the forms are conspecific, and An. nitidus comprises five cytological races. The very low intraspecific sequence variations (average genetic distances = 0.002-0.008) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II) among the five karyotypic forms were very good supportive evidence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Preimaginal exposure to azadirachtin affects food selection and digestive enzymes in adults of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

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    Kilani-Morakchi, Samira; Bezzar-Bendjazia, Radia; Ferdenache, Maroua; Aribi, Nadia

    2017-08-01

    Among the plant derived product, azadirachtin, a neem-based insecticide, is exceptional in having a broad range of bioactivity including toxicity, growth, development and reproduction effects, repellency and antifeedancy. If considerable progress on the physiological and biological activities and agricultural application of azadirachtin has been achieved, its exact mechanism of action remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at assessing the lethal and sublethal behavioral and physiological effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Azadirachtin was applied topically at two doses LD 25 (0.28μg) and LD 50 (0.67μg) on early third instar larvae. Results showed that flies preferentially ingested control medium rather than azadirachtin-treated medium. Pre-imaginal exposure (L3) to azadirachtin increased aversion to this substance suggesting a memorability of the learned avoidance. In addition, all tested flies revealed a clear preference for solvent odour rather than azadirachtin odour. Moreover, azadirachtin treatment decreased significantly the amount of food intake in the adults of both sexes. Finally, azadirachtin was found to affect digestive enzyme activities in the midgut of flies. Indeed, an inhibition of α-amylase, chitinase, and protease activities and an increase of lipasic activity were noted. These results may reflect interference of azadirachtin with regulation of feeding and metabolism, and provide some evidence of a long term antifeedancy and delayed effects through developmental stage which may reinforce the insecticidal activity of this bioinsecticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

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    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  14. Vertebrate hosts and phylogenetic relationships of amphibian trypanosomes from a potential invertebrate vector, Culex territans Walker (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Crans, Wayne; Gaugler, Randy

    2009-04-01

    The blood meals of field-collected female Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) were concurrently assayed for the presence of trypanosomes and for vertebrate host identification. We amplified vertebrate DNA in 42 of 119 females and made positive identification to the host species level in 29 of those samples. Of the 119 field-collected Cx. territans females, 24 were infected with trypanosomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed the trypanosomes in the amphibian portion of the aquatic clade of the Trypanosomatidae. These trypanosomes were isolated from Cx. territans females that had fed on the frog species Rana clamitans, R. catesbeiana, R. virgatipes, and Rana spp. Results support a potential new lineage of dipteran-transmitted amphibian trypanosomes may occur within the aquatic clade. The frequency in which female Cx. territans acquire trypanosomes, through diverse feeding habits, indicates a new relationship between amphibian trypanosomes and mosquitoes that has not been examined previously. Combining Trypanosoma species, invertebrate, and vertebrate hosts to existing phylogenies can elucidate trypanosome and host relationships.

  15. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey.

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    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E

    2006-11-01

    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  16. Best Host Age of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Multiplication of Four Native Parasitoids from the Americas

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    Poncio, S; Montoya, P; Cancino, J; Nava, D E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.

  17. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. ©2014 The Authors Journal compliation © Insititute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science.

  18. Botanical insecticides on Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae and its parasitoids in string beans cultivated in a plastic greenhouse

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    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The string bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most cultivated vegetables in plastic greenhouses in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Liriomyza huidobrensis (Dip.: Agromyzidae is one of the most important insect pests occurring in this culture. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of plants and the commercial product DalNeem on L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids, as well as to analyse the population fluctuation of L. huidobrensis and parasitoids of this insect pest. The experiment was carried out on string beans cultivated in a greenhouse, where in each of the four central lines of culture, five plots were established with five plants per plot. The experimental design was random blocks with four replications. DalNeem was the treatment that best controlled L. huidobrensis. On the other hand, the treatments did not affect the parasitoids Chrysocharis bedius (Hym.: Eulophidae or Opius sp. (Hym.: Braconidae. In plants without the use of these treatments, the population of L. huidobrensis exhibited a sharp decline with the increase of the parasitoids C. bedius, Opius sp., Eucoilinae (Hym.: Figitidae and Diptera.

  19. Botanical insecticides on Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae and its parasitoids in string beans cultivated in a plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Thereza Bastos Dequech

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The string bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is Sul. Liriomyza huidobrensis (Dip.: Agromyzidae is one of the most important insect pests occurring in this culture. This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of plants and the commercial product DalNeem on L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids, as well as to analyse the population fluctuation of L. huidobrensis and parasitoids of this insect pest. The experiment was carried out on string beans cultivated in a greenhouse, where in each of the four central lines of culture, five plots were established with five plants per plot. The experimental design was random blocks with four replications. DalNeem was the treatment that best controlled L. huidobrensis. On the other hand, the treatments did not affect the parasitoids Chrysocharis bedius (Hym.: Eulophidae or Opius sp. (Hym.: Braconidae. In plants without the use of these treatments, the population of L. huidobrensis exhibited a sharp decline with the increase of the parasitoids C. bedius, Opius sp., Eucoilinae (Hym.: Figitidae and Diptera.

  20. Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as bioindicators of heavy metals pollution in Shiroro Lake, Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoro, Francis O; Auta, Yohanna I; Odume, Oghenekaro N; Keke, Unique N; Mohammed, Adamu Z

    2018-03-01

    In this study, mouthpart deformities in Chironomid larvae (Diptera) were investigated in relation to sediment contamination in the Shiroro Lake in Nigeria. Metals and chironomids were sampled monthly at three stations (A-C) between August 2013 and January 2014. Across the stations, zinc ranged (3.9-75mg/g), manganese (1.29-1.65mg/g), lead (0.00-0.10mg/g), iron (101-168mg/g) and copper (0.13-0.17mg/g). The metal ions did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between the sampling stations. However, zinc and iron ions were significantly different between the sampling seasons (P < 0.05). Thirteen chironomid species were recorded, with Chironomus sp., Polypedilum sp. and Ablabesmyia sp. dominating the assemblage structure. Mouthpart deformities were significantly higher at Station A compared with Station C, and seasonally significantly higher during dry season compared with wet season. Elevated incidences of deformity were recorded in Chironomus spp larvae as compared to other genera therefore for further studies in this region assessments should be based solely on Chironomus species and ignoring the rest. Strategies need to be developed to reduce the contaminations and the biological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.