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Sample records for evaluation risk classification

  1. A Soft Intelligent Risk Evaluation Model for Credit Scoring Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khashei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the most important branches of business and finance. Classification models are the most popular and widely used analytical group of data mining approaches that can greatly help financial decision makers and managers to tackle credit risk problems. However, the literature clearly indicates that, despite proposing numerous classification models, credit scoring is often a difficult task. On the other hand, there is no universal credit-scoring model in the literature that can be accurately and explanatorily used in all circumstances. Therefore, the research for improving the efficiency of credit-scoring models has never stopped. In this paper, a hybrid soft intelligent classification model is proposed for credit-scoring problems. In the proposed model, the unique advantages of the soft computing techniques are used in order to modify the performance of the traditional artificial neural networks in credit scoring. Empirical results of Australian credit card data classifications indicate that the proposed hybrid model outperforms its components, and also other classification models presented for credit scoring. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered as an appropriate alternative tool for binary decision making in business and finance, especially in high uncertainty conditions.

  2. Prometheus unbound - challenges of risk evaluation, risk classification, and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1999-11-01

    For dealing with risks in a rational fashion, it is necessary to characterize risks and use the parameters of characterization as tools for designing appropriate actions. This reports suggests a set of criteria that one can use in evaluating risks. These criteria include: - Damage potential, i.e. the amount of damage that the hazard can cause; - probability of occurrence, i.e. the likelihood that a specific damage will occur; - incertitude, i.e., the remaining uncertainties that are not covered by the assessment of probabilities (subdivided in statistical uncertainties, genuine uncertainty, and ignorance); - ubiquity which defines the geographic dispersion of potential damages (intragenerational justice); - persistency which defines the temporal extension of potential damages (intergenerational justice); - irreversibility which describes the impossible restoration of the situation to the state before the damage occurred (possible restoration are e.g. reforestation and cleaning of water); - delay effects which characterize the time of latency between the initial event and the actual impact of damage. The time of latency could be of physical, chemical or biological nature; and - potential of mobilization which is understood as violation of individual, social or cultural interests and values generating social conflicts and psychological reactions by affected people. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Newer Risk Markers for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Classification A Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavousi, Maryam; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Leening, Maarten J. G.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lindemans, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; van der Lugt, Aad; van den Meiracker, Anton H.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether newer risk markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) improve CHD risk prediction remains unclear. Objective: To assess whether newer risk markers for CHD risk prediction and stratification improve Framingham risk score (FRS) predictions. Design: Prospective population-based study.

  4. Evaluation of newer risk markers for coronary heart disease risk classification: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, Maryam; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Rutten, Joost H W; Leening, Maarten J G; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Verwoert, Germaine C; Krestin, Gabriel P; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Lindemans, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Lugt, Aad; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Witteman, Jacqueline C M

    2012-03-20

    Whether newer risk markers for coronary heart disease (CHD) improve CHD risk prediction remains unclear. To assess whether newer risk markers for CHD risk prediction and stratification improve Framingham risk score (FRS) predictions. Prospective population-based study. The Rotterdam Study, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 5933 asymptomatic, community-dwelling participants (mean age, 69.1 years [SD, 8.5]). Traditional CHD risk factors used in the FRS (age, sex, systolic blood pressure, treatment of hypertension, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, smoking, and diabetes) and newer CHD risk factors (N-terminal fragment of prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide levels, von Willebrand factor antigen levels, fibrinogen levels, chronic kidney disease, leukocyte count, C-reactive protein levels, homocysteine levels, uric acid levels, coronary artery calcium [CAC] scores, carotid intima-media thickness, peripheral arterial disease, and pulse wave velocity). Adding CAC scores to the FRS improved the accuracy of risk predictions (c-statistic increase, 0.05 [95% CI, 0.02 to 0.06]; net reclassification index, 19.3% overall [39.3% in those at intermediate risk, by FRS]). Levels of N-terminal fragment of prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide also improved risk predictions but to a lesser extent (c-statistic increase, 0.02 [CI, 0.01 to 0.04]; net reclassification index, 7.6% overall [33.0% in those at intermediate risk, by FRS]). Improvements in predictions with other newer markers were marginal. The findings may not be generalizable to younger or nonwhite populations. Among 12 CHD risk markers, improvements in FRS predictions were most statistically and clinically significant with the addition of CAC scores. Further investigation is needed to assess whether risk refinements using CAC scores lead to a meaningful change in clinical outcome. Whether to use CAC score screening as a more routine test for risk prediction requires full consideration of the financial and

  5. Feelings of nurses in the reception and risk classification evaluation in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Midori Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal feelings of nurses who host with risk assessment and classification in an emergency room of a pubic hospital. Methods: it is a qualitative research approach with 12 nurses interviewed. The data were analyzed, categorized and discussed according to the theoretical framework of work psychodynamics. Results: the nurses expressed feelings of satisfaction in meeting the user needs assistance. They reported feeling as fear, stress and fatigue due to the sharp pace of work, gaps in health care network and situations of violence. They highlighted coping strategies to reduce the burden of this assignment, how to share the completion of the screening with the nursing staff. Conclusion: the host with risk assessment and classification favors the autonomy of nurses and provide greater accountability to this professional users, but the limitations of available resources to solve the complaint of patients generate physical and psychological burden to this worker.

  6. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough...... to be a risk. A hazard does not necessarily constitute a risk, as efforts can be done to minimize risk by reducing the exposure. Thus, the relationship between hazard and risk must be treated cautiously. Fora robust risk assessment good data on exposure to the substance is needed and exposure data for other...... similarly acting substances are needed for assessing the risk for mixture effects. Such data may, however, often be absent. Toxicological potency, i.e. the lowest dose found to cause adverse effects, has been proposed as one of the key characteristics when evaluating safety of a substance. However, this may...

  7. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. III: Evaluation using a panel of reference foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an exploratory evaluation of four functional components of a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods in a concordance study. Two independent raters assigned concern levels to 20 reference GM foods using a rating form based on the proposed RBCS. The four components of evaluation were: (1) degree of concordance, (2) distribution across concern levels, (3) discriminating ability of the scheme, and (4) ease of use. At least one of the 20 reference foods was assigned to each of the possible concern levels, demonstrating the ability of the scheme to identify GM foods of different concern with respect to potential health risk. There was reasonably good concordance between the two raters for the three separate parts of the RBCS. The raters agreed that the criteria in the scheme were sufficiently clear in discriminating reference foods into different concern levels, and that with some experience, the scheme was reasonably easy to use. Specific issues and suggestions for improvements identified in the concordance study are discussed.

  8. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This

  9. Endogeneity in prison risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Bierie, David M; Stock, Amber

    2013-10-01

    Security designation tools are a key feature of all prisons in the United States, intended as objective measures of risk that funnel inmates into security levels-to prison environments varying in degree of intrusiveness, restriction, dangerousness, and cost. These tools are mostly (if not all) validated by measuring inmates on a set of characteristics, using scores from summations of that information to assign inmates to prisons of varying security level, and then observing whether inmates assumed more risky did in fact offend more. That approach leaves open the possibility of endogeneity--that the harsher prisons are themselves bringing about higher misconduct and thus biasing coefficients assessing individual risk. The current study assesses this potential bias by following an entry cohort of inmates to more than 100 facilities in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and exploiting the substantial variation in classification scores within a given prison that derive from systematic overrides of security-level designations for reasons not associated with risk of misconduct. By estimating pooled models of misconduct along with prison-fixed effects specifications, the data show that a portion of the predictive accuracy thought associated with the risk-designation tool used in BOP was a function of facility-level contamination (endogeneity).

  10. Feasibility of using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for evaluation of fall-related risk factors in acute rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih W; Lin, Li F; Chou, Lin C; Wu, Mei J; Liao, Chun D; Liou, Tsan H

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported the use of an International Classification of Functioning (ICF) core set that can provide a holistic framework for evaluating the risk factors of falls; however, data on the feasibility of applying this core set are lacking. To investigate the feasibility of applying the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set in the case of patients in an acute-rehabilitation setting. A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design. Acute-rehabilitation ward. A total of 273 patients who experienced fall at acute-rehabilitation ward. The data on falls were collected from the hospital's Nursing Information System (NIS) and the fall-reporting system (Adverse Event Reporting System, AERS) between 2010 and 2013. The relationship of both systems to the fall-related ICF core set was analyzed to assess the feasibility of their clinical application. We evaluated the feasibility of using the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set by using the frequency and the percentage of the fall patients in of the listed categories. The fall-related ICF risk-factor core set category b735 (muscle tone functions) exhibited a high feasibility (85.95%) for clinical application, and the category b730 (muscle power functions) covered 77.11% of the patients. The feasibility of application of the category d410 (change basic body position) was also high in the case of all fall patients (81.69%). In the acute-rehabilitation setting, the feasibility of application of the fall-related ICF risk-factor core set is high. The fall-related ICF risk-factor core set can help multidisciplinary teams develop fall-prevention strategies in acute rehabilitation wards.

  11. Collection, evaluation and classification of Iranian confectionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection, evaluation and classification of Iranian confectionary sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) populations using multivaraite statistical techniques. ... Clusters I, III and VI include genotypes from different sources indicating no association between clustering pattern and eco-geographical distribution of genotypes.

  12. The daily risk of bacteremia during hospitalization and associated 30-day mortality evaluated in relation to the traditional classification of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the overall and daily incidence of bacteremia among hospitalized patients and evaluated the traditional classification of bacteremia (community-onset vs nosocomial based on a 48-hour time window) by means of the daily incidence and associated 30-day mortality. METHODS...

  13. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  14. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  15. Operational risk modeled analytically II: the consequences of classification invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Brunel

    2015-01-01

    Most of the banks' operational risk internal models are based on loss pooling in risk and business line categories. The parameters and outputs of operational risk models are sensitive to the pooling of the data and the choice of the risk classification. In a simple model, we establish the link between the number of risk cells and the model parameters by requiring invariance of the bank's loss distribution upon a change in classification. We provide details on the impact of this requirement on...

  16. A Look at the Practice of Risk Classification: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alves Morais Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the increase in the number of patients in emergency services / emergency brought the need for screening / risk classification as a way to organize the urgency and emergency care in the health institutions. Objectives: know how to develop the risk classification practice in the Brazilian reality using the scientific production, the insertion of nurses in risk classification using the Brazilian scientific production. Methods: an integrative review was carried out, the data occurred during September 2015 in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline, and the Latin American and Caribbean System of Information on Health Sciences (LILACS "GOOGLE SCHOLAR." Results: it found 9,874 articles and selected 33 for analysis. The results were organized in 04 categories: Risk classification as assistance qualifier; risk classification’s organization; operation weaknesses of the risk classification and nurse's role in risk classification. Conclusion: We conclude that the risk classification qualifies the assistance in emergency services; there are many difficulties for the risk classification’s operation and the nurse has been established as a professional with technical and legal competence to perform the risk classification.

  17. An evaluation of classification systems for stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattinson Robert

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit and classification of stillbirths is an essential part of clinical practice and a crucial step towards stillbirth prevention. Due to the limitations of the ICD system and lack of an international approach to an acceptable solution, numerous disparate classification systems have emerged. We assessed the performance of six contemporary systems to inform the development of an internationally accepted approach. Methods We evaluated the following systems: Amended Aberdeen, Extended Wigglesworth; PSANZ-PDC, ReCoDe, Tulip and CODAC. Nine teams from 7 countries applied the classification systems to cohorts of stillbirths from their regions using 857 stillbirth cases. The main outcome measures were: the ability to retain the important information about the death using the InfoKeep rating; the ease of use according to the Ease rating (both measures used a five-point scale with a score Results InfoKeep scores were significantly different across the classifications (p ≤ 0.01 due to low scores for Wigglesworth and Aberdeen. CODAC received the highest mean (SD score of 3.40 (0.73 followed by PSANZ-PDC, ReCoDe and Tulip [2.77 (1.00, 2.36 (1.21, 1.92 (1.24 respectively]. Wigglesworth and Aberdeen resulted in a high proportion of unexplained stillbirths and CODAC and Tulip the lowest. While Ease scores were different (p ≤ 0.01, all systems received satisfactory scores; CODAC received the highest score. Aberdeen and Wigglesworth showed poor agreement with kappas of 0.35 and 0.25 respectively. Tulip performed best with a kappa of 0.74. The remainder had good to fair agreement. Conclusion The Extended Wigglesworth and Amended Aberdeen systems cannot be recommended for classification of stillbirths. Overall, CODAC performed best with PSANZ-PDC and ReCoDe performing well. Tulip was shown to have the best agreement and a low proportion of unexplained stillbirths. The virtues of these systems need to be considered in the development of an

  18. [Application of risk grading and classification for occupational hazards in risk management for a shipbuilding project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenfeng; Tan, Qiang; Wu, Shihua; Deng, Yingcong; Liu, Lifen; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the application of risk grading and classification for occupational hazards in risk management for a shipbuilding project. The risk management for this shipbuilding project was performed by a comprehensive application of MES evaluation, quality assessment of occupational health management, and risk grading and classification for occupational hazards, through the methods of occupational health survey, occupational health testing, and occupational health examinations. The results of MES evaluation showed that the risk of occupational hazards in this project was grade 3, which was considered as significant risk; Q value calculated by quality assessment of occupational health management was 0.52, which was considered to be unqualified; the comprehensive evaluation with these two methods showed that the integrated risk rating for this shipbuilding project was class D, and follow- up and rectification were needed with a focus on the improvement in health management. The application of MES evaluation and quality assessment of occupational health management in risk management for occupational hazards can achieve objective and reasonable conclusions and has good applicability.

  19. 10 CFR 1045.9 - RD classification performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RD classification performance evaluation. 1045.9 Section... classification performance evaluation. (a) Heads of agencies shall ensure that RD management officials and those... RD or FRD documents shall have their personnel performance evaluated with respect to classification...

  20. Evaluating the Impact of a Clinical Decision Support Tool to Reduce Chronic Opioid Dose and Decrease Risk Classification in a Veteran Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shardool; Carmichael, Jan M; Taylor, Janice M; Bounthavong, Mark; Higgins, Diana T

    2017-10-01

    Chronic opioid therapy-clinical reminder (COT-CR) is a decision support tool to prompt providers to carefully assess patients prescribed chronic opioids. This tool was developed to address inappropriate opioid prescribing. To determine COT-CR's impact on reducing morphine equivalent monthly dose (MEMD) and risk index for overdose or serious prescription opioid-induced respiratory depression (RIOSORD) values in veterans receiving chronic opioids. This retrospective cohort review matched patients with a complete COT-CR to patients with an incomplete COT-CR using propensity scores. In the primary aim, an interrupted time series design evaluated for changes in MEMD 12 months before and 6 months after the index date. The index date was the first pain or primary care provider visit post COT-CR installation. In the secondary aims, a retrospective cohort design was used to evaluate the changes in RIOSORD index score and risk class 6 months after the index date. After matching, 3801 patients were included in the complete and incomplete COT-CR groups, respectively. Greater average reduction in MEMD (-11.6 MEMD; 95% CI = -0.97 to -22.25 MEMD; P = 0.032) and RIOSORD index score (-0.53 RIOSORD index score; 95% CI = -1.00, -0.05 RIOSORD index score; P = 0.030) was observed in patients with a complete COT-CR compared to patients with an incomplete COT-CR. Differences in RIOSORD risk class were insignificant. Completing the COT-CR was associated with reduced MEMD and RIOSORD values. This suggests that active monitoring can change prescribing patterns, thereby, reducing the overall risk of opioid overdose in at-risk veterans.

  1. Nurses' perception about risk classification in an emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Chaves de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Get to know how nurses perceive the accomplishment of risk classification in an emergency service. Methodology. In this qualitative study, 11 nurses were included with at least two months of experience in the risk classification of patients who visited the emergency service. Semistructured interviews were used to collect the information. The data were collected between August and December 2011. For data analysis, Bardin's theoretical framework was used. Results. The nurses in the study consider the risk classification as a work organization instruments that permits closer contact between nurses and patients. The nursing skills needed for risk classification were identified: knowledge about the scale used, clinical perspective, patience and agility. The availability of risk classification scales was the main facilitator of this work. The main difficulties were the disorganization of the care network and the health team's lack of knowledge of the protocol. Conclusion. Risk classification offers an opportunity for professional autonomy to the extent that it is the main responsible for regulating care at the entry door of the emergency services.

  2. A classification and regression tree analysis for the evaluation of the role of nutritional services on cardiovascular disease risk status of older people living in Greek islands and Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Tountas, Yannis; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, with classification-regression tree analysis, the structure of the associations between nutritional and health care services and the cumulative prevalence of the classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of older individuals living in Greek islands and Cyprus. During 2005-2009, 744 men and 742 women (>65 years) from nine Greek islands and Cyprus Republic were voluntarily enrolled in the Mediterranean Islands study; various socio-demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Moreover, information regarding practising dieticians (n = 88) and nutritional services provided in these islands was also recorded. Both medical and nutrition services act more effectively to elders' cardiovascular health. For example, older individuals living in areas with nutritional services' support for at least five years, with collaboration between dieticians and physicians, reduced the CVD risk factors (CVD RF) burden by 42%. Whereas, in areas with dietetic support less than five years, but more than two, the presence of advanced health care system seemed to control the CVD RF burden to the population average. Despite the fact that the present work shares some limitations mainly because of its cross-sectional design, the classification and regression tree approach has clearly demonstrated the interrelation between nutritional services and the health care system towards achieving benefits among the elders' quality of life.

  3. An Ensemble Multilabel Classification for Disease Risk Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify and prevent disease risk as early as possible through regular physical examinations. We formulate the disease risk prediction into a multilabel classification problem. A novel Ensemble Label Power-set Pruned datasets Joint Decomposition (ELPPJD method is proposed in this work. First, we transform the multilabel classification into a multiclass classification. Then, we propose the pruned datasets and joint decomposition methods to deal with the imbalance learning problem. Two strategies size balanced (SB and label similarity (LS are designed to decompose the training dataset. In the experiments, the dataset is from the real physical examination records. We contrast the performance of the ELPPJD method with two different decomposition strategies. Moreover, the comparison between ELPPJD and the classic multilabel classification methods RAkEL and HOMER is carried out. The experimental results show that the ELPPJD method with label similarity strategy has outstanding performance.

  4. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and

  5. Credit Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mihail

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the environment in which a bank functions there are many risk sources that determine the reduction of the profitability. These risk sources must be attentively identified, measured and taken into consideration for the elaboration of a bank’s general strategy of monitoring and disproof of the risks. The risk is generally defined as: the adverse effect that certain distinct incertitude sources exert over the profitability. The measurement of the risk requires that both the incertitude and the potential adverse effect over the profitability be surprised and evaluated.

  6. Pediatric urinary incontinence: Classification, evaluation, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.J. Schaeffer

    statement standardizing the terminology for lower urinary tract function in children and present a logical classification scheme for ... reserved. Abbreviations: UI, urinary incontinence; ICCS, International Children's Continence Society; PVR, postvoid residual (urine); MNE, monosymptomatic ..... Although no short term memory.

  7. Life insurance: genomic stratification and risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Burton, Hilary; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Feze, Ida Ngueng; Dent, Tom; Pashayan, Nora; Chowdhury, Susmita; Foulkes, William; Hall, Alison; Hamet, Pavel; Kirwan, Nick; Macdonald, Angus; Simard, Jacques; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2014-05-01

    With the development and increasing accessibility of new genomic tools such as next-generation sequencing, genome-wide association studies, and genomic stratification models, the debate on genetic discrimination in the context of life insurance became even more complex, requiring a review of current practices and the exploration of new scenarios. In this perspective, a multidisciplinary group of international experts representing different interests revisited the genetics and life insurance debate during a 2-day symposium 'Life insurance: breast cancer research and genetic risk prediction seminar' held in Quebec City, Canada on 24 and 25 September 2012. Having reviewed the current legal, social, and ethical issues on the use of genomic information in the context of life insurance, the Expert Group identified four main questions: (1) Have recent developments in genomics and related sciences changed the contours of the genetics and life insurance debate? (2) Are genomic results obtained in a research context relevant for life insurance underwriting? (3) Should predictive risk assessment and risk stratification models based on genomic data also be used for life insurance underwriting? (4) What positive actions could stakeholders in the debate take to alleviate concerns over the use of genomic information by life insurance underwriters? This paper presents a summary of the discussions and the specific action items recommended by the Expert Group.

  8. Localization in wireless sensor networks: Classification and evaluation of techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz

    2012-01-01

      Localization in wireless sensor networks: Classification and evaluation of techniques Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of low cost, low power and multi functional wireless sensing devices...

  9. Nutrition risk classification: a reproducible and valid tool for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevich, D S; Boney, A R; Braunschweig, C L; Perez, A; Stevens, M

    1997-02-01

    Incorporating the nursing staff to assist with the screening process on admission will allow patients who are at nutritional risk to be assessed by registered dietitians earlier in their hospital stay. The goal of this study was to develop an objective, valid, reproducible nutrition screen for use by registered nurses (RNs) to allow for nutrition classifications of hospitalized patients. The current nursing admission assessment form was modified to contain questions on weight loss history, percentage of ideal body weight, and alterations in dietary intake and gastrointestinal function. Assessments were completed within 48 hours of admission. On the basis of the answers to these questions, patients were classified as "at nutritional risk" or "low nutritional risk." In phase 1, to assess reproducibility of the form, a prospective study between staff RNs and a nutritionist was undertaken on 186 consecutive adult admissions. Nutrition screening and classification was done independently by both practitioners. In phase 2 of the study, prospective validation of the form contrasting prealbumin (PAB) levels with RN nutritional risk classification (n = 56) was investigated. Interobserver agreement of nutrition classification between RN and nutritionist was 97.3% (p = .95). Twenty-nine patients were classified at low nutritional risk (27 normal PAB and 2 low PAB); 27 patients were classified as at nutritional risk (16 normal PAB and 11 low PAB) (chi 2 = 8.9, p power 0.8). The sensitivity of the tool was 84.6%. To our knowledge, this is the first nutrition screening tool designed for staff RNs that has been tested for both validity and reproducibility.

  10. Risk classification priorities in an emergency unit and outcomes of the service provided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Marconato

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to check the association of the proposed priorities of the institutional protocol of risk classification with the outcomes and evaluate the profile of the care provided in an emergency unit. Method: observational epidemiological study based on data from the computerized files of a Reference Emergency Unit. Care provided to adults was evaluated regarding risk classification and outcomes (death, hospitalization and hospital discharge based on the information recorded in the emergency bulletin. Results: the mean age of the 97,099 registered patients was 43.4 years; 81.5% cases were spontaneous demand; 41.2% had been classified as green, 15.3% yellow, 3.7% blue, 3% red and 36.and 9% had not received a classification; 90.2% of the patients had been discharged, 9.4% hospitalized and 0.4% had died. Among patients who were discharged, 14.7% had been classified as yellow or red, 13.6% green or blue, and 1.8% as blue or green. Conclusion: the protocol of risk classification showed good sensitivity to predict serious situations that can progress to death or hospitalization.

  11. CLARIPED: a new tool for risk classification in pediatric emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Barbosa, Maria Clara de; Prata-Barbosa, Arnaldo; Alves da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo; Lopes, Cláudia de Souza

    2016-09-01

    To present a new pediatric risk classification tool, CLARIPED, and describe its development steps. Development steps: (i) first round of discussion among experts, first prototype; (ii) pre-test of reliability, 36 hypothetical cases; (iii) second round of discussion to perform adjustments; (iv) team training; (v) pre-test with patients in real time; (vi) third round of discussion to perform new adjustments; (vii) final pre-test of validity (20% of medical treatments in five days). CLARIPED features five urgency categories: Red (Emergency), Orange (very urgent), Yellow (urgent), Green (little urgent) and Blue (not urgent). The first classification step includes the measurement of four vital signs (Vipe score); the second step consists in the urgency discrimination assessment. Each step results in assigning a color, selecting the most urgent one for the final classification. Each color corresponds to a maximum waiting time for medical care and referral to the most appropriate physical area for the patient's clinical condition. The interobserver agreement was substantial (kappa=0.79) and the final pre-test, with 82 medical treatments, showed good correlation between the proportion of patients in each urgency category and the number of used resources (pPediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of genetic divergence for classification and evaluation of 37 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of genetic divergence for classification and evaluation of 37 productive performances in 54 oval cocoon strains of Iran silkworm germplasm. ... suitable for future crossings, maintenance of parental strains and hybridizations with peanut cocoon strains so as to maximize heterosis and to avoid depression inbreeding.

  13. Performance indicators for the statistical evaluation of digital image classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urso, D' G.; Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical procedure is proposed to evaluate the algorithms for the numerical classification of images. The approach is based on the derivation of performance indicators from measurements of signature separability and thresholding analysis. Although these measurements are not new in image

  14. Characterisation, classification and suitability evaluation of the forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterisation, classification and suitability evaluation of the forest-savanna soils of Oyo state. JO Aruleba, AO Ogunkunle. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Soil Sciences Vol. 16 (1) 2006: pp. 10-16. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Classification and evaluation of soils under rubber ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification and evaluation of soils under rubber (Hevea brazilliensis) Muell Argo plantation at NKO Corss River State. M O Eyong, M O Eyong. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 19-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  17. RESEARCH ON RISK CLASSIFICATION METHOD OF ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the densely population and mobility characteristics of the crowd, generally accidents happened in assembly occupancies will trigger a chain reaction, and then bring heavy casualties and property loss, and result disastrous consequences. In the context of safety regulation resources limited, building risk classification system of assembly occupancies is important for "scientific predicting, and hierarchical controlling” In this paper, a software with a graphical user interface is designed using MATLAB GUI to analyze and calculate risks of stampede accident caused by gathered crowds in the video. A velocity extraction method based on cross-correlation algorithm is adopted, and the risk characteristic parameters such as velocity variance is also applied. In this way, real-time analysis and early-warning for risks of stampede accident in time and space can be achieved. Also, the algorithm is applied to the surveillance video of the stampede in Shanghai and its feasibility is proved. Empirical research shows that, the assembly occupancies risk rating model built in this paper has good effectiveness, simplicity and practicability, applies to the government safety regulation and organization safety management, and can improve the safety situation of assembly occupancies effectively.

  18. Evaluation of the optical flow methods on facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Mohammad; Amirkabiri Razian, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    Facial expression recognition is an important issue in modern human computer interaction (HCI). In this work, the performance of optical flow in tracking facial characteristic points (FCPs) is examined and it is used as an application of facial expression classification. FCPs are extracted using active appearance model (AAM), and the features selected to the classification are the perceived movements of the FCPs and the changes in geometric distance between them. This work compares four different optical flow methods on FCP tracking: normalized cross-correlation, Lucas-Kanade, Brox, and Liu-Freeman. Nearest neighborhood rule is used for the classification. Evaluations are done on the Cohn-Kanade (CK +) database for five prototypic expressions. Experimental results show that Lucas-Kanade method outperforms the other three optical flow methods. This has been assessed based on ground truth established in CK + database.

  19. Melanoma: epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastrelli, Marco; Tropea, Saveria; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Alaibac, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis and diagnosis of melanoma. Data on melanoma from the majority of countries show a rapid increase of the incidence of this cancer, with a slowing of the rate of incidence in the period 1990-2000. Males are approximately 1.5-times more likely to develop melanoma than females, while according to other studies, the different prevalence in both sexes must be analyzed in relation with age: the incidence rate of melanoma is grater in women than men until they reach the age of 40 years, however, by 75 years of age, the incidence is almost 3-times as high in men versus women. The most important and potentially modifiable environmental risk factor for developing malignant melanoma is the exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays because of their genotoxic effect. Artificial UV exposure may play a role in the development of melanoma. The most important host risk factors are the number of melanocytic nevi, familiar history and genetic susceptibility. A patient with a personal history of melanoma must be considered at greater risk for subsequent melanoma. Indeed approximately 1-8% of patients with prior history of melanoma will develop multiple primary melanomas. We herein review the dermatological diagnosis and classification of melanoma. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Acute myeloid leukemia in the era of precision medicine: recent advances in diagnostic classification and risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Rina

    2016-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous myeloid malignancy that occurs more commonly in adults, and has an increasing incidence, most likely due to increasing age. Precise diagnostic classification of AML requires clinical and pathologic information, the latter including morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis. Risk stratification in AML requires cytogenetics evaluation as the most important predictor, with genetic mutations providing additional necessary information. AML with normal cytogenetics comprises about 40%-50% of all AML, and has been intensively investigated. The currently used 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms has been proposed to be updated in 2016, also to include an update on the classification of AML, due to the continuously increasing application of genomic techniques that have led to major advances in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of AML. The purpose of this review is to describe some of these recent major advances in the diagnostic classification and risk stratification of AML.

  1. A Multi-factor Customer Classification Evaluation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Qiaohong Zu; Ting Wu; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Pervasive application of data mining technology is very important in analytical CRM software development when the distributed data warehouse is constructed. We propose a multi-factor customer classification evaluation model CLV/CL/CC which comprehensively considers customer lifetime value, customer loyalty and customer credit. It classifies clients with synthetic data mining algorithms. In this paper, we present an extended Bayes model which substitutes the primary attribute group with a new ...

  2. Deep learning architectures for multi-label classification of intelligent health risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Andrew; Li, Runzhi; Yang, Bei; Weng, Heng; Ou, Aihua; Hong, Huixiao; Zhou, Zhaoxian; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Chaoyang

    2017-12-28

    Multi-label classification of data remains to be a challenging problem. Because of the complexity of the data, it is sometimes difficult to infer information about classes that are not mutually exclusive. For medical data, patients could have symptoms of multiple different diseases at the same time and it is important to develop tools that help to identify problems early. Intelligent health risk prediction models built with deep learning architectures offer a powerful tool for physicians to identify patterns in patient data that indicate risks associated with certain types of chronic diseases. Physical examination records of 110,300 anonymous patients were used to predict diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver, a combination of these three chronic diseases, and the absence of disease (8 classes in total). The dataset was split into training (90%) and testing (10%) sub-datasets. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate prediction accuracy with metrics such as precision, recall, and F-score. Deep Learning (DL) architectures were compared with standard and state-of-the-art multi-label classification methods. Preliminary results suggest that Deep Neural Networks (DNN), a DL architecture, when applied to multi-label classification of chronic diseases, produced accuracy that was comparable to that of common methods such as Support Vector Machines. We have implemented DNNs to handle both problem transformation and algorithm adaption type multi-label methods and compare both to see which is preferable. Deep Learning architectures have the potential of inferring more information about the patterns of physical examination data than common classification methods. The advanced techniques of Deep Learning can be used to identify the significance of different features from physical examination data as well as to learn the contributions of each feature that impact a patient's risk for chronic diseases. However, accurate prediction of chronic disease risks remains a challenging

  3. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  4. Classification of Family Risk in a Family Health Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tadei Nakata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify and classify the degree of family risk in a Family Health Center by means of a multidimensional evaluation instrument. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, with a quantitative and descriptive design, which evaluated 927 families registered in the center, which covers five micro-areas. The Coelho and Savassi Scale was applied, this consisting of 13 sentinels of evaluation of the social risk, using secondary data available in the File A of the families' medical records, in the last trimester of 2011. The data was analyzed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows software, version 18.0. RESULTS: among the families studied, 68.5% were classified as not being at risk. It was ascertained that the smallest proportion of at-risk families (8.2% was found in micro-area 1, and that micro-area 4 had the highest proportion (55.9%. The most-prevalent risk situations were poor conditions of basic sanitation, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and drug addiction. CONCLUSION: this study's results make it possible to create support for the planning of home visits, to implement health surveillance actions, and for health professionals to better understand the vulnerabilities of the families attended.

  5. Evaluation of host and viral factors associated with severe dengue based on the 2009 WHO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Aguilar, Jorge O; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Díaz, Daniel; Barrios-Palacios, Jacqueline; Ramos, Celso; Ulloa-García, Armando; García-Pillado, Janet; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H

    2014-12-11

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a revised classification in 2009 to enable the more effective identification of cases of severe dengue (SD). This was designed primarily as a clinical tool, but it also enables cases of SD to be differentiated into three specific subcategories (severe vascular leakage, severe bleeding, and severe organ dysfunction). However, no study has addressed whether this classification has advantage in estimating factors associated with the progression of disease severity or dengue pathogenesis. We evaluate in a dengue outbreak associated risk factors that could contribute to the development of SD according to the 2009 WHO classification. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed during an epidemic of dengue in 2009 in Chiapas, Mexico. Data were analyzed for host and viral factors associated with dengue cases, using the 1997 and 2009 WHO classifications. The cost-benefit ratio (CBR) was also estimated. The sensitivity in the 1997 WHO classification for determining SD was 75%, and the specificity was 97.7%. For the 2009 scheme, these were 100% and 81.1%, respectively. The 2009 classification showed a higher benefit (537%) with a lower cost (10.2%) than the 1997 WHO scheme. A secondary antibody response was strongly associated with SD. Early viral load was higher in cases of SD than in those with DF. Logistic regression analysis identified predictive SD factors (secondary infection, disease phase, viral load) within the 2009 classification. However, within the 1997 scheme it was not possible to differentiate risk factors between DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. The critical clinical stage for determining SD progression was the transition from fever to defervescence in which plasma leakage can occur. The clinical phenotype of SD is influenced by the host (secondary response) and viral factors (viral load). The 2009

  6. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  7. A novel risk classification paradigm for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, M Angelyn; Chacra, Antonio R; Deedwania, Prakash; Fulcher, Gregory R; Holman, Rury R; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E; Levitt, Naomi S; McMurray, John J V; Califf, Robert M; Raptis, Sotirios A; Thomas, Laine; Sun, Jie-Lena; Haffner, Steven M

    2013-07-15

    We used baseline data from the NAVIGATOR trial to (1) identify risk factors for diabetes progression in those with impaired glucose tolerance and high cardiovascular risk, (2) create models predicting 5-year incident diabetes, and (3) provide risk classification tools to guide clinical interventions. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models estimated 5-year incident diabetes risk and simplified models examined the relative importance of measures of glycemia in assessing diabetes risk. The C-statistic was used to compare models; reclassification analyses compare the models' ability to identify risk groups defined by potential therapies (routine or intensive lifestyle advice or pharmacologic therapy). Diabetes developed in 3,254 (35%) participants over 5 years median follow-up. The full prediction model included fasting and 2-hour glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values but demonstrated only moderate discrimination for diabetes (C = 0.70). Simplified models with only fasting glucose (C = 0.67) or oral glucose tolerance test values (C = 0.68) had higher C statistics than models with HbA1c alone (C = 0.63). The models were unlikely to inappropriately reclassify participants to risk groups that might receive pharmacologic therapy. Our results confirm that in a population with dysglycemia and high cardiovascular risk, traditional risk factors are appropriate predictors and glucose values are better predictors than HbA1c, but discrimination is moderate at best, illustrating the challenges of predicting diabetes in a high-risk population. In conclusion, our novel risk classification paradigm based on potential treatment could be used to guide clinical practice based on cost and availability of screening tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  9. A comparison of non-symmetric entropy-based classification trees and support vector machine for cardiovascular risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anima; Guttag, John V

    2011-01-01

    Classification tree-based risk stratification models generate easily interpretable classification rules. This feature makes classification tree-based models appealing for use in a clinical setting, provided that they have comparable accuracy to other methods. In this paper, we present and evaluate the performance of a non-symmetric entropy-based classification tree algorithm. The algorithm is designed to accommodate class imbalance found in many medical datasets. We evaluate the performance of this algorithm, and compare it to that of SVM-based classifiers, when applied to 4219 non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome patients. We generated SVM-based classifiers using three different strategies for handling class imbalance: cost-sensitive SVM learning, synthetic minority oversampling (SMOTE), and random majority undersampling. We used both linear and radial basis kernel-based SVMs. Our classification tree models outperformed SVM-based classifiers generated using each of the three techniques. On average, the classification tree models yielded a 14% improvement in G-score and a 21% improvement in F-score relative to the linear SVM classifiers with the best performance. Similarly, our classification tree models yielded a 12% improvement in G-score and a 21% improvement in the F-score over the best RBF kernel-based SVM classifiers.

  10. Wavelets and Morphological Operators Based Classification of Epilepsy Risk Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Rajaguru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD, Expectation Maximization (EM, and Modified Expectation Maximization (MEM as the postclassifiers for classifications of the epilepsy risk levels obtained from extracted features through wavelet transforms and morphological filters from EEG signals. The code converter acts as a level one classifier. The seven features such as energy, variance, positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, average duration, and covariance are extracted from EEG signals, out of which four parameters like positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, and average duration are extracted using Haar, dB2, dB4, and Sym8 wavelet transforms with hard and soft thresholding methods. The above said four features are also extracted through morphological filters. The performance of the code converter and classifiers are compared based on the parameters such as Performance Index (PI and Quality Value (QV. The Performance Index and Quality Value of code converters are at low value of 33.26% and 12.74, respectively. The highest PI of 98.03% and QV of 23.82 are attained at dB2 wavelet with hard thresholding method for SVD classifier. All the postclassifiers are settled at PI value of more than 90% at QV of 20.

  11. Classification of hydrological parameter sensitivity and evaluation of parameter transferability across 431 US MOPEX basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huiying; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu; Tesfa, Teklu; Ruby Leung, L.

    2016-05-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) represents physical, chemical, and biological processes of the terrestrial ecosystems that interact with climate across a range of spatial and temporal scales. As CLM includes numerous sub-models and associated parameters, the high-dimensional parameter space presents a formidable challenge for quantifying uncertainty and improving Earth system predictions needed to assess environmental changes and risks. This study aims to evaluate the potential of transferring hydrologic model parameters in CLM through sensitivity analyses and classification across watersheds from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) in the United States. The sensitivity of CLM-simulated water and energy fluxes to hydrological parameters across 431 MOPEX basins are first examined using an efficient stochastic sampling-based sensitivity analysis approach. Linear, interaction, and high-order nonlinear impacts are all identified via statistical tests and stepwise backward removal parameter screening. The basins are then classified according to their parameter sensitivity patterns (internal attributes), as well as their hydrologic indices/attributes (external hydrologic factors) separately, using Principal component analysis (PCA) and expectation-maximization (EM) - based clustering approach. Similarities and differences among the parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class), the hydrologic indices-based classification (H-Class), and the Koppen climate classification systems (K-Class) are discussed. Within each parameter sensitivity-based classification system (S-Class) with similar parameter sensitivity characteristics, similar inversion modeling setups can be used for parameter calibration, and the parameters and their contribution or significance to water and energy cycling may also be more transferrable. This classification study provides guidance on identifiable parameters, and on parameterization and inverse model design for CLM but the

  12. Combination of the Killip and TIMI classifications for early risk stratification of patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, David; Leibowitz, David; Schwartz, Roseline; Weiss, A Teddy; Behar, Solomon; Hod, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    The Killip classification and the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score have been proven to be useful tools for the early risk stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The Killip classification is simpler and less time consuming compared to the TIMI score. We sought to evaluate the added value of applying the TIMI score to patients prestratified with the Killip classification. A total of 1,773 consecutive acute MI patients were hospitalized in 25 coronary care units operating in Israel, and were followed up to 1 year. Higher Killip class was associated with increased 1-year mortality: 6, 24, 42 and 60% in Killip 1-4, respectively. Applying the TIMI score to Killip 1 patients resulted in further stratifying the patients to low-, medium- and high-risk patient groups with 1, 8 and 19% 1-year mortality rates. The Killip classification is a useful tool for early risk stratification of acute MI patients. Applying the TIMI score to patients classified as Killip 1 further stratified them into low-, medium- and high-risk subgroups significantly improving stratification by the Killip classification alone. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Adjusted Clinical Groups: a patient classification system through risk adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials. Barcelona, España. Médico doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública.; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Hospital Germans Trías i Pujol. Badalona, Barcelona, España. médica especialista en Documentación Médica.

    2014-01-01

    Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) are risk adjustment systems that classify people according to their age, sex and medical conditions, these people have a similar consumption of health resources over a given period of time. They were developed by Starfield and Weiner (Johns Hopkins University, USA, 1991), and their objective is to measure the degree of illness among patients based on the levels of comorbidity. Their main applications are: a) the evaluation of the efficiency in the use of hea...

  14. Evaluation of rock mass classification schemes: a case study from the Bowen Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hebblewhite, Bruce; Mitra, Rudrajit

    2016-04-01

    The development of an accurate engineering geological model and adequate knowledge of spatial variation in rock mass conditions are important prerequisites for slope stability analyses, tunnel design, mine planning and risk management. Rock mass classification schemes such as Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR), Q-system and Roof Strength Index (RSI) have been used for a range of engineering geological applications, including transport tunnels, "hard rock" mining and underground and open-cut coal mines. Often, rock mass classification schemes have been evaluated on subaerial exposures, where weathering has affected joint characteristics and intact strength. In contrast, the focus of this evaluation of the above classification schemes is an underground coal mine in the Bowen Basin, central Queensland, Australia, 15 km east of the town of Moranbah. Rock mass classification was undertaken at 68 sites across the mine. Both the target coal seam and overlying rock show marked spatial variability in terms of RMR, CMRR and Q, but RSI showed limited sensitivity to changes in rock mass condition. Relationships were developed between different parameters with varying degrees of success. A mine-wide analysis of faulting was undertaken, and compared with in situ stress field and local-scale measurements of joint and cleat. While there are no unequivocal relationships between rock mass classification parameters and faulting, a central graben zone shows heterogeneous rock mass properties. The corollary is that if geological features can be accurately defined by remote sensing technologies, then this can assist in predicting rock mass conditions and risk management ahead of development and construction.

  15. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma response evaluation with MRI texture classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinonen Tomi T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To show magnetic resonance imaging (MRI texture appearance change in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL during treatment with response controlled by quantitative volume analysis. Methods A total of 19 patients having NHL with an evaluable lymphoma lesion were scanned at three imaging timepoints with 1.5T device during clinical treatment evaluation. Texture characteristics of images were analyzed and classified with MaZda application and statistical tests. Results NHL tissue MRI texture imaged before treatment and under chemotherapy was classified within several subgroups, showing best discrimination with 96% correct classification in non-linear discriminant analysis of T2-weighted images. Texture parameters of MRI data were successfully tested with statistical tests to assess the impact of the separability of the parameters in evaluating chemotherapy response in lymphoma tissue. Conclusion Texture characteristics of MRI data were classified successfully; this proved texture analysis to be potential quantitative means of representing lymphoma tissue changes during chemotherapy response monitoring.

  16. GOLD Classification of COPD: Discordance in Criteria for Symptoms and Exacerbation Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Richa; Chhabra, Sunil K

    2017-02-01

    The new A-B-C-D Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on combined symptoms and exacerbation risk assessment. The assumed equivalence between dyspnoea modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) grade ≥2 and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score ≥ 10 to identify more symptoms has been questioned. Whether the exacerbation risk assessment criteria, old GOLD spirometry staging and frequency of exacerbations, are equivalent has not been examined. We evaluated the extent of agreement between these alternative criteria and whether it improved by redefining the equivalence between mMRC grade and CAT score. CAT scores, mMRC grades of dyspnoea, frequency of exacerbations and spirometry stages were computed in 400 patients with COPD. Receiver operating characteristic curve was analysed to determine the best CAT score to identify more symptoms. CAT scores across mMRC grades and the frequency of exacerbations across spirometry stages showed substantial overlaps. The symptoms criteria gave discordant classification in 88 (22%) patients (kappa 0.62) and the exacerbation risk assessment criteria in 181 (45%) patients (kappa 0.12). A CAT score of ≥10 had 82% sensitivity but 24% specificity to identify mMRC grade ≥ 2, while a score of 17 had 98% specificity but a low sensitivity of 52% and did not improve the agreement. We conclude that symptoms and exacerbation risk assessment criteria of the new GOLD classification yield discordant group categorisations. Lack of any satisfactory equivalence between CAT score and mMRC grades implies that the former cannot be used alone. Using the higher of mMRC ≥ 2 and CAT score ≥ 17 to identify more symptoms would avoid discordant categorisation.

  17. Classification and Quality Evaluation of Tobacco Leaves Based on Image Processing and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xinhong

    2011-01-01

    Most of classification, quality evaluation or grading of the flue-cured tobacco leaves are manually operated, which relies on the judgmental experience of experts, and inevitably limited by personal, physical and environmental factors. The classification and the quality evaluation are therefore subjective and experientially based. In this paper, an automatic classification method of tobacco leaves based on the digital image processing and the fuzzy sets theory is presented. A grading system based on image processing techniques was developed for automatically inspecting and grading flue-cured tobacco leaves. This system uses machine vision for the extraction and analysis of color, size, shape and surface texture. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation provides a high level of confidence in decision making based on the fuzzy logic. The neural network is used to estimate and forecast the membership function of the features of tobacco leaves in the fuzzy sets. The experimental results of the two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) show that the accuracy rate of classification is about 94% for the trained tobacco leaves, and the accuracy rate of the non-trained tobacco leaves is about 72%. We believe that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is a viable way for the automatic classification and quality evaluation of the tobacco leaves. PMID:22163744

  18. Evaluation of Alternative Aptitude Area (AA) Composites and Job Families for Army Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diaz, Tirso; Ingerick, Michael; Lightfoot, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    ... classification and assignment of Army personnel to entry-level jobs. The current study aimed to independently evaluate the efficacy of the proposed AA composites, and corresponding job families, to meet the Army's classification...

  19. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System for Grading Postnatal Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodhod, Amr; Capolicchio, John-Paul; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherif, Eid; El-Doray, Abd El-Alim; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the reliability and validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system as a new grading system for postnatal hydronephrosis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who presented with hydronephrosis from 2008 to 2013. We included patients diagnosed prenatally and those with hydronephrosis discovered incidentally during the first year of life. We excluded cases involving urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder and chromosomal anomalies, those associated with extraurinary congenital malformations and those with followup of less than 24 months without resolution. Hydronephrosis was graded postnatally using the Society for Fetal Urology system, and then the management protocol was chosen. All units were regraded using the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system and compared to the Society for Fetal Urology system to assess reliability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system in predicting hydronephrosis resolution and surgical intervention. A total of 490 patients (730 renal units) were eligible to participate. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system was reliable in the assessment of hydronephrosis (parallel forms 0.92). Hydronephrosis resolved in 357 units (49%), and 86 units (12%) were managed by surgical intervention. The remainder of renal units demonstrated stable or improved hydronephrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of surgical intervention was predicted independently by Urinary Tract Dilation classification system risk group, while Society for Fetal Urology grades were predictive of likelihood of resolution. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system is reliable for evaluation of postnatal hydronephrosis and is valid in predicting surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of air quality zone classification methods based on ambient air concentration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Brian; McBean, Ed; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    Air quality zones are used by regulatory authorities to implement ambient air standards in order to protect human health. Air quality measurements at discrete air monitoring stations are critical tools to determine whether an air quality zone complies with local air quality standards or is noncompliant. This study presents a novel approach for evaluation of air quality zone classification methods by breaking the concentration distribution of a pollutant measured at an air monitoring station into compliance and exceedance probability density functions (PDFs) and then using Monte Carlo analysis with the Central Limit Theorem to estimate long-term exposure. The purpose of this paper is to compare the risk associated with selecting one ambient air classification approach over another by testing the possible exposure an individual living within a zone may face. The chronic daily intake (CDI) is utilized to compare different pollutant exposures over the classification duration of 3 years between two classification methods. Historical data collected from air monitoring stations in Kuwait are used to build representative models of 1-hr NO 2 and 8-hr O 3 within a zone that meets the compliance requirements of each method. The first method, the "3 Strike" method, is a conservative approach based on a winner-take-all approach common with most compliance classification methods, while the second, the 99% Rule method, allows for more robust analyses and incorporates long-term trends. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to model the CDI for each pollutant and each method with the zone at a single station and with multiple stations. The model assumes that the zone is already in compliance with air quality standards over the 3 years under the different classification methodologies. The model shows that while the CDI of the two methods differs by 2.7% over the exposure period for the single station case, the large number of samples taken over the duration period impacts the sensitivity

  1. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  2. Evaluation of a wetland classification system devised for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript is part of an FY14 RAP product: "Functional Assessment of Alaska Peatlands in Cook Inlet Basin: A report to Region 10". This report included this technical information product which is a manuscript that has now been fully revised, reviewed and published in a scientific peer-reviewed publication with open access (doi:10.1007/s11273-016-9504-0). The journal article scientific abstract is as follows: "Several wetland classification schemes are now commonly used to describe wetlands in the contiguous United States to meet local, regional, and national regulatory requirements. However, these established systems have proven to be insufficient to meet the needs of land managers in Alaska. The wetlands of this northern region are predominantly peatlands, which are not adequately treated by the nationally-used systems, which have few, if any, peatland classes. A new system was therefore devised to classify wetlands in the rapidly urbanizing Cook Inlet Basin of southcentral Alaska, USA. The Cook Inlet Classification (CIC) is based on seven geomorphic and six hydrologic components that incorporate the environmental gradients responsible for the primary sources of variation in peatland ecosystems. The geomorphic and hydrologic components have the added advantage of being detectable on remote sensing imagery, which facilitates regional mapping across large tracts of inaccessible terrain. Three different quantitative measures were used to evaluate the robu

  3. Prediction and classification of cardiovascular disease risk in older adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamal, K J; Kizer, J R; Djoussé, L; Ix, J H; Zieman, S; Siscovick, D S; Sibley, C T; Tracy, R P; Arnold, A M

    2013-02-01

    We sought to derive and validate a cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction algorithm for older adults with diabetes, and evaluate the incremental benefit of adding novel circulating biomarkers and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a population-based cohort of adults aged ≥65 years, we examined the 10 year risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death in 782 older adults with diabetes, in whom 265 events occurred. We validated predictive models in 843 adults with diabetes, who were followed for 7 years in a second cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA); here 71 events occurred. The best fitting standard model included age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total and HDL-cholesterol, creatinine and the use of glucose-lowering agents; however, this model had a C statistic of 0.64 and poorly classified risk in men. Novel biomarkers did not improve discrimination or classification. The addition of ankle-brachial index, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and internal carotid intima-media thickness modestly improved discrimination (C statistic 0.68; p = 0.002) and classification (net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.12; p = 0.01), mainly in those remaining free of CVD. Results were qualitatively similar in the MESA, with a change in C statistic from 0.65 to 0.68 and an NRI of 0.09 upon inclusion of subclinical disease measures. Standard clinical risk factors and novel biomarkers poorly discriminate and classify CVD risk in older adults with diabetes. The inclusion of subclinical atherosclerotic measures modestly improves these features, but to develop more robust risk prediction, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and determinants of CVD in this patient group is needed.

  4. Evaluating intensity normalization for multispectral classification of carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; van't Klooster, Ronald; van Wijk, Diederik F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2015-03-01

    Intensity normalization is an important preprocessing step for automatic plaque analysis in MR images as most segmentation algorithms require the images to have a standardized intensity range. In this study, we derived several intensity normalization approaches with inspiration from expert manual analysis protocols, for classification of carotid vessel wall plaque from in vivo multispectral MRI. We investigated intensity normalization based on a circular region centered at lumen (nCircle); based on sternocleidomastoid muscle (nSCM); based on intensity scaling (nScaling); based on manually classified fibrous tissue (nManuFibrous) and based on automatic classified fibrous tissue (nAutoFibrous). The proposed normalization methods were evaluated using three metrics: (1) Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between manual and automatic segmentation obtained by classifiers using different normalizations; (2) correlation between proposed normalizations and normalization used by expert; (3) Mahalanobis Distance between pairs of components. In the performed classification experiments, features of normalized image, smoothed, gradient magnitude and Laplacian images at multi-scales, distance to lumen, distance to outer wall, wall thickness were calculated for each vessel wall (VW) pixel. A supervised pattern recognition system, based on a linear discriminate classifier, was trained using the manual segmentation result to classify each VW pixel to be one of the four classes: fibrous tissue, lipid, calcification, and loose matrix according to the highest posterior probability. We evaluated our method on image data of 23 patients. Compared to the result of conventional square region based intensity normalizatio n, nScaling resulted in significant increase in DSC for lipid (p = 0.006) and nAutoFibrous resulted in significant increase in DSC for calcification (p = 0.004). In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the conventional region based normalization approach is not optimal and n

  5. ABC Classification of Risk Factors in Production Supply Chains with Uncertain Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vujović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of classification of risk factors in an uncertain environment is part of the risk management problem, which has a critical effect on the competitive advantage of production supply chain. The severities of consequences, their relative importance, and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are defined by risk management team, depending on their experience and the results of good practice. Fuzzy rating of the severities of consequences and the frequency of occurrence of risk factors are described by linguistic expressions, which are modeled by triangular fuzzy numbers. The risk values, obtained by the materialization of the identified risk factors, are given precisely with the usage of fuzzy algebra rules. The classification criterion is defined as the distance between current risk value and extreme risk values. The proposed model enables determination of the priorities of risk factors. It is illustrated by an example with real-life data from a production supply chain in auto industry.

  6. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  7. Risk profiles for weight gain among postmenopausal women: a classification and regression tree analysis approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yon Jung

    Full Text Available Risk factors for obesity and weight gain are typically evaluated individually while "adjusting for" the influence of other confounding factors, and few studies, if any, have created risk profiles by clustering risk factors. We identified subgroups of postmenopausal women homogeneous in their clustered modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for gaining ≥ 3% weight.This study included 612 postmenopausal women 50-79 years old, enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between February 1995 and July 1998. Classification and regression tree and stepwise regression models were built and compared.Of 27 selected variables, the factors significantly related to ≥ 3% weight gain were weight change in the past 2 years, age at menopause, dietary fiber, fat, alcohol intake, and smoking. In women younger than 65 years, less than 4 kg weight change in the past 2 years sufficiently reduced risk of ≥ 3% weight gain. Different combinations of risk factors related to weight gain were reported for subgroups of women: women 65 years or older (essential factor: < 9.8 g/day dietary factor, African Americans (essential factor: currently smoking, and white women (essential factor: ≥ 5 kg weight change for the past 2 years.Our findings suggest specific characteristics for particular subgroups of postmenopausal women that may be useful for identifying those at risk for weight gain. The study results may be useful for targeting efforts to promote strategies to reduce the risk of obesity and weight gain in subgroups of postmenopausal women and maximize the effect of weight control by decreasing obesity-relevant adverse health outcomes.

  8. Construction accident narrative classification: An evaluation of text mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Ubeynarayana, C U

    2017-11-01

    Learning from past accidents is fundamental to accident prevention. Thus, accident and near miss reporting are encouraged by organizations and regulators. However, for organizations managing large safety databases, the time taken to accurately classify accident and near miss narratives will be very significant. This study aims to evaluate the utility of various text mining classification techniques in classifying 1000 publicly available construction accident narratives obtained from the US OSHA website. The study evaluated six machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine (SVM), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), decision tree (DT) and Naive Bayes (NB), and found that SVM produced the best performance in classifying the test set of 251 cases. Further experimentation with tokenization of the processed text and non-linear SVM were also conducted. In addition, a grid search was conducted on the hyperparameters of the SVM models. It was found that the best performing classifiers were linear SVM with unigram tokenization and radial basis function (RBF) SVM with uni-gram tokenization. In view of its relative simplicity, the linear SVM is recommended. Across the 11 labels of accident causes or types, the precision of the linear SVM ranged from 0.5 to 1, recall ranged from 0.36 to 0.9 and F1 score was between 0.45 and 0.92. The reasons for misclassification were discussed and suggestions on ways to improve the performance were provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of classification algorithms for analysis of road safety risk factor dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Hoon; Rhee, Wonjong; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2015-02-01

    Transportation continues to be an integral part of modern life, and the importance of road traffic safety cannot be overstated. Consequently, recent road traffic safety studies have focused on analysis of risk factors that impact fatality and injury level (severity) of traffic accidents. While some of the risk factors, such as drug use and drinking, are widely known to affect severity, an accurate modeling of their influences is still an open research topic. Furthermore, there are innumerable risk factors that are waiting to be discovered or analyzed. A promising approach is to investigate historical traffic accident data that have been collected in the past decades. This study inspects traffic accident reports that have been accumulated by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) since 1973 for which each accident report contains around 100 data fields. Among them, we investigate 25 fields between 2004 and 2010 that are most relevant to car accidents. Using two classification methods, the Naive Bayes classifier and the decision tree classifier, the relative importance of the data fields, i.e., risk factors, is revealed with respect to the resulting severity level. Performances of the classifiers are compared to each other and a binary logistic regression model is used as the basis for the comparisons. Some of the high-ranking risk factors are found to be strongly dependent on each other, and their incremental gains on estimating or modeling severity level are evaluated quantitatively. The analysis shows that only a handful of the risk factors in the data dominate the severity level and that dependency among the top risk factors is an imperative trait to consider for an accurate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of Kidney Transplant Recipients Using a Combination of Estimated GFR and Albuminuria Reflects Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christine A; Akbari, Ayub; Talreja, Hari; Lalani, Neha; Knoll, Greg A

    2016-08-01

    The 2012 Kidney Dialysis Initiative Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification scheme subdivides stage 3 CKD and incorporates the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the novel scheme provides graded risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Prevalent KTRs with available laboratory data were included. The primary outcome was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine, graft failure, or death. Patients were stratified using the CKD-Epidemiolgic Collaboration equation, and ACR and the event rate per 1000 patient-years in each CKD category were calculated. There were 269 KTRs with a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.0 years. There was a graded increase in outcomes with increasing ACR and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). For the primary outcome, the event rate was 15.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.2-39.2) per 1000 patient-years for those with an eGFR greater than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and an ACR less than 30 mg/g, whereas it was 375 (95% confidence interval, 193.8-655.1) for those with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and an ACR greater than 300 mg/g. The novel Kidney Dialysis Initiative Global Outcomes classification scheme provides graded risk for important clinical events in KTRs. This information can be used to identify high-risk patients and to tailor follow-up and management strategies aimed at improving outcomes.

  11. Ischemic stroke classification and risk of embolism in patients with Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Vinícius Viana Abreu; da Silva, Creuza Maria; de Viana Santos, Carla Verônica; Lima, Maria Inacia Ruas; Negrão, Edson Marcio; de Freitas, Gabriel R

    2016-12-01

    Ischemic stroke (IS) and Chagas disease are strongly related. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to this association and its natural history. The current guidelines concerning the management and secondary prevention of IS are largely based on the incomplete information or extrapolation of knowledge from other stroke etiologies. We performed a retrospective study which compared stroke etiologies among a cohort of hospitalized patients with IS and Chagas disease. The Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas/Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IPEC/FIOCRUZ) embolic score was also used to identify and evaluate the risk of embolism in this population. A total of 86 patients were included in the analysis. The mean age of the study population was 58 years, and 60 % were men. According to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) Classification, 45 % of the strokes were of undetermined etiology and 45 % of cardioembolic origin, while the Stop Stroke Study/Causative Classification System (SSS/CCS) TOAST indicated that 34 % were undetermined and 50 % cardioembolic (p Chagas disease. The IPEC/FIOCRUZ score did not correlate with the number of patients who were determined to have cardioembolic stroke etiologies. The current guidelines for stroke prevention should be reviewed in this population.

  12. [Periprosthetic fractures following total hip and knee arthroplasty: Risk factors, epidemiological aspects, diagnostics and classification systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M; Perka, C; von Roth, P

    2016-03-01

    Periprosthetic fractures following hip and knee arthroplasty are potentially severe complications. As a fundament in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, specific classification systems are necessary to ensure an optimal individualized treatment of these sometimes complicated fractures. This review article summarizes the epidemiological aspects, risk factors and diagnostics of periprosthetic hip and knee fractures. The most frequently used location related fracture classifications systems are explained. In addition, the recently introduced unified classification system (UCS), which is applicable to any location of periprosthetic fractures, is described in detail. Initial studies have shown a reliable applicability of the UCS to periprosthetic hip and knee fractures.

  13. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. I: Conceptual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated a risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived GM foods. The results of this research are presented in three papers. This paper describes the conceptual development of the proposed RBCS that focuses on two categories of adverse health effects: (1) toxic and antinutritional effects, and (2) allergenic effects. The factors that may affect the level of potential health risks of GM foods are identified. For each factor identified, criteria for differentiating health risk potential are developed. The extent to which a GM food satisfies applicable criteria for each factor is rated separately. A concern level for each category of health effects is then determined by aggregating the ratings for the factors using predetermined aggregation rules. An overview of the proposed scheme is presented, as well as the application of the scheme to a hypothetical GM food.

  14. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL RISK POSED BY MEDICATIONS TO THE FETUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of evaluating potential risk posed by medications to the fetus during pregnancy. For this purpose various countries use classifications of medications broken down into risk categories during pregnancy. The most popular classification is US FDA classification, which identifies five categories of medications (А, В, С, D and Х depending on the degree of their embryotoxic and teratogenic side effect, which enables physicians to make informed choices in selecting pharmacotherapy during the entire gestational period. The article discusses possible specific fetal and neonatal disorders when administering medications in categories X and D. Medications in category D may be prescribed to pregnant women only in extreme situations. Administering medications in category X is absolutely inadvisable before and during pregnancy. Further research in this area makes it possible to improve the classification of medications by degree of their embryotoxic and teratogenic risk and address the issue of selecting safe medications during pregnancy. Key words: medications, gestational period, embryo, fetus, embryotoxic and teratogenic action, fetal and neonatal disorders. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:78-81

  15. Improved classification of evidence for EMF health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Classifying evidence of causality between a risk factor and its potential health effect is challenging, in particular in an already emotional situation. Even the assessment of health risks by designated bodies may still depend on their composition of individuals with their background, bias, and, in worst case, their interests. This may explain opposing conclusions from the same pool of data which, consequently, may undermine credibility if not communicated properly. To overcome existing weakness in classifying and communicating evidence of health risks such as from electromagnetic fields, a new rule-based approach is presented. Developed by the German Commission on Radiological Protection (SSK), it discloses step-by-step the criteria for weighing scientific data and pools partial evidences of different scientific approaches to conclude on the overall evidence of causality between risk factor and effects. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by analyzing evidence of carcinogenicity of ionizing radiation, mobile phone use, and nocturnal exposure to visible light.

  16. Risk Classification with an Adaptive Naive Bayes Kernel Machine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnier, Jessica; Yuan, Ming; Liu, Jun S; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-04-22

    Genetic studies of complex traits have uncovered only a small number of risk markers explaining a small fraction of heritability and adding little improvement to disease risk prediction. Standard single marker methods may lack power in selecting informative markers or estimating effects. Most existing methods also typically do not account for non-linearity. Identifying markers with weak signals and estimating their joint effects among many non-informative markers remains challenging. One potential approach is to group markers based on biological knowledge such as gene structure. If markers in a group tend to have similar effects, proper usage of the group structure could improve power and efficiency in estimation. We propose a two-stage method relating markers to disease risk by taking advantage of known gene-set structures. Imposing a naive bayes kernel machine (KM) model, we estimate gene-set specific risk models that relate each gene-set to the outcome in stage I. The KM framework efficiently models potentially non-linear effects of predictors without requiring explicit specification of functional forms. In stage II, we aggregate information across gene-sets via a regularization procedure. Estimation and computational efficiency is further improved with kernel principle component analysis. Asymptotic results for model estimation and gene set selection are derived and numerical studies suggest that the proposed procedure could outperform existing procedures for constructing genetic risk models.

  17. Educational Environment Risks: Problems of Identification and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Leysan R.; Zakirova, Venera G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is determined by the multidimensionality of educational environment, that is the system of business and interpersonal relationships of educational process subjects. The maintenance of these relations defines quality and nature of risks for teachers and their pupils. The article aims to identify and justify the…

  18. Evaluation of Current Approaches to Stream Classification and a Heuristic Guide to Developing Classifications of Integrated Aquatic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, S. J.; Jones, N. E.; Schmidt, B. J.

    2014-03-01

    Conservation and management of fresh flowing waters involves evaluating and managing effects of cumulative impacts on the aquatic environment from disturbances such as: land use change, point and nonpoint source pollution, the creation of dams and reservoirs, mining, and fishing. To assess effects of these changes on associated biotic communities it is necessary to monitor and report on the status of lotic ecosystems. A variety of stream classification methods are available to assist with these tasks, and such methods attempt to provide a systematic approach to modeling and understanding complex aquatic systems at various spatial and temporal scales. Of the vast number of approaches that exist, it is useful to group them into three main types. The first involves modeling longitudinal species turnover patterns within large drainage basins and relating these patterns to environmental predictors collected at reach and upstream catchment scales; the second uses regionalized hierarchical classification to create multi-scale, spatially homogenous aquatic ecoregions by grouping adjacent catchments together based on environmental similarities; and the third approach groups sites together on the basis of similarities in their environmental conditions both within and between catchments, independent of their geographic location. We review the literature with a focus on more recent classifications to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches. We identify gaps or problems with the current approaches, and we propose an eight-step heuristic process that may assist with development of more flexible and integrated aquatic classifications based on the current understanding, network thinking, and theoretical underpinnings.

  19. Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): Classification of Suicidal Events in the FDA’s Pediatric Suicidal Risk Analysis of Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, Maria A.; Gould, Madelyn; Stanley, Barbara; Davies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the link between antidepressants and suicidal behavior and ideation (suicidality) in youth, adverse events from pediatric clinical trials were classified in order to identify suicidal events. The authors describe the Columbia Classification Algorithm for Suicide Assessment (C-CASA), a standardized suicidal rating system that provided data for the pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antide-pressants conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Method Adverse events (N=427) from 25 pediatric antidepressant clinical trials were systematically identified by pharmaceutical companies. Randomly assigned adverse events were evaluated by three of nine independent expert suicidologists using the Columbia classification algorithm. Reliability of the C-CASA ratings and agreement with pharmaceutical company classification were estimated. Results Twenty-six new, possibly suicidal events (behavior and ideation) that were not originally identified by pharmaceutical companies were identified in the C-CASA, and 12 events originally labeled as suicidal by pharmaceutical companies were eliminated, which resulted in a total of 38 discrepant ratings. For the specific label of “suicide attempt,” a relatively low level of agreement was observed between the C-CASA and pharmaceutical company ratings, with the C-CASA reporting a 50% reduction in ratings. Thus, although the C-CASA resulted in the identification of more suicidal events overall, fewer events were classified as suicide attempts. Additionally, the C-CASA ratings were highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.89). Conclusions Utilizing a methodical, anchored approach to categorizing suicidality provides an accurate and comprehensive identification of suicidal events. The FDA’s audit of the C-CASA demonstrated excellent transportability of this approach. The Columbia algorithm was used to classify suicidal adverse events in the recent FDA adult antidepressant safety analyses and

  20. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  1. A Psycholinguistic Approach to the Classification, Evaluation and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    language disorder, namely that the focus on the surface manifestation of linguistic impairment. (i.e. the symptom) does not allow ... assessment, classification and remediation of adult language disorder is evident from cases such as that discussed by ..... remediation. British journal of disorders of communication 26: 175-199.

  2. Modeling and evaluating repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; van Wieringen, W.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that currently available methods for the assessment of the repeatability and reproducibility of ordinal classifications are not satisfactory. The paper aims to study whether we can modify a class of models from Item Response Theory, well established for the study of the reliability

  3. Prognostic value of a novel risk classification of microvascular invasion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chuang; Fu, Xu; Yan, Xiaopeng; Jia, Wenjun; Mao, Liang; Jin, Huihan; Qiu, Yudong

    2017-01-17

    The present research aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of a novel risk classification of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection. A total of 295 consecutive HCC patients underwent hepatectomy were included in our study. We evaluated the degree of MVI according to the following three features: the number of invaded microvessels (≤5 vs >5), the number of invading carcinoma cells (≤ 50 vs >50), the distance of invasion from tumor edge (≤1 cm vs >1 cm). All patients were divided into three groups according to the three risk factors of MVI: non-MVI group (n=180), low-MVI group (n=60) and high-MVI group (n=55). The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates of high-MVI group were significantly poorer than those of low-MVI and non-MVI groups (Prisk factors for OS after hepatectomy. High-MVI, type of resection and tumor size were risk factors for RFS. In subgroup analyses, the OS and RFS rates of low-MVI and non-MVI groups were better than high-MVI group regardless of tumor size. In high-MVI group, anatomical liver resection (n=28) showed better OS and RFS rates compared with non-anatomical liver resection (n=29) (P=0.012 and P=0.002). The novel risk classification of MVI based on histopathological features is valuable for predicting prognosis of HCC patients after hepatectomy.

  4. Integrative genetic risk prediction using nonparametric empirical Bayes classification

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Sihai Dave

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction is an important component of individualized medicine, but prediction accuracies remain low for many complex diseases. A fundamental limitation is the sample sizes of the studies on which the prediction algorithms are trained. One way to increase the effective sample size is to integrate information from previously existing studies. However, it can be difficult to find existing data that examine the target disease of interest, especially if that disease is rare or poorl...

  5. Cardiac magnetic resonance image-based classification of the risk of arrhythmias in post-myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotu, Lasya Priya; Engan, Kjersti; Borhani, Reza; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Ørn, Stein; Woie, Leik; Eftestøl, Trygve

    2015-07-01

    Patients surviving myocardial infarction (MI) can be divided into high and low arrhythmic risk groups. Distinguishing between these two groups is of crucial importance since the high-risk group has been shown to benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillator insertion; a costly surgical procedure with potential complications and no proven advantages for the low-risk group. Currently, markers such as left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial scar size are used to evaluate arrhythmic risk. In this paper, we propose quantitative discriminative features extracted from late gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance images of post-MI patients, to distinguish between 20 high-risk and 34 low-risk patients. These features include size, location, and textural information concerning the scarred myocardium. To evaluate the discriminative power of the proposed features, we used several built-in classification schemes from matrix laboratory (MATLAB) and Waikato environment for knowledge analysis (WEKA) software, including k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), decision tree, and random forest. In Experiment 1, the leave-one-out cross-validation scheme is implemented in MATLAB to classify high- and low-risk groups with a classification accuracy of 94.44%, and an AUC of 0.965 for a feature combination that captures size, location and heterogeneity of the scar. In Experiment 2 with the help of WEKA, nested cross-validation is performed with k-NN, SVM, adjusting decision tree and random forest classifiers to differentiate high-risk and low-risk patients. SVM classifier provided average accuracy of 92.6%, and AUC of 0.921 for a feature combination capturing location and heterogeneity of the scar. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 show that textural features from the scar are important for classification and that localization features provide an additional benefit. These promising results suggest that the discriminative features introduced in this paper

  6. Classification of discordant fetal growth may contribute to risk stratification in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, MJC; Vandenbussche, FPHA; Schaap, AHP; Zondervan, HA; Nikkels, PGJ; van Wijngaarden, WJ; van Zalen-Sprock, RM; Sollie-Szarynska, KM; Stoutenbeek, PH

    Objectives To determine whether classification of discordant growth between fetal twins allows risk stratification in monochorionic twin pregnancies. Methods In 12 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) pregnancies and 12 cases that were suspected of developing the syndrome, fetal growth was

  7. Classification of discordant fetal growth may contribute to risk stratification in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Vandenbussche, F. P.; Schaap, A. H.; Zondervan, H. A.; Nikkels, P. G.; van Wijngaarden, W. J.; van Zalen-Sprock, R. M.; Sollie-Szarynska, K. M.; Stoutenbeek, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether classification of discordant growth between fetal twins allows risk stratification in monochorionic twin pregnancies. In 12 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) pregnancies and 12 cases that were suspected of developing the syndrome, fetal growth was determined by serial

  8. Application of regression analysis and classification trees in calculating additional population risk of ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Maksimov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research goal was to perform a comparative analysis of regression analysis application and tree classification appli-cation in calculating additional population risk on the example of ischemic heart diseases (IHD. Our research object was a random population sample comprising both male and female population aged 25-64 in Kemerovo region (1,628 people within ESSE-RF multi-centered epidemiologic research. We considered the following IHD risk factors: lipid metabolism parameters, arterial hypertension, lifestyle factors, psychoemotional peculiarities, and social parameters. IHD occurrence was assessed as per sum of 3 epidemiologic criteria: on the basis of ECG changes coding as per Minnesota code, Rose questionnaire, and car-diac infarction in case history. We calculated additional population IHD risk determined by risk factors as per unified original algorithms, but with various statistic analysis techniques: logistic regression analysis and classification trees. We built up mathematic models for IHD probability as per risk factors, with predictive significance equal to 83.8% for logistic regression analysis and to 71.9% for classification trees. The applied statistical analysis techniques show different contributions made by risk factors into IHD prevalence which results from absence of correlation between them. IBD risk additional to population one and determined by risk factors as per both statistical analysis techniques in sex-age groups changed from negative values in age groups younger than 45 to positive values in older people. Increase in addi-tional IHD risk in aged groups as per both techniques was practically linear with slight deviations. Difference in additional population risk calculated as per two statistical analysis techniques was insignificant and as a rule it didn't exceed 1.5%. Consequently, both techniques give similar results and can be equally used in calculating IHD population risk.

  9. 21 CFR 7.41 - Health hazard evaluation and recall classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Industry Responsibilities § 7.41 Health hazard evaluation and recall classification. (a) An... of the population, e.g., children, surgical patients, pets, livestock, etc., who are expected to be...

  10. Evaluation of the agreement by examiners according to classifications of third molars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lima, C-J; Silva, L-C-F; Melo, M-R-S; Santos, J-A-S-S; Santos, T-S

    This study recorded and evaluated the intra- and inter-group agreement degree by different examiners for the classification of lower third molars according to both the Winter's and Pell & Gregory's systems...

  11. Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Risk Classifications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Rajavithi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinnapakorn, Veerasak; Sunthorntepwarakul, Thongkum; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Niramitmahapanya, Sathit; Napartivaumnuay, Navapom

    2016-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a major cause of non-traumatic lower limb amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes. In 2014, the Diabetes Association of Thailand issued new guidelines for classifying type 2 diabetes patients' levels of risk of developing foot ulcers, but no research on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes using these new classification criteria had been performed prior to the current study. To study the prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers overall and in different risk groups in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Rajavithi Hospital, and to evaluate risk factors of these groups and correlations with ankle brachial index (ABI) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). 593 type 2 diabetes patients at Rajavithi Hospital were studied and classified into risk groups based on the classification criteria issued by the Thailand Diabetes Association in 2014. ABI measurements were taken from 132 patients, and measurements of CAVI were taken from 101 patients. The prevalence of foot ulcers was 3.4% and 2.2% of patients had a history of amputation. The percentages of patients at low, intermediate and high risk of developing foot ulcers were 55.8%, 33.6% and 10.6%, respectively. Age, duration of diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease (CVA), deformity of foot, numbness, abnormal protective sensation, pulse deficit, ulcer, and amputation were factors significantly associated with a high risk of foot ulcers (p diabetes patients were in the groups with an intermediate or high risk of developing foot ulcers. Screening of patients at risk of foot ulceration is necessary in order to classify patients into risk groups and provide appropriate education, as well as proper monitoring and management.

  12. Evaluation of space SAR as a land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, B.; Ulaby, F. T.; Williams, T. H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The multidimensional approach to the mapping of land cover, crops, and forests is reported. Dimensionality is achieved by using data from sensors such as LANDSAT to augment Seasat and Shuttle Image Radar (SIR) data, using different image features such as tone and texture, and acquiring multidate data. Seasat, Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A), and LANDSAT data are used both individually and in combination to map land cover in Oklahoma. The results indicates that radar is the best single sensor (72% accuracy) and produces the best sensor combination (97.5% accuracy) for discriminating among five land cover categories. Multidate Seasat data and a single data of LANDSAT coverage are then used in a crop classification study of western Kansas. The highest accuracy for a single channel is achieved using a Seasat scene, which produces a classification accuracy of 67%. Classification accuracy increases to approximately 75% when either a multidate Seasat combination or LANDSAT data in a multisensor combination is used. The tonal and textural elements of SIR-A data are then used both alone and in combination to classify forests into five categories.

  13. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  14. A Classification System for Urodynamic Evaluation of Lower Urinary Tract System Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Anastasios

    2017-04-14

    A classification system for lower urinary tract system (LUTS) dysfunction, based on urodynamics, could support the evaluation and management of this pathological condition. A new alphanumerical classification system is proposed for staging neurogenic and non-neurogenic LUTS dysfunction, according to the urodynamic evaluation. This is a proposal based on experience from everyday clinical practice and represents an opinion open to discussion. The purpose of this alphanumerical classification is the establishment of a simple, unified staging system describing all LUTS dysfunction situations, after a urodynamic evaluation, in a way that can help in diagnosis, treatment, health professionals' communication, education, and research. This alphanumerical classification for LUTS dysfunction could become a unified standard and a prerequisite for ensuring the quality of care in all resource settings. Moreover, it would be useful for the future to include a classification as part of LUTS dysfunction registration. A new alphanumerical classification system is presented. The purpose of this classification is the establishment of a simple, unified staging system describing entire lower urinary tract system dysfunction situations in a way that could help in diagnosis, treatment, health professionals' communication, education, and research. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population......CRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population....... sample of 2460 individuals was divided in three groups: 472 subjects receiving cardiovascular medication or having history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction or stroke, 559 high-risk subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular death above 5% as estimated by HeartScore, and 1429 low-moderate risk...

  16. Evaluating Grayware Characteristics and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grayware encyclopedias collect known species to provide information for incident analysis, however, the lack of categorization and generalization capability renders them ineffective in the development of defense strategies against clustered strains. A grayware categorization framework is therefore proposed here to not only classify grayware according to diverse taxonomic features but also facilitate evaluations on grayware risk to cyberspace. Armed with Support Vector Machines, the framework builds learning models based on training data extracted automatically from grayware encyclopedias and visualizes categorization results with Self-Organizing Maps. The features used in learning models are selected with information gain and the high dimensionality of feature space is reduced by word stemming and stopword removal process. The grayware categorizations on diversified features reveal that grayware typically attempts to improve its penetration rate by resorting to multiple installation mechanisms and reduced code footprints. The framework also shows that grayware evades detection by attacking victims' security applications and resists being removed by enhancing its clotting capability with infected hosts. Our analysis further points out that species in categories Spyware and Adware continue to dominate the grayware landscape and impose extremely critical threats to the Internet ecosystem.

  17. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Judging risk behaviour and risk preference: the role of the evaluative connotation of risk terms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, E.C.M.; van der Pligt, J.; van Baaren, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of the evaluative connotation of risk terms on the judgment of risk behavior and on risk preference. Exp 1 focused on the evaluation congruence of the risk terms with a general risk norm and with Ss' individual risk preference, and its effects on the extremity

  19. A comparative performance evaluation of neural network based approach for sentiment classification of online reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodhini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of sentiment classification is to efficiently identify the emotions expressed in the form of text messages. Machine learning methods for sentiment classification have been extensively studied, due to their predominant classification performance. Recent studies suggest that ensemble based machine learning methods provide better performance in classification. Artificial neural networks (ANNs are rarely being investigated in the literature of sentiment classification. This paper compares neural network based sentiment classification methods (back propagation neural network (BPN, probabilistic neural network (PNN & homogeneous ensemble of PNN (HEN using varying levels of word granularity as features for feature level sentiment classification. They are validated using a dataset of product reviews collected from the Amazon reviews website. An empirical analysis is done to compare results of ANN based methods with two statistical individual methods. The methods are evaluated using five different quality measures and results show that the homogeneous ensemble of the neural network method provides better performance. Among the two neural network approaches used, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs outperform in classifying the sentiment of the product reviews. The integration of neural network based sentiment classification methods with principal component analysis (PCA as a feature reduction technique provides superior performance in terms of training time also.

  20. A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH APPLIED TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF COURSES BY MULTIPLE EVALUATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annibal Parracho Sant’Anna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT How to measure the perceived influence of a course on its alumni skills? This paper describes the use of CPP-TRI as a tool to face this problem. The method was applied here in the context of a M.Sc. course evaluation. Levels of impact and importance previously determined for different features provide the framework for the analysis. Classifications by different groups of evaluators are combined. Taking into account the subjectivity in the assessments, CPP-TRI treats them as realizations of random variables. The combination of the evaluations is performed by computing joint probabilities, what avoids the assignment of weights to evaluators. Interval classifications between a hostile and a benevolent limit are provided offerings the educational evaluator a deeper understanding of the results. An additional study is here performed on the classification of the features. A total of sixteen features are sorted.

  1. Educational level and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Moroccan women: a classification tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Fadoua; Rostom, Samira; Bennani, Loubna; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate whether the prevalence of osteoporosis and peripheral fractures might be influenced by the educational level and (2) to develop a simple algorithm using a tree-based approach with education level and other easily collected clinical data that allow clinicians to classify women into varying levels of osteoporosis risk. A total number of 356 women with a mean age of 58.9±7.7 years were included in this study. Patients were separated into four groups according to school educational level; group 1, no education (n=98 patients); group 2, elementary level (n=57 patients); group 3, secondary level (n=138 patients) and group 4, university level (n=66 patients). We observed dose-response linear relations between educational level and mean bone mineral density (BMD). The mean BMDs of education group 1 (10.39% (lumbar spine), 10.8% (trochanter), 16.8% (wrist), and 8.8% (femoral neck)) were lower compared with those of group IV (p62 years and BMI<30 kg/m2. This algorithm correctly classified 74% of the women with osteoporosis. Based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves, the accuracy of the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) model was 0.79. Our findings suggested that a lower level of education was associated with significantly lower BMDs at the lumbar spine and the hip sites, and with higher prevalence of osteoporosis at these sites in a dose-response manner, even after controlling for the strong confounders. On the other hand, our CART algorithm based on four clinical variables may help to estimate the risk of osteoporosis in a health care system with limited resources.

  2. Measurement of ECG abnormalities and cardiovascular risk classification: a cohort study of primary care patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.; Bots, M.L.; Rutten, F.H.; den Ruijter, H.M.; Numans, M.E.; Vaartjes, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: GPs need accurate tools for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment. Abnormalities in resting electrocardiograms (ECGs) relate to increased CV risk. Aim: To determine whether measurement of ECG abnormalities on top of established risk estimation (SCORE) improves CV risk classification in a

  3. Performance evaluation of wavelet scattering network in image texture classification in various color spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jiasong; Jiang, Longyu,; Han, Xu; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    Texture plays an important role in many image analysis applications. In this paper, we give a performance evaluation of color texture classification by performing wavelet scattering network in various color spaces. Experimental results on the KTH_TIPS_COL database show that opponent RGB based wavelet scattering network outperforms other color spaces. Therefore, when dealing with the problem of color texture classification, opponent RGB based wavelet scattering network is recommended.

  4. Design and evaluation of neural classifiers application to skin lesion classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintz-Madsen, Mads; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Addresses design and evaluation of neural classifiers for the problem of skin lesion classification. By using Gauss Newton optimization for the entropic cost function in conjunction with pruning by Optimal Brain Damage and a new test error estimate, the authors show that this scheme is capable...... of optimizing the architecture of neural classifiers. Furthermore, error-reject tradeoff theory indicates, that the resulting neural classifiers for the skin lesion classification problem are near-optimal...

  5. A tool for urban soundscape evaluation applying Support Vector Machines for developing a soundscape classification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, Angel F

    2014-06-01

    To ensure appropriate soundscape management in urban environments, the urban-planning authorities need a range of tools that enable such a task to be performed. An essential step during the management of urban areas from a sound standpoint should be the evaluation of the soundscape in such an area. In this sense, it has been widely acknowledged that a subjective and acoustical categorization of a soundscape is the first step to evaluate it, providing a basis for designing or adapting it to match people's expectations as well. In this sense, this work proposes a model for automatic classification of urban soundscapes. This model is intended for the automatic classification of urban soundscapes based on underlying acoustical and perceptual criteria. Thus, this classification model is proposed to be used as a tool for a comprehensive urban soundscape evaluation. Because of the great complexity associated with the problem, two machine learning techniques, Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Support Vector Machines trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), are implemented in developing model classification. The results indicate that the SMO model outperforms the SVM model in the specific task of soundscape classification. With the implementation of the SMO algorithm, the classification model achieves an outstanding performance (91.3% of instances correctly classified). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalchik, Kristin V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Vallow, Laura A., E-mail: vallow.laura@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McDonough, Michelle [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Peterson, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Adkisson, Cameron D. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Serago, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah A. [Department of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  7. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  8. Long-term Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity in Improved Classification of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E; Kamstrup, Pia R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether adding long-term prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) to baseline PSA values improves classification of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and mortality in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long-term PSAV improves classification of PCa risk...... classification was assessed using the net reclassification index (NRI). RESULTS: Age-adjusted hazard ratios for PCa risk and mortality were 2.7-5.3 and 2.3-3.4, respectively, for long-term PSAV when added to models already including baseline PSA values. For PCa risk and mortality, adding long-term PSAV to models....... Correspondingly, inappropriately reclassified were 49 of 10 000 men with PCa and 1658 of 10 000 men with no PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PSAV in addition to baseline PSA value improves classification of PCa risk and mortality. Applying long-term PSAV nationwide, the ratio of appropriately to inappropriately...

  9. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Genetic Health Risk Assessment System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is classifying the genetic health risk assessment system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the genetic health risk assessment system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  10. Efficacy of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.

  11. re-evaluation of characterisation and classification of apa (afzelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    reducing the risk of twisting and cupping, as well as minimizing attacks by fungi and insects. The entire length of the log was divided into three regions as Bottom, Middle and Top with samples taken from each longitudinal, radial and tangential direction and from each of these positions, as shown in Figure 1, as specified in ...

  12. Ecological status classification of the Taizi River Basin, China: a comparison of integrated risk assessment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Juntao; Semenzin, Elena; Meng, Wei; Giubilato, Elisa; Zhang, Yuan; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Zhou, Yun; Ding, Sen; Wan, Jun; He, Mengchang; Lin, Chunye

    2015-10-01

    Integrated risk assessment approaches allow to achieve a sound evaluation of ecological status of river basins and to gain knowledge about the likely causes of impairment, useful for informing and supporting the decision-making process. In this paper, the integrated risk assessment (IRA) methodology developed in the EU MODELKEY project (and implemented in the MODELKEY Decision Support System) is applied to the Taizi River (China), in order to assess its Ecological and Chemical Status according to EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. The available dataset is derived by an extensive survey carried out in 2009 and 2010 across the Taizi River catchment, including the monitoring of physico-chemical (i.e. DO, EC, NH3-_N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand in 5 days (BOD5) and TP), chemical (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals), biological (i.e. macroinvertebrates, fish, and algae), and hydromorphological parameters (i.e. water quantity, channel change and morphology diversity). The results show a negative trend in the ecological status from the highland to the lowland of the Taizi River Basin. Organic pollution from agriculture and domestic sources (i.e. COD and BOD5), unstable hydrological regime (i.e. water quantity shortage) and chemical pollutants from industry (i.e. PAHs and metals) are found to be the main stressors impacting the ecological status of the Taizi River Basin. The comparison between the results of the IRA methodology and those of a previous study (Leigh et al. 2012) indicates that the selection of indicators and integrating methodologies can have a relevant impact on the classification of the ecological status. The IRA methodology, which integrates information from five lines of evidence (i.e., biology, physico-chemistry, chemistry, ecotoxicology and hydromorphology) required by WFD, allows to better identify the biological communities that are potentially at risk and the stressors that are most

  13. Anal Neoplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Classification Proposal, Epidemiology, Carcinogenesis, and Risk Management Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Andrew; Fléjou, Jean-Francois; Siproudhis, Laurent; Abramowitz, Laurent; Svrcek, Magali; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] may develop, similarly to individuals from general population, rare cases of human papilloma virus [HPV]-related anal canal squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and intra-epithelial precursor lesions, as well as very rare cases of anal canal adenocarcinoma. Patients with chronic perianal Crohn's disease [CD] are at substantial risk of developing SCC or adenocarcinoma from the fistula-lining epithelium, as well as SCC or adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal ulcerations or strictures. Based on this lesion stratification, we provide in this review tailored incidence estimates and we propose an IBD-specific classification of all types of anal neoplasia that may occur in patients with IBD. After reviewing putative carcinogenesis of all types of neoplasia, we conclude that HPV vaccination could reduce the incidence of HPV-related lesions, although an anal screening programme related to these lesions is not mandatory on the sole basis of IBD. By contrast, we point out that all patients with chronic perianal CD should be explored in depth, including biopsies under anaesthesia and fistula curettage when necessary, in case of any change in anal symptoms ─in particular new, increasing, unexplained pain. Finally, we conclude that there is an urgent need for elaborating and evaluating surveillance algorithms in patients with chronic perianal CD, in order to avoid cancers with late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Insider Risk Evaluation and Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    exerting stress on the organization that may translate into increased insider risk (See Table A-1 in Appendix A). Differences in ethical assumptions...organizational events (i.e., layoffs , mergers, pay reductions, outsourcing, and technological changes) can cause increases in employee stress and...They saw no ethical or business conflict in this activity, popularly referred to as the “third shift” since this above-quota production typically

  15. An evaluation of classification algorithms for intrusion detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrusion detection system is one of the main technologies that is urgently used to monitor network traffics and identify network intrusions. Most of the available IDSs use all the 41 features in the network to evaluate and search for intrusive pattern in which some of them are redundant and irrelevant and they also generate a ...

  16. Performance Evaluation of Frequency Transform Based Block Classification of Compound Image Segmentation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Ebenezer Juliet; Florinabel, D. Jemi

    2017-12-01

    Compound image segmentation plays a vital role in the compression of computer screen images. Computer screen images are images which are mixed with textual, graphical, or pictorial contents. In this paper, we present a comparison of two transform based block classification of compound images based on metrics like speed of classification, precision and recall rate. Block based classification approaches normally divide the compound images into fixed size blocks of non-overlapping in nature. Then frequency transform like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied over each block. Mean and standard deviation are computed for each 8 × 8 block and are used as features set to classify the compound images into text/graphics and picture/background block. The classification accuracy of block classification based segmentation techniques are measured by evaluation metrics like precision and recall rate. Compound images of smooth background and complex background images containing text of varying size, colour and orientation are considered for testing. Experimental evidence shows that the DWT based segmentation provides significant improvement in recall rate and precision rate approximately 2.3% than DCT based segmentation with an increase in block classification time for both smooth and complex background images.

  17. Climate classification revisited: From Köppen to Trewartha for models evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of climate patterns can be performed for each climatic variable separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. a kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. This way climate classifications also represent a convenient tool for validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. Basic concepts are presented on global CRU data and the analysis is shown on CMIP5 family of GCM simulations. Different performance of individual GCMs can be seen, but with clear indication of some similarities given by the model dependencies. This evaluation can provide first insight on the driving GCM performance in individual region for further downscaling. Furthemore, the preliminary analysis evaluating Euro-CORDEX simulations in terms of chmate types will be presented.

  18. Comparison of Different Risk Classification Systems in 558 Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors after R0-Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Michael; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Mayer, Benjamin; Knippschild, Uwe; Rolke, Claudia; Schwab, Matthias; Kramer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to adjuvant treatment concepts for patients with R0-resected gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a reproducible and reliable risk classification system proved of utmost importance for optimal treatment of patients and prediction of prognosis. The aim of this study was to reevaluate the impact of five widely-applied and well-established GIST risk classification systems (i.e., scores by Fletcher, Miettinen, Huang, Joensuu, and TNM classification) on a series of 558 GIST patients with long-term follow-up after R0 resection. Methods: Tumor size, mitotic count and site were used in variable combination to predict high- and low risk patients by the use of the five risk classification models. For survival analyses disease-specific survival, disease-free survival and overall-survival were investigated. Patients with initial metastatic disease or incompletely resectable tumors were excluded. Results: All GIST classification models distinguished well between patients with high-risk and low-risk tumors and none of the five risk systems was superior to predict patient outcome. The models showed significant heterogeneity. There was no significant difference between the different risk-groups regarding overall-survival. Subdivision of GIST patients with very low- and low-risk appeared to be negligible. Conclusions: Currently applied GIST risk classification systems are comparable to predict high- or low-risk patients with initial non-metastatic and completely resected GIST. However, the heterogeneity of the high-risk group and the absence of differences in overall survival indicate the need for more precise tumor- and patient-related criteria for better stratification of GIST and identification of patients who would benefit best from adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. PMID:28082898

  19. Technical Evaluation Report 5: Classification of DE Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Belyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For their optimal use in distance education (DE, online educational applications need to be integrated within a comprehensive course management system (CMS. Such systems are server-based software that supports the development, delivery, administration, and evaluation of online learning environments. The selection of an appropriate CMS should be considered from the multiple perspectives of the student, the course developer, the course instructor/ tutor, the technical support staff, and the DE institution’s administration. The current evaluation of CMS packages was conducted by a team of individuals with experience and contacts in relation to each of these DE user types. The report compares a series of CMS packages in terms of their range of features, and in relation to their satisfaction of international online education standards.

  20. An associated classification of triple negative breast cancer: the risk of relapse and the response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yahong; Yin, Quangui; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tongxian; Niu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is heterogeneous and considered as an aggressive tumor. This study was to evaluate the associated classification and its correlations with prognosis and the response to chemotherapy in Chinese women. Four hundred and twenty-eight cases of invasive TNBC were involved in this study. The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), Ki67 and p53 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with patient outcome, and its implications and chemotherapy response were evaluated in four subgroups: typical medullary carcinoma (TMC), atypical medullary carcinoma (AMC), non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and other types. The factors of tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node status, EGFR/CK5/6 status and p53 labeling index were different among the groups. TMC tumors had the lowest rate of relapse (5.8%), while AMC, IDC and other types were associated with an increased risk of relapse (19.1%, 26.7% and 38.2% respectively). Many factors were risk predictors of relapse for TNBC and IDC, while only positive lymph node was for AMC. For MC tumors, adjunctive chemotherapy decreased the risk of relapse in lymph node positive subgroup (36.8% and 66.7%), while not significant in lymph node negative one (8.1% and 10.0%). The classification based on histologic and IHC findings may be a significant improvement in predicting outcome in TNBC. The different chemotherapy response in subgroups may contribute to guiding the treatment of TNBC.

  1. Nursing Intervention Classifications (NIC) validated for patients at risk of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaresco, Taline; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2012-01-01

    to validate the Nursing Intervention Classifications (NIC) for the diagnosis 'Risk of Impaired Skin Integrity' in patients at risk of pressure ulcers (PU). the sample comprised 16 expert nurses. The data was collected with an instrument about the interventions and their definitions were scored on a Likert scale by the experts. The data was analyzed statistically, using the calculation of weighted averages (WA). The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (56/2010). nine interventions were validated as 'priority' (WA ≥0.80), among them Prevention of PU (MP=0.92); 22 as 'suggested' (WA >0.50 and <0.80) and 20 were discarded (WA ≤0.50). the prevention of PU results from the implementation of specific interventions related to the risk factors for development of the lesion, with implications for nursing practice, teaching and research.

  2. Ethical and affective evaluation of environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, G.; Pfister, H.R. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: the present paper will be concerned with environmental risk perception, with special emphasis on those environmental risks that pertain to global change phenomena, such as climate change and ozone depletion. Two determinants of risk judgments are investigated that seem particularly relevant to environmental risks: ethical and affective evaluations. It is assumed that the focus of risk evaluation can be on one of two aspects: (a) on an evaluation of potential losses, or (b) on ethical considerations. We assume that both, potential loss and violation of ethical principles elicit emotional evaluations, but that these two judgmental aspects are associated with different specific emotions. Following cognitive emotion theories, we distinguish loss-based emotions, such as worry and fear, from ethical emotions, e.g., guilt and anger. A study is presented that investigates the role of ethical and affective evaluations in risk judgments. Various environmental risks were presented to subjects, e.g., air pollution, ozone depletion, climate change and destruction of ecological balance. For each environmental risk, subjects indicated in free-response format as well as on rating scales the extent to which ethical principles were violated, and the intensity of both loss-based and ethical emotions. The correlational structure of the emotion ratings confirms the distinction between loss-based and ethical emotions. Risk judgments co-vary with the strength of ethical evaluation and with the intensity of loss-based emotions, but are independent of ethical emotions. The implications of these findings for the risk appraisal process are discussed. (authors)

  3. Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gave FDA the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to...

  4. Evaluation of edge detectors using average risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    1992-01-01

    A new method for evaluation of edge detectors, based on the average risk of a decision, is discussed. The average risk is a performance measure well-known in Bayesian decision theory. Since edge detection can be regarded as a compound decision making process, the performance of an edge detector is

  5. Requirements engineering paper classification and evaluation criteria: A proposal and a discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Maiden, Neil; Mead, Nancy; Rolland, Colette

    In recent years, members of the steering committee of the IEEE Requirements Engineering (RE) Conference have discussed paper classification and evaluation criteria for RE papers. The immediate trigger for this discussion was our concern about differences in opinion that sometimes arise in program

  6. An Ontology to Support the Classification of Learning Material in an Organizational Learning Environment: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaski, Joselaine; Reinehr, Sheila; Malucelli, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether ontology integrated in an organizational learning environment may support the automatic learning material classification in a specific knowledge area. Design/methodology/approach: An ontology for recommending learning material was integrated in the organizational learning environment…

  7. Technology in Rehabilitation: Comparing Personalised and Global Classification Methodologies in Evaluating the Squat Exercise with Wearable IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Darragh F; O'Reilly, Martin A; Ward, Tomás E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian

    2017-10-26

    The barbell squat is a popularly used lower limb rehabilitation exercise. It is also an integral exercise in injury risk screening protocols. To date athlete/patient technique has been assessed using expensive laboratory equipment or subjective clinical judgement; both of which are not without shortcomings. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of athlete/patient technique. However, it is not yet known if global classification techniques are effective in identifying naturally occurring, minor deviations in barbell squat technique. The aims of this study were to: (a) determine if in combination or in isolation, IMUs positioned on the lumbar spine, thigh and shank are capable of distinguishing between acceptable and aberrant barbell squat technique; (b) determine the capabilities of an IMU system at identifying specific natural deviations from acceptable barbell squat technique; and (c) compare a personalised (N=1) classifier to a global classifier in identifying the above. Fifty-five healthy volunteers (37 males, 18 females, age = 24.21 +/- 5.25 years, height = 1.75 +/- 0.1 m, body mass = 75.09 +/- 13.56 kg) participated in the study. All participants performed a barbell squat 3-repetition maximum max strength test. IMUs were positioned on participants' lumbar spine, both shanks and both thighs; these were utilized to record tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data during all repetitions of the barbell squat exercise. Technique was assessed and labelled by a Chartered Physiotherapist using an evaluation framework. Features were extracted from the labelled IMU data. These features were used to train and evaluate both global and personalised random forests classifiers. Global classification techniques produced poor accuracy (AC), sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) scores in binary classification even with a 5 IMU set-up in both binary (AC: 64%, SE: 70%, SP: 28%) and multi-class classification

  8. Evaluation of the histopathological classifications of American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Bittencourt

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the reliability of histopathological classifications of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis the authors compared the histopathological patterns of two biopsies taken simultaneously from the same patient, and classified the material according to Ridley et al. (1980, to Magalhães et al. (1986a, and to a more simplified classification with only three patterns. District histopathological aspects, were observed in different lesions or even in the same lesion. The authors concluded that histopathological patterns do not represent a stage of tegumentary leishmaniasis, thus they can not be correlated with prognosis and therapeutical response as suggested in the literature.

  9. Ordinal Classification Method for the Evaluation of Thai Non-life Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Phaiboon Jhonpita; Sukree Sinthupinyo; Thitivadee Chaiyawat

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a use of an ordinal classifier to evaluate the financial solidity of non-life insurance companies as strong, moderate, weak, and insolvency. This study constructed an efficient classification model that can be used by regulators to evaluate the financial solidity and to determine the priority of further examination as an early warning system. The proposed model is beneficial to policy-makers to create guidelines for the solvency regulations and roles of the government in p...

  10. An Evaluation Study of Off-The-Shelf Patient Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    requested. Information was sorted using an adapted version of the content-input-process-product ( CIPP ) model. A decision matrix incorporating predetermined...6 vi LIST OF )PPENDICEB Appendices Page A: Patient Classification System Survey Worksheet ..... ... 10 B: CIPP Evaluation Matrix...systems, specialty nursing task lists, report formats, and marketing layouts. Phase II The context-input-process-product ( CIPP ) model is an evaluation tool

  11. International classification of function, disability and health framework for fall risk stratification in community dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Noohu, Majumi M.; Aparajit B. Dey; Shashi Sharma; Hussain, Mohammed E.

    2017-01-01

    Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF) can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinica...

  12. An Independent Inter- and Intraobserver Agreement Evaluation of the AOSpine Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Yurac, Ratko; Campos, Mauricio; Palma, Joaquin; Mobarec, Sebastian; Prada, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    An agreement study. The aim of this study was to perform an independent interobserver and intraobserver agreement assessment of the AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. The AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system was recently described. It showed substantial inter- and intraobserver agreement in the study describing it; however, an independent evaluation has not been performed. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging of 65 patients with acute traumatic subaxial cervical spine injuries were selected and classified using the morphologic grading of the subaxial cervical spine injury classification system by 6 evaluators (3 spine surgeons and 3 orthopedic surgery residents). After a 6-week interval, the 65 cases were presented to the same evaluators in a random sequence for repeat evaluation. The kappa coefficient (κ) was used to determine the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The interobserver agreement was substantial when considering the fracture main types (A, B, C, or F), with κ = 0.61 (0.57-0.64), but moderate when considering the subtypes: κ = 0.57 (0.54-0.60). The intraobserver agreement was substantial considering the fracture types, with κ = 0.68 (0.62-0.74) and considering subtypes, κ = 0.62 (0.57-0.66). No significant differences were observed between spine surgeons and orthopedic residents in the overall inter- and intraobserver agreement, or in the inter- and intraobserver agreement of specific A, B, C, or F type of injuries. This classification allows adequate agreement among different observers and by the same observer on separate occasions. Future prospective studies should determine whether this classification allows surgeons to decide the best treatment for patients with subaxial cervical spine injuries. 3.

  13. Risks in the information systems and their evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolejšová, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the risks of the information systems. The simplified classification of risks with the specific examples is described in the first part of the paper. We can divide the risks relating to the information systems into two different groups accordingly. The first group is concerned with the components of the information systems. The second group of risks is connected with their exposures. There are both the unconscious and intentional risks from this point of view. The sec...

  14. Violent behaviour by general psychiatric patients in Sweden - validation of Classification of Violence Risk (COVR) software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturup, Joakim; Kristiansson, Marianne; Lindqvist, Per

    2011-06-30

    The objectives of the study are to report the 20-week base rate of violent behaviour in the community among a general psychiatric patient population from Stockholm and to establish the validity of a violence risk assessment software program, Classification of Violence Risk (COVR), in a European setting. Three hundred and thirty one patients at two psychiatric hospitals in Stockholm were interviewed upon discharge. Telephone interviews with the patients and collaterals were conducted 10 and 20 weeks later. The violent behaviour was also measured through a national criminal register. The allocation of patients into different risk groups according to COVR software was compared with the occurrence of actual acts of violence during the follow-up. The base rate of violent behaviour was 5.7% and a ROC-analysis showed that the AUC for COVR was 0.77. Since there were few patients in the high risk groups, the 95% confidence interval for the proportion of violent patients was wide. The base rate of violent behaviour is relatively low in Sweden and prediction is therefore difficult. The predictive validity of COVR software is comparable to other risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  16. Issues in Value-at-Risk Modeling and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Daníelsson (Jón); C.G. de Vries (Casper); B.N. Jorgensen (Bjørn); P.F. Christoffersen (Peter); F.X. Diebold (Francis); T. Schuermann (Til); J.A. Lopez (Jose); B. Hirtle (Beverly)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDiscusses the issues in value-at-risk modeling and evaluation. Value of value at risk; Horizon problems and extreme events in financial risk management; Methods of evaluating value-at-risk estimates.

  17. Meeting the criteria of a nursing diagnosis classification: Evaluation of ICNP, ICF, NANDA and ZEFP.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller-Staub, M.; Lavin, M.A.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies described nursing diagnosis classification criteria and how classifications meet these criteria. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to identify criteria for nursing diagnosis classifications and to assess how these criteria are met by different classifications. DESIGN/METHODS:

  18. Risk stratification in follicular neoplasm: a cytological assessment using the modified Bethesda classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Berrin; Chhieng, David; Van Dyke, Alison; Carling, Tobias; Holt, Elizabeth; Udelsman, Robert; Adeniran, Adebowale J

    2014-07-01

    indicate that follicular lesions with even subtle nuclear atypia have a high positive predictive value for malignancy and therefore should be distinguished from other follicular lesions because these cases require more aggressive surgical management. The current study also raises an important issue concerning the current thyroid classification based on the 2007 Bethesda classification for thyroid cytology. Future thyroid fine-needle aspiration classification schemes should consider subclassifying follicular neoplasms for the purpose of risk stratification. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF IMAGE CLASSIFICATION METHODS IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Augusto Reolon Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital imaging techniques offer comprehensive coverage of different regions for numerous environmental and socioeconomic applications, revealing the spatial characteristics and land use of those regions. The advantages of remote sensing include its ability to record spatial distribution patterns, and spectral and temporal data over large regions. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different multispectral image classification methods in the selection of general vegetation, based on a set of samples taken from a Landsat 8 image. The quality of multispectral images and their final classification is usually evaluated based on the Kappa index, which is used as the quality standard in many remote sensing software programs. The classification methods chosen for this study were Parallelepiped, Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance, and neural networks. The most suitable classification was used as standard and the other images were compared with it to determine the degree of similarity ranking (IS1x, defined as the percentage of pixels classified differently from those of the standard image. The IS1x was determined using a Matlab routine involving pixel subtraction between images. The results indicate that probability distribution methods are more suitable for discriminating vegetation types than other methods, and that some band combinations should be chosen.

  20. Risk of Stroke After the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision Discharge Code Diagnosis of Hypertensive Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerario, Michael P; Merkler, Alexander E; Gialdini, Gino; Parikh, Neal S; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman

    2016-02-01

    Although chronic hypertension is a well-established risk factor for stroke, little is known about stroke risk after hypertensive encephalopathy (HE), when neurologic sequelae of hypertension become evident. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of stroke after a diagnosis of HE. We identified all patients discharged from California, New York, and Florida emergency departments and acute care hospitals between 2005 and 2012 with a primary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification discharge diagnosis of HE (437.2). Patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of seizure (345.x) served as negative controls, whereas patients with a primary diagnosis of transient ischemic attack (435.x) were positive controls. Our primary outcome was the composite of subsequent ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Kaplan-Meier survival statistics were used to calculate cumulative outcome rates, and Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to examine the association between index disease types and outcomes while adjusting for vascular risk factors. We identified 8233 patients with HE, 191 091 with seizure, and 308 680 with transient ischemic attack. The 1-year cumulative rate of ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage after HE was 4.90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.45-5.40) when compared with 0.92% (95% CI, 0.88-0.97) after seizure and 4.49% (95% CI, 4.42-4.57) after transient ischemic attack. The risk of intracerebral hemorrhage was significantly elevated in those with HE (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5) but not in those with transient ischemic attack (hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.1), when compared with seizure patients. Patients discharged with a diagnosis of HE face a high risk of future cerebrovascular events, particularly intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Individual classification of strong risk attitudes: An application across lottery types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, David; Mata, Rui; Davis-Stober, Clintin P

    2017-08-01

    Empirical evaluations of risk attitudes often rely on a weak definition of risk that concerns preferences towards risky and riskless options (e.g., a lottery vs. a sure outcome). A large body of work has shown that individuals tend to be weak risk averse in choice contexts involving risky and riskless gains but weak risk seeking in contexts involving losses, a phenomenon known as the reflection effect. Recent attempts to evaluate age differences in risk attitudes have relied on this weak definition, testing whether the reflection effect increases or diminishes as we grow older. The present work argues that weak risk attitudes have limited generalizability and proposes the use of a strong definition of risk that is concerned with preferences towards options with the same expected value but different degrees of risk (i.e., outcome variance). A reanalysis of previously-published data and the results from a new study show that only a minority of individuals manifests the reflection effect under a strong definition of risk, and that, when facing certain lottery-pair types, older adults appear to be more risk seeking than younger adults.

  2. Evaluation of normalization methods for cDNA microarray data by k-NN classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei; Xing, Eric P; Myers, Connie; Mian, Saira; Bissell, Mina J

    2004-12-17

    Non-biological factors give rise to unwanted variations in cDNA microarray data. There are many normalization methods designed to remove such variations. However, to date there have been few published systematic evaluations of these techniques for removing variations arising from dye biases in the context of downstream, higher-order analytical tasks such as classification. Ten location normalization methods that adjust spatial- and/or intensity-dependent dye biases, and three scale methods that adjust scale differences were applied, individually and in combination, to five distinct, published, cancer biology-related cDNA microarray data sets. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) classification error was employed as the quantitative end-point for assessing the effectiveness of a normalization method. In particular, a known classifier, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), was estimated from data normalized using a given technique, and the LOOCV error rate of the ensuing model was computed. We found that k-NN classifiers are sensitive to dye biases in the data. Using NONRM and GMEDIAN as baseline methods, our results show that single-bias-removal techniques which remove either spatial-dependent dye bias (referred later as spatial effect) or intensity-dependent dye bias (referred later as intensity effect) moderately reduce LOOCV classification errors; whereas double-bias-removal techniques which remove both spatial- and intensity effect reduce LOOCV classification errors even further. Of the 41 different strategies examined, three two-step processes, IGLOESS-SLFILTERW7, ISTSPLINE-SLLOESS and IGLOESS-SLLOESS, all of which removed intensity effect globally and spatial effect locally, appear to reduce LOOCV classification errors most consistently and effectively across all data sets. We also found that the investigated scale normalization methods do not reduce LOOCV classification error. Using LOOCV error of k-NNs as the evaluation criterion, three double

  3. Malignancy Risk Assessment in Patients with Thyroid Nodules Using Classification and Regression Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Taghipour Zahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We sought to investigate the utility of classification and regression trees (CART classifier to differentiate benign from malignant nodules in patients referred for thyroid surgery. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of 271 patients referred to the Sadoughi Hospital during 2006–2011 were collected. In a two-step approach, a CART classifier was employed to differentiate patients with a high versus low risk of thyroid malignancy. The first step served as the screening procedure and was tailored to produce as few false negatives as possible. The second step identified those with the lowest risk of malignancy, chosen from a high risk population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV of the optimal tree were calculated. Results. In the first step, age, sex, and nodule size contributed to the optimal tree. Ultrasonographic features were employed in the second step with hypoechogenicity and/or microcalcifications yielding the highest discriminatory ability. The combined tree produced a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% (95% CI: 29.9–98.9 and 94.1% (95% CI: 78.9–99.0, respectively. NPV and PPV were 66.7% (41.1–85.6 and 97.0% (82.5–99.8, respectively. Conclusion. CART classifier reliably identifies patients with a low risk of malignancy who can avoid unnecessary surgery.

  4. Medical risk assessment in dentistry: use of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, S; Shehabi, Z; Morgan, C

    2016-02-12

    Medical risk assessment is essential to safe patient management and the delivery of appropriate dental care. The American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) Classification is widely used within medicine and dentistry, but has received significant criticism. This is the first UK survey to assess the consistency of medical risk assessment in dentistry. (i) To determine the use and consistency of the ASA PS among dentists and anaesthetists. (ii) To consider the appropriateness of the ASA PS in relation to dental treatment planning and delivery of care. A cross-sectional online questionnaire was distributed to anaesthetists and dental practitioners in general practice, community and hospital dental services. Questions focused on professional backgrounds, use of the ASA PS, alternative approaches to risk assessment in everyday practice and scoring of eight hypothetical patients using ASA PS. There were 101 responses, 82 were complete. Anaesthetists recorded ASA PS score more frequently than dental practitioners and found it more useful. Inconsistencies were evident in the assignment of ASA PS scores both between and within professional groups. Many dental practitioners did not use or find ASA PS helpful, with significant inconsistencies in its use. An awareness of alternative assessment scales may be useful across settings. Accepting its limitations, it would be helpful for all dentists to be educated in ASA PS and its use in medical risk assessment, particularly in relation to conscious sedation.

  5. Evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs according to the latest classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, S; Olgac, M; Unal, D; Gelincik, A; Colakoglu, B; Buyukozturk, S

    2015-11-01

    The consensus document for hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) proposed by the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) interest group (2011) was revised in 2013. We aimed to evaluate the usability of the latest NSAID hypersensitivity classification of ENDA. A total of 370 patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs among the 1250 outpatients referred for suspected drug allergy between July 2013 and June 2014 were evaluated, and 308 patients who were confirmed as having NSAID hypersensitivity were included in this study. After confirming the diagnosis, a single-blind placebo-controlled drug provocation test was performed with aspirin or diclofenac to categorize the patients according to the ENDA classification. The reactions not meeting the ENDA classification criteria were grouped as blended reactions. Among the 308 patients (224 female, mean age 42.12 ± 13.24), the leading cause of hypersensitivity reactions was metamizol (30.5%) followed by aspirin (30.2%). The most common NSAID hypersensitivity subgroup was SNIUAA (46.4%) and the least common type was SNIDR (1.6%). Cross-reactivity was identified in 50.3% of the patients. In five patients (1.6%), the hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs did not meet the ENDA classification: Three patients experienced anaphylaxis with different NSAIDs, one patient encountered anaphylaxis with one NSAID and urticaria with other NSAIDs, and the last patient had angioedema with different NSAIDs. The latest ENDA classification for NSAID hypersensitivity is generally a practical and useful instrument for clinicians. We only point out that anaphylaxis with different NSAIDs can be seen in a small group of patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Combining the ASA Physical Classification System and Continuous Intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score Measurement in Predicting Postoperative Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jering, Monika Zdenka; Marolen, Khensani N; Shotwell, Matthew S; Denton, Jason N; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse Menachem

    2015-11-01

    The surgical Apgar score predicts major 30-day postoperative complications using data assessed at the end of surgery. We hypothesized that evaluating the surgical Apgar score continuously during surgery may identify patients at high risk for postoperative complications. We retrospectively identified general, vascular, and general oncology patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Logistic regression methods were used to construct a series of predictive models in order to continuously estimate the risk of major postoperative complications, and to alert care providers during surgery should the risk exceed a given threshold. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the discriminative ability of a model utilizing a continuously measured surgical Apgar score relative to models that use only preoperative clinical factors or continuously monitored individual constituents of the surgical Apgar score (i.e. heart rate, blood pressure, and blood loss). AUROC estimates were validated internally using a bootstrap method. 4,728 patients were included. Combining the ASA PS classification with continuously measured surgical Apgar score demonstrated improved discriminative ability (AUROC 0.80) in the pooled cohort compared to ASA (0.73) and the surgical Apgar score alone (0.74). To optimize the tradeoff between inadequate and excessive alerting with future real-time notifications, we recommend a threshold probability of 0.24. Continuous assessment of the surgical Apgar score is predictive for major postoperative complications. In the future, real-time notifications might allow for detection and mitigation of changes in a patient's accumulating risk of complications during a surgical procedure.

  7. Leveraging external knowledge on molecular interactions in classification methods for risk prediction of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzelius, Christine; Johannes, Marc; Binder, Harald; Beissbarth, Tim

    2011-03-01

    Classification of patients based on molecular markers, for example into different risk groups, is a modern field in medical research. The aim of this classification is often a better diagnosis or individualized therapy. The search for molecular markers often utilizes extremely high-dimensional data sets (e.g. gene-expression microarrays). However, in situations where the number of measured markers (genes) is intrinsically higher than the number of available patients, standard methods from statistical learning fail to deal correctly with this so-called "curse of dimensionality". Also feature or dimension reduction techniques based on statistical models promise only limited success. Several recent methods explore ideas of how to quantify and incorporate biological prior knowledge of molecular interactions and known cellular processes into the feature selection process. This article aims to give an overview of such current methods as well as the databases, where this external knowledge can be obtained from. For illustration, two recent methods are compared in detail, a feature selection approach for support vector machines as well as a boosting approach for regression models. As a practical example, data on patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are considered, where the binary endpoint "relapse within first year" should be predicted. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comparative evaluation of support vector machine classification for computer aided detection of breast masses in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, J. M.; Hupse, R.; Blanc, R.; Karssemeijer, N.; Székely, G.

    2012-08-01

    False positive (FP) marks represent an obstacle for effective use of computer-aided detection (CADe) of breast masses in mammography. Typically, the problem can be approached either by developing more discriminative features or by employing different classifier designs. In this paper, the usage of support vector machine (SVM) classification for FP reduction in CADe is investigated, presenting a systematic quantitative evaluation against neural networks, k-nearest neighbor classification, linear discriminant analysis and random forests. A large database of 2516 film mammography examinations and 73 input features was used to train the classifiers and evaluate for their performance on correctly diagnosed exams as well as false negatives. Further, classifier robustness was investigated using varying training data and feature sets as input. The evaluation was based on the mean exam sensitivity in 0.05-1 FPs on normals on the free-response receiver operating characteristic curve (FROC), incorporated into a tenfold cross validation framework. It was found that SVM classification using a Gaussian kernel offered significantly increased detection performance (P = 0.0002) compared to the reference methods. Varying training data and input features, SVMs showed improved exploitation of large feature sets. It is concluded that with the SVM-based CADe a significant reduction of FPs is possible outperforming other state-of-the-art approaches for breast mass CADe.

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    intraoperative blood loss. Classification of patients according to their bleeding risk will improve the surgical procedure with regard to staff composition, blood transfusion and patient safety. Thrombelastography is a global coagulation assay measuring the viscoelastic properties of whole blood samples, taking...... loss. Methods: 41 consecutive patients undergoing simultaneous mandibular and maxillary osteotomy were included in the study, and whole blood samples were collected preoperatively from each patient. The sample were subjected to thrombelastographic analysis, and the intraoperative blood loss...... into account the complex interplay between coagulation factors, blood platelets and components of the fibrinolytic system. Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery were included in this prospective study, and their preoperative thrombelastographic data were collected and compared to their intraoperative blood...

  10. Quantitative risk assessment in classification of drugs with identical API content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, O Ye; Balyklova, K S; Titova, A V; Pomerantsev, A L

    2014-09-01

    When combating counterfeits it is equally important to recognize fakes and to avoid misclassification of genuine samples. This study presents a general approach to the problem using a newly-developed method called Data Driven Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy. The possibility to collect representative data for both training and validation is of great importance in classification modeling. When fakes are not available, we propose to compose the test set using the legitimate drug's analogs, manufactured by various producers. These analogs should have the identical API and a similar composition of excipients. The approach shows satisfactory results both in revealing counterfeits and in accounting for the future variability of the target class drugs. The presented case studies demonstrate that theoretically predicted misclassification errors can be successfully employed for the science-based risk assessment in drug identification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and risk factors for acute kidney injury after spine surgery using the RIFLE classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Bhiken I; Colquhoun, Douglas A; McKinney, William E; Smith, Andrew Bryant; Titus, Brian; McMurry, Timothy L; Raphael, Jacob; Durieux, Marcel E

    2014-05-01

    Earlier definitions of acute renal failure are not sensitive in identifying milder forms of acute kidney injury (AKI). The authors hypothesized that by applying the RIFLE criteria for acute renal failure (Risk of renal dysfunction, Injury to the kidney, Failure of kidney function, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease) to thoracic and lumbar spine surgery, there would be a higher incidence of AKI. They also developed a model to predict the postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A hospital data repository was used to identify patients undergoing thoracic and/or lumbar spine surgery over a 5-year period (2006-2011). The lowest GFR in the first week after surgery was used to identify and categorize kidney injury if present. Risk factors were identified and a model was developed to predict postoperative GFR based on the defined risk factors. A total of 726 patients were identified over the study period. The incidence of AKI was 3.9% (n = 28) based on the RIFLE classification with 23 patients in the risk category and 5 in the injury category. No patient was classified into the failure category or required renal replacement therapy. The baseline GFR in the non-AKI and AKI groups was 80 and 79.8 ml/min, respectively. After univariate analysis, only hypertension was associated with postoperative AKI (p = 0.02). A model was developed to predict the postoperative GFR. This model accounted for 64.4% of the variation in the postoperative GFRs (r(2) = 0.644). The incidence of AKI in spine surgery is higher than previously reported, with all of the patients classified into either the risk or injury RIFLE categories. Because these categories have previously been shown to be associated with poor long-term outcomes, early recognition, management, and follow-up of these patients is important.

  12. Risk variables in evaluation of transport projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vařbuchta, Petr; Kovářová, Hana; Hromádka, Vít; Vítková, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Depending on the constantly increasing demands on assessment of investment projects, especially assessment of large-scale projects in transport and important European projects with wide impacts, there is constantly increasing focus on risk management, whether to find mitigations, creating corrective measures or their implementation in assessment, especially in the context of Cost-Benefit analysis. To project assessment is often used implementation of certain risk variables, which can generate negative impacts of project outputs in framework of assess. Especially in case of transportation infrastructure projects is taken much emphasis on the influence of risk variables. However, currently in case of assessment of transportation projects is in Czech Republic used a few risk variables, which occur in the most projects. This leads to certain limitation in framework of impact assessment of risk variables. This papers aims to specify a new risk variables and process of applying them to already executed project assessment. Based on changes generated by new risk variables will be evaluated differences between original and adapted assessment.

  13. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the geologic and hydrologic conditions and evaluates potential health risks to workers in the natural gas industry in the vicinity of the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, site, where the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission detonated an underground nuclear device in 1967. The 29-kiloton detonation took place 4,240 feet below ground surface and was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, on land administered by Carson National Forest. A site-specific conceptual model was developed based on current understanding of the hydrologic and geologic environment. This conceptual model was used for establishing plausible contaminant exposure scenarios, which were then evaluated for human health risk potential. The most mobile and, therefore, the most probable contaminant that could result in human exposure is tritium. Natural gas production wells were identified as having the greatest potential for bringing detonation-derived contaminants (tritium) to the ground surface in the form of tritiated produced water. Three exposure scenarios addressing potential contamination from gas wells were considered in the risk evaluation: a gas well worker during gas-well-drilling operations, a gas well worker performing routine maintenance, and a residential exposure. The residential exposure scenario was evaluated only for comparison; permanent residences on national forest lands at the Gasbuggy site are prohibited

  14. Evaluation of the traditional and revised WHO classifications of Dengue disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Narvaez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide and continues to increase in incidence. Dengue virus (DENV infection leads to a range of outcomes, including subclinical infection, undifferentiated febrile illness, Dengue Fever (DF, life-threatening syndromes with fluid loss and hypotensive shock, or other severe manifestations such as bleeding and organ failure. The long-standing World Health Organization (WHO dengue classification and management scheme was recently revised, replacing DF, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF, and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS with Dengue without Warning Signs, Dengue with Warning Signs (abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, fluid accumulation, mucosal bleeding, lethargy, liver enlargement, increasing hematocrit with decreasing platelets and Severe Dengue (SD; dengue with severe plasma leakage, severe bleeding, or organ failure. We evaluated the traditional and revised classification schemes against clinical intervention levels to determine how each captures disease severity using data from five years (2005-2010 of a hospital-based study of pediatric dengue in Managua, Nicaragua. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases (n = 544 were categorized using both classification schemes and by level of care (I-III. Category I was out-patient care, Category II was in-patient care that did not meet criteria for Category III, which included ICU admission, ventilation, administration of inotropic drugs, or organ failure. Sensitivity and specificity to capture Category III care for DHF/DSS were 39.0% and 75.5%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity for SD were 92.1% and 78.5%, respectively. In this data set, DENV-2 was found to be significantly associated with DHF/DSS; however, this association was not observed with the revised classification. Among dengue-confirmed cases, the revised WHO classification for severe dengue appears to have higher sensitivity and specificity to identify cases in need of heightened care, although it is no

  15. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz poważne straty

  16. A new qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastograghy for solid breast mass evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Jing; Guo, Song

    2017-02-01

    To examine the efficacy of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) in the classification and evaluation of solid breast masses, and to compare this method with conventional ultrasonograghy (US), quantitative SWE parameters and qualitative SWE classification proposed before. From April 2015 to March 2016, 314 consecutive females with 325 breast masses who decided to undergo core needle biopsy and/or surgical biopsy were enrolled. Conventional US and SWE were previously performed in all enrolled subjects. Each mass was classified by two different qualitative classifications. One was established in our study, herein named the Qual1. Qual1 could classify the SWE images into five color patterns by the visual evaluations: Color pattern 1 (homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 2 (comparative homogeneous pattern); Color pattern 3 (irregularly heterogeneous pattern); Color pattern 4 (intralesional echo pattern); and Color pattern 5 (the stiff rim sign pattern). The second qualitative classification was named Qual2 here, and included a four-color overlay pattern classification (Tozaki and Fukuma, Acta Radiologica, 2011). The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment and quantitative SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performances of conventional US, SWE parameters, and combinations of US and SWE parameters were compared. With pathological results as the gold standard, of the 325 examined breast masses, 139 (42.77%) samples were malignant and 186 (57.23%) were benign. The Qual1 showed a higher Az value than the Qual2 and quantitative SWE parameters (all P<0.05). When applying Qual1=Color pattern 1 for downgrading and Qual1=Color pattern 5 for upgrading the BI-RADS categories, we obtained the highest Az value (0.951), and achieved a significantly higher specificity (86.56%, P=0.002) than that of the US (81.18%) with the same sensitivity (94.96%). The qualitative classification proposed in this study may be representative of SWE parameters and has

  17. Classification of acoustic emission waveforms for nondestructive evaluation using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barga, R.S.; Melton, R.B.; Friesel, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    Neural networks were applied to the classification of two types of acoustic emission (AE) events, crack growth and fretting, from a simulated airframe joint specimen. Signals were obtained from four sensors at different locations on the test specimen. Multilayered neural networks were trained to classify the signals using the error backpropagation learning algorithm, enabling AE events arising from crack growth to be distinguished from those caused by fretting. In this paper we evaluate the neural network classification performance for sensor location dependent and sensor location independent training and testing sets. Further, we present a new training strategy which significantly reduces the time required to learn large training sets using the error backpropagation learning algorithm, and improves the generalization performance of the network. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of the agreement by examiners according to classifications of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, C-J; Silva, L-C-F; Melo, M-R-S; Santos, J-A-S-S; Santos, T-S

    2012-03-01

    This study recorded and evaluated the intra- and inter-group agreement degree by different examiners for the classification of lower third molars according to both the Winter's and Pell & Gregory's systems. An observational and cross-sectional study was realized with forty lower third molars analyzed from twenty digital panoramic radiographs. Four examiner groups (undergraduates, maxillofacial surgeons, oral radiologists and clinical dentists) from Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil, classified them in relation to angulation, class and position. The variance test (ANOVA) was applied in the examiner findings with significance level of pclassification system among all examiners. Pell & Gregory's classification system showed an average intra-group agreement and a statistical significant difference to position variable in inter-group analysis with greater disagreement to the clinical dentists group (pclassification, whereas the system proposed by Pell & Gregory did not demonstrate appropriate levels of reliability.

  19. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  20. Modelling the Happiness Classification of Addicted, Addiction Risk, Threshold and Non-Addicted Groups on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmaz, Fatma; Totan, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model the happiness classification of university students--grouped as addicted, addiction risk, threshold and non-addicted to internet usage--with compatibility analysis on a map as happiness, average and unhappiness. The participants in this study were 400 university students from Turkey. According to the results of…

  1. Evaluating the predictive ability of childhood body mass index classification systems for overweight and obesity at 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Ebba; Sjöberg, Agneta; Chaplin, John E; Leu, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of three childhood body mass index classification systems defining weight status at age 10, for predicting overweight and obesity at 18 years, according to the World Health Organization adult body mass index classification. Weight and height of 4235 Swedish girls and boys were measured both at around ages 10 and 18 years. Predictive ability of the extended International Obesity Task Force body mass index cut-offs (2012), the World Health Organization body mass index-for-age (2007) and a Swedish body mass index reference (2001) were assessed for sensitivity and specificity. For predicting overweight including obesity at 18 years, the World Health Organization 2007 and the Swedish body mass index reference 2001 had similar sensitivity, 68% and 71%. The International Obesity Task Force 2012 had a significantly lower sensitivity, 53%. Specificity was 82-91% and highest for International Obesity Task Force 2012. For predicting obesity, the sensitivity for International Obesity Task Force 2012 was 29%, significantly lower than for the other two, 63% and 70%. Specificity was 94-100%, and highest for International Obesity Task Force 2012. In situations when optimal screening sensitivity is required for identifying as many high-risk children as possible, the World Health Organization 2007 and the Swedish body mass index reference 2001 performed better than the International Obesity Task Force 2012. However, it is important to keep in mind that the International Obesity Task Force 2012 will identify the fewest false positives. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Evaluation of shotgun metagenomics sequence classification methods using in silico and in vitro simulated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Michael A; Van Rossum, Thea; Lo, Raymond; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2015-11-04

    The field of metagenomics (study of genetic material recovered directly from an environment) has grown rapidly, with many bioinformatics analysis methods being developed. To ensure appropriate use of such methods, robust comparative evaluation of their accuracy and features is needed. For taxonomic classification of sequence reads, such evaluation should include use of clade exclusion, which better evaluates a method's accuracy when identical sequences are not present in any reference database, as is common in metagenomic analysis. To date, relatively small evaluations have been performed, with evaluation approaches like clade exclusion limited to assessment of new methods by the authors of the given method. What is needed is a rigorous, independent comparison between multiple major methods, using the same in silico and in vitro test datasets, with and without approaches like clade exclusion, to better characterize accuracy under different conditions. An overview of the features of 38 bioinformatics methods is provided, evaluating accuracy with a focus on 11 programs that have reference databases that can be modified and therefore most robustly evaluated with clade exclusion. Taxonomic classification of sequence reads was evaluated using both in silico and in vitro mock bacterial communities. Clade exclusion was used at taxonomic levels from species to class-identifying how well methods perform in progressively more difficult scenarios. A wide range of variability was found in the sensitivity, precision, overall accuracy, and computational demand for the programs evaluated. In experiments where distilled water was spiked with only 11 bacterial species, frequently dozens to hundreds of species were falsely predicted by the most popular programs. The different features of each method (forces predictions or not, etc.) are summarized, and additional analysis considerations discussed. The accuracy of shotgun metagenomics classification methods varies widely. No one

  3. Evaluating the Effects of Shadow Detection on QuickBird Image Classification and Spectroradiometric Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin E. Bauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shadows in high resolution imagery create significant problems for urban land cover classification and environmental application. We first investigated whether shadows were intrinsically different and hypothetically possible to separate from each other with ground spectral measurements. Both pixel-based and object-oriented methods were used to evaluate the effects of shadow detection on QuickBird image classification and spectroradiometric restoration. In each method, shadows were detected and separated either with or without histogram thresholding, and subsequently corrected with a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a linear correlation correction. The results showed that shadows had distinct spectroradiometric characteristics, thus, could be detected with an optimal brightness threshold and further differentiated with a scene-based near infrared ratio. The pixel-based methods generally recognized more shadow areas and with statistically higher accuracy than the object-oriented methods. The effects of the prior shadow thresholding were not statistically significant. The accuracy of the final land cover classification, after accounting for the shadow detection and separation, was significantly higher for the pixel-based methods than for the object-oriented methods, although both achieved similar accuracy for the non-shadow classes. Both radiometric restoration algorithms significantly reduced shadow areas in the original satellite images.

  4. Evaluating oral epithelial dysplasia classification system by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Gu, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Kai-Xiao; Wen, Zhi-Ning; Zhao, Zhi-He; Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi

    2017-09-29

    Until now, the classification system of oral epithelial dysplasia is still based on the architectural and cytological changes, which relies on the observation of pathologists and is relatively subjective. The purpose of present research was to discriminate the oral dysplasia by the near-infrared Raman spectroscope, in order to evaluate the classification system. We collected Raman spectra of normal mucosa, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and dysplasia by near-infrared Raman spectroscope. The biochemical variations between different stages were analyzed by the characteristic peaks in the subtracted mean spectra. Gaussian radial basis function support vector machines (SVM) were used to establish the diagnostic models. At the same time, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to verify the results of SVM. Raman spectral differences were observed in the range between 730~1913 cm-1. Compared with normal mucosa, high contents of protein and DNA in oral dysplasia and OSCC were observed. There were no significant or gradual variation of Raman peaks among different dysplastic grades. The accuracies of comparison between mild, moderate, severe dysplasia with OSCC were 100%, 44.44%, 71.15%, which elucidated the low modeling ability of support vector machines, especially for the moderate dysplasia. The analysis by PCA-LDA could not discriminate the stages, either. Combined with support vector machines, near-infrared Raman spectroscopy could detect the biochemical variations in oral normal, OSCC and dysplastic tissues, but could not establish diagnostic model accurately. The classification system needs further improvements.

  5. Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Imagery for Burned Area Mapping in Greece Using Object-Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Polychronaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery to map burned areas was evaluated in two study areas in Greece. For this purpose, we developed an object-based classification scheme to map the fire-disturbed areas using the PALSAR imagery acquired before and shortly after fire events. The advantage of employing an object-based approach was not only the use of the temporal variation of the backscatter coefficient, but also the incorporation in the classification of topological features, such as neighbor objects, and class related features, such as objects classified as burned. The classification scheme resulted in mapping the burned areas with satisfactory results: 0.71 and 0.82 probabilities of detection for the two study areas. Our investigation revealed that the pre-fire vegetation conditions and fire severity should be taken in consideration when mapping burned areas using PALSAR in Mediterranean regions. Overall, findings suggest that the developed scheme could be applied for rapid burned area assessment, especially to areas where cloud cover and fire smoke inhibit accurate mapping of burned areas when optical data are used.

  6. Classification of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis: implications for evaluating and benchmarking clinical practice performance2

    Science.gov (United States)

    HuiChuan, J Lai; Suzanne, M Shoff

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2005, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) revised the nutrition classification guidelines to eliminate the use of percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) to define “nutritional failure”; the CFF also recommended that children with cystic fibrosis maintain a body mass index percentile (BMIp) ≥ 50th. Objective We assessed the effect of the 2005 CFF nutrition classification guidelines on evaluating the performance of nutritional care practices. Design Data from 14 702 children reported to the 2002 CFF Patient Registry were analyzed to compare malnutrition rates in 113 cystic fibrosis centers in the United States. Nutritional failure was defined according to the 2002 CFF criteria—ie, height nutritional failure rate in the United States. The use of BMIp classification of 57% of children as below the BMI goal. Misclassification of nutritional failure according to %IBW ranged from 1% to 16% among 113 centers and was greater in the centers with a larger proportion of tall patients. After the elimination of %IBW, one-third of centers changed to a different tertile ranking for nutritional failure rates (kappa = 0.50, moderate-to-poor agreement). More than half the centers changed to a different tertile ranking, from nutritional failure to below BMI goal (kappa = 0.22, poor agreement). Conclusion Eliminating misclassification by %IBW and implementing the new BMI goal led to profound and unequal changes in malnutrition rates across cystic fibrosis centers. PMID:18614737

  7. Development and evaluation of an automated histology classification system for veterinary pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattel, Arthur; Monga, Vishal; Srinivas, Umamahesh; Gillespie, Jim; Brooks, Jason; Fisher, Jenny; Jayarao, Bhushan

    2013-11-01

    A 2-stage algorithmic framework was developed to automatically classify digitized photomicrographs of tissues obtained from bovine liver, lung, spleen, and kidney into different histologic categories. The categories included normal tissue, acute necrosis, and inflammation (acute suppurative; chronic). In the current study, a total of 60 images per category (normal; acute necrosis; acute suppurative inflammation) were obtained from liver samples, 60 images per category (normal; acute suppurative inflammation) were obtained from spleen and lung samples, and 60 images per category (normal; chronic inflammation) were obtained from kidney samples. An automated support vector machine (SVM) classifier was trained to assign each test image to a specific category. Using 10 training images/category/organ, 40 test images/category/organ were examined. Employing confusion matrices to represent category-specific classification accuracy, the classifier-attained accuracies were found to be in the 74-90% range. The same set of test images was evaluated using a SVM classifier trained on 20 images/category/organ. The average classification accuracies were noted to be in the 84-95% range. The accuracy in correctly identifying normal tissue and specific tissue lesions was markedly improved by a small increase in the number of training images. The preliminary results from the study indicate the importance and potential use of automated image classification systems in the histologic identification of normal tissues and specific tissue lesions.

  8. Defining and evaluating classification algorithm for high-dimensional data based on latent topics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Luo

    Full Text Available Automatic text categorization is one of the key techniques in information retrieval and the data mining field. The classification is usually time-consuming when the training dataset is large and high-dimensional. Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA algorithm and the Support Vector Machine (SVM. LDA is first used to generate reduced dimensional representation of topics as feature in VSM. It is able to reduce features dramatically but keeps the necessary semantic information. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then employed to classify the data based on the generated features. We evaluate the algorithm on 20 Newsgroups and Reuters-21578 datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the classification based on our proposed LDA+SVM model achieves high performance in terms of precision, recall and F1 measure. Further, it can achieve this within a much shorter time-frame. Our process improves greatly upon the previous work in this field and displays strong potential to achieve a streamlined classification process for a wide range of applications.

  9. Quantification of CT images for the classification of high- and low-risk pancreatic cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Lior; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Attiyeh, Marc; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Allen, Peter J.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 7%1 due to the late stage at diagnosis and the ineffectiveness of current therapeutic strategies. Given the poor prognosis, early detection at a pre-cancerous stage is the best tool for preventing this disease. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), cystic tumors of the pancreas, represent the only radiographically identifiable precursor lesion of pancreatic cancer and are known to evolve stepwise from low-to-high-grade dysplasia before progressing into an invasive carcinoma. Observation is usually recommended for low-risk (low- and intermediate-grade dysplasia) patients, while high-risk (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma) patients undergo resection; hence, patient selection is critically important in the management of pancreatic cysts.2 Radiologists use standard criteria such as main pancreatic duct size, cyst size, or presence of a solid enhancing component in the cyst to optimally select patients for surgery.3 However, these findings are subject to a radiologist's interpretation and have been shown to be inconsistent with regards to the presence of a mural nodule or solid component.4 We propose objective classification of risk groups based on quantitative imaging features extracted from CT scans. We apply new features that represent the solid component (i.e. areas of high intensity) within the cyst and extract standard texture features. An adaptive boost classifier5 achieves the best performance with area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.73 and accuracy of 77.3% for texture features. The random forest classifier achieves the best performance with AUC of 0.71 and accuracy of 70.8% with the solid component features.

  10. Evaluation and Classification of Syntax Usage in Determining Short-Text Semantic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Batanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines and categorizes ways of using syntactic information in a number of algorithms for determining the semantic similarity of short texts. We consider the use of word order information, part-of-speech tagging, parsing and semantic role labeling. We analyze and evaluate the effects of syntax usage on algorithm performance by utilizing the results of a paraphrase detection test on the Microsoft Research Paraphrase Corpus. We also propose a new classification of algorithms based on their applicability to languages with scarce natural language processing tools.

  11. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  12. A comparative performance evaluation of neural network based approach for sentiment classification of online reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Vinodhini, G.; Chandrasekaran, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of sentiment classification is to efficiently identify the emotions expressed in the form of text messages. Machine learning methods for sentiment classification have been extensively studied, due to their predominant classification performance. Recent studies suggest that ensemble based machine learning methods provide better performance in classification. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are rarely being investigated in the literature of sentiment classification. This paper compare...

  13. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  14. Performance analysis of wavelet transforms and morphological operator-based classification of epilepsy risk levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, Rajaguru; Vijayakumar, Thangavel

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of singular value decomposition (SVD), expectation maximization (EM), and modified expectation maximization (MEM) as the postclassifiers for classifications of the epilepsy risk levels obtained from extracted features through wavelet transforms and morphological filters from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The code converter acts as a level one classifier. The seven features such as energy, variance, positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, average duration, and covariance are extracted from EEG signals. Out of which four parameters like positive and negative peaksand spike and sharp waves, events and average duration are extracted using Haar, dB2, dB4, and Sym 8 wavelet transforms with hard and soft thresholding methods. The above said four features are also extracted through morphological filters. Then, the performance of the code converter and classifiers are compared based on the parameters such as performance index (PI) and quality value (QV).The performance index and quality value of code converters are at low value of 33.26% and 12.74, respectively. The highest PI of 98.03% and QV of 23.82 are attained at dB2 wavelet with hard thresholding method for SVD classifier. All the postclassifiers are settled at PI value of more than 90% at QV of 20.

  15. Tumor initiation and progression in hepatocellular carcinoma: risk factors, classification, and therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Tamara; van Malenstein, Hannah; Verslype, Chris; van Pelt, Jos F

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide responsible for 500 000 deaths annually. A number of risk factors are associated with either the induction of the disease or its progression; these include infection with hepatitis B or C virus, alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and certain congenital disorders. In around 80% of the cases, HCC is associated with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis and with inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review we focus firstly on the different risk factors for HCC and summarize the mechanisms by which each is considered to contribute to HCC. In the second part we look at the molecular processes involved in cancer progression. HCC development is recognized as a multistep process that normally develops over many years. Over this period several mutations accumulate in the cell and that stimulate malign transformation, growth, and metastatic behavior. Over the recent years it has become evident that not only the tumor cell itself but also the tumor microenviroment plays a major role in the development of a tumor. There is a direct link between the role of inflammation and cirrhosis with this microenviroment. Both in vitro and in vivo it has been shown that tumor formation and metastatic properties are linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process by which facillitates the tumor cell's attempts to migrate to a more favourable microenviroment. Several groups have analyzed the gene expression in HCC and its surrounding tissue by microarray and this has resulted in the molecular classification into a distinct number of classes. Here we also found a role for hypoxia induced gene expression leading to a clinically more aggressive gene expression in HCC. Molecular analysis also helped to identify important cellular pathways and possible therapeutic targets. The first molecule that in this way has shown clinical application for liver cancer is the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, others

  16. Blue Light Hazard and Risk Group Classification of 8 W LED Tubes, Replacing Fluorescent Tubes, through Optical Radiation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Leccese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss the results of a measurement survey of artificial optical radiation emitted by 8 W LED tubes suitable for the substitution of 18 W fluorescent lamps used for general lighting. For both types of lamps, three different color temperatures were chosen, 3000 K, 4000 K, and 6000 K. These measurements were performed to evaluate the photobiological safety of the sources. The radiance and irradiance values have been measured in a wide range of wavelengths (180–3000 nm. The measurement results obtained for the LED tubes have been compared to those of similar measurements obtained for fluorescent lamps. The analysis has been focused on the range of wavelengths 300–700 nm, the blue light range, which turned out to be defining for the risk groups of the lamps. This classification is a function of the maximum permissible exposure time as indicated in the European Standard EN 62471 on the photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems.

  17. Critical evaluation of the PALM-COEIN classification system among women with abnormal uterine bleeding in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubham, Divya; Kawthalkar, Anjali S

    2017-11-15

    To assess the feasibility of the PALM-COEIN system for the classification of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in low-resource settings and to suggest modifications. A prospective study was conducted among women with AUB who were admitted to the gynecology ward of a tertiary care hospital and research center in central India between November 2014 and October 2016. All patients were managed as per department protocols. The causes of AUB were classified before treatment using the PALM-COEIN system (classification I) and on the basis of the histopathology reports of the hysterectomy specimens (classification II); the results were compared using classification II as the gold standard. The study included 200 women with AUB; hysterectomy was performed in 174 women. Preoperative classification of AUB per the PALM-COEIN system was correct in 130 (65.0%) women. Adenomyosis (evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography) and endometrial hyperplasia (evaluated by endometrial curettage) were underdiagnosed. The PALM-COEIN classification system helps in deciding the best treatment modality for women with AUB on a case-by-case basis. The incorporation of suggested modifications will further strengthen its utility as a pretreatment classification system in low-resource settings. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  18. Carcinogenic risk of emerging persistent organic pollutant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS): A proposal of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Cortes, Ricardo; Farias, Paulina; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Kleiche-Dray, Mina

    2017-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyls are stable synthetic chemicals, able to repel oils, fats and water. These compounds have been used in the manufacturing of products such as Teflon®, lubricants, paints, fire-fighting foams, coatings for pans, carpets, clothes, and paperboard for packaging, among others. It is believed that populations are exposed constantly to them. Its regulation in the world is under development and several controversies are in the course of litigation. One occupational study shows bladder cancer risk. This paper intends to review scientific information on the most critical perfluoroalkyl compound and proposes a procedure to get a cancer-risk categorization which PFOS can cause to populations. As a guiding axis, we used the IARC process for developing monographs of carcinogenic risks. We used the SIGN guides for evaluating the quality of studies in human populations; and finally, we used the Squire method for evaluating studies in laboratory animals. Inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity was found in human studies mainly due to chance, threshold effect and confounders. In experimental animal studies, inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity was found in view of the number of affected species, different types of neoplasms, dose-response relationship and genotoxicity found in in-vivo and in-vitro studies. In this proposal, we concluded that cancer risk for PFOS, according to the IARC method, is not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans (group 3). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Gasbuggy Site Assessment and Risk Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-03-01

    The Gasbuggy site is in northern New Mexico in the San Juan Basin, Rio Arriba County (Figure 1-1). The Gasbuggy experiment was designed to evaluate the use of a nuclear detonation to enhance natural gas production from the Pictured Cliffs Formation, a tight, gas-bearing sandstone formation. The 29-kiloton-yield nuclear device was placed in a 17.5-inch wellbore at 4,240 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), approximately 40 ft below the Pictured Cliffs/Lewis shale contact, in an attempt to force the cavity/chimney formed by the detonation up into the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The test was conducted below the southwest quarter of Section 36, Township 29 North, Range 4 West, New Mexico Principal Meridian. The device was detonated on December 10, 1967, creating a 335-ft-high chimney above the detonation point and a cavity 160 ft in diameter. The gas produced from GB-ER (the emplacement and reentry well) during the post-detonation production tests was radioactive and diluted, primarily by carbon dioxide. After 2 years, the energy content of the gas had recovered to 80 percent of the value of gas in conventionally developed wells in the area. There is currently no technology capable of remediating deep underground nuclear detonation cavities and chimneys. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must continue to manage the Gasbuggy site to ensure that no inadvertent intrusion into the residual contamination occurs. DOE has complete control over the 1/4 section (160 acres) containing the shot cavity, and no drilling is permitted on that property. However, oil and gas leases are on the surrounding land. Therefore, the most likely route of intrusion and potential exposure would be through contaminated natural gas or contaminated water migrating into a producing natural gas well outside the immediate vicinity of ground zero. The purpose of this report is to describe the current site conditions and evaluate the potential health risks posed by the most plausible

  20. Correlation between classification in risk categories and clinical aspects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriella Novelli; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2016-12-08

    to correlate classification in risk categories with the clinical profiles, outcomes and origins of patients. analytical cross-sectional study conducted with 697 medical forms of adult patients. The variables included: age, sex, origin, signs and symptoms, exams, personal antecedents, classification in risk categories, medical specialties, and outcome. The Chi-square and likelihood ratio tests were used to associate classifications in risk categories with origin, signs and symptoms, exams, personal antecedents, medical specialty, and outcome. most patients were women with an average age of 44.5 years. Pain and dyspnea were the symptoms most frequently reported while hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most common comorbidities. Classifications in the green and yellow categories were the most frequent and hospital discharge the most common outcome. Patients classified in the red category presented the highest percentage of ambulance origin due to surgical reasons. Those classified in the orange and red categories also presented the highest percentage of hospitalization and death. correlation between clinical aspects and outcomes indicate there is a relationship between the complexity of components in the categories with greater severity, evidenced by the highest percentage of hospitalization and death. correlacionar as categorias de classificação de risco com perfil clínico, desfechos e procedência. estudo transversal analítico realizado com 697 fichas de atendimento de pacientes adultos. Variáveis estudadas: idade, sexo, procedência, sinais e sintomas, exames, antecedentes pessoais, categorias da classificação de risco, especialidade médica de atendimento e desfecho. Para associar as categorias de classificação de risco com procedência, sinais e sintomas, exames, antecedentes pessoais, especialidade médica e desfecho, utilizaram-se o teste qui-quadrado e a razão de verossimilhança. pacientes do sexo feminino foram a maioria e com média de

  1. Reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling identifies a biomarker signature for risk classification of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Sonntag

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust subclassification of luminal breast cancer, the most common molecular subtype of human breast cancer, is crucial for therapy decisions. While a part of patients is at higher risk of recurrence and requires chemo-endocrine treatment, the other part is at lower risk and also poorly responds to chemotherapeutic regimens. To approximate the risk of cancer recurrence, clinical guidelines recommend determining histologic grading and abundance of a cell proliferation marker in tumor specimens. However, this approach assigns an intermediate risk to a substantial number of patients and in addition suffers from a high interobserver variability. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify a quantitative protein biomarker signature to facilitate risk classification. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA were used to obtain quantitative expression data for 128 breast cancer relevant proteins in a set of hormone receptor-positive tumors (n = 109. Proteomic data for the subset of histologic G1 (n = 14 and G3 (n = 22 samples were used for biomarker discovery serving as surrogates of low and high recurrence risk, respectively. A novel biomarker selection workflow based on combining three different classification methods identified caveolin-1, NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 as top candidates. NDKA, RPS6, and Ki-67 were expressed at elevated levels in high risk tumors whereas caveolin-1 was observed as downregulated. The identified biomarker signature was subsequently analyzed using an independent test set (AUC = 0.78. Further evaluation of the identified biomarker panel by Western blot and mRNA profiling confirmed the proteomic signature obtained by RPPA. In conclusion, the biomarker signature introduced supports RPPA as a tool for cancer biomarker discovery.

  2. Prenatal screening with evaluated high risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiernik, E; Grangé, G

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews data that support the effectiveness of the French approach of using risk scoring for evaluating the risk of preterm delivery. This approach, which was developed in 1969 and spread to obstetricians and midwives throughout France in the early 1970s, includes systematic information about the recognition of uterine contractions, advice about reduction of physical exercise, and the prescription of work-leave for women with heavy or physically demanding work loads. The effectiveness of this prevention strategy is assessed using three different data sets: an evaluation of a preterm prevention program in the Alsace Region of France, five successive French national sample surveys which collected data on pregnant women, and a study of the effectiveness of a prevention program for twins in the district of Haut de Seine near Paris. The authors show that the rate of preterm birth in France declined substantially, but that the decline was concentrated among singleton spontaneous births. Since the 1970s induced preterm births have increased, and, interventions have not reduced the high rates of preterm birth among twins.

  3. Potential Evaluation of Different Types of Images and Their Combination for the Classification of GIS Objects Cropland and Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, J. A.; Helmholz, P.; Müller, S.

    2011-09-01

    In many publications the performance of different classification algorithms regarding to agricultural classes is evaluated. In contrast, this paper focuses on the potential of different imagery for the classification of the two most frequent classes: cropland and grassland. For our experiments three categories of imagery, high resolution aerial images, high resolution RapidEye satellite images and medium resolution Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) satellite images are examined. An object-based image classification, as one of the most reliable methods for the automatic updating and evaluation of landuse geospatial databases, is chosen. The object boundaries are taken from a GIS database, each object is described by means of a set of image based features. Spectral, textural and structural (semivariogram derived) features are extracted from images of different dates and sensors. During classification a supervised decision trees generating algorithm is applied. To evaluate the potential of the different images, all possible combinations of the available image data are tested during classification. The results show that the best performance of landuse classification is based on RapidEye data (overall accuracy of 90%), obtaining slightly accuracy increases when this imagery is combined with additional image data (overall accuracy of 92%).

  4. POTENTIAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMAGES AND THEIR COMBINATION FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF GIS OBJECTS CROPLAND AND GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Recio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In many publications the performance of different classification algorithms regarding to agricultural classes is evaluated. In contrast, this paper focuses on the potential of different imagery for the classification of the two most frequent classes: cropland and grassland. For our experiments three categories of imagery, high resolution aerial images, high resolution RapidEye satellite images and medium resolution Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC satellite images are examined. An object-based image classification, as one of the most reliable methods for the automatic updating and evaluation of landuse geospatial databases, is chosen. The object boundaries are taken from a GIS database, each object is described by means of a set of image based features. Spectral, textural and structural (semivariogram derived features are extracted from images of different dates and sensors. During classification a supervised decision trees generating algorithm is applied. To evaluate the potential of the different images, all possible combinations of the available image data are tested during classification. The results show that the best performance of landuse classification is based on RapidEye data (overall accuracy of 90%, obtaining slightly accuracy increases when this imagery is combined with additional image data (overall accuracy of 92%.

  5. Histomorphological classification of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A critical evaluation of clinical, histologic and morphometric features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS has recently been divided into five subtypes by the Columbia classification. However, little is known about the incidence of these subtypes in the Indian population. In addition, there are very few studies evaluating the clinico-pathologic features with morphometric parameters in these subtypes. This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical, histopathological and morphometric parameters in various subtypes of FSGS at our referral center. Sixty-five (65 cases of idiopathic FSGS, diagnosed over two years (2006-2007, were included in the study. Detailed clinical and biochemical investigations were noted. Histological sections were reviewed and cases classified according to the Columbia classification and various glomerular and tubulo-interstitial features were noted. Glomerular morphometry on digitized images was performed using image analysis software. Renal biopsies with minimal change disease were used as controls for morphometric evaluation. In this study, FSGS not otherwise specified (NOS was the most common subtype (44.6%, followed by perihilar FSGS (24.6%, collapsing (13.8%, tip (12.3% and cellular FSGS (4.6%. Collapsing subtype showed significantly shorter duration of symptoms and higher degree of proteinuria, mean serum urea and creatinine compared with the other subtypes. On histologic analysis, features like glomerular hyalinosis, capsular adhesion, mesangial proliferation and visceral epithelial cell prominence (VEP were frequently seen. The cases with VEP had a shorter duration of symptoms and a higher mean serum creatinine and 24-h urine protein excretion compared with those without VEP. The morphometric study revealed a significant higher mean glomerular area in the NOS, perihilar and collapsing variants as compared with the control biopsies. The present study highlights the differences in the prevalence in the FSGS subtypes in our population compared with the western data. Also, the

  6. Modelo de clasificación del riesgo en intersecciones rurales en T y validación del tiempo de evasión como medición alternativa de la seguridad de tránsito en intersecciones Risk classification model in rural T-form intersections and time to evasion evaluation as surrogate safety measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Torres Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En los cruces o intersecciones, los conductores afrontan una multitud de opciones relacionadas con el camino, velocidad, y trayectoria que, en combinación con numerosos movimientos del tránsito, complican la tarea del conductor y aumentan considerablemente la potencial ocurrencia de un accidente. En este artículo se utilizan datos de conflictos de tránsito, tomados en cruces de la Provincia de Talagante en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile. Usando la metodología de componentes principales, se propone un índice que represente el nivel de riesgo de cada conflicto de tránsito en una intersección, determinándose que los valores más altos del índice están relacionados a un mayor riesgo de que un conflicto termine en accidente, mientras que valores bajos indican un menor riesgo. Posteriormente, se desarrolla un modelo de clasificación del riesgo en intersecciones, aplicando la teoría de árboles de decisión. Por último, se valida el Tiempo de Evasión (TE como variable cuantificadora de la severidad de los conflictos de tránsito, tomando como base variables ya estudiadas a nivel mundial, como el Tiempo hasta la Colisión (TC y el Tiempo de Post-invasión (TPI.In the intersections, the drivers confront many options related to the way, speed and trajectory, which ones in combination to many options of traffic movements, they make difficult the task of the conductor and considerably increase the potential occurrence of an accident. In this paper, data of traffic conflicts are used, taken in rural T-form intersections from Talagante district in the Metropolitana region, Chile. Using the principal component analysis, an index are proposed that represents the risk level of each traffic conflict in an intersection, determining that the highest values of the index are related to a greater risk of than a traffic conflict it finished in accident, whereas low values indicate a smaller risk. After that, a model of classification of the

  7. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiyu; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Lin, Yanzhao; Zhang, Ce; Wright, Jim A.

    2016-01-01

    Following the recent expiry of the United Nations’ 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census’s ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring. PMID:26986472

  8. Evaluation of potential emission spectra for the reliable classification of fluorescently coded materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Siegfried; Kargel, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The conservation and efficient use of natural and especially strategic resources like oil and water have become global issues, which increasingly initiate environmental and political activities for comprehensive recycling programs. To effectively reutilize oil-based materials necessary in many industrial fields (e.g. chemical and pharmaceutical industry, automotive, packaging), appropriate methods for a fast and highly reliable automated material identification are required. One non-contacting, color- and shape-independent new technique that eliminates the shortcomings of existing methods is to label materials like plastics with certain combinations of fluorescent markers ("optical codes", "optical fingerprints") incorporated during manufacture. Since time-resolved measurements are complex (and expensive), fluorescent markers must be designed that possess unique spectral signatures. The number of identifiable materials increases with the number of fluorescent markers that can be reliably distinguished within the limited wavelength band available. In this article we shall investigate the reliable detection and classification of fluorescent markers with specific fluorescence emission spectra. These simulated spectra are modeled based on realistic fluorescence spectra acquired from material samples using a modern VNIR spectral imaging system. In order to maximize the number of materials that can be reliably identified, we evaluate the performance of 8 classification algorithms based on different spectral similarity measures. The results help guide the design of appropriate fluorescent markers, optical sensors and the overall measurement system.

  9. A Global Perspective on Drinking-Water and Sanitation Classification: An Evaluation of Census Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Yu

    Full Text Available Following the recent expiry of the United Nations' 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, new international development agenda covering 2030 water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH targets have been proposed, which imply new demands on data sources for monitoring relevant progress. This study evaluates drinking-water and sanitation classification systems from national census questionnaire content, based upon the most recent international policy changes, to examine national population census's ability to capture drinking-water and sanitation availability, safety, accessibility, and sustainability. In total, 247 censuses from 83 low income and lower-middle income countries were assessed using a scoring system, intended to assess harmonised water supply and sanitation classification systems for each census relative to the typology needed to monitor the proposed post-2015 indicators of WASH targets. The results signal a lack of international harmonisation and standardisation in census categorisation systems, especially concerning safety, accessibility, and sustainability of services in current census content. This suggests further refinements and harmonisation of future census content may be necessary to reflect ambitions for post-2015 monitoring.

  10. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    A surveillance program in which all cattle herds in Denmark are classified into Salmonella infection categories has been in place since 2002. Dairy herds were considered test negative and thus most likely free of infection if Salmonella antibody measurements were consistently low in bulk tank milk...... samples collected every 3 mo. Herds were considered test positive and thus most likely infected if the 4-quarter moving average bulk tank milk antibody concentration was high or if there was a large increase in the most recent measurement compared with the average value from the previous 3 samples....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  11. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-coded obesity predicts risk of incident osteoporotic fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuman Yang

    Full Text Available International Classification of Diseases (ICD codes have been used to ascertain individuals who are obese. There has been limited research about the predictive value of ICD-coded obesity for major chronic conditions at the population level. We tested the utility of ICD-coded obesity versus measured obesity for predicting incident major osteoporotic fracture (MOF, after adjusting for covariates (i.e., age and sex. In this historical cohort study (2001-2015, we selected 61,854 individuals aged 50 years and older from the Manitoba Bone Mineral Density Database, Canada. Body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 was used to define measured obesity. Hospital and physician ICD codes were used to ascertain ICD-coded obesity and incident MOF. Average cohort age was 66.3 years and 90.3% were female. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for ICD-coded obesity using measured obesity as the reference were 0.11 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10, 0.11, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99, 0.99 and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.81, respectively. ICD-coded obesity (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.99 and measured obesity (adjusted HR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88 were associated with decreased MOF risk. Although the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC estimates for incident MOF were not significantly different for ICD-coded obesity versus measured obesity (0.648 for ICD-coded obesity versus 0.650 for measured obesity; P = 0.056 for AUROC difference, the category-free net reclassification index for ICD-coded obesity versus measured obesity was -0.08 (95% CI: -0.11, -0.06 for predicting incident MOF. ICD-coded obesity predicted incident MOF, though it had low sensitivity and reclassified MOF risk slightly less well than measured obesity.

  12. Evaluating Process Effectiveness to Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2017-01-01

    security; loss of confidence in government; failure of publicly funded projects; damage to the environment; ethics violations, and the list goes on; with local, national and even international consequences. The Plan-Do-Check-Act process, also known as the "process approach" can be used at any time to establish and standardize a process, and it can also be used to check periodically for "process creep" (i.e., informal, unauthorized changes that have occurred over time), any necessary updates and improvements. While ISO 9001 compliance is not mandated for all government agencies, if interpreted correctly, it can be useful in establishing a framework and implementing effective management systems and processes.4 Another method that can be used to evaluate effectiveness is the scorecard definitions in Mallory's Process Management Standard5 as a basis for evaluating work on the process level on effective, and continuously improved and improving processes. With processes on the lower end of the scale, agencies are vulnerable to a great many risks, with employees and managers making up many of the rules as they go, leading to the above listed negative results. Without clear guidance for nominal operations, off-nominal situations can, and do, increase the likelihood of chaos. In an increasingly technical environment, with inter-agency communication and collaboration becoming the norm, agencies need to come to grips with the fact that processes can become rapidly outdated, and that the technical community should take on an increased role in the maturation of the agency's processes. Industry has long known that effective processes are also efficient, and process improvement methods such as Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma, 5S, and mistake proofing lead to increased productivity, improved quality, and decreased cost. Again, government agencies have different concerns, but inefficiencies and mistakes can have dire and wide reaching consequences for the public that they serve. While no one goes

  13. MR 201104: Evaluation of Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results and MR 201157: Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results) and ESTCP MR-201157 (Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis ... Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results) and ESTCP MR-201157 (Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis ). All...MR-201104 and MR-201157) MR-201104: Evaluation of Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results MR-201157: Demonstration of MetalMapper

  14. The evaluation of alternate methodologies for land cover classification in an urbanizing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekofski, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of LANDSAT in classifying land cover and in identifying and classifying land use change was investigated using an urbanizing area as the study area. The question of what was the best technique for classification was the primary focus of the study. The many computer-assisted techniques available to analyze LANDSAT data were evaluated. Techniques of statistical training (polygons from CRT, unsupervised clustering, polygons from digitizer and binary masks) were tested with minimum distance to the mean, maximum likelihood and canonical analysis with minimum distance to the mean classifiers. The twelve output images were compared to photointerpreted samples, ground verified samples and a current land use data base. Results indicate that for a reconnaissance inventory, the unsupervised training with canonical analysis-minimum distance classifier is the most efficient. If more detailed ground truth and ground verification is available, the polygons from the digitizer training with the canonical analysis minimum distance is more accurate.

  15. BP network for atorvastatin effect evaluation from ultrasound images features classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mengjie; Yang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongwei; Liang, Huageng; Wang, Yujie; Ding, Mingyue

    2013-10-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions at the carotid artery are a major cause of emboli or atheromatous debris, resulting in approximately 88% of ischemic strokes in the USA in 2006. Stroke is becoming the most common cause of death worldwide, although patient management and prevention strategies have reduced stroke rate considerably over the past decades. Many research studies have been carried out on how to quantitatively evaluate local arterial effects for potential carotid disease treatments. As an inexpensive, convenient and fast means of detection, ultrasonic medical testing has been widespread in the world, so it is very practical to use ultrasound technology in the prevention and treatment of carotid atherosclerosis. This paper is dedicated to this field. Currently, many ultrasound image characteristics on carotid plaque have been proposed. After screening a large number of features (including 26 morphological and 85 texture features), we have got six shape characteristics and six texture characteristics in the combination. In order to test the validity and accuracy of these combined features, we have established a Back-Propagation (BP) neural network to classify atherosclerosis plaques between atorvastatin group and placebo group. The leave-one-case-out protocol was utilized on a database of 768 carotid ultrasound images of 12 patients (5 subjects of placebo group and 7 subjects of atorvastatin group) for the evaluation. The classification results showed that the combined features and classification have good recognition ability, with the overall accuracy 83.93%, sensitivity 82.14%, specificity 85.20%, positive predictive value 79.86%, negative predictive value 86.98%, Matthew's correlation coefficient 67.08%, and Youden's index 67.34%. And the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in our test also performed well.

  16. A Comparison of Two Methods for MRI Classification of At-Risk Tissue and Core Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eLeigh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare how at-risk tissue and core infarction were defined in two major trials that tested the use of MRI in selecting acute stroke patients for endovascular recanalization therapy.Methods: MRIs from 12 patients evaluated for possible endovascular therapy were processed using the methods published from two major trials, MR RESCUE and DEFUSE 2. Specifically, volumes of at-risk tissue and core infarction were generated from each patient’s MRI. MRIs were then classified as to whether or not they met criteria for salvageable tissue: penumbral pattern for MR RESCUE and/or target profile for DEFUSE 2 as defined by each trial.Results: Volumes of at-risk tissue by the two definitions were correlated (p=0.017 while the volumes of core infarct were not (p=0.059. The volume of at-risk tissue was consistently larger when defined by the penumbral pattern than the target profile while the volume of core infarct was consistently larger when defined by the target profile than the penumbral pattern. When these volumes were used to classify the MRI scans, nine out of 12 patients (75% were classified as having a penumbral pattern, while only 4 out of 12 patients (33% were classified as having a target profile. Of the 9 patients classified as penumbral pattern, 5 (55% were classified differently by the target profile.Interpretation: Our analysis found that the MR RESCUE trial defined salvageable tissue in a way which made it more likely for patients be labeled as favorable for treatment. For the cohort of patients examined in this study, had they been enrolled in both trials, most of the patients identified as having salvageable tissue by the MR RESCUE trial would not have been considered to have salvageable tissue in the DEFUSE 2 trial. Caution should be taken in concluding that MRI selection for endovascular therapy is not effective as imaging selection criteria were substantially different between trials.

  17. Evaluation of Llaima volcano activities for localization and classification of LP, VT and TR events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Firoozabadi, Ali; Seguel, Fabian; Soto, Ismael; Guevara, David; Huenupan, Fernando; Curilem, Millaray; Franco, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of seismic signals is one of the most important research topics on Volcanology. Volcanoes have daily activity; therefore, high speed evaluation of recorded signals is a challenge for improving the study of the natural phenomena occurring inside these natural formations. The aim of this paper is the evaluation (denoising, localization and classification) and analysis of Llaima volcano activities, one of the most actives volcanoes in South America. Different already proposed methods, such as, Butterworth, Spectral Subtraction (SS) and Wiener Filter (WF) are compared to the proposed Modified Spectral Subtraction (MSS) and Modified Wiener Filter (MWF) to find the best method for denoising the volcano signals. Then, event localization based on received signals of volcano is performed. In this step, Time Delay Estimation (TDE)-based method is used on data acquired from 3 mechanical sensors located in the volcano area. The proposed method is used to estimate the area for event location. The proposed denoising methods make the starting point for the event more evident to increase the localization accuracy for events where the starting point is difficult to find. In the last step, a method based on the novel DNN technique is proposed to classify the three main events occurring in the Llaima volcano (TR (Tremor), LP (Long Period) and VT (Volcano Tectonic)).

  18. Hydrologic landscape classification evaluates streamflow vulnerability to climate change in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, S. G.; Comeleo, R. L.; Wigington, P. J., Jr.; Weaver, C. P.; Morefield, P. E.; Sproles, E. A.; Ebersole, J. L.

    2014-09-01

    Classification can allow for evaluations of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and their responses to stressors. Here we demonstrate the use of a hydrologic landscape (HL) approach to evaluate vulnerability to potential future climate change at statewide and basin scales in the state of Oregon. The HL classification has five components: climate, seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. We evaluate changes when the 1971-2000 HL climate indices are recalculated using 2041-2070 simulation results from the ECHAM (European Centre HAMburg) and PCM (Parallel Climate Model) climate models with the A2, A1b, and B1 emission scenarios. Changes in climate class were modest (4-18%) statewide. However, there were major changes in seasonality class for five of the six realizations (excluding PCM_B1): Oregon shifts from being 13% snow-dominated to 4-6% snow-dominated under these five realizations, representing a 56-68% reduction in snowmelt-dominated area. At the basin scale, simulated changes for the Siletz Basin, in Oregon's Coast Range, include a small switch from very wet to wet climate, with no change in seasonality. However, there is a modest increase in fall and winter water due to increased precipitation. For the Sandy Basin, on the western slope of the Cascades, HL climate class does not change, but there are major changes in seasonality, especially for areas with low aquifer permeability, which experiences a 100% loss of spring seasonality. This would reduce summer baseflow, but effects could potentially be mitigated by streamflow buffering effects provided by groundwater in the high aquifer permeability portions of the upper Sandy. The Middle Fork John Day Basin (MFJD), in northeastern Oregon, is snowmelt-dominated. The basin experiences a net loss of wet and moist climate area, along with an increase in dry climate area. The MFJD also experiences major shifts from spring to winter seasonality, representing a 20-60% reduction in snowmelt

  19. Cleft lip and palate review: Epidemiology, risk factors, quality of life, and importance of classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureen Supit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most occurring craniofacial anomaly in human, resulting from a complex etiology involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. The defect carries lifelong morbidity and economic burden. Children with clefts will require continuous medical interventions for at least the first 18 years of life, affecting many aspects of their lives. The extent and complexity of clefts vary infinitely, later determining individual management and outcome. Identification and classification play significant roles in initial assessment of these unique cleft cases, which affect options for following correctional attempts. Some classifications even allow measurement of progress after anatomical repositioning, and success rate after surgical repairs. The challenge of developing one such widely inclusive classification is discussed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 226-39Keywords: Cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital anomaly, cleft  classfications

  20. An electrophysiological approach to the evaluation of regional sympathetic dysfunction: a proposed classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, David R

    2006-01-01

    The importance to physicians of maintaining a level of understanding of illnesses and their treatment continues to reveal itself in a most striking fashion when it comes to the progressive interest recently directed to disorders of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In particular, the relevance to pain practitioners of disease states which directly involve the sympathetic portion of the ANS has increased markedly following the international renaming of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type I and Type II respectively, as well as sympathetically maintained pain (SMP). Subsequently it has become better understood that many other forms of neuropathic pain also demonstrate local abnormalities of the sympathetic nervous supply to the skin within the painful territory, thereby increasing the diagnostic value of these (often subtle) cutaneous clinical signs. The objectives of this presentation include (a) a concise review of laboratory tests that are currently used in the evaluation of the autonomic nervous system, (b) a discussion of those procedures that were developed for the assessment of sympathetic sudomotor function, (c) a review of the anatomic pathways subserving those electrophysiological methods for sudomotor testing, and (d) the current diagnostic classification for regional abnormalities of sympathetic sudomotor dysfunction. Methods used in the preparation of this article have included a review of (a) historic clinical and laboratory articles (or translations thereof) regarding the medical importance of disorders of the autonomic nervous system, dating back to more than 155 years ago (b) anatomic and electrophysiological basis for electroneurodiagnostic sudomotor testing, and (c) the author's proposal for a diagnostic classification of regional sympathetic sudomotor dysfunction.

  1. The context of medicines’ use in benefit-risk evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, M.J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822701

    2011-01-01

    In benefit-risk evaluations there is a trend towards a life cycle approach including continuous benefit-risk evaluation instead of a single benefit-risk assessment at a certain (fixed) point in time. The objective of this thesis is to unravel how the context in which a medicine is used adds to the

  2. Consumer Evaluations of Food Risk Management Quality in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Houghton, J.R.; Krystallis, A.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.; Dijk, van H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    In developing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to understand how consumers evaluate the quality of food risk management practices. The aim of this study is to model the underlying psychological factors influencing consumer evaluations of food risk

  3. The Evaluation of Ensemble Sentiment Classification Approach on Airline Services Using Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zechen

    2017-01-01

    In the field of sentiment classification, much research has been done on reviews of topics such as movies, software and books. Little research has been done in the airline service domain. In the airline industry, the use of social media as a customer service tool has become a growing phenomenon. The research conducted by Wan and Gao (2015) has proposed an ensemble classification approach for airline service sentiment classification using Twitter data. In accordance, the objective of improving...

  4. Risk evaluation methods at individual ship and company level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSafety management and risk profiling to identify substandard ships are of importance to the shipping industry. Whereas current methods rely heavily on detention risk and flag state performance, we extend the risk assessment by considering various risk dimensions and by evaluating a wide

  5. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  6. China?s community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples? preconception health status

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2016-01-01

    Published version. Source at http://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1930-4. License CC BY 4.0. Background: Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman’s health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s “National Preconception Health Care Project” (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples’ preconception health status. ...

  7. Heat wave hazard classification and risk assessment using artificial intelligence fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Maiheu, Bino; De Ridder, Koen; Daglis, Ioannis A; Manunta, Paolo; Paganini, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The average summer temperatures as well as the frequency and intensity of hot days and heat waves are expected to increase due to climate change. Motivated by this consequence, we propose a methodology to evaluate the monthly heat wave hazard and risk and its spatial distribution within large cities. A simple urban climate model with assimilated satellite-derived land surface temperature images was used to generate a historic database of urban air temperature fields. Heat wave hazard was then estimated from the analysis of these hourly air temperatures distributed at a 1-km grid over Athens, Greece, by identifying the areas that are more likely to suffer higher temperatures in the case of a heat wave event. Innovation lies in the artificial intelligence fuzzy logic model that was used to classify the heat waves from mild to extreme by taking into consideration their duration, intensity and time of occurrence. The monthly hazard was subsequently estimated as the cumulative effect from the individual heat waves that occurred at each grid cell during a month. Finally, monthly heat wave risk maps were produced integrating geospatial information on the population vulnerability to heat waves calculated from socio-economic variables.

  8. Classification by causes of dark circles and appropriate evaluation method of dark circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S R; Kim, H J; Park, H K; Kim, J Y; Kim, N S; Byun, K S; Moon, T K; Byun, J W; Moon, J H; Choi, G S

    2016-08-01

    Dark circles refer to a symptom that present darkness under the eyes. Because of improvement in the quality of life, the dark circles have been recognized as one of major cosmetic concerns. However, it is not easy to classify the dark circles because they have various causes. To select suitable instruments and detailed evaluation items, the dark circles were classified according to the causes through visual assessment, Wood's lamp test, and medical history survey for 100 subjects with dark circles. After the classification, were newly recruited for instrument conformity assessment. Through this, suitable instruments for dark circle evaluation were selected. We performed a randomized clinical trial for dark circles, a placebo-controlled double-blind study, using effective parameters of the instruments selected from the preliminary test. Dark circles of vascular type (35%) and mixed type (54%), a combination of pigmented and vascular types, were the most common. Twenty four subjects with the mixed type dark circles applied the test product (Vitamin C 3%, Vitamin A 0.1%, Vitamin E 0.5%) and placebo on randomized split-face for 8 weeks. The effective parameters (L*, a, M.I., E.I., quasi L*, quasi a* and dermal thickness) were measured during the study period. Result showed that the L* value of Chromameter(®) , Melanin index (M.I.) of Mexameter(®) and quasi L* value obtained by image analysis improved with statistical significance after applying the test product compared with the placebo product. We classified the dark circles according to the causes of the dark circles and verified the reliability of the parameter obtained by the instrument conformity assessment used in this study through the efficacy evaluation. Also based on this study, we were to suggest newly established methods which can be applied to the evaluation of efficacy of functional cosmetics for dark circles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dutch Risk Classification and FIGO 2000 for Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysbouts, Y.K.; Massuger, L.F.; Thomas, C.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Short, D.; Harvey, R.; Sebire, N.; Kaur, B.; Naveed, S.; Sweep, F.C.; Seckl, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Over the years, there has been a wide variety of classification systems in use worldwide to stratify patients between single-agent versus multi-agent chemotherapy, hindering comparison of international research results. The study presents a retrospective comparison of the International

  10. An independent interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility evaluation of the new AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Julio; Zamora, Tomas; Yurac, Ratko; Campos, Mauricio; Palma, Joaquin; Mobarec, Sebastian; Prada, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agreement study. To perform an independent interobserver and intraobserver agreement evaluation of the new AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. The new AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System was recently published. It showed substantial reliability and reproducibility among the surgeons who developed it; however, an independent evaluation has not been performed. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, and computed tomographic scans of 70 patients with acute traumatic thoracolumbar injuries were selected and classified using the morphological grading of the new AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System by 6 evaluators (3 spine surgeons and 3 orthopedic surgery residents). After a 6-week interval, the 70 cases were presented in a random sequence to the same evaluators for repeat evaluation. The Kappa coefficient (κ) was used to determine the interobserver and intraobserver agreement. The interobserver reliability was substantial when considering the fracture type (A, B, or C), with a κ= 0.62 (0.57-0.66). The interobserver agreement when considering the subtypes was moderate; κ= 0.55 (0.52-0.57). The intraobserver reproducibility was also substantial, with 85.95% full intraobserver reproducibility considering the fracture type, with κ= 0.77 (0.72-0.83), and was also substantial when considering subtypes with 75.71% full agreement and κ= 0.71 (0.67-0.76). No significant differences were observed between spine surgeons and orthopedic residents in the overall interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility, or in the inter- and intraobserver agreement of specific A, B, or C types of injuries. This classification allows adequate agreement among different observers and by the same observer on separate occasions. Future prospective studies should evaluate whether this classification improves clinical decision making.

  11. Evaluating the performance and mapping of three fuel classification systems using Forest Inventory and Analysis surface fuel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Jason M. Herynk; Chris Toney; Shawn P. Urbanski; Duncan C. Lutes; Roger D. Ottmar

    2013-01-01

    Fuel Loading Models (FLMs) and Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCSs) fuelbeds are used throughout wildland fire science and management to simplify fuel inputs into fire behavior and effects models, but they have yet to be thoroughly evaluated with field data. In this study, we used a large dataset of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) surface fuel...

  12. Classification of dual language audio-visual content: Introduction to the VideoCLEF 2008 pilot benchmark evaluation task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M.; Newman, E.; Jones, G.J.F.; Köhler, J.; Larson, M.; de Jong, F.M.G.; Kraaij, W.; Ordelman, R.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    VideoCLEF is a new track for the CLEF 2008 campaign. This track aims to develop and evaluate tasks in analyzing multilingual video content. A pilot of a Vid2RSS task involving assigning thematic class labels to video kicks off the VideoCLEF track in 2008. Task participants deliver classification

  13. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  14. A three-gene expression-based risk score can refine the European LeukemiaNet AML classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilop, Stefan; Chou, Wen-Chien; Jost, Edgar; Crysandt, Martina; Panse, Jens; Chuang, Ming-Kai; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Wagner, Wolfgang; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Kharabi Masouleh, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    Risk stratification based on cytogenetics of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains imprecise. The introduction of novel genetic and epigenetic markers has helped to close this gap and increased the specificity of risk stratification, although most studies have been conducted in specific AML subpopulations. In order to overcome this limitation, we used a genome-wide approach in multiple AML populations to develop a robust prediction model for AML survival. We conducted a genome-wide expression analysis of two data sets from AML patients enrolled into the AMLCG-1999 trial and from the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to develop a prognostic score to refine current risk classification and performed a validation on two data sets of the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) and an independent AMLCG cohort. In our training set, using a stringent multi-step approach, we identified a small three-gene prognostic scoring system, named Tri-AML score (TriAS) which highly correlated with overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis revealed TriAS to be an independent prognostic factor in all tested training and additional validation sets, even including age, current cytogenetic-based risk stratification, and three other recently developed expression-based scoring models for AML. The Tri-AML score allows robust and clinically practical risk stratification for the outcome of AML patients. TriAS substantially refined current ELN risk stratification assigning 44.5 % of the patients into a different risk category.

  15. Classification tree analysis of race-specific subgroups at risk for a central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Ekezue, Bola F; Tsulukidze, Maka; Honoré, Peggy; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Fisher, John

    2014-03-01

    Studies of racial disparities in patient safety events often do not use race-specific risk adjustment and do not account for reciprocal covariate interactions. These limitations were addressed by using classification tree analysis separately for black patients and white patients to identify characteristics that segment patients who have increased risks for a venous catheter-related bloodstream infection. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 5,236,045 discharges from 103 Florida acute hospitals in 2005-2009 was conducted. Hospitals were rank ordered on the basis of the black/white Patient Safety Indicator (PSI) 7 rate ratio as follows: Group 1 (white rate higher), Group 2, (equivalent rates), Group 3, (black rate higher), and Group 4, (black rate highest). Predictor variables included 26 comorbidities (Elixhauser Comorbidity Index) and demographic characteristics. Four separate classification tree analyses were completed for each race/hospital group. Individual characteristics and groups of characteristics associated with increased PSI 7 risk differed for black and white patients. The average age for both races was different across the hospital groups (p < .01). Weight loss was the strongest single delineator and common to both races. The black subgroups with the highest PSI 7 risk were Medicare beneficiaries who were either < or = 25.5 years without hypertension or < or = 39.5 years without hypertension but with an emergency or trauma admission. The white subgroup with the highest PSI 7 risk consisted of patients < or = 45.5 years who had congestive heart failure but did not have either hypertension or weight loss. Identifying subgroups of patients at risk for a rare safety event such as PSI 7 should aid effective clinical decisions and efficient use of resources and help to guide patient safety interventions.

  16. Risk Evaluation of Debris Flow Hazard Based on Asymmetric Connection Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of debris flow is a complex problem involving various uncertainty factors. Herein, a novel asymmetric cloud model coupled with connection number was described here to take into account the fuzziness and conversion situation of classification boundary and interval nature of evaluation indicators for risk assessment of debris flow hazard. In the model, according to the classification standard, the interval lengths of each indicator were first specified to determine the digital characteristic of connection cloud at different levels. Then the asymmetric connection clouds in finite intervals were simulated to analyze the certainty degree of measured indicator to each evaluation standard. Next, the integrated certainty degree to each grade was calculated with corresponding indicator weight, and the risk grade of debris flow was determined by the maximum integrated certainty degree. Finally, a case study and comparison with other methods were conducted to confirm the reliability and validity of the proposed model. The result shows that this model overcomes the defect of the conventional cloud model and also converts the infinite interval of indicators distribution into finite interval, which makes the evaluation result more reasonable.

  17. Mode of Action (MOA) Assignment Classifications for Ecotoxicology: An Evaluation of approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of toxic action (MOA) is recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity and as an alternative to chemical class-based predictive toxicity modeling. However, MOA classification has never been standardized in ecotoxicology, and a comprehensive comparison of classific...

  18. On the Evaluation of Outlier Detection and One-Class Classification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swersky, Lorne; Marques, Henrique O.; Sander, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that unsupervised outlier detection methods can be adapted to the one-class classification problem. In this paper, we focus on the comparison of oneclass classification algorithms with such adapted unsupervised outlier detection methods, improving on previous comparison studies ...

  19. MODERN RISK MEASURES FOR INDIVIDUAL HIGHER EDUCATION INVESTMENT RISK EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona Mate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons why people get degree and participate in organized education is that they want to raise their human capital or signal their inner abilities to future employers by sorting themselves out. In both cases they can expect return to their investment, because they can expect higher life-time earnings than those who do not have degree. In this paper we will refer this activity as higher education investment or education investment. In this paper the investment of the state into educating their citizens will not be considered. The question of this paper will develop the findings of Vona (2014. I suggested to introduce modern risk measures because individual risk-taking became a serious question. It was considered that modern risk measures can help to solve some issues with the relation of investment and risk. However before applying some measures from a different field of science, namely investment finance and financial mathematics, to another, economics of education, there must be a very careful consideration, because there are debate over these measures applicability even on their field of science. Value at Risk is not coherent and Expected Shortfall is only one of a great deal of possible tail loss measures. For this reason it will be discussed in detail how should we should adopt the measures, what kind of data is necessary for calculating this risk measures and what kind of new insight they can bring. With the aid of a numerical example it will be shown that with expected shortfall measure we can reflect some large losses, and potential high value of diversification. We show the value at risk based measure is not coherent and this means it points out something different in this environment. It is can be an indicator of loss in opportunities for high end returns.

  20. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Tomazini Borghardt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients.METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories.RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71% and low specificity (21% and 47% respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale.CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power.

  1. [CT-based classification aid for acetabular fractures: evaluation and clinical testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffler, A; Fensky, F; Knöschke, D; Haas, N P; Becken, A G; Stöckle, U; König, B

    2013-11-01

    The basis for the classification of acetabular fractures depends on accurate radiological diagnostics. The use of conventional X-rays alone implicates a low intrapersonal reproducibility and interpersonal reliability. By applying computed tomography (CT) at an early stage in the emergency room, the typical diagonal X-rays of ala and obturator, on which the classification is based, are no longer recommended. The aim of this study was to develop a new reliable classification system based on standardized CT slices according to the system of Judet and Letournel without using diagonal X-rays. In this study 12 select cases with acetabular fractures were peer reviewed. In each case eight characteristic CT slices (five axial, two coronal and one sagittal) were selected as well as the conventional anteroposterior X-ray of the pelvis. All cases were peer reviewed by 14 members of the "AG Becken" (working group pelvis). The classification of the acetabular fractures was based on Judet and Letournel and the results were compared with the reference classification. The results were scaled according to differences to the original classification and the relevance to the approach as well as the medical qualification of the member. A total of 167 out of 168 possible classifications were conducted, 90 cases (54 %) were in accordance with the reference classification. In 69 cases (41 %) the outcome was different, which would have had no influence on the choice of the surgical approach. A wrong classification was present eight times (5 %). According to the medical qualification status the senior physicians were right in 54%, the residents in 53 %. Within the group of senior physicians 7.5 % of the classifications were completely wrong and 93 % of the participating members would have preferred to have more CT slices. The CT-based classification developed represents an adaption to the current standard of diagnostics of acetabular fractures and represents a step towards

  2. Impact of corpus domain for sentiment classification: An evaluation study using supervised machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsi, Redouane; Zaim, Mounia; El Alami, Jamila

    2017-07-01

    Thanks to the development of the internet, a large community now has the possibility to communicate and express its opinions and preferences through multiple media such as blogs, forums, social networks and e-commerce sites. Today, it becomes clearer that opinions published on the web are a very valuable source for decision-making, so a rapidly growing field of research called “sentiment analysis” is born to address the problem of automatically determining the polarity (Positive, negative, neutral,…) of textual opinions. People expressing themselves in a particular domain often use specific domain language expressions, thus, building a classifier, which performs well in different domains is a challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of domain for sentiment classification when using machine learning techniques. In our study three popular machine learning techniques: Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naive Bayes and K nearest neighbors(KNN) were applied on datasets collected from different domains. Experimental results show that Support Vector Machines outperforms other classifiers in all domains, since it achieved at least 74.75% accuracy with a standard deviation of 4,08.

  3. Evaluation of static and dynamic perfusion cardiac computed tomography for quantitation and classification tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) acquisitions for perfusion assessment can be performed in a dynamic or static mode. Either method may be used for a variety of clinical tasks, including (1) stratifying patients into categories of ischemia and (2) using a quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) estimate to evaluate disease severity. In this simulation study, we compare method performance on these classification and quantification tasks for matched radiation dose levels and for different flow states, patient sizes, and injected contrast levels. Under conditions simulated, the dynamic method has low bias in MBF estimates (0 to 0.1  ml/min/g) compared to linearly interpreted static assessment (0.45 to 0.48  ml/min/g), making it more suitable for quantitative estimation. At matched radiation dose levels, receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the static method, with its high bias but generally lower variance, had superior performance (pstatic assessment with a correctly tuned exponential relationship between the apparent CT number and MBF has superior quantification performance to static assessment with a linear relationship and to dynamic assessment. However, tuning the exponential relationship to the patient and scan characteristics will likely prove challenging. This study demonstrates that the selection and optimization of static or dynamic acquisition modes should depend on the specific clinical task. PMID:27175377

  4. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...... the estimates for confounding from other risk factors. We describe some potential unintentional effects when using adjusted risk estimates in evaluating the efficacy and sensitivity of risk-based surveillance systems (SSe). In two examples, we quantify and compare the efficacy and SSe using adjusted and crude...

  5. An evaluation of sampling and full enumeration strategies for Fisher Jenks classification in big data settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Sergio J.; Stephens, Philip A.; Laura, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    Large data contexts present a number of challenges to optimal choropleth map classifiers. Application of optimal classifiers to a sample of the attribute space is one proposed solution. The properties of alternative sampling-based classification methods are examined through a series of Monte Carlo simulations. The impacts of spatial autocorrelation, number of desired classes, and form of sampling are shown to have significant impacts on the accuracy of map classifications. Tradeoffs between improved speed of the sampling approaches and loss of accuracy are also considered. The results suggest the possibility of guiding the choice of classification scheme as a function of the properties of large data sets.

  6. Influence of acute kidney injury on short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: risk factors and prognostic value of a modified RIFLE classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Esteve, Francisco; Torrado, Herminia; Rodríguez-Castro, David; Carrio, Maria L; Farrero, Elisabet; Javierre, Casimiro; Ventura, Josep L; Manez, Rafael

    2013-12-13

    The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcome. The modified RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification for AKI, which classifies patients with renal replacement therapy needs according to RIFLE failure class, improves the predictive value of AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Our aim was to assess risk factors for post-operative AKI and the impact of renal function on short- and long-term survival among all AKI subgroups using the modified RIFLE classification. We prospectively studied 2,940 consecutive cardiosurgical patients between January 2004 and July 2009. AKI was defined according to the modified RIFLE system. Pre-operative, operative and post-operative variables usually measured on and during admission, which included main outcomes, were recorded together with cardiac surgery scores and ICU scores. These data were evaluated for association with AKI and staging in the different RIFLE groups by means of multivariable analyses. Survival was analyzed via Kaplan-Meier and a risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model. A complete follow-up (mean 6.9 ± 4.3 years) was performed in 2,840 patients up to April 2013. Of those patients studied, 14% (n = 409) were diagnosed with AKI. We identified one intra-operative (higher cardiopulmonary bypass time) and two post-operative (a longer need for vasoactive drugs and higher arterial lactate 24 hours after admission) predictors of AKI. The worst outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, were associated with the worst RIFLE class. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed survival of 74.9% in the RIFLE risk group, 42.9% in the RIFLE injury group and 22.3% in the RIFLE failure group (P <0.001). Classification at RIFLE injury (Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.347, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.122 to 4.907, P = 0.023) and RIFLE failure (HR = 3.093, 95% CI 1.460 to 6.550, P = 0.003) were independent predictors for

  7. Evaluating a new marker for risk prediction using the test tradeoff: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Van Calster, Ben; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2012-03-22

    Most of the methodological literature on evaluating an additional marker for risk prediction involves purely statistical measures of classification performance. A disadvantage of a purely statistical measure is the difficulty in deciding the improvement in the measure that would make inclusion of the additional marker worthwhile. In contrast, a medical decision making approach can weigh the cost or harm of ascertaining an additional marker against the benefit of a higher true positive rate for a given false positive rate that may be associated with risk prediction involving the additional marker. An appealing form of the medical decision making approach involves the risk threshold, which is the risk at which the expected utility of treatment and no treatment is the same. In this framework, a readily interpretable evaluation of the net benefit of an additional marker is the test tradeoff corresponding to the risk threshold. The test tradeoff is the minimum number of tests for a new marker that need to be traded for a true positive to yield an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction with the additional marker. For a sensitivity analysis the test tradeoff is computed over multiple risk thresholds. This article updates the theory and estimation of the test tradeoff. An example is provided.

  8. Applying the Back-Propagation Neural Network model and fuzzy classification to evaluate the trophic status of a reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C L; Liu, H C

    2015-09-01

    The trophic state index, and in particular, the Carlson Trophic State Index (CTSI), is critical for evaluating reservoir water quality. Despite its common use in evaluating static water quality, the reliability of the CTSI may decrease when water turbidity is high. Therefore, this study examines the reliability of the CTSI and uses the Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) model to create a new trophic state index. Fuzzy theory, rather than binary logic, is implemented to classify the trophic status into its three grades. The results show that compared to the CTSI with traditional classification, the new index with fuzzy classification can improve trophic status evaluation with high water turbidity. A reliable trophic state index can correctly describe reservoir water quality and allow relevant agencies to address proper water quality management strategies for a reservoir system.

  9. Definition and classification of evaluation units for tertiary structure prediction in CASP12 facilitated through semi-automated metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A; Kinch, Lisa N; Tamò, Giorgio E; Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Dal Peraro, Matteo

    2017-10-16

    For assessment purposes, CASP targets are split into evaluation units. We herein present the official definition of CASP12 evaluation units (EUs) and their classification into difficulty categories. Each target can be evaluated as one EU (the whole target) or/and several EUs (separate structural domains or groups of structural domains). The specific scenario for a target split is determined by the domain organization of available templates, the difference in server performance on separate domains versus combination of the domains, and visual inspection. In the end, 71 targets were split into 96 EUs. Classification of the EUs into difficulty categories was done semi-automatically with the assistance of metrics provided by the Prediction Center. These metrics account for sequence and structural similarities of the EUs to potential structural templates from the Protein Data Bank, and for the baseline performance of automated server predictions. The metrics readily separate the 96 EUs into 38 EUs that should be straightforward for template-based modeling (TBM) and 39 that are expected to be hard for homology modeling and are thus left for free modeling (FM). The remaining 19 borderline evaluation units were dubbed FM/TBM, and were inspected case by case. The article also overviews structural and evolutionary features of selected targets relevant to our accompanying article presenting the assessment of FM and FM/TBM predictions, and overviews structural features of the hardest evaluation units from the FM category. We finally suggest improvements for the EU definition and classification procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the risk of hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, J A; McCloskey, E V

    1996-03-01

    Hip fracture is the most serious complication of osteoporosis and the incidence is rising worldwide. Bone mineral density measurements can be used not only to diagnose osteoporosis at the hip, but also to give prognostic information on the lifetime risk of hip fracture. A number of additional risk factors enhance the ability of density measurements to assess risk. Candidates include markers of bone resorption, prior fragility fractures, hip axis length, and estimates of postural integrity, each of which improve prognostic value independently of bone mineral assessments. Their use in the stratification of risk will help define intervention thresholds for treatments and improve the design of population screening policies, particularly in elderly women in whom the burden of hip fracture is greatest.

  11. Evaluation of different fitness functions integrated with genetic algorithm on unsupervised classification of satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. F.; Yang, M. D.; Tsai, T. Y.

    2006-09-01

    In traditional unsupervised classification method, the number of clusters usually needs to be assigned subjectively by analysts, but in fact, in most situations, the prior knowledge of the research subject is difficult to acquire, so the suitable and best cluster numbers are very difficult to define. Therefore, in this research, an effective heuristic unsupervised classification method-Genetic Algorithm (GA) is introduced and tested here, because it can be through the mathematical model and calculating procedure of optimization to determine the best cluster numbers and centers automatically. Furthermore, two well-known models--Davies-Bouldin's and the K-Means algorithm, which adopted by most research for the applications in pattern classification, are integrated with GA as the fitness functions. In a word, in this research, a heuristic method-Genetic Algorithm (GA), is adopted and integrated with two different indices as the fitness functions to automatically interpret the clusters of satellite images for unsupervised classification. The classification results were compared to conventional ISODATA results, and to ground truth information derived from a topographic map for the estimation of classification accuracy. All image-processing program is developed in MATLAB, and the GA unsupervised classifier is tested on several image examples.

  12. Evaluation of circulation classifications from the COST733 database: The ability to stratify surface climate elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.

    2010-09-01

    A large number of classifications of circulation patterns have been produced within the international COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions." The classifications are produced by about 15 different classification methods, including cluster analysis, principal component analysis, leader algorithm methods, and threshold-based methods for unified data over the ERA-40 period (1957-2002) for 12 domains covering Europe. Here we examine the synoptic-climatological applicability of classifications, which is defined as their ability to stratify surface climate elements. The degree of stratification is quantified by conducting the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test between the distribution conditioned by a particular circulation type and the unconditional distribution. As the climate data, temperature and precipitation station series from the ECA&D database and gridded dataset produced in the ENSEMBLES project have been used. The results are sensitive to the number of classes (classifications with a lower number of classes tending to yield a better stratification) and depend on season. We examine whether sequencing (i.e., taking patterns on several consecutive days isntead of on a single day as a classified entity), seasonally specific definition (instead of that for a year as a whole), and including additional variables (500 hPha height, lower tropospheric thickness, and vorticity) to sea level pressure improve the stratification. Although the overall ‘best' method (or a group of optimum methods) cannot be identified, methods with generally better and worse performance can be determined.

  13. Environmental risk: perception and target with local versus global evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Bahi, Ghozlane

    2008-02-01

    This research addressed environmental risk perception depending on the target evaluated and on the category of hazard (technological and chemical hazards, climate change, loss of biodiversity). Correlations between environmental risk assessment and pro-environmental behavioural intentions were also tested. In a sample of 113 French adults, 15 different environmental risks were evaluated for four different risk targets (oneself, the inhabitants of the town, the inhabitants of the country, and humanity). As expected, environmental hazards were perceived as a greater risk for larger areas. Moreover, risks difficult to conceptualise, which contain both high uncertainty and long-term consequences (climate change, loss of biodiversity) are perceived as less risk to oneself and to the inhabitants of the town and the country of residence than more concrete and immediate risks (technological and chemical). Only the technological and chemical hazards significantly predict pro-environmental behavioural intentions.

  14. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  15. Environmental risk analysis for nanomaterials: Review and evaluation of frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Linkov, Igor; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2012-01-01

    In response to the challenges of conducting traditional human health and ecological risk assessment for nanomaterials (NM), a number of alternative frameworks have been proposed for NM risk analysis. This paper evaluates various risk analysis frameworks proposed for NM based on a number of criteria...... to occupational settings with minor environmental considerations, and most have not been thoroughly tested on a wide range of NM. Care should also be taken when selecting the most appropriate risk analysis strategy for a given risk context. Given this, we recommend a multi-faceted approach to assess...... the environmental risks of NM as well as increased applications and testing of the proposed frameworks for different NM....

  16. Evaluating the risks of clinical research: direct comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rid, Annette; Abdoler, Emily; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S; Wendler, David

    2014-09-01

    Many guidelines and regulations allow children and adolescents to be enrolled in research without the prospect of clinical benefit when it poses minimal risk. However, few systematic methods exist to determine when research risks are minimal. This situation has led to significant variation in minimal risk judgments, raising concern that some children are not being adequately protected. To address this concern, we describe a new method for implementing the widely endorsed "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. This standard defines research risks as minimal when they do not exceed the risks posed by daily life activities or routine examinations. This study employed a conceptual and normative analysis, and use of an illustrative example. Different risks are composed of the same basic elements: Type, likelihood, and magnitude of harm. Hence, one can compare the risks of research and the risks of daily life by comparing the respective basic elements with each other. We use this insight to develop a systematic method, direct comparative analysis, for implementing the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk. The method offers a way of evaluating research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities, such as the risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, or other psychological harm. We thus illustrate how direct comparative analysis can be applied in practice by using it to evaluate whether the anxiety induced by a respiratory CO2 challenge poses minimal or greater than minimal risks in children and adolescents. Direct comparative analysis is a systematic method for applying the "risks of daily life" standard for minimal risk to research procedures that pose the same types of risk as daily life activities. It thereby offers a method to protect children and adolescents in research, while ensuring that important studies are not blocked because of unwarranted concerns about research risks.

  17. A Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Sustainability Risk Evaluation of PPP Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libiao Bai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sustainability risk level of public–private partnership (PPP projects can reduce project risk incidents and achieve the sustainable development of the organization. However, the existing studies about PPP projects risk management mainly focus on exploring the impact of financial and revenue risks but ignore the sustainability risks, causing the concept of “sustainability” to be missing while evaluating the risk level of PPP projects. To evaluate the sustainability risk level and achieve the most important objective of providing a reference for the public and private sectors when making decisions on PPP project management, this paper constructs a factor system of sustainability risk of PPP projects based on an extensive literature review and develops a mathematical model based on the methods of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model (FCEM and failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA for evaluating the sustainability risk level of PPP projects. In addition, this paper conducts computational experiment based on a questionnaire survey to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of this proposed model. The results suggest that this model is reasonable for evaluating the sustainability risk level of PPP projects. To our knowledge, this paper is the first study to evaluate the sustainability risk of PPP projects, which would not only enrich the theories of project risk management, but also serve as a reference for the public and private sectors for the sustainable planning and development. Keywords: sustainability risk eva

  18. Integration of data mining classification techniques and ensemble learning to identify risk factors and diagnose ovarian cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-Jen; Lu, Chi-Jie; Chang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Gin-Den; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second leading cause of deaths among gynecologic cancers in the world. Approximately 90% of women with ovarian cancer reported having symptoms long before a diagnosis was made. Literature shows that recurrence should be predicted with regard to their personal risk factors and the clinical symptoms of this devastating cancer. In this study, ensemble learning and five data mining approaches, including support vector machine (SVM), C5.0, extreme learning machine (ELM), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and random forest (RF), were integrated to rank the importance of risk factors and diagnose the recurrence of ovarian cancer. The medical records and pathologic status were extracted from the Chung Shan Medical University Hospital Tumor Registry. Experimental results illustrated that the integrated C5.0 model is a superior approach in predicting the recurrence of ovarian cancer. Moreover, the classification accuracies of C5.0, ELM, MARS, RF, and SVM indeed increased after using the selected important risk factors as predictors. Our findings suggest that The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), Pathologic M, Age, and Pathologic T were the four most critical risk factors for ovarian cancer recurrence. In summary, the above information can support the important influence of personality and clinical symptom representations on all phases of guide interventions, with the complexities of multiple symptoms associated with ovarian cancer in all phases of the recurrent trajectory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the WHO classification of dengue disease severity during an epidemic in 2011 in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pamplona de Goes Cavalcanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO issued a new guideline that stratifies dengue-affected patients into severe (SD and non-severe dengue (NSD (with or without warning signs. To evaluate the new recommendations, we completed a retrospective cross-sectional study of the dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF cases reported during an outbreak in 2011 in northeastern Brazil. We investigated 84 suspected DHF patients, including 45 (53.6% males and 39 (46.4% females. The ages of the patients ranged from five-83 years and the median age was 29. According to the DHF/dengue shock syndrome classification, 53 (63.1% patients were classified as having dengue fever and 31 (36.9% as having DHF. According to the 2009 WHO classification, 32 (38.1% patients were grouped as having NSD [4 (4.8% without warning signs and 28 (33.3% with warning signs] and 52 (61.9% as having SD. A better performance of the revised classification in the detection of severe clinical manifestations allows for an improved detection of patients with SD and may reduce deaths. The revised classification will not only facilitate effective screening and patient management, but will also enable the collection of standardised surveillance data for future epidemiological and clinical studies.

  20. Assessment of translational risk in drug research: Role of biomarker classification and mechanism-based PKPD concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Sandra A G; Bueters, Tjerk J H

    2017-11-15

    In 2005, Danhof and coauthors proposed a new biomarker classification in the context of the application of mechanism-based PKPD modeling. They defined the term 'biomarker' as a measure that characterizes a drug-induced response, which is on the causal path between drug administration and clinical outcome. The biomarker classification identified seven categories that provide different insights into the kinetics of drug action, such as target site distribution, target engagement, or into the impact of the drug on physiology or disease. The original biomarker classification has been further modified into a translational biomarker scheme that is used as a communication tool for drug hunting teams to guide designing translational and early clinical development plans as part of an integrated model-informed drug discovery and development strategy. It promotes a dedicated discussion on the topic of the translational relevance of biomarkers and enables efficient identification of translational gaps and opportunities. Based on the elucidated PKPD characteristics exhibited by a novel drug and the kinetics of the investigated biomarker, prospective predictions can be made for the drug response under new conditions; translating from the preclinical arena to the clinical setting, from the healthy volunteer to the patient, or from an adult to an elderly or a child. These drug response predictions provide support to decisions on appropriate next steps in the development of the drug, while keeping clear line of sight on the potential to address unmet medical need. Moreover, this framework enables a transparent translational risk assessment for drug hunting projects, and as such can underpin decisions at program and portfolio level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in the baseline model. Conclusion The small added prognostic capabilities

  2. Identification of a 24-gene prognostic signature that improves the European LeukemiaNet risk classification of acute myeloid leukemia: an international collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zejuan; Herold, Tobias; He, Chunjiang; Valk, Peter J M; Chen, Ping; Jurinovic, Vindi; Mansmann, Ulrich; Radmacher, Michael D; Maharry, Kati S; Sun, Miao; Yang, Xinan; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xi; Sauerland, Maria-Cristina; Büchner, Thomas; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Elkahloun, Abdel; Neilly, Mary Beth; Zhang, Yanming; Larson, Richard A; Le Beau, Michelle M; Caligiuri, Michael A; Döhner, Konstanze; Bullinger, Lars; Liu, Paul P; Delwel, Ruud; Marcucci, Guido; Lowenberg, Bob; Bloomfield, Clara D; Rowley, Janet D; Bohlander, Stefan K; Chen, Jianjun

    2013-03-20

    To identify a robust prognostic gene expression signature as an independent predictor of survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and use it to improve established risk classification. Four independent sets totaling 499 patients with AML carrying various cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities were used as training sets. Two independent patient sets composed of 825 patients were used as validation sets. Notably, patients from different sets were treated with different protocols, and their gene expression profiles were derived using different microarray platforms. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods were used for survival analyses. A prognostic signature composed of 24 genes was derived from a meta-analysis of Cox regression values of each gene across the four training sets. In multivariable models, a higher sum value of the 24-gene signature was an independent predictor of shorter overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in both training and validation sets (P classification of AML, and patients in three new risk groups classified by the integrated risk classification showed significantly (P classification incorporating this gene signature provides a better framework for risk stratification and outcome prediction than the ELN classification.

  3. Classification of business risks for foreign companies operating in Russia (for example, Chinese companies)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, foreign companies operating in Russia have faced with these or those risks and a lot of them have fallen into difficult situations, even have came close to bankruptcy. There are different kinds of risks for foreign companies operating in Russia: one kind in one company, other kind in another company. How many kinds and what kinds of risks are there for foreign companies, especially for Chinese enterprises operating in Russia, that yet is not so clear. In this paper we conside...

  4. Evaluating the operational risks of biomedical waste using failure mode and effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Pei-Yi

    2017-06-01

    The potential problems and risks of biomedical waste generation have become increasingly apparent in recent years. This study applied a failure mode and effects analysis to evaluate the operational problems and risks of biomedical waste. The microbiological contamination of biomedical waste seldom receives the attention of researchers. In this study, the biomedical waste lifecycle was divided into seven processes: Production, classification, packaging, sterilisation, weighing, storage, and transportation. Twenty main failure modes were identified in these phases and risks were assessed based on their risk priority numbers. The failure modes in the production phase accounted for the highest proportion of the risk priority number score (27.7%). In the packaging phase, the failure mode 'sharp articles not placed in solid containers' had the highest risk priority number score, mainly owing to its high severity rating. The sterilisation process is the main difference in the treatment of infectious and non-infectious biomedical waste. The failure modes in the sterilisation phase were mainly owing to human factors (mostly related to operators). This study increases the understanding of the potential problems and risks associated with biomedical waste, thereby increasing awareness of how to improve the management of biomedical waste to better protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  5. Assessment on the classification of landslide risk level using Genetic Algorithm of Operation Tree in central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiang; Yeh, Hui-Chung; Chen, Yen-Chang

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the classification of landslide areas by Genetic Algorithm of Operation Tree (GAOT) of Chen-Yu-Lan River upstream watershed of National Taiwan University Experimental Forest (NTUEF) after the Typhoon Morakot in 2009 using remotely and geological data. Landslides of 624.5 ha which accounting for 1.9% of total area were delineated with the threshold of slope (22°) and area size (1 hectare), 48 landslide sites were located in the upstream Chen-Yu-Lan watershed using FORMOSAT-II satellite imagery, the aerial photo and GIS related coverage. The five risk levels of these landslide areas was classified by the area, elevation, slope order, aspect, erosion order and geological factor order using the Simplicity Method suggested in the Technical Regulations for Soil and Water Conservation of Taiwan. If all the landslide sites were considered, the accuracy of classification using GAOT is 97.9%, superior than the K-means, Ward method, Shared Nearest Neighbor method, Maximum Likelihood Classifier and Bayesian Classifier; if 36 sites were used as training samples and the rest 12 sites were tested, the accuracy still can reach 81.3%. More geological data, anthropogenic influence and hydrological factors may be necessary for clarifying the landside area and the results benefit the assessment for future correction and management of the authorities.

  6. Output Effect Evaluation Based on Input Features in Neural Incremental Attribute Learning for Better Classification Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning is a very important approach to pattern classification. This paper provides a better insight into Incremental Attribute Learning (IAL with further analysis as to why it can exhibit better performance than conventional batch training. IAL is a novel supervised machine learning strategy, which gradually trains features in one or more chunks. Previous research showed that IAL can obtain lower classification error rates than a conventional batch training approach. Yet the reason for that is still not very clear. In this study, the feasibility of IAL is verified by mathematical approaches. Moreover, experimental results derived by IAL neural networks on benchmarks also confirm the mathematical validation.

  7. An Evaluation of Peak Finding for DVR Classification of Biological Data

    KAUST Repository

    Knoll, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In medicine and the life sciences, volume data are frequently entropic, containing numerous features at different scales as well as significant noise from the scan source. Conventional transfer function approaches for direct volume rendering have difficulty handling such data, resulting in poor classification or undersampled rendering. Peak finding addresses issues in classifying noisy data by explicitly solving for isosurfaces at desired peaks in a transfer function. As a result, one can achieve better classification and visualization with fewer samples and correspondingly higher performance. This paper applies peak finding to several medical and biological data sets, particularly examining its potential in directly rendering unfiltered and unsegmented data.

  8. [Hyperlipoproteinaemia and dyslipoproteinaemia I. Classification, diagnostics, cardiovascular, cardiometabolic and residual risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceska, R; Kvasilová, M; Procházková, R; Smelková, G; Vrablík, M

    2010-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the most important cause of death worldwide. The situation in the Czech Republic is one of the best when compared to the other countries of the former socialist block; on the other hand, we significantly lack behind when the comparison is made to south and southwest European countries. The concept of risk factors (RF) and multifactorial character of atherosclerosis as the main cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is fully accepted at present. Hyperlipoproteinaemia (HLP) and dyslipidemia (DLP) are a group of high incidence metabolic diseases characterised by increased levels of lipids and lipoproteins in plasma or, in case of DLP, by unsuitable, atherogenic composition of lipids and lipoproteins in plasma. HLP and DLP are among the most important RF for the development of CVD. Mainly LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is perceived as a very important risk factor; successful reduction of LDL-C is linked to a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Even when LDL-C is decreased and the so-called "target values" achieved, patients are still at risk ofa CV event. This remnant risk is the so called "residual risk". The most important "rival" to LDL-cholesterol among the risk factors is the metabolic syndrome, or rather the DLP associated with the metabolic syndrome, characterised from the perspective of DLP by low levels of HDL-cholesterol and increased triglycerides with concurrent occurrence of "small dense LDL". The issue of heterogeneity and atherogenicity oflipoprotein particles in general then becomes topical. Lipoprotein (a)--Lp(a) is another important lipid risk factor that is getting a significant attention.

  9. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  10. Physical evaluation system to determine medical risk and indicated dental therapy modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, F M; Malamed, S F

    1979-08-01

    The physical evaluation system allows the practitioner to rapidly classify each patient according to medical risk and thus to provide dental treatment comfortably and safely. The evaluation system serves as a guide to the level of dental therapy, deisions of management, and modification of treatment for the medically compromised patient. Extensive use of the ADA physical status classification system in dentistry would allow meaningful studies of morbidity and mortality that are related to various management protocols and could conceivably have an impact on insurance schedules associated with psychosedation modalities and general anethesia on an out patient basis. A physical evaluation system cannot substitute for knowledge and good judgment. Recommended categories of physical status and modification of treatment should not be considered as absolutes, but as guides. Wheras the guidelines may appear to be inflexible, they should not be considered as such. Deviation from recommendations is often justified and is expected.

  11. [Evaluation of treatment and management of Kawasaki coronary artery disease based on clinical severity classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Lu; Wu, Lin; Liang, Xuecun; Chu, Chen; He, Lan; Huang, Guoying

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of evaluation,treatment and follow-up of Kawasaki coronary artery disease based on the clinical severity classification. This study evaluated 52 patients admitted to the Children's Hospital of Fudan University between July 2005 and December 2013 who were diagnosed with Kawasaki Disease with coronary artery disease.Inclusion criteria were a disease course of more than two months, initial echocardiography showing severity of grade IV and above, and confirmation of disease severity by angiography. Of those studies, 44 were male and eight were female, aged 6 to 142 (average 41) months. Treatment was planned according to protocols in "Suggestions for Management of Kawasaki Coronary Artery Disease" with follow-up. Those patients with grade IV and above confirmed by angiogram were given oral low-dose asprin and warfarin, and those with grade Vb were given coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) after comprehensive evaluation. Analysis was carried out for diagnosis, treatment, complications, and results of follow-up. (1) Satisfied images were shown by the angiography of all 52 cases. Forty five patients (86%) had giant aneurysm or multiple aneurysms, with thrombosis found in 10 of 45 patients (22%). Coronary artery lesions occurred in 138 coronary branches, and more common in left anterior descending branch (47 branches, with incidence 34%) and right coronary artery (48 branches, with incidence 35%). There were no complications during or after angiography. (2) After angiography, 49 patients remained at grade IV or above, and three improved to grade III. Ultimately, clinical severities of coronary artery disease included three patients at grade III, 31 patients at grade IV, nine patients at grade Va, and nine patients at grade Vb. (3) Thirty-eight patients were properly using aspirin and warfarin, and two patients with severely elevated international normalized ratio (INR) levels presented with knee joint and gastric hemorrhage, both of

  12. Health risk evaluation of nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, M.; Ewetz, L.; Gustafsson, L.; Moldeus, P.; Pershagen, G.; Victorin, K. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1995-12-31

    At the request of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency a criteria document on nitrogen oxides has been prepared, and is intended to serve as a basis for revised air quality standards in Sweden. The criteria document is based on a thorough literature survey, and the health risk assessment is summarized in this presentation. The present standard for nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is 110 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 1-hour mean (98th percentile); 75 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 24- hour mean (98th percentile); and 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} as 6-month mean (arithmetic eman during winter half-year). (author)

  13. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rosswog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. METHODS: A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n = 75 for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n = 411 for risk score development, and a validation set (n = 209. Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. RESULTS: The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9 ± 3.4 vs 63.6 ± 14.5 vs 31.0 ± 5.4; P < .001, and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients.

  14. Multi-site evaluation of IKONOS data for classification of tropical coral reef environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrefouet, S.; Kramer, Philip; Torres-Pulliza, D.; Joyce, K.E.; Hochberg, E.J.; Garza-Perez, R.; Mumby, P.J.; Riegl, Bernhard; Yamano, H.; White, W.H.; Zubia, M.; Brock, J.C.; Phinn, S.R.; Naseer, A.; Hatcher, B.G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    2003-01-01

    Ten IKONOS images of different coral reef sites distributed around the world were processed to assess the potential of 4-m resolution multispectral data for coral reef habitat mapping. Complexity of reef environments, established by field observation, ranged from 3 to 15 classes of benthic habitats containing various combinations of sediments, carbonate pavement, seagrass, algae, and corals in different geomorphologic zones (forereef, lagoon, patch reef, reef flats). Processing included corrections for sea surface roughness and bathymetry, unsupervised or supervised classification, and accuracy assessment based on ground-truth data. IKONOS classification results were compared with classified Landsat 7 imagery for simple to moderate complexity of reef habitats (5-11 classes). For both sensors, overall accuracies of the classifications show a general linear trend of decreasing accuracy with increasing habitat complexity. The IKONOS sensor performed better, with a 15-20% improvement in accuracy compared to Landsat. For IKONOS, overall accuracy was 77% for 4-5 classes, 71% for 7-8 classes, 65% in 9-11 classes, and 53% for more than 13 classes. The Landsat classification accuracy was systematically lower, with an average of 56% for 5-10 classes. Within this general trend, inter-site comparisons and specificities demonstrate the benefits of different approaches. Pre-segmentation of the different geomorphologic zones and depth correction provided different advantages in different environments. Our results help guide scientists and managers in applying IKONOS-class data for coral reef mapping applications. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mode of Action (MOA) Assignment Classifications for Ecotoxicology: Evaluation of Available Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are various structure-based classification schemes to categorize chemicals based on mode of action (MOA) which have been applied for both eco and human toxicology. With increasing calls to assess 1000s of chemicals, some of which have little available information other tha...

  16. Risk classification of highly sensitive troponin I predict presence of vulnerable plaque assessed by dual source coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Guan; Li, Peiling; Dai, Xu

    2017-11-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, negative conventional troponin and electrocardiogram require serial testing to rule out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We studied the association of highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) I with vulnerable plaque features as detected by coronary dual source computed tomography angiography (DSCTA) and determined whether hsTn I at the time of presentation combined with early DSCTA could improve classification of patients as high-risk or low risk for ACS. We included 220 patients with acute chest pain, negative electrocardiogram and conventional troponin who underwent DSCTA and had hsTn I measured at the time of presentation. The patients were categorized as having hsTn I below the limit of detection (low risk), intermediate and above the 99th percentile (high risk). Readers assessed DSCTA qualitatively for the presence of significant CAD (≥50% stenosis), calcified and non-calcified coronary plaque, and vulnerable plaque features (positive remodeling, low CT attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign, spotty calcium). The mean age of the population was 50.3 ± 8.2 years (43% women). ACS during the index hospitalization occurred in 36 (16.3%) patients (myocardial infarction n = 8, unstable angina pectoris n = 28). HsTn I was below the limit of detection, intermediate, and above 99th percentile in 39 (17.7%), 139 (86.9%), and 42 (19.1%) patients, respectively. Across the categories of low risk, intermediate and high risk of hsTn I, there was increase in prevalence of ≥50% stenosis (0, 11.5, and 61.9% of patients; p high-risk plaque (0, 36.0, and 85.7% of patients; p high risk hsTnI group. Severity of stenosis and presence of vunerable plaque as detected by DSCTA are associated with increasing levels of hsTn I. DSCTA at the time of presentation with the assessment for both stenosis and high-risk plaque improved the diagnostic accuracy for ACS in the intermediate hsTn I group patients.

  17. Definition of a comprehensive set of texture semivariogram features and their evaluation for object-oriented image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, A.; Ruiz, L. A.; Hermosilla, T.; Recio, J. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of texture features extracted from the experimental semivariogram of specific image objects is proposed and described, and their usefulness for land use classification of high resolution images is evaluated. Fourteen features are defined and categorized into three different groups, according to the location of their respective parameters in the semivariogram curve: (i) features that use parameters close to the origin of the semivariogram, (ii) the parameters employed extend to the first maximum, and (iii) the parameters employed are extracted from the first to the second maximum. A selection of the most relevant features has been performed, combining the analysis and interpretation of redundancies, and using statistical discriminant analysis methods. The suitability of the proposed features for object-based image classification has been evaluated using digital aerial images from an agricultural area on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. The performance of the selected semivariogram features has been compared with two different sets of texture features: those derived from the grey level co-occurrence matrix, and the values of raw semivariance directly extracted from the semivariogram at different positions. As a result of the tests, the classification accuracies obtained using the proposed semivariogram features are, in general, higher and more balanced than those obtained using the other two sets of standard texture features.

  18. Clinical relevance and effect of surgical wound classification in appendicitis: Retrospective evaluation of wound classification discrepancies between surgeons, Swissnoso-trained infection control nurse, and histology as well as surgical site infection rates by wound class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Chan, Anastasija; Gingert, Christian; Angst, Eliane; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2017-07-01

    Surgical wound classification (SWC) is used for risk stratification of surgical site infection (SSI) and serves as the basis for measuring quality of care. The objective was to examine the accuracy and reliability of SWC. This study was purposed to evaluate the discrepancies in SWC as assessed by three groups: surgeons, an infection control nurse, and histopathologic evaluation. The secondary aim was to compare the risk-stratified SSI rates using the different SWC methods for 30 d postoperatively. An analysis was performed of the appendectomies from January 2013 to June 2014 in the Cantonal Hospital of Schaffhausen. SWC was assigned by the operating surgeon at the end of the procedure and retrospectively reviewed by a Swissnoso-trained infection control nurse after reading the operative and pathology report. The level of agreement among the three different SWC assessment groups was determined using kappa statistic. SSI rates were analyzed using a chi-square test. In 246 evaluated cases, the kappa scores for interrater reliability among the SWC assessments across the three groups ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 signifying slight agreement between the groups. SSIs were more frequently associated with trained infection control nurse-assigned SWC than with surgeons based SWC. Our study demonstrated a considerable discordance in the SWC assessments performed by the three groups. Unfortunately, the currently practiced SWC system suffers from ambiguity in definition and/or implementation of these definitions is not clearly stated. This lack of reliability is problematic and may lead to inappropriate comparisons within and between hospitals and surgeons. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. International classification of function, disability and health framework for fall risk stratification in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinical tools. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through convenient sampling method from geriatric clinic (OPD of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The study was single session cross-section design. The body mass index (BMI, grip strength, depression score (Geriatric depression scale:short form; GDS-S and co morbidities were used to assess body function and structure domain, timed up and go (TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS and elderly fall screening test (EFST scores were used for activity domain, selfreported cause of fall, medications and uses of assistive device for environmental factors. Then the association of body function and structure, activity and environmental factors were determined with falls. There was an association of fall in analysis in subjects with no fall and one or more falls for, BMI, grip strength (kg, GDS-S score, no. of co morbidities, chronic pain, TUG, BBS, TUG (s, BBS, EFST, slip/trip, walking cane, hypoglycemic and antihypertensives medications (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio.The diabetes, and hyper tension showed association for adjusted odds ratio only. In subjects with one fall and more than one fall, TUG, BBS, EFST, GDS-S score, NSAIDS and antidepressants use showed a significant association with fall (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio. The ICF may be used in routine for fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults.

  20. MANAGING BRAND EQUITY RISK: ADDING EXOGENOUS RISKS TO AN EVALUATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mihail Barbu; Sorin Tudor; Dorian Laurentiu Florea

    2014-01-01

    Risk can no longer be ignored when talking about brand management, as risk management can no longer disregard brands for manifold reasons. Building on the risk-based brand equity model, this paper contributes to the development of an evaluation model, by suggesting formulas for 3 exogenous risk sources related to the market and competitive structure: the new brand marketing effort, consumer behavior change, and the extant brands adaptation.

  1. Risk-based prioritization methodology for the classification of groundwater pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Giubilato, Elisa; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-02-15

    Water management is one of the EU environmental priorities and it is one of the most serious challenges that today's major cities are facing. The main European regulation for the protection of water resources is represented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) which require the identification, risk-based ranking and management of sources of pollution and the identification of those contamination sources that threaten the achievement of groundwater's good quality status. The aim of this paper is to present a new risk-based prioritization methodology to support the determination of a management strategy for the achievement of the good quality status of groundwater. The proposed methodology encompasses the following steps: 1) hazard analysis, 2) pathway analysis, 3) receptor vulnerability analysis and 4) relative risk estimation. Moreover, by integrating GIS functionalities and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques, it allows to: i) deal with several sources and multiple impacted receptors within the area of concern; ii) identify different receptors' vulnerability levels according to specific groundwater uses; iii) assess the risks posed by all contamination sources in the area; and iv) provide a risk-based ranking of the contamination sources that can threaten the achievement of the groundwater good quality status. The application of the proposed framework to a well-known industrialized area located in the surroundings of Milan (Italy) is illustrated in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in supporting the identification of intervention priorities. Among the 32 sources analyzed in the case study, three sources received the highest relevance score, due to the medium-high relative risks estimated for Chromium (VI) and Perchloroethylene. The case study application showed that the developed methodology is flexible and easy to adapt to different contexts, thanks to the possibility to

  2. Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

  3. Antiphospholipid antibodies: evaluation of the thrombotic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devreese, Katrien M J

    2012-10-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) via antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) tests, including lupus anticoagulant (LAC), anti-cardiolipin (aCL), or anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies remains a challenge. Coagulation tests for LAC as well as solid phase assays for aCL and aβ2GPI have methodological shortcomings, although for LAC large progress have been made in standardization. All assays are associated with clinical APS-criteria (thrombotic and/or pregnancy complications) but with limited specificity. Besides, clinical studies demonstrating the association between the presence of aPL and thrombosis are not always well designed and result in wide ranges of odds ratio with large variation between studies. The best association between thrombotic complications and aPL is found for LAC. The association between thrombosis and aCL or aβ2GPI is at least inconsistent. The inclusion of more specific assays, such as the domain-I-β2GPI.antibodies is too premature and depends on further investigation in large clinical studies and the commercial availability. The search for new assays should proceed to identify patients with aPL with increased risk for thrombosis, preferable in large prospective studies. Meanwhile, with the current available LAC, aCL and aβ2GPI assays it is strongly recommended to make antibody profiles. Multiple positivity of tests seems clinically more relevant. The strengths and weaknesses of the current laboratory criteria for APS are discussed in view of their role in risk stratification of patients with thrombotic events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Five-group cytogenetic risk classification, monosomal karyotype, and outcome after hematopoietic cell transplantation for MDS or acute leukemia evolving from MDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Bart L.; Fang, Min; Shulman, Howard M.; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Myerson, David; Pagel, John M.; Platzbecker, Uwe; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Radich, Jerald P.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Sorror, Mohamed; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Storb, Rainer; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Gooley, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Clonal cytogenetic abnormalities are a major risk factor for relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We determined the impact of the recently established 5-group cytogenetic classification of MDS on outcome after HCT. Results were compared with the impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) 3 cytogenetic risk groups, and the additional effect of a monosomal karyotype was assessed. The study included data on 1007 patients, 1-75 years old (median 45 years), transplanted from related (n = 547) or unrelated (n = 460) donors. Various conditioning regimens were used, and marrow, peripheral blood, or cord blood served as stem cell source. Both IPSS and 5-group cytogenetic risk classifications were significantly associated with post-HCT relapse and mortality, but the 5-group classification discriminated more clearly among the lowest- and highest-risk patients. A monosomal karyotype tended to further increase the rates of relapse and mortality, even after considering the IPSS or 5-group classifications. In addition, the pathologic disease category correlated with both relapse and mortality. Mortality was also impacted by patient age, donor type, conditioning regimen, platelet count, and etiology of MDS. Although mortality declined significantly in recent years, novel strategies are needed to overcome the barrier of high-risk cytogenetics. PMID:22767498

  5. Effectiveness evaluation of contingency sum as a risk management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction managers in a bid to effectively manage risks prone projects have adopted several methods, one of which is contingency sum. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of contingency sum as a risk management tool for construction projects in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The objectives are to establish ...

  6. Classification of veldfire risk in South Africa for the administration of the legislation regarding fire management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, FJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available wildfires (i.e. unwanted veldfires) that cause damage to assets, and, second, the risk arising from ecologically inappropriate fire regimes in environments where fire plays an ecological role. South Africa has adopted the National Veld and Forest Fire Act...

  7. Creation and implementation of a certification system for insurability and fire risk classification for forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronica Loewe M.; Victor Vargas; Juan Miguel Ruiz; Andrea Alvarez C.; Felipe Lobo Q.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the Chilean insurance market sells forest fire insurance policies and agricultural weather risk policies. However, access to forest fire insurance is difficult for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with a significant proportion (close to 50%) of forest plantations being without coverage. Indeed, the insurance market that sells forest fire insurance...

  8. Severe obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: comparison from two international classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥ 99(th) percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥ 99(th) percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively pobese children with ≥ 2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile, in particular in children ≤ 10 years. Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95(th) percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99(th) percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age.

  9. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  10. Value of real-time shear wave elastography in evaluating classification of liver fibrosis: a Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Yue

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the diagnostic value of real-time shear wave elastography (SWE technique in evaluating classification of liver fibrosis. MethodsPubMed, CNKI, CBM, VIP, and Wanfang Data were searched for Chinese and English articles on SWE for evaluating classification of liver fibrosis published from January 2010 to December 2016, and these articles were screened and evaluated. Meta-disc 1.4 software was used for the meta-analysis of the data in the articles included. ResultsA total of 11 English articles were included, with 1560 cases in total. In the ≥F2 group, SWE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.82-0.87, a specificity of 0.79 (95%CI:0.76-0.82, and a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR of 30.81 (95%CI: 16.55-57.34. In the ≥F3 group, SWE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.87 (95%CI:0.84-0.91, a specificity of 0.84 (95%CI:0.82-0.87, and a DOR of 41.45 (95%CI:18.25-94.45. In the F4 group, SWE had a pooled sensitivity of 0.88 (95%CI:0.83-0.91, a specificity of 0.91 (95%CI:0.89-092, and a DOR of 67.18 (95%CI:30.03-150.31. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for these three groups were 0.914 7, 0.922 3, and 0.952 0, respectively. ConclusionSWE has a high diagnostic value in evaluating the classification of liver fibrosis and can be used to determine liver fibrosis stage in clinical practice.

  11. Considerations in the evaluation and determination of minimal risk in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Wendler, David; Septimus, Edward; Wahba, Sarita; Madigan, Rosemary; Bliss, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    Institutional review boards, which are charged with overseeing research, must classify the riskiness of proposed research according to a federal regulation known as the Common Rule (45 CFR 46, Subpart A) and by regulations governing the US Food and Drug Administration codified in 21 CFR 50. If an institutional review board determines that a clinical trial constitutes "minimal risk," there are important practical implications: the institutional review board may then allow a waiver or alteration of the informed consent process; the study may be carried out in certain vulnerable populations; or the study may be reviewed by institutional review boards using an expedited process. However, it is unclear how institutional review boards should assess the risk levels of pragmatic clinical trials. Such trials typically compare existing, widely used medical therapies or interventions in the setting of routine clinical practice. Some of the therapies may be considered risky of themselves but the study comparing them may or may not add to that pre-existing level of risk. In this article, we examine the common interpretations of research regulations regarding minimal-risk classifications and suggest that they are marked by a high degree of variability and confusion, which in turn may ultimately harm patients by delaying or hindering potentially beneficial research. We advocate for a clear differentiation between the risks associated with a given therapy and the incremental risk incurred during research evaluating those therapies as a basic principle for evaluating the risk of a pragmatic clinical trial. We then examine two pragmatic clinical trials and consider how various factors including clinical equipoise, practice variation, research methods such as cluster randomization, and patients' perspectives may contribute to current and evolving concepts of minimal-risk determinations, and how this understanding in turn affects the design and conduct of pragmatic clinical trials.

  12. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversityverification in Danish greening subsidy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferre, Ty; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-01-01

    farmers for greening subsidy claims, with no instances of suggesting a greening subsidy for a holding that the farmer did not report as meeting the required conditions. These results suggest that the proposed RS based method shows great promise for validating the new greening subsidies in Denmark.......’ declarations to war-rant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers’ subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing...... compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014–2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach(proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring...

  13. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Demonstration and Evaluation of Classification Technologies: Closed Castner Range, Fort Bliss, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    detectable signals are excavated. Many of these detections do not correspond to munitions, but rather to other harmless metallic objects or geology ...geophysical technology, as it is traditionally implemented, does not provide a physics-based, quantitative , validated means to discriminate between...analyst’s classification method .  Category 2: Anomalies for which the analysts were unsure whether the anomalies were TOI or non-TOI. Category 2

  15. Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Electromagnetic Induction Systems - Factors Affecting Classification Effectiveness in Challenging Geologic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Geologic Environments February 2017 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution Statement A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Standard...Affecting Classification Effectiveness in Challenging Geologic Environments Tamir Klaff CH2M HILL CH2M HILL 2411 Dulles Corner Park, Suite 500...associated with the WWII- and Cold War- era use of the location by the U.S. military (ca. 1942-1956). The contributing properties include a wide range of

  16. [Classification study of Coptis chinensis based on quantitative physical property characteristics of appearance and internal quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Li; Huang, Qin-Wan; Wang, Jin; Su, Juan; Li, Xiao-Fang

    2012-10-01

    Combining the quantitative physical property characteristics of the appearance with the internal quality evaluation index, its aims to provide experimental basis for the classification and quality evaluation of Coptis chinensis. Fourteen batches of C. chinensis from different areas were respectively measured in size (total length, total width, root length, taproot diameter, branch number, branch length, branch diameter, length of the bridge, weight), color (external color, internal color), content (epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine). Then the determination data were evaluated by spss principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Three principal components were extracted from the original data. The principal component analysis results showed that the characteristic elements might be the total length, main root length, taproot diameter, branch length, weight, the total color value of the appearance and content of epiberberine and berberine. The results of cluster analysis showed that 14 batches of samples could be clustered reasonably into two groups. In terms of the appearance and quality, there were some differences between in the geo-authentic and non-authentic producing areas of C. chinensis. The method which was combining the quantitative physical property characteristics of the appearance with the internal quality evaluation index, and through the processing of mathematical statistics, could be used for the the classification of C. chinensis.

  17. A new approach to risk evaluation and management: risk-based, precaution-based, and discourse-based strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, Andreas; Renn, Ortwin

    2002-12-01

    Our concept of nine risk evaluation criteria, six risk classes, a decision tree, and three management categories was developed to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and political feasibility of risk management procedures. The main task of risk evaluation and management is to develop adequate tools for dealing with the problems of complexity, uncertainty. and ambiguity. Based on the characteristics of different risk types and these three major problems, we distinguished three types of management--risk-based, precaution-based, and discourse-based strategies. The risk-based strategy--is the common solution to risk problems. Once the probabilities and their corresponding damage potentials are calculated, risk managers are required to set priorities according to the severity of the risk, which may be operationalized as a linear combination of damage and probability or as a weighted combination thereof. Within our new risk classification, the two central components have been augmented with other physical and social criteria that still demand risk-based strategies as long as uncertainty is low and ambiguity absent. Risk-based strategies are best solutions to problems of complexity and some components of uncertainty, for example, variation among individuals. If the two most important risk criteria, probability of occurrence and extent of damage, are relatively well known and little uncertainty is left, the traditional risk-based approach seems reasonable. If uncertainty plays a large role, in particular, indeterminacy or lack of knowledge, the risk-based approach becomes counterproductive. Judging the relative severity of risks on the basis of uncertain parameters does not make much sense. Under these circumstances, management strategies belonging to the precautionary management style are required. The precautionary approach has been the basis for much of the European environmental and health protection legislation and regulation. Our own approach to risk management

  18. Secondary Cleft Nasolabial Deformities: A New Classification System for Evaluation and Surgical Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittah, Ghassan Abu; Ghanem, Odette Abou; Hamdan, Usama; Ramia, Paul; Zgheib, Elias

    2017-01-17

      Secondary or residual cleft lip and nasal deformities following primary unilateral or bilateral cleft lip repair are common. Many classification systems have been proposed to describe congenital cleft lip and palate deformities before repair. This article proposes a one-of-a-kind classification system for residual cleft deformities and describes its application to 136 cleft lip revision cases from cleft outreach missions worldwide.   Patients' demographics and deformities were classified preoperatively, and a database of the classification was created. Postoperatively, the type of surgery performed was added to the database and comparison was done using an independent t test.   Kappa coefficient was 0.92 and showed excellent agreement between the type assigned preoperatively to the patient and the type of procedure done.   This system proves to provide good descriptions of the deformities, is user friendly, facilitates the planning of the corrective surgical procedure, and enhances the communicative lingo between surgeons and members of cleft multidisciplinary care teams. It is broadly applicable in outreach missions with limited resources and cleft referral centers with considerable load.

  19. Severe obesity and cardiometabolic risk in children: comparison from two international classification systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Valerio

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or the World Health Organization (WHO curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥ 99(th percentile or ≥ 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001. The CDC 99(th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2, higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3 and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9 than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥ 2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1. Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95(th percentile, in particular in children ≤ 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95(th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99(th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of

  20. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  1. Risk evaluation and monitoring in multiple sclerosis therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Michel C; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Ashton, Raymond J; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Reingold, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    Risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMT) must be assessed on an ongoing basis. Early concerns regarding the first-approved DMTs for MS have been mitigated, but recently licensed therapies have been linked to possibly greater risks. The objective of this review is to discuss risk assessment in MS therapeutics based on an international workshop and comprehensive literature search and recommend strategies for risk assessment/monitoring. Assessment and perception of therapeutic risks vary between patients, doctors and regulators. Acceptability of risk depends on the magnitude of risk and the demonstrated clinical benefits of any agent. Safety signals must be distinguishable from chance occurrences in a clinical trial and in long-term use of medications. Post-marketing research is crucial for assessing longer-term safety in large patient cohorts. Reporting of adverse events is becoming more proactive, allowing more rapid identification of risks. Communication about therapeutic risks and their relationship to clinical benefit must involve patients in shared decision making. It is difficult to produce a general risk-assessment algorithm for all MS therapies. Specific algorithms are required for each DMT in every treated-patient population. New and evolving risks must be evaluated and communicated rapidly to allow patients and physicians to be well informed and able to share treatment decisions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Evaluation of the Chinese Fine Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Satellite TianGong-1 in Urban Land-Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueke Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Chinese high spatial resolution hyperspectral satellite TianGong-1 (TG-1 opens up new possibilities for applications of remotely-sensed satellite imagery. One of the main goals of the TG-1 mission is to provide observations of surface attributes at local and landscape spatial scales to map urban land cover accurately using the hyperspectral technique. This study attempted to evaluate the TG-1 datasets for urban feature analysis, using existing data over Beijing, China, by comparing the TG-1 (with a spatial resolution of 10 m to EO-1 Hyperion (with a spatial resolution of 30 m. The spectral feature of TG-1 was first analyzed and, thus, finding out optimal hyperspectral wavebands useful for the discrimination of urban areas. Based on this, the pixel-based maximum likelihood classifier (PMLC, pixel-based support vector machine (PSVM, hybrid maximum likelihood classifier (HMLC, and hybrid support vector machine (HSVM were implemented, as well as compared in the application of mapping urban land cover types. The hybrid classifier approach, which integrates the pixel-based classifier and the object-based segmentation approach, was demonstrated as an effective alternative to the conventional pixel-based classifiers for processing the satellite hyperspectral data, especially the fine spatial resolution data. For TG-1 imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 89.1%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 91.8%. For Hyperion imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 85.9%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 86.7%. Overall, it can be concluded that the fine spatial resolution satellite hyperspectral data TG-1 is promising in delineating complex urban scenes, especially when using an appropriate classifier, such as the

  3. RISK ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION FOR CRITICAL LOGISTICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Düerkop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistical infrastructure builds the backbone of an economy. Without an effective logistical infrastructure in place, the supply for both enterprises and consumers might not be met. But even a high-quality logistical infrastructure can be threatened by risks. Thus, it is important to identify, analyse, and evaluate risks for logistical infrastructure that might threaten logistical processes. Only if those risks are known and their impact estimated, decision makers can implement counteractive measures to reduce risks. In this article, we develop a network-based approach that allows for the evaluation of risks and their consequences onto the logistical network. We will demonstrate the relevance of this approach by applying it to the logistics network of the central German state of Hesse. Even though transport data is extensively tracked and recorded nowadays, typical daily risks, like accidents on a motorway, and extraordinary risks, like a bridge at risk to collapse, terrorist attacks or climate-related catastrophes, are not systematically anticipated. Several studies unveiled recently that the overall impact for an economy of possible failures of single nodes and/or edges in a network are not calculated, and particularly critical edges are not identified in advance. We address this information gap by a method that helps to identify and quantify risks in a given network. To reach this objective, we define a mathematical optimization model that quantifies the current “risk-related costs” of the overall network and quantify the risk by investigating the change of the overall costs in the case a risk is realized.

  4. Risk evaluation system for operational events and inspection findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, A.; Godinez S, V.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: alopezg@cnsns.gob.m [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed an adaptation of the US NRC Significance Determination Process (SDP) to evaluate the risk significance of operational events and inspection findings in Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. The Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Commission developed a plant specific flow chart for preliminary screening instead of the open questionnaire used by the US NRC-SDP, with the aim to improve the accuracy of the screening process. Also, the work sheets and support information tables required by the SDP were built up in an Excel application which allows to perform the risk evaluation in an automatic way, focusing the regulator staff efforts in the risk significance analysis instead of the risk calculation tasks. In order to construct this tool a simplified PRA model was developed and validated with the individual plant examination model. This paper shows the Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Commission process and some risk events evaluations performed using the Risk Evaluation System for Operational Events and Inspection Findings (SERHE, by its acronyms in Spanish). (Author)

  5. Evaluating invasion risk for freshwater fishes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Marr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa, as a signatory of the Convention on Biological Diversity, has an obligation to identify, prioritise and manage invasive species and their introduction pathways. However, this requires knowledge of the introduction pathways, factors influencing establishment success, invasive potential, current distributions and ecological impacts. Objectives: To evaluate the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK to predict the invasion risk posed by fish species proposed for introduction into South Africa. Method: FISK assessments were compiled for species whose invasion status in South Africa was known. A Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was conducted to calibrate the FISK for South Africa. The calibrated FISK was used to evaluate the risk that three species recently proposed for importation for aquaculture could become invasive in South Africa. Results: A FISK score of 14 was identified as the threshold to delineate between species that could become invasive in South Africa and those that are unlikely to become invasive. Of the three species evaluated, Silurus glanis had a high risk of becoming invasive in South Africa, Lates calcarifer was likely to be invasive and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was unlikely to be invasive in South Africa. Conclusion: FISK was demonstrated to be a useful risk assessment tool to evaluate the invasion risk posed by species proposed for use in aquaculture. For the large number of fish imported for the pet trade, a rapid screening assessment to flag potentially high risk species was recommended prior to a full FISK assessment for flagged species.

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing in Oncology: Genetic Diagnosis, Risk Prediction and Cancer Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Rick; Brandão, Rita D; Bosch, Bianca J van den; Paulussen, Aimee D C; Xanthoulea, Sofia; Blok, Marinus J; Romano, Andrea

    2017-01-31

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has expanded in the last decades with significant improvements in the reliability, sequencing chemistry, pipeline analyses, data interpretation and costs. Such advances make the use of NGS feasible in clinical practice today. This review describes the recent technological developments in NGS applied to the field of oncology. A number of clinical applications are reviewed, i.e., mutation detection in inherited cancer syndromes based on DNA-sequencing, detection of spliceogenic variants based on RNA-sequencing, DNA-sequencing to identify risk modifiers and application for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer somatic mutation analysis, pharmacogenetics and liquid biopsy. Conclusive remarks, clinical limitations, implications and ethical considerations that relate to the different applications are provided.

  7. Next-Generation Sequencing in Oncology: Genetic Diagnosis, Risk Prediction and Cancer Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Kamps

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technology has expanded in the last decades with significant improvements in the reliability, sequencing chemistry, pipeline analyses, data interpretation and costs. Such advances make the use of NGS feasible in clinical practice today. This review describes the recent technological developments in NGS applied to the field of oncology. A number of clinical applications are reviewed, i.e., mutation detection in inherited cancer syndromes based on DNA-sequencing, detection of spliceogenic variants based on RNA-sequencing, DNA-sequencing to identify risk modifiers and application for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer somatic mutation analysis, pharmacogenetics and liquid biopsy. Conclusive remarks, clinical limitations, implications and ethical considerations that relate to the different applications are provided.

  8. Next-Generation Sequencing in Oncology: Genetic Diagnosis, Risk Prediction and Cancer Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Rick; Brandão, Rita D.; van den Bosch, Bianca J.; Paulussen, Aimee D. C.; Xanthoulea, Sofia; Blok, Marinus J.; Romano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has expanded in the last decades with significant improvements in the reliability, sequencing chemistry, pipeline analyses, data interpretation and costs. Such advances make the use of NGS feasible in clinical practice today. This review describes the recent technological developments in NGS applied to the field of oncology. A number of clinical applications are reviewed, i.e., mutation detection in inherited cancer syndromes based on DNA-sequencing, detection of spliceogenic variants based on RNA-sequencing, DNA-sequencing to identify risk modifiers and application for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer somatic mutation analysis, pharmacogenetics and liquid biopsy. Conclusive remarks, clinical limitations, implications and ethical considerations that relate to the different applications are provided. PMID:28146134

  9. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  10. Evaluation of feature selection algorithms for classification in temporal lobe epilepsy based on MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chunren; Guo, Shengwen; Cheng, Lina; Wang, Wensheng; Wu, Kai

    2017-02-01

    It's very important to differentiate the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients from healthy people and localize the abnormal brain regions of the TLE patients. The cortical features and changes can reveal the unique anatomical patterns of brain regions from the structural MR images. In this study, structural MR images from 28 normal controls (NC), 18 left TLE (LTLE), and 21 right TLE (RTLE) were acquired, and four types of cortical feature, namely cortical thickness (CTh), cortical surface area (CSA), gray matter volume (GMV), and mean curvature (MCu), were explored for discriminative analysis. Three feature selection methods, the independent sample t-test filtering, the sparse-constrained dimensionality reduction model (SCDRM), and the support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE), were investigated to extract dominant regions with significant differences among the compared groups for classification using the SVM classifier. The results showed that the SVM-REF achieved the highest performance (most classifications with more than 92% accuracy), followed by the SCDRM, and the t-test. Especially, the surface area and gray volume matter exhibited prominent discriminative ability, and the performance of the SVM was improved significantly when the four cortical features were combined. Additionally, the dominant regions with higher classification weights were mainly located in temporal and frontal lobe, including the inferior temporal, entorhinal cortex, fusiform, parahippocampal cortex, middle frontal and frontal pole. It was demonstrated that the cortical features provided effective information to determine the abnormal anatomical pattern and the proposed method has the potential to improve the clinical diagnosis of the TLE.

  11. Evaluation of formant-like features on an automatic vowel classification task

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Febe; Weber, Katrin; Boves, Louis; Cranen, Bert; Bengio, Samy; Bourlard, Hervé

    2004-09-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to find low-dimensional, formant-related representations of speech signals that are suitable for automatic speech recognition. However, it is often not known how these features behave in comparison with true formants. The purpose of this study was to compare two sets of automatically extracted formant-like features, i.e., robust formants and HMM2 features, to hand-labeled formants. The robust formant features were derived by means of the split Levinson algorithm while the HMM2 features correspond to the frequency segmentation of speech signals obtained by two-dimensional hidden Markov models. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were also included in the investigation as an example of state-of-the-art automatic speech recognition features. The feature sets were compared in terms of their performance on a vowel classification task. The speech data and hand-labeled formants that were used in this study are a subset of the American English vowels database presented in Hillenbrand et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3099-3111 (1995)]. Classification performance was measured on the original, clean data and in noisy acoustic conditions. When using clean data, the classification performance of the formant-like features compared very well to the performance of the hand-labeled formants in a gender-dependent experiment, but was inferior to the hand-labeled formants in a gender-independent experiment. The results that were obtained in noisy acoustic conditions indicated that the formant-like features used in this study are not inherently noise robust. For clean and noisy data as well as for the gender-dependent and gender-independent experiments the MFCCs achieved the same or superior results as the formant features, but at the price of a much higher feature dimensionality.

  12. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  13. Evaluation of the Myo armband for the classification of hand motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, I; Hansen, B W; Grabow, C M; Smedegaard, E J L; Skogberg, N B; Uth, X J; Bruhn, A; Geng, B; Kamavuako, E N

    2017-07-01

    Pattern recognition-based control systems have been widely investigated in prostheses and virtual reality environments to improve amputees' quality of life. Most of these systems use surface electromyography (EMG) to detect user movement intentions. The Myo armband (MYB) is a wireless wearable device, developed by Thalmic Labs, which enables EMG recordings with a limited bandwidth (classification error of 5.82 ± 3.63% for CONV and 9.86 ± 8.05% for MYB with no significantly difference (P = 0.056). This implies that MYB may be suitable for pattern recognition applications despite the limitation in the bandwidth.

  14. Evaluation of the World Health Organization 2009 classification of dengue severity in autopsied individuals, during the epidemics of 2011 and 2012 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Braga, Deborah Nunes de Melo; Pompeu, Margarida Maria de Lima; Lima, Antônio Afonso Bezerra; Silva, Lívia Maria Alexandre da; Aguiar, Marina Gondim; Castiglioni, Mariana; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho; Malta, Daniele Lima; Queiroz, Anastácio

    2015-01-01

    The dengue classification proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009 is considered more sensitive than the classification proposed by the WHO in 1997. However, no study has assessed the ability of the WHO 2009 classification to identify dengue deaths among autopsied individuals suspected of having dengue. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of the WHO 2009 classification to identify dengue deaths among autopsied individuals suspected of having dengue in Northeast Brazil, where the disease is endemic. This retrospective study included 121 autopsied individuals suspected of having dengue in Northeast Brazil during the epidemics of 2011 and 2012. All the autopsied individuals included in this study were confirmed to have dengue based on the findings of laboratory examinations. The median age of the autopsied individuals was 34 years (range, 1 month to 93 years), and 54.5% of the individuals were males. According to the WHO 1997 classification, 9.1% (11/121) of the cases were classified as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 3.3% (4/121) as dengue shock syndrome. The remaining 87.6% (106/121) of the cases were classified as dengue with complications. According to the 2009 classification, 100% (121/121) of the cases were classified as severe dengue. The absence of plasma leakage (58.5%) and platelet counts classification is more sensitive than the WHO 1997 classification for identifying dengue deaths among autopsied individuals suspected of having dengue.

  15. Evaluation and integration of disparate classification systems for clefts of the lip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kathie H.; Heike, Carrie L.; Clarkson, Melissa D.; Mejino, Jose L. V.; Brinkley, James F.; Tse, Raymond W.; Birgfeld, Craig B.; Fitzsimons, David A.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Orofacial clefting is a common birth defect with wide phenotypic variability. Many systems have been developed to classify cleft patterns to facilitate diagnosis, management, surgical treatment, and research. In this review, we examine the rationale for different existing classification schemes and determine their inter-relationships, as well as strengths and deficiencies for subclassification of clefts of the lip. The various systems differ in how they describe and define attributes of cleft lip (CL) phenotypes. Application and analysis of the CL classifications reveal discrepancies that may result in errors when comparing studies that use different systems. These inconsistencies in terminology, variable levels of subclassification, and ambiguity in some descriptions may confound analyses and impede further research aimed at understanding the genetics and etiology of clefts, development of effective treatment options for patients, as well as cross-institutional comparisons of outcome measures. Identification and reconciliation of discrepancies among existing systems is the first step toward creating a common standard to allow for a more explicit interpretation that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the causes and manifestations of phenotypic variations in clefting. PMID:24860508

  16. Evaluation and integration of disparate classification systems for clefts of the lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie H Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orofacial clefting is a common birth defect with wide phenotypic variability. Many systems have been developed to classify cleft patterns to facilitate diagnosis, management, surgical treatment, and research. In this review, we examine the rationale for different existing classification schemes and determine their inter-relationships, as well as strengths and deficiencies for subclassification of clefts of the lip. The various systems differ in how they describe and define attributes of cleft lip phenotypes. Application and analysis of the cleft lip classifications reveal discrepancies that may result in errors when comparing studies that use different systems. These inconsistencies in terminology, variable levels of subclassification, and ambiguity in some descriptions may confound analyses and impede further research aimed at understanding the genetics and etiology of clefts, development of effective treatment options for patients, as well as cross-institutional comparisons of outcome measures. Identification and reconciliation of discrepancies among existing systems is the first step towards creating a common standard to allow for a more explicit interpretation that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the causes and manifestations of phenotypic variations in clefting.

  17. [Re-evaluation of classification of myelodysplastic syndromes with low percentage bone marrow blasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Hua; Xu, Ze-Feng; Li, Lin; Nie, Ling; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Qin, Tie-Jun; Hao, Yu-Shu; Xiao, Zhi-Jian

    2009-01-01

    To apply the WHO criteria and the minimal diagnostic criteria to the classification of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with low percentage (MDS patients with less than 0.050 BM blasts diagnosed between 1988 and 2005 according to FAB criteria were retrospectively reclassified with WHO criteria (2001) and minimal diagnostic criteria. According to the WHO criteria, 5 patients were diagnosed as refractory anemia (RA), 7 as refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 76 as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), 9 as RCMD-RS, 35 as MDS-unclassified (MDS-U), 3 as 5q - syndromes, and the rest 75 patients could not be classified suitably. Among the latter 75 patients 16 BM smears showed dysplasia in more than 2 cell lineage but only unilineage cytopenia in peripheral blood (PB). Nine of them were reclassified as RCMD after followed up for more than half a year. Forty-four BM smears showed erythroid dysplasia only, but bicytopenia or pancytopenia in PB. Twenty-seven of them were classified as RCMD after follow-up. Fifteen BM smears not showed dysplasia in any myeloid lineage were reclassified as MDS (5 patients), HS-MDS (5 patients) and idiopathic cytopenia of uncertain significance (ICUS) (5 patients) according to the MDS minimal diagnostic criteria. According to WHO criteria (2001), RA is the least diagnosis in MDS. The minimal diagnostic criteria for MDS classification of patients not fulfilled the standard criteria of MDS.

  18. Re-evaluation of acute erythroid leukemia according to the 2016 WHO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Pourabdollah, Maryam; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Tierens, Anne; Schimmer, Aaron; Chang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    In the recent update of WHO classification, the definition of myeloid neoplasms with erythroid predominance has been modified shifting the main criteria for calculating blast percentage from non-erythroid cells (NEC) to all nucleated marrow cells (ANC). Thus, the cases previously classified as erythroid/myeloid subtype of acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) based on the 2008 WHO will now be categorized either as myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts (MDS-EB) or acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (AML-NOS). However, the clinical significance of this new classification has not been demonstrated. Thus, we reviewed a leukemia database and reclassified 38 cases previously diagnosed as AEL, erythroid/myeloid subtype, with the consideration of 2016 revision criteria. Twenty seven (71%) of them had >20% blasts in NEC but less than 20% blasts in ANC, and 11 (29%) had >20% in both NEC and ANC. There was no significant difference in overall survivals (OS) among AEL, MDS-EB, and AML-NOS (non-erythroid predominance, NEP). However, AML with myelodysplasia-related changes showed significant shorter OS than AEL, MDS-EB and AML-NOS (NEP). Our results indicate that in myeloid neoplasm with erythroid predominance, patients with >20% blasts, of either NEC or ANC, share similar clinical laboratory features and survival outcomes with AML-NOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved Fault Classification in Series Compensated Transmission Line: Comparative Evaluation of Chebyshev Neural Network Training Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Bhargav Y; Das, Biswarup; Maheshwari, Rudra Prakash

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the Chebyshev neural network (ChNN) as an improved artificial intelligence technique for power system protection studies and examines the performances of two ChNN learning algorithms for fault classification of series compensated transmission line. The training algorithms are least-square Levenberg-Marquardt (LSLM) and recursive least-square algorithm with forgetting factor (RLSFF). The performances of these algorithms are assessed based on their generalization capability in relating the fault current parameters with an event of fault in the transmission line. The proposed algorithm is fast in response as it utilizes postfault samples of three phase currents measured at the relaying end corresponding to half-cycle duration only. After being trained with only a small part of the generated fault data, the algorithms have been tested over a large number of fault cases with wide variation of system and fault parameters. Based on the studies carried out in this paper, it has been found that although the RLSFF algorithm is faster for training the ChNN in the fault classification application for series compensated transmission lines, the LSLM algorithm has the best accuracy in testing. The results prove that the proposed ChNN-based method is accurate, fast, easy to design, and immune to the level of compensations. Thus, it is suitable for digital relaying applications.

  20. Adjacent tooth trauma in complicated mandibular third molar surgery: Risk degree classification and digital surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Ge, Jing

    2016-12-15

    Analysis of adjacent tooth resistance is essential in wisdom teeth extraction to prevent adjacent tooth trauma, however it lacks adequate attention nowadays. This study aims at suggesting special extraction methods based on adjacent tooth resistance analysis for prevention of adjacent tooth damage. In this study, 136 complicated mandibular third molars extracted using piezosurgery were reviewed and classified based on the adjacent teeth resistances shown in orthopantomogram (OPG) during their mesio-distal rotations: degree I refers to teeth with no adjacent teeth resistance; degree II refers to teeth with resistance released after mesial-half crown sectioning; degree III refers to teeth which still had resistance after mesial-half crown sectioning. With the use of surgical simulations using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) reconstruction, all teeth in degree I were designed to rotate mesio-distally; 86.36%(38/44) teeth in degree II were designed to rotate mesio-distally after mesio-half crown sectioning; 69.09%(36/55) teeth in degree III were designed to rotate bucco-lingually. All teeth were extracted successfully, and only one adjacent tooth was subluxated due to the incomplete bone removal. Our study suggested that in order to prevent adjacent teeth trauma, complete bone removal is of importance, and impacted teeth with higher adjacent teeth trauma risks should consider bucco-lingual rotations.

  1. Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayama Imazu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to develop a useful application to use big data like as AIS for safety and efficiency of ship operation. AIS is very useful system to collect targets information, but this information is not effective use yet. The evaluation method of collision risk is one of the cause disturb. Usually the collision risk of ship is evaluated by the value of the Closest Point of Approach (CPA which is related to a relative motion. So, it becomes difficult to find out a safety pass in a congested water. Here, Line of Predicted Collision (LOPC and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT for evaluation of collision risk are introduced, these values are related to a true motion and it became visible of dangerous place, so it will make easy to find out a safety pass in a congested water.

  2. Approach for evaluating inundation risks in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Chen, Zhihe; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Peiying

    2016-05-15

    Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers. Hence, inundation evaluation is becoming increasingly important around the world. This comprehensive assessment involves numerous indices in urban catchments, but the high-dimensional and non-linear relationship between the indices and the risk presents an enormous challenge for accurate evaluation. Therefore, an approach is hereby proposed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate inundation risks in urban drainage systems based on a storm water management model, the projection pursuit method, the ordinary kriging method and the K-means clustering method. This approach is tested using a residential district in Guangzhou, China. Seven evaluation indices were selected and twenty rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate and validate the parameters of the rainfall-runoff model. The inundation risks in the study area drainage system were evaluated under different rainfall scenarios. The following conclusions are reached. (1) The proposed approach, without subjective factors, can identify the main driving factors, i.e., inundation duration, largest water flow and total flood amount in this study area. (2) The inundation risk of each manhole can be qualitatively analyzed and quantitatively calculated. There are 1, 8, 11, 14, 21, and 21 manholes at risk under the return periods of 1-year, 5-years, 10-years, 20-years, 50-years and 100-years, respectively. (3) The areas of levels III, IV and V increase with increasing rainfall return period based on analyzing the inundation risks for a variety of characteristics. (4) The relationships between rainfall intensity and inundation-affected areas are revealed by a logarithmic model. This study proposes a novel and successful approach to assessing risk in urban drainage systems and provides guidance for improving urban drainage systems and inundation preparedness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Evaluation of Digital Classification of Polarimetric SAR Data for Iron-Mineralized Laterites Mapping in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the potential of C- and L-band polarimetric SAR data for the discrimination of iron-mineralized laterites in the Brazilian Amazon region. The study area is the N1 plateau located on the northern border of the Carajás Mineral Province, the most important Brazilian mineral province which has numerous mineral deposits, particularly the world’s largest iron deposits. The plateau is covered by low-density savanna-type vegetation (campus rupestres which contrasts visibly with the dense equatorial forest. The laterites are subdivided into three units: chemical crust, iron-ore duricrust, and hematite, of which only the latter two are of economic interest. Full polarimetric data from the airborne R99B sensor of the SIVAM/CENSIPAM (L-band system and the RADARSAT-2 satellite (C-band were evaluated. The study focused on an assessment of distinct schemes for digital classification based on decomposition theory and hybrid approach, which incorporates statistical analysis as input data derived from the target decomposition modeling. The results indicated that the polarimetric classifications presented a poor performance, with global Kappa values below 0.20. The accuracy for the identification of units of economic interest varied from 55% to 89%, albeit with high commission error values. In addition, the results using L-band were considered superior compared to C-band, which suggest that the roughness scale for laterite discrimination in the area is nearer to L than to C-band.

  4. Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Hayama Imazu

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to develop a useful application to use big data like as AIS for safety and efficiency of ship operation. AIS is very useful system to collect targets information, but this information is not effective use yet. The evaluation method of collision risk is one of the cause disturb. Usually the collision risk of ship is evaluated by the value of the Closest Point of Approach (CPA) which is related to a relative motion. So, it becomes difficult to find out a safety pass in a congest...

  5. MRI evaluation of complex renal cysts using the Bosniak classification: a comparison to CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aila Menezes; Reis, Rodolfo Borges; Kajiwara, Plinio Prizon; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros; Elias, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) to discriminate between benign and malignant cystic renal lesions utilizing the Bosniak classification. We retrospectively searched our Radiological Information System using renal/kidney cysts as entries. The search retrieved 2929 patients and 525 complex renal cysts. After exclusions, 42 complex cysts, from 37 patients, with CT and MRI, up to six months apart, were included. Surgery and pathology report and follow-up of at least 24 months were used as a standard of reference. The mean age of patients was 51.4 years, ranging from 11 to 82 years old. Twenty-nine lesions were classified as Bosniak I, II or II-F by CT and/or MRI and 13 as Bosniak III or IV, by one of the methods. The interobserver agreement for Bosniak classification for CT was 0.87 and 0.93 for MRI. Fifteen lesions had higher Bosniak categories on MRI, included six with change in management. Only two lesions had a higher category on CT, one with change in management. The frequency of malignancy for Bosniak III was 50 % (2/4) for CT and 20% for MRI (1/5), as Bosniak upgrades by MRI resulted in surgery for benign lesions. Both methods had 100 % frequency of malignancy for category 4. MRI led to category migration and management change of complex renal cysts in a significant proportion of cases, likely due to its superior soft tissue and contrast resolution. The impact of MRI on detection and outcomes of malignant complex renal cysts still requires further investigation.

  6. Breast ultrasound lesions classification: a performance evaluation between manual delineation and computer segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Yap, Chuin Hong

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a threat to women worldwide. Manual delineation on breast ultrasound lesions is time-consuming and operator dependent. Computer segmentation of ultrasound breast lesions can be a challenging task due to the ill-defined lesions boundaries and issues related to the speckle noise in ultrasound images. The main contribution of this paper is to compare the performance of the computer classifier on the manual delineation and computer segmentation in malignant and benign lesions classification. This paper we implement computer segmentation using multifractal approach on a database consists of 120 images (50 malignant lesions and 70 benign lesions). The computer segmentation result is compared with the manual delineation using Jaccard Similarity Index (JSI). The result shows that the average JSI of 0.5010 (+/-0.2088) for malignant lesions and the average JSI of 0.6787 (+/-0.1290) for benign lesions. These results indicate lower agreement in malignant lesions due to the irregular shape while the higher agreement in benign lesions with regular shape. Further, we extract the shape descriptors for the lesions. By using logistic regression with 10 fold cross validation, the classification rates of manual delineation and computer segmentation are computed. The computer segmentation produced results with sensitivity 0.780 and specificity 0.871. However, the manual delineation produced sensitivity of 0.520 and specificity of 0.800. The results show that there are no clear differences between the delineation in MD and CS in benign lesions but the computer segmentation on malignant lesions shows better accuracy for computer classifier.

  7. Risk evaluation of liquefaction on the site of Damien (Haiti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, B. J.; Boisson, D.; Thimus, J.; Schroeder, C.

    2013-12-01

    Under the proposed relocation of all faculties to the campus of Damien, owned by Université d'Etat d'Haïti (UEH), the Unité de Recherche en Géotechnique (URGéo) of the Faculté des Sciences (FDS) of UEH conducted several operations whose objective was to evaluate the risk of liquefaction on this site. This abstract presents a comprehensive and coherent manner the entire processus of assessing the risk of liquefaction. This evaluation was conducted mainly from seismic thechniques, laboratory tests and the response of a one-dimensional soil column. Then, we summarize the results of this evaluation on the various techniques through synthetic maps interpretations of MASW 1D and H/V and also measures on site response to seismic loading from the SPT test applied to evaluation of liquefaction potential.

  8. China's community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples´ preconception health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2016-12-28

    Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the

  9. Evaluation of image-based multibeam sonar backscatter classification for benthic habitat discrimination and mapping at Stanton Banks, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Chris; Brown, Craig; Quinn, Rory; Grabowski, Jonathan

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, efforts have increased to develop quantitative, computer-directed methods for segmentation of multibeam (MBES) backscatter data. This study utilises MBES backscatter data acquired at Stanton Banks (UK) and subsequently processed through the QTC-Multiview software environment in a bid to evaluate the program's ability to perform unsupervised classification. Statistical comparison with ground-truth data (grab, stills and video) enabled cross validation of acoustic segmentation and biological assemblages observed at the site. 132 unspecified variables were extracted from user-specified rectangular patches of the backscatter image, reduced to three vectors by PCA, then clustered and classified by the software. Multivariate analyses of ground-truth data were conducted on 75 stills images and 51 grab samples. Video footage coincident with the stills was divided into 30 s segments and coded by dominant substrate and species. Cross tabulation determined the interrelationship between software classifications, multivariate analysis of the biological assemblages and coded video segments. Multiview optimally identified 19 classes using the automated clustering engine. These were revised to 6 habitats a posteriori, using combined analysis of ground-truth data and Multiview data products. These habitats broadly correspond to major physiographic provinces within the region. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals low levels of assemblage similarity (data is more spatially appropriate than the other methods of ground-truthing investigated, although it is less well suited to the extraction of truly quantitative data. Multivariate analysis indicates assemblages within physiographically distinct Multiview classes have a low degree of biological similarity, supporting the notion that abiotic proxies may be contraindicative of benthic assemblage variations. QTC-Multiview performs well as a mechanism for computer-assisted segmentation of MBES backscatter imagery into

  10. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  11. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL RATIONALES OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK EVALUATION AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical and economical rationales for cardiovascular risk evaluation at workplace (on example of the personnel of engineering research institute.Material and methods. Complex preventive screening with evaluation of arterial hypertension (HT prevalence, cardiovascular risk level and requirement for risk factors correction is performed. Economical rationales for preventive screening (with estimation of the total costs, costs for one studied person and costs for revealing of one person needed in preventive actions are also estimated.Results. Preventive screening in the organized collective found new HT cases (12,2%, high and very high cardiovascular risk (58,6%. The desire for risk factors correction is found in 13,0-59,0% of workers. The total costs for preventive screening of 468 persons were 174413 rubles in 3,5 months. Costs for examination of one worker were 561,7 rubles. Costs for detecting of one worker requiring preventive actions were from 635,6 to 3077,4 rublesConclusion. There are rationales for preventive screening of cardiovascular risk and desire to correct it at the workplace. 

  12. CLINICAL AND ECONOMICAL RATIONALES OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK EVALUATION AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study clinical and economical rationales for cardiovascular risk evaluation at workplace (on example of the personnel of engineering research institute.Material and methods. Complex preventive screening with evaluation of arterial hypertension (HT prevalence, cardiovascular risk level and requirement for risk factors correction is performed. Economical rationales for preventive screening (with estimation of the total costs, costs for one studied person and costs for revealing of one person needed in preventive actions are also estimated.Results. Preventive screening in the organized collective found new HT cases (12,2%, high and very high cardiovascular risk (58,6%. The desire for risk factors correction is found in 13,0-59,0% of workers. The total costs for preventive screening of 468 persons were 174413 rubles in 3,5 months. Costs for examination of one worker were 561,7 rubles. Costs for detecting of one worker requiring preventive actions were from 635,6 to 3077,4 rublesConclusion. There are rationales for preventive screening of cardiovascular risk and desire to correct it at the workplace. 

  13. Correlation of Estradiol Serum Levels with Classification of Osteoporosis Risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in Menopause Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maya Puspita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In postmenopausal women, decreasing estrogen levels is a marker of ovarian dysfunction. Hypoestrogenic state has known increasing the risk of osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the correlation between estradiol serum levels with classification of osteoporosis risk OSTA (Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tools for Asian in menopausal women. Methods: This study was case series study which examined estradiol serum in menopausal women by ELISA and assess the osteoporosis risk using osteoporosis risk classification OSTA. Total 47 samples was collected at Dr. H.Adam malik, dr. Pirngadi, and RSU Networking in Medan. This research was conducted from May to December 2016. Data were statistically analyzed, and presented with Spearman test. Results: In this study, we found the mean levels of estradiol in menopausal women was 18.62 ± 16.85 ng / ml with OSTA osteoporosis risk score of 2.09 ± 2.45. There was a significant positive correlation between estradiol and risk of osteoporosis OSTA with correlation coefficient r = 0.825 and p <0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong positive correlation between serum levels of estradiol with OSTA osteoporosis risk assessment in menopausal women.

  14. Evaluation of forest management systems under risk of wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Hyytiainen; Robert G. Haight

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the economic efficiency of even- and uneven-aged management systems under risk of wildfire. The management problems are formulated for a mixed-conifer stand and approximations of the optimal solutions are obtained using simulation optimization. The Northern Idaho variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator and its Fire and Fuels Extension is used to predict...

  15. Towards Empirical Evaluation of Automated Risk Assessment Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadyatskaya, Olga; Labunets, Katsiaryna; Paci, Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Security risk assessment methods are numerous, and it might be confusing for organizations to select one. Researchers have conducted empirical studies with established methods in order to find factors that influence their effectiveness and ease of use. In this paper we evaluate the recent TREsPASS

  16. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  17. Evaluating Mediterranean Soil Contamination Risks in Selected Hydrological Scenarios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, de la D.; Crompvoets, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt of predicting the contamination risk of soils and water as they respond to hydrological changes in the agricultural lands of Sevilla province, Spain. Based on land evaluation methodologies, a semi-empirical model (named Pantanal, as module of the integrated package

  18. EVALUATION bF THE INFANT AT RISK FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9. EVALUATION bF THE INFANT AT. RISK FOR NEURODEVELOPMENTAL. DISABILITY. C D Molteno, M C Thompson, S S Buccimazza, V Magasiner,. FMHann. Background. Infants with neurodevelopmental abnormality need to start therapy early, and because of this they should be detected as soon as possible. Currently ...

  19. Evaluation of ergonomic risk factors in manual patient handling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the prevalence of WMSDs among nurses in West Bengal, India, evaluates the postural stresses and analyses manual patient handling risks. Responses were collected from 220 nurses by validated questionnaires. The activity and posture analyses were done through photography and by ...

  20. Evaluating the Security Risks of System Using Hidden Markov Models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the Security Risks of System Using Hidden Markov Models. ... tool to an existing multifactor authentication model. The results of the analysis and the empirical study provide insights into the authentication model design problem and establish a foundation for future research in system authentication application.

  1. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Development and evaluation of a survey-based type of benefit classification for the Social Security program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D R

    1989-01-01

    This attempt to classify Social Security beneficiaries by type of benefit using the new Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) has yielded promising results. Evaluations of the classification algorithm based on comparison of the estimated number of beneficiaries in each of the several categories to independent estimates of the number of beneficiaries indicate that in most instances a high percentage of each category has been identified. For the most part, age and monthly benefit amount size distributions seem reasonable. Furthermore, very few persons in the sample who were identified as Social Security beneficiaries could not be assigned to one or another of the benefit groups. The classification procedure also represents a marked improvement over earlier efforts to classify type of beneficiary that relied on data from the March Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Most importantly, the benefit classification scheme based on SIPP data appears to provide reasonably reliable distinctions between retired-worker and widow benefits for widowed women and permits the identification of retired-worker benefits for those women dually entitled to retired-worker and spouse benefits. In addition, the distinction between disabled- and retired-worker benefits for recipients aged 62-64 appears to be reasonably reliable, and for women under age 65, the classification procedure distinguishes between disabled-worker benefits on the one hand and widow and widowed mother benefits on the other. Finally, SIPP procedures for identifying minor child beneficiaries yield markedly better estimates than those available from the Current Population Survey. These improvements in the SIPP context are due entirely to the presence of information not collected in the CPS. The enhancement of the SIPP data set in turn resulted directly from an assessment of earlier work carried out by Projector and Bretz in the CPS context and on extensive research into the nature of Social

  3. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Papin, Arnaud [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Padox, Jean-Marie [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Hasebrouck, Benoît [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Knowledge of wastes in substances will be necessary to assess HP1–HP15 hazard properties. • A new analytical protocol is proposed for this and tested by two service laboratories on 32 samples. • Sixty-three percentage of the samples have a satisfactory analytical balance between 90% and 110%. • Eighty-four percentage of the samples were classified identically (Seveso Directive) for their hazardousness by the two laboratories. • The method, in progress, is being normalized in France and is be proposed to CEN. - Abstract: The classification of waste as hazardous could soon be assessed in Europe using largely the hazard properties of its constituents, according to the the Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) regulation. Comprehensive knowledge of the component constituents of a given waste will therefore be necessary. An analytical protocol for determining waste composition is proposed, which includes using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) screening methods to identify major elements and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) screening techniques to measure organic compounds. The method includes a gross or indicator measure of ‘pools’ of higher molecular weight organic substances that are taken to be less bioactive and less hazardous, and of unresolved ‘mass’ during the chromatography of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. The concentration of some elements and specific compounds that are linked to specific hazard properties and are subject to specific regulation (examples include: heavy metals, chromium(VI), cyanides, organo-halogens, and PCBs) are determined by classical quantitative analysis. To check the consistency of the analysis, the sum of the concentrations (including unresolved ‘pools’) should give a mass balance between 90% and 110%. Thirty-two laboratory samples comprising different industrial wastes (liquids and solids) were tested by two routine service laboratories, to give circa 7000 parameter

  4. An evaluation of the World Health Organization's 1997 and 2009 dengue classifications in hospitalized dengue patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuraihan; Zainordin, Nur A; Sim, Benedict L H; Zaid, Masliza; Haridan, Umi S; Aziz, Abu T A; Shueb, Rafidah H; Mustafa, Mahiran; Yusoff, Nik K N; Malik, Alam S; Lee, Christopher K C; Abubakar, Sazaly; Hoh, Boon Peng

    2014-07-14

    The latest revised version of the World Health Organization's dengue classification was released in 2009. A handful of studies have taken initiatives to evaluate the old and revised guidelines to determine early signs and symptoms of severe dengue. This retrospective study aimed to compare the classification of dengue using both the 1997 and 2009 guidelines in a selected cohort of dengue patients from Peninsular Malaysia between 2008 and 2012. Adult dengue patients were recruited from tertiary hospitals in two different states, Selangor and Kelantan, in Peninsular Malaysia. Their clinical manifestations were assessed. A total of 281 confirmed dengue patients were enrolled; the mean duration of illness at admission was five days. Of these, 88.6%, 10.7%, and 0.7% were classified according to the 1997 guidelines as having dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), respectively. When the WHO 2009 guidelines were applied, 17.1%, 78.3%, and 4.6% were classified as dengue without warning signs, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue, respectively. Our data suggests that the revised WHO 2009 guidelines stratify a much larger proportion of patients into a category that requires a higher level of medical and nursing care.

  5. [Anthropometric evaluation of pediatric patients with non-progressive chronic encephalopathy according to different methods of classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jéssica Socas; Gomes, Mirian Martins

    2014-09-01

    To perform anthropometric assessment of patients with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy, comparing two distinct references of nutritional classification, and to compare the estimated height to the length measured by stadiometer. Cross-sectional study including 0-3-year children with quadriplegic, chronic non-progressive encephalopathy in secondary public hospital. Length, weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and knee height were measured. The arm muscle circumference and estimated height were calculated. The following relations were evaluated: weight-for-age, length-for-age and weight-for-length, using as reference the charts of the the World Health Organization (WHO) and those proposed by Krick et al. Fourteen children with a mean age of 21 months were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric indicators showed significant difference between the two classification methods to assess nutritional indicators length/age (p=0.014), weight/age (p=0.014) and weight/length (p=0.001). There was significant correlation between measured length and estimated height (r=0.796, p=0.001). Evaluation of arm circumference and triceps skinfold showed that most patients presented some degree of malnutrition. According to arm muscle circumference, most were eutrophic. Specific curves for children with chronic non-progressive encephalopathy appear to underestimate malnutrition when one takes into account indicators involving weight. Curves developed for healthy children can be a good option for clinical practice and weight-for-length indicator and body composition measurements should be considered as complementary tools. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. [Risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the risk evaluation for malignant transformation breast intraductal papiloma. 277 women with pathologic nipple discharge were evaluated and operated on during 1994-2005. Nipple discharge was unilateral in 217 patients and bilateral in 60. The main diagnostic methods were clinical examination, ductography, discharge cytology. Cytologycal test was of greatest evidence. All 277 women were with small multiple papillomes. We found carcinoma in only 3 cases--1 intraductal and 2 invasive ductal carcinomas. According to our results 1.1% of our patient were with malignant potential.

  7. Core Self-Evaluations as Personal Factors in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model: An Application in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmanian, Rana; Smedema, Susan Miller; Thompson, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate Chan, Gelman, Ditchman, Kim, and Chiu's (2009) revised World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model using core self-evaluations (CSE) to account for Personal Factors in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: One hundred eighty-seven adults with SCI were…

  8. Systematic Classification of Disease Severity for Evaluation of Expanded Carrier Screening Panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A Lazarin

    Full Text Available Professional guidelines dictate that disease severity is a key criterion for carrier screening. Expanded carrier screening, which tests for hundreds to thousands of mutations simultaneously, requires an objective, systematic means of describing a given disease's severity to build screening panels. We hypothesized that diseases with characteristics deemed to be of highest impact would likewise be rated as most severe, and diseases with characteristics of lower impact would be rated as less severe. We describe a pilot test of this hypothesis in which we surveyed 192 health care professionals to determine the impact of specific disease phenotypic characteristics on perceived severity, and asked the same group to rate the severity of selected inherited diseases. The results support the hypothesis: we identified four "Tiers" of disease characteristics (1-4. Based on these responses, we developed an algorithm that, based on the combination of characteristics normally seen in an affected individual, classifies the disease as Profound, Severe, Moderate, or Mild. This algorithm allows simple classification of disease severity that is replicable and not labor intensive.

  9. Processes for Risk Evaluation and Chemical Prioritization for Risk Evaluation under the Amended Toxic Substances Control Act; Notice of Public Meetings and Opportunities for Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice provides information for two public meetings to obtain input into the Agency’s development of processes for risk evaluation and chemical prioritization for risk evaluation under amended TSCA.

  10. Partial imputation to improve predictive modelling in insurance risk classification using a hybrid positive selection algorithm and correlation-based feature selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duma, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available accuracy and resilience of supervised learning methods improve significantly when applied with the imputation strategy under these assumptions. Keywords: Insurance risk classification, missing data, positive selection, supervised learning. DATASETS... environment. The experiments were conducted on syn- thetic and real-world datasets and the results show excep- tional estimation accuracy, with error rates as low as 0.78% and 1.7% compared to other algorithms (such as SPIRIT and TinyDB). Furthermore...

  11. The use of current risk analysis tools evaluated towards preventing external domino accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, W.; Ale, B. J.M.; Soudan, K.

    Risk analysis is an essential tool for company safety policy. Risk analysis consists of identifying and evaluating all possible risks. The efficiency of risk analysis tools depends on the rigueur of identifying and evaluating all possible risks. The diversity in risk analysis procedures is such that

  12. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A framework for evaluating automatic indexing or classification in the context of retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golub, Korajlka; Soergel, Dagobert; Buchanan, George

    2016-01-01

    with existing evaluation approaches such as problems of aboutness and relevance assessments, implying the need to use more than a single “gold standard” method when evaluating indexing and retrieval and proposes a comprehensive evaluation framework. The framework is informed by a systematic review...... subject indexing, hard scientific evidence of their performance in operating information environments is scarce. A major reason for this is that research is usually conducted in laboratory conditions, excluding the complexities of real-life systems and situations. The paper reviews and discusses issues...... indirectly through analyzing retrieval performance....

  14. The Influence of Annotation, Corpus Design and Evaluation on the Outcome of Automatic Classification of Human Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kächele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of emotions into human computer interaction applications promises a more natural dialog between the user and the technical system he operates. In order to construct such machinery, continuous measuring of the affective state of the user becomes essential. While basic research that is aimed to capture and classify affective signals has progressed, many issues are still prevailing that hinder easy integration of affective signals into human-computer interaction. In this paper, we identify and investigate pitfalls in three steps of the work-flow of affective classification studies. It starts with the process of collecting affective data for the purpose of training suitable classifiers. Emotional data has to be created in which the target emotions are present. Therefore, human participants have to be stimulated suitably. We discuss the nature of these stimuli, their relevance to human-computer interaction and the repeatability of the data recording setting. Second, aspects of annotation procedures are investigated, which include the variances of individual raters, annotation delay, the impact of the used annotation tool and how individual ratings are combined to a unified label. Finally, the evaluation protocol is examined which includes, amongst others, the impact of the performance measure on the accuracy of a classification model. We hereby focus especially on the evaluation of classifier outputs against continuously annotated dimensions. Alongside the discussed problems and pitfalls and the ways how they affect the outcome, we provide solutions and alternatives to overcome these issues. As a final part of the paper we sketch a recording scenario and a set of supporting technologies that can contribute to solve many of the issues mentioned above.

  15. Rapid and in-depth analysis for seismic risk evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Astuti, Novi; Anta Alvita, Meli; Sangadji, Senot; Rahmadi, AP; Purwanto, Edy

    2017-11-01

    The high public demand on housing in urban areas requires the government of Indonesia to adopt a policy of encouraging the development of vertical housing. Cilacap has been allocated Rusunawa (low-income apartment) development in 2006. Evident from some earthquakes occurrence in recent years, however, Cilacap may be seen as an earthquake prone region which posing some risk to this type of vertical structures. The Appropriate strategy should be performed to evaluate the seismic risks of this local government owned four stories low-income apartment. This paper demonstrates two tier evaluation strategy; rapid evaluation and in-depth analysis and compares both results. First evaluation was conducted by means of Building Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) of FEMA 154 of the Rusunawa block A and B. The result was used further to calculate seismic risk score (SR) which exhibit the probability of the building damage given the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) that will occur during the Rusunawa service life. The in-depth analysis was conducted by developing fragility function expressed in the form of fragility curves for the Rusunawa. The fragility shows the probability that certain damage states will be exceeded given the intensity of earthquakes which will occur during building service life. The fragility was developed as lognormal curves in which the building response to earthquake input was analyzed by means of pushover.

  16. A cancer cell-line titration series for evaluating somatic classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denroche, Robert E; Mullen, Laura; Timms, Lee; Beck, Timothy; Yung, Christina K; Stein, Lincoln; McPherson, John D; Brown, Andrew M K

    2015-01-01

    .... We present here a cell-line titration series dataset that can be used to evaluate somatic variant calling pipelines with the goal of reliably calling true somatic mutations at low allele frequencies...

  17. Evaluation of Dual Energy X Ray Absorbsiometry and Osteoporosis Risk Factors in 197 Patients - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirin Raife Çoban

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the risk factors for osteoporosis, dual energy X ray absorbsiometry (DXA measures, dorsolomber radiographics and laboratory analysis of 197 patients which followed in Goztepe Education and Research Hospital Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Policlinics. Patients and Methods: 197 patients, ages between 37-78, which followed in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Policlinics, cross-sectionally evaluated. Patients interrogated about risk factors like life style, calcium-caffeine-alcohol consumption in nutrition, cigarette smoking, age ot menarch, number of births, time of menopause, physical activity levels and their dorsolomber AP-lateral radiograpichs, laboratory analysis and bone mineral density measures with DXA has done. Osteoporosis-osteopenia classification has done by the T score criterias of World Health Organisation. Pearson correlation analysis and ANOVA has used as statistical method. Results: Mean age was 59,24±8,33. Mean body mass index was 26,42±3,99. A significant correlation did not found between life style, nutrition, age of menarch, number of births, early fracture, compression fracture, sunbathe and T scores. A statistically significant correlation has found between age and femur neck T scores; body mass index and lomber-femoral T scores; time of menopause and femur neck T scores (p<0,005. Conclussion: A significant correlation did not found between the minimal risk factors and DXA measures. Age, body mass index and time of menopause has found related to bone mineral density measures. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2007;13:80-2

  18. Evaluating Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Risk Assessments Using Anomaly Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) risk assessments can be difficult to evaluate. A team from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has completed a study that compared MMOD-related failures on operational satellites to predictions of how many of those failures should occur using NASA's TM"s MMOD risk assessment methodology and tools. The study team used the Poisson probability to quantify the degree of inconsistency between the predicted and reported numbers of failures. Many elements go into a risk assessment, and each of those elements represent a possible source of uncertainty or bias that will influence the end result. There are also challenges in obtaining accurate and useful data on MMOD-related failures.

  19. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu

    2014-01-01

    classification based on the femoral head size (type I and type II is proposed. Osteosynthesis should be the preferred method of treatment in type I and osteotomy or prosthetic replacement is the method of choice for type II femoral neck fractures.

  20. Cytogenetic risk grouping by the monosomal karyotype classification is superior in predicting the outcome of acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in complete remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Philipp G; Schulze-Luckow, Anthea; Terwey, Theis H; le Coutre, Philipp; Vuong, Lam G; Dörken, Bernd; Arnold, Renate

    2014-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of cytogenetic abnormalities grouped according to the monosomal karyotype (MK) classification or the Southwest Oncology/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (SWOG/ECOG) definition in 263 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in complete remission (CR) at our center. Risk grouping using the MK criteria shows a highly significant difference in 5-yr overall survival (OS) ranging between 67%, for the most favorable, and 32%, for the poorest risk group (P = 0.001). Although similarly precise in predicting OS, the MK scheme better separates patients with respect to relapse incidence as compared to the SWOG/ECOG grouping (P = 0.0001 vs. P = 0.01). Notably, patients displaying non-MK abnormalities (MK-) had a 5-yr relapse incidence identical to those cytogenetically normal (CN), that is 24%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the MK classification is an independent prognosticator and superior in predicting OS (hazard ratios, HR 3.74, P = 0.01) and relapse incidence (HR 3.74, P = 0.005) as compared to the SWOG/ECOG criteria. Finally, subgroup analysis revealed that the prognostic capacity of the MK classification is highly significant in patients treated with standard myeloablative conditioning prior to alloSCT (P = 0.0011 for OS, P = 0.0007 for relapse). In contrast, the MK grouping failed to predict OS or relapse incidence in patients treated with reduced intensity conditioning. Taken together, these results indicate that the MK classification is superior in predicting the overall outcome of patients with AML undergoing alloSCT in CR. Furthermore, our data suggest that the genetic risk profile of MK- and CN patients is mostly overlapping in this setting. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN POPOVIĆ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Economies with dominant private ownership and developed market institutions build their prosperity on a firm`s goal function in a form of maximization owner`s wealth. Financial situation of business organization is most important indicate that shows level of financial health. The creation of value for the owners imply two matters simultaneously competitive advantage and the evaluation of economic effects. Among economic activities, establishes the different types of addiction. In this work authors draw attention to two categories: the functional and stochastic. Case studies will be cash flows of investment and the contribution of the stochastic component of the risk of enterprise value. Methodological dominated analytical and descriptive methods. Management in the process of evaluation of investment seen what happens behind the projections of cash flows and estimates of available chances for possible modifications. The purpose of the discussion in this section refers to the warning that the application of the rules of net present values does not mean the completion of the management process at the moment of the decision on the selection of investments. In this study, we analyze the influence of stochastic risk in the creation of enterprise value, especially if the risk is managed improperly. In this connection, the starting hypothesis is that adequately compensate for risk has a positive effect on new investments and reduce the antagonism of shareholders and other creditors of the company.

  2. Evaluating Farming Practices: Use of Health and Ecological Risk Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Kiyotada

    2002-01-01

    Methodologies for evaluating farming practices are reviewed to provide systematic perspectives on agri-environmental issues in which diversified research topics have been discussed. As a representative method for selecting farm management systems, multicriteria analysis is surveyed and difficulties in weighting procedure are outlined. To resolve the difficulties, applicability of risk concepts for health and ecological issues is examined. After clarifying relationships between farming practic...

  3. Usability evaluation of an adaptation of the WHO classification for patient safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method involving user-system simulation to drive rapid development and evaluation of layout, organization or information technology in healthcare. The method has been developed, tested and refined in three sub-projects in the Capital Region of Denmark. The overall goal of the projec...

  4. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VIII: Risk, Risk Reduction, Risk Management, and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Loretti, Alessandro; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-06-01

    There is a cascade of risks associated with a hazard evolving into a disaster that consists of the risk that: (1) a hazard will produce an event; (2) an event will cause structural damage; (3) structural damage will create functional damages and needs; (4) needs will create an emergency (require use of the local response capacity); and (5) the needs will overwhelm the local response capacity and result in a disaster (ie, the need for outside assistance). Each step along the continuum/cascade can be characterized by its probability of occurrence and the probability of possible consequences of its occurrence, and each risk is dependent upon the preceding occurrence in the progression from a hazard to a disaster. Risk-reduction measures are interventions (actions) that can be implemented to: (1) decrease the risk that a hazard will manifest as an event; (2) decrease the amounts of structural and functional damages that will result from the event; and/or (3) increase the ability to cope with the damage and respond to the needs that result from an event. Capacity building increases the level of resilience by augmenting the absorbing and/or buffering and/or response capacities of a community-at-risk. Risks for some hazards vary by the context in which they exist and by the Societal System(s) involved. Birnbaum ML , Loretti A , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part VIII: risk, risk reduction, risk management, and capacity building. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):300-308.

  5. Cellulite: poor correlation between instrumental methods and photograph evaluation for severity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J L M; Miot, H A; Sanudo, A; Bagatin, E

    2015-02-01

    Cellulite refers to skin relief alterations in women's thighs and buttocks, causing dissatisfaction and search for treatment. Its physiopathology is complex and not completely understood. Many therapeutic options have been reported with no scientific evidence about benefits. The majority of the studies are not controlled nor randomized; most efficacy endpoints are subjective, like not well-standardized photographs and investigator opinion. Objective measures could improve severity assessment. Our purpose was to correlate non-invasive instrumental measures and standardized clinical evaluation. Twenty six women presenting cellulite on buttocks, aged from 25 to 41, were evaluated by: body mass index; standardized photography analysis (10-point severity and 5-point photonumeric scales) by five dermatologists; cutometry and high-frequency ultrasonography (dermal density and dermis/hypodermis interface length). Quality of life impact was assessed. Correlations between clinical and instrumental parameters were performed. Good agreement among dermatologists and main investigator perceptions was detected. Positive correlations: body mass index and clinical scores; ultrasonographic measures. Negative correlation: cutometry and clinical scores. Quality of life score was correlated to dermal collagen density. Cellulite caused impact in quality of life. Poor correlation between objective measures and clinical evaluation was detected. Cellulite severity assessment is a challenge, and objective parameters should be optimized for clinical trials. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Development and evaluation of the automated risk assessment system for multidrug-resistant organisms (autoRAS-MDRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, E Y; Jin, Y J; Jin, T X; Lee, S M

    2018-02-01

    A high proportion of infections acquired in hospitals are caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). The priority in MDRO prevention is to detect high-risk patients and implement preventive intervention as soon as possible. To develop an automated risk assessment system for MDROs (autoRAS-MDRO) to screen for patients at MDRO infection risk and evaluate the predictive validity of the autoRAS-MDRO. Data for 4200 variables were extracted from the electronic health records (EHRs) for constructing the MDRO risk-scoring algorithm, which was based on a logistic regression model. The autoRAS-MDRO was designed such that the MDRO risk classification (high, moderate, low risk) could be automatically displayed on the nursing Kardex screen in the EHRs system. For the development of the MDRO risk-scoring algorithm, 1000 patients with MDROs and 4000 patients without MDROs were selected; similarly, for the evaluation, 2173 and 8692 patients with and without MDROs, respectively, were selected. The predictive validity of the autoRAS-MDRO was as follows: (i) at the 6-month evaluation: sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 79%; positive predictive value (PPV), 49%; negative predictive value (NPV), 94%; and Youden index, 0.60; (ii) at the 12-month evaluation: sensitivity 79%, specificity 78%, PPV 47%, NPV 94%, and Youden index, 0.57. The autoRAS-MDRO had moderate predictive validity. It could be useful in redirecting nurses' time and efforts required for MDRO risk assessment and implementation of infection control measures, and in reducing the incidence of MDRO infection in hospitals, thereby contributing to patient safety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Evaluation and Selection of International Supplier, Underscoring Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Mohammad Ali Khatami Firouzabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the decision making process for import complete manufactured pieces versus import of partial pieces to assemble in Iran, taking into account the risk factors for a manufacturing company. Since this sort of decision making confront with several risks, it is necessary to establish a process for finding the risks associated with this kind of problems in order to decrease the effects of these risks in the process. Since the problem is classified as a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM problem, Uncertain Analytical Hierarchy Process (UAHP was used to find the most attractive alternative. Because the alternatives were identified from the first point, a bottom-up procedure was used to organize the hierarchy. In initial stage, the attributes which distinct from the alternatives were obtained by literature review and experts' interviews. Then the attributes were grouped to upper level to establish the criteria. Three criteria were found from this stage. The criteria were product, partners, and environment which they encompassed 12 attributes. Forming the hierarchy and doing the uncertain pairwised comparisons, which considers a range of numbers instead of one single number for declaring the preference between two factors, a Linear Programming (LP model with two types of objective functions were formed for each individual alternative. Each single LP model can express the maximum and minimum value of each individual alternative. The research's results indicate the most appropriate alternative is to import the final product from India. The last preferred one was to import the parts of the final product from India. This study can be a suitable framework in supply chain management and purchasing decisions and risk evaluations because the major parts of manufacturing activities is always to decide about the selection of most preferred strategies for companies.

  8. Evaluation of the Reproductive and Developmental Risks of Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L; Christian, Mildred S; Diener, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    A risk analysis of in utero caffeine exposure is presented utilizing epidemiological studies and animal studies dealing with congenital malformation, pregnancy loss, and weight reduction. These effects are of interest to teratologists, because animal studies are useful in their evaluation. Many of the epidemiology studies did not evaluate the impact of the “pregnancy signal,” which identifies healthy pregnancies and permits investigators to identify subjects with low pregnancy risks. The spontaneous abortion epidemiology studies were inconsistent and the majority did not consider the confounding introduced by not considering the pregnancy signal. The animal studies do not support the concept that caffeine is an abortafacient for the wide range of human caffeine exposures. Almost all the congenital malformation epidemiology studies were negative. Animal pharmacokinetic studies indicate that the teratogenic plasma level of caffeine has to reach or exceed 60 µg/ml, which is not attainable from ingesting large amounts of caffeine in foods and beverages. No epidemiological study described the “caffeine teratogenic syndrome.” Six of the 17 recent epidemiology studies dealing with the risk of caffeine and fetal weight reduction were negative. Seven of the positive studies had growth reductions that were clinically insignificant and none of the studies cited the animal literature. Analysis of caffeine's reproductive toxicity considers reproducibility and plausibility of clinical, epidemiological, and animal data. Moderate or even high amounts of beverages and foods containing caffeine do not increase the risks of congenital malformations, miscarriage or growth retardation. Pharmacokinetic studies markedly improve the ability to perform the risk analyses. Birth Defects Res (Part B) 92:152–187, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21370398

  9. Evidence-based pathology and the pathologic evaluation of thymomas: the World Health Organization classification can be simplified into only 3 categories other than thymic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchevsky, Alberto M; Gupta, Ruta; McKenna, Robert J; Wick, Mark; Moran, Cesar; Zakowski, Maureen F; Suster, Saul

    2008-06-15

    The clinical validity and applicability of the World Health Organization (WHO) histopathologic classification of thymomas ('classification') has been questioned. Evidence-based pathology promotes the use of systematic reviews and analysis of data with meta-analysis rather than subjective reviews of the literature. The authors performed a review of the English literature from 1999 to the present to identify 'best evidence' regarding the use of the 'classification.' The data were analyzed with meta-analysis software. To the authors' knowledge, only Level-3 or -4 evidence published in retrospective cases series is currently available regarding the use of the 'classification.' Meta-analysis demonstrated that only 3 WHO categories of thymomas are associated with significant survival differences: A/AB/B1, B2, and B3. It also indicated significant heterogeneity with regard to the results published in different studies. To the authors' knowledge there is no current evidence to determine whether thymoma types are significant prognostic features for patients previously stratified by stage. There is a lack of randomized clinical trials evaluating the prognosis of patients with thymomas and the effects of various treatment modalities. The WHO classification of thymomas needs revision and could most likely be simplified into fewer classes with significant prognostic value. Future studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic and/or predictive value for thymoma patients previously stratified by stage. The latter information is important to help select those patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy and other modalities. Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  10. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  11. A Systematic Evaluation of Feature Selection and Classification Algorithms Using Simulated and Real miRNA Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing is widely used to discover associations between microRNAs (miRNAs and diseases. However, the negative binomial distribution (NB and high dimensionality of data obtained using sequencing can lead to low-power results and low reproducibility. Several statistical learning algorithms have been proposed to address sequencing data, and although evaluation of these methods is essential, such studies are relatively rare. The performance of seven feature selection (FS algorithms, including baySeq, DESeq, edgeR, the rank sum test, lasso, particle swarm optimistic decision tree, and random forest (RF, was compared by simulation under different conditions based on the difference of the mean, the dispersion parameter of the NB, and the signal to noise ratio. Real data were used to evaluate the performance of RF, logistic regression, and support vector machine. Based on the simulation and real data, we discuss the behaviour of the FS and classification algorithms. The Apriori algorithm identified frequent item sets (mir-133a, mir-133b, mir-183, mir-937, and mir-96 from among the deregulated miRNAs of six datasets from The Cancer Genomics Atlas. Taking these findings altogether and considering computational memory requirements, we propose a strategy that combines edgeR and DESeq for large sample sizes.

  12. A Systematic Evaluation of Feature Selection and Classification Algorithms Using Simulated and Real miRNA Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Guo, Li; Shao, Fang; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing is widely used to discover associations between microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases. However, the negative binomial distribution (NB) and high dimensionality of data obtained using sequencing can lead to low-power results and low reproducibility. Several statistical learning algorithms have been proposed to address sequencing data, and although evaluation of these methods is essential, such studies are relatively rare. The performance of seven feature selection (FS) algorithms, including baySeq, DESeq, edgeR, the rank sum test, lasso, particle swarm optimistic decision tree, and random forest (RF), was compared by simulation under different conditions based on the difference of the mean, the dispersion parameter of the NB, and the signal to noise ratio. Real data were used to evaluate the performance of RF, logistic regression, and support vector machine. Based on the simulation and real data, we discuss the behaviour of the FS and classification algorithms. The Apriori algorithm identified frequent item sets (mir-133a, mir-133b, mir-183, mir-937, and mir-96) from among the deregulated miRNAs of six datasets from The Cancer Genomics Atlas. Taking these findings altogether and considering computational memory requirements, we propose a strategy that combines edgeR and DESeq for large sample sizes.

  13. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  14. An empirical evaluation of classification algorithms for fault prediction in open source projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvinder Kaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating software with high quality has become difficult these days with the fact that size and complexity of the developed software is high. Predicting the quality of software in early phases helps to reduce testing resources. Various statistical and machine learning techniques are used for prediction of the quality of the software. In this paper, six machine learning models have been used for software quality prediction on five open source software. Varieties of metrics have been evaluated for the software including C & K, Henderson & Sellers, McCabe etc. Results show that Random Forest and Bagging produce good results while Naïve Bayes is least preferable for prediction.

  15. Impact of chromosome alterations, genetic mutations and clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) on the classification and risk stratification of MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Bani Bandana; Banerjee, Debasis; Agarwal, Mohan B

    2018-03-01

    The advent of technological development has undoubtedly advanced biological and molecular inputs for better understanding the heterogeneous hematopoietic pre-malignant disorder of the stem cells known as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Chromosomal rearrangements, including del(3q/5q/7q/11q/12p/20q), loss of 5/7/Y, trisomy 8/19, i(17q), etc. frequently detected in MDS with variable frequencies and combinations, are the integral components of the 5-tier risk-stratification and WHO-2016 classification. Observations on mutations in genes involved in RNA-splicing, DNA methylation, chromatin modification, transcription factor, signal transduction/kinases, RAS pathway, cohesin complex, DNA repair and other pathways have given insights in independent effects and biological interaction of co-occurrence on disease-phenotype and treatment outcome. However, recent concepts of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) have urged a re-definition of mutational events in non-clonal cytopenia and non-MDS healthy elderly but with a higher risk of overt leukemia. Considering gene mutations, chromosomal alterations, CHIP, ICUS and their significance in classification and risk-scoring certainly presents a comprehensive picture of disease-phenotype towards better understanding of MDS-pathogenesis, its evolution to AML and its response to therapeutic agents. The present review summarizes chromosomal and gene mutations, co-existence of mutational complexity, and WHO-2016 classification and risk-stratifications of MDS to facilitate a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Classification Technique of Arteriovenous Fistula Stenosis Evaluation Using Bilateral PPG Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The most common treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients is the hemodialysis (HD. For this kind of treatment, the functional vascular access that called arteriovenous fistula (AVF is done by surgery to connect the vein and artery. Stenosis is considered the major cause of dysfunction of AVF. In this study, a noninvasive approach based on asynchronous analysis of bilateral photoplethysmography (PPG with error correcting output coding support vector machine one versus rest (ESVM-OVR for the degree of stenosis (DOS evaluation is proposed. An artificial neural network (ANN classifier is also applied to compare the performance with the proposed system. The testing data has been collected from 22 patients at the right and left thumb of the hand. The experimental results indicated that the proposed system could provide positive predictive value (PPV reaching 91.67% and had higher noise tolerance. The system has the potential for providing diagnostic assistance in a wearable device for evaluation of AVF stenosis.

  17. Classification and evaluation for forest sites on the Natchez Trace State Forest, State Resort Park, and Wildlife Management Area in West Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley

    1991-01-01

    Presents comprehensive forest site classification system for the 45,084-acre Natchez Trace State Forest, State Resort park, and WIldlife Management Area in the highly dissected and predominantly hilly Upper Coastal Plain of west Tennessee. Twenty-five landtypes are identified. Each landtype is defined in terms of nine elements and evaluated on the baiss of...

  18. Classification of Flotation Frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzymala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme of flotation frothers classification is presented. The scheme first indicates the physical system in which a frother is present and four of them i.e., pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas system and aqueous solution/gas/solid system are distinguished. As a result, there are numerous classifications of flotation frothers. The classifications can be organized into a scheme described in detail in this paper. The frother can be present in one of four physical systems, that is pure state, aqueous solution, aqueous solution/gas and aqueous solution/gas/solid system. It results from the paper that a meaningful classification of frothers relies on choosing the physical system and next feature, trend, parameter or parameters according to which the classification is performed. The proposed classification can play a useful role in characterizing and evaluation of flotation frothers.

  19. Evaluation of the carcinogenic risks at the influence of POPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazhmetdinova, Aiman; Kassymbayev, Adlet; Chalginbayeva, Altinay

    2017-12-20

    Kazakhstan is included in the list of environmentally vulnerable countries and Kyzylorda oblast in particular. This is due to its geographical, spatial and temporal and socioeconomic features. As part of the program "Integrated approaches in the management of public health in the Aral region", we have carried out an expertise on many samples of natural environments and products. Samples were selected in accordance with sampling procedures according to regulatory documents by specialists of the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory. It is accredited by the State Standard of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for compliance with ST RK ISO/IEC 17025-2007 "General requirements for the competence of test and calibration laboratories". Gas chromatograph was used for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides. For the determination of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyl was conducted on the gas chromatomass spectrometer with quadruple detector produce by Agilent Company, USA. To assess the risk, we carried out the mathematical calculations according to the risk of chemicals polluting (No P 2.1.10.1920-04, Russia). Calculation of the carcinogenic risk was carried out with the use of data on the size of the exposure and meanings of carcinogenic potential factors (slope factor and unit risk). The evaluation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), based on the previous results of the research concerning water, soil and food products, was held in five population settlements in Kyzylorda oblast villages: Ayteke bi, Zhalagash, Zhosaly, Shieli and Aralsk town. Pollution with the POPs in the environmental objects by means of exposition and evaluation of the carcinogenic risk to human health is confirmed by the data of the statistical reporting about some morbidity in Kyzylorda oblast, such as skin diseases and subcutaneous tissue, endocrine system diseases, pregnancy complications etc. The received levels of carcinogenic risks, which were first carried out in the Republic of

  20. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Bell, K. [Convergence Research, Seattle, WA (United States); Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M. [Tellus Inst., Boston, MA (United States); Spinney P. [Charles River Associates, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A comparison of CA125, HE4, risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA, and risk malignancy index (RMI for the classification of ovarian masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differentiation between benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms is essential for creating a system for patient referrals. Therefore, the contributions of the tumor markers CA125 and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 as well as the risk ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA and risk malignancy index (RMI values were considered individually and in combination to evaluate their utility for establishing this type of patient referral system. METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with ovarian masses through imaging analyses (n = 128 were assessed for their expression of the tumor markers CA125 and HE4. The ROMA and RMI values were also determined. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves according to the area under the curve (AUC for each method. RESULTS: The sensitivities associated with the ability of CA125, HE4, ROMA, or RMI to distinguish between malignant versus benign ovarian masses were 70.4%, 79.6%, 74.1%, and 63%, respectively. Among carcinomas, the sensitivities of CA125, HE4, ROMA (pre-and post-menopausal, and RMI were 93.5%, 87.1%, 80%, 95.2%, and 87.1%, respectively. The most accurate numerical values were obtained with RMI, although the four parameters were shown to be statistically equivalent. CONCLUSION: There were no differences in accuracy between CA125, HE4, ROMA, and RMI for differentiating between types of ovarian masses. RMI had the lowest sensitivity but was the most numerically accurate method. HE4 demonstrated the best overall sensitivity for the evaluation of malignant ovarian tumors and the differential diagnosis of endometriosis. All of the parameters demonstrated increased sensitivity when tumors with low malignancy potential were considered low-risk, which may be used as an acceptable assessment method for referring patients to reference centers.

  2. Methodology implementation in order to evaluate the biological risks in the Centre for Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias of Cuba: a biosecurity surveillance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailín Cobos Valdes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Center for Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias faces biological risks. Nevertheless a Biosafety system was not yet implemented. Objective: To apply the methodology in order to evaluate these risks Materials and Methods: Interview with the researchers of the center and the use of the methodology for evaluating biological risks designed for Cobos, 2009. Results: Fifty-three biological risks were identified and evaluated, 32 as moderated, 18 as tolerable and 3 as trivial. Such classification are crucial to establish its management priorities and represent a way of surveillance in Biosafety field. Conclusion: The results of this research represent an essential factor for the Biosafety documentation development adapted to the Center and according to the legal basis in terms of biological safety in Cuba.

  3. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Dominique; Bomfim, João A. S.; Metz, Sébastien; Bouillard, Jacques X.; Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  4. Methodology evaluation of innovative projects under risk and uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with problems connected with the assessment of innovative projects in the context of risk and uncertainty, topical issues of evaluation of innovative projects at the present stage of development of the Russian economy. By the example of the solution of the "crossing the river" is considering the possibility of using hierarchical models to address it. In what follows, and compares the priorities of different groups of factors are given by calculating the overall costs and benefits. The paper provides a rationale for combined use of four aspects: the beneficial aspects of the decision (the benefits and opportunities and negative (costs and risks that may lead to the decision in question.

  5. Biomarkers for the evaluation of human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Arango V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of human health, the development, validation, anduse of biomarkers as information tools to assess risk factorsassociated with exposure to environmental agents increasesdaily. This is a result of the need to understand the adverseeffects of the various work environments and lifestyles. Abiomarker is an event that takes place in a biological system andis understood as an indicator of health status, life expectancy,or disease risk. Biomarkers usually fall within the followingcategories: exposure, effect, and susceptibility biomarkers. Thisreview will discuss their importance in understanding differentaspects of diseases such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention,disease progression, response to therapy, and their applicationin toxicological experimental evaluation for the developmentof drugs or pesticides. Furthermore, their contribution to thedevelopment of different fields of study such as toxicology,occupational health, and carcinogenesis shall also be discussed.

  6. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    2015-01-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  7. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)

    2003-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  8. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: a new kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission (CNEN), Avenida Santana, 680, Centro, Caetite-Bahia, 46400-000 (Brazil); Zuddas, Pierpaolo [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP place Jussieu, Tour 56-55, case 116, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Release of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. Increasing uranium mining activities potentially increase the risks linked to radiation exposure. As a tool to evaluate these risks, a geochemical inverse modeling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction in the presence of uranium. Our methodology is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reaction by reconstructing the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. We found that the reactive surface area of parent-rock minerals changes over several orders of magnitude during the investigated reaction time. We propose that the formation of coatings on dissolving mineral surfaces significantly reduces reactivity. Our results show that negatively charged uranium complexes decrease when alkalinity and rock buffer capacity is similarly lower, indicating that the dissolved carbonate is an important parameter impacting uranium mobility. (authors)

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Prescription Fill Rates on Risk Stratification Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Richards, Thomas M; Shermock, Kenneth M; Elder Dalpoas, Stacy; J Kan, Hong; Alexander, G Caleb; Weiner, Jonathan P; Kharrazi, Hadi

    2017-12-01

    Risk adjustment models are traditionally derived from administrative claims. Prescription fill rates-extracted by comparing electronic health record prescriptions and pharmacy claims fills-represent a novel measure of medication adherence and may improve the performance of risk adjustment models. We evaluated the impact of prescription fill rates on claims-based risk adjustment models in predicting both concurrent and prospective costs and utilization. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43,097 primary care patients from HealthPartners network between 2011 and 2012. Diagnosis and/or pharmacy claims of 2011 were used to build 3 base models using the Johns Hopkins ACG system, in addition to demographics. Model performances were compared before and after adding 3 types of prescription fill rates: primary 0-7 days, primary 0-30 days, and overall. Overall fill rates utilized all ordered prescriptions from electronic health record while primary fill rates excluded refill orders. The overall, primary 0-7, and 0-30 days fill rates were 72.30%, 59.82%, and 67.33%. The fill rates were similar between sexes but varied across different medication classifications, whereas the youngest had the highest rate. Adding fill rates modestly improved the performance of all models in explaining medical costs (improving concurrent R by 1.15% to 2.07%), followed by total costs (0.58% to 1.43%), and pharmacy costs (0.07% to 0.65%). The impact was greater for concurrent costs compared with prospective costs. Base models without diagnosis information showed the highest improvement using prescription fill rates. Prescription fill rates can modestly enhance claims-based risk prediction models; however, population-level improvements in predicting utilization are limited.

  10. Identification of Sexually Abused Female Adolescents at Risk for Suicidal Ideations: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…

  11. An attempt to evaluate the risks associated with radiological terror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of the risk of a terrorist attack has been made frequently by multiplying the probability of occurrence of a terrorist attempt by the probability of its success and a quantity which represents the consequences of a successful attack. In the case of a radiological attack the consequences will vary in case the action will be active or passive. Thirteen radionuclides were examined for their potential uses in credible threats or terrorist attacks based on their availability from laboratories and hospitals. Taking into account the dose conversion coefficients published by the International Atomic Energy Agency, those radionuclides with higher dose effectiveness for ingestion are the following: {sup 210}Po; {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am. Other radionuclides which can be used in threats and terror attacks, like {sup 137}Cs for example have also been examined. The risks associated with the selected radionuclides have been tentatively ranked as high, medium, or low. The probability used to evaluate risks depends on the motivation of the terrorist and the capacity, which implies availability or the actual possibility of obtaining a particular radionuclide. On the other hand, whenever a list of radionuclides to be used in a malevolent action is available to a terrorist, the choice of the most adequate will depend also on the action to be undertaken. This work ranks risks associated with radiological terror based on physical, chemical, radio-toxicological and other relevant data on radionuclides, which were either already used in terror attacks, or were pointed out as adequate to be used in such malevolent actions. (author)

  12. Coracoid bone graft resorption after Latarjet procedure is underestimated: a new classification system and a clinical review with computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ming; Jiang, Chun-Yan; Lu, Yi; Li, Feng-Long; Wu, Guan

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes a simple and reliable classification system to evaluate the severity of the bone resorption of the transferred coracoid bone block after the Latarjet procedure. The incidence and severity of the graft resorption was also investigated. Between January 2009 and January 2012, 63 patients underwent an open Latarjet procedure and were included. Four independent surgeons used the classification system we proposed to evaluate the severity of the graft resorption on the computed tomography scan performed 1 year postoperatively. Each surgeon did the evaluation twice at a 3-month interval. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification system were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Among these 63 patients, 57 patients were available for clinical evaluation at 2 years postoperatively. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Rowe score were improved significantly after the surgery. No redislocation occurred during follow-up. The incidence of graft resorption was 90.5% based on the computed tomography evaluation. The coracoid graft resorption was classified as grade 0 in 6 patients, grade I in 26, grade II in 25, and grade III in 6. The classification system had excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The open Latarjet procedure is effective in treating anterior shoulder instability with marked glenoid bone loss. The incidence of the graft resorption at 1 year postoperatively is high. Our classification system on the graft resorption after Latarjet procedure has good interobserver and intraobserver reliability. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperspectral Imaging and K-Means Classification for Histologic Evaluation of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Khouj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that shows the potential to aid pathologists in breast cancer diagnoses cases. In this study, breast cancer tissues from different patients were imaged by a hyperspectral system to detect spectral differences between normal and breast cancer tissues. Tissue samples mounted on slides were identified from 10 different patients. Samples from each patient included both normal and ductal carcinoma tissue, both stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and unstained. Slides were imaged using a snapshot HSI system, and the spectral reflectance differences were evaluated. Analysis of the spectral reflectance values indicated that wavelengths near 550 nm showed the best differentiation between tissue types. This information was used to train image processing algorithms using supervised and unsupervised data. The K-means method was applied to the hyperspectral data cubes, and successfully detected spectral tissue differences with sensitivity of 85.45%, and specificity of 94.64% with true negative rate of 95.8%, and false positive rate of 4.2%. These results were verified by ground-truth marking of the tissue samples by a pathologist. In the hyperspectral image analysis, the image processing algorithm, K-means, shows the greatest potential for building a semi-automated system that could identify and sort between normal and ductal carcinoma in situ tissues.

  14. Characterisation, classification, and evaluation of some ground water samples in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltan, M E

    1998-08-01

    Study of the ground water quality at upper Egypt is an essential ingredient for a healthy population, irrigation, and industrial purposes at this developed region. Thus, the measurements of water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, HCO3-, Cl-, NO3-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Ca, Mg, TH, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn, and DS) were carried out on ground water samples at different localities in Aswan governorate, Egypt. Differentation of ground water samples according to Cl-, SO4(2-), HCO3- + CO3(2-)' base exchange, and hydrochemical parameters were calculated. Evaluation of the samples for different uses (drinking and domestic uses, irrigation and industrial purposes) were obtained according to WHO standards, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and saturation index. Results of this study show that the most ground water samples characterize by good quality for different uses. Statistical analysis of data exhibits positive, good, and interesting correlation values lead to interpretation the results of analyses and suggestion the forms of ions in the water samples.

  15. [Establishment of risk evaluation model of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer and its predictive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Zhou, Rongjian; Zhang, Qi; Shu, Ping; Li, Haojie; Wang, Xuefei; Shen, Zhenbin; Liu, Fenglin; Chen, Weidong; Qin, Jing; Sun, Yihong

    2017-01-25

    To establish an evaluation model of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer, and to assess its clinical significance. Clinical and pathologic data of the consecutive cases of gastric cancer admitted between April 2015 and December 2015 in Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 710 patients were enrolled in the study after 18 patients with other distant metastasis were excluded. The correlations between peritoneal metastasis and different factors were studied through univariate (Pearson's test or Fisher's exact test) and multivariate analyses (Binary Logistic regression). Independent predictable factors for peritoneal metastasis were combined to establish a risk evaluation model (nomogram). The nomogram was created with R software using the 'rms' package. In the nomogram, each factor had different scores, and every patient could have a total score by adding all the scores of each factor. A higher total score represented higher risk of peritoneal metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the established nomogram. Delong. Delong. Clarke-Pearson test was used to compare the difference of the area under the curve (AUC). The cut-off value was determined by the AUC, when the ROC curve had the biggest AUC, the model had the best sensitivity and specificity. Among 710 patients, 47 patients had peritoneal metastasis (6.6%), including 30 male (30/506, 5.9%) and 17 female (17/204, 8.3%); 31 were ≥ 60 years old (31/429, 7.2%); 38 had tumor ≥ 3 cm(38/461, 8.2%). Lauren classification indicated that 2 patients were intestinal type(2/245, 0.8%), 8 patients were mixed type(8/208, 3.8%), 11 patients were diffuse type(11/142, 7.7%), and others had no associated data. CA19-9 of 13 patients was ≥ 37 kU/L(13/61, 21.3%); CA125 of 11 patients was ≥ 35 kU/L(11/36, 30.6%); CA72-4 of 11 patients was ≥ 10 kU/L(11/39, 28

  16. Operational Collision Risk Management - Evaluating and Mitigating High-Risk Conjunction Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M.; Wysack, J.

    2011-09-01

    Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some semblance of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented. This paper presents an overview of SpaceNav’s Collision Risk Management software. The software suite enables mission stakeholders to qualify high interest conjunction events. The tools produce various figures and graphs, which aid in analyzing event data. Optimal avoidance maneuver solutions are generated for a user defined set of goals and constraints.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M

    2017-09-01

    To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001-2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees' data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). Methods. The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001–2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. Results. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees’ data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies. PMID:28892436

  19. Measurement, Classification and Evaluation of Sleep Disturbance in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review.

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    Alasdair L Henry

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a long-term immune-mediated inflammatory disorder mainly, but not only, affecting skin, and is associated with significant medical and psychological morbidity. Evidence suggests that sleep is disrupted in psoriasis, however high quality empirical evidence is lacking. Given the importance of sleep for health, characterisation of sleep disruption in psoriasis is an important goal. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the sleep-psoriasis literature.Searches were conducted in Pubmed, SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception to May 2016. Studies were compared against inclusion/exclusion criteria and underwent a quality evaluation. Given the heterogeneity of studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of the findings.Searches revealed 32 studies which met our predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Whilst 93.7% of studies reported sleep disruption in this population, ranging from 0.05% to 85.4%, many had important methodological shortcomings. Over half of all quantitative studies (54.8%; 17/31 relied on non-validated measures, contributing to heterogeneity in study findings. In those that employed valid measures, assessing sleep was often not the primary objective. We frequently found the absence of adequate sample size calculations and poor statistical reporting.This review showed that in psoriasis, reported sleep rates of sleep disturbance varied substantially. Most studies lacked a hypothesis driven research question and/or failed to use validated measures of sleep. We were unable to draw firm conclusions about the precise prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance within the psoriasis population. We offer suggestions to help advance understanding of sleep disturbance in psoriasis.

  20. Measurement, Classification and Evaluation of Sleep Disturbance in Psoriasis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alasdair L; Kyle, Simon D; Bhandari, Sahil; Chisholm, Anna; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Bundy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a long-term immune-mediated inflammatory disorder mainly, but not only, affecting skin, and is associated with significant medical and psychological morbidity. Evidence suggests that sleep is disrupted in psoriasis, however high quality empirical evidence is lacking. Given the importance of sleep for health, characterisation of sleep disruption in psoriasis is an important goal. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the sleep-psoriasis literature. Searches were conducted in Pubmed, SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception to May 2016. Studies were compared against inclusion/exclusion criteria and underwent a quality evaluation. Given the heterogeneity of studies, we conducted a narrative synthesis of the findings. Searches revealed 32 studies which met our predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Whilst 93.7% of studies reported sleep disruption in this population, ranging from 0.05% to 85.4%, many had important methodological shortcomings. Over half of all quantitative studies (54.8%; 17/31) relied on non-validated measures, contributing to heterogeneity in study findings. In those that employed valid measures, assessing sleep was often not the primary objective. We frequently found the absence of adequate sample size calculations and poor statistical reporting. This review showed that in psoriasis, reported sleep rates of sleep disturbance varied substantially. Most studies lacked a hypothesis driven research question and/or failed to use validated measures of sleep. We were unable to draw firm conclusions about the precise prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance within the psoriasis population. We offer suggestions to help advance understanding of sleep disturbance in psoriasis.

  1. Evaluating Nuclear Membrane Irregularity for the Classification of Cervical Squamous Epithelial Cells.

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    Jing Rui Tang

    Full Text Available Pap test involves searching of morphological changes in cervical squamous epithelial cells by pathologists or cytotechnologists to identify potential cancerous cells in the cervix. Nuclear membrane irregularity is one of the morphological changes of malignancy. This paper proposes two novel techniques for the evaluation of nuclear membrane irregularity. The first technique, namely, penalty-driven smoothing analysis, introduces different penalty values for nuclear membrane contour with different degrees of irregularity. The second technique, which can be subdivided into mean- or median-type residual-based analysis, computes the number of points of nuclear membrane contour that deviates from the mean or median of the nuclear membrane contour. Performance of the proposed techniques was compared to three state-of-the-art techniques, namely, radial asymmetric, shape factor, and rim difference. Friedman and post hoc tests using Holm, Shaffer, and Bergmann procedures returned significant differences for all the three classes, i.e., negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM versus low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, NILM versus high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, and LSIL versus HSIL when the span value equaled 3 was employed with linear penalty function. When span values equaled 5, 7, and 9, NILM versus LSIL and HSIL showed significant differences regardless of the penalty functions. In addition, the results of penalty-driven smoothing analysis were comparable with those of other state-of-the-art techniques. Residual-based analysis returned significant differences for the comparison among the three diagnostic classes. Findings of this study proved the significance of nuclear membrane irregularity as one of the features to differentiate the different diagnostic classes of cervical squamous epithelial cells.

  2. Evaluation of Thermal Imaging in the Diagnosis and Classification of Varicocele

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    Farshad Namdari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A varicocele is the abnormal dilation and tortuosity of venous plexus above the testicles. The pattern of abnormal heat distribution in the scrotum can be detected through thermal imaging, which is a distant, non-contact, and non-invasive method. The aim of the present study is to detect and grade varicocele. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 50 patients with high probability of varicocele, who referred to a hospital affiliated to the AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The evaluation procedure included thermal imaging, clinical diagnosis, and ultrasound test. The gold standard method was based on ultrasound examination. The thermal imaging was performed using a non-contact infrared camera. Results: This paper presented two methods for diagnosing and grading varicocele. The first method was based on the patterns and models of thermal asymmetry in the testicles (including three asymmetric and symmetric patterns. The second method was based on the temperature differences. The obtained results demonstrated that the use of temperature differences in the diagnosis of varicocele was better than the other proposed method. In addition, a temperature difference of 0.5°C in the pampiniform venous plexus was an important indicator for the diagnosis of varicocele using thermal imaging. The accuracy of thermography in grading varicocele was 76%.  Conclusion: According to the results of the study, thermography is a useful method for initial varicocele screening and can be applied as a supplement to other diagnostic techniques due to its low cost and lack of radiation exposure. Thermography was concluded to be a precise technique for the diagnosis of varicocele; however, its capability to determine the varicocele grading was comparatively low.

  3. Association between the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and the classification of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and prenatal treatment in Brazil, 1994-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campello Porto, Liú; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the association between the classification of toxoplasmosis in the pregnant woman (TP) according to the classification of Lebech et al. and the incidence of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT), also taking into consideration prenatal treatment. A clinical cohort study of 524 children followed-up until 1 year of age was conducted. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. Of 519 pregnant women, 61.3% were not classified due to the incompleteness of hospital records. Among the pregnant women classified as confirmed cases of TP (n=19), the CT risk was six times greater than in the probable/possible group. No case of CT was identified in the group of pregnant women classified as unlikely to have TP. The children with no prenatal treatment (46.2% n=242/524) presented a risk almost three times greater of CT than the treated children (OR 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-4.97; p=0.001). Complete prenatal treatment was identified as a protecting factor for CT (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.65; p=0.001). A lack or incomplete prenatal treatment was identified as an important risk factor for CT in this study. The proportions of non-classified mothers and children with no prenatal treatment reflect the need to improve prenatal care in Brazil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  5. Evaluation of the HFACS-ADF safety classification system: inter-coder consensus and intra-coder consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nikki S; Shorrock, Steven T

    2010-03-01

    This article evaluates an adaptation of the human factors analysis and classification system (HFACS) adopted by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) to classify factors that contribute to incidents. Three field studies were undertaken to assess the reliability of HFACS-ADF in the context of a particular ADF air traffic control (ATC) unit. Study one was designed to assess inter-coder consensus between many coders for two incident reports. Study two was designed to assess inter-coder consensus between one participant and the previous original analysts for a large set of incident reports. Study three was designed to test intra-coder consistency for four participants over many months. For all studies, agreement was low at the level of both fine-level HFACS-ADF descriptors and high-level HFACS-type categories. A survey of participants suggested that they were not confident that HFACS-ADF could be used consistently. The three field studies reported suggest that the ADF adaptation of HFACS is unreliable for incident analysis at the ATC unit level, and may therefore be invalid in this context. Several reasons for the results are proposed, associated with the underlying HFACS model and categories, the HFACS-ADF adaptations, the context of use, and the conduct of the studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Procedure Based on Item Response Theory to Evaluate Classification Consistency Indices in the Practice of Large-Scale Assessment

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    Shanshan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing interest in the methods of evaluating the classification consistency (CC indices, only few researches are available in the field of applying these methods in the practice of large-scale educational assessment. In addition, only few studies considered the influence of practical factors, for example, the examinee ability distribution, the cut score location and the score scale, on the performance of CC indices. Using the newly developed Lee's procedure based on the item response theory (IRT, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of CC indices when practical factors are taken into consideration. A simulation study and an empirical study were conducted under comprehensive conditions. Results suggested that with negatively skewed distribution, the CC indices were larger than with other distributions. Interactions occurred among ability distribution, cut score location, and score scale. Consequently, Lee's IRT procedure is reliable to be used in the field of large-scale educational assessment, and when reporting the indices, it should be treated with caution as testing conditions may vary a lot.

  7. A new classification of mandibular asymmetry and evaluation of surgical-orthodontic treatment outcomes in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Jane; Yao, Chung-Chen; Chang, Zwei-Chieng; Lai, Hsiang-Hua; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kok, Sang-Heng

    2016-06-01

    Facial asymmetry is a common manifestation in patients with Class III malocclusion. The aims of this study were to classify mandibular asymmetry in Class III patients and to evaluate treatment outcomes according to different characteristics of asymmetry. Three dimensional cone-beam CT images of 38 patients were analyzed for menton deviation and discrepancies between bilateral structures of mandibular ramus and body. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Groups 1 and 2 exhibited a larger distance of ramus to midsagittal plane on menton-deviated side. In group 1, menton deviation was greater than ramus asymmetry and the condition was reversed for group 2. Group 3 had menton deviation contralateral to the side with larger transverse ramus distance. The features of asymmetry were delineated and the outcomes after surgical-orthodontic treatment were analyzed. Group 1 exhibited a roll rotation of mandibular structures. Mandibular deviation of group 2 patients was more of a horizontal shift nature rather than rotation. Group 3 patients displayed a yaw rotation of mandible to the side with lesser growth in body and ramus. After treatment, menton deviation and body asymmetry were significantly improved in all 3 groups, but the effect of therapy on ramus asymmetry was less predictable, especially for group 3. The classification system is simple and clinically useful and could form a base for future studies on facial asymmetry. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser therapy in pressure ulcers: evaluation by the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing and Nursing Outcomes Classification

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    Sofia Palagi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVETo describe the pressure ulcer healing process in critically ill patients treated with conventional dressing therapy plus low-intensity laser therapy evaluated by the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH and the result of Wound Healing: Secondary Intention, according to the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC.METHODCase report study according to nursing process conducted with an Intensive Care Unit patient. Data were collected with an instrument containing the PUSH and the result of the NOC. In the analysis we used descriptive statistics, considering the scores obtained on the instrument.RESULTSA reduction in the size of lesions of 7cm to 1.5cm of length and 6cm to 1.1cm width, in addition to the increase of epithelial tissue and granulation, decreased secretion and odor.CONCLUSIONThere was improvement in the healing process of the lesion treated with adjuvant therapy and the use of NOC allowed a more detailed and accurate assessment than the PUSH.

  9. Comparison of risk classification between EndoPredict and MammaPrint in ER-positive/HER2-negative primary invasive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-García, Alberto; Yébenes, Laura; Berjón, Alberto; Angulo, Antonia; Zamora, Pilar; Sánchez-Méndez, José Ignacio; Espinosa, Enrique; Redondo, Andrés; Heredia-Soto, Victoria; Mendiola, Marta; Feliú, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the concordance in risk classification between the EndoPredict and the MammaPrint scores obtained for the same cancer samples on 40 estrogen-receptor positive/HER2-negative breast carcinomas. Methods Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinoma tissues that were previously analyzed with MammaPrint as part of routine care of the patients, and were classified as high-risk (20 patients) and low-risk (20 patients), were selected to be analyzed by the EndoPredict assay, a second generation gene expression test that combines expression of 8 genes (EP score) with two clinicopathological variables (tumor size and nodal status, EPclin score). Results The EP score classified 15 patients as low-risk and 25 patients as high-risk. EPclin re-classified 5 of the 25 EP high-risk patients into low-risk, resulting in a total of 20 high-risk and 20 low-risk tumors. EP score and MammaPrint score were significantly correlated (p = 0.008). Twelve of 20 samples classified as low-risk by MammaPrint were also low-risk by EP score (60%). 17 of 20 MammaPrint high-risk tumors were also high-risk by EP score. The overall concordance between EP score and MammaPrint was 72.5% (κ = 0.45, (95% CI, 0.182 to 0.718)). EPclin score also correlated with MammaPrint results (p = 0.004). Discrepancies between both tests occurred in 10 cases: 5 MammaPrint low-risk patients were classified as EPclin high-risk and 5 high-risk MammaPrint were classified as low-risk by EPclin and overall concordance of 75% (κ = 0.5, (95% CI, 0.232 to 0.768)). Conclusions This pilot study demonstrates a limited concordance between MammaPrint and EndoPredict. Differences in results could be explained by the inclusion of different gene sets in each platform, the use of different methodology, and the inclusion of clinicopathological parameters, such as tumor size and nodal status, in the EndoPredict test. PMID:28886093

  10. Application of linear graph embedding as a dimensionality reduction technique and sparse representation classifier as a post classifier for the classification of epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Sunil Kumar; Rajaguru, Harikumar

    2015-12-01

    The most common and frequently occurring neurological disorder is epilepsy and the main method useful for the diagnosis of epilepsy is electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis. Due to the length of EEG recordings, EEG signal analysis method is quite time-consuming when it is processed manually by an expert. This paper proposes the application of Linear Graph Embedding (LGE) concept as a dimensionality reduction technique for processing the epileptic encephalographic signals and then it is classified using Sparse Representation Classifiers (SRC). SRC is used to analyze the classification of epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals and the parameters such as Sensitivity, Specificity, Time Delay, Quality Value, Performance Index and Accuracy are analyzed.

  11. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  12. Risk assessments using the Strain Index and the TLV for HAL, Part I: Task and multi-task job exposure classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellusch, Jay M; Bao, Stephen S; Silverstein, Barbara A; Merryweather, Andrew S; Thiese, Mathew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Garg, Arun

    2017-12-01

    The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) use different constituent variables to quantify task physical exposures. Similarly, time-weighted-average (TWA), Peak, and Typical exposure techniques to quantify physical exposure from multi-task jobs make different assumptions about each task's contribution to the whole job exposure. Thus, task and job physical exposure classifications differ depending upon which model and technique are used for quantification. This study examines exposure classification agreement, disagreement, correlation, and magnitude of classification differences between these models and techniques. Data from 710 multi-task job workers performing 3,647 tasks were analyzed using the SI and TLV for HAL models, as well as with the TWA, Typical and Peak job exposure techniques. Physical exposures were classified as low, medium, and high using each model's recommended, or a priori limits. Exposure classification agreement and disagreement between models (SI, TLV for HAL) and between job exposure techniques (TWA, Typical, Peak) were described and analyzed. Regardless of technique, the SI classified more tasks as high exposure than the TLV for HAL, and the TLV for HAL classified more tasks as low exposure. The models agreed on 48.5% of task classifications (kappa = 0.28) with 15.5% of disagreement between low and high exposure categories. Between-technique (i.e., TWA, Typical, Peak) agreement ranged from 61-93% (kappa: 0.16-0.92) depending on whether the SI or TLV for HAL was used. There was disagreement between the SI and TLV for HAL and between the TWA, Typical and Peak techniques. Disagreement creates uncertainty for job design, job analysis, risk assessments, and developing interventions. Task exposure classifications from the SI and TLV for HAL might complement each other. However, TWA, Typical, and Peak job exposure techniques all have

  13. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

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    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  14. Evaluation of Risk Factors Related to Recidivism Among Sentenced Males

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    Sinem Yıldız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is taking the place of dangerousness in recent criminal research. Detection of static and dynamic risk factors related and/or interacting to recidivism in accordance with personality characteristics and crime types may help crime prevention strategies to improve. Out of all participants 35% (n=41 are sentenced for manslaughter/physical injury, 35% (n=41 sexual crime and 30% (n=35 theft. The mean age of the participants is 33.81 (sd=9-12 years. During the interview, a questionnaire which is prepared by the researcher by reviewing the literature, Symptom Checklist Short Form, aggression inventory was used. Interviews are conducted face to face by the researcher at the relevant correctional facilities with the permissions of Ministry of Justice and ethical committee. Recidivism is found related to having a period far away from nuclear family before age 18, criminal and drag-alcohol abusing friends, anti-social behaviors; abusing illegal drags, displaying disciplinary problems in prison and during military service. Discussion: Results are evaluated under demographics, relationships in family and close friends, childhood abuse by leaning on current literature. Key words: prevention and control, crime, risk assessment

  15. Evaluation Of The Risk Of Financing Projects Of Environmental Protection

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    Gabriela Cornelia PICIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research project approaches multidimensionally the financing of environmental protection from the perspective of directing, correlating and consolidating the financial flows circumscribed to the regeneration of an economy affected by environmental deterioration due to the very activities defining the economic mechanisms and circuits. The purpose of the project is to identify, by scientific, methodological and empirical analysis of the concepts, principles and arguments imposed by the economic theory, the risks of financing the projects of environmental projects and to evaluate their effects because their neglecting, individual approach or erroneous dimensioning might have unfavourable and unforeseen consequences in terms of the efficiency of the environmental strategies and policies. The objective of the study is the reveal the interdependency and interaction between the flows and circuits financing the environmental projects, showing the necessity for punctual, distributive, correlative and multiplicative financing of the environmental protection. This must be done from an expanded and prospective spatial and temporal vision by a compositional approach of the risk for environmental investments within the complex network of the social, economic and financial risks generated by the global system of the human praxis focused on the binomial of the human-environment interdependence.

  16. Romanian Economic Environment Entrepreneurial Activities Analysis and Risk Evaluation

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    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to approach risks at enterprise financial management by identifying potential risk sources and their attached risk factors, as well as identified risk quantification through statistical and mathematical instruments. Starting from the hypothesis that, in its essence, risk means variability, we propose measuring risk through elasticity coefficients, dispersion as well as trust intervals attached to financial indicators.

  17. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke: presentation, risk factors, evaluation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Rivkin, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is as common as large vessel arterial ischemic stroke in adults and leads to significant morbidity. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is the most common identifiable cause of cerebral palsy and can lead to cognitive and behavioral difficulties that are amortized over a lifetime. The literature on perinatal arterial ischemic stroke was reviewed and analyzed. Risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke include those that are maternal, neonatal, and placental. The most common clinical signs at presentation are seizures and hemiparesis. Evaluation should begin with thorough history acquisition and physical examination followed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, with consideration of magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck, echocardiogram, and thrombophilia evaluation. Treatment beginning early to include physical, speech, and occupational therapies including constraint-induced movement therapy and close cognitive and developmental follow-up may be beneficial. Future treatments may include transcranial magnetic stimulation, hypothermia, and erythropoietin. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke comprises a group of arterial ischemic injuries that can occur in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods in term and preterm infants with different types of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke having different clinical presentations, risk factors, and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DOCUMENTATION PROTOCOLS TO GENERATE RISK INDICATORS REGARDING DEGRADATION PROCESSES FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE RISK EVALUATION

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    A. Kioussi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage assets depends highly on its resilience to external or internal alterations and to various hazards. Risk assessment of a heritage asset's can be defined as the identification of all potential hazards affecting it and the evaluation of the asset's vulnerability (building materials and building structure conservation state.Potential hazards for cultural heritage are complex and varying. The risk of decay and damage associated with monuments is not limited to certain long term natural processes, sudden events and human impact (macroscale of the heritage asset but is also a function of the degradation processes within materials and structural elements due to physical and chemical procedures. Obviously, these factors cover different scales of the problem. The deteriorating processes in materials may be triggered by external influences or caused because of internal chemical and/or physical variations of materials properties and characteristics. Therefore risk evaluation should be dealt in the direction of revealing the specific active decay and damage mechanism both in mesoscale [type of decay and damage] and microscale [decay phenomenon mechanism] level. A prerequisite for risk indicators identification and development is the existence of an organised source of comparable and interoperable data about heritage assets under observation. This unified source of information offers a knowledge based background of the asset's vulnerability through the diagnosis of building materials' and building structure's conservation state, through the identification of all potential hazards affecting these and through mapping of its possible alterations during its entire life-time. In this framework the identification and analysis of risks regarding degradation processes for the development of qualitative and quantitative indicators can be supported by documentation protocols. The data investigated by such

  19. Documentation Protocols to Generate Risk Indicators Regarding Degradation Processes for Cultural Heritage Risk Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioussi, A.; Karoglou, M.; Bakolas, A.; Labropoulos, K.; Moropoulou, A.

    2013-07-01

    Sustainable maintenance and preservation of cultural heritage assets depends highly on its resilience to external or internal alterations and to various hazards. Risk assessment of a heritage asset's can be defined as the identification of all potential hazards affecting it and the evaluation of the asset's vulnerability (building materials and building structure conservation state).Potential hazards for cultural heritage are complex and varying. The risk of decay and damage associated with monuments is not limited to certain long term natural processes, sudden events and human impact (macroscale of the heritage asset) but is also a function of the degradation processes within materials and structural elements due to physical and chemical procedures. Obviously, these factors cover different scales of the problem. The deteriorating processes in materials may be triggered by external influences or caused because of internal chemical and/or physical variations of materials properties and characteristics. Therefore risk evaluation should be dealt in the direction of revealing the specific active decay and damage mechanism both in mesoscale [type of decay and damage] and microscale [decay phenomenon mechanism] level. A prerequisite for risk indicators identification and development is the existence of an organised source of comparable and interoperable data about heritage assets under observation. This unified source of information offers a knowledge based background of the asset's vulnerability through the diagnosis of building materials' and building structure's conservation state, through the identification of all potential hazards affecting these and through mapping of its possible alterations during its entire life-time. In this framework the identification and analysis of risks regarding degradation processes for the development of qualitative and quantitative indicators can be supported by documentation protocols. The data investigated by such protocols help

  20. Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES: Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Cummings

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology (SB applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study. These factors range from those associated with traditional risk assessment, such as health and environmental consequences, to broader features of risk such as those associated with reversibility, manageability, anticipated levels of public concern, and uncertainty. A multi-disciplinary panel with diverse perspectives and affiliations assessed four case studies of SB using the SRES. Rankings of the SRES components are compared within and across the case studies. From these comparisons, we found levels of controllability and familiarity associated with the cases to be important for overall SRES rankings. From a theoretical standpoint, this study illustrates the applicability of the psychometric paradigm to evaluating SB cases. In addition, our paper describes how the SRES can be incorporated into anticipatory governance models as a screening tool to prioritize research, information collection, and dialogue in the face of the limited capacity of governance systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elicit data on specific cases of SB with the goal of developing theory and tools for risk governance.

  1. Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Christopher L; Kuzma, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study. These factors range from those associated with traditional risk assessment, such as health and environmental consequences, to broader features of risk such as those associated with reversibility, manageability, anticipated levels of public concern, and uncertainty. A multi-disciplinary panel with diverse perspectives and affiliations assessed four case studies of SB using the SRES. Rankings of the SRES components are compared within and across the case studies. From these comparisons, we found levels of controllability and familiarity associated with the cases to be important for overall SRES rankings. From a theoretical standpoint, this study illustrates the applicability of the psychometric paradigm to evaluating SB cases. In addition, our paper describes how the SRES can be incorporated into anticipatory governance models as a screening tool to prioritize research, information collection, and dialogue in the face of the limited capacity of governance systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elicit data on specific cases of SB with the goal of developing theory and tools for risk governance.

  2. Classification and evaluation strategies of auto-segmentation approaches for PET: Report of AAPM task group No. 211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Mathieu; Lee, John A; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Naqa, Issam El; Caldwell, Curtis; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Lu, Wei; Das, Shiva; Geets, Xavier; Gregoire, Vincent; Jeraj, Robert; MacManus, Michael P; Mawlawi, Osama R; Nestle, Ursula; Pugachev, Andrei B; Schöder, Heiko; Shepherd, Tony; Spezi, Emiliano; Visvikis, Dimitris; Zaidi, Habib; Kirov, Assen S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this educational report is to provide an overview of the present state-of-the-art PET auto-segmentation (PET-AS) algorithms and their respective validation, with an emphasis on providing the user with help in understanding the challenges and pitfalls associated with selecting and implementing a PET-AS algorithm for a particular application. A brief description of the different types of PET-AS algorithms is provided using a classification based on method complexity and type. The advantages and the limitations of the current PET-AS algorithms are highlighted based on current publications and existing comparison studies. A review of the available image datasets and contour evaluation metrics in terms of their applicability for establishing a standardized evaluation of PET-AS algorithms is provided. The performance requirements for the algorithms and their dependence on the application, the radiotracer used and the evaluation criteria are described and discussed. Finally, a procedure for algorithm acceptance and implementation, as well as the complementary role of manual and auto-segmentation are addressed. A large number of PET-AS algorithms have been developed within the last 20 years. Many of the proposed algorithms are based on either fixed or adaptively selected thresholds. More recently, numerous papers have proposed the use of more advanced image analysis paradigms to perform semi-automated delineation of the PET images. However, the level of algorithm validation is variable and for most published algorithms is either insufficient or inconsistent which prevents recommending a single algorithm. This is compounded by the fact that realistic image configurations with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and heterogeneous tracer distributions have rarely been used. Large variations in the evaluation methods used in the literature point to the need for a standardized evaluation protocol. Available comparison studies suggest that PET-AS algorithms relying

  3. Evaluation Logic of Main Control Board Fire Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Lim, Ho Gon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The main control board (MCB) is defined as the collection of control panels inside the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP). As the MCB has the control and instrumentation circuits of redundant trains for almost all plant systems, small fires within the control panels may be detrimental to the safe shutdown capability. A big fire affecting many panels in the MCB can cause a forced MCR abandonment of the operators as well as function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel electrically and physically independent from the MCR. Because the MCB consist of many electrical panels, it may have internal barriers between them to prevent a fire from spreading from its origin to neighboring locations. However, most MCBs of domestic NPPs do not have internal barriers within them. If the MCB cabinets are not separated by a double wall with an air gap, the fire propagation of an MCB panel fire cannot be ruled out. Recently, Joglar et al. proposed a new evaluation logic for the MCB panel fires and mentioned that an MCB fire can be divided into propagation and non-propagating fires for abandonment and non-abandonment fire scenarios. However, they did not present the details on the fire modeling approaches and probability formulas for the fire scenarios. In this paper, a decision tree for evaluating the risk of an MCB fire is proposed to systematically determine the fire scenarios in terms of the fire modeling approaches. This paper proposed a decision tree for evaluating the risk of an MCB fire to systematically determine the fire scenarios in terms of fire modeling approaches.

  4. Good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the evaluation of the new ILAE classification of focal cortical dysplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coras, R.; de Boer, O.J.; Armstrong, D.; Becker, A.; Jacques, T.S.; Miyata, H.; Thom, M; Vinters, H.V.; Spreafico, R.; Oz, B.; Marucci, G.; Pimentel, J.; Muhlebner, A.; Zamecnik, J.; Buccoliero, A.M.; Rogerio, F.; Streichenberger, N.; Arai, N.; Bugiani, M.; Vogelgesang, S.; Macaulay, R.; Salon, C.; Hans, V.; Polivka, M.; Giangaspero, F.; Fauziah, D.; Kim, J.H.; Liu, L.; Dandan, W.; Gao, J.; Lindeboom, B.; Blumcke, I.; Aronica, E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose: An International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) has been published in 2011 specifying clinicopathologic FCD variants. The aim of the present work was to microscopically assess interobserver agreement and

  5. A critical appraisal of logistic regression-based nomograms, artificial neural networks, classification and regression-tree models, look-up tables and risk-group stratification models for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Felix K-H; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Briganti, Alberto; Walz, Jochen; Kattan, Michael W; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate several methods of predicting prostate cancer-related outcomes, i.e. nomograms, look-up tables, artificial neural networks (ANN), classification and regression tree (CART) analyses and risk-group stratification (RGS) models, all of which represent valid alternatives. We present four direct comparisons, where a nomogram was compared to either an ANN, a look-up table, a CART model or a RGS model. In all comparisons we assessed the predictive accuracy and performance characteristics of both models. Nomograms have several advantages over ANN, look-up tables, CART and RGS models, the most fundamental being a higher predictive accuracy and better performance characteristics. These results suggest that nomograms are more accurate and have better performance characteristics than their alternatives. However, ANN, look-up tables, CART analyses and RGS models all rely on methodologically sound and valid alternatives, which should not be abandoned.

  6. Retrospective epidemiological study of canine epilepsy in Japan using the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force classification 2015 (2003-2013): etiological distribution, risk factors, survival time, and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Yuji; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Yu, Yoshihiko; Wada, Masae; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Fujita, Michio

    2016-11-09

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the etiological distribution, survival time of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IdE) and structural epilepsy (StE), and risk factors for survival time, according to the recently published IVETF classification. We investigated canine cases with epilepsy that were referred to our teaching hospital in Japan during the past 10 years, and which encompassed a different breed population from Western countries. A total of 358 dogs with epilepsy satisfied our etiological study criteria. Of these, 172 dogs (48 %) were classified as IdE and 76 dogs (21 %) as StE. Of these dogs, 100 dogs (consisting of 65 with IdE and 35 with StE) were included in our survival study. Median survival time from the initial epileptic seizure in dogs with IdE and StE was 10.4 and 4.5 years, respectively. Median lifespan of dogs with IdE and StE was 13.5 and 10.9 years, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that risk factors for survival time in IdE were high seizure frequency (≥0.3 seizures/month) and focal epileptic seizures. Focal epileptic seizures were identified as a risk factor for survival time in IdE. Clinicians should carefully differentiate seizure type as it is difficult to identify focal epileptic seizures. With good seizure control, dogs with IdE can survive for nearly the same lifespan as the general dog population. Our results using the IVETF classification are similar to previous

  7. The impact of classification systems in the evaluation of the research performance of the Leiden Ranking Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Perianes-Rodríguez, Antonio; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the consequences of choosing different classification systems – namely, the way publications (or journals) are assigned to scientific fields– for the ranking of research units. We study the impact of this choice on the ranking of 500 universities in the 2013 edition of the Leiden Ranking in two cases. Firstly, we compare a Web of Science journal-level classification system, consisting of 236 subject categories, and a publication-level algorithmically construct...

  8. Risk evaluation of impurities in topical excipients: The acetol case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jente Boonen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical excipients for topical use may contain impurities, which are often neglected from a toxicity qualification viewpoint. The possible impurities in the most frequently used topical excipients were evaluated in-silico for their toxicity hazard. Acetol, an impurity likely present in different topical pharmaceutical excipients such as propylene glycol and glycerol, was withheld for the evaluation of its health risk after dermal exposure.An ex-vivo in-vitro permeation study using human skin in a Franz Diffusion Cell set-up and GC as quantification methodology showed a significant skin penetration with an overall Kp value of 1.82×10−3 cm/h. Using these data, limit specifications after application of a dermal pharmaceutical product were estimated. Based on the TTC approach of Cramer class I substances, i.e. 1800 µg/(day∙person, the toxicity-qualified specification limits of acetol in topical excipients were calculated to be 90 µg/mL and 180 µg/mL for propylene glycol and glycerol, respectively.It is concluded that setting specification limits for impurities within a quality-by-design approach requires a case-by-case evaluation as demonstrated here with acetol. Keywords: Acetol, Impurity, Excipients, Transdermal penetration, Specification limits

  9. An integrated framework for safety, quality and risk management: an information and incident management system based on a universal patient safety classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, W B; Williamson, J A H; Deakin, A; Benveniste, K A; Bannon, K; Hibbert, P D

    2006-01-01

    More needs to be done to improve safety and quality and to manage risks in health care. Existing processes are fragmented and there is no single comprehensive source of information about what goes wrong. An integrated framework for the management of safety, quality and risk is needed, with an information and incident management system based on a universal patient safety classification. The World Alliance for Patient Safety provides a platform for the development of a coherent approach; 43 desirable attributes for such an approach are discussed. An example of an incident management and information system serving a patient safety classification is presented, with a brief account of how and where it is currently used. Any such system is valueless unless it improves safety and quality. Quadruple‐loop learning (personal, local, national and international) is proposed with examples of how an exemplar system has been successfully used at the various levels. There is currently an opportunity to “get it right” by international cooperation via the World Health Organization to develop an integrated framework incorporating systems that can accommodate information from all sources, manage and monitor things that go wrong, and allow the worldwide sharing of information and the dissemination of tools for the implementation of strategies which have been shown to work. PMID:17142615

  10. Risk assessment of Gibberella circinata for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health was asked to provide a risk assessment for Gibberella circinata Nirenberg and O’Donnell, for the EU territory, and to identify and evaluate effectiveness of risk management options in reducing the risk posed by the organism. G. circinata is presently not listed in Council...

  11. [Evaluation of carcinogenic risk assessment of metallurgic copper production based on mortality studies and predictive risk values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkikh, K Iu; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Kuz'mina, E A

    2014-01-01

    Comparative evaluation covered carcinogenic jeopardy at metallurgic copper production through studies of the workers' mortality with malignancies and calculation of individual carcinogenic risks. Findings are that the individual carcinogenic risks calucations correspond to the data obtained in epidemiologic study of the mortality with malignancies and could be used for evaluation of carcinogenic jeopardy.

  12. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  13. Evaluation of muscle force classification using shape analysis of the sEMG probability density function: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, F S; Boudaoud, S; Marque, C

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we propose to classify, by simulation, the shape variability (or non-Gaussianity) of the surface electromyogram (sEMG) amplitude probability density function (PDF), according to contraction level, using high-order statistics (HOS) and a recent functional formalism, the core shape modeling (CSM). According to recent studies, based on simulated and/or experimental conditions, the sEMG PDF shape seems to be modified by many factors as: contraction level, fatigue state, muscle anatomy, used instrumentation, and also motor control parameters. For sensitivity evaluation against these several sources (physiological, instrumental, and neural control) of variability, a large-scale simulation (25 muscle anatomies, ten parameter configurations, three electrode arrangements) is performed, by using a recent sEMG-force model and parallel computing, to classify sEMG data from three contraction levels (20, 50, and 80% MVC). A shape clustering algorithm is then launched using five combinations of HOS parameters, the CSM method and compared to amplitude clustering with classical indicators [average rectified value (ARV) and root mean square (RMS)]. From the results screening, it appears that the CSM method obtains, using Laplacian electrode arrangement, the highest classification scores, after ARV and RMS approaches, and followed by one HOS combination. However, when some critical confounding parameters are changed, these scores decrease. These simulation results demonstrate that the shape screening of the sEMG amplitude PDF is a complex task which needs both efficient shape analysis methods and specific signal recording protocol to be properly used for tracking neural drive and muscle activation strategies with varying force contraction in complement to classical amplitude estimators.

  14. Application of spatial synoptic classification in evaluating links between heat stress and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Prague, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Spatial synoptic classification (SSC) is here first employed in assessing heat-related mortality and morbidity in Central Europe. It is applied for examining links between weather patterns and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity in an extended summer season (16 May-15 September) during 1994-2009. As in previous studies, two SSC air masses (AMs)—dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)—are associated with significant excess CVD mortality in Prague, while effects on CVD hospital admissions are small and insignificant. Excess mortality for ischaemic heart diseases is more strongly associated with DT, while MT has adverse effect especially on cerebrovascular mortality. Links between the oppressive AMs and excess mortality relate also to conditions on previous days, as DT and MT occur in typical sequences. The highest CVD mortality deviations are found 1 day after a hot spell's onset, when temperature as well as frequency of the oppressive AMs are highest. Following this peak is typically DT- to MT-like weather transition, characterized by decrease in temperature and increase in humidity. The transition between upward (DT) and downward (MT) phases is associated with the largest excess CVD mortality, and the change contributes to the increased and more lagged effects on cerebrovascular mortality. The study highlights the importance of critically evaluating SSC's applicability and benefits within warning systems relative to other synoptic and epidemiological approaches. Only a subset of days with the oppressive AMs is associated with excess mortality, and regression models accounting for possible meteorological and other factors explain little of the mortality variance.

  15. Vaccine safety evaluation: Practical aspects in assessing benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Alberta; Bonanni, Paolo; Garçon, Nathalie; Stanberry, Lawrence R; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda

    2016-12-20

    Vaccines are different from most medicines in that they are administered to large and mostly healthy populations including infants and children, so there is a low tolerance for potential risks or side-effects. In addition, the long-term benefits of immunisation in reducing or eliminating infectious diseases may induce complacency due to the absence of cases. However, as demonstrated in recent measles outbreaks in Europe and United States, reappearance of the disease occurs as soon as vaccine coverage falls. Unfounded vaccine scares such as those associating the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with autism, and whole-cell pertussis vaccines with encephalopathy, can also have massive impacts, resulting in reduced vaccine uptake and disease resurgence. The safety assessment of vaccines is exhaustive and continuous; beginning with non-clinical evaluation of their individual components in terms of purity, stability and sterility, continuing throughout the clinical development phase and entire duration of use of the vaccine; including post-approval. The breadth and depth of safety assessments conducted at multiple levels by a range of independent organizations increases confidence in the rigour with which any potential risks or side-effects are investigated and managed. Industry, regulatory agencies, academia, the medical community and the general public all play a role in monitoring vaccine safety. Within these stakeholder groups, the healthcare professional and vaccine provider have key roles in the prevention, identification, investigation and management of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). Guidelines and algorithms aid in determining whether AEFI may have been caused by the vaccine, or whether it is coincidental to it. Healthcare providers are encouraged to rigorously investigate AEFIs and to report them via local reporting processes. The ultimate objective for all parties is to ensure vaccines have a favourable benefit-risk profile. Copyright

  16. Blood lactate levels differ significantly between surviving and nonsurviving patients within the same risk-adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) group after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Gonen, Yael; Vardi, Amir; Keidan, Ilan; Mishali, David; Rubinshtein, Marina; Yakov, Yusim; Paret, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between lactate levels in the first hours after surgery for congenital heart defects and the results of Risk-Adjusted Classification for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) scoring and to evaluate serial lactate levels over time to determine whether they can serve as a supplementary tool for postoperative assessment within the same RACHS-1 group of patients. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data retrieved from a clinical database of 255 children who had surgery for congenital heart defects between 1999 and 2001 at Sheba Medical Center. Lactate levels were measured postoperatively four times (mg/dL units). The last sample was taken at the end of the surgical procedure, and lactate levels were measured at admission to the pediatrics critical care unit, then 6 and 12 h after admission. The lactate level was measured via arterial blood gases. A total of 27 deaths occurred, yielding a mortality rate of 7.4% when Norwood operations were excluded and 10.16% when they were included. The mean initial postoperative lactate level was significantly lower for survivors (42.2 ± 32.0 mg/dL) than for nonsurvivors (85.4 ± 54.1 mg/dL) (p 0.96 for all). The Pearson correlations between postoperative lactate levels (last lactate measurement taken in the operating room) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration (r = 0.549), clamp duration (r = 0.586), and the inotropic score (r = 0.466) (p maximum lactate levels (during the first 12 postoperative hours) and CPB duration (r = 0.496), clamp duration (r = 0.509), and the inotropic score (r = 0.633) (p < 0.001 for all) were extremely positive. The early elevation of lactate levels in RACHS-1 subgroups 1 to 3 were highly correlated with poor prognosis and death (p < 0.03). In addition, the lactate levels differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors within the same RACHS-1 subgroup. The survivors in RACHS-1 subgroups 1 to 3 had lower mean lactate levels than the

  17. Credit Risk Quantitative Evaluation in the Basel II Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Moinescu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The element of absolute novelty brought about by the « Basel II » agreement consists in the multiple approaches that can be used by banks when calculating the capital requirements for loan and operational risk. By implementing the solutions offered by “Basel II”, the Romanian loan-supplying institutions which will choose either the standard approach or the advanced one will be able to use the ratings provided by an external loan evaluation agency that will be set up for this particular purpose.In order to develop such an entity, it is essential to create a rating system based on quantitative analysis that will enable a correct assessment of the probability of non-payment according to the “Basel II” requirements.The tests performed on the models used in the present research study have pointed out the fact that the loan risk quantitative assessment and the setting up of an organization specialized in its external assessment in Romania are both necessary and possible. Taking these opportunities is however conditioned by the creation of an information system that may secure the periodical influx of valid and sufficient data for the adequate methodological calibers, under conditions of autonomy and transparency.

  18. Evaluation of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Golmirzaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for ADHD in children. Method. In this case-control study, 404 children between 4 and 11 years old were selected by cluster sampling method from preschool children (208 patients as cases and 196 controls. All the participants were interviewed by a child and adolescent psychiatrist to survey risk factors of ADHD. Results. Among cases, 59.3% of children were boys and 38.4% were girls, which is different to that in control group with 40.7% boys and 61.6% girls. The chi-square showed statistically significance (P value < 0.0001. The other significant factors by chi-square were fathers' somatic or psychiatric disease (P value < 0.0001, history of trauma and accident during pregnancy (P value = 0.039, abortion proceeds (P value < 0.0001, unintended pregnancy (P value < 0.0001, and history of head trauma (P value < 0.0001. Conclusions. Findings of our study suggest that maternal and paternal adverse events were associated with ADHD symptoms, but breast feeding is a protective factor.

  19. Deep learning in breast cancer risk assessment: evaluation of convolutional neural networks on a clinical dataset of full-field digital mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L; Huynh, Benjamin Q; Antropova, Natalia O

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate deep learning in the assessment of breast cancer risk in which convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with transfer learning are used to extract parenchymal characteristics directly from full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images instead of using computerized radiographic texture analysis (RTA), 456 clinical FFDM cases were included: a "high-risk" BRCA1/2 gene-mutation carriers dataset (53 cases), a "high-risk" unilateral cancer patients dataset (75 cases), and a "low-risk dataset" (328 cases). Deep learning was compared to the use of features from RTA, as well as to a combination of both in the task of distinguishing between high- and low-risk subjects. Similar classification performances were obtained using CNN [area under the curve [Formula: see text]; standard error [Formula: see text

  20. Evaluation of bullying in persons with different risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging research suggests that being exposed to bullying during childhood can increase the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood. Aggressive peer relations among adolescents are more frequent in boys, both for being victims or perpetrators. Aim: To evaluate whether bullying was more prevalent among Serbian clinical population of patients with psychosis in comparison to their healthy siblings and controls, and to analyze gender differences regarding bullying. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 52, age = 29.3 ± 5.9 yrs, in remission, illness duration <10 yrs, their healthy siblings (n = 55, age = 28.6 ± 6.8 yrs and controls (n=50, age=25.3±1.5 yrs. The subjects fulfilled the bullying questionnaire, five item self-rating scale. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney nonparametric test were used to analyze the data. Results: Compared to their healthy siblings, the patients were more likely to report that they were bullied (patients: 7.0 ± 3.5, siblings: 5.2 ± 2.0, p = 0.000, but patients also bullied others more (patients: 1.4 ± 0.8, siblings: 1.1 ± 0.4, p = 0.02. Comparing the group of patients and controls, we did not find statistically significant difference in any category. The male gender brings higher risk of being physically bullied which has been proven for all examined groups (patients- p = 0.03, controls and siblings- p = 0.00. Conclusion: Aggressive peer relations possibly contribute to the evolution of psychosis, as they were more prevalent in patients in comparison to their healthy siblings, particularly in males. Improved prevention of bullying and use of treatments against its psychological consequences might be one of the possible methods to ameliorate the course of psychosis.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Downscaling Sentinel-2 Imagery for Land Use and Land Cover Classification by Spectral-Spatial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongrui Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Use and Land Cover (LULC classification is vital for environmental and ecological applications. Sentinel-2 is a new generation land monitoring satellite with the advantages of novel spectral capabilities, wide coverage and fine spatial and temporal resolutions. The effects of different spatial resolution unification schemes and methods on LULC classification have been scarcely investigated for Sentinel-2. This paper bridged this gap by comparing the differences between upscaling and downscaling as well as different downscaling algorithms from the point of view of LULC classification accuracy. The studied downscaling algorithms include nearest neighbor resampling and five popular pansharpening methods, namely, Gram-Schmidt (GS, nearest neighbor diffusion (NNDiffusion, PANSHARP algorithm proposed by Y. Zhang, wavelet transformation fusion (WTF and high-pass filter fusion (HPF. Two spatial features, textural metrics derived from Grey-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM and extended attribute profiles (EAPs, are investigated to make up for the shortcoming of pixel-based spectral classification. Random forest (RF is adopted as the classifier. The experiment was conducted in Xitiaoxi watershed, China. The results demonstrated that downscaling obviously outperforms upscaling in terms of classification accuracy. For downscaling, image sharpening has no obvious advantages than spatial interpolation. Different image sharpening algorithms have distinct effects. Two multiresolution analysis (MRA-based methods, i.e., WTF and HFP, achieve the best performance. GS achieved a similar accuracy with NNDiffusion and PANSHARP. Compared to image sharpening, the introduction of spatial features, both GLCM and EAPs can greatly improve the classification accuracy for Sentinel-2 imagery. Their effects on overall accuracy are similar but differ significantly to specific classes. In general, using the spectral bands downscaled by nearest neighbor interpolation can meet

  2. Applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF for evaluation of children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine and synthesize the knowledge available in the literature on the instruments used in the perspective of functionality in children with cerebral palsy (CP, and to review the literature evaluating the instruments used for the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF in children with CP. Method: The search was conducted in the electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Lilacs and Medline, for articles published between January 2006 and December 2012, using the following keywords: cerebral palsy, child and assessment, combined with ICF. Ten articles were selected for analysis according to pre-established criteria. Results: The authors proposed tools that could standardize the assessment for classification of the components “Structure and function of the body”, “Activities and Participation” and “Environmental Factors”, proposing instruments such as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, Physicians Rating Scale (PRS, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS, Pediatric Functional Independence Measure (Wee FIM, Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL, Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI, Gillette Gait Index (GGI, Energy Expenditure Index (EEI, and Vécu et Santé Perçue de l’Adolescent (VSP-A. Conclusion: The domains “Structure and function of the body” and “Activities and Participation” are often classified according to ICF in children with CP, and they present a variety of instrumentation for applicability of classification.

  3. Population-based evaluation of a suggested anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart defects based on the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffinet François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of the overall spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHD has always been challenging, in part because of the diversity of the cardiac phenotypes, but also because of the oft-complex associations. The purpose of our study was to establish a comprehensive and easy-to-use classification of CHD for clinical and epidemiological studies based on the long list of the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC. Methods We coded each individual malformation using six-digit codes from the long list of IPCCC. We then regrouped all lesions into 10 categories and 23 subcategories according to a multi-dimensional approach encompassing anatomic, diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. This anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart disease (ACC-CHD was then applied to data acquired from a population-based cohort of patients with CHD in France, made up of 2867 cases (82% live births, 1.8% stillbirths and 16.2% pregnancy terminations. Results The majority of cases (79.5% could be identified with a single IPCCC code. The category "Heterotaxy, including isomerism and mirror-imagery" was the only one that typically required more than one code for identification of cases. The two largest categories were "ventricular septal defects" (52% and "anomalies of the outflow tracts and arterial valves" (20% of cases. Conclusion Our proposed classification is not new, but rather a regrouping of the known spectrum of CHD into a manageable number of categories based on anatomic and clinical criteria. The classification is designed to use the code numbers of the long list of IPCCC but can accommodate ICD-10 codes. Its exhaustiveness, simplicity, and anatomic basis make it useful for clinical and epidemiologic studies, including those aimed at assessment of risk factors and outcomes.

  4. Application of biomarkers in cancer risk management: evaluation from stochastic clonal evolutionary and dynamic system optimization points of view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aside from primary prevention, early detection remains the most effective way to decrease mortality associated with the majority of solid cancers. Previous cancer screening models are largely based on classification of at-risk populations into three conceptually defined groups (normal, cancer without symptoms, and cancer with symptoms. Unfortunately, this approach has achieved limited successes in reducing cancer mortality. With advances in molecular biology and genomic technologies, many candidate somatic genetic and epigenetic "biomarkers" have been identified as potential predictors of cancer risk. However, none have yet been validated as robust predictors of progression to cancer or shown to reduce cancer mortality. In this Perspective, we first define the necessary and sufficient conditions for precise prediction of future cancer development and early cancer detection within a simple physical model framework. We then evaluate cancer risk prediction and early detection from a dynamic clonal evolution point of view, examining the implications of dynamic clonal evolution of biomarkers and the application of clonal evolution for cancer risk management in clinical practice. Finally, we propose a framework to guide future collaborative research between mathematical modelers and biomarker researchers to design studies to investigate and model dynamic clonal evolution. This approach will allow optimization of available resources for cancer control and intervention timing based on molecular biomarkers in predicting cancer among various risk subsets that dynamically evolve over time.

  5. Evaluation of the WHO classification of dengue disease severity during an epidemic in 2011 in the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Mota, Lia Alves Martins; Lustosa, Gustavo Porto; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; Mota, Davi Alves Martins; Lima, Antônio Afonso Bezerra; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a new guideline that stratifies dengue-affected patients into severe (SD) and non-severe dengue (NSD) (with or without warning signs). To evaluate the new recommendations, we completed a retrospective cross-sectional study of the dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases reported during an outbreak in 2011 in northeastern Brazil. We investigated 84 suspected DHF patients, including 45 (53.6%) males and 39 (46.4%) females. The ages of the patients ranged from five-83 years and the median age was 29. According to the DHF/dengue shock syndrome classification, 53 (63.1%) patients were classified as having dengue fever and 31 (36.9%) as having DHF. According to the 2009 WHO classification, 32 (38.1%) patients were grouped as having NSD [4 (4.8%) without warning signs and 28 (33.3%) with warning signs] and 52 (61.9%) as having SD. A better performance of the revised classification in the detection of severe clinical manifestations allows for an improved detection of patients with SD and may reduce deaths. The revised classification will not only facilitate effective screening and patient management, but will also enable the collection of standardised surveillance data for future epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:24626308

  6. A comprehensive quality evaluation method by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometric: Fine classification and untargeted authentication against multiple frauds for Chinese Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiyan; Yin, Qiaobo; Xu, Lu; Wang, Weizheng; Chen, Feng; Yang, Tianming

    2017-07-01

    The origins and authenticity against frauds are two essential aspects of food quality. In this work, a comprehensive quality evaluation method by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics were suggested to address the geographical origins and authentication of Chinese Ganoderma lucidum (GL). Classification for 25 groups of GL samples (7 common species from 15 producing areas) was performed using near-infrared spectroscopy and interval-combination One-Versus-One least squares support vector machine (IC-OVO-LS-SVM). Untargeted analysis of 4 adulterants of cheaper mushrooms was performed by one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) modeling for each of the 7 GL species. After outlier diagnosis and comparing the influences of different preprocessing methods and spectral intervals on classification, IC-OVO-LS-SVM with standard normal variate (SNV) spectra obtained a total classification accuracy of 0.9317, an average sensitivity and specificity of 0.9306 and 0.9971, respectively. With SNV or second-order derivative (D2) spectra, OCPLS could detect at least 2% or more doping levels of adulterants for 5 of the 7 GL species and 5% or more doping levels for the other 2 GL species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using new chemometrics and NIR spectroscopy for fine classification of GL geographical origins and species as well as for untargeted analysis of multiple adulterants.

  7. Diagnosing multibacillary leprosy: A comparative evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of slit-skin smear, bacterial index of granuloma and WHO operational classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Premanshu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In view of the relatively poor performance of skin smears WHO adopted a purely clinical operational classification, however the poor specificity of operational classification leads to overdiagnosis and unwarranted overtreatment while the poor sensitivity leads to underdiagnosis of multibacillary (MB cases with inadequate treatment. Bacilli are more frequently and abundantly demonstrated in tissue sections. Aims and Methods: We compared WHO classification, slit-skin smears (SSS and demonstration of bacilli in biopsies (bacterial index of granuloma or BIG with regards to their efficacy in correctly identifying multibacillary cases. The tests were done on 141 patients and were evaluated for their ability to diagnose true MB leprosy using detailed statistical analysis. Results: A total of 76 patients were truly MB with either positive smears, BIG positivity or with a typical histology of BB, BL or LL. Amongst these 76 true-MB patients, WHO operational classification correctly identified multibacillary status in 56 (73.68%, and SSS in 43 (56.58%, while BIG correctly identified 65 (85.53% true-MB cases. Conclusion: BIG was most sensitive and effective of the three methods especially in paucilesional patients. We suggest adding estimation of bacterial index of granuloma in the diagnostic workup of paucilesional patients.

  8. Evaluation of classification modes potentially suitable to identify metabolic stress in healthy dairy cows during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, S; Weinkauf, C; Hiss, S; Sauerwein, H

    2007-08-01

    The transition of pregnancy to lactation, with the concomitant negative energy balance during early lactation, requires substantial adaptive performance of the cow. Apart from clinical disease problems, the identification of cows with suboptimal adaptation is relevant to be able to adequately treat these animals or modify the ration. Effective approaches are necessary to provide maximal information at the earliest time possible. We therefore aimed to identify a measurement that, when applied at a defined point in time relative to calving, was relevant as much as possible to other information on metabolic and health status during early lactation. Blood samples were collected weekly from 4 wk antepartum to 12 wk postpartum from 38 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, IGF-I, and leptin were measured in serum, and BCS was recorded. Health status was characterized using the concentrations of haptoglobin, the number of leukocytes and neutrophils, as well as the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in blood to evaluate liver status. Using the factors related to fat mobilization, the animals were classified according to their values recorded at one defined point in time or time interval as being above or below certain thresholds. For each criterion, the groups classified were compared with regard to the time-course yielded from all recordings. From 7 criteria of classification, the most closely related to the variables of fat mobilization was obtained when using NEFA and IGF-I (thresholds of 0.5 mM and 39 ng/mL in wk 1 postpartum, respectively). Both items were then combined into to the criterion NEFA + IGF-I. Applying these criteria, the relations to indices of health and liver status were detectable on the basis of NEFA- and NEFA + IGF-I-classes, which yielded differences in both GLDH and leukocyte numbers. Animals with NEFA > 0.5 mM showed increased GLDH activity but decreased leukocyte numbers. The time and effort

  9. Predicting risk of atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery: evaluation of a Brazilian risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Sá, Marcus Villander Barros de Oliveira; Albuquerque, Ana Carla Lopes de; Silva, Belisa Barreto Gomes da; Siqueira, José Williams Muniz de; Brito, Phabllo Rodrigo Santos de; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of a Brazilian score for predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing heart valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE (Recife, PE, Brazil). Retrospective study involving 491 consecutive patients operated between May/2007 and December/2010. The registers contained all the information used to calculate the score. The outcome of interest was AF. We calculated association of model factors with AF (univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis), and association of risk score classes with AF. The incidence of AF was 31.2%. In multivariate analysis, the four variables of the score were predictors of postoperative AF: age >70 years (OR 6.82; 95%CI 3.34-14.10; P 1500 ml at first 24 hours (OR 1.92; 95%CI 1.28-2.88; P=0.002). We observed that the higher the risk class of the patient (low, medium, high, very high), the greater is the incidence of postoperative AF (4.2%; 18.1%; 30.8%; 49.2%), showing that the model seems to be a good predictor of risk of postoperative AF, in a statistically significant association (P<0.001). The Brazilian score proved to be a simple and objective index, revealing a satisfactory predictor of development of postoperative AF in patients undergoing heart valve surgery at our institution.

  10. Myelodysplastic syndrome: classification and prognostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Invernizzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are acquired clonal disorders of hematopoiesis, that are characterized most frequently by normocellular or hypercellular bone marrow specimens, and maturation that is morphologically and functionally dysplastic. MDS constitute a complex hematological problem: differences in disease presentation, progression and outcome have made it necessary to use classification systems to improve diagnosis, prognostication and treatment selection. On the basis of new scientific and clinical information, classification and prognostic systems have recently been updated and minimal diagnostic criteria forMDS have been proposed by expert panels. In addition, in the last few years our ability to define the prognosis of the individual patient with MDS has improved. In this paper World Health Organization (WHO classification refinements and recent prognostic scoring systems for the definition of individual risk are highlighted and current criteria are discussed. The recommendations should facilitate diagnostic and prognostic evaluations in MDS and selection of patients for new effective targeted therapies.

  11. Short Time Exposure (STE) test in conjunction with Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay including histopathology to evaluate correspondence with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation classification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Ducas, Rafael do Nascimento; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2015-09-01

    Eye irritation evaluation is mandatory for predicting health risks in consumers exposed to textile dyes. The two dyes, Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19) are classified as Category 2A (irritating to eyes) based on the UN Globally Harmonized System for classification (UN GHS), according to the Draize test. On the other hand, animal welfare considerations and the enforcement of a new regulation in the EU are drawing much attention in reducing or replacing animal experiments with alternative methods. This study evaluated the eye irritation of the two dyes RO16 and RG19 by combining the Short Time Exposure (STE) and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assays and then comparing them with in vivo data from the GHS classification. The STE test (first level screening) categorized both dyes as GHS Category 1 (severe irritant). In the BCOP, dye RG19 was also classified as GHS Category 1 while dye RO16 was classified as GHS no prediction can be made. Both dyes caused damage to the corneal tissue as confirmed by histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the STE test did not contribute to arriving at a better conclusion about the eye irritation potential of the dyes when used in conjunction with the BCOP test. Adding the histopathology to the BCOP test could be an appropriate tool for a more meaningful prediction of the eye irritation potential of dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A hospital-based case-control study of acute myeloid leukemia in Shanghai: analysis of environmental and occupational risk factors by subtypes of the WHO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Otto; Harris, Fran; Armstrong, Thomas W; Hua, Fu

    2010-03-19

    The objectives were: (1) to investigate potential environmental and occupational risk factors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and (2) to explore the relationships between risk factors and AML subtypes according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The investigation was a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 722 newly diagnosed AML cases (August 2003 through June 2007) and 1444 individually gender-age-matched patient controls at 29 hospitals in Shanghai. A 17-page questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, medical history, family history, lifestyle risk factors, employment history, residential history, and occupational and non-occupational exposures. Certain occupations of interest triggered a second questionnaire, which was occupation-specific and asked for more details about jobs, tasks, materials used and work environment. Exposure assessments were based on the questionnaires, on-site workplace investigations, data published in the Chinese literature, historical exposure measurements maintained by government health agencies, and expert opinions of a panel of local scientists who were familiar with workplaces in Shanghai. Risk estimates (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) of individual risk factors were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. A number of potential environmental and occupational risk factors were associated with an increased risk of AML (all subtypes combined) and/or individual subtypes; including home or workplace renovation, living on a farm, planting crops, raising livestock or animals, farm workers, metal workers, rubber and plastic workers, wood and furniture workers, printers, loading and unloading workers, automobile manufacturing, general construction, and food and beverage industry (restaurants and other eateries). Exposures associated with an increased risk of AML (all subtypes combined) and/or individual subtypes included benzene, diesel fuel, metals, insecticides

  13. Context-sensitive Information security Risk identification and evaluation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of my research is to improve and support the process of Information security Risk Assessment by designing a scalable Risk argumentation framework for socio-digital-technical Risk. Due to the various types of IT systems, diversity of architectures and dynamic nature of Risk, there is no

  14. The department of veterans affairs nutritional status classification scheme allows for rapid assessment of nutritional status prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and identifies patients at high risk of transplant-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Juan J; Haile, David J; Chao, Ju-Hsien; Schneider, Deanna; Jewell, Pamela S; Lee, Shuko; Freytes, César O

    2009-09-01

    The nutritional assessment of patients prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) is labor intensive. A simple method of nutritional assessment prior to APSCT would be extremely helpful, especially if this method could identify patients at high risk of transplant-related complications. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) developed a Nutritional Status Classification Scheme (NSCS) to identify nutritionally compromised inpatients rapidly and reliably. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of the VA-NSCS could be utilized as a tool for the evaluation of patients prior to APBSCT and to determine if this tool could be used to identify patients at high risk of transplant-related complications. The nutritional status of 128 patients who underwent APBSCT was assessed by a registered dietician, utilizing the VA-NSCS, upon admission to the hospital and prior to conditioning regimen. Patients with moderately compromised nutritional status pretransplantation experienced a higher incidence of infections, longer duration of diarrhea, and longer length of hospital stay when compared to patients with normal or mildly compromised nutritional status. Our study demonstrates that the VA-NSCS, a simple and inexpensive tool to assess nutritional status, was useful in determining the pretransplant nutritional status of patients with lymphogenous malignancies who underwent APBSCT. In addition, this method was able to identify patients at a higher risk of posttransplant complications. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal method for the nutritional assessment of autologous stem cell transplant candidates.

  15. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audiffren, Julien; Bargiotas, Ioannis; Vayatis, Nicolas; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Ricard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP) displacement (statokinesigram) with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control. In this work, we study the statokinesigrams of 84 elderly subjects (80.3+- 6.4 years old), which had no impairment related to balance control. Each subject was recorded 25 seconds with eyes open and 25 seconds with eyes closed and information pertaining to the presence of problems of balance, such as fall, in the last six months, was collected. Five descriptors of the statokinesigrams were computed for each record, and a Ranking Forest algorithm was used to combine those features in order to evaluate each subject's balance with a score. A classical train-test split approach was used to evaluate the performance of the method through ROC analysis. ROC analysis showed that the performance of each descriptor separately was close to a random classifier (AUC between 0.49 and 0.54). On the other hand, the score obtained by our method reached an AUC of 0.75 on the test set, consistent over multiple train-test split. This non linear multi-dimensional approach seems appropriate in evaluating complex postural control.

  16. A Non Linear Scoring Approach for Evaluating Balance: Classification of Elderly as Fallers and Non-Fallers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Audiffren

    Full Text Available Almost one third of population 65 years-old and older faces at least one fall per year. An accurate evaluation of the risk of fall through simple and easy-to-use measurements is an important issue in current clinic. A common way to evaluate balance in posturography is through the recording of the centre-of-pressure (CoP displacement (statokinesigram with force platforms. A variety of indices have been proposed to differentiate fallers from non fallers. However, no agreement has been reached whether these analyses alone can explain sufficiently the complex synergies of postural control. In this work, we study the statokinesigrams of 84 elderly subjects (80.3+- 6.4 years old, which had no impairment related to balance control. Each subject was recorded 25 seconds with eyes open and 25 seconds with eyes closed and information pertaining to the presence of problems of balance, such as fall, in the last six months, was collected. Five descriptors of the statokinesigrams were computed for each record, and a Ranking Forest algorithm was used to combine those features in order to evaluate each subject's balance with a score. A classical train-test split approach was used to evaluate the performance of the method through ROC analysis. ROC analysis showed that the performance of each descriptor separately was close to a random classifier (AUC between 0.49 and 0.54. On the other hand, the score obtained by our method reached an AUC of 0.75 on the test set, consistent over multiple train-test split. This non linear multi-dimensional approach seems appropriate in evaluating complex postural control.

  17. Screening Models for Cardiac Risk Evaluation in Emergency Abdominal Surgery. I. Evaluation of the Intraoperative Period Risk based on Data from the Preoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A classification of intraoperative cardio-vascular complications (CVC was performed, based on data from 466 patients subjected to emergency surgery, due to severe abdominal surgical diseases or traumas, in accordance with the severe criteria of ACC/AHA for CVC in noncardiac surgery. There were 370 intraoperative CVC registered, distributed as follows: groups with low risk (148, moderate risk (200, and high risk (22. Patient groups were formed, according to the CVC risk level, during the intraoperative period, for which the determinant factor for the group distribution of patients was the complication with the highest risk. Individual data was collected for each patient, based on 65 indices: age, physical status, diseases, surgical interventions, anaesthesiological information, intra and postoperative cardio-vascular complications, disease outcome, causes of death, cardiovascular disease anamnesis, anamnesis of all other nonsurgical diseases present, laboratory results, results from all imaging and instrumental examinations, etc. On the basis of these indices, a new distribution of the risk factors was implemented, into groups with different levels of risk of CVC during intraoperative period. This result is a solid argument, substantiating the proposal to introduce these adjustments for determining the severity of CVC in the specific conditions of emergency abdominal surgery.

  18. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murakami

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249 aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station, evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on

  19. MDR-ER: balancing functions for adjusting the ratio in risk classes and classification errors for imbalanced cases and controls using multifactor-dimensionality reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Determining the complex relationship between diseases, polymorphisms in human genes and environmental factors is challenging. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR has proven capable of effectively detecting statistical patterns of epistasis. However, MDR has its weakness in accurately assigning multi-locus genotypes to either high-risk and low-risk groups, and does generally not provide accurate error rates when the case and control data sets are imbalanced. Consequently, results for classification error rates and odds ratios (OR may provide surprising values in that the true positive (TP value is often small. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this problem, we introduce a classifier function based on the ratio between the percentage of cases in case data and the percentage of controls in control data to improve MDR (MDR-ER for multi-locus genotypes to be classified correctly into high-risk and low-risk groups. In this study, a real data set with different ratios of cases to controls (1:4 was obtained from the mitochondrial D-loop of chronic dialysis patients in order to test MDR-ER. The TP and TN values were collected from all tests to analyze to what degree MDR-ER performed better than MDR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results showed that MDR-ER can be successfully used to detect the complex associations in imbalanced data sets.

  20. MDR-ER: balancing functions for adjusting the ratio in risk classes and classification errors for imbalanced cases and controls using multifactor-dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Yu-Da; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chen, Jin-Bor; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Determining the complex relationship between diseases, polymorphisms in human genes and environmental factors is challenging. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) has proven capable of effectively detecting statistical patterns of epistasis. However, MDR has its weakness in accurately assigning multi-locus genotypes to either high-risk and low-risk groups, and does generally not provide accurate error rates when the case and control data sets are imbalanced. Consequently, results for classification error rates and odds ratios (OR) may provide surprising values in that the true positive (TP) value is often small. To address this problem, we introduce a classifier function based on the ratio between the percentage of cases in case data and the percentage of controls in control data to improve MDR (MDR-ER) for multi-locus genotypes to be classified correctly into high-risk and low-risk groups. In this study, a real data set with different ratios of cases to controls (1:4) was obtained from the mitochondrial D-loop of chronic dialysis patients in order to test MDR-ER. The TP and TN values were collected from all tests to analyze to what degree MDR-ER performed better than MDR. Results showed that MDR-ER can be successfully used to detect the complex associations in imbalanced data sets.

  1. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Hand eczema is a long-lasting disease with a high prevalence in the background population. The disease has severe, negative effects on quality of life and sometimes on social status. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for onset and prognosis, but treatment...... of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  2. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  3. Pharmacokinetics and risk evaluation of DNA vaccine against Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei; Lu, Ming-Bo; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    DNA plasmid immunization is a novel approach of preventive and therapeutic vaccine. More than 100 DNA vaccines have been on preclinical or clinical phase trials, and four kinds of DNA vaccines for livestock have been approved by USDA, CFIA, and APVMA. Schistosomiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease, and vaccine immunization is supposed to be a promising approach to control the health crisis. On the basis of former preclinical studies, we further focused on the pharmacokinetics and risk evaluation of DNA vaccine in vivo. In the present study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) report gene was fused with Schistosoma japonicum 23 kDa transmembrane protein antigen gene (Sj23) and constructed into DNA vaccine pVIVO2-Sj23.EGFP. After intramuscularly injecting 100 μg of purified DNA vaccine plasmid to immunizate BALB/c mice, we studied the tissue distribution of DNA plasmid and expressed Sj23.EGFP antigen, the persistence time of elicited antibodies, and the risk of DNA vaccine transferred into intestinal microorganisms. The results showed that DNA vaccine plasmid could be distributed into all tissues of the body after injection; however, only few organs including the injected muscle were detected DNA vaccine at postimmunization until the 100 days by PCR technology; the detection of green fluorescence protein displayed that DNA vaccine could be expressed in almost every tissue and organs; the ELISA assay indicated the immune antibody against Sj23 could persist over 70 days; and the DNA vaccine transferring intestinal flora results was negative. The results indicated that the DNA vaccine has systemic protection and long-lasting effectivity and is safe to intestinal flora.

  4. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Endometriosis in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis affects women’s physical and mental wellbeing. Symptoms include dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and infertility. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between some relevant factors and symptoms and risk of an endometriosis diagnosis in infertile women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 1282 surgical patients in an infertility Institute, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated by laparoscopy. Of these, there were 341 infertile women with endometriosis (cases and 332 infertile women with a normal pelvis (comparison group. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare these two groups. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model for an endometriosis diagnosis. Results: Gravidity [odds ratio (OR: 0.8, confidence interval (CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01], parity (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01, family history of endometriosis (OR: 4.9, CI: 2.1-11.3, P0.05. Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and premenstrual spotting were more significant among late-stage endometriosis patients than in those with early-stage endometriosis and more prevalent among patients with endometriosis than that of the comparison group. In the logistic regression model, gravidity, family history of endometriosis, history of galactorrhea, history of pelvic surgery, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain, dysparaunia, premenstrual spotting, fatigue, and diarrhea were significantly associated with endometriosis. However, the number of pregnancies was negatively related to endometriosis. Conclusion: Endometriosis is a considerable public health issue because it affects many women and is associated with the significant morbidity. In this study, we built a prediction model which can be used to predict the risk of endometriosis in infertile women.

  5. Evaluation of Iranian College Students’ Awareness about Infertility Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background With technological developments, creation of new industries, and changing human behavior and lifestyles, several new infertility risk factors (IRFs are discovered annually. Although many studies have been conducted on IRFs, no research has yet been carried out on the awareness of Iranian college students about the many IRFs. Objectives Since prevention of infertility in a society is directly related to awareness about infertility, in the present study the awareness of male and female college students about IRFs was evaluated and compared at Jami institute of technology. Patients and Methods For this purpose, a survey questionnaire containing 24 factors related to IRFs was developed and 123 college students from Jami institute of technology completed it. All data was extracted from these questionnaires and was statistically analyzed. Results The results showed that both male and female participants had moderate awareness (55.86% about IRFs. Female participants had significantly more awareness about the effects of cell phone radiation, fast food, and stress in comparison with their male counterparts. However, significantly higher numbers of male participants knew that smoking has negative effects on fertility. Generally, the awareness of females about IRFs was greater than that of males (59.46% vs. 52.27%. Conclusions College students have a considerable knowledge gap relating to infertility risk factors, which could be due to the lack of a suitable module on IRFs in the curricula of Iranian universities. Generally, females have more awareness than males. The greatest awareness about IRFs concerned smoking, which may result from widespread media coverage.

  6. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimy Fluyau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKratom (Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules. Some case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, intrahepatic cholestasis, other medical conditions, and deaths. The clinical manifestations of kratom effects are not well defined and the clinical studies are limited. Data research suggest that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, in addition to antinociceptive, antidepressant activity, anxiolytic-like effects, and anorectic effects, but a growing concern for the drug’s effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are believed to have been caused by extracts of the plant. There is a dearth of double blind controlled studies. In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world.MethodsLiterature review using databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Mendeley from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated by all authors to analyze current state on benefits, risks, and diagnosis evaluation of kratom (M. speciosa.ResultsData analysis suggested that kratom possesses some benefits such as stimulant and sedative effects as wells as antinociceptive effects. It seems to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator release and vascular permeability and can enhance immunity. In addition, it may be an antidepressant and

  7. Biochemical Benefits, Diagnosis, and Clinical Risks Evaluation of Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluyau, Dimy; Revadigar, Neelambika

    2017-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. Kratom is also known as Thom, Thang, and Biak. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to manage pain and opioid withdrawal and to stave off fatigue. Kratom is actually consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (in form of tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules). Some case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, intrahepatic cholestasis, other medical conditions, and deaths. The clinical manifestations of kratom effects are not well defined and the clinical studies are limited. Data research suggest that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, in addition to antinociceptive, antidepressant activity, anxiolytic-like effects, and anorectic effects, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are believed to have been caused by extracts of the plant. There is a dearth of double blind controlled studies. In this study, we aim to use existing literature to clarify both benefits and risks of kratom as well as its diagnosis evaluation as kratom misuse is an emerging trend in the Western world. Literature review using databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Mendeley from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated by all authors to analyze current state on benefits, risks, and diagnosis evaluation of kratom (M. speciosa). Data analysis suggested that kratom possesses some benefits such as stimulant and sedative effects as wells as antinociceptive effects. It seems to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediator release and vascular permeability and can enhance immunity. In addition, it may be an antidepressant and anorectic. However, kratom can cause

  8. 77 FR 66649 - Proposed Revision to Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors...), Section 19.0 ``Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors.'' The NRC is... probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information and severe accident assessments for new reactors submitted to...

  9. 77 FR 61446 - Proposed Revision Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors..., ``Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Severe Accident Evaluation for New Reactors.'' DATES: Submit comments by... No. ML081430087) concerning the review of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information and severe...

  10. Incremental value of anemia in cardiac surgical risk prediction with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrascia, Giuseppe; Guida, Pietro; Caparrotti, Sergio Maria; Capone, Giuseppe; Contini, Marco; Cassese, Mauro; Fanelli, Vitantonio; Martinelli, Gianluca; Mazzei, Valerio; Zaccaria, Salvatore; Paparella, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Anemia is a risk factor for adverse events after cardiac operations. We evaluated the incremental value of preoperative anemia over the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II to predict hospital death after cardiac operations. Data for 4,594 consecutive adults (1,548 women [33.7%]), aged 67 ± 11 years, who underwent cardiac operations from January 2011 to July 2013 were extracted from the Regional Cardiac Surgery Registry of Puglia. The last preoperative hemoglobin value was used, according to World Health Organization criteria, to classify anemia as mild (hemoglobin 11.0 to 12.9 g/dL in men and 11.0 to 11.9 g/dL in women) in 1,021 patients (22.2%) and as moderate to severe (hemoglobin anemia, with model discrimination quantified by C statistic and risk classification by the use of net reclassification improvement (NRI). Overall expected and observed mortality rates were 4.4% and 5.9%. Anemia was significantly associated with a mortality rate of 3.4% in patients without anemia, 7.7% in mild anemia, and 15.7% in moderate to severe anemia (p anemia was analyzed with EuroSCORE II, the model improved in discrimination (C statistic = 0.852 vs 0.860; p = 0.007) and reclassification (category free-NRI, 0.592; p anemia has strong association with operative death in cardiac surgical patients. Anemia provides significant incremental value over the EuroSCORE II and should be considered for assessment of cardiac surgical risk. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Patients with Intellectual Disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to Evaluate Dental Treatment Tolerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S.; Kita, F.; Miyawaki, T.; Takeuchi, K.; Ishida, R.; Egusa, M.; Shimada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with serious intellectual disability (ID) are occasionally unable to tolerate dental treatment when intravenous sedation or general anaesthesia (IVSGA) is involved. In order to make a decision regarding the application of IVSGA, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is useful. Therefore, in this…

  12. Evaluation of a 5-tier scheme proposed for classification of sequence variants using bioinformatic and splicing assay data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Logan C; Whiley, Phillip J; Houdayer, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Splicing assays are commonly undertaken in the clinical setting to assess the clinical relevance of sequence variants in disease predisposition genes. A 5-tier classification system incorporating both bioinformatic and splicing assay information was previously proposed as a method to provide...

  13. Evaluating the statistical performance of less applied algorithms in classification of worldview-3 imagery data in an urbanized landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaie, Mehrdad; Soffianian, Alireza; Pourmanafi, Saeid; Mirghaffari, Noorollah; Tarkesh, Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    In recent decade, analyzing the remotely sensed imagery is considered as one of the most common and widely used procedures in the environmental studies. In this case, supervised image classification techniques play a central role. Hence, taking a high resolution Worldview-3 over a mixed urbanized landscape in Iran, three less applied image classification methods including Bagged CART, Stochastic gradient boosting model and Neural network with feature extraction were tested and compared with two prevalent methods: random forest and support vector machine with linear kernel. To do so, each method was run ten time and three validation techniques was used to estimate the accuracy statistics consist of cross validation, independent validation and validation with total of train data. Moreover, using ANOVA and Tukey test, statistical difference significance between the classification methods was significantly surveyed. In general, the results showed that random forest with marginal difference compared to Bagged CART and stochastic gradient boosting model is the best performing method whilst based on independent validation there was no significant difference between the performances of classification methods. It should be finally noted that neural network with feature extraction and linear support vector machine had better processing speed than other.

  14. How Should Children with Speech Sound Disorders be Classified? A Review and Critical Evaluation of Current Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, R.; Knight, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) form a heterogeneous group who differ in terms of the severity of their condition, underlying cause, speech errors, involvement of other aspects of the linguistic system and treatment response. To date there is no universal and agreed-upon classification system. Instead, a number of…

  15. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Evaluation in Auto Spare Parts Transport Based on the AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Rong; Xu Chang

    2017-01-01

    By way of example we analyze various risks exist in auto spare parts transportation, building engineering logistics risk evaluation index system of auto spare parts transportation, and the introduction of AHP, be more rational auto spare parts transportation risk assessment methods, strengthen risk management auto spare parts auto spare parts transportation to provide a reference for other engineering logistics auto spare parts transportation.

  17. Interactive graphics for expressing health risks: development and qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Jessica S; Chan, Connie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that interactive game-like graphics might be useful in communicating probabilities. We developed a prototype for a risk communication module, focusing on eliciting users' preferences for different interactive graphics and assessing usability and user interpretations. Feedback from five focus groups was used to design the graphics. The final version displayed a matrix of square buttons; clicking on any button allowed the user to see whether the stick figure underneath was affected by the health outcome. When participants used this interaction to learn about a risk, they expressed more emotional responses, both positive and negative, than when viewing any static graphic or numerical description of a risk. Their responses included relief about small risks and concern about large risks. The groups also commented on static graphics: arranging the figures affected by disease randomly throughout a group of figures made it more difficult to judge the proportion affected but often was described as more realistic. Interactive graphics appear to have potential for expressing risk magnitude as well as the feeling of risk. This affective impact could be useful in increasing perceived threat of high risks, calming fears about low risks, or comparing risks. Quantitative studies are planned to assess the effect on perceived risks and estimated risk magnitudes.

  18. THE CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF THE SUICIDE IN ROMANIA COVERED BY THE MEDIA AND ONLINE NEWS SITES. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATIONS AND QUALITATIVE CLASSIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor SORIN M. RADULESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the main findings of a quantitative and qualitative analysis on the suicides in Romania, as they are submitted in media and online news sites. The quantitative analysis provides information on the main factors associated with the increase of the suicides in Romania (gender, age, county, suicide methods, suicide causes and key motivations for suicide. The qualitative analysis, too, offers a classification and evaluation scheme for the essential characteristics of the suicide in Romania. There are set on this occcasion some categories and subcategories such as: the victims numbers, the rational or irrational character of the suicide, its form of the expression (solitary or public suicide, the model followed (e.g. the ,,mimetic” suicide, the suicide methods, the suicide locations etc. The most important part of the paper is devoted to the classification of the causes, motivations and the main triggers of the suicide

  19. TET2 mutations improve the new European LeukemiaNet risk classification of acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzeler, Klaus H; Maharry, Kati; Radmacher, Michael D; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Margeson, Dean; Becker, Heiko; Curfman, John; Holland, Kelsi B; Schwind, Sebastian; Whitman, Susan P; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Blum, William; Powell, Bayard L; Carter, Thomas H; Wetzler, Meir; Moore, Joseph O; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Baer, Maria R; Carroll, Andrew J; Larson, Richard A; Caligiuri, Michael A; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2011-04-01

    To determine the frequency of TET2 mutations, their associations with clinical and molecular characteristics and outcome, and the associated gene- and microRNA-expression signatures in patients with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Four-hundred twenty-seven patients with CN-AML were analyzed for TET2 mutations by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing and for established prognostic gene mutations. Gene- and microRNA-expression profiles were derived using microarrays. TET2 mutations, found in 23% of patients, were associated with older age (P classification in primary CN-AML because of their adverse prognostic impact in an otherwise favorable-risk patient subset. Our data suggest that these patients may be candidates for alternative therapies.

  20. Incidental emotions influence risk preference and outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Gu, Ruolei; Tang, Ping; Yang, Qiwei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-10-01

    Incidental emotions, which are irrelevant to the current decision, play a significant role in the decision-making process. In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on behavioral, psychological, and electrophysiological responses in the process of decision making, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. During the selection stage, an emotional picture, which was chosen from the Chinese Affective Picture System and fell into one of three categories: negative, neutral, and positive, was presented between two alternatives (small/large amount of bet). The pictures were provided to induce incidental emotions. ERPs and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Behavioral results showed that positive incidental emotions elicited risk preference, but emotional experiences to outcome feedback were not influenced by incidental emotions. The feedback-related negativity amplitudes were larger in the positive emotion condition than in the negative and neutral emotion conditions for small outcomes (including wins and losses), whereas there was no difference between the three conditions for large outcomes. In addition, the amplitudes of P3 were reduced overall in the negative emotion condition. We suggest that incidental emotions have modulated both the option assessment stage (manifested in behavioral choices) and the outcome evaluation stage (manifested in ERP amplitudes) of decision making unconsciously (indicated by unchanged subjective emotional experiences). The current findings have expanded our understanding of the role of incidental emotion in decision making. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Work related psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal disorders: potential risk factors, causation and evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Colin; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Musculo Skeletal Disorders (MSDs) are the focus of considerable attention and research in occupational health, which is in part due to high prevalence rates and associated costs. In the United States, the total cost associated with MSDs increased from $81 billion in 1986 to $215 billion in 2005 [3]. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown associations between work-related psychosocial factors and MSDs, and the role of psychosocial factors and stress in these disorders has received increased attention. Several reviews have reported associations between MSDs and work-related psychosocial factors such as high workload/demands, high perceived stress levels, low social support, low job control, low job satisfaction and monotonous work. Several theories have been proposed to explain the apparent relationship between stress and MSDs in the workplace from a biological perspective. These include the biopsychosocial model of job stress, the hyperventilation theory, the migraine theory, the muscle spindle theory and the Cinderella hypothesis. Within the literature, a vast array of questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to measure the psychosocial factors that occur within the workplace. This article presents a discussion of existing knowledge of the psychosocial risk factors potentially linked to MSDs and potential pathways to injury. A discussion of evaluation approaches used to estimate psychosocial risk exposures in workplaces is also presented.

  2. Evaluation of military field-water quality: Volume 6, Infectious organisms of military concern associated with nonconsumptive exposure: Assessment of health risks and recommendations for establishing related standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.C.; Olivieri, A.W.; Danielson, R.E.; Badger, P.G.

    1986-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the risk of illness due to exposure to water-related (i.e., water-based, water-washed) infectious organisms. The organisms under consideration are Aeromonas spp., Leptospira spp., Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-cholerae Vibrio spp., Acanthamoeba spp., Balantidium coli, Naegleria spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Dracunculus medinesis, Schistosoma spp., and the agents responsible for cercarial dermatitis (i.e., Trichobilharzia, Gigantobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia). Evaluation of the risk to disease associated with the above pathogens requires information in specific areas such as dose response, concentration of agents in the environment, and environmental persistence. The existing body of knowledge concerning these agents ranges from speculation to established fact. Unfortunately, areas of information critical to risk assessment are frequently unavailable. Because of this lack of data, the risk assessment presented is semiquantitative and limited to the presentation of an environmental classification scheme. 14 refs., 2 figs., 57 tabs.

  3. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... an issue paper entitled ``Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science...' knowledge about drugs' risks; (2) share current FDA experience regarding social science assessments of...

  4. Evaluation of risk management status for Croatian logistic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BOŽIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding organisational risks makes possible to control them and to change them into organisational strengths. Being known as “measure of uncertainty” in the business process, the risk is the uncertainty of achieving the organizational objectives. It may involve positive or negative consequences. There is a level of uncertainty in every supply chain while operating transportation and warehousing, positioning on the market, developing customer support, reducing cycle times or cutting costs. Therefore, the risk assessment should be one of the main tasks for any supply chain management team. It is required to develop formal risk assessment procedures, to identify the potential impacts to the supply chain operations and to develop a set of contingency plans to mitigate risks. This paper deals with supply chain risk assessment methodology, outlining the present risk management status of Croatian logistic operators.

  5. [Web-based for preanesthesia evaluation record: a structured, evidence-based patient interview to assess the anesthesiological risk profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Sylvia; Lau, Alexandra; Krämer, Michael; Wendler, Olafur Gunnarsson; Müller-Lobeck, Lutz; Scheding, Christoph; Klarhöfer, Manja; Schaffartzik, Walter; Neumann, Tim; Krampe, Henning; Spies, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    At present, providers at an Anesthesia Preoperative Evaluation Clinic (APEC) may have difficulties in gaining access to relevant clinical information, including external medical records, surgical dictations etc. This common occurence makes obtaining an informed consent by the patient after a complete pre-anesthetic assessment difficult. This form of patient information is subject to wide interindividual variations and, thus, represents a challenge for quality assurance. Insufficient or not completed pre-anesthetic assessments can lead to an untimely termination of an elective procedure.A web-based pre-anesthetic evaluation record moves the time point of the first contact to well before the day of admission. The current pre-anesthesia evaluation record is replaced by a structured interview in the form of a complex of questions in a specific hierarchy taking guidelines, standard operating procedures (SOP) and evidence-based medicine (EBM) into consideration. The answers to the complex of questions are then classified according to agreed criteria and possible scoring systems of relevant classifications. The endpoints result in procedural recommendations not only for the informing anesthesiologist but also for the patient. The standardized risk criteria can be used as core process indicators to check the process quality of the anesthesiological risk evaluation. Short-notice cancellations of elective operations due to incomplete premedication procedures will then be avoided with the help of such structured and evidence-based patient interviews with detailed assessment of the anesthesiological risk profile.The web-based anesthesia evaluation record (WAR) corresponds with the recommendations of the DGAI to carry out the staged information in analogy to the staged information of Weissauer. The basic practice is not changed by WACH. By means of WACH, the time point of the first contact with anesthesia is moved forward and occurs within a different framework. WACH has

  6. A prospective study of duration of smoking cessation and colorectal cancer risk by epigenetics-related tumor classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Reiko; Morikawa, Teppei; Kuchiba, Aya; Lochhead, Paul; Yamauchi, Mai; Liao, Xiaoyun; Imamura, Yu; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Shima, Kaori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Qian, Zhi Rong; Fuchs, Charles S; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    The effect of duration of cigarette smoking cessation on colorectal cancer risk by molecular subtypes remains unclear. Using duplication-method Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, we examined associations between duration of smoking cessation and colorectal cancer risk according to status of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutation, or DNA methyltransferase-3B (DNMT3B) expression. Follow-up of 134,204 individuals in 2 US nationwide prospective cohorts (Nurses' Health Study (1980-2008) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008)) resulted in 1,260 incident rectal and colon cancers with available molecular data. Compared with current smoking, 10-19, 20-39, and ≥40 years of smoking cessation were associated with a lower risk of CIMP-high colorectal cancer, with multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.53 (0.29, 0.95), 0.52 (0.32, 0.85), and 0.50 (0.27, 0.94), respectively (Ptrend = 0.001), but not with the risk of CIMP-low/CIMP-negative cancer (Ptrend = 0.25) (Pheterogeneity = 0.02, between CIMP-high and CIMP-low/CIMP-negative cancer risks). Differential associations between smoking cessation and cancer risks by microsatellite instability (Pheterogeneity = 0.02), DNMT3B expression (Pheterogeneity = 0.03), and BRAF (Pheterogeneity = 0.10) status appeared to be driven by the associations of CIMP-high cancer with microsatellite instability-high, DNMT3B-positive, and BRAF-mutated cancers. These molecular pathological epidemiology data suggest a protective effect of smoking cessation on a DNA methylation-related carcinogenesis pathway leading to CIMP-high colorectal cancer.

  7. Evaluation of occupational genotoxic risk in a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbel Weidner Maluf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic, diagnostic and prophylactic procedures used in hospitals are of potential genetic risk. An evaluation was made of genotoxic occupational risk in 42 workers from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, who had been occupationally exposed to lead (solder, ethylene oxide (sterilization area, antineoplastic drugs (nurses and pharmacists or ionizing radiation. They were compared with 42 unexposed individuals. There was an increase in the frequency of binucleated cytochalasin-blocked lymphocytes with micronuclei, though it was not significant (P = 0.058. The groups exposed to antineoplastic drugs and radiation had a significant increase in micronuclei frequency (P = 0.038 and P = 0.022, respectively. The high frequencies of dicentric bridges suggest the action of clastogenics in these two groups. These results suggest that the safety procedures adopted were very important to protect workers from exposure to mutagenic agents and should be improved in the radiological and chemotherapeutical areas.Vários procedimentos terapêuticos, diagnósticos e profiláticos usados em hospitais apresentam um risco genético. Para avaliar o risco genotóxico ocupacional, 42 trabalhadores do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, ocupacionalmente expostos a chumbo (uso de soldas, óxido de etileno (área de esterilização, drogas antineoplásicas (enfermeiros e farmacêuticos e radiação ionizante foram comparados com 42 indivíduos não expostos. A análise de linfócitos binucleados apresentou um aumento estatisticamente não significativo (P = 0.058 na freqüência de micronúcleos. Quando analisados separadamente, os grupos expostos a drogas antineoplásicas e radiação ionizante apresentaram um aumento estatisticamente significativo (P = 0.038 e P = 0.0217, respectivamente na freqüência de micronúcleos. As freqüências de pontes dicêntricas e anomalias de fuso sugerem a ação de clastogênicos nestes dois

  8. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  9. [Standardized and structured histopathological evaluation of colorectal polyps: a practical checklist against the background of the new WHO classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretton, G B; Tannapfel, A; Schmitt, W

    2011-07-01

    Gastroenterologists removing colorectal polyps expect standardized and well-structured pathological reports, providing them with all relevant data for the further clinical management of the patient. Over the last year, a task force of clinicians and pathologists has developed a checklist to improve and harmonize endoscopic and pathological reporting of colorectal polyps. This checklist concentrates more on concrete recommendations from evidence-based guidelines and established international classifications for daily practice rather than detailed molecular pathological pathways of carcinogenesis. These recommendations are based on the current S3 guidelines for colorectal cancer (the chapter entitled "Management of colorectal polyps"), the histomorphological consensus manuscript of the GI working group of the German Society for Pathology, as well as the current WHO classification for tumors of the digestive system.

  10. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Enhancing the Classification Skill in Second-Graders at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Adel Abdulla; Kanpolat, Yavuz Erhan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Computers and other technological instruments in general have become a more common practice in our schools nowadays, and Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been recently provided in various formats from kindergartens on. It can help children at-risk for learning disabilities. Method: This study investigated the effectiveness of…

  11. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Qualitative risk evaluation for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    This document provides a risk evaluation of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities on the Hanford Site. Also included are the related data that were compiled by the risk evaluation team during investigations performed on the facilities. Results are the product of a major effort performed in fiscal year 1993 to produce qualitative information that characterizes certain risks associated with these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km{sup 2} (570-mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30-km (20 mi) southeast of the 200 Area. During walkdown investigations of these facilities, data on real and potential hazards that threatened human health or safety or created potential environmental release issues were identified by the risk evaluation team. Using these findings, the team categorized the identified hazards by facility and evaluated the risk associated with each hazard. The factors contributing to each risk, and the consequence and likelihood of harm associated with each hazard also are included in this evaluation.

  12. Taxonomic classification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes using short sequencing reads: evaluation of effective study designs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orna Mizrahi-Man

    Full Text Available Massively parallel high throughput sequencing technologies allow us to interrogate the microbial composition of biological samples at unprecedented resolution. The typical approach is to perform high-throughout sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, which are then taxonomically classified based on similarity to known sequences in existing databases. Current technologies cause a predicament though, because although they enable deep coverage of samples, they are limited in the length of sequence they can produce. As a result, high-throughout studies of microbial communities often do not sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene. The challenge is to obtain reliable representation of bacterial communities through taxonomic classification of short 16S rRNA gene sequences. In this study we explored properties of different study designs and developed specific recommendations for effective use of short-read sequencing technologies for the purpose of interrogating bacterial communities, with a focus on classification using naïve Bayesian classifiers. To assess precision and coverage of each design, we used a collection of ∼8,500 manually curated 16S rRNA gene sequences from cultured bacteria and a set of over one million bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from environmental samples, respectively. We also tested different configurations of taxonomic classification approaches using short read sequencing data, and provide recommendations for optimal choice of the relevant parameters. We conclude that with a judicious selection of the sequenced region and the corresponding choice of a suitable training set for taxonomic classification, it is possible to explore bacterial communities at great depth using current technologies, with only a minimal loss of taxonomic resolution.

  13. "Evaluating the model of classification and valuation of disabilities used in Brazil and defining the elaboration and adoption of a unique model for all the country": Brazilian Interministerial Workgroup Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nubila, Heloisa; de Paula, Ana Rita; Marcelino, Miguel Abud; Maior, Izabel

    2011-05-31

    The President of Brazil established an Interministerial Work Group in order to "evaluate the model of classification and valuation of disabilities used in Brazil and to define the elaboration and adoption of a unique model for all the country". Eight Ministries and/or Secretaries participated in the discussion over a period of 10 months, concluding that a proposed model should be based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Person with Disabilities, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and the 'support theory', and organizing a list of recommendations and necessary actions for a Classification, Evaluation and Certification Network with national coverage.

  14. MULTIPLE CRITERIA ANALYSIS FOR EVALUATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, David L.; DESHENG DASH WU

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) involve a wide set of risks. Enterprise information systems are a major developing form of information technology involving their own set of risks, thus creating potential blind spots. This paper describes risk management issues involved in enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) which have high impact on organizations due to their high cost, and their pervasive impact on organizational operations. Alternative means of acquiring ERP systems, to include outsourci...

  15. Modelling and Evaluating Software Project Risks with Quantitative Analysis Techniques in Planning Software Development

    OpenAIRE

    Elzamly, Abdelrafe; Hussin, Burairah

    2015-01-01

    Risk is not always avoidable, but it is controllable. The aim of this paper is to present new techniques which use the stepwise regression analysis tomodel and evaluate the risks in planning software development and reducing risk with software process improvement. Top ten software risk factors in planning software development phase and thirty control factors were presented to respondents. This study incorporates risk management approach and planning software development to mitigate software p...

  16. The Application of Classification and Regression Trees for the Triage of Women for Referral to Colposcopy and the Estimation of Risk for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Study Based on 1625 Cases with Incomplete Data from Molecular Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakitsou, Efrossyni; Chrelias, Charalampos; Pappas, Asimakis; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Kyrgiou, Maria; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Nowadays numerous ancillary techniques detecting HPV DNA and mRNA compete with cytology; however no perfect test exists; in this study we evaluated classification and regression trees (CARTs) for the production of triage rules and estimate the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in cases with ASCUS+ in cytology. Study Design. We used 1625 cases. In contrast to other approaches we used missing data to increase the data volume, obtain more accurate results, and simulate real conditions in the everyday practice of gynecologic clinics and laboratories. The proposed CART was based on the cytological result, HPV DNA typing, HPV mRNA detection based on NASBA and flow cytometry, p16 immunocytochemical expression, and finally age and parous status. Results. Algorithms useful for the triage of women were produced; gynecologists could apply these in conjunction with available examination results and conclude to an estimation of the risk for a woman to harbor CIN expressed as a probability. Conclusions. The most important test was the cytological examination; however the CART handled cases with inadequate cytological outcome and increased the diagnostic accuracy by exploiting the results of ancillary techniques even if there were inadequate missing data. The CART performance was better than any other single test involved in this study. PMID:26339651

  17. The Application of Classification and Regression Trees for the Triage of Women for Referral to Colposcopy and the Estimation of Risk for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Study Based on 1625 Cases with Incomplete Data from Molecular Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Pouliakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Nowadays numerous ancillary techniques detecting HPV DNA and mRNA compete with cytology; however no perfect test exists; in this study we evaluated classification and regression trees (CARTs for the production of triage rules and estimate the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in cases with ASCUS+ in cytology. Study Design. We used 1625 cases. In contrast to other approaches we used missing data to increase the data volume, obtain more accurate results, and simulate real conditions in the everyday practice of gynecologic clinics and laboratories. The proposed CART was based on the cytological result, HPV DNA typing, HPV mRNA detection based on NASBA and flow cytometry, p16 immunocytochemical expression, and finally age and parous status. Results. Algorithms useful for the triage of women were produced; gynecologists could apply these in conjunction with available examination results and conclude to an estimation of t