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Sample records for evaluation program meadow

  1. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Lake Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a stock of kokanee, native to the upper Columbia River, might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom strain. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated using three performance measures; (1) the number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to other tributaries and (3) the number of returns to the creel. Kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir via electrofishing, which included 87 tributary mouths during the fall of 2000 and 2001. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Whatcom stock in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 736.6; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 156.2; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries of age two kokanee had similar results in 2000 ({chi}{sup 2} = 735.3; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01) and 2001 ({chi}{sup 2} = 150.1; d.f. = 1; P < 0.01). Six Lake Whatcom and seven Meadow Creek three year olds were collected in 2001. The sample size of three year olds was too small for statistical analysis. No kokanee were collected during creel surveys in 2000, and two (age three kokanee) were collected in 2001. Neither of the hatchery kokanee collected were coded wire tagged, therefore stock could not be distinguished. After two years of monitoring, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appear to be capable of providing a run of three-year-old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. The small number of

  2. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  3. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly J.; Scholz, Allan T.

    2001-07-01

    Lake Roosevelt has been stocked with Whatcom stock kokanee since 1989 to mitigate for anadromous salmon losses caused by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The primary objective of the hatchery plantings was to create a self-sustaining recreational fishery. Due to low return numbers, it was hypothesized a native stock of kokanee might perform better than the coastal Whatcom strain. Therefore, kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Matched pair releases of Whatcom stock and Meadow Creek kokanee were made from Sherman Creek in late June 2000. Stock performance between Lake Whatcom and Meadow Creek kokanee was evaluated through three performance measures (1) returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) returns to other tributaries, indicating availability for angler harvest, and (3) returns to the creel. A secondary objective was to evaluate the numbers collected at downstream fish passage facilities. Age 2 kokanee were collected during five passes through the reservoir, which included 89 tributaries between August 17th and November 7th, 2000. Sherman Creek was sampled once a week because it was the primary egg collection location. A total of 2,789 age 2 kokanee were collected, in which 2,658 (95%) were collected at Sherman Creek. Chi-square analysis indicated the Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek in significantly higher numbers compared to the Whatcom stock ({chi}{sup 2} = 734.4; P < 0.01). Reservoir wide recoveries indicated similar results ({chi}{sup 2} = 733.1; P < 0.01). No age 2 kokanee were collected during creel surveys. Age 3 kokanee are expected to recruit to the creel in 2001. No age 2 kokanee were collected at the fish passage facilities due to a 170 mm size restriction at the fish passage centers. Age 3 kokanee are expected to be collected at the fish passage centers during 2001. Stock performance cannot be properly evaluated until 2001, when

  4. A multi-scale evaluation of pack stack effects on subalpine meadow plant communities in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the influence of pack stock (i.e., horse and mule) use on meadow plant communities in Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Meadows were sampled to account for inherent variability across multiple scales by: 1) controlling for among-meadow var...

  5. A multi-scale evaluation of pack stock effects on subalpine meadow plant communities in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven R; Berlow, Eric L; Ostoja, Steven M; Brooks, Matthew L; Génin, Alexandre; Matchett, John R; Hart, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of pack stock (i.e., horse and mule) use on meadow plant communities in Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks in the Sierra Nevada of California. Meadows were sampled to account for inherent variability across multiple scales by: 1) controlling for among-meadow variability by using remotely sensed hydro-climatic and geospatial data to pair stock use meadows with similar non-stock (reference) sites, 2) accounting for within-meadow variation in the local hydrology using in-situ soil moisture readings, and 3) incorporating variation in stock use intensity by sampling across the entire available gradient of pack stock use. Increased cover of bare ground was detected only within "dry" meadow areas at the two most heavily used pack stock meadows (maximum animals per night per hectare). There was no difference in plant community composition for any level of soil moisture or pack stock use. Increased local-scale spatial variability in plant community composition (species dispersion) was detected in "wet" meadow areas at the two most heavily used meadows. These results suggest that at the meadow scale, plant communities are generally resistant to the contemporary levels of recreational pack stock use. However, finer-scale within-meadow responses such as increased bare ground or spatial variability in the plant community can be a function of local-scale hydrological conditions. Wilderness managers can improve monitoring of disturbance in Sierra Nevada meadows by adopting multiple plant community indices while simultaneously considering local moisture regimes.

  6. A multi-scale evaluation of pack stock effects on subalpine meadow plant communities in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven R.; Berlow, Eric L.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Génin, Alexandre; Matchett, John R.; Hart, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of pack stock (i.e., horse and mule) use on meadow plant communities in Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks in the Sierra Nevada of California. Meadows were sampled to account for inherent variability across multiple scales by: 1) controlling for among-meadow variability by using remotely sensed hydro-climatic and geospatial data to pair stock use meadows with similar non-stock (reference) sites, 2) accounting for within-meadow variation in the local hydrology using in-situ soil moisture readings, and 3) incorporating variation in stock use intensity by sampling across the entire available gradient of pack stock use. Increased cover of bare ground was detected only within “dry” meadow areas at the two most heavily used pack stock meadows (maximum animals per night per hectare). There was no difference in plant community composition for any level of soil moisture or pack stock use. Increased local-scale spatial variability in plant community composition (species dispersion) was detected in “wet” meadow areas at the two most heavily used meadows. These results suggest that at the meadow scale, plant communities are generally resistant to the contemporary levels of recreational pack stock use. However, finer-scale within-meadow responses such as increased bare ground or spatial variability in the plant community can be a function of local-scale hydrological conditions. Wilderness managers can improve monitoring of disturbance in Sierra Nevada meadows by adopting multiple plant community indices while simultaneously considering local moisture regimes.

  7. Evaluating mountain meadow groundwater response to Pinyon-Juniper and temperature in a great basin watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rosemary W.H.; Huntington, Justin L.; Snyder, Keirith A.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Morton, Charles; Stringham, Tamzen K.

    2017-01-01

    This research highlights development and application of an integrated hydrologic model (GSFLOW) to a semiarid, snow-dominated watershed in the Great Basin to evaluate Pinyon-Juniper (PJ) and temperature controls on mountain meadow shallow groundwater. The work used Google Earth Engine Landsat satellite and gridded climate archives for model evaluation. Model simulations across three decades indicated that the watershed operates on a threshold response to precipitation (P) >400 mm/y to produce a positive yield (P-ET; 9%) resulting in stream discharge and a rebound in meadow groundwater levels during these wetter years. Observed and simulated meadow groundwater response to large P correlates with above average predicted soil moisture and with a normalized difference vegetation index threshold value >0.3. A return to assumed pre-expansion PJ conditions or an increase in temperature to mid-21st century shifts yielded by only ±1% during the multi-decade simulation period; but changes of approximately ±4% occurred during wet years. Changes in annual yield were largely dampened by the spatial and temporal redistribution of evapotranspiration across the watershed: Yet the influence of this redistribution and vegetation structural controls on snowmelt altered recharge to control water table depth in the meadow. Even a small-scale removal of PJ (0.5 km2) proximal to the meadow will promote a stable, shallow groundwater system resilient to droughts, while modest increases in temperature will produce a meadow susceptible to declining water levels and a community structure likely to move toward dry and degraded conditions.

  8. Ten Years of Change in Sierran Stringer Meadows: An Evaluation of Range Condition Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara H. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Grazed Sierra Nevada stringer meadow systems were sampled on Blodgett Forest Research Station in northern California between 1977 and 1987 to determine cattle use, and to examine changes in production and species composition over time. Utilization of meadow species averaged 61 percent over the 10 years, but use increased to more than 80 percent utilization after 1985....

  9. Evaluation of resistance to Al toxicity in wild graminae of acid meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Poozesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In acid soils, aluminium toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop and forage production. At soil pH < 5.0, Al solubility increases and Al appears to be rhizotoxic. The objectives of the present study were to compare Al tolerance among wild graminae of acid meadows and to evaluate the relation between a plant functional trait and the Al resistance, in nutrient solution. In addition, a sensitive Lolium perenne variety was included as a control. There was a great difference among the graminaceous species tested, when compared by relative root elongation and critical Al activity corresponding to 50% root elongation reduction. The {Al 3+}50 activities were 3, 13 , 14 et 26 µM for Lolium perenne, Molinia coerulea, Holcus lanatus and Danthonia decumbens, respectively. No relation was found between the functional trait leaf dry matter content (LDMC and Al resistance. Holcus lanatus, tolerant to Al toxicity, with a low LDMC, would deserve a further study of its nutritional qualities for cattle. The very tolerant D. decumbens, with a high LDMC, would present an interest for a later study of the mechanisms of tolerance to Al and possibly, for other applications like the protection of the very acid soils against erosion.

  10. [Ash Meadows Purchase Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A proposal sent to the Richard King Mellon Foundation for a loan to fund the purchase of Ash Meadows by the Nature Conservancy. Ash Meadows, set outside of Las Vegas...

  11. Evaluation of hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of Truckee Meadows area, Washoe County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip M.; Loeltz, Omar J.

    1964-01-01

    Practically all the ground water of economic importance in the Truckee Meadows area, an alluviated intermontane basin in western Nevada is in the valley fill, which consists of unconsolidated and partially consolidated sedimentary deposits. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic consolidated rocks of the mountains bordering the valley contain some water in fractures and other openings, but they have virtually no interstitial permeability. The permeability of the valley fill is extremely variable. The Truckee Formation, which is the oldest deposit of the valley fill, yields very little water to wells. Permeable lenses of sand and gravel in the valley fill that are younger than the Truckee Formation yield moderate to large amounts of water to wells. The estimated average annual recharge to and discharge from the groundwater reservoir is 35,000 acre-feet. About 25,000 acre-feet of the recharge is from the infiltration of irrigation water diverted from the Truckee River. Most of the discharge is by evapotranspiration and by seepage to ditches and streams. Some water in the area is unsuitable for many uses because of its poor chemical quality. Water in the Steamboat Springs area is hot and has high concentrations of chloride and dissolved solids. Both water draining areas of bleached rock and ground water downgradient from areas of leached rock have high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids. Surface water of low dissolved-solids content mixes with and dilutes some highly mineralized ground water. Increased pumping in discharge areas will help to alleviate waterlogged conditions and will decrease ground-water losses by evapotranspiration. Increased pumping near the Truckee River may induce recharge from the river to the ground-water system.

  12. Regional groundwater flow in structurally-complex extended terranes: An evaluation of the sources of discharge at Ash Meadows, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Michelle; Nelson, Stephen T.; Tingey, David; Eggett, Dennis

    2010-05-01

    SummaryAsh Meadows, Nevada, USA is a site of major groundwater discharge (˜38,000 L/min) in the arid Mojave Desert, and hosts a number of endemic and threatened wetland species. In addition to these resources, Ash Meadows may also represent the future discharge location of radionuclide-laden waters from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site. More importantly, however, Ash Meadows provides the opportunity to understand the controls on water transfer between basins through fractured bedrock. 4000+ solute analyses were assembled from the literature into a single database. The data were screened for spatial distribution, completeness, charge balance, and elevated temperatures (⩾20 °C and within regional flow systems), with 246 candidate up-gradient water remaining distributed among six potential source areas in addition to and Ash Meadows itself. These potential sources include both carbonate, volcanic and perhaps valley-fill aquifer systems. These waters were characterized by cluster analysis in order to sort similar waters in an objective fashion into potential flow paths and to establish representative endmember waters for inverse geochemical models and other modes of analysis. Isotopic tracers, both conservative and those reflecting water-rock interaction, all suggest that waters at Ash Meadows are derived by southward flow from volcanic terranes, parallel to the preferred permeability structure induced by active regional east-west extension. Solute balances support this conclusion. However, this runs counter to the prevailing model that waters at Ash Meadows are derived from easterly and northeasterly flows from the Spring Mountains and Pahranagat Valley areas by interbasin flow through a continuous fractured carbonate aquifer. This work suggests that carbonate aquifer systems in extended terranes are more compartmentalized than previously appreciated and that anisotropy in fracture permeability is key to compartmentalization and the control of flow

  13. Modelling reference conditions for the upper limit of Posidonia oceanica meadows: a morphodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Misson, Gloria; Montefalcone, Monica; Archetti, Renata; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. Here we present an innovative predictive cartographic approach able to identify the seafloor portion where the meadow upper limit should naturally lies (i.e. its reference conditions). The conceptual framework of this model is based on 3 essential components: i) Definition of the breaking depth geometry: the breaking limit represents the major constrain for the landward meadow development. We modelled the breaking limit (1 year return time) using the software Mike 21 sw. ii) Definition of the morphodynamic domain of the beach using the surf scaling index ɛ; iii) Definition of the P. oceanica upper limit geometry. We coupled detailed aerial photo with thematic bionomic cartography. In GIS environment, we modelled the seafloor extent where the meadow should naturally lies according to the breaking limit position and the morphodynamic domain of the beach. Then, we added the GIS layer with the meadow upper limit geometry. Therefore, the final output shows, on the same map, both the reference condition and the actual location of the upper limit. It make possible to assess the status of the landward extent of a given P. oceanica meadow and quantify any suspected or observed regression caused by anthropic factors. The model was elaborated and validated along the Ligurian coastline (NW Mediteraanean) and was positively tested in other Mediterranean areas.

  14. [PIC Program Evaluation Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, N. J.

    These 4 questionnaires are designed to elicit teacher and parent evaluations of the Prescriptive Instruction Center (PIC) program. Included are Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness (14 items), M & M Evaluation of Program Implementation (methods and materials specialists; 11 items), Teacher Evaluation of Program Effectiveness--Case Study…

  15. Towards a predictive model to assess the natural position of the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows upper limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Montefalcone, Monica; Schiaffino, Chiara F; Parravicini, Valeriano; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Morri, Carla; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-06-30

    The upper portion of the meadows of the protected Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica occurs in the region of the seafloor mostly affected by surf-related effects. Evaluation of its status is part of monitoring programs, but proper conclusions are difficult to draw due to the lack of definite reference conditions. Comparing the position of the meadow upper limit with the beach morphodynamics (i.e. the distinctive type of beach produced by topography and wave climate) provided evidence that the natural landwards extension of meadows can be predicted. An innovative model was therefore developed in order to locate the region of the seafloor where the meadow upper limit should lie in natural conditions (i.e. those governed only by hydrodynamics, in absence of significant anthropogenic impact). This predictive model was validated in additional sites, which showed perfect agreement between predictions and observations. This makes the model a valuable tool for coastal management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An evaluation of sampling methodology for assessing settlement of temperate fish in seagrass meadows

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    I. A. CATALAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All demersal fish with planktonic larvae settle at some point early in life, generally around the transformation from larvae to juveniles or soon after. Sampling pre-settlement or very young, settled fish is challenging due to spatial concretions within the habitat and the pulsed, rapid nature of the settlement process. There is a lack of robust methods that enable this sampling, but information on the settlement, that represents a mortality bottleneck, is crucial for the follow-up of populations for fisheries and conservation purposes. An empirical evaluation of sampling methods has not been conducted in temperate habitats. Here, we compare six different sampling methods to collect pre- and post-settlement stages of fish to determine the best combination of techniques to utilise in Posidonia oceanica, an endemic Mediterranean seagrass that provides a key nursery habitat for coastal fish. We considered three types of pelagic nets (bongo net, neuston net and ring net, two types of light-traps (Quatrefoil and Ecocean CARE® to sample pre-settled stages and a low-impact epibenthic trawl for recent settlers. Our results show a significantly different size-spectrum for each method, with a continuous range of sizes from 2 mm to 200 mm. The smallest sizes were collected by the bongo net, followed by the ring net, the neuston net, the Quatrefoil, the Ecocean and finally the epibenthic trawl. Our results suggest that an appropriate strategy for collecting and estimating the abundance of key littoral fish species around settlement size is the combination of the Ecocean light trap and the epibenthic trawl.

  17. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  18. Evaluation of management practices in wetland meadows at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, 1997-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Pyle, W.H.; Keough, J.R.; Johnson, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the relative values of 4 management practices (idle, late season grazing, fall prescribed burning, and rotation of idle and summer grazing) to biotic resources of the grassland-wetland meadow ecosystem at Grays Lake during 1997-2000. Three replicates of each treatment were randomly assigned to 12 experimental units that bordered the deep emergent marsh. Biotic factors examined included the breeding bird community and abundance, nesting activity and nest success, small mammal abundance, plant community, and annual plant biomass production. Fall burns achieved treatment objectives, removing most residual vegetation across a range of cover types. Objectives for grazing treatments were mostly attained; however, vegetation use levels were insufficient for consistent attainment of treatment objectives. Savannah sparrow, American coot, Canada goose, sandhill crane, mallard, and yellow-headed blackbird were the most common bird species present. Densities of 2 bird species (savannah sparrow and red-winged blackbird) were related to year effect only. The effect of unit on densities of redhead, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, sora, long-billed curlew, and common snipe likely reflects habitat differences among units. Densities of 6 species (eared grebe, canvasback, American coot, American avocet, willet, and common yellowthroat) were related to both year and unit effects. Treatment affected densities of 6 of the 29 species examined (mallard, northern shoveler, cinnamon teal, blue-winged teal, American crow, and yellow-headed blackbird); we found no common trend in response to treatments among those species. Overall, idled habitat did not stand out to be a valuable treatment, whereas grazing tended to have positive responses for a number of species. Burning was more likely to result in reduced bird densities than other treatments. We also describe the distribution of species observations among 8 different habitat types. Of the 23 nesting species sampled in the

  19. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  20. Introducing Program Evaluation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GÂRBOAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs and project evaluation models can be extremely useful in project planning and management. The aim is to set the right questions as soon as possible in order to see in time and deal with the unwanted program effects, as well as to encourage the positive elements of the project impact. In short, different evaluation models are used in order to minimize losses and maximize the benefits of the interventions upon small or large social groups. This article introduces some of the most recently used evaluation models.

  1. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  2. [Early stimulation > programs evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, C

    2007-09-01

    Early intervention include educational and neuroprotection strategies. Early educational strategies are based on the cerebral plasticity concept. Neuroprotection, initially reserved for molecules preventing cell death phenomena, can be extended now to all actions promoting harmonious development and preventing handicaps, and include organisational, therapeutic and environmental aspects. Early stimulation programs have been first devised in United States for vulnerable children who belong to an unfavorable socio-economic category ; positive effects were recorded in school failure rates and social problems ; programs have also been launched in several countries for premature infants and infants with a low birth weight, population exposed to a high risk of deficiencies. The programs are targetted either to the child, or to the parents, or combined to provide assistance for both the child and the parents. The programs given the best evaluation are NIDCAP Program in Sweden (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program), intended for babies neonatal intensive care units, then a longitudinal, multisite program, known as IHDP (Infant Health and Development Program). It was launched in United States for infants stimulation is maintained and when mothers have a low level of education.

  3. MRM Evaluation Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.

    1998-01-01

    This is an interim report on the current output of the MRM evaluation research program. During 1998 this research program has used new and existing data to create an important tool for the development and improvement of "maintenance resource management" (MRM). Thousands of surveys completed by participants in airline MRM training and/or behavior change programs have, for the first time, been consolidated into a panel of "MRM Attitudes and Opinion Profiles." These profiles can be used to compare the attitudes about decision making and communication in any given company at any stage in its MRM program with attitudes of a large sample of like employees during a similar period in their MRM involvement. This panel of comparison profiles for attitudes and opinions is a tool to help audit the effectiveness of a maintenance human factors program. The profile panel is the first of several tools envisioned for applying the information accumulating in MRM databases produced as one of the program's long range objectives.

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SOUTH TRUCKEE MEADOWS GENERAL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (STMIG), NV. INTERIM EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 32 weeks of operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology currently being demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. ...

  5. Evaluating social marketing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) which use commercial marketing techniques and distribution networks to sell contraceptives at subsidized prices, have become an important source of contraceptives in many developing countries. However, research is needed to determine the extent to which CSM programs are recruiting new users or simply serving as an alternate source for those who already use contraceptives. 1st begun in India in 1967, today CSM programs are selling contraceptives in more than 20 countries, mostly selling condoms because they do not require medical supervision or usually have to be registered with governments as a pharmaceutical product. Most also sell oral contraceptives. Advertising is used to promote the program, both brand and generic, about family planning and the advantages of small families. In some countries only generic promotion is permitted. A CSM program begins with research on the marketplace and needs of potential customers, including baseline studies, group discussions, and personal interviews. Monitoring is done by market research on usage, acceptability and adequacy of distribution. Focus groups and surveys are also used. Evaluation methodologies are similar to those used in program planning and monitoring, including consumer intercept surveys and tracking studies. Program impact is an area often neglected, probably because of the unusual relationship between the private and public sectors that occurs in CSM. Couple-years of protection is the common measurement of impact, estimated from sales data (13 cycles of pills or 100 condoms or doses of spermicide/year is assumed to prevent conception). This method can be used to assess the contributions of different methods and distribution systems and to compare their cost-effectiveness by calculating the cost per couple-year of protection provided. Limitations on this measurement method are inability to discriminate sporadic use from careful compliance; sales may be substitutes

  6. Sierra Meadows Project [ds4

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Recognizing Montane Meadows and Quaking Aspen communities are a rare and valuable resource to plant and animal species in the Sierra Nevada, this project represents...

  7. AshMeadowsNaucorid_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Naucorid (Ambrysus amargosus) occur. "Nevada, Nye County. Point of Rocks Springs and...

  8. Meadows with dandelions of the section Palustria in Pogórze Dynowskie, S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Oklejewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents ecological characteristics of meadows with Taraxacum sect. Palustria in Pogórze Dynowskie. Field studies were carried out using the patrol method. Floristic description was made, methods of meadow use were evaluated and habitat conditions were determined based on Ellenberg’s bioindication method on every meadow with marsh dandelions. Analyses were performed in eight sites with T. mendax, T. paucilobum, T. polonicum, T. portentosum, and T. vindobonense.

  9. Hydrologic processes influencing meadow ecosystems [chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Lord; David G. Jewett; Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    The hydrologic regime exerts primary control on riparian meadow complexes and is strongly influenced by past and present geomorphic processes; biotic processes; and, in some cases, anthropogenic activities. Thus, it is essential to understand not only the hydrologic processes that operate within meadow complexes but also the interactions of meadow hydrology with other...

  10. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peggy E.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Yee, Julie L.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Cole, David N.; McDougald, Neil K.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate. Our objective was to describe patterns and variability in aboveground live vascular plant biomass in relation to climatic factors. We harvested aboveground biomass at peak growth from four 64-m2 plots each in xeric, mesic, and hydric meadows annually from 1994 to 2000. Data from nearby weather stations provided independent variables of spring snow water content, snow-free date, and thawing degree days for a cumulative index of available energy. We assembled these climatic variables into a set of mixed effects analysis of covariance models to evaluate their relationships with annual aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and we used an information theoretic approach to compare the quality of fit among candidate models. ANPP in the xeric meadow was negatively related to snow water content and thawing degree days and in the mesic meadow was negatively related to snow water content. Relationships between ANPP and these 2 covariates in the hydric meadow were not significant. Increasing snow water content may limit ANPP in these meadows if anaerobic conditions delay microbial activity and nutrient availability. Increased thawing degree days may limit ANPP in xeric meadows by prematurely depleting soil moisture. Large within-year variation of ANPP in the hydric meadow limited sensitivity to the climatic variables. These relationships suggest that, under projected warmer and drier conditions, ANPP will increase in mesic meadows but remain unchanged in xeric meadows because declines associated with increased temperatures would offset the increases from decreased snow water content.

  11. Registration of Azov meadow fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Azov' meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 1000 parental genotypes. The parents of Azov were selected from ten Russian plant introductions, mostly originating from the...

  12. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization

  13. COENOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE IRIS MEADOWS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SALAMON-ALBERT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and vegetation structure by association and local diagnostic, constant and dominant species of Iridetum sibiricae was analysed from Hungary adjusting to the evaluation of European vegetation. Classification, ordination and statistical analyses was carried out to characterize and make distinction to some other wet meadow vegetation types. In the association habitat and management dependent subunits were formed.

  14. RCS program evaluation plan options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.; Bayne, C.K.

    1980-10-01

    The Residential Conservation Service (RCS) Program evaluation plan is designed to provide an ongoing evaluation during the RCS Program's active period as well as a measurement of the RCS Program's cumulative effect after the program's termination. The study options described include utility case studies, random survey sampling, directed survey sampling, and remote data collection. Survey techniques are described and appropriate questions are suggested. Several sample selection criteria are included as background for a DOE policy decision on this issue. Present and anticipated data sources are listed and discussed. Statistical data analysis plans include a preliminary determination of required sample sizes.

  15. FY08 VPP Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossett, Sharon D.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) is a recognized third-party certification of worker safety and health program excellence, based on industry best practices that focus on management leadership and employee involvement, as well as other safety and health program elements. This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) VPP Program Evaluation is the FY-2008 report of the PNNL VPP Steering Committee regarding the status of VPP at PNNL. It is an update of the previous annual report dated January, 2007 and was completed in January 2008. An annual evaluation of the status of VPP is required of all sites that participate in the DOE-VPP. This report provides a detailed summary of the PNNL VPP Steering Committee’s evaluation of program performance and documents both strengths and improvement opportunities related to the various aspects of the VPP model.

  16. Californium-252 Program Equipment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattin, Fred Rhea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Kenton [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    To successfully continue the 252Cf production and meet the needs of the customers, a comprehensive evaluation of the Building 7920 processing equipment was requested to identify equipment critical to the operational continuity of the program.

  17. Evaluating Dermatology Residency Program Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashack, Kurt A; Burton, Kyle A; Soh, Jonathan M; Lanoue, Julien; Boyd, Anne H; Milford, Emily E; Dunnick, Cory; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-03-16

    Internet resources play an important role in how medical students access information related to residency programs.Evaluating program websites is necessary in order to provide accurate information for applicants and provide information regarding areas of website improvement for programs. To date, dermatology residency websites (D  WS) have not been evaluated.This paper evaluates dermatology residency websites based on availability of predefined measures. Using the FREIDA (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database) Online database, authors searched forall accredited dermatology program websites. Eligible programs were identified through the FREIDA Online database and had a functioning website. Two authors independently extracted data with consensus or third researcher resolution of differences. This data was accessed and archived from July 15th to July 17th, 2015.Primary outcomes measured were presence of content on education, resident and faculty information, program environment, applicant recruitment, schedule, salary, and website quality evaluated using an online tool (WooRank.com). Out of 117 accredited dermatology residencies, 115 had functioning webpages. Of these, 76.5% (75) had direct links found on the FRIEDA Online database. Most programs contained information on education, faculty, program environment, and applicant recruitment. However, website quality and marketing effectiveness were highly variable; most programs were deemed to need improvements in the functioning of their webpages. Also, additional information on current residents and about potential away rotations were lacking from most websites with only 52.2% (60) and 41.7% (48) of programs providing this content, respectively. A majority of dermatology residency websites contained adequate information on many of the factors we evaluated. However, many were lacking in areas that matter to applicants. We hope this report will encourage dermatology residencyprograms

  18. Division by zero in common meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2014-01-01

    Common meadows are fields expanded with a total inverse function. Division by zero produces an additional value denoted with "a" that propagates through all operations of the meadow signature (this additional value can be interpreted as an error element). We provide a basis theorem for so-called

  19. Division by zero in common meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; De Nicola, R.; Hennicker, R.

    2015-01-01

    Common meadows are fields expanded with a total inverse function. Division by zero produces an additional value denoted with "a" that propagates through all operations of the meadow signature (this additional value can be interpreted as an error element). We provide a basis theorem for so-called

  20. Modelling vegetation dynamics for Alpine meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Rist, Armin; Niedrist, Georg; Albertson, John D.; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Regional climate scenarios predict a temperature increase and a summer precipitation decrease for the European Alps. This is expected to lead to longer vegetation periods, but also to drought stress in Alpine meadows ecosystems. It is therefore uncertain if the predicted climatic changes will lead to an increase or decrease of biomass production in these grassland ecosystems. Understanding plant growth requires to consider the complex interactions between soil, atmosphere and climate via its physiological properties, in particular LAI, stomatal resistance, rooting depth, albedo, surface roughness and effects on soil moisture. Vegetation Dynamic Models (VDM) coupled with hydrological models take into account these interactions in order to study and estimate biomass production quantitatively. In this contribution, the VDM previously developed by Montaldo et al. (2005) for semi-arid environments is extended to Alpine meadows in the Stubai Valley (Eastern Austria) which are typically not subjected to water and nutrient stresses, but undergoing low temperature limitations. The aim is to assess the model robustness. Moreover, the effects of mowing practice during the season were taken into consideration. The VDM has then been implemented in the distributed hydrological model GEOtop (Rigon et al., 2006). The VDM performed well in the considered case study. The validation and calibration of the model is presented and then the effects of increased temperature and decreased precipitation are investigated numerically. In order to evaluate in the field the effects of climatic change on Alpine grassland biomass production, the inner Alpine continental Mazia Valley (South Tyrol, Italy) has been chosen in 2009 for Long-Term Ecological Research. These climatic changes will be simulated by manipulations along an altitudinal gradient comprising measuring stations at about 1000 m, 1500 m and 2000 m a.s.l.. Meadow monoliths will be transplanted downslope to simulate temperature

  1. Transformation of fractions into simple fractions in divisive meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    Meadows are alternatives for fields with a purely equational axiomatization. At the basis of meadows lies the decision to make the multiplicative inverse operation total by imposing that the multiplicative inverse of zero is zero. Divisive meadows are meadows with the multiplicative inverse

  2. Evaluation of Programs: Reading Carol H. Weiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msila, Vuyisile; Setlhako, Angeline

    2013-01-01

    Carol Weiss did much to enhance the role of evaluation in her writings. Her work shows evaluators what affects their roles as they evaluate programs. Furthermore, her theory of change spells out the complexities involved in program evaluation. There are various processes involved in the evaluation of programs. The paper looks at some of the…

  3. AshMeadowsSpeckledDace_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  4. AshMeadowsAmargosaPupfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis mionectes) occur. "Nevada, Nye County: Each of...

  5. Remote influence of off-shore fish farm waste on Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J M; Marco-Méndez, C; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was estimating the remote influence of waste dispersed from a large off-shore fish farm complex (6197 ton year(-1)) on the near-shore Posidonia oceanica meadow (26-27 m deep) located at a distance of 3 km. Measurements of isotopic nitrogen content in epiphytes and seagrass leaf tissues, epiphyte biomass, shoot size, herbivory pressure, shoot density and seagrass meadow cover, performed in this meadow (FA area) were compared with those obtained in an undisturbed control meadow (CA area) to evaluate: (1) the remote influence of waste and (2) the impact of such influence on seagrass condition. In addition, delta(15)N measurements in particulate organic matter of natural and anthropogenic origin were used in a single-isotope mixing model to elucidate the relative contributions of these sources to the isotopic N signal measured in epiphytes and leaf tissues. Total tissue N content was similar between meadow areas, but delta(15)N signatures were significantly higher in the FA area than in the CA area both in epiphytes and seagrass leaf tissues. Results from the mixing model, together with available information on local currents and previous studies, support the conclusion that the dispersion of farm wastes over large areas (spanning kilometres) are responsible for the elevated delta(15)N signatures found in the FA meadow area. Despite this, no changes in meadow structure were detected and only some changes at the level of seagrass community (epiphytes abundances and herbivores activity) could be interpreted at the light of nutrient-induced effects in the FA area. Results from this study indicate that concentrating aquaculture facilities in off-shore areas is a strategy not totally exempt of environmental risk on near-shore sensitive habitats such as seagrass meadows. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ENergy and Power Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    In the late 1970s, national and international attention began to focus on energy issues. Efforts were initiated to design and test analytical tools that could be used to assist energy planners in evaluating energy systems, particularly in developing countries. In 1984, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory`s Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) to incorporate a set of analytical tools into a personal computer-based package for distribution in developing countries. The package developed by DIS staff, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), covers the range of issues that energy planners must face: economic development, energy demand projections, supply-and-demand balancing, energy system expansion, and environmental impact analysis. Following the original DOE-supported development effort, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the assistance from the US Department of State (DOS) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), provided ENPEP training, distribution, and technical support to many countries. ENPEP is now in use in over 60 countries and is an international standard for energy planning tools. More than 500 energy experts have been trained in the use of the entire ENPEP package or some of its modules during the international training courses organized by the IAEA in collaboration with Argonne`s Decision and Information Sciences (DIS) Division and the Division of Educational Programs (DEP). This report contains the ENPEP program which can be download from the internet. Described in this report is the description of ENPEP Program, news, forums, online support and contacts.

  7. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID), NV, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. The objectives of the project wer...

  8. Energy-efficient buildings program evaluations. Volume 2: Evaluation summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Mayi, D.; Edgemon, S.D.

    1997-04-01

    This document presents summaries of code and utility building program evaluations reviewed as the basis for the information presented in Energy-Efficient Buildings Program Evaluations, Volume 1: Findings and Recommendations, DOE/EE/OBT-11569, Vol. 1. The main purpose of this volume is to summarize information from prior evaluations of similar programs that may be useful background for designing and conducting an evaluation of the BSGP. Another purpose is to summarize an extensive set of relevant evaluations and provide a resource for program designers, mangers, and evaluators.

  9. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  10. Evaluation of Prevention Programs for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ernest, Jr.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    This article focuses on the formal evaluation of large-scale preventive interventions promoting positive mental health in children and adolescents, using examples of conduct problems. The state of the art in program evaluation is discussed based on quantitative evaluations of mental illness prevention programs. The article reviews current thinking…

  11. Strategies for Evaluating Undergraduate Degree Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating higher education degree programs is an arduous task. This paper suggests innovative strategies for addressing four types of challenges that commonly occur during program evaluation: identifying theoretical models for evaluation, balancing potentially conflicting standards, accommodating faculty differences, and aligning courses.…

  12. Genotype by environment interaction effects of propagation and defoliation on meadow bromegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-three meadow bromegrass (Bromus riparius Rehm.) half-sib families were evaluated over two years at Millville, UT location for biomass production and nutritive value. Families were evaluated under either space-plant or sward conditions combined with either grazed or cut management. The objectiv...

  13. Nematodes as indicators of environmental quality in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica meadows of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Losi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiofauna in sediments colonized by Posidonia oceanica in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean was investigated to evaluate its use as an early warning indicator of environmental disturbance. Descriptors commonly used in seagrass health assessment are mainly related to the plant (e.g., phenological parameters and/or to the meadow (e.g., structural parameters and are subjected to long-term response times. Conversely, meiofauna is considered a good bioindicator with a rapid response to environmental variations, due to its main features (e.g., short life cycle, scarce mobility, presence/absence of tolerant/sensitive species. Meiofaunal community, sediment characteristics and organic matter descriptors in three meadows located in urbanized coastal areas were contrasted with those observed in three meadows located within Marine Protected Areas. Samplings were carried out in two distinct periods, at the beginning and at the end of the summer season, in order to individuate early changes in the meiofaunal assemblages. The meiofauna and, particularly, the nematode assemblage composition and diversity, highlighted differences among meadows at the end of the summer not detectable by organic matter descriptors and structural parameters of the meadow (e.g. shoot density. Nematodes are, thus, proposed as appropriate biological quality elements (BQEs able to show early responses to environmental disturbance.

  14. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  15. Observational Procedures in Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.

    The use of standardized instruments has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of traditional educational programs in providing optimum learning situations for large numbers of children with diversified backgrounds. Consequently, many new innovative programs have been designed and implemented for preschool children. However, it has become apparent that…

  16. Evaluating OO example programs for CS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börstler, Jürgen; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bennedsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Example programs play an important role in learning to program. They work as templates, guidelines, and inspiration for learners when developing their own programs. It is therefore important to provide learners with high quality examples. In this paper, we discuss properties of example programs t...... that might affect the teaching and learning of object-oriented programming. Furthermore, we present an evaluation instrument for example programs and report on initial experiences of its application to a selection of examples from popular introductory programming textbooks.......Example programs play an important role in learning to program. They work as templates, guidelines, and inspiration for learners when developing their own programs. It is therefore important to provide learners with high quality examples. In this paper, we discuss properties of example programs...

  17. Meadow management and treatment options [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jerry R. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Restoration and management objectives and approaches are most effective when based on an understanding of ecosystem processes and the long- and short-term causes of disturbance (Wohl and others 2005). As detailed in previous chapters, several factors are critical in developing effective management strategies for streams and their associated meadow ecosystems in the...

  18. Geomorphic processes affecting meadow ecosystems [chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Dru Germanoski; Mark L. Lord

    2011-01-01

    Three geomorphic processes are of primary concern with respect to the current and future state of wet meadow ecosystems: channel incision, avulsion (the abrupt movement of the channel to a new location on the valley floor), and gully formation. Gully formation often is accompanied by upvalley headcut migration and a phenomenon referred to as "groundwater sapping...

  19. Edificio de viviendas. Lake Meadows Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore - Owings y Merrill, Arquitectos

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available "Lake Meadows" es una amplia parcela, de cuatrocientos mil metros cuadrados, situada en las afueras de Chicago, con vistas dominantes sobre el lago Michigan. En tan bello emplazamiento se ha construido uno de los más atractivos conjuntos residenciales norteamericanos.

  20. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  1. Evaluating Environmental Education Programs Using Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian G.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the evaluation of the Master of Environmental Science program at Monash University (Australia). The design of the evaluation is discussed, and the use of multiple sources of data and an innovative style are highlighted. (Author/CW)

  2. Genetic diversity and structure in two protected Posidonia oceanica meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Carla; D'Esposito, Daniela; Belmonte, Alessandro; Peirano, Andrea; Valiante, Luigi Maria; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadows growing along the west Mediterranean coastline are under continuous anthropogenic pressure. The way meadow health correlates with genetic and genotypic diversity in P. oceanica, is still under debate. Here we report a microsatellite analysis of two P. oceanica meadows living in protected areas of the Ligurian (Monterosso al Mare, MPA of "Cinque Terre") and central Tyrrhenian Sea (Santa Marinella, regional Site of Community Importance). Both meadows were recently classified as "disturbed", according to shoot density and other phenological parameters. Between the two meadows, Santa Marinella showed higher genetic diversity, while clear genetic substructure was present in both sites, reflecting high spatial heterogeneity. The present study suggests that genetic diversity does not match unequivocally with shoot density and leaf morphology and that small scale intra-meadow heterogeneity is an important factor to consider for establishing the relation between genetic/genotypic variability and health of natural seagrass meadows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Yield and carrying capacity of meadows in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajno Luan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2003-2005 and included total meadow surface of 32,000 ha from seven regions throughout Albania (summer meadows of Shishtavec, Gramoz, Çajup, Lenie, Progonat, and winter meadows of Heremec-Delvine and Dukaj. The results of the study showed that average dry matter yield of the summer meadows is low (about 0.6±0.14 t ha-1 ranging from 0.33±0.07 t ha-1 to 0.53±0.10 t ha-1 at poor meadows (Progonat, Cajup Lenie and from 0.9±0.17 t ha-1 to 0.95±0.18 t ha-1 at rich meadows (Gramoz Shistavec. Dry matter yield of the winter meadows ranged from 0.45±0.17 t ha-1 (Dukaj to 0.57±0.13 t ha-1 (Heremec-Delvine. Regarding the rate of herbaceous biomass utilization in general, the plots closer to the villages were overstocked, which put high pressure on meadows resulting in their degradation. The coefficient of herbaceous phytomass utilization was about 94-95% at Lenia's meadows and a few other meadows close to villages. At a few plots of meadows (Lenia, Gramoz, Shishtavec situated away from villages and at high sea level, the coefficient of meadow utilization reached 50-60%. Energetic value expressed by starch unit (SU depends on the flora and environmental conditions. According to laboratory analyses, the meadows of Dukaj had the highest energetic values (about 1.16±0.22 SU kg-1 dry matter while Lenia' meadows had the lowest energetic values (about 0.84 ±0.16 SU kg-1 dry matter.

  4. Aspect-oriented programming evaluated

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinschmager, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Aspect-oriented-programming is a relatively new technique that has evolved on top of the already well-established approach of object-oriented programming. When it is used correctly, it promises to remove many redundant parts of a code that appear repeatedly in an application, essentially untangling the original code. Thus, it can lead to a cleaner, more separated software design, to greater modularity and maintainability. Time-savings in software engineering can also be huge cost-savings, and anything that increases software quality is a welcome sight in an industr

  5. Evaluation du programme sciences humaines (Evaluation of Humanities Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching (Quebec).

    In 1990, social science programs in Quebec's colleges in Canada were revised to standardize core courses and objectives across individual courses. Subsequently, the province's Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching undertook an evaluation of the revised program to determine its administration and effectiveness, as well as the…

  6. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  7. Strategies for Evaluating Complex Environmental Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, V.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of environmental education programs has been difficult to establish for many reasons. Chief among them are the lack of clear program objectives and an inability to conceptualize how environmental education programs work. Both can lead to evaluations that make claims that are difficult to substantiate, such as significant changes in student achievement levels or behavioral changes based on acquisition of knowledge. Many of these challenges can be addressed by establishing the program theory and developing a logic model. However, claims of impact on larger societal outcomes are difficult to attribute solely to program activities. Contribution analysis may offer a promising method for addressing this challenge. Rather than attempt to definitively and causally link a program's activities to desired results, contribution analysis seeks to provide plausible evidence that can reduce uncertainty regarding the 'difference' a program is making to observed outcomes. It sets out to verify the theory of change behind a program and, at the same time, takes into consideration other influencing factors. Contribution analysis is useful in situations where the program is not experimental-there is little or no scope for varying how the program is implemented-and the program has been funded on the basis of a theory of change. In this paper, the author reviews the feasibility of using contribution analysis as a way of evaluating the impact of the GLOBE program, an environmental science and education program. Initially conceptualized by Al Gore in 1995, the program's implementation model is based on worldwide environmental monitoring by students and scientists around the globe. This paper will make a significant and timely contribution to the field of evaluation, and specifically environmental education evaluation by examining the usefulness of this analysis for developing evidence to assess the impact of environmental education programs.

  8. Carbon and nutrient deposition in a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gacia, E.; Duarte, C.M.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The annual depositional flux of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P) to the sediments under a northeast Spain Posidonia oceanica meadow was evaluated, and the sources and fate of the material deposited elucidated. The annual deposition of carbon represented 198 g C m-2 yr-1, 72% of which

  9. Estimates of ground-water discharge as determined from measurements of evapotranspiration, Ash Meadows area, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczniak, R.J.; DeMeo, G.A.; Reiner, S.R.; Smith, J. LaRue; Nylund, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Ash Meadows is one of the major discharge areas within the regional Death Valley ground-water flow system of southern Nevada and adjacent California. Ground water discharging at Ash Meadows is replenished from inflow derived from an extensive recharge area that includes the eastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, contaminants introduced into the subsurface by past nuclear testing at NTS are the subject of study by the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Program. The transport of any contaminant in contact with ground water is controlled in part by the rate and direction of ground-water flow, which itself depends on the location and quantity of ground water discharging from the flow system. To best evaluate any potential risk associated with these test-generated contaminants, studies were undertaken to accurately quantify discharge from areas downgradient from the NTS. This report presents results of a study to refine the estimate of ground-water discharge at Ash Meadows. The study estimates ground-water discharge from the Ash Meadows area through a rigorous quantification of evapotranspiration (ET). To accomplish this objective, the study identifies areas of ongoing ground-water ET, delineates unique areas of ET defined on the basis of similarities in vegetation and soil-moisture conditions, and computes ET rates for each of the delineated areas. A classification technique using spectral-reflectance characteristics determined from satellite images recorded in 1992 identified seven unique units representing areas of ground-water ET. The total area classified encompasses about 10,350 acres dominated primarily by lush desert vegetation. Each unique area, referred to as an ET unit, generally consists of one or more assemblages of local phreatophytes. The ET units identified range from sparse grasslands to open water. Annual ET rates are computed by energy-budget methods from micrometeorological measurements made at 10 sites within six

  10. PNNL FY2005 DOE Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Patrick A.; Madson, Vernon J.; Isern, Nancy G.; Haney, Janice M.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Gulley, Susan E.; Reck, John J.; Collins, Drue A.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, Landon A.; Wynn, Clifford L.

    2005-01-31

    This document reports the results of the FY 2005 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  11. FY-2007 PNNL Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Patrick A.; Fisher, Julie A.; Goheen, Steven C.; Isern, Nancy G.; Madson, Vernon J.; Meicenheimer, Russell L.; Pugh, Ray; Schneirla, Keri A.; Shockey, Loretta L.; Tinker, Mike R.

    2008-08-15

    This document reports the results of the FY-2007 PNNL VPP Program Evaluation, which is a self-assessment of the operational and programmatic performance of the Laboratory related to worker safety and health. The report was compiled by a team of worker representatives and safety professionals who evaluated the Laboratory's worker safety and health programs on the basis of DOE-VPP criteria. The principle elements of DOE's VPP program are: Management Leadership, Employee Involvement, Worksite Analysis, Hazard Prevention and Control, and Safety and Health Training.

  12. Programming software for usability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.L.; Allen, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the work completed for a portion of the User Interface Testbed for Technology Packaging (UseIT) project. The authors present software methods for programming systems to record and view interactions with a graphical user interface. A brief description of the human factors design process is presented. The software methods exploit features available in the X Window System and the operating system for Windows{trademark} 95 and Windows{trademark} NT{reg_sign}.

  13. Evaluation of Youth Leadership Training Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Anderson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of a two-year evaluation of youth leadership programs offered within community youth development programs in Connecticut are presented. Youth involved in leadership activities were contrasted with a comparison group of youth who were not involved in leadership programming. Participants in the leadership programs reported an improved sense of support from their local communities. Leadership training also appeared to offer an added benefit to males who reported significant improvements in their social self-efficacy in contrast to females engaged in leadership programs or youth comprising the comparison group. Youth who participated in the leadership programs appeared to be a uniquely talented group of individuals, initially scoring higher than the comparison group on a variety of youth outcome measures. However, a subgroup of youth who began the leadership program at a lower level of overall functioning were more likely than youth who began the program at a higher level of functioning to report positive changes.

  14. Deception in Program Evaluation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Possible Deception: The Words of Satyam’s Chair Ramalinga Raju.” Journal of Business Ethics (March 2013): vol. 113, no. 2: 333-347. Faulkner , William ...Performance: A Field Study.” MIS Quarterly (June 2002): vol. 26, no. 2: 119-144. Cooley, William W. “The Inevitable Subjectivity of Evaluators

  15. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Preadmission programs: development, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, K; McAuliffe, M J; Motherway, D; Dunleavy, M J

    1983-01-01

    Preparation of children for hospitalization is utilized to mitigate the stresses which may accompany the experience. Preadmission programs provide preparation for the patient and family on a prehospital basis. The authors describe the development of family-centered, developmentally based programs which foster continuity and consistency in a large, pediatric tertiary care setting. Implementation and evaluation of the programs which contribute to quality patient care are discussed.

  17. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  18. Evaluating Pain Education Programs: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dubrowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of educational programs and assessment of learning are essential to maintain high-standard health science education, which includes pain education. Current models of program evaluations applied to the education of the health professions, such as the Kirkpatrick model, are mainly outcome based. More recently, efforts have been made to examine other process-based models such as the Context Input Process Product model. The present article proposes an approach that integrates both outcome- and process-based models with models of clinical performance assessment to provide a deeper understanding of a program function. Because assessment instruments are a critical part of program evaluation, it is suggested that standardization and rigour should be used in their selection, development and adaptation. The present article suggests an alternative to currently used models in pain education evaluation.

  19. 5 CFR 9701.107 - Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....107 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.107 Program evaluation. (a) DHS will establish...

  20. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  1. Evaluating the Georgia Master Naturalist Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Lauren; Mengak, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the Georgia Master Naturalist Program using an online survey. Survey participation was voluntary, and the survey addressed areas such as satisfaction, volunteerism, and future training. The program received high scores from survey respondents. They appreciated training on native plants, environmental awareness, and ecological…

  2. New Tools to Identify the Location of Seagrass Meadows: Marine Grazers as Habitat Indicators

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2018-02-21

    Seagrasses are hugely valuable to human life, but the global extent of seagrass meadows remains unclear. As evidence of their value, a United Nations program exists (http://data.unep-wcmc.org/datasets/7) to try and assess their distribution and there has been a call from 122 scientists across 28 countries for more work to manage, protect and monitor seagrass meadows (http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-37606827). Emerging from the 12th International Seagrass Biology Workshop, held in October 2016, has been the view that grazing marine megafauna may play a useful role in helping to identify previously unknown seagrass habitats. Here we describe this concept, showing how detailed information on the distribution of both dugongs (Dugong dugon) and green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) obtained, for example, by aerial surveys and satellite tracking, can reveal new information on the location of seagrass meadows. We show examples of how marine megaherbivores have been effective habitat indicators, revealing major, new, deep-water seagrass meadows and offering the potential for more informed estimates of seagrass extent in tropical and sub-tropical regions where current information is often lacking.

  3. Reporting a program evaluation: Needs, program plan, intervention, and decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Moscoso, Salvador; Chaves, Susana Sanduvete; Vidal, Mariona Portell; Teresa Anguera Argilaga, M.

    2013-01-01

    The approach to intervention programs varies depending on the methodological perspective adopted. This means that health professionals lack clear guidelines regarding how best to proceed, and it hinders the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of this paper is to set out the essential and common aspects that should be included in any program evaluation report, thereby providing a useful guide for the professional regardless of the procedural approach used. Furthermore, the paper seeks to ...

  4. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  5. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  6. Discount method for programming language evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtev, Svetomir; Christensen, Tommy Aagaard; Thomsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work in progress on developing a Discount Method for Programming Language Evaluation inspired by the Discount Usability Evaluation method (Benyon 2010) and the Instant Data Analysis method (Kjeldskov et al. 2004). The method is intended to bridge the gap between small scale...

  7. Evaluation of Training Programs for Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira, A.

    2008-01-01

    An Evaluation of the "Impact Assessment of the Training Programs" of a National Level Training Institution in India was conducted using the Kirkpatrick Method (KP Method). The studied Institution takes up research, provides training, offers consultancy and initiates action in the rural sector of India. The evaluation study used a…

  8. Handbook of evaluation of utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Reed, J. [eds.; Bronfman, B.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Hicks, E.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, M.; Keating, K.; Michaels, H.; Nadel, S.; Peters, J.; Reed, J.; Saxonis, W.; Schoen, A.; Violette, D.

    1991-12-01

    Program evaluation has become a central issue in the world of utility integrated resource planning. The DSM programs that utilities were operating to meet federal requirements or to improve customer relations are now becoming big business. DSM is being considered an important resource in a utility`s portfolio of options. In the last five years, the amount of money that utilities have invested in DSM has grown exponentially in most regulatory jurisdictions. Market analysts are now talking about DSM being a $30 billion industry by the end of the decade. If the large volume of DSM-program investments was not enough to highlight the importance of evaluation, then the introduction of regulatory incentives has really focused the spotlight. This handbook was developed through a process that involved many of those people who represent the diverse constituencies of DSM-program evaluation. We have come to recognize the many technical disciplines that must be employed to evaluate DSM programs. An analysis might start out based on the principles of utility load research to find out what happened, but a combination of engineering and statistical methods must be used to ``triangulate`` an estimate of what would have happened without the program. The difference, of course, is that elusive but prized result of evaluation: what happened as the direct result of the DSM program. Technical performance of DSM measures is not the sole determinant of the answer, either. We also recognize the importance of such behavioral attributes of DSM as persistence and free ridership. Finally, DSM evaluation is meaningless without attention to planning an approach, communicating results to relevant decision-makers, and focusing as much on the process as the impacts of the program. These topics are all covered in this handbook.

  9. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  10. The large penumbra: long-distance effects of artificial beach nourishment on Posidonia oceanica meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanera, Marta; Alcoverro, Teresa; Jiménez, José A; Romero, Javier

    2014-09-15

    We used modelling and field approaches to assess the influence of beach nourishment on a relatively distant Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow in the NW Mediterranean. Both sediment transport models and in situ observations showed that, two years after the nourishment and under wave climates prevalent during the study period, sediment movement was restricted to shallow waters (<7 m), above meadow shallow limit. The only significant impact on seagrass meadows during this period was an increase in fine sediments, associated with vertical rhizome growth rates 1.5-1.7 times higher than normal. However, running the model with data of wave climate over several decades indicates that strong storms able to transfer these sediments much deeper, potentially burying meadows, occur with a return period of about 25 years. Taken together, our results suggest that beach nourishment could result in significant sub-lethal and lethal consequences for seagrasses that may go unnoticed with short-term evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziari, Fred

    2002-12-19

    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further

  12. Meadow contraction and extinction debt in meadow plants and moths in the Western Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows in the western Cascades have contracted and fragmented by approximately 50% in the past 60 years. These habitats occupy only about 5% of the landscape of the western Cascades but are important for the preservation of biodiversity and rare species. This habitat loss and ...

  13. The Practice of Health Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sarah R

    2017-11-01

    The Practice of Health Program Evaluation provides an overview of the evaluation process for public health programs while diving deeper to address select advanced concepts and techniques. The book unfolds evaluation as a three-phased process consisting of identification of evaluation questions, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of results and recommendations. The text covers research design, sampling methods, as well as quantitative and qualitative approaches. Types of evaluation are also discussed, including economic assessment and systems research as relative newcomers. Aspects critical to conducting a successful evaluation regardless of type or research design are emphasized, such as stakeholder engagement, validity and reliability, and adoption of sound recommendations. The book encourages evaluators to document their approach by developing an evaluation plan, a data analysis plan, and a dissemination plan, in order to help build consensus throughout the process. The evaluative text offers a good bird's-eye view of the evaluation process, while offering guidance for evaluation experts on how to navigate political waters and advocate for their findings to help affect change.

  14. Have wet meadow restoration projects in the Southwestern U.S. been effective in restoring geomorphology, hydrology, soils, and plant species composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstead Karissa M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wet meadows occur in numerous locations throughout the American Southwest, but in many cases have become heavily degraded. Among other things they have frequently been overgrazed and have had roads built through them, which have affected the hydrology of these wetland ecosystems. Because of the important hydrologic and ecological functions they are believed to perform, there is currently significant interest in wet meadow restoration. Several restoration projects have been completed recently or are underway in the region, sometimes at considerable expense and with minimal monitoring. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of wet meadow restoration projects in the southwestern United States on geomorphology, hydrology, soils and plant species composition. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of wet meadow restoration projects on wildlife. Methods Electronic databases, internet search engines, websites and personal contacts were used to find articles of relevance to this review. Articles were filtered by title, abstract and full text. Summary information for each of the articles remaining after the filtering process was compiled and used to assess the quality of the evidence presented using two different approaches. Results Our searches yielded 48 articles, of which 25 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 14 were monitoring or project reports, and 9 were published in conference proceedings or are unpublished theses or manuscripts. A total of 26 operational-scale restoration projects were identified. A wide range of restoration techniques were employed, ranging from small-scale manipulations of stream channels (e.g., riffle structures to large scale pond-and-plug projects. Other common restoration techniques included fencing to exclude livestock (and sometimes also native ungulates, other forms of grazing management, seeding, and transplanting seedlings. Most of the articles reported that

  15. [Evaluation of Mexican 'Sicalidad' health quality program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Buendía, Frida; Bello-Chavolla, Omar Y; Zubieta-Zavala, Adriana; Hernández-Ramírez, Luz; Zepeda-Tena, Carolina; Durán-Arenas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    To analize the implementation of the Sistema Integral de Calidad en Salud (Sicalidad) program of the Ministry of Health in the 2011. The study follows a cross sectional design, hybrid, with a qualitative and quantitative components. A cluster probabilístic sample was used with two stages. A total of 3 034 interviews were carried out in 13 states to evaluate the implementation of the eight components of the Sicalidad program. General indexes of performance (GIP) were formulated for structure process and satisfaction of users, physicians and nurses with the program. The GIP with the lower score was accreditation of health facilities with a range of scores between 25.4 and 28% in the medical units evaluated; The highest range of scores was in the component of nosocomial infection prevention between 78.3 and 92%. In brief the Sicalidad components evaluated suggest problems with both structure and critical process elements in the implementation of the quality initiatives.

  16. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Oscar; Ricart, Aurora M.; Lavery, Paul S.; Mateo, Miguel Angel; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Masque, Pere; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Steven, Andy; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-08-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (Corg) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher Corg stocks (averaging 6.3 kg Corg m-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 g Corg m-2 yr-1) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg Corg m-2 and 3.6 g Corg m-2 yr-1). In shallower meadows, Corg stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88 % in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45 % on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  17. Controls on meadow distribution and characteristics [chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dru Germanoski; Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord

    2011-01-01

    Meadow complexes are located in distinct geomorphic and hydrologic settings that allow groundwater to be at or near the ground surface during at least part of the year. Meadows are manifestations of the subsurface flow system, and their distribution is controlled by factors that cause localized zones of groundwater discharge. Knowledge of the factors that serve as...

  18. Processes affecting the spatial distribution of seagrass meadow sedimentary material on Yao Yai Island, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quak, Michelle S. Y.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Evans, Sam; Todd, Peter A.; Gillis, Lucy G.; Vongtanaboon, Sukanya; Jachowski, Nick; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2016-12-01

    Many islands throughout SE Asia are experiencing rapid development and land-cover conversion that potentially threaten sensitive coastal ecosystems, such as seagrasses, through increased loading of sediment and nutrients originating from disturbed catchments draining to the sea. To evaluate this threat for one such island in Southern Thailand (Yao Yai), we perform sediment source tracing via end-member mixing analysis using stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in organic matter to explore sediment loading in a seagrass meadow. The analysis indicates that sedimentary material in the meadow originates mostly from ocean-associated sources (∼62% from seagrass detritus, seston, and ocean sediments). Terrestrial material comprises ∼19% of the organic material found in the seagrass meadow, with another 20% originating from an adjacent mangrove forest. Approximately one-fourth of the seagrass meadow material (24%) is detritus that has been (re)deposited internally. The high contribution of terrestrial-derived organic matter deposited near the river mouth demonstrates that substantial quantities of sediment are being transferred from upslope erosion sources into the seagrass meadow. However, only a small amount of this material is deposited throughout the entire bay because much of the terrestrial- and mangrove-derived sediment is transferred to the open ocean via channels that are periodically dredged to allow boat access to two small inland harbours. This positive affect of dredging has not received very much attention in existing literature. River water flowing to the channels during falling tide delivers sediment to these efficient pathways, where much of it bypasses the seagrass meadow at periods of time when sediment deposition would normally be the greatest. There is growing concern that ongoing land-cover changes and planned urbanization related to tourism and agriculture on the island may boost sediment/nutrients above a critical threshold, beyond that revealed in

  19. An Evaluation of the NAMI Basics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, Teri; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Shen, Sa; Burns, Barbara J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2012-01-01

    This brief report describes results from an evaluation of NAMI Basics, a peer-delivered family education program for family caregivers of children and adolescents with mental illness. Over six classes, family members are given information (e.g. education about mental illness and treatments), skills training (e.g. family communication skills) and…

  20. The Vale rangeland rehabilitation program: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold F. Heady

    1988-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the initiation, execution, and outcome of an 11-year (1962-1972) rangeland rehabilitation program in southeastern Oregon. Res. Bull. PNW-RB-070 (1977) is updated with 1986 measurements and evaluations of vegetational conditions, wildlife, recreational use, livestock grazing, and management of public rangelands. The mix of multiple uses has...

  1. Senior Program Officer, Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The SPO facilitates evaluation processes that intentionally influence the focus, content and management of IDRC projects, programs and corporate policies, debates and approaches to improve the Centre's and its partners' performance and ensure accountability for the resources spent. Also, the SPO incorporates them in ...

  2. Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randazzo Davide

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. Results The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Conclusion Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

  3. Phenols content and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern: a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, Luciana; Rotini, Alice; Randazzo, Davide; Albanese, Nadia N; Giallongo, Agata

    2007-07-30

    The endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile colonizes soft bottoms producing highly productive meadows that play a crucial role in coastal ecosystems dynamics. Human activities and natural events are responsible for a widespread meadows regression; to date the identification of "diagnostic" tools to monitor conservation status is a critical issue. In this study the feasibility of a novel tool to evaluate ecological impacts on Posidonia meadows has been tested. Quantification of a putative stress indicator, i.e. phenols content, has been coupled to 2-D electrophoretic protein analysis of rhizome samples. The overall expression pattern from Posidonia rhizome was determined using a preliminary proteomic approach, 437 protein spots were characterized by pI and molecular weight. We found that protein expression differs in samples belonging to sites with high or low phenols: 22 unique protein spots are peculiar of "low phenols" and 27 other spots characterize "high phenols" samples. Posidonia showed phenols variations within the meadow, that probably reflect the heterogeneity of environmental pressures. In addition, comparison of the 2-D electrophoresis patterns allowed to highlight qualitative protein expression differences in response to these pressures. These differences may account for changes in metabolic/physiological pathways as adaptation to stress. A combined approach, based on phenols content determination and 2-D electrophoresis protein pattern, seems a promising tool to monitor Posidonia meadows health state.

  4. From Then to Now: Emerging Directions for Youth Program Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Arnold

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of youth development programs has been an important topic since the programs first began, and the past 25 years in particular have witnessed considerable advances in the evaluation of youth development programs. This article presents a brief history of youth development program evaluation, considering how it has changed over the years. From there, three contemporary trends related to youth program evaluation are examined: 1 a new evaluation focus, which is the emphasis on evaluating program quality; 2 organizational structures related to effective program evaluation, primarily in the area of program evaluability and evaluation capacity building; and 3 an emerging evaluation approach, involving youth in evaluating the programs that affect them. The article concludes with a call for programs to attend carefully to program implementation quality.

  5. Integrating Program Theory and Systems-Based Procedures in Program Evaluation: A Dynamic Approach to Evaluate Educational Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    The current study attempts to integrate parts of program theory and systems-based procedures in educational program evaluation. The educational program that was implemented, called the "Early Steps" project, proposed that physical education can contribute to various educational goals apart from the usual motor skills improvement. Basic…

  6. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them.

  7. Apples And Oranges: Obtaining Meaningful Corss-Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesling, J. Ward; Shavelson, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Cross-program evaluation, the comparison of different types of educational programs, is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of this type of evaluation are outlined, with respect to decision making and legislation regarding funding of programs. (GDC)

  8. Effects of traditional flood irrigation on invertebrates in lowland meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmel, Jens; Alt, Martin; Rudolph, Isabell; Entling, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Lowland meadow irrigation used to be widespread in Central Europe, but has largely been abandoned during the 20th century. As a result of agri-environment schemes and nature conservation efforts, meadow irrigation is now being re-established in some European regions. In the absence of natural flood events, irrigation is expected to favour fauna typical of lowland wet meadows. We analysed the effects of traditional flood irrigation on diversity, densities and species composition of three invertebrate indicator taxa in lowland meadows in Germany. Unexpectedly, alpha diversity (species richness and Simpson diversity) and beta diversity (multivariate homogeneity of group dispersions) of orthopterans, carabids, and spiders were not significantly different between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. However, spider densities were significantly higher in irrigated meadows. Furthermore, irrigation and elevated humidity affected species composition and shifted assemblages towards moisture-dependent species. The number of species of conservation concern, however, did not differ between irrigated and non-irrigated meadows. More variable and intensive (higher duration and/or frequency) flooding regimes might provide stronger conservation benefits, additional species and enhance habitat heterogeneity on a landscape scale.

  9. Evaluation of otolaryngology residency program websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Gupta, Amar; Johnson, Andrew P; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Shkoukani, Mahdi A; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J

    2014-10-01

    Prior to applying or interviewing, most prospective applicants turn to the Internet when evaluating residency programs, making maintenance of a comprehensive website critical. While certain "intangibles" such as reputation may not be communicated effectively online, residency websites are invaluable for conveying other aspects of a program. Prior analyses have reported that certain criteria such as research experience and didactics are important considerations for applicants. To evaluate the comprehensiveness of otolaryngology residency websites. Review of otolaryngology residency program websites. Websites of 99 civilian residency programs were searched for the presence of 23 criteria. Presence of 23 criteria for application process, incentives, instruction, research, clinical training, and other. Only 5 programs contained at least three-quarters of the criteria analyzed; on average programs reported less than 50% of information sought. Among the 99 residency program websites, a description of the following criteria was noted: comprehensive faculty listing (88%), didactics (80%), contact e-mail (77%), current residents (74%), description of facilities (70%), intern schedule (70%), research requirements (69%), otolaryngology rotation schedule (64%), other courses (61%), ERAS (Electronic Residency Application Service) link (55%), year-to-year responsibility progression (47%), call schedule (40%), active/past research projects (37%), area information (34%), message from the program director (33%) or chair (23%), selection criteria (30%), salary (directly on site) (23%), surgical statistics (18%), parking (9%), and meal allowance (7%). The mean (SD) percentage present of factors encompassing "clinical training" was 55% (23%), significantly higher than the mean (SD) percentage of factors covered under the "incentives" category (19% [11%]; P = .01). The proportion of overall criteria present on websites did not differ on organizing programs by region (range, 42

  10. Program Evaluation for Sexually Transmitted Disease Programs: In Support of Effective Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    Program evaluation is a key tool for gathering evidence about the value and effectiveness of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs and interventions. Drawing from published literature, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework, and program examples, this article lays out some of the key principles of program evaluation for STD program staff. The purpose is to offer STD program staff a stronger basis for talking about, planning, conducting, and advocating for evaluation within their respective program contexts.

  11. The Evaluation Of A Diversity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Fouche

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the evaluation of a programme that was designed and developed in an attempt to address the reasons why diversity programmes fail. A large company in the banking sector initiated the development of the product and keynote personnel from this company evaluated the content. The content was found to adhere to Best Practice requirements. OpsommingDie artikel evalueer die inhoud van ’n diversiteits-program wat ontwerp en ontwikkel is ten einde die redes waarom diversiteits-opleiding faal, aan te spreek.’n Groot maatskappy in die banksektor het die ontwikkeling geinisieer en ’n aantal senior personeellede is genader om die inhoud te evalueer. Daar is bevind dat die inhoud aan wêreldklas standaarde voldoen.

  12. Experimental evaluation of a photovoltaic simulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, R.; Doty, J.; Bailey, B.; Stewart, R. (AWS Scientific Inc., Albany, NY (United States))

    1994-04-01

    A widely used photovoltaic (PV) simulation code, PVFORM, is evaluated in a grid-connected configuration against experimental data from a prototype demand-side management PV array. Taking advantage of the comprehensive array monitoring program, each of the key algorithms composing the simulation code is evaluated independently. PVFORM as a whole was not found to have any major flaws, but was found to overpredict actual power output due mostly to assuming ideal array sun-tracking performance and ideal maximum power point tracking.

  13. Thermoelectric materials evaluation program. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinderman, J.D.

    1979-04-01

    Research progress on the thermoelectric materials evaluation program is reported covering the period January 1, 1976 to September 30, 1978. Topical reports are presented on (1) hot and cold end ..delta..T's, (2) hardware mobility, (3) p-leg sublimation suppression, (4) thermodynamic stability of p-legs, (5) n-leg material process improvements to reduce extraneous resistance, (6) n-leg cracking, (7) dynamic evaluation of converter, and (8) data base and degradation modes. Twenty attachments are included which present supporting drawings, specifications, procedures, and data. (WHK)

  14. Evaluation metrics of educational programs for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gwendolyn D.

    1995-01-01

    A system for evaluating the teacher programs and services in the Education Services Branch was developed. The primary stakeholder was interested in determining the worth or usefulness of these services to educators. Therefore, two instruments were developed to collect the data. One questionnaire was administered. Data was collected, analyzed and reported. The other questionnaire was pilot tested and will be administered to teachers during the school year.

  15. Assessment and physiological state of the Posidonia oceanica meadows in Porto Cristo (Manacor, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Box, Antonio; Tejada, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, Posidonia oceanica is the main seagrass meadow that brings food and shelter to many species. The P. oceanica deterioration is an indicator of its own status, since it is sensitive to many disturbances, such as human impacts or alien species. Lately, oxidative stress has been pointed out as another possible biomarker of the animal and plant status. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological status of the P. oceanica meadows in the Porto Cristo bay (Manacor, Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean), evaluating the possible impact induced by human activity performed in the area. In situ measurements were quantified (shoot density, and the maximum length and width of P. oceanica leaves) by scuba divers. Leaf samples were collected to determine the catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level as marker of lipid peroxidation was also evaluated. Shoot density, and length and width measurements of the leaves in the inner locations of the bay showed inferior structural features than the leaves from the outer areas. CAT, SOD and GPx enzymatic activities and lipid peroxidation were higher in leaves from the internal zones than in the outer placements. In conclusion, the general status of the of P. oceanica meadows on the Porto Cristo Bay according to structural and oxidative biomarkers evidenced a good physiological condition, although the areas nearest to the harbour and the beach reflect signs of human affection. Altogether, it reflects a good physiological condition of the meadows in the external areas of the Porto Cristo Bay.

  16. A Qualitative Program Evaluation of a Structured Leadership Mentoring Program at a Large Aerospace Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Romney P.

    2011-01-01

    The researcher utilized a qualitative approach to conduct a program evaluation of the organization where he is employed. The study intended to serve as a program evaluation for the structured in-house mentoring program at a large aerospace corporation (A-Corp). This program evaluation clarified areas in which the current mentoring program is…

  17. 76 FR 5821 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for... Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of the program for...

  18. Simulations of dredged sediment spreading on a Posidonia oceanica meadow off the Ligurian coast, Northwestern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Ferranti, M P; Budillon, G; Bertolotto, R M; Ciappa, A; Cotroneo, Y; Castellano, M; Povero, P; Tucci, S

    2014-02-15

    The sandy deposits from dredging can have negative effects on the environment such as increase in suspended solids in the water column and their consequent transport. An experimental study was conducted to characterize water masses, dynamics, and sedimentation rates on the Ligurian continental shelf (Italy), where both a sand deposit, that could be used for beach nourishment, and a nearby Posidonia oceanica meadow coexist. The environmental plan provides a mathematical simulation of the sediment-dispersion to evaluate the possible impact on the meadow. It has been calculated that the dredging could double the concentration of suspended particles, but its scheduling will preclude a sediment accumulation. All the information obtained from this work will be used to study the environmental feasibility of the sand deposit exploitation and as starting point for drawing up the monitoring plan in case of dredging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A methodological approach to understand functional relationships between ecological indices and human-induced pressures: the case of the Posidonia oceanica meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Tiziano; Rende, Sante Francesco; Penna, Marina; Trabucco, Benedetta; Montefalcone, Monica; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Franco

    2013-11-15

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC requests the achievement of the Good Status for all surface waters, including the coastal waters, by 2015. In order to check compliance with the needs of Directive, Italian national monitoring data on Posidonia oceanica meadows have been explored and the relationships among the Posidonia Rapid and Easy Index (PREI), and human-induced pressures have been analyzed along the Italian coasts. The aim of this work is to establish functional relationships between a response variable (i.e. the PREI) and a set of potential pressure (i.e. land use, potential organic and nutrient loading, pesticides) and status (i.e. transparency, trophic level and stability of the water column) indicators in a quantitative way. The ecological responses of coastal marine environment have been evaluated using appropriate statistical tools, such as the multiple linear regression analyses and "linear programming" techniques. Results show that more than 70% of the variability of the P. oceanica meadows status, expressed as PREI value, is significantly explained only by a few pressure/status indicators (namely: potential organic load, specific nitrogen load, natural areas extent, water column transparency), among all those initially considered in the model. The application of the proposed model could allow decision makers to better address remedial actions and to achieve the environmental targets proposed by the EU Directives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, M.; Bowman, C.

    2014-12-01

    From 2009-2014, NASA's Mars Public Engagement (MPE) Program developed and implemented project-level logic models and associated impacts and indicators tables using the NSF's "Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects" (Friedman, 2008) as a key guiding document. This Framework was selected given the national-expert-level evaluation committee who synthesized evaluation in a way that allows project-to-project comparisons in key areas of measurable change, while also allowing variation for appropriate project-specific measures and outcomes. These logic models, revisited and refined annually, provide guidance for all measures developed, tested, and implemented with MPE projects, including the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP), the Imagine Mars Project, and Mars Educator Professional Development. Project questionnaires were developed, tested, refined, retested, and finalized following standard procedures outlined in Converse & Presser (1986), Dillman, Smyth, & Christian (2009), Krosnick & Presser (2010), and Presser, et al. (2004). Interview questions were drafted, reviewed by project staff, and revised following established interview question development guidelines (e.g., Kvale, 1996; Maxwell, 2005; Maykut & Morehouse, 1994; Strauss & Corbin, 1998). For MSIP final projects, a rubric guided by Lantz (2004) was developed to evaluate systematically the quality and completeness of the final projects. We will discuss our instruments as well as the important issue of nonresponse error, which is relevant to a wide range of NASA programs because most data is collected from customers who are voluntary participants, as opposed to grantees who must report as a condition of their grant. NASA programs that consider data and report results from voluntary samples must be cautious about claims or decisions based on those data. We will discuss the ways in which we consider and address this challenge.

  1. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  2. Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Crane Meadows NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  3. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : January - Decemeber 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows NWR and satellite refuges outlines refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by...

  4. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) executive summary was written to guide management on Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years....

  5. Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : A plan for the future

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management plan is to maintain Ash Meadows Refuge as a natural ecosystem. To accomplish this, the area will be restored as much as possible to conditions which...

  6. The Trail Inventory of Cokeville Meadows NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  7. Ash Meadows Pupfish Preserve: A proposal from The Nature Conservancy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ash Meadows region of southwest Nevada has evolved since the last period of glaciation into a unique alkali desert ecosystem. The remnant springs, pools and...

  8. Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1976 : Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  9. Experimental infection of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) with sheep scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, CM; Schneider, Jay R.; Pedersen, Janice C.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) are permissive to chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection, but their susceptibility to other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is poorly characterized. In this initial study, we intracerebrally challenged 6 meadow voles with 2 isolates of sheep scrapie. Three meadow voles acquired a TSE after the scrapie challenge and an extended incubation period. The glycoform profile of proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in scrapie-sick voles remained similar to the sheep inocula, but differed from that of voles clinically affected by CWD. Vacuolization patterns and disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) deposition were generally similar in all scrapie-affected voles, except in the hippocampus, where PrP(Sc) staining varied markedly among the animals. Our results demonstrate that meadow voles can acquire a TSE after intracerebral scrapie challenge and that this species could therefore prove useful for characterizing scrapie isolates.

  10. Solar radiation and tidal exposure as environmental drivers of Enhalus acoroides dominated seagrass meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K F Unsworth

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large ≈250 ha meadow in tropical north east Australia. Annual monitoring of the intertidal Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle seagrass meadow over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant overall reduction from 2000 to 2010. Partial Least Squares Regression found this reduction to be significantly and negatively correlated with tidal exposure, and significantly and negatively correlated with the amount of solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when interpreting the results of seagrass monitoring programs.

  11. Key biogeochemical factors affecting soil carbon storage in Posidonia meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, Oscar

    2016-08-15

    Biotic and abiotic factors influence the accumulation of organic carbon (C-org) in seagrass ecosystems. We surveyed Posidonia sinuosa meadows growing in different water depths to assess the variability in the sources, stocks and accumulation rates of Corg. We show that over the last 500 years, P. sinuosa meadows closer to the upper limit of distribution (at 2-4 m depth) accumulated 3- to 4-fold higher C-org stocks (averaging 6.3 kg C-org m(-2) at 3- to 4-fold higher rates (12.8 gC(org) m(-2) yr(-1) ) compared to meadows closer to the deep limits of distribution (at 6-8 m depth; 1.8 kg C-org m(-2) and 3.6 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1) . In shallower meadows, C-org stocks were mostly derived from seagrass detritus (88% in average) compared to meadows closer to the deep limit of distribution (45% on average). In addition, soil accumulation rates and fine-grained sediment content (< 0.125 mm) in shallower meadows (2.0 mm yr(-1) and 9 %, respectively) were approximately 2-fold higher than in deeper meadows (1.2 mm yr(-1) and 5 %, respectively). The C-org stocks and accumulation rates accumulated over the last 500 years in bare sediments (0.6 kg C-org m(-2) and 1.2 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1)were 3- to 11-fold lower than in P. sinuosa meadows, while fine-grained sediment content (1 %) and seagrass detritus contribution to the Corg pool (20 %) were 8- and 3-fold lower than in Posidonia meadows, respectively. The patterns found support the hypothesis that Corg storage in seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological (e.g., meadow productivity, cover and density), chemical (e.g., recalcitrance of Corg stocks) and physical (e.g., hydrodynamic energy and soil accumulation rates) factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates of seagrass carbon storage accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.

  12. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  13. 24 CFR 266.115 - Program monitoring and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program monitoring and evaluation... Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.115 Program monitoring and evaluation. (a) HFA certifications... and evaluation. Monitoring and evaluation activities will focus on compliance with program...

  14. An Evaluation of State Energy Program Accomplishments: 2002 Program Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    2005-07-13

    cost savings and emissions reductions associated with SEP activities performed by the states during the 2002 program year, based on primary data provided by the states themselves. This is the second systematic evaluation of SEP accomplishments performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for DOE. A report documenting the findings of the first study was published in January 2003 (Schweitzer et.al., 2003).

  15. Beetle and spider fauna of meadows affected by traffic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, R.

    1974-01-01

    The comparative effects of heavy versus light motor traffic on the composition of two meadow fauna, beetles and spiders, were investigated. Three of the meadows were adjacent to a very busy road and two to a little-used road. The numbers of species and of individual specimens of Carabidae were significantly lower (Wilcoxon test < 0.05) at the edges of the meadows on the busy road than at the edges of those on the little-used road. There was a reduction in the number of species of the Araneae group (Wilcoxon test > 0.05). Comparison of the number of individuals of representative species in the differently situated meadows revealed a reduction in the number of specimens on the sites adjacent to the busy road. A few exhibited greater number of individual specimens on the sites adjacent to the busy road than on those near the rural road. The diversity index of Shannon and Weaver generally yielded a lower value for the border zone of the meadows on the busy road, while there was no change observed for the meadows bordering on the rural road. Individuals captured near the edge of the busy road showed a significantly higher level of body lead than those captured in the middle of the field. 70 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Johannes P; Donath, Tobias W; Eckstein, R Lutz; Ludewig, Kristin; Otte, Annette; Harvolk-Schöning, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe's large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns.

  17. Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Tobias W.; Eckstein, R. Lutz; Ludewig, Kristin; Otte, Annette; Harvolk-Schöning, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe’s large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns. PMID:28467463

  18. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. (Energy and Solid Waste Consultants, Montpelier, VT (United States))

    1992-08-12

    In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial Mom, and Pop'' grocery stores within WEC's service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy Solid Waste Consultant's (E SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe's Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

  19. Case Study Evaluation of the Boston Area Carpooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The report evaluates a carpooling program in operation in the Boston, Massachusetts area from August, 1973 through August, 1974. The program, entitled the WBZ/ALA Commuter Computer Campaign, was the first program in the nation to promote and organize...

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  1. Photosynthetic activity buffers ocean acidification in seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, I. E.; Olsen, Y. S.; Ramajo, L.; Basso, L.; Steckbauer, A.; Moore, T. S.; Howard, J.; Duarte, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    Macrophytes growing in shallow coastal zones characterized by intense metabolic activity have the capacity to modify pH within their canopy and beyond. We observed diel pH ranges is in shallow (5-12 m) seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadows from 0.06 pH units in September to 0.24 units in June. The carbonate system (pH, DIC, and aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and O2 within the meadows displayed strong diel variability driven by primary productivity, and changes in chemistry were related to structural parameters of the meadow, in particular, the leaf surface area available for photosynthesis (LAI). LAI was positively correlated to mean and max pHNBS and max ΩAr. Oxygen production positively influenced the range and maximum pHNBS and the range of ΩAr. In June, vertical mixing (as Turbulent Kinetic Energy) influenced ΩAr, while in September there was no effect of hydrodynamics on the carbonate system within the canopy. ΩAr was positively correlated with the calcium carbonate load of the leaves, demonstrating a direct link between structural parameters, ΩAr and carbonate deposition. There was a direct relationship between ΩAr, influenced directly by meadow LAI, and CaCO3 content of the leaves. Therefore, calcifying organisms, e.g. epiphytes with carbonate skeletons, might benefit from the modification of the carbonate system by the meadow. The meadow might be capable of providing refugia for calcifiers by increasing pH and ΩAr through metabolic activity. There is, however, concern for the ability of seagrasses to provide this refugia function in the future. The predicted decline of seagrass meadows may alter the scope for alteration of pH within a seagrass meadow and in the water column above the meadow, particularly if shoot density and biomass decline, both strongly linked to LAI. Organisms associated with seagrass communities may therefore suffer from the loss of pH buffering capacity in degraded meadows.

  2. Program evaluation of FHWA pedestrian and bicycle safety activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    "Introduction : FHWAs Office of Highway Safety (HSA) initiated a program evaluation by Booz Allen Hamilton to assess the overall effectiveness of the Agencys Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Program. The evaluation covers pedestrian and bicycle sa...

  3. Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana

    2013-09-01

    The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

  4. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  5. Evaluation of the Health Rocks! Program: The Association of Youth Engagement with Program Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This evaluation research examined the relationship between program process and program outcome, specifically, youth engagement in the national 4-H Council Health Rocks! program and their program outcomes.  Based on program evaluation surveys completed after the program by participants, youths’ engagement in the program was associated with their gains in knowledge and skills about substance use, and personal assets related to avoiding risks.  When youth participants find a program interesting, are actively engaged in the program, and find the program staff friendly, they benefit more from the program.  Findings underscore the importance of engaging curriculum and friendly staff to the success of extension or afterschool youth programs. The evaluation method may offer an example of balancing rigor of evaluation design and feasibility of implementing an evaluation.

  6. Program Evaluation Interest and Skills of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astramovich, Randall L.

    2017-01-01

    School counselors participated in a study examining their program evaluation interest and skills. Findings suggest that school counselors understand the importance of program evaluation, yet they may lack the skills and confidence to successfully engage in program evaluation activities. Professional development training may be an important method…

  7. Coral Community Structure and Recruitment in Seagrass Meadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Lohr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral communities are increasingly found to populate non-reef habitats prone to high environmental variability. Such sites include seagrass meadows, which are generally not considered optimal habitats for corals as a result of limited suitable substrate for settlement and substantial diel and seasonal fluctuations in physicochemical conditions relative to neighboring reefs. Interest in understanding the ability of corals to persist in non-reef habitats has grown, however little baseline data exists on community structure and recruitment of scleractinian corals in seagrass meadows. To determine how corals populate seagrass meadows, we surveyed the established and recruited coral community over 25 months within seagrass meadows at Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. Simultaneous surveys of established and recruited coral communities at neighboring back-reef sites were conducted for comparison. To fully understand the amount of environmental variability to which corals in each habitat were exposed, we conducted complementary surveys of physicochemical conditions in both seagrass meadows and back-reefs. Despite overall higher variability in physicochemical conditions, particularly pH, compared to the back-reef, 14 coral taxa were capable of inhabiting seagrass meadows, and multiple coral families were also found to recruit to these sites. However, coral cover and species diversity, richness, and evenness were lower at sites within seagrass meadows compared to back-reef sites. Although questions remain regarding the processes governing recruitment, these results provide evidence that seagrass beds can serve as functional habitats for corals despite high levels of environmental variability and suboptimal conditions compared to neighboring reefs.

  8. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program was created by Congress in 1976 under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act. The purpose and scope of the Program as currently stated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10CFR 440.1 is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, families with children, high residential energy users, and households with high energy burden' (Code of Federal Regulations, 2005). DOE sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of the Program in the early 1990's to provide policy makers and program implementers with up-to-date and reliable information they needed for effective decision making and cost-effective operations. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five part study which was based primarily on data from Program Year (PY) 1989 and supplemented by data from 1991-92 (Brown, Berry, and Kinney, 1994). In more recent years, ORNL has conducted four metaevaluations of the Program's energy savings using studies conducted by individual states between the years 1990-1996 (Berry, 1997), 1996-1998 (Schweitzer and Berry, 1999), 1993-2002 (Berry and Schweitzer, 2003), and 1993-2005 (Schweitzer, 2005). DOE announced through its Weatherization Program Notice 05-1 (DOE, 2004) that it would undertake a new national evaluation of the Program because the Program that was evaluated comprehensively in the early 1990's is vastly different from the Program of today. The Program has incorporated new funding sources, management principles, audit procedures, and energy-efficiency measures in response to findings and recommendations resulting from the 1989 National Evaluation, the Weatherization Plus strategic planning process, and other

  9. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  10. Program Evaluation of a Distance Master's Degree Dental Hygiene Program: A Program Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensabaugh, Cynthia F; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Overman, Pamela R; Van Ness, Christopher J; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program (MSDH). This evaluation examined long-term outcomes in the context of stakeholders (the profession, the student, and the degree-granting institution).Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to gather data from the 28 graduates from the MSDH program. An electronic questionnaire included both open- and closed-ended questions including demographic and practice data, and data related to alumni preparedness to reach their career goals. Virtual focus groups provided valuable insight into whether the program has achieved its goals, and prepared the graduates to meet their program competencies and future goals.Results: Out of a total of 28 individuals who have successfully completed the distance program (2001-2011), 19 participated in an online survey (67.8%). The majority of the participants (73.7%) participated in one of 3 focus groups. Sixty-three percent of the graduates are currently employed in dental hygiene education. Eighty-four percent of the respondents have published their research conducted while in the program, thereby contributing to the dental hygiene body of knowledge. Sixty-eight percent indicated that had the distance option not existed, they would not have been able to obtain their advanced degree in dental hygiene. Twenty-one percent of the respondents report either being currently enrolled in a doctoral program, or having completed a doctoral degree.Conclusion: These results suggest that the University of Missouri-Kansas City Master of Science in Dental Hygiene Education Program is meeting its goals from the perspective of all stakeholders and providing its graduates with access to education and educational resources to meet the program competencies and ultimately achieve their career goals. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  11. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Karin M. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    1998-02-28

    This report represents the results of the analyses for the second EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (August 1997). A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum and three sample spectra were included for each software format as part of the evaluation. The calibration spectrum contained nuclides covering the range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants were told fallout and fission product nuclides as well as naturally occurring nuclides could be present. The samples were designed to test the detection and quantification of very low levels of nuclides and the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Twenty-nine sets of results were reported from a total of 70 laboratories who received the spectra. The percentage of the results within 1 F of the expected value was 76, 67, and 55 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 12% of the results were more than 3 F from the expected value. Sixty-two nuclides out of a total of 580 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Sixty percent of these false negatives were due to nuclides which were present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 60% of the responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results indicate that the Program is beneficial to the participating laboratories in that it provides them with analysis problems that are difficult to create with spiked samples due to the unavailability of many nuclides and the short half-lives of others. EML will continue its annual distribution, the third is to be held in March 1999.

  12. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam; Ferrey, Steven; Morgan, Stephen

    1991-12-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with surveys, participant list, and computers program to examine and predict potential energy savings.

  13. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Serrano, O.

    2016-03-16

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  14. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  15. Evaluation of Development Programs: Randomized Controlled Trials or Regressions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, C.T.M.; Gunning, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Can project evaluation methods be used to evaluate programs: complex interventions involving multiple activities? A program evaluation cannot be based simply on separate evaluations of its components if interactions between the activities are important. In this paper a measure is proposed, the total

  16. Evaluation of Mexico's Universal Vaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes findings from an evaluation of Mexico's Universal Vaccination Program during 1990-97, the progress achieved, the lessons learned, and objectives under decentralization. The evaluation assessed the cold chain and logistics systems, and the feasibility of vaccine production within Gerencia General de Biologicos y Reactivos. In 1996, 97% of children aged 1-4 years completed the full immunization schedule. Over the past 7 years, the incidence of preventable diseases declined. There were no poliomyelitis cases in the prior 7 years, no diphtheria cases in the prior 6 years, and a gradual decline in morbidity due to measles in the prior 5 years. Several government sectors are giving high priority to vaccination activities. Sufficient resources have been allocated for immunization. The government is planning on adding new vaccines that would benefit the adult population and/or prevent congenital defects. There is close coordination within institutions of the National Health System and with other public health organizations, such as PAHO and UNICEF. It is recommended that the central government perform high quality epidemiological surveillance and improve rapid analysis capacity, especially at the local and regional levels. Improvement is needed in the reporting capacity at the local level, to feed recent data to the central level in a timely fashion, and to use analysis to improve operations. Epidemiological training is needed at the operations level, as is private sector involvement at all levels. Underreporting of morbidity occurs. Regionalization must be monitored to ensure maximizing of resources.

  17. 77 FR 14568 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of... Commerce to establish an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct...

  18. 78 FR 16297 - Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Program for Certain... fourth annual review in investigation No. 332-503, Earned Import Allowance Program: Evaluation of the... an Earned Import Allowance Program (EIAP) and directed the Commission to conduct annual reviews of...

  19. Subalpine meadow plant communities in Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This publication presents data collected within meadows from samples used to assess meadow plant community responses to recreational pack stock as part of a USGS...

  20. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  1. PROGRAM EVALUATION IN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA: PLUS CA CHANGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RV Segsworth

    2005-01-01

      This article describes the evolution of evaluation policy and practice from 1977, when the first policy on program evaluation was issued by Treasury Board, to the current state of evaluation in the Government of Canada...

  2. Curated Collections for Educators: Five Key Papers about Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Gottlieb, Michael; Boysen-Osborn, Megan; King, Andrew; Quinn, Antonia; Krzyzaniak, Sara; Pineda, Nicolas; Yarris, Lalena M; Chan, Teresa

    2017-05-04

    The evaluation of educational programs has become an expected part of medical education. At some point, all medical educators will need to critically evaluate the programs that they deliver. However, the evaluation of educational programs requires a very different skillset than teaching. In this article, we aim to identify and summarize key papers that would be helpful for faculty members interested in exploring program evaluation. In November of 2016, the 2015-2016 Academic life in emergency medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator program highlighted key papers in a discussion of program evaluation. This list of papers was augmented with suggestions by guest experts and by an open call on Twitter. This resulted in a list of 30 papers on program evaluation. Our authorship group then engaged in a process akin to a Delphi study to build consensus on the most important papers about program evaluation for medical education faculty. We present our group's top five most highly rated papers on program evaluation. We also summarize these papers with respect to their relevance to junior medical education faculty members and faculty developers. Program evaluation is challenging. The described papers will be informative for junior faculty members as they aim to design literature-informed evaluations for their educational programs.

  3. Alternative Aviation Jet Fuel Sustainability Evaluation Report Task 1 : Report Evaluating Existing Sustainability Evaluation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    This report describes how existing biofuel sustainability evaluation programs meet requirements that are under consideration or are in early phases of adoption and implementation in various US and international contexts. Biofuel sustainability evalua...

  4. Program review: resource evaluation, reservoir confirmation, and exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, S.H.

    1978-05-01

    The details of the program review are reported. A summary of the recommendations, means for their implementation, and a six year program of expenditures which would accomplish the objectives of the recommendations are presented. Included in appendices are the following: DOE/DGE consortia participants; program managers contacted for opinion; communications received from program managers; participants, program review panel; and program strategy for resource evaluation and reservoir confirmation. (MHR)

  5. Lazy evaluation of FP programs: A data-flow approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y.H. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Gaudiot, J.L. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Research Inst.

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents a lazy evaluation system for the list-based functional language, Backus` FP in data-driven environment. A superset language of FP, called DFP (Demand-driven FP), is introduced. FP eager programs are transformed into DFP lazy programs which contain the notions of demands. The data-driven execution of DFP programs has the same effects of lazy evaluation. DFP lazy programs have the property of always evaluating a sufficient and necessary result. The infinite sequence generator is used to demonstrate the eager-lazy program transformation and the execution of the lazy programs.

  6. 38 CFR 1.15 - Standards for program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in relation to their cost. In addition, these evaluations will determine each program's impact on related programs and its structure and mechanism for delivery of services. All programs will be evaluated... design. Alternatives include an assessment of cost of data collection vs. results necessary to support...

  7. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  8. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  9. Evaluation of the Meaning of Life Program in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasler, Jonathan; White, Gwyne W.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2009-2010 academic year, 10 schools participated in the Meaning of Life educational program, an adaption of the popular U.S. Laws of Life program. The program sought to encourage each participant to develop a personal approach to finding meaning in life. To evaluate the success of the program, we conducted a study to compare measures of…

  10. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  11. Effects of Yak grazing on plant community characteristics of meadow grasslands in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Linrong; Hou, Fujiang; Bowatte, Saman; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-04-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is an important part of the global terrestrial ecosystem that provides many ecological roles such as biodiversity protection, upper watersheds for large rivers, circulation of materials, energy balance and provision of forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife. Approximately 40% of the QTP is alpine meadow grasslands and yak farming is one of the dominant land use activities. In recent years, the rapid increase in the number of yaks grazing on meadow grasslands has raised concerns about grassland degradation. In this study we examined the effects of yak grazing on the grassland community characteristics to evaluate the degradation potential of alpine meadow in the QTP. The experiment was carried out on three farms, in close proximity to each other, that were operating at different grazing intensities in Maqu county (N35°58', E101°53', altitude 3650m) of the QTP in the Gansu province in China. We tested 4 levels of yak grazing intensities; control (no grazing), light (2.6yak/ha), moderate (3.5yak/ha) and high (6.5yak/ha ). We hypothesized that greater intensity of grazing would significantly impact the plant community characteristics through trampling effects above and below ground. We found grazing significantly (Pplant community density and the proportion of edible grass biomass were not significantly affected by the grazing treatments. The species richness was significantly reduced (pplant community characteristics in alpine meadow in the QTP, indicating a potential for grassland degradation to occur in future. Therefore, further comprehensive research is warranted. Key words: Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; Yak grazing; Alpine meadow; Maqu county

  12. Export from Seagrass Meadows Contributes to Marine Carbon Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-17

    Seagrasses export a substantial portion of their primary production, both in particulate and dissolved organic form, but the fate of this export production remains unaccounted for in terms of seagrass carbon sequestration. Here we review available evidence on the fate of seagrass carbon export to conclude that this represents a significant contribution to carbon sequestration, both in sediments outside seagrass meadows and in the deep sea. The evidence presented implies that the contribution of seagrass meadows to carbon sequestration has been underestimated by only including carbon burial within seagrass sediments.

  13. Wet meadow restoration in Western Europe : A quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of several techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimkowska, Agata; Diggelen, Rudy Van; Bakker, Jan P.; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques such as rewetting, topsoil removal, diaspore transfer or combinations of these are increasingly applied in fen meadow and flood meadow restoration in Western Europe. In this paper, we present a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the commonly used meadow restoration methods.

  14. 75 FR 39037 - Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Morrison County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Morrison County, MN AGENCY: Fish and... assessment (EA) for Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for public review and comment. In this draft... the following methods. You may also drop off comments in person at Crane Meadows NWR. 1. Agency Web...

  15. Evaluation of the New Mexico ignition interlock program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    This Evaluation of the New Mexico Ignition Interlock Program begins by summarizing the development of : alcohol ignition interlock devices, laws, and programs during the past 22 years. It then reviews the laws that : were written in New Mexico from 1...

  16. An Impact Evaluation of Chile's Progressive Housing Program

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Marcano; Inder J. Ruprah

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates Progressive Housing Program; a public housing program that facilitates the purchase of a new home. The evaluation finds that the program’s package (savings requirement, voucher and mortgage) design is inappropriate if the program is targeted to the poor. In fact the pro-poor targeting of the program was poor with high under-coverage and high leakage. Further, the benefit, a minimum quality new house, was not sustainable as many households slipped back into the housing sho...

  17. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Karin M. [Environmental Measurements Lab. (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the analyses for the third EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (October 1999). This program assists laboratories in providing more accurate gamma spectra analysis results and provides a means for users of gamma data to assess how a laboratory performed on various types of gamma spectrometry analyses. This is accomplished through the use of synthetic gamma spectra. A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum, and three sample spectra are sent to each participant in the spectral file format requested by the laboratory. The calibration spectrum contains nuclides covering the energy range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants are told fallout and fission product nuclides could be present. The sample spectra are designed to test the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets and to identify and quantify nuclides in a complicated fission product spectrum. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Thirty-one sets of results were reported from a total of 60 laboratories who received the spectra. Six foreign laboratories participated. The percentage of the results within 1 of the expected value was 68, 33, and 46 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 18% of the results were more than 3 from the expected value. Eighty-three (12%) values out of a total of 682 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Approximately 30% of these false negatives were due the laboratories not reporting 144Pr in sample 2 which was present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 25% of these responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results show improvement in the ability of the software or user to resolve peaks separated by 1 keV. Improvement is still needed either in the analysis report produced by the software or in the review of these

  18. Alternative utility conservation program designs: an evaluation based on case study program experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, V.

    1985-01-01

    Utilities around the nation are promoting residential conservation through a variety of program activities, ranging from customer education programs to financial incentive programs to direct installation programs. This report was undertaken to evaluate some of these alternative program designs, to compare their achievements against those of the RCS program, and to suggest program planning directions that seem most promising. Interviews with program managers were used to elucidate the rationale behind the alternative programs and to discuss program effectiveness. The experiences of nine utilities and one nonutility organization are reviewed. Program managers' opinions about RCS and their experiences with thirteen other programs are summarized. The effectiveness of the alternative program designs are compared and some implications for conservation program planning and implementation are highlighted.

  19. Independent Panel Evaluation of Dry Sludge PISA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    1999-10-20

    Dr. Kirk Yeager and Mr. Marvin Banks from Energetic Material Research and Technology Center (EMRTC) evaluated the Savannah River Site (SRS) efforts in the Dry Sludge program. They evaluated four program areas: energetic material formation, stability, initiation, and propagation. The panel evaluation included a site visit (July 13, 1999 and July 14, 1999) as well as a review of various reports and presentations by researchers involved in the program.

  20. Evaluating Prior Learning Assessment Programs: A Suggested Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan L. Travers and Marnie T. Evans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, American institutions have been expected to include systematic program reviews to meet accrediting standards, either by independent or governmental review agencies. Program evaluation is critical for several reasons: it provides systematic ways to assess what needs improvement or what needs changing and it provides ways to validate practices, whether to internal or external audiences (Mishra, 2007. Most program evaluative models are focused on academic programs, which don’t fit the uniqueness of prior learning assessment programs. This paper proposes an evaluative framework for prior learning assessment programs, which takes into account the type of work within prior learning assessment programs and uses program portfolios, similar to how students are asked to document their work.

  1. An Evaluation of a Parent Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a parent training program whose children are diagnosed with autism. The sample consisted of families who are currently participating in a parent training program. The study examined the stress levels of parents utilizing the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress at the beginning of the study and then again…

  2. Evaluating Youth Development Programs: Progress and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Advances in theories of adolescent development and positive youth development have greatly increased our understanding of how programs and practices with adolescents can impede or enhance their development. In this article the authors reflect on the progress in research on youth development programs in the last two decades, since possibly the…

  3. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil and meadow soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The samples of soil for experiment were taken from arable field and meadow. Larvae of Laspeyresia pomonella and Plodia interpuactella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from the soil. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and P. fumosoroseus were isolated from both kinds of soil.

  4. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  5. Prospects for fen meadow restoration on severely degraded fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimkowska, Agata; Diggelen, Rudy Van; Grootjans, Ab P.; Kotowski, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    The majority of fens in Europe have been transformed for agricultural purposes and have disappeared or become degraded. Fen meadows that developed under low-intensity management of fens also have become degraded. In this paper, we consider the available restoration methods, biotic constraints for

  6. Seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica) distribution and trajectories of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luca; Belluscio, Andrea; Criscoli, Alessandro; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Apostolaki, Eugenia T.; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Gristina, Michele; Knittweis, Leyla; Martin, Corinne S.; Pergent, Gérard; Alagna, Adriana; Badalamenti, Fabio; Garofalo, Germana; Gerakaris, Vasilis; Louise Pace, Marie; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Salomidi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadows are declining at alarming rates due to climate change and human activities. Although P. oceanica is considered the most important and well-studied seagrass species of the Mediterranean Sea, to date there has been a limited effort to combine all the spatial information available and provide a complete distribution of meadows across the basin. The aim of this work is to provide a fine-scale assessment of (i) the current and historical known distribution of P. oceanica, (ii) the total area of meadows and (iii) the magnitude of regressive phenomena in the last decades. The outcomes showed the current spatial distribution of P. oceanica, covering a known area of 1,224,707 ha, and highlighted the lack of relevant data in part of the basin (21,471 linear km of coastline). The estimated regression of meadows amounted to 34% in the last 50 years, showing that this generalised phenomenon had to be mainly ascribed to cumulative effects of multiple local stressors. Our results highlighted the importance of enforcing surveys to assess the status and prioritize areas where cost-effective schemes for threats reduction, capable of reversing present patterns of change and ensuring P. oceanica persistence at Mediterranean scale, could be implemented. PMID:26216526

  7. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in...

  8. Cyanobacterial Occurrence and Diversity in Seagrass Meadows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: We report on the occurrence and diversity of cyanobacteria in intertidal seagrass meadows at Ocean Road and Mjimwema, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Nutrients, temperature and salinity were measured as comparative environmental factors. A total of 19 different cyanobacteria taxa were encountered, out of which ...

  9. The biodiversity and stability of alpine meadow plant communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kobresia pygmaea meadow community diversities in relation to altitude gradients (4200, 4300, 4400, 4450) on free grazing grassland was studied in the range of Chenduo county, Yushu prefecture, Qinghai province. Species richness and diversity index of vegetations in the four altitudes were comparatively analyzed.

  10. The biodiversity and stability of alpine meadow plant communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... The biodiversity and stability of alpine meadow plant communities in relation to altitude gradient in three ... grassland to global climate change. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Site description ..... ultramafic substrate and altitude in south western New Zealand [J]. Vegetation 86:15-20. Wills KJ, Whittaker RJ ...

  11. Plant community responses to prescribed burning in Wisconsin sedge meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kost; Diane De Steven

    2000-01-01

    In northern temperate regions, sedge meadows dominated by the tussock-sedge Carex stricta Lam. (Cyperaceae) were historically a fire-maintained community type. In two Wisconsin natural areas (Lulu Lake and Summerton), the authors assessed the effects of time since prescribed spring burning on plant composition and aboveground biomass in eight sedge...

  12. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  13. Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program : evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report presents evaluation findings on the Remote Infrared Audible Signage (RIAS) Pilot Program in the Puget Sound Region of Washington. The installation, demonstration and evaluation of RIAS were required by a provision in the Safe, Accountable...

  14. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  15. Assessment of Learning and Program Evaluation in Health Professions Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Donald E., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter proposes approaches for assessing learners and evaluating courses and curriculum that could be used by directors of health professions education (HPE) programs to determine the effectiveness and impact of their programs.

  16. Spectrophotometric system to develop a non-invasive method for monitoring of posidonia oceanica meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesatti, P.; Urbani, G.; Dolce, T.

    2007-09-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) is an endemic phanerogam of the Mediterranean Sea. It lives between 0.2 and 40 m depth and make up extensive meadows that play a fundamental role in the marine coast ecosystem. Near the coasts at higher anthropic pressure, Posidonia meadows present both quality and quantity damages (regression) due to the mechanical operations on the seabed (anchoring, drag netting, pipe lines) and the sea pollution. Nowadays, the seagrass regression is monitored by different systems: aereophotografic, side scan sonar, underwater television camera, direct underwater visual inspection. Scientific community is looking for to develop monitoring systems more reliable, rapid and non invasive. Aim of this study is to evaluate the application of a new spectrophotometric imaging system based on the acquisition of reflectance spectral images with a good optical (250 Kpixels) and spectral resolution (spectral range 400-970 nm, a total of 115 single wavelength, 5 nm step each one). First trials were made on Posidonia's leafs to evaluate the system capacity to recognize spectral differences between samples picked up at two different depths (0.3 - 4 m). High discrimination percentage (90%) were found between leaf samples as function of the different depths, analyzing the spectral data by Partial Least Squares model. Forward activities will stress the system capability also to evaluate different phenol concentrations on Posidonia leaves, an important index of physiologic vegetal damage, through direct underwater spectrophotometric monitoring.

  17. Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Each day, between 12 to 13 U.S. workers die as a result of a traumatic injury on the job. Investigations conducted through the FACE program allow the identification...

  18. Program Development and Evaluation - Finance / Money Management

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Karen Biers: Ca$hing in on Business Opportunities: A Curriculum for Building an Effective Home-Based and Micro Business Educational Program. Susan E. Cosgrove: Statewide Personal Financial Literacy Campaign. Susan Shockey: Financial Education Helps IDA Participants Save Money.

  19. Evaluation Report, Brookville EEE Program, ESEA Title I, Summer, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Don L.

    Contained in this report is an evaluation of the ESEA Title I Environmental-Ecological Education Program for educationally disadvantaged students operated by the Brookville Area School District, Pennsylvania. The program is a modification of a previously operated ESEA Title III Rural Youth Enrichment Program. Conducted during the summer of 1970,…

  20. Lifeskills Program Evaluation at Mammoth Heights Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Emma Moss

    2016-01-01

    This study is a program evaluation of the Life Skills Program at Mammoth Heights Elementary in the Douglas County School District. The overall goal of the Life Skills Program is to increase students' independent and daily living skills through the teaching of communication, social-emotional skills and academic skills. Students in the Life Skills…

  1. Blended Teacher Professional Development: A Synthesis of Three Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron; Wideman, Herb; Murphy, Janet; Lupshenyuk, Denys

    2008-01-01

    This study synthesized the findings of three program evaluations of teacher blended professional development programs from the perspective of situated design and implementation, development of community, changes in teacher practice, and impact on students. We found that the blended programs were effective in providing teachers with an opportunity…

  2. Outcomes and lessons learned from evaluating TRICARE's disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Askarinam Wagner, Rachel C; Zhang, Yiduo; Yang, Wenya; Arday, David R; Gantt, Cynthia J

    2010-06-01

    To share outcomes and lessons learned from an evaluation of disease management (DM) programs for asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and diabetes for TRICARE patients. Multiyear evaluation of participants in voluntary, opt-out DM programs. Patient-centered programs, administered by 3 regional contractors, provide phone-based consultations with a care manager, educational materials, and newsletters. The study sample consisted of 23,793 asthma, 4092 CHF, and 29,604 diabetes patients with at least 6 months' tenure in the program. Medical claims were analyzed to quantify program effect on healthcare utilization, medical costs, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate regression analysis with an historical control group was used to predict patient outcomes in the absence of DM. The difference between actual and predicted DM patient outcomes was attributed to the program. A patient survey collected data on program satisfaction and perceived usefulness of program information and services. Modest improvements in patient outcomes included reduced inpatient days and medical costs, and (with few exceptions) increased percentages of patients receiving appropriate medications and tests. Annual per patient reductions in medical costs were $453, $371, and $783 for asthma, CHF, and diabetes program participants, respectively. The estimated return on investment was $1.26 per $1.00 spent on DM services. Findings suggest that the DM programs more than pay for themselves, in addition to improving patient health and quality of life. Lessons learned in program design, implementation, effectiveness, and evaluation may benefit employers contemplating DM, DM providers, and evaluators of DM programs.

  3. Planning Adolescent Pregnancy Programs: Implications of a National Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Martha R.; Sonenstein, Freya L.

    In order to provide guidance for agencies in developing effective programs for pregnant and parenting teens, this article analyzes data from 21 federally funded care programs involved in a national evaluation. First, the question of a program's location and structure was addressed. Rural projects were found to be less service-rich than their urban…

  4. Characterizing the Source Water for Montane Meadows to Assess Resiliency under Changing Hydroclimatic Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Peek, R.; Bell, A.; Weixelman, D.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically and hydrologically functioning montane meadows provide a variety of ecosystem services and create biological hotspots in high-elevation landscapes. They serve as wetlands that filter water, attenuate floods, sequester carbon, sustain downstream flows, and provide high productivity habitat in typically lower productivity mountain regions. Their importance to watershed quality and health is well recognized, and restoration of meadows is a high priority for resource management agencies and non-governmental organizations. Yet many meadow restoration projects have limited outcomes or fail to achieve the desired effects due to a lack of understanding the underlying hydrological and geomorphic processes inherent to meadows that contribute to their resiliency. Few studies exist on how meadows are sustained through time despite various land use impacts or how the origin of water supplying the meadow (snowmelt-dominated versus regional groundwater-dominated) may influence meadow conditions. Furthermore, as climate conditions continue to change, questions remain regarding which meadows will be most resistant to and resilient from climate warming and thus have the highest potential for successful and sustainable restoration of meadow processes. We discuss these concepts and present two methods for assessing the regional and local contributions of source water to meadows as an indicator of resiliency. On a broad scale, comparisons of satellite imagery using metrics such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for regions with meadows may be useful to detect inter-annual and seasonal variations in meadow wetness and thus indicate meadow sites with larger groundwater sources that are more resilient over time. Locally, use of a hydrogeomorphic typing key that relates water source, geomorphic position, groundwater table elevation, and plant species composition may be useful to detect local groundwater sources that provide greater consistency of conditions and

  5. A Water Budget Approach to Study the Hydrologic Response of Mountain Meadow Restoration Following Conifer Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosbree, G. F.; Surfleet, C. G.; Jasbinsek, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Mountain meadows are important ecological habitats that have degraded in quality and distribution due to fire suppression and poor land use practices in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Conifer encroachment in mountain meadows has accelerated and is one of the reasons for the decline of meadow habitat. To date there are few studies which quantify the hydrologic response of meadow restoration due to vegetation or conifer removal. This study is using a before after control intervention (BACI) study design to determine the hydrologic response of restoration to a historic meadow encroached by conifers (study meadow). A water budget approach has been developed to quantify the hydrology of the control and study meadow before and after restoration. Measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture are currently being taken on the control and study meadows. A total of 14 Odyssey water level capacitance instruments were installed to a 1.5 meter depth and 14 soil moisture instruments were installed to a 30 cm depth using a spatially balanced random sampling approach. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to determine soil moisture and depth to groundwater across forest-meadow ecotones present on the meadows. Additionally, ERI was used to extrapolate point measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the study and control areas. The weekly water budget indicates differences between the control meadow and study meadow in the first year prior to conifer removal. The ERI indicated differences in sub surface geology, soil moisture, and groundwater depth both between the control and study meadows and along the forest-meadow ecotones. ERI was demonstrated to improve the spatial extrapolation of soil moisture and groundwater point measurements.

  6. Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of Great Meadow wetland, Acadia National Park, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2017-01-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of Cromwell Brook and the Sieur de Monts tributary in Acadia National Park, Maine, to better understand causes of flooding in complex hydrologic and hydraulic environments, like those in the Great Meadow wetland and Sieur de Monts Spring area. Regional regression equations were used to compute peak flows with from 2 to 100-year recurrence intervals at seven locations. Light detection and ranging data were adjusted for bias caused by dense vegetation in the Great Meadow wetland; and then combined with local ground surveys used to define the underwater topography and hydraulic structures in the study area. Hydraulic modeling was used to evaluate flood response in the study area to a variety of hydrologic and hydraulic scenarios.Hydraulic modeling indicates that enlarging the culvert at Park Loop Road could help mitigate flooding near the Sieur de Monts Nature Center that is caused by streamflows with large recurrence intervals; however, hydraulic modeling also indicates that the Park Loop Road culvert does not aggravate flooding near the Nature Center caused by the more frequent high intensity rainstorms. That flooding is likely associated with overland flow resulting from (1) quick runoff from the steep Dorr Mountain hitting the lower gradient Great Meadow wetland area and (2) poor drainage aggravated by beaver dams holding water in the wetland.Rapid geomorphic assessment data collected in June 2015 and again in April 2016 indicate that Cromwell Brook has evidence of aggradation, degradation, and channel widening throughout the drainage basin. Two of five reference cross sections developed for this report also indicate channel aggradation.

  7. Fourth Generation Evaluation, Program Review and the Institutional Researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Bob

    Program evaluation can be understood as the process of looking at how all aspects of a program or department have been functioning as the basis for informed planning and decision making. Although the objective dimensions used in evaluations can vary, methodologies can be categorized according to the four category framework (i.e., describing…

  8. Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter; Cooper, Trudi; Bahn, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Independent evaluation of refugee-focused programs in developed nations is increasingly a mandatory requirement of funding bodies and government agencies. This paper presents an evaluation of the Integrated Services Centre (ISC) Pilot Project that was conducted in Australia in 2007 and early 2008. The purpose of the ISC program was to provide…

  9. Learning and Leadership: Evaluation of an Australian Rural Leadership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy; O'Mullan, Cathy; Keen-Dyer, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Leadership programs have been extensively promoted in rural communities in Australia. However, few have been evaluated. The results of the evaluation of a rural leadership program provided in this paper highlight the need for adult learning theories to be more overtly identified and utilised as the basis of planning and implementing leadership…

  10. Healing by Creating: Patient Evaluations of Art-Making Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P.; Darr-Hope, Heidi; Meriwether, Marian P.; Adams, Swann Arp

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of using art in health care, especially with cancer patients, have been described anecdotally. However, few manuscripts include a conceptual framework to describe the evaluation of patient programs. This paper describes patients' evaluation of a healing arts program developed within a hospital for cancer patients that used art-making,…

  11. 40 CFR 51.353 - Network type and program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation to begin no later than 1 year after program start-up. (5) Areas that qualify for and choose to... those stations, or companies owning those stations, are contractually or legally barred from engaging in... subpart. (1) The State shall report the results of the program evaluation on a biennial basis, starting...

  12. GLOBE in the Czech Republic: A Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincera, Jan; Maskova, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The article presents results of the evaluation of the GLOBE program (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) in the Czech Republic. The evaluation explores the implementation of the program in schools and its impact on research skills. Four hundred and sixty six pupils, aged 13, from 28 different schools participated in the…

  13. 7 CFR 295.4 - Program evaluation status reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program evaluation status reports. 295.4 Section 295.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... projects concerning evaluation of FNS food assistance programs. A copy of the current status report on...

  14. Creating a Minnesota Statewide SNAP-Ed Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Abby; Barno, Trina Adler; Sherman, Shelley; Lovett, Kathleen; Hurtado, G. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an essential tool for understanding program effectiveness. This article describes the pilot test of a statewide evaluation tool for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed). A computer algorithm helped Community Nutrition Educators (CNEs) build surveys specific to their varied educational settings…

  15. Making program evaluation activities family-centered: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Cousins, J Bradley

    2014-01-01

    This study explored ways in which program evaluation activities in pediatric rehabilitation settings can become congruent with family-centered service (FCS) philosophy. Two Canadian pediatric rehabilitation centers participated in this study, which included focus groups with staff members and interviews with parents. Participants identified seven ways in which program evaluation practices could be made congruent with FCS. Suggestions included: (a) the inclusion of a diverse group of program recipients, (b) the use of processes that facilitate family involvement, (c) the recruitment of family champions, (d) the involvement of families in program development, (e) the establishment of evaluations that are relevant to families (f) the development of center-wide statements about family involvement in evaluation and (g) the compensation of families for their active participation in evaluation. For program evaluation practices to be useful and relevant, they should be improved and made consistent with FCS philosophy. Those evaluating pediatric rehabilitation programs need to use approaches and activities that respect the needs, characteristics, cultures and diversity of the program recipients. Such actions will help to improve the quality of care provided, the nature of program evaluation activities, as well as the overall level of FCS in pediatric rehabilitation settings.

  16. Symposium: Perspectives on Formative Evaluation of Children's Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977

    Evaluators of television programing and representatives of funding agencies discussed the impact of the perceptions of funding agencies on the evaluation of children's television. Participants also examined the interplay between the objectives of the television series and the evaluation, the relationship between production and evaluation, and the…

  17. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  18. Nursing doctoral program evaluation: Alumni outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalys, J A; Stember, M L; Magilvy, J K

    2001-01-01

    Meaningful examination of program outcomes is one of the most challenging tasks facing faculty and administrators involved in the design and delivery of educational programs. This article reports the outcomes for one doctoral program in nursing and elucidates salient conceptual and methodologic issues in educational outcomes research for this discipline. Career development, scholarly productivity, and professional leadership were the foci of this outcomes study. Three instruments were used; data were provided by alumni, graduate faculty, and alumni supervisors. Data analysis techniques included content analysis and descriptive and correlational statistics. Results showed that graduates embarked on diverse career paths with the majority employed in academic institutions. Most graduates reported active involvement in research, publications, presentations, and professional leadership. Employment pattern differences were noted between academic year and summer-only program graduates with associated divergence in career emphasis, research productivity, and job satisfaction. A positive correlation of time since degree conferral with scholarly productivity and professional leadership was noted. Recommendations for future research include refining outcomes, linking process to outcome, using longitudinal designs, and attending to unique nursing student and doctoral program characteristics.

  19. Motivation for Evaluation: A roadmap for Improving Program Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J. J.; Bohon, W.; Bravo, T. K.; Dorr, P. M.; Hubenthal, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Sumy, D. F.; Welti, R.; Davis, H. B.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past year, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program has undertaken a new effort to increase the rigor with which it evaluates its programs and products. More specifically we sought to make evaluation an integral part of our EPO staff's work, enable staff to demonstrate why we do the activities we do, enhance the impact or our products and programs, and empower staff to be able to make evidence-based claims. The challenges we faced included a modest budget, finding an applicable approach to both new and legacy programs ranging from formal and informal education to public outreach, and implementing the process without overwhelming staff. The Collaborative Impact Analysis Method (IAM; Davis and Scalice, 2015) was selected as it allowed us to combine the EPO staff's knowledge of programs, audiences and content with the expertise of an outside evaluation expert, through consultations and a qualitative rubric assessing the initial state of each product/program's evaluation. Staff then developed action plans to make incremental improvements to the evaluation of programs over time. We have found that this approach promotes the development of staff knowledge and skills regarding evaluation, provides a common language among staff, increases enthusiasm to collect and share data, encourages discussions of evaluative approaches when planning new activities, and improves each program's ability to capture the intended and unintended effects on the behaviors, attitudes, skills, interests, and/or knowledge of users/participants. We will share the initial IAM Scores for products and programs in the EPO portfolio, along with examples of the action plans for several key products and programs, and the impact that implementing those actions plans has had on our evaluations. Davis, H. & Scalice, D. (2015). Evaluate the Impact of your Education and Outreach Program Using the Quantitative Collaborative Impact Analysis

  20. A framework for evaluation of technology transfer programs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this volume is to describe a framework with which DOE can develop a program specific methodology to evaluate it`s technology transfer efforts. This approach could also be applied to an integrated private sector technology transfer organization. Several benefits will be realized from the application of this work. While the immediate effect will be to assist program managers in evaluating and improving program performance, the ultimate benefits will accrue to the producing industry, the states, and the nation in the form of sustained or increased domestic oil production. This benefit depends also, of course, on the effectiveness of the technology being transferred. The managers of the Technology Transfer program, and the larger federal oil and gas R&D programs, will be provided with a means to design and assess the effectiveness of program efforts as they are developed, tested and performed. The framework allows deficiencies in critical aspects of the program to be quickly identified, allowing for timely corrections and improvements. The actual process of developing the evaluation also gives the staff of the Oil R&D Program or Technology Transfer subprogram the opportunity to become oriented to the overall program goals. The structure and focus imposed by the evaluation paradigm will guide program staff in selecting activities which are consistent with achieving the goals of the overall R&D program.

  1. Beowawe Geothermal Area evaluation program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J. L

    1981-03-01

    Several exploration programs were conducted at the Beowawe Geothermal Prospect, Lander and Eureka County, Nevada. Part I, consisting of a shallow temperature hole program, a mercury soil sampling survey, and a self-potential survey were conducted in order to select the optimum site for an exploratory well. Part II consisted of drilling a 5927-foot exploratory well, running geophysical logs, conducting a drill stem test (2937-3208 feet), and a short-term (3-day) flow test (1655-2188 feet). All basic data collected is summarized.

  2. Evolutionary Evaluation: implications for evaluators, researchers, practitioners, funders and the evidence-based program mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jennifer Brown; Hargraves, Monica; Trochim, William M

    2014-08-01

    Evolutionary theory, developmental systems theory, and evolutionary epistemology provide deep theoretical foundations for understanding programs, their development over time, and the role of evaluation. This paper relates core concepts from these powerful bodies of theory to program evaluation. Evolutionary Evaluation is operationalized in terms of program and evaluation evolutionary phases, which are in turn aligned with multiple types of validity. The model of Evolutionary Evaluation incorporates Chen's conceptualization of bottom-up versus top-down program development. The resulting framework has important implications for many program management and evaluation issues. The paper illustrates how an Evolutionary Evaluation perspective can illuminate important controversies in evaluation using the example of the appropriate role of randomized controlled trials that encourages a rethinking of "evidence-based programs". From an Evolutionary Evaluation perspective, prevailing interpretations of rigor and mandates for evidence-based programs pose significant challenges to program evolution. This perspective also illuminates the consequences of misalignment between program and evaluation phases; the importance of supporting both researcher-derived and practitioner-derived programs; and the need for variation and evolutionary phase diversity within portfolios of programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using multi-temporal Sentinal-2 imagery for mapping Andean meadows and surface soil moisture in central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Rocio; Fassnacht, Fabian E.; Lopatin, Javier; Hernández, H. Jaime

    2017-04-01

    In the Rio Maipo watershed, situated in central Chile, mining activities are the main factor impacting Andean meadows, through the consumption and exploitation of water and land. As wetlands are vulnerable and particularly susceptible to changes of water supply, alterations and modifications in the hydrological regime have direct effects on vegetation cover. In order to better understand this ecosystem, as well as for conservation planning and resource management, there is a strong need for spatially explicit and update wetland ecosystem assessment. However, there is a lack of baseline dataset and state of knowledge on these habitats. During the last decades remote sensing as evolve as an efficient tool for mapping and monitoring wetland ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales. Accurate and up-to-date mapping and assessment of wetlands allows monitoring the changes in wetlands' vegetation due to natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances. New freely available spaceborne imagery, like Sentinel-2, supports long term monitoring on a high spatial resolution (10 m). The main aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of multi-temporal Sentinel-2 images in the detection and monitoring of water status of Andean meadows with anthropic disturbances. For these tasks we used bias support vector machines (BSVM), a one-class classifier to map and monitor meadow areas, and the support vector machines regression (SVMR) to estimate surface soil moisture (i.e. top 30 cm). BSVM produces probability maps of the class of interest, were only data of this class is needed as input of the model. One-class classifiers are well suited for situations where the numbers of the training samples from the class of interest is small and/or cover a small fraction of the area to be classified. We found that BSVM was capable to classify the meadow areas with an overall accuracy between 65% and 96%. Meanwhile, surface soil moisture prediction using SVMR reached r2 values between 0.2 and

  4. Evaluation of a Soft Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensap-Kelly, Piyawan; Broussard, Lauren; Lindsly, Mallory; Troy, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a soft skills employee training program. We examined willingness to learn and delivery methods (face-to-face vs. online) and their associations with the training outcomes in terms of learning and behavioral change. Results showed that neither participants' willingness to learn nor delivery…

  5. Computer program package for PIXE spectra evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajfosz, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The computer programs described here were developed for calculating the concentrations of elements in samples analysed by the PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) method from the X-ray spectra obtained in those analyses. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs.

  6. Wilderness Experience Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Richard Owen

    The Wilderness Experience is an innovative, experiential program under New Mexico's Statewide Forensic Treatment System for mentally disordered first offenders and those soon to be released on parole or probation. Developed from the concepts of Outward Bound, criminal offenders undergo an intensive 17-21 day confrontation with their physical,…

  7. Using Program Evaluation to Enhance Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairris, David

    2012-01-01

    Several years ago, when the author was associate dean in the College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, a new senior administrator on campus expressed the view that one of their premier first-year experience programs in the college was too expensive and that a different model, based on an approach taken at the administrator's previous…

  8. Evaluation of Emergency Medicine Community Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia, Estevan Adan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-hospital emergencies occur frequently, and laypersons are often the first to respond to these events. As an outreach to our local communities, we developed “Basic Emergency Interventions Everyone Should Know,” a three-hour program addressing cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use, heart attack and stroke recognition and intervention, choking and bleeding interventions and infant and child safety. Each session lasted 45 minutes and was facilitated by volunteers from the emergency department staff. A self-administered 13-item questionnaire was completed by each participant before and after the program. A total of 183 participants completed the training and questionnaires. Average score pre-training was nine while the average score post-training was 12 out of a possible 13 (P< .0001. At the conclusion of the program 97% of participants felt the training was very valuable and 100% would recommend the program to other members of their community. [West J Emerg Med. 2010;11(5:416-418.

  9. Planning and Evaluating ICT in Education Programs Using the Four Dimensions of Sustainability: A Program Evaluation from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouezevara, Sarah; Mekhael, Sabry William; Darcy, Niamh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a program evaluation of an ICT in education project within the USAID-funded Girls Improved Learning Outcomes (GILO) program. The evaluation uses a framework of four dimensions of ICT sustainability to examine the appropriateness of the design and implementation of the project, which provided simple, relevant…

  10. Program Officer, Evaluation | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    S/he participates with senior team members to conduct research in order to develop new and adapt existing methodologies for planning, monitoring and evaluation of research .... Contributes to the design and maintenance of information systems for storing, accessing and analyzing evaluation findings to promote their use.

  11. Evaluating Leadership Development in an Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Brett; Cormack, Erica; Spice, Barb

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation of the Royal Military College of Canada's Aboriginal Leadership Opportunity Year leadership practicum was conducted in 2009. This novel approach used several human performance technology (HPT) models to frame the evaluation and identify the dimensions and subdimensions of merit. This article explains the theoretical framework of the…

  12. Senior Program Specialist, Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    defines strategies for building new relationships with Northern and Southern institutions, practitioners, researchers, evaluators and the development community; • establishes contacts and ... manages the design and maintenance of information systems for storing, accessing and analysing evaluation findings; and • initiates ...

  13. Epilogue: lessons learned about evaluating health communication programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic evaluation research is needed to develop, implement, refine, and sustain effective health communication programs. Yet, evaluation research is not always well integrated into health communication intervention activities or even budgeted as part of health promotion efforts. If included in health promotion programs, evaluation research is often conducted superficially, after the fact, and does not provide the strategic information needed to make sure that health communication programs achieve their important goals. To rectify this problem, it is important to reassert and institutionalize the value of evaluation research in health promotion efforts. It is important to mandate that all major health communication programs are guided by robust evaluation research data. It is also important to help health promotion experts to conduct rigorous and revealing evaluation research as well as help them use evaluation research data to guide the development, refinement, and implementation of health communication programs. This Epilogue to this special section on Evaluating Health Communication Programs presents specific propositions that charts the course for using evaluation research to promote public health and recommends next steps for achieving this goal.

  14. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus Program evaluation on user's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Veiga Mottin; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Kalinke, Luciana Puchalski; Ulbrich, Elis Martins

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the program proposed by the Reorganization Care Plan for Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus on user's view, and describe aspects of the trajectory of the participants correlating with the program's evaluation. evaluative study with a qualitative approach conducted in health units with the Family Health Strategy, in a city of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, in the period from September to March, 2012. A total of 30 adults with hypertension and/or Diabetes mellitus were interviewed. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Four categories were identified: Disease diagnosis; Reasons for the program need; Knowledge of the program, and program evaluation. there was the recognition of the orientations, and the monitoring of activities developed, with emphasis in cost reduction for users.

  15. Evaluation Framework for NASA's Educational Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rick; Booker, Angela; Linde, Charlotte; Preston, Connie

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an evaluation framework for NASA's educational outreach efforts. We focus on public (rather than technical or scientific) dissemination efforts, specifically on Internet-based outreach sites for children.The outcome of this work is to propose both methods and criteria for evaluation, which would enable NASA to do a more analytic evaluation of its outreach efforts. The proposed framework is based on IRL's ethnographic and video-based observational methods, which allow us to analyze how these sites are actually used.

  16. Fatigue Sensor Evaluation Program Laboratory Test Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    quantitative data treatment of fatigue sensor response using basic performance data derived from foregoing and current fatigue sensor programs. a...34 ’: « •IIIS ......... li : « rtrtintr : •* M» c f M i H ::::::;:• ;:« ...j . .... ..:. •f’ ::.::::: ^::|:::: n» VH ft;; ** ViH ! * 1 - •• •-•• ; i...family of calibration curves was developed using curve- fitting treatment of raw data. 3. Calibration response was slightly higher than indicated

  17. Program evaluation models and related theories: AMEE guide no. 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Ann W; Hemmer, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    This Guide reviews theories of science that have influenced the development of common educational evaluation models. Educators can be more confident when choosing an appropriate evaluation model if they first consider the model's theoretical basis against their program's complexity and their own evaluation needs. Reductionism, system theory, and (most recently) complexity theory have inspired the development of models commonly applied in evaluation studies today. This Guide describes experimental and quasi-experimental models, Kirkpatrick's four-level model, the Logic Model, and the CIPP (Context/Input/Process/Product) model in the context of the theories that influenced their development and that limit or support their ability to do what educators need. The goal of this Guide is for educators to become more competent and confident in being able to design educational program evaluations that support intentional program improvement while adequately documenting or describing the changes and outcomes-intended and unintended-associated with their programs.

  18. A Guide to Evaluation Research in Terminal Care Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Robert W., III; Foley, Susan H.

    1978-01-01

    Pressure for greater accountability is being exerted on programs for care of terminally ill and increasing demand for evaluation research. Components, implications, and limitations of evaluation systems are discussed, and their application in the terminal care setting addressed. Buckingham evaluation of hospice home care service is cited as a…

  19. Creating an Information Literacy Badges Program in Blackboard: A Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunon, Johanna; Ramirez, Laura Lucio; Ryckman, Brian; Campbell, Loy; Mlinar, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    A formative program evaluation using Stufflebeam's (2010) Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP) model was conducted to assess the use of digital badges for tracking basic library instructional skills across academic programs at Nova Southeastern University. Based on the evaluation of pilot library modules and Blackboard Learn's badges…

  20. Blue carbon stocks in Baltic Sea eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohr, Maria Emilia; Bostrom, Christoffer; Canal-Vergés, Paula

    2016-01-01

    storage and carbon sink capacity of eelgrass meadows in Finland and Denmark, were 281 and 1809 EUR ha(-1), respectively. For a more comprehensive picture of seagrass carbon storage capacity, we conclude that future blue carbon studies should, in a more integrative way, investigate the interactions between......Although seagrasses cover only a minor fraction of the ocean seafloor, their carbon sink capacity accounts for nearly one-fifth of the total oceanic carbon burial and thus play a critical structural and functional role in many coastal ecosystems. We sampled 10 eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows...... in Finland and 10 in Denmark to explore seagrass carbon stocks (C-org stock) and carbon accumulation rates (C-org accumulation) in the Baltic Sea area. The study sites represent a gradient from sheltered to exposed locations in both regions to reflect expected minimum and maximum stocks and accumulation...

  1. [Relationships between horqin meadow NDVI and meteorological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cui-ping; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Jin, Chang-jie; Wu, Jia-bing; Wang, Ji-jun; Ni, Pan; Yuan, Feng-hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on the 2000-2006 MODIS 8-day composite NDVI and day-by-day meteorological data, the seasonal and inter-annual variations of Horqin meadow NDVI as well as the relationships between the NDVI and relevant meteorological factors were studied. The results showed that as for the seasonal variation, Horqin meadow NDVI was more related to water vapor pressure than to precipitation. Cumulated temperature and cumulated precipitation together affected the inter-annual turning-green period significantly, and the precipitation in growth season (June and July), compared with that in whole year, had more obvious effects on the annual maximal NDVI. The analysis of time lag effect indicated that water vapor pressure had a persistent (about 12 days) prominent effect on the NDVI. The time lag effect of mean air temperature was 11-15 days, and the cumulated dual effect of the temperature and precipitation was 36-52 days.

  2. Evaluating the Implementation of an Olympic Education Program in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument for evaluating how an education program has been implemented. Such evaluation can provide insight into the effectiveness of a program. Examined here was the Olympic Education Program used in Greek schools since 2000. In it, students learn the history of the Olympic games and the importance of exercise for health along with the principles and values of sports and volunteerism. The evaluation instrument underlying this study addressed the following six factors: `facilities', `administration', `educational material', `student-teacher relationships', `educational procedures', and `training'. Results indicate that the instrument, while adequate for assessing effectiveness, should be combined with advanced statistical methods.

  3. Program Evaluation: The Board Game--An Interactive Learning Tool for Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febey, Karen; Coyne, Molly

    2007-01-01

    The field of program evaluation lacks interactive teaching tools. To address this pedagogical issue, the authors developed a collaborative learning technique called Program Evaluation: The Board Game. The authors present the game and its development in this practitioner-oriented article. The evaluation board game is an adaptable teaching tool…

  4. The Evaluation of the Resolving Conflict Creatively Program: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J L; Brown, J L; Chaudry, N; Jones, S M; Samples, F

    1996-01-01

    The Resolving Conflict Creatively Program (RCCP) is a comprehensive, school-based program in conflict resolution and intercultural understanding implemented in more than 110 New York City public schools. The National Center for Children in Poverty is currently conducting an evaluation of the program in grades 1-6, although the program itself is implemented in grades K-12. The following components are included: teacher training, classroom instruction and staff development, the program curriculum, administrators' training, peer mediation, parent training, and a targeted intervention for high-risk youth. The program evolved out of practice-based theory. Researchers and practitioners have collaborated on and designed an evaluation that illustrates how the practice-based theory is consistent with and can be put into operation using developmental and ecological theories of the etiology of violence-related behaviors in middle childhood. The target population for this study is approximately 9,600 children, 5-12 years of age, in 15 elementary schools in New York City. The evaluation is being conducted over two years with two data-collection points in each year. A cross-sequential design is being used to examine the short- and intermediate-term utility with children at different ages/developmental stages. The relative effect of the beginning program can be compared to more comprehensive models. A total of 8,233 students responded to the baseline survey. The study population is largely Hispanic (41%) and African American (37%). Preliminary analyses indicate that baseline means of such constructs as aggressive fantasies, hostile attributional biases, and conduct problems increase with grade level. Ten years of practice-based experience and one year of a two-year quantitative evaluation have taught several important lessons about school-based program implementation and the evaluation of such programs. The scope and longevity of the RCCP and the empirically rigorous evaluation

  5. Biotic interactions and vegetation management on coastal meadows

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Conservation of rare habitats and species are central elements in the management of semi-natural grasslands of high biodiversity. Understanding the impacts of various abiotic and biotic interactions and management methods on threatened species is fundamental to their conservation. In the present study, effects of competition, plant parasitism, grazing and mowing were studied at the community level in Bothnian Bay coastal meadows and in greenhouse. This was the first time when the ...

  6. Selected indicators of effective fertilization of meadow grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Holúbek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of nutrition and fertilization of meadow phytocenosis with the emphasis on the production effectiveness and economic effectiveness were observed at the low, medium and high intensity of fertilization using artificial fertilizers. The obtained results are based on the research of valley meadows (series A, mountainous meadows (series B and semi-natural and additionally sown and ploughed mountainous meadows (series C. In series A, in the observed period, the production effectiveness reached 14.93–23.76 kg of hay and the economic effectiveness reached 1.07–1.43 €. The higher production effectiveness and economic effectiveness are produced by doses of nutrients in the ratio N : P : K – 1 : 0.35 : 0.5. The highest production effectiveness and economic effectiveness were determined in variants fertilized by lower doses of artificial fertilizers (variants 7 and 12. The influence of PK and NPK nutrients on the production effectiveness and economic effectiveness of fertilization of different grasslands in different altitudes was observed in series B: the higher the altitude (from 350 to 850 meters above the sea level, the lower the indicators of production and economic effectiveness of artificial fertilizers. In series C, the loss of phosphoric and potassic nutrition is represented by higher inputs than outputs. Semi-natural grasslands and ploughed grasslands fertilized by medium and high intensity of NPK fertilizers (var.3–90 N kg*ha-1 + PK a var.4–180 N kg*ha-1 + PK are economically effective.

  7. Effects of disturbance regime on carbohydrate reserves in meadow plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Bartušková, Alena; Bartoš, Michael; Altman, Jan; de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Latzel, Vít; Lanta, V.; Lepš, J.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, plv123 (2015), s. 1-16 ISSN 2041-2851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Carbohydrates * management * meadow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.079, year: 2015

  8. The exergy of a phase shift: Ecosystem functioning loss in seagrass meadows of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Vassallo, Paolo; Gatti, Giulia; Parravicini, Valeriano; Paoli, Chiara; Morri, Carla; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2015-04-01

    Sustained functioning of ecosystems is predicted to depend upon the maintenance of their biodiversity, structure and integrity. The large consensus achieved in this regard, however, faces to the objective difficulty of finding appropriate metrics to measure ecosystem functioning. Here, we aim at evaluating functional consequence of the phase shift occurring in meadows of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, a priority habitat that is undergoing regression in many coastal areas due to multiple human pressures. Structural degradation of the P. oceanica ecosystem, consequent to increasing coastal exploitation and climate change, may result in the progressive replacement of this seagrass by opportunistic macrophytes, either native or alien. Reviewing published information and our personal records, we measured changes in biological habitat provisioning, species richness and biomass associated to each of the alternative states characterizing the phase shift. Then, ecosystem functioning was assessed by computing the exergy associated to each state, exergy being a state variable that measures the ecosystem capacity to produce work. Phase shift was consistently shown to imply loss in habitat provision, species richness, and biomass; structural and compositional loss was parallelled by a reduction of exergy content, thus providing for the first time an objective and integrative measure of the loss of ecosystem functioning following the degradation of healthy seagrass meadows.

  9. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study.

  10. HIV/AIDS Prevention Program Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Barker, Marybeth; Cassisy, Theresa; Hardy-Fanta, Carol; Hereen, Tim; Levenson, Suzette; McCloskey, Lois; Melendez, Michael

    This report addresses the four research objectives that were established by the Massachusetts Primary Prevention Group (MPPG) and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's HIV/AIDS Bureau. The objectives were to: (1) review and summarize literature that formally evaluated HIV prevention interventions; (2) describe how currently funded…

  11. Predation risk of artificial ground nests in managed floodplain meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Susanne; Franke, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Nest predation highly determines the reproductive success in birds. In agricultural grasslands, vegetation characteristics and management practices influences the predation risk of ground breeders. Little is known so far on the predation pressure on non-passerine nests in tall swards. Investigations on the interaction of land use with nesting site conditions and the habitat selection of nest predators are crucial to develop effective conservation measures for grassland birds. In this study, we used artificial nests baited with quail and plasticine eggs to identify potential predators of ground nests in floodplain meadows and related predation risk to vegetation structure and grassland management. Mean daily predation rate was 0.01 (±0.012) after an exposure duration of 21 days. 70% of all observed nest predations were caused by mammals (Red Fox and mustelids) and 17.5% by avian predators (corvids). Nest sites close to the meadow edge and those providing low forb cover were faced with a higher daily predation risk. Predation risk also increased later in the season. Land use in the preceding year had a significant effect on predation risk, showing higher predation rates on unmanaged sites than on mown sites. Unused meadows probably attract mammalian predators, because they provide a high abundance of small rodents and a more favourable vegetation structure for foraging, increasing also the risk of incidental nest predations. Although mowing operation is a major threat to ground-nesting birds, our results suggest that an annual removal of vegetation may reduce predation risk in the subsequent year.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon fluxes by seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBarron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds based on in situ benthic chambers from published and unpublished are compiled in this study. The effect of temperature and light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined. Almost 85 % of the seagrass communities and all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. Net DOC fluxes in seagrass communities increase positively with water temperature. In macroalgal communities net DOC fluxes under light exceeded those under dark condition, however, this trend was weaker in seagrass communities. Shading of a mixed seagrass meadow in The Philippines led to a significant reduction on the net DOC release when shading was maintained for 6 days compared to only 2 days of shading. Net DOC fluxes increased with increasing community respiration, but were independent of primary production or net community production. The estimated global net DOC flux, and hence export, from marine macrophytes is about 0.158 ± 0.055 Pg C yr-1 or 0.175 ± 0.056 Pg C yr-1 depending on the global extent of seagrass meadows considered.

  13. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations.

  14. Variation in winter snowpack depth and duration influences summer soil respiration in a subalpine meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, C. L.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Subalpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada rely on the depth and duration of the winter snowpack to supply ample water to restore the water table in the meadow during the spring snowmelt. This study examines the role that interannual variability in the winter snowpack plays in the overall rate of summer soil respiration along a hydrologic gradient in a subalpine meadow. Carbon dioxide efflux from the meadow was measured from June through September in 2011 and 2012 using soil collars and a LICOR 8100A infrared gas analyzer. Preliminary results show that soil respiration rates are influenced by the hydrologic gradient across the meadow, with drier regions peaking earlier in the summer as compared to wetter regions. We also show that high snowpack years can suppress soil respiration in the meadow until late in the summer season as compared to low snowpack years, where soil respiration peaks early in the summer.

  15. Stream characteristics and their implications for the protection of riparian fens and meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Larsen, S.E.; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2011-01-01

    ) concentration exceeded 40–50 μg P L−1, whereas meadow vegetation responded less strongly to TP. 5. Our findings highlight the importance of restoring hydrology of riparian areas to improve conditions for fen and meadow vegetation, but also that the water chemistry should be considered when measures......-based classification model was used to translate species lists into a standardised interpretation of habitat types protected by the HD in Denmark. 3. No size dependency was found regarding the distribution of fen and meadow vegetation. Instead, the distribution of fen and meadow vegetation was strongly affected...... by the morphology of the streams. Alkaline fens, periodically inundated meadows and meadows occurred six, five and four times, respectively, less frequently along channelised compared with natural stream reaches. Our results indicate that stream channelisation strongly interfered with the natural hydrology...

  16. Evaluation of the Healthy Schools Program: Part I. Interim Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Beam, Margaret; Ehrlich, Ginny; Donze Black, Jessica; Block, Audrey; Leviton, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Federal and state policies identify schools as a setting to prevent childhood obesity, but schools need better health-promoting strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate interim progress in schools receiving hands-on training from the Healthy Schools Program, the nation's largest school-based program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. The 4-year program targets schools with predominantly low-income, African American, or Hispanic students. Methods In 2010 we asse...

  17. Current mental health program evaluation in San Mateo County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, A

    1967-09-01

    Examples of program evaluation studies are presented to illustrate the wide range of questions under review in the San Mateo County Mental Health Program. The variety of questions investigated is a reflection of the comprehensiveness and community orientation of the services included in this program. These studies are classified from four points of view, depending upon the focus of their activity: intraservice, interservice, division, and community. Some administrative factors related to the research function are discussed.

  18. An economic analysis methodology for project evaluation and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Economic analysis is a critical component of a comprehensive project or program evaluation methodology that considers all key : quantitative and qualitative impacts of highway investments. It allows highway agencies to identify, quantify, and value t...

  19. Evaluation of FHWA Technology Transfer Program at HERPICC, Purdue University

    OpenAIRE

    Whitford, Robert K

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of the FHWA technology transfer program at HERPICC, Purdue University based on a questionnaire sent to operation and management personnel of the highway road system. Future courses of action are also suggested.

  20. The Nursing Leadership Institute program evaluation: a critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havaei F

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Farinaz Havaei, Maura MacPhee School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: A theory-driven program evaluation was conducted for a nursing leadership program, as a collaborative project between university faculty, the nurses' union, the provincial Ministry of Health, and its chief nursing officers. A collaborative logic model process was used to engage stakeholders, and mixed methods approaches were used to answer evaluation questions. Despite demonstrated, successful outcomes, the leadership program was not supported with continued funding. This paper examines what happened during the evaluation process: What factors failed to sustain this program? Keywords: leadership development, theory-driven evaluation, mixed methods, collaborative logic modeling

  1. Program Evaluation of a High School Science Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland-Crawley, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Teachers may benefit more from a professional learning community (PLC) than from professional development initiatives presented in single day workshops. The purpose of this program evaluation study was to identify characteristics of an effective PLC and to determine how the members of the PLC have benefitted from the program. Fullan's educational…

  2. Evaluating Nutrition Education Programming by Using a Dietary Screener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…

  3. 5 CFR 339.205 - Medical evaluation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... program must be clearly supported by the nature of the work. The specific positions covered must be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical evaluation programs. 339.205 Section 339.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS MEDICAL...

  4. Jesse Owens Olympian Summer Youth Development Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyahoga Community Coll., Cleveland, OH.

    An evaluation is given of an urban summer recreational program which was sponsored by a community college and designed to provide recreation, instruction, competition, and personal development for youth from 8 to 17 years. The program also offered inservice education to staff of community agencies working with youth. Activities included swimming,…

  5. Parenting after Divorce: Evaluation of Preventive Programs for Divorcing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nancy J.; And Others

    Preventive educational programs are potentially useful in reducing the effects of divorce on children and families. Parenting After Divorce is an ongoing study designed to evaluate preventive programs. Divorcing families with children aged 7-12 are identified from court records and contacted to participate. Families are randomly assigned to one of…

  6. Situated Research Design and Methodological Choices in Formative Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Design-based implementation research offers the opportunity to rethink the relationships between intervention, research, and situation to better attune research and evaluation to the program development process. Using a heuristic called the intervention development curve, I describe the rough trajectory that programs typically follow as they…

  7. Evaluation of School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Iobst, Emily A.; McGrady, Meghan E.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of individuals who will become "smokers" begin smoking during their teenage years. Schools are optimal settings for relaying messages about health risks associated with smoking and for implementing smoking prevention programs. This article presents successful components of smoking prevention programs, describes the evaluation process,…

  8. A Formative Evaluation of the Cooking with a Chef Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Griffin, Sara G.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Clark, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Cooking with a Chef a culinary nutrition education series teams a chef and nutrition educator during cooking sessions with parents. Pilot program results were shared in the "Journal of Extension" in 2006. This formative evaluation presents data collected through focus groups and individual interviews examining program implementation,…

  9. Policy Evaluation of District Mobile Internet Service Center Program (MPLIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyono Yalia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was motivated by a problem that is interesting to study the Provision of Facilities Policy Evaluation Program Universal Service Obligation (USO Internet Service Center District Mobile Program (MPLIK In Kuningan regency of West Java. The problem is how the Department of Communication and Information Policy in the Kuningan District MPLIK program in Kuningan District,? The aim is (1 want to know the Department of Communication and Information Policy in the Kuningan district MPLIK program in Kuningan district, (2 What factors are a supporter and obstacles in the implementation of policies in support of the Office of Communications and Informatics Program at Kabupaten MPLIK Brass, (3 Efforts effort whether carried out in the implementation of policies in support of the program Diskominfo MPLIK in Kuningan regency. The theory used as an approach to the problem of this research is the Evaluation of Policies Bardach. The research method used is a qualitative method of data collection techniques through participant observation and in-depth interviews. The results showed that in the Provision of Facilities Policy Evaluation Program USO MPLIK In Kuningan West Java through policy evaluation approach found another dimension, namely the importance of control, supervision, and coordination in addition to the four main dimensions of the policy evaluation is used as the approach in this study.

  10. Antibullying programs in schools: how effective are evaluation practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Wendy; Smith, J David

    2009-09-01

    Bullying is a problem for schools around the world, and is an important topic for research because it has been associated with negative outcomes on numerous social, psychological, and academic measures. Antibullying prevention and intervention programs have varied greatly in their outcomes, with some studies reporting positive results while others have reported little or no positive impacts. Prompted by accountability demands, many agencies have developed standards with which to assess whether social programs are effective. Antibullying program evaluations have not been systematically reviewed to determine whether these types of standards are being applied. The purpose of this study was to assess the rigor of recent peer-reviewed antibullying program evaluations. Thirty-one peer-reviewed evaluations of antibullying programs, published within the last 10 years, were identified and coded for study characteristics. Shortcomings were identified in many of these program evaluations. In order to improve evaluation practices, researchers should consider using more rigorous designs to identify cause-effect relationships, including control conditions and random assignment, using more appropriate pre-post intervals, using more advanced methods of analyses such as hierarchical linear modeling, and systematically verifying program integrity to obtain dosage data that can be used in the outcome analyses.

  11. CRECTJ: a computer program for compilation of evaluated nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-09-01

    In order to compile evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF format, the computer program CRECTJ has been developed. CRECTJ has two versions; CRECTJ5 treats the data in the ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V format, and CRECTJ6 the data in the ENDF-6 format. These programs have been frequently used to make Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL). This report describes input data and examples of CRECTJ. (author)

  12. The Nursing Leadership Institute program evaluation: a critique

    OpenAIRE

    Havaei F; MacPhee M

    2015-01-01

    Farinaz Havaei, Maura MacPhee School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: A theory-driven program evaluation was conducted for a nursing leadership program, as a collaborative project between university faculty, the nurses' union, the provincial Ministry of Health, and its chief nursing officers. A collaborative logic model process was used to engage stakeholders, and mixed methods approaches were used to answer evaluation questions. Despite dem...

  13. Water Quality in a Wet Meadow, Platte River Valley, Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Patrick J.

    1996-01-01

    The Platte River Valley in Nebraska, and in particular the reach from Kearney to Grand Island, is an extremely important natural habitat area. Over 300 migratory bird species, including several threatened and endangered species, have been observed along the Platte River. In the spring, nearly 500,000 sandhill cranes, along with millions of ducks and geese, use this reach as a staging and feeding area during their northerly migration. Wet meadows (grasslands which have waterlogged soils much of the year) are a critical part of this migratory-bird habitat. However, the area of wet meadows between Kearney and Grand Island has declined nearly 50 percent due to the activities of man. The condition of the remaining wet meadows is of vital importance. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to describe the status and trends in the quality of the Nation's surface water and groundwater resources and to provide a sound understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. A study of the groundwater beneath a selected wet meadow was undertaken as part of the Central Nebraska Basins NAWQA study unit. Observation wells were installed in the wet meadow at various distances along two transects downgradient from the edge of a corn field. One to five wells completed at depths of about 15 to 100 feet were located at each of the 5 sites. The wells were completed in the Platte River alluvium or the underlying Ogallala Formation. The depth to the water table ranges from 0 to 5 feet below land surface. The general direction of groundwater flow is parallel to flow in the Platte River. Selected wells were sampled in February, March, June, and December 1994 for major cations and anions, nutrients, and organonitrogen herbicides. Pesticides and fertilizers are used extensively in Nebraska to enhance the production of row crops. Some of these pesticides and fertilizers have migrated into the groundwater

  14. Seagrass meadows as a globally significant carbonate reservoir

    KAUST Repository

    Mazarrasa, I.

    2015-08-24

    There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks and accumulation rates and ignored the particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) fraction, despite important carbonate pools associated with calcifying organisms inhabiting the meadows, such as epiphytes and benthic invertebrates, and despite the relevance that carbonate precipitation and dissolution processes have in the global carbon cycle. This study offers the first assessment of the global PIC stocks in seagrass sediments using a synthesis of published and unpublished data on sediment carbonate concentration from 403 vegetated and 34 adjacent un-vegetated sites. PIC stocks in the top 1 m of sediment ranged between 3 and 1660 Mg PIC ha−1, with an average of 654 ± 24 Mg PIC ha−1, exceeding those of POC reported in previous studies by about a factor of 5. Sedimentary carbonate stocks varied across seagrass communities, with meadows dominated by Halodule, Thalassia or Cymodocea supporting the highest PIC stocks, and tended to decrease polewards at a rate of −8 ± 2 Mg PIC ha−1 per degree of latitude (general linear model, GLM; p < 0.0003). Using PIC concentrations and estimates of sediment accretion in seagrass meadows, the mean PIC accumulation rate in seagrass sediments is found to be 126.3 ± 31.05 g PIC m−2 yr−1. Based on the global extent of seagrass meadows (177 000 to 600 000 km2), these ecosystems globally store between 11 and 39 Pg of PIC in the top metre of sediment and accumulate between 22 and 75 Tg PIC yr−1, representing a significant contribution to the carbonate dynamics of coastal areas. Despite the fact that these high rates of carbonate accumulation imply CO2

  15. Invasion of subalpine meadows by lodgepole pine in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubos, B.; Romme, W.H. (Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Many of the dry and mesic subalpine meadows in Yellowstone National Park are bordered by bands of small lodgepole pine trees. The authors asked whether these stands of small trees represent a directional process of meadow invasion, or alternatively, (1) small patches of postfire succession or; (2) more-or-less stable populations of trees having small stature because of adverse site conditions. Transect studies revealed that the bands of small trees were consistently younger than adjacent forest stands of obvious fire origin, that they lacked any evidence of fire, and that the trees were progressively younger as they approached the meadow. Soils under the young trees generally were more similar to meadow soils than to coniferous forest soils. The authors concluded, therefore, that meadow invasion has been occurring as a directional process since at least the mid- to late 1800s. Frequency of tree establishment in two dry meadows was positively correlated with mean June temperature and total summer precipitation (R[sup 2] = 0.49, P<0.0001, multiple stepwise regression). Thus, the major cause of tree invasion into dry meadows appears to be a regional climatic trend towards warmer and wetter growing seasons since the end of the Little Ice Age. Tree establishment in two mesic meadows was more weakly and inconsistently correlated with weather variables. Thus, the mechanism of invasion of mesic meadows may involve interactions of episodic seed crops and microhabitat changes at the forest border, as well as regional climatic variability. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Twenty Years of "Plug-and-Pond" Meadow Restoration: A Geomorphic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, J.

    2015-12-01

    Channel incision has degraded the ecological function of wet meadows across montane regions of California. Conservation groups estimate that half of the Sierra Nevada's 333,000 acres of meadow are entrenched in a degraded state that is characterized by a shift from groundwater­fed, herbaceous vegetation to more sparse, drought­tolerant woody vegetation. My poster will present results of field research on a prominent restoration technique in California's montane meadows, the "Plug­and­Pond." Fundamentally, the technique re­channelizes the meadow by blocking flow into incised stream channels. Spoils dug from meadow sediments plug the incised channel, creating ponds as a by­product. One of three approaches to re­channelization ensues: (1) construct a new shallow and sinuous channel, (2) redirect flows into a remnant channel, (3) or allow the channel to define itself over the meadow floodplain. Re­ channelization aims to support overbank flows at 1.5 to 3 year recurrence intervals. Field surveys of ten of the oldest "plug-and-pond" meadow restoration projects in California reveal that channel bed degradation caused by meadow-scale changes to channel slope (i.e. culverts concentrating flows, channel straightening, meadow grazing) may be more conducive to intensive restoration approaches like Plug-and-Pond.

  17. Space Discovery: Teaching with Space. Evaluation: Summer, Fall 1998 Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Bob

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of the 1998 NASA-sponsored evaluation of the effectiveness of the United States Space Foundation's five-day Space Discovery Standard Graduate Course (Living and Working in Space), the five-day Space Discovery Advanced Graduate Course (Advanced Technology and Biomedical Research), the five-day introductory course Aviation and Space Basics all conducted during the summer of 1998, and the Teaching with Space two-day Inservice program. The purpose of the program is to motivate and equip K- 12 teachers to use proven student-attracting space and technology concepts to support standard curriculum. These programs support the America 2000 National Educational Goals, encouraging more students to stay in school, increase in competence, and have a better opportunity to be attracted to math and science. The 1998 research program continues the comprehensive evaluation begun in 1992, this year studying five summer five-day sessions and five Inservice programs offered during the Fall of 1998 in California, Colorado, New York, and Virginia. A comprehensive research design by Dr. Robert Ewell of Creative Solutions and Dr. Darwyn Linder of Arizona State University evaluated the effectiveness of various areas of the program and its applicability on diverse groups. Preliminary research methodology was a set of survey instruments administered after the courses, and another to be sent in April-4-5 months following the last inservice involved in this study. This year, we have departed from this evaluation design in two ways. First, the five-day programs used NASA's new EDCATS on-line system and associated survey rather than the Linder/Ewell instruments. The Inservice programs were evaluated using the previously developed survey adapted for Inservice programs. Second, we did not do a follow-on survey of the teachers after they had been in the field as we have done in the past. Therefore, this evaluation captures only the reactions of the teachers to the programs

  18. Critical evaluation of international health programs: Reframing global health and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunhuei; Tuepker, Anaïs; Schoon, Rebecca; Núñez Mondaca, Alicia

    2018-01-05

    Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives. A vital tenet of our framework is that a community possesses the right to determine the path of its health development. A prerequisite of success, regardless of technical outcomes, is that programs must address communities' high priority concerns. Current participatory methods still seldom practice community ownership of program selection because they are vulnerable to funding agencies' predetermined priorities. In addition to critiquing evaluation practices and proposing an alternative framework, we acknowledge likely challenges and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  20. Methods of psychoeducational program evaluation in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J

    1992-04-01

    Psychoeducational programs for families of the mentally ill became widespread during the 1980s as a means of providing a forum for the relevant education and mutual support of participants. While these programs are thought to be extremely useful as interventions, very little emphasis has been placed on evaluation as a means of demonstrating their effectiveness in achieving goals. There is a possibility, then, that psychoeducation will continue to flourish with little direct evidence of positive outcomes for its family participants. This article consists of a literature review of existing methods of psychoeducational program evaluation, both quantitative and qualitative, all of which may be applicable in certain circumstances. The process by which an evaluation instrument was developed for a program with families of the mentally ill is then presented in some detail.

  1. Program Evaluation for School Improvement: Guidelines for School Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Warna D.

    1995-01-01

    Fourth-generation program evaluation is a collaborative, responsive approach that attaches great importance to the claims, concerns, and issues set forth by various stakeholders. This model stresses value pluralism and has several community-involvement phases: planning, data collection, results, final evaluation report, and follow-up. (20…

  2. Evaluation of Training Programs in Russian Manufacturing Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, Dmitry; Manokhina, Daria

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the features of training evaluation process in Russian manufacturing companies. On the basis of three assumptions regarding the differences in group of employees involved in training, duration and costs of a training program, the authors tried to find out the peculiarities of training evaluation tools and levels…

  3. The Efficacy of Stuttering Measurement Training: Evaluating Two Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Lauren A.; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Method: Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of…

  4. Evaluation des Programmes d'Informatique (Evaluation of Computer Science Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Claude

    In March 1994, Quebec's Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching initiated an evaluation of computer science programs in province colleges. This report describes the evaluation process and presents results. The first section describes the following four stages of the evaluation: the formation of a consulting committee and evaluation…

  5. Through the Looking Glass: What Happens When an Evaluator's Program Is Evaluated and Degrees of Strangeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan G.; Baillie, Lynne E.

    1997-01-01

    Two articles present differing points of view on the evaluation of the development of a teacher education program. "Through the Looking Glass..." describes what happens when an evaluator becomes the evaluation client, and "Degrees of Strangeness" reports on the evaluator's findings and opinions. (SLD)

  6. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  7. Process evaluation of the Regional Biomass Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.R.; Brown, M.A.; Perlack, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Regional Biomass Energy Program (RBEP) in 1983 to increase the production and use of biomass energy resources. Through the creation of five regional program (the Great Lakes, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, Southeast, and West), the RBEP focuses on regionally specific needs and opportunities. In 1992, Oak Ridge National (ORNL) conducted a process evaluation of the RBEP Program designed to document and explain the development of the goals and strategies of the five regional programs; describe the economic and market context surrounding commercialization of bioenergy systems; assess the criteria used to select projects; describe experiences with cost sharing; identify program accomplishments in the transfer of information and technology; and offer recommendations for program improvement.

  8. Mapping Spatial Patterns of Posidonia oceanica Meadows by Means of Daedalus ATM Airborne Sensor in the Coastal Area of Civitavecchia (Central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marcelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of sea bed covers and seagrass in coastal waters is of key importance in monitoring and managing Mediterranean shallow water environments often subject to both increasing anthropogenic impacts and climate change effects. In this context we present a methodology for effective monitoring and mapping of Posidonia oceanica (PO meadows in turbid waters using remote sensing techniques tested by means of LAI (Leaf Area Index point sea truth measurements. Preliminary results using Daedalus airborne sensor are reported referring to the PO meadows at Civitavecchia site (central Tyrrhenian sea where vessel traffic due to presence of important harbors and huge power plant represent strong impact factors. This coastal area, 100 km far from Rome (Central Italy, is characterized also by significant hydrodynamic variations and other anthropogenic factors that affect the health of seagrass meadows with frequent turbidity and suspended sediments in the water column. During 2011–2012 years point measurements of several parameters related to PO meadows phenology were acquired on various stations distributed along 20 km of coast between the Civitavecchia and S. Marinella sites. The Daedalus airborne sensor multispectral data were preprocessed with the support of satellite (MERIS derived water quality parameters to obtain here improved thematic maps of the local PO distribution. Their thematic accuracy was then evaluated as agreement (R2 with the point sea truth measurements and regressive modeling using an on purpose developd method.

  9. Nevada Department of Wildlife Native Fish and Amphibians Field Trip Report: To estimate the population sizes of Ash Meadows Amargosa pupfish and Ash Meadows speckled dace and also to monitor exotic species removal efforts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish population monitoring has been ongoing since the 1980s at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. This year we conducted surveys on the Ash Meadows Amargosa...

  10. Cattle grazing and conservation of a meadow-dependent amphibian species in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Roche

    Full Text Available World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus. However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July-mid September grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this

  11. Cattle grazing and conservation of a meadow-dependent amphibian species in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Leslie M; Latimer, Andrew M; Eastburn, Danny J; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus) grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus). However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July-mid September) grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this working landscape.

  12. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  13. Sort, an evaluation program for TANSY-KM5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshoeg, G

    1997-12-31

    The result of a measurement with the TANSY neutron spectrometer is stored in two list mode files. The files are divided into three parts, a header containing the parameters for the measurement, a data area containing the amplitude calibration data, and a body containing the measured data in list mode. The purpose of this program is the evaluation of the data for inspection and re-calibration of the instrument. Several options are included for investigation of as many of the properties of the instrument as possible. The program can also be used for the final evaluation and the presentation of the neutron spectra. However, the intention is that this should be done using SNAP, the general evaluation program for JET, written by Pieter van Belle. A spin-off of the program is that it is used as a support for the writing of the routines included in SNAP. The final result of the program is a neutron spectrum. Weight factors for the energy dependent sensitivity of the instrument are included. However, enhancement of the resolution using the response functions are not included and no routines are included for the evaluation of plasma parameters. This document is a complement to the files delivered with the program 24 refs, figs

  14. Developing a dancer wellness program employing developmental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Terry; Gupta, Arun; Ho, Chester H

    2014-01-01

    Wellness programs are being increasingly employed with performing artists. Given their aim of reducing injuries, injury tracking is commonly employed as an outcome measure. Evaluating the development and process of a wellness program can also enhance its effectiveness. Developmental evaluation offers one methodological framework within which to conduct such investigations. This paper reports on a 2-year process involving feedback from professional ballet dancers, management and artistic staff, and healthcare providers at a ballet company in order to develop a dancer screening and wellness program. Following a consultation phase, an initial program composed of an expanded medical team and annual injury prevention screen was proposed. Alongside implementation with 30 professional ballet dancers, formal and informal feedback was sought from stakeholders and members across all levels of the ballet company to facilitate ongoing development, evaluation, and revision of the wellness program. The use of a process informed by developmental evaluation helped identify strengths and limitations within the screening process. The collective expertise of the assessors was used to modify the components and process of the screen to strive for ecological appropriateness. The process also fostered buy-in from all involved. Participant feedback helped refine the medical team available to the dancers and influenced the treatment and referral pathways via which dancers are able to access each member of the medical team. Furthermore, reflective discussions with artistic and management staff brought to light potential interactions between repertoire programming, fitness, and injury patterns. This prompted a reconsideration of how artists are trained and supported. Evaluation methods that focus on experiences and insight gained during program development stand to result in more efficient screening programs and health-promotion models and, ultimately, healthier performing artists.

  15. Externalities in program evaluation: the impact of a women’s empowerment program on immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, W.

    2011-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programs usually do not explicitly take into account externalities on non-participants. Based on a unique dataset we estimate the direct as well as the spillover effects of Mahila Samakhya, a women's empowerment program in India, on child immunization. The survey

  16. 75 FR 26747 - Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...-1176-000] Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC's application for market-based rate...

  17. 75 FR 26747 - Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...] Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. Turbulent mixing and fluid transport within Florida Bay seagrass meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jennifer C. R.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

    2017-10-01

    Seagrasses serve an important function in the ecology of Florida Bay, providing critical nursery habitat and a food source for a variety of organisms. They also create significant benthic structure that induces drag, altering local hydrodynamics that can influence mixing and nutrient dynamics. Thalassia testudinum seagrass meadows were investigated to determine how shoot density and morphometrics alter local wave conditions, the generation of turbulence, and fluid exchange above and within the canopy. Sparsely vegetated and densely vegetated meadows were monitored, with shoot densities of 259 ± 26 and 484 ± 78 shoots m-2, respectively. The temporal and spatial structure of velocity and turbulence were measured using acoustic Doppler velocimeters and an in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) system positioned both above and within the seagrass canopy. The retention of fluid within the canopy was determined by examining e-folding times calculated from the concentration curves of dye plumes released within the seagrass canopy. Results show that a shear layer with an inflection point develops at the top of the seagrass canopy, which generates instabilities that impart turbulence into the seagrass meadow. Compared to the overlying water column, turbulence was enhanced within the sparse canopy due to flow interaction with the seagrass blades, but reduced within the dense canopy. Wave generated oscillatory motion penetrated deeper into the canopy than unidirectional currents, enhancing fluid exchange. Both shoot density and the relative magnitude of wave- versus current-driven flow conditions were found to be important controls on turbulent exchange of water masses across the canopy-water interface.

  19. One thousand words: evaluating an interdisciplinary art education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M; Beckmann-Mendez, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Art Rounds, an innovative interdisciplinary program, began as a pilot project to determine if use of fine arts instructional strategies would be of benefit in health professional education. Specifically, students were exposed to fine art and taught to use visual thinking strategies (VTS). The initial evaluation of the pilot program revealed improved physical observation skills, increased tolerance for ambiguity, and increased interest in communication skills. More recently, the Art Rounds program has been expanded to an interdisciplinary elective course open to both nursing student and medical students at all levels. An evaluation of Art Rounds as a semester- long course was conducted by course faculty and compared to the original pilot program for differences and similarities. Outcomes have demonstrated that the use of visual arts and humanities continues to be highly effective in improving students' physical observation skills and a powerful tool for teaching nursing students how to be skilled clinicians. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Seed germination ecology of meadow knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii) populations in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduced meadow knapweed (Centaurea x moncktonii), a hybrid of black (C. nigra) and brown (C. jacea) knapweeds, appears to be common and expanding in New York agricultural lands, including pastures, meadows and waste areas. The biology and ecology of the hybrid is mostly unstudied, such as its...

  1. Foraging site choice and diet selection of Meadow Pipits Anthus pratensis breeding on grazed salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, Roel; Mandema, Freek S.; Bakker, Jan P.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2014-01-01

    Capsule Breeding Meadow Pipits foraged for caterpillars and large spiders in vegetation that was less heterogeneous than vegetation at random locations.Aims To gain a better understanding of the foraging ecology of breeding Meadow Pipits on grazed coastal salt marshes, we tested three hypotheses:

  2. The Economic Benefits of Elk Viewing at the Jewell Meadows Wildlife Area in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Patricia Champ

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a travel cost model is used to estimate the value of elk viewing at the Jewell Meadows Wildlife Area in Oregon. Jewell Meadows was originally established to provide winter browse and supplemental feeding for elk to reduce damage to nearby agricultural and forest land. However, because visitors are virtually guaranteed the opportunity to see large numbers...

  3. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  4. Plant biomass and species composition along an environmental gradient in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; E. N. Jack Brookshire; John E. Baham

    2004-01-01

    In riparian meadows, narrow zonation of the dominant vegetation frequently occurs along the elevational gradient from the stream edge to the floodplain terrace. We measured plant species composition and above- and belowground biomass in three riparian plant communities - a priori defined as wet, moist, and dry meadow - along short streamside topographic gradients in...

  5. Reconnaissance Study of Coso Volcanic Field, California, and Pickel Meadow, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    arsenic (As), gold (Au), cadmium (Cd), antimony (Sb), and zinc (Zn) in stream sediments, for Au, Cd, and Zn in heavy-mineral concentrates, and for...were collected along California State I lighway 108 between Sardine and Leavitt Meadow. The Pickel Meadow samples were collected in a square grid

  6. 75 FR 63505 - Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Morrison County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Morrison County, MN AGENCY: U.S. Fish... (CCP) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Environmental Assessment (EA) for Crane... at the Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Office or at public libraries near the refuge. You may...

  7. Hydrological landscape settings of base-rich fen mires and fen meadows : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Adema, E.B.; Bleuten, W.; Joosten, H.; Madaras, M.; Janáková, M.; Middleton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Why do similar fen meadow communities occur in different landscapes? How does the hydrological system sustain base-rich fen mires and fen meadows? Location: Interdunal wetlands and heathland pools in The Netherlands, percolation mires in Germany, Poland, and Siberia, and calcareous spring

  8. Seasonal distribution of meadow birds in relation to in-field heterogeneity and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, J.; Kleijn, D.; Loonen, W.; Berendse, F.; Smit, C.

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness of European initiatives to restore populations of meadow breeding waders is heavily debated. We studied field preference of meadow birds throughout the breeding season in four areas of over 100 ha each and related observed patterns of individual birds to in-field heterogeneity, sward

  9. Seasonal distribution of meadow birds in relation to in-field heterogeneity and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Jort; Kleijn, David; Loonen, Willem; Berendse, Frank; Smit, Christian

    Effectiveness of European initiatives to restore populations of meadow breeding waders is heavily debated. We studied field preference of meadow birds throughout the breeding season in four areas of over 100 ha each and related observed patterns of individual birds to in-field heterogeneity, sward

  10. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  11. Evaluation of Hospital-Based Palliative Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Karen Lynn; Rafalson, Lisa; Mariano, Kathleen; Michalek, Arthur

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated current hospital-based palliative care programs using recommendations from the Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC) as a framework. Seven hospitals located in Buffalo, New York were included based on the existence of a hospital-based palliative care program. Data was collected from August through October of 2013 by means of key informant interviews with nine staff members from these hospitals using a guide comprised of questions based on CAPC's recommendations. A gap analysis was conducted to analyze the current state of each hospital's program based upon CAPC's definition of a quality palliative care program. The findings identify challenges facing both existing/evolving palliative care programs, and establish a foundation for strategies to attain best practices not yet implemented. This study affirms the growing availability of palliative care services among these selected hospitals along with opportunities to improve the scope of services in line with national recommendations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Evaluation of a Hospital-Based Pneumonia Nurse Navigator Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, Lisa E; McDonough, Kelly; Turner, Barbara; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital-based pneumonia nurse navigator program. This study used a retrospective, formative evaluation. Data of patients admitted from January 2012 through December 2014 to a large community hospital with a primary or secondary diagnosis of pneumonia, excluding aspiration pneumonia, were used. Data included patient demographics, diagnoses, insurance coverage, core measures, average length of stay (ALOS), disposition, readmission rate, financial outcomes, and patient barriers to care were collected. Descriptive statistics and parametric testing were used to analyze data. Core measure performance was sustained at the 90th percentile 2 years after the implementation of the navigator program. The ALOS did not decrease to established benchmarks; however, the SD for ALOS decreased by nearly half after implementation of the navigator program, suggesting the program decreased the number and length of extended stays. Charges per case decreased by 21% from 2012 to 2014. Variable costs decreased by 4% over a 2-year period, which increased net profit per case by 5%. Average readmission payments increased by 8% from 2012 to 2014, and the net revenue per case increased by 8.3%. The pneumonia nurse navigator program may improve core measures, reduce ALOS, and increase net revenue. Future evaluations are necessary to substantiate these findings and optimize the cost and quality performance of navigator programs.

  13. Evaluating fuzzy inequalities and solving fully fuzzified linear fractional programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our earlier articles, we proposed two methods for solving the fully fuzzified linear fractional programming (FFLFP problems. In this paper, we introduce a different approach of evaluating fuzzy inequalities between two triangular fuzzy numbers and solving FFLFP problems. First, using the Charnes-Cooper method, we transform the linear fractional programming problem into a linear one. Second, the problem of maximizing a function with triangular fuzzy value is transformed into a problem of deterministic multiple objective linear programming. Illustrative numerical examples are given to clarify the developed theory and the proposed algorithm.

  14. Comparative Study Of Alluvial Cnidion-Type Meadows In The Lower Danube River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider-Binder Erika

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial Cnidion-type meadows (Habitat type 6440 of the Habitats Directive, mostly characteristic for the lower courses of large rivers in continental climate conditions of Europe are presented from the Lower Danube upstream the municipality of Giurgiu (river-km 510-524. The ecological requirements of the characteristic species, as well as their sensitivity to human-induced changes that derive from regular flooding, drainage, intensification of use and/or abandonment, are highlighted; these changes frequently lead to a decrease of biodiversity of the Cnidion-type meadows or to their total loss The studied meadows are compared with similar alluvial meadows from other sites of the lower Danube River basin. Finally, the strong interlocking of Cnidion type meadows with those of the Agropyro-Rumicion, Molinion and Deschampsion caespitosae alliances are discussed.

  15. Continuous 1985–2012 Landsat Monitoring to Assess Fire Effects on Meadows in Yosemite National Park, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Soulard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess how montane meadow vegetation recovered after a wildfire that occurred in Yosemite National Park, CA in 1996, Google Earth Engine image processing was applied to leverage the entire Landsat Thematic Mapper archive from 1985 to 2012. Vegetation greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was summarized every 16 days across the 28-year Landsat time series for 26 meadows. Disturbance event detection was hindered by the subtle influence of low-severity fire on meadow vegetation. A hard break (August 1996 was identified corresponding to the Ackerson Fire, and monthly composites were used to compare NDVI values and NDVI trends within burned and unburned meadows before, immediately after, and continuously for more than a decade following the fire date. Results indicate that NDVI values were significantly lower at 95% confidence level for burned meadows following the fire date, yet not significantly lower at 95% confidence level in the unburned meadows. Burned meadows continued to exhibit lower monthly NDVI in the dormant season through 2012. Over the entire monitoring period, the negative-trending, dormant season NDVI slopes in the burned meadows were also significantly lower than unburned meadows at 90% confidence level. Lower than average NDVI values and slopes in the dormant season compared to unburned meadows, coupled with photographic evidence, strongly suggest that evergreen vegetation was removed from the periphery of some meadows after the fire. These analyses provide insight into how satellite imagery can be used to monitor low-severity fire effects on meadow vegetation.

  16. The Role for an Evaluator: A Fundamental Issue for Evaluation of Education and Social Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Heng

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses one of the fundamental issues in education and social program evaluation: the proper role for an evaluator. Based on respective and comparative analysis of five theorists' positions on this fundamental issue, this paper reveals how different perspectives on other fundamental issues in evaluation such as value, methods, use and…

  17. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Rose, Erin M [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL; Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  18. ADEA/AAL Institute for Allied Health Educators: Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Overman, Pamela R; Grzesikowski, Tami; Tucker-Lively, Felicia; Weinstein, George; Haden, N Karl

    2015-05-01

    Revised accreditation standards for dental and dental hygiene education programs have increased emphasis on faculty development that can improve teaching and learning, foster curricular change including use of teaching and learning technologies, and enhance retention and satisfaction of faculty. The American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and Academy for Academic Leadership (AAL) established the Institute for Allied Health Educators (IAHE) in 2007 to address faculty development needs for allied dental and allied health educators. In 2009, it was transitioned to an online program, which resulted in increased enrollment and diversity of participants. After seven years, a comprehensive program evaluation was warranted. The authors developed an online questionnaire based on Kirkpatrick's four-level model of training evaluation; for this study, levels one (satisfaction), two (knowledge and skill acquisition), and three (behavior change) were examined. Of the 400 program participants invited to take part in the study, a 38% response rate was achieved, with the majority indicating full-time faculty status. Nearly all (95-97%) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed the program contributed to their teaching effectiveness, and 88-96% agreed or strongly agreed it enhanced their knowledge of educational concepts and strategies. In addition, 83% agreed or strongly agreed the program helped them develop new skills and confidence with technology, with 69% agreeing or strongly agreeing that it helped them incorporate technology into their own educational setting. Nearly 90% were highly positive or positive in their overall assessment of the program; 95% indicated they would recommend it to a colleague; and 80% agreed or strongly agreed they had discussed what they learned with faculty colleagues at their home institutions who had not attended the program. Positive findings from this evaluation provide evidence that the IAHE has been able to meet its goals.

  19. Evaluation of early stimulation programs for enhancing brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, Christine

    2008-07-01

    The term 'early intervention' designates educational and neuroprotection strategies aimed at enhancing brain development. Early educational strategies seek to take advantage of cerebral plasticity. Neuroprotection, a term initially used to characterize substances capable of preventing cell death, now encompasses all interventions that promote normal development and prevent disabilities, including organisational, therapeutic and environment-modifying measures, such as early stimulation programs. Early stimulation programs were first devised in the United States for vulnerable children in low-income families; positive effects were recorded regarding school failure rates and social problems. Programs have also been implemented in several countries for premature infants and low-birth-weight infants, who are at high risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The programs target the child, the parents or both. The best evaluated programs are the NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) in Sweden for babiesneonatal intensive care units and the longitudinal multisite program IHDP (Infant Health and Development Program) created in the United States for infantsstimulation improved cognitive outcomes and child-parent interactions; cognition showed greater improvements than motor skills and larger benefits were obtained in families that combined several risk factors including low education attainment by the mothers.

  20. Towards Bridging the Gap Programming Language and Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    . One reason is the difficulty of adequately describing specialization opportunities. Indeed, under-specialization or over-specialization often occurs, without any direct feedback to the user as to the source of the problem.We have developed a high-level, module-based language allowing the programmer...... to guide the choice of both the code to specialize and the invariants to exploit during the specialization process. To ease the use of partial evaluation, the syntax of this language is similar to the declaration syntax of the target language of the partial evaluator. To provide feedback to the programmer......Partial evaluation is a program-transformation technique that automatically specializes a program with respect to user-supplied invariants. Despite successful applications in areas such as graphics, operating systems, and software engineering, partial evaluators have yet to achieve widespread use...

  1. Overview of Evaluation Methods for R&D Programs. A Directory of Evaluation Methods Relevant to Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emeral Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-03-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others.

  2. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  3. An Analysis of Test And Evaluation in Rapid Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Outfits DT Developmental Testing DT&E Development Test and Evaluation DTC Developmental Test Command E3 Electromagnetic Environmental Effects...by the OEM and evaluated by the Communication-Electronics Command (CECOM) Safety Office and the former Developmental Test Command ( DTC ) covering all...Force Management School AMC Army Materiel Command AOA Analysis of Alternatives AOR Area of Operation APC Acquisition Program Candidates APG Aberdeen

  4. Multiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, Nicolas; Lepoint, Gilles; Vermeulen, Simon; Gobert, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The study of spatial patterns is important in understanding the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides a valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 meters) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes driving the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity, and the density of some species varied substantially across years. For most species the highest spatial variation in density and biomass occurred at small scales (1 and 10 meters). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been related to habitat features, but only weakly. Instead, we postulate that amphipod behavioral processes likely represent good explanatory factors. Although, small-scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, some patterns may have gone undetected because they occur at scales smaller than those investigated.

  5. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Hinder, Stephanie L.; Bodger, Owen G.; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.

    2014-09-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security.

  6. [Evaluation of the educational environment in medical specialty programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristian A; Olivos, Trinidad; Román, José Antonio; Larraín, Antonia; Pizarro, Margarita; Solís, Nancy; Sarfatis, Alberto; Torres, Patricio; Padilla, Oslando; Le Roy, Catalina; Riquelme, Arnoldo

    2012-12-01

    The Postgraduate Hospital Education Environment Measure (PHEEM) questionnaire, is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the educational environment (EE) in postgraduate medical education. To evaluate the EE perceived by the residents of a postgraduate training program using the PHEEM. The PHEEM was applied in 2010-2011 in 35 specialty programs. We calculated their individual results and compared means of both global and individual domain scores of the PHEEM, by gender, university of origin and nationality. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and D study (Generalizability theory) were performed for reliability. Three hundred eighteen residents were surveyed (75.7% of the total universe). The mean score of the PHEEM was 105.09 ± 22.46 (65.7% of the maximal score) which is considered a positive EE. The instrument is highly reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.934). The D study found that 15 subjects are required to obtain reliable results (G coefficient = 0.813). There were no significant differences between gender and university of origin. Foreigners evaluated better the EE than Chileans and racism was not perceived. The programs showed a safe physical environment and teachers with good clinical skills. The negative aspects perceived were a lack of information about working hours, insufficient academic counseling, and scanty time left for extracurricular activities. This questionnaire allowed us to identify positive aspects of the EE, and areas to be improved in the specialty programs. The PHEEM is a useful instrument to evaluate the EE in Spanish-speaking participants of medical specialty programs.

  7. Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Seniors (PANS): process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Linda; Jancey, Jonine M; Howat, Peter; Lee, Andy H; Shilton, Trevor

    2013-07-01

    The Physical Activity and Nutrition Program for Seniors (PANS) program aimed to increase levels of physical activity and improve the diet of insufficiently active community-based seniors aged 60 to 70 years using a range of strategies. Comprehensive process evaluation was used to determine the suitability and appropriateness of the resources and effectiveness of the strategies. Process evaluation data (qualitative and quantitative) were collected on the program strategies and resources throughout, and at the conclusion of the intervention period. The program strategies/resources were found to be relevant to the population, assisting participants to increase their level of physical activity and improve their diet. Participants reported that the program resources were suitable for their age-group (84%), encouraged them to think about physical activity (78%), and nutrition (70%). Participants reported that they used the pedometer (91%) and recorded daily steps (78%). Moreover, the provision of group guides facilitated individuals to set and achieve personal goals. The PANS strategies and resources were appropriate, which supported the seniors in identifying, establishing, and achieving their physical activity and nutrition goals. Minor refinements of the program were recommended based on the findings.

  8. Evaluation of a Passive Nature Viewing Program Set to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Sally J

    2014-09-01

    Research has revealed that passive nature viewing (viewing nature scenes without actually being in nature) has many health benefits but little is known about the best method of offering this complementary modality. The purpose of this pilot program was to evaluate the impact of a passive nature viewing program set to music on stress reduction in adults living in the community. A pre- and postsurvey design along with weekly recordings of stress and relaxation levels were used to evaluate the effect of this passive nature viewing program on stress reduction. Participants watched one of three preselected nature scenes for 5 minutes a day over 1 month and rated their stress and relaxation levels weekly on a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale before and after viewing the nature DVD. Quantitative analysis were not performed because of the less number of subjects (n = 10) completing the study. Qualitative analysis found five key categories that have an impact on program use: (a) technology, (b) personal preferences, (c) time, (d) immersion, and (e) use of the program. Holistic nurses may consider integrating patient preferences and immersion strategies in the design of future passive nature viewing programs to reduce attrition and improve success. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  10. Development and evaluation of a pharmacogenomics educational program for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formea, Christine M; Nicholson, Wayne T; McCullough, Kristen B; Berg, Kevin D; Berg, Melody L; Cunningham, Julie L; Merten, Julianna A; Ou, Narith N; Stollings, Joanna L

    2013-02-12

    Objectives. To evaluate hospital and outpatient pharmacists' pharmacogenomics knowledge before and 2 months after participating in a targeted, case-based pharmacogenomics continuing education program.Design. As part of a continuing education program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), pharmacists were provided with a fundamental pharmacogenomics education program.Evaluation. An 11-question, multiple-choice, electronic survey instrument was distributed to 272 eligible pharmacists at a single campus of a large, academic healthcare system. Pharmacists improved their pharmacogenomics test scores by 0.7 questions (pretest average 46%; posttest average 53%, p=0.0003).Conclusions. Although pharmacists demonstrated improvement, overall retention of educational goals and objectives was marginal. These results suggest that the complex topic of pharmacogenomics requires a large educational effort in order to increase pharmacists' knowledge and comfort level with this emerging therapeutic opportunity.

  11. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of farmer's participation in National Special Program for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates farmer involvement in National Special Program for Food Security in Niger State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling techniques was used to select participants from the three Agricultural sites of the programme using structured interview schedule to gather information from one hundred and three respondents.

  13. Faculty Development at One Midwestern Dental School: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Smith, Deborah B; Overman, Pamela R; Bunce, Larry

    2015-10-01

    Most dental school faculty members arrive on campus with a wealth of clinical experience but little to no teacher training. For the past two decades, there has been a call for schools to educate their faculty on a wide variety of topics including educational methodology and cutting-edge educational techniques through faculty development programs. Drawing on theories of general program evaluation as well as evaluation specific to educational programming, the aim of this study was to investigate outcomes of the Faculty Development Program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry between 2007 and 2014. A mixed-methods research design gathered quantitative data via email survey sent to all eligible teaching faculty members; it received an overall response rate of 54% (N=51). Qualitative data came from open-ended survey questions and a focus group with seven volunteer faculty participants. The survey data suggested that the stated outcomes of faculty development were being met for all stakeholder groups with varying degrees of success. Focus group results indicated a need for a more formal new faculty orientation and better communication with all about the specific charge of faculty development within the school. Evaluation of faculty development activities in academic dental institutions is a necessary component of the ongoing improvement of dental education. Suggestions for future evaluations include the idea of collaborating with other dental schools to increase sample sizes, which would increase participants' perception of the level of confidentiality and make statistical analyses more robust.

  14. Media Literacy Education Program Evaluators: What's the Job Description, Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCosta, Kneia Octavia

    2012-01-01

    School program evaluation researchers face a set of overlapping questions concerning our roles in the field: For the sake of "the data" and in quest of "the truth," am I a shrewd researcher before all else? For the sake of community-building and establishing respectful, reciprocal relationships with my school partners, am I first a gracious school…

  15. National Weatherization Assistance Program Evaluation: Assessment of Refrigerator Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goeltz, Rick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report assesses the energy consumption characteristics and performance of refrigerators that were monintored as a component of the Indoor Air Quality Study that itself was a component of the retrospective evaluation of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation for the Focus Cities Program in Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Monitoring and Evaluation for the Focus Cities Program in Asia. IDRC's Focus Cities Research Initiative (FCRI) is supporting research teams in nine cities around the world to promote awareness, policy options and best practices for reducing environmental impacts in poor urban and periurban areas. Jakarta, Indonesia, and ...

  17. Using STPA in the evaluation of fighter pilots training programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plioutsias, Anastasios; Karanikas, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents how the application of the STPA method might support the evaluation of fighter pilots training programs and trigger procedural and technological changes. We applied the STPA method by considering the safety constraints documented in the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of a

  18. An Evaluation of a Biological Slide-Tutorial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gordon L.

    Described is an auto-tutorial slide program for zoology students. A self-paced system was devised for observing the subject matter covered in the twelve study units of a zoology course. The post-testing evaluation revealed that students with lower grade point averages achieved scores comparable with students of higher grade point averages.…

  19. Wilderness educators' evaluation of the Impact Monster Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Hendricks; Alan E. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Since its development by Jim Bradley in the late 1970s, the Impact Monster, a wilderness education skit designed to teach minimum impact techniques, has been used as a wilderness education tool by federal land management agencies. This paper reports on an evaluation of the perceived effectiveness of the Impact Monster program and its content. Results indicate that the...

  20. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  1. Program Evaluation in Distance Education: Against the Technologisation of Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmis, Stephen

    Trends within the literature on program evaluation are reviewed and the implications of various trends for education are explored, with particular relevance for distance education. Distance education is an alternative educational approach based on correspondence, broadcasting, and long distance communication between teacher and student in a…

  2. Evaluating Quality in Associate Degree Culinary Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Jean; Ackerman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine which categories and indicators of quality are best suited to evaluating associate degree culinary arts programs (ADCAP). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers surveyed a national sample of culinary educators and industry chefs in the USA. The instrument asked the participants to rate the…

  3. Program Evaluation of Outcomes Based Orthotic and Prosthetic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    GANTT Chart: Accomplishment of Objectives…………….. 19 APPENDIX II. Program Evaluation Plan (.pdf file)………………………… 20 APPENDIX III. Photographs of...Clifton McDonald,Tony Pfle Jos Impression: Possible Pts. Pt. Management 1 Pt. History 1 Org of

  4. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Kahende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

  5. Evaluation of Pre-Departure English Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saukah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The program evaluation reported in this article covers three batches of participants, from 1996 through 1997, sponsored by the Directorate General of Higher Education projects to prepare faculty members of teacher training institutions for overseas studies. The result outcomes could be achieved when the initial English competence requirred for participating in the program was at least at the Pre-Advanced level. The criterion validity of the TOEFL-Equivalent test developed by the program was assured, and the test could, therefore, be used as a good predictor of the International TOEFL. Other recommendations are also given for the improvement of the planning and implementation of the program in the future

  6. Learning Under the Tree : Evaluating Skillful Parenting Program in West Kenya ICS Full Evaluation Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, R.P.; de Haan, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The central purpose of this evaluation is to determine if and how the Skillful Parenting Program (SPP) effects the parenting of its participants. In addition, it aims to determine how the parenting program was adapted to the West Kenyan setting, and how the specific content and processes of

  7. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P < .001). Overall, participants rated the program highly. A joint pharmacist and nurse practitioner smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  8. Development of object oriented program `SONSHO` for strength evaluation. Manual of Version 4.0 program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosogai, Hiromi [Joyo Industries Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kasahara, Naoto

    1998-07-01

    Object Oriented Program `SONSHO` predicts creep fatigue damage factors based on Elevated Temperature Structural Design Guide for `Monju` and other various procedures from stress classification data obtained from structural analysis results. From view point of program implementation, it is required that external programs interface and frequent revise from update of material and creep fatigue evaluation methods. Object oriented approach was continuously introduced to improve these aspects of the program. Version 4.0 has the following new functions. (1) Material strength library was implemented as an independent program module based on Microsoft Active X control and 32bitDLL technologies, which can be accessed by general Windows programs. (2) Self instruction system `Wizard` enables manual less operation. (3) Microsoft common object model (COM) was adopted for program interface, and this program can communicate with Excel sheet data on memory. Sonsho Ver.4.0 can work on Windows 95 or Windows NT4.0. Microsoft Visual Basic 5.0 (Enterprose Edition) and Microsoft FORTRAN Power Station 4.0 were adopted for program. (author)

  9. Evaluation of medical education virtual program: P3 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA REZAEE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. Methods: This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Results: Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76, but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23. Conclusion: Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  10. Evaluation of Medical Education virtual Program: P3 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Boroumand, Maryam

    2016-10-01

    In e-learning, people get involved in a process and create the content (product) and make it available for virtual learners. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the first virtual master program in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences according to P3 Model. This is an evaluation research study with post single group design used to determine how effective this program was. All students 60 who participated more than one year in this virtual program and 21 experts including teachers and directors participated in this evaluation project. Based on the P3 e-learning model, an evaluation tool with 5-point Likert rating scale was designed and applied to collect the descriptive data. Students reported storyboard and course design as the most desirable element of learning environment (2.30±0.76), but they declared technical support as the less desirable part (1.17±1.23). Presence of such framework in this regard and using it within the format of appropriate tools for evaluation of e-learning in universities and higher education institutes, which present e-learning curricula in the country, may contribute to implementation of the present and future e-learning curricula efficiently and guarantee its implementation in an appropriate way.

  11. Objective Evaluation in an Online Geographic Information System Certificate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. WALKER

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluation in an Online Geographic Information System Certificate Program Asst. Professor. Dr. Scott L. WALKER Texas State University-San Marcos San Marcos, Texas, USA ABSTRACT Departmental decisions regarding distance education programs can be subject to subjective decision-making processes influenced by external factors such as strong faculty opinions or pressure to increase student enrolment. This paper outlines an evaluation of a departmental distance-education program. The evaluation utilized several methods that strived to inject objectivity in evaluation and subsequent decision-making. A rapid multi-modal approach included evaluation methods of (1 considering the online psychosocial learning environment, (2 content analyses comparing the online version of classes to face-to-face versions, (3 cost comparisons in online vs. face-to-face classes, (4 student outcomes, (5 student retention, and (6 benchmarking. These approaches offer opportunities for departmental administrators and decision-making committees to make judgments informed by facts rather than being influenced by the emotions, beliefs, or opinions of organizational dynamics.

  12. EPO Program and Product Evaluation Throughout the Development Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C.; Butcher, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation of successful education and public outreach (EPO) programs and products is becoming increasingly important for the continued development of such efforts. This presentation will detail the tools and techniques used to evaluate two EPO efforts- 1) NASA's REEL Science Communications Contest and Video Production Workshop, and 2) the 'Sensors, Circuits, and Satellites' product. A primary challenge with evaluating any EPO product geared towards children and students is the limitation on collecting information from minors. With regards to the REEL Science Contest, over 120 students participated in producing and entering 48 contest entries but because of the Office of Budget and Management (OBM) regulations that restrict collecting feedback from more than nine individuals, we were only able to collect evaluation data from a small subset of this group. The five winning students who participated in the final workshop took part in the evaluation. The benefit of a small group size is that it allowed for more in-depth one-on-one interviews with each student. The feedback collected from this evaluation offered valuable insight into what worked well along with areas of improvement for futures contests and workshops. The REEL Science video contest had another evaluation opportunity since NASA scientists, communications experts, and producers also participated in the program and worked directly with the students. A survey was administered for this audience in an effort to gauge the perceived value and success of the program from the perspective of the originating institution. We found that if a program is well received, the program is more likely to receive future support. Additionally, this component of the program evaluation provided useful feedback and lessons learned to help optimize the role of the internal audience for similar programs in the future. Implementing formative evaluation is key to developing a successful EPO product development. Collecting data at key

  13. An economic evaluation of public programs for internationalization: the case of the Diagnostic Program in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, José M; Lopez-Melendo, Jaime; Pablo-Romero, María del P; Sánchez-Braza, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the Diagnostic Program in Spain which is a publicly funded program to promote internationalization of companies located in Andalusia (south of Spain). The methodology used is the propensity score-matching. The treatment group consists of companies which participated in the Program until 2008. The control group has companies which planned to participate in the Program but had not done so up to that date. The response variable measures the ratio of export to total sales for each company. Four covariates have been taken into account: activity, location, sales and number of employees. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the companies that participated in the Program improved their ratio of exports to total sales by about 10 percentage points. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Building the evaluation capacity of California's local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana; Kipke, Robin; Kwon, Nicole; Satterlund, Travis

    2011-11-01

    Successful evaluation capacity building requires a dynamic balance between responding to local agency needs and ensuring that local staff have appropriate skills to conduct rigorous evaluations. In 2004, the California Tobacco Control Program established the Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC), based at a public research university, to provide evaluation technical assistance to approximately 100 local agencies implementing tobacco control programs. TCEC has been responsive to local needs, for instance, by answering 512 technical assistance requests in the first 5 years of operation and by tailoring training according to needs assessment results. About 50% of the technical assistance requests were for new data collection instruments (n = 255). TCEC has sought proactively to improve local evaluation skills, most recently in a data analysis and report writing skill building campaign that included a webinar, newsletter, and seven regional training meetings. Preliminary analysis suggests a 20% improvement in scores for the local final evaluation reports as a result of this campaign. It is concluded that evaluation technical assistance can be provided effectively by a university as long as the local context is kept in mind, and a balance of responsive and proactive technical assistance is provided.

  15. Evaluation of a case-based urology learning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Kirtishri; Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Ross, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David A; Goldman, Howard; Campbell, Steven C

    2013-12-01

    To address the challenges that today's trainees encounter, such as information overload and reduced immersion in the field, and recognizing their preference for novel educational resources, an electronic case-based urology learning program was developed. Each case was designed to illustrate the basic principles of the disease process and the fundamentals of evaluation and management using the Socratic method, recapitulating a prototypical patient encounter. A 21-question survey was developed after review of published reports of classroom and clinical learning environment surveys. The target group was 2 pilot urology training programs (the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals-Case Medical Center). The responses were entirely anonymous. A total of 32 trainees participated (8 fellows and 24 residents), representing a 53% response rate. Most trainees (79%) were able to process cases within an average of ≤ 10 minutes. Of the trainees, 91% reported referring back to particular cases for patient care, to review for examinations, or for studying. Most trainees believed a case-based urology learning program would be a potentially important resource for clinical practice (69%) and for preparing for the in-service (63%) or board (69%) examinations. Most trainees believed the program met its goals of illustrating the basics principles of the disease process (88%), outlining the fundamentals of evaluation and management (94%), and improving the trainees' knowledge base (91%). An electronic case-based urology learning program is feasible and useful and stimulates learning at all trainee levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L; Roberts, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Currently, the most widely used method in the disease management industry for evaluating program effectiveness is the "total population approach." This model is a pretest-posttest design, with the most basic limitation being that without a control group, there may be sources of bias and/or competing extraneous confounding factors that offer plausible rationale explaining the change from baseline. Survival analysis allows for the inclusion of data from censored cases, those subjects who either "survived" the program without experiencing the event (e.g., achievement of target clinical levels, hospitalization) or left the program prematurely, due to disenrollement from the health plan or program, or were lost to follow-up. Additionally, independent variables may be included in the model to help explain the variability in the outcome measure. In order to maximize the potential of this statistical method, validity of the model and research design must be assured. This paper reviews survival analysis as an alternative, and more appropriate, approach to evaluating DM program effectiveness than the current total population approach.

  17. [Participatory evaluation in health programs: a proposal for the Adolescent Health Care Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Ivani; Ribeiro, José Mendes

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a model for participatory evaluation of the Adolescent Health Program (PROSAD) in Brazil. The study focuses on the concept of participation, with a review of internationally validated planning methodologies (RAP, logFRAME, ZOPP, PCM) and the programmatic characteristics of PROSAD. The proposed model comprises 4 steps, involving the constitution of the analytical matrix, a self-evaluation workshop, a summary of results, and graphic representation. The model promotes participatory practice in health program management by using techniques that allow a workshop to be held in 70 minutes (mean time), producing results that are recognized and easily grasped by the local team.

  18. Evaluation of effectiveness for MC&A programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, D. D. (David Dennis); DeMuth, S. F. (Scott F.); Longmire, V. L. (Victoria L.); Sinkule, B. J. (Barbara J.); Strittmatter, R. B. (Richard B.); Stevens, R. S. (Rebecca S.); Dawson, P. (Pamela); Preston, L. (Lynne)

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on a joint Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories effort to develop tools to evaluate MC&A system effectiveness and perform vulnerability assessments based on the system effectiveness metrics. It summarizes the work that the two labs have completed to date and provides an overview of the work remaining. The Department of Energy Office of Technology Development, SO-20.3, is presently considering whether it is possible to model MC&A programs at DOE facilities in order to better determine the need for and prioritize potential technology development projects. The intent is to develop an objective method of evaluating MC&A programs, to model the effect of changes to the systems used by the programs, and to quantify the extent to which these changes improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the programs. Project milestones include a review of the risk analysis tool developed at Sandia, ATLAS, to determine how MC&A system elements could be incorporated, identification of MC&A system elements and activities for which effectiveness metrics can be developed, and developing the metrics for these system elements. In addition, the milestones include validation of the system elements and effectiveness metrics by potential users. Upon completion of the development of MC&A system effectiveness metrics, we will determine the feasibility of integrating the data elements and process required for evaluation of MC&A effectiveness metrics into ATLAS.

  19. Evaluating local food programs: the case of Select Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the buy local food program Select Nova Scotia; a government program with the goal to increase awareness and consumption of Nova Scotia produced and processed agri-food products by Nova Scotians and visitors. The evaluation methodology was based on prior evaluation resources and local food consumer research. Data were gathered through a web panel survey; 877 respondents completed the survey in June 2010. The results suggest that the program is reaching a wider audience than just those predisposed to local food initiatives. In addition, awareness of Select Nova was related to perceptions of local benefits and barriers, as well as purchase motivation and behavior. Respondents who were aware of Select Nova Scotia rated societal benefits as more important and viewed location and price as less of a barrier; they were also more likely to be highly motivated to purchase local foods. This study also informs results found in previous consumer research studies and identifies marketing opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of local food programs. The results suggest that societal benefits might be used as a way to differentiate products with similar attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of an Australian Alcohol Media Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Howard, Steven J; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa K

    2016-11-01

    A 10-lesson alcohol media literacy program was developed, underpinned by the message interpretation processing model, inoculation theory, and constructivist learning theory, and was tailored to be culturally relevant to the Australian context. This program aimed to increase students' media deconstruction skills and reduce intent to drink alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in achieving these goals through a short-term quasi-experimental trial. Elementary schools were assigned to either the intervention group (83 students) or a wait-list control group (82 students). Student questionnaires were administered at three time points (baseline, after the intervention group completed the program, and after the wait-list control group completed the program) to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention and wait-list control groups reported significantly higher media deconstruction skills as a result of the intervention. Both groups reported significantly lower social norms, whereas the wait-list control group reported significantly lower positive alcohol expectancies. There were no significant changes to self-efficacy to refuse alcohol, preference for alcohol-branded merchandise, and understanding of persuasive intent as a result of the intervention. To date, the majority of alcohol media literacy studies have been conducted in the United States and have focused on deconstructing television and print-based ads. This evaluation provides evidence that an alcohol media literacy program that was developed for a specific cultural context, and that incorporates a broad range of multimodal advertisements, can have a positive impact on beliefs and attitudes that are known predictors/precursors of drinking behaviors.

  1. Recovery of Donor Meadows of Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia australis Contributes to Sustainable Seagrass Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Verduin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor meadow recovery is important in deciding whether removal of material from natural seagrass meadows is a sustainable activity. Thus an investigation into meadow regrowth was undertaken as part of a large-scale seagrass rehabilitation effort in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Several plug extraction configurations were examined in Posidonia sinuosa and Posidonia australis meadows to monitor shoot growth into plug scars. No significant differences in shoot growth between extraction configurations were observed, and both species increased their shoot numbers over two years, with P. sinuosa showing a significantly better recovery rate than P. australis. P. sinuosa shoot recovery into extracted areas was 2.2±0.1 shoots over 24 months, similar to shoot changes in controls (2.3 shoots over the same period. P. australis shoot recovery for each configuration was 0.8 ± 0.3 shoots in 24 months compared with 1.5 shoots in the controls. Based on the number of regrowing shoots, the predicted recovery time of a meadow is estimated at 4 years for P. sinuosa and three years for P. australis. Different plug extraction configurations do not appear to affect meadow recovery, and it can be concluded that established meadows of both species are sustainable providers of planting units for rehabilitation measures.

  2. Montane meadows in the Sierra Nevada: comparing terrestrial and aquatic assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Sarah E; Moyle, Peter B; Tate, Kenneth W

    2012-11-01

    We surveyed montane meadows in the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascades for two field seasons to compare commonly used aquatic and terrestrial-based assessments of meadow condition. We surveyed (1) fish, (2) reptiles, (3) amphibians, (4) aquatic macroinvertebrates, (5) stream geomorphology, (6) physical habitat, and (7) terrestrial vegetation in 79 meadows between the elevations of 1,000 and 3,000 m. From the results of those surveys, we calculated five multi-metric indices based on methods commonly used by researchers and land management agencies. The five indices consisted of (1) fish only, (2) native fish and amphibians, (3) macroinvertebrates, (4) physical habitat, and (5) vegetation. We compared the results of the five indices and found that there were significant differences in the outcomes of the five indices. We found positive correlations between the vegetation index and the physical habitat index, the invertebrate index and the physical habitat index, and the two fish-based indices, but there were significant differences between indices in both range and means. We concluded that the five indices provided very different interpretations of the condition in a given meadow. While our assessment of meadow condition changed based on which index was used, each provided an assessment of different components important to the overall condition of a meadow system. Utilizing a multimetric approach that accounts for both terrestrial and aquatic habitats provides the best means to accurately assess meadow condition, particularly given the disproportionate importance of these systems in the Sierra Nevada landscape.

  3. Evaluation of Saudi family medicine training program: the application of CIPP evaluation format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khathami, Abdullah Dukhail

    2012-01-01

    The Saudi Diploma in Family Medicine (SDFM) was enacted in 2007 to fulfill the needs of qualified Primary Health Care providers in Saudi Arabia. Evaluation is not only an integral process for designing educational training programs, but an effective evaluation strategy that helps achieve program objectives and enhances the quality of learning objectives: (1) Construct a self-administered questionnaire based on Context, input, process and product (CIPP) format to seek trainees' perceptions about the SDFM program; (2) identify the strengths and weaknesses of the SDFM program in relation to the learning outcomes; and (3) define the main obstacles to achieve the outcomes. A self-administered questionnaire was designed based on the CIPP evaluation format after. its validity and reliability were tested through piloting. Then, all the SDFM program trainees were included. The study response rate was 91.2%. More than 77% of the trainees stated that they had achieved the program objectives; a significant difference was found among Saudis and non-Saudis (p = 0.002). The training period was reported by 84% as a main barrier to achieve the program objectives, particularly the hospital rotation period. Results indicate an overall satisfaction with the training objectives and the teaching methods used. These findings can be useful for the policy makers to implement the suggested recommendations and deal with obstacles to improve the SDFM program in order to provide effective and efficient primary care services.

  4. Savannah River Restart Peer Evaluation Program final examination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.P.; Draper, D.G.

    1991-12-01

    During the period of August 13, 1990 through September 6, 1991 the Savannah River Peer Evaluation Program was administered during three distinct phases to 73 certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors, and Shift Technical Engineers assigned to the K Reactor, on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This program was conceived and developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and it's implementation satisfies recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The review identified both strengths and weaknesses of the procedures and personnel.

  5. Savannah River Restart Peer Evaluation Program final examination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.P.; Draper, D.G.

    1991-12-01

    During the period of August 13, 1990 through September 6, 1991 the Savannah River Peer Evaluation Program was administered during three distinct phases to 73 certified Central Control Room Operators, Central Control Room Supervisors, and Shift Technical Engineers assigned to the K Reactor, on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This program was conceived and developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) and it`s implementation satisfies recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. The review identified both strengths and weaknesses of the procedures and personnel.

  6. Clemson University Science Master's Program in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure: A program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sell, Elizabeth Eberhart

    The Clemson University Science Master's Program (SMP) in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure is a program which aims to link engineering, materials, construction, environment, architecture, business, and public policy to produce graduates with unique holistic perspective and expertise to immediately contribute to the workforce in the area of sustainable and resilient infrastructure. A program evaluation of the SMP has been performed to study the effectiveness of the SMP and identify areas where the goals and vision of the SMP are achieved and areas where improvements can be made. This was completed by analysis of trends within survey responses, review of Master's thesis reports, and review of courses taken. It was found that the SMP has facilitated new interdisciplinary research collaborations of faculty in different concentration areas within the Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, as well as collaboration with faculty in other departments. It is recommended that a course which provides instruction in all eight competency areas be required for all SMP students to provide a comprehensive overview and ensure all students are exposed to concepts of all competency areas. While all stakeholders are satisfied with the program and believe it has been successful thus far, efforts do need to be made as the program moves forward to address and improve some items that have been mentioned as needing improvement. The concerns about concentration courses, internship planning, and advising should be addressed. This evaluation provides benefits to prospective students, current SMP participants, and outside program supporters. The goal of this evaluation is to provide support that the SMP is an effective and worthwhile program for participating students, while attempting to identify any necessary program improvements and provide recommendations for achieving these improvements. This goal has been accomplished.

  7. Evaluating the SOS suicide prevention program: a replication and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glanovsky Jaime

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death for children and youth in the United States. Although school based programs have been the principal vehicle for youth suicide prevention efforts for over two decades, few have been systematically evaluated. This study examined the effectiveness of the Signs of Suicide (SOS prevention program in reducing suicidal behavior. Methods 4133 students in 9 high schools in Columbus, Georgia, western Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 school years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students in both groups approximately 3 months after program implementation. Results Significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group. Students' race/ethnicity, grade, and gender did not alter the impact of the intervention on any of the outcomes assessed in this analysis. Conclusion This study has confirmed preliminary analysis of Year 1 data with a larger and more racially and socio-economically diverse sample. SOS continues to be the only universal school-based suicide prevention program to demonstrate significant effects of self-reported suicide attempts in a study utilizing a randomized experimental design. Moreover, the beneficial effects of SOS were observed among high school-aged youth from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, highlighting the program's utility as a universal prevention program. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT000387855.

  8. Conducting Program Evaluation with Hispanics in Rural Settings: Ethical Issues and Evaluation Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Claudia X. Aguado; McDermott, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting evaluations that are both valid and ethical is imperative for the support and sustainability of programs that address underserved and vulnerable populations. A key component is to have evaluators who are knowledgeable about relevant cultural issues and sensitive to population needs. Hispanics in rural settings are vulnerable for many…

  9. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy......This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...

  10. The performance, application and integration of various seabed classification systems suitable for mapping Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhr, Kristian; Schultz, Stewart; Pikelj, Kristina; Petricioli, Donat; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana

    2014-02-01

    In the context of current global environmental changes, mapping and monitoring seagrass meadows have become highly important for management and preservation of coastal zone ecosystems. The purpose of this research was to determine the numerical precision of various cost-effective benthic habitat mapping techniques and their suitability for mapping and monitoring of Posidonia oceanica meadows in the Croatian Adriatic. We selected ultra-high resolution aerial imagery, single-beam echo sounder (SBES) seabed classification system from Quester Tangent Co. (QTC), and surface based underwater videography as affordable, non-destructive and simple to use systems for data acquisition. The ultra-high resolution digital imagery was capable of detecting P. oceanica meadows up to 4m depth with 94% accuracy, from 4m to 12.5m depth the accuracy dropped to app. 76%, and from 12.5 to 20 m the system was only capable of distinguishing seabed biota from substrata, though with 97% accuracy. The results of the QTC system showed over 90% detection accuracy for Cymodocea nodosa covered seabed, excellent separation capabilities (>92%) of different sediment types (slightly gravelly sand, gravelly muddy sand and slightly gravelly muddy sand) and reasonable accuracy for mapping underwater vegetation regardless of the bathymetric span. The system proved incapable of separating P. oceanica from dense macroalgae on the same type of substratum. Surface-based underwater videography demonstrated great potential for estimating P. oceanica cover in a sampled region using either a single human rater or a computer estimate. The consistency between two human scorers in evaluating P. oceanica bottom coverage was near perfect (>98%) and high between digital and human scorers (80%). The results indicate that although the selected systems are suitable for mapping seagrasses, they all display limitations in either detection accuracy or spatial coverage, which leads to a conclusion that suitable system

  11. Applying Program Theory-Driven Approach to Design and Evaluate a Teacher Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-ching; Wu, Ming-sui

    2016-01-01

    This study was the first year of a two-year project which applied a program theory-driven approach to evaluating the impact of teachers' professional development interventions on students' learning by using a mix of methods, qualitative inquiry, and quasi-experimental design. The current study was to show the results of using the method of…

  12. Evaluation of an adolescent hospital-based injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Polgar, Denise; Girotti, Murray J; Vingilis, Evelyn; Caro, Daniel; Corbett, Bradley A; Parry, Neil

    2009-05-01

    IMPACT (Impaired Minds Produce Actions Causing Trauma) is an adolescent, hospital-based program aimed to prevent injuries and their consequences caused by alcohol or drug impairment and other high-risk behaviors. The overall objective of this evaluation was to determine the effect of the program on students' knowledge and behavior regarding drinking and driving, over time. A randomized control trial between students randomly selected to attend IMPACT and those not selected served as a control group. Students completed a questionnaire before the program and at three posttime periods (1 week, 1 month, and 6 months). Panel data models were used to analyze the effects of the experiment on students' knowledge of alcohol and crash issues and negative driving behaviors (no seat belt, driving while using a cell phone, involved in conversation, eating, annoyed with other drivers, and drowsy). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyze the effect of IMPACT on students' influence on friends and family about road safety. This study consisted of 269 students (129 IMPACT; 140 control) with an overall response rate of 84% (range, 99% presurvey to 71% at 6 months). The IMPACT group had a 57%, 38%, and 43% increase in the number of correct answers on alcohol and crash issues during the three time periods, respectively (p driving behaviors. Men and students who drove more frequently had worse driving behavior. Our evaluation demonstrates that the IMPACT program had a statistically significant, positive effect on students' knowledge of alcohol and crash issues that was sustained over time. IMPACT had an initial effect on students' behaviors in terms of peer influence toward improving road safety (i.e., buckling up, not drinking, and driving) 1 week after the program, but this effect diminished after 1 month. Other negative driving behaviors had low prevalence at baseline and were not further influenced by the program.

  13. A Method for Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cheryl; Carpenter, Dick; Tucker, Elizabeth; Luna, Carmen; Donovan, John; Behrens, Timothy K

    2017-09-14

    Providing opportunities for students to be physically active during the school day leads to increased academic performance, better focus, and fewer behavioral problems. As schools begin to incorporate more physical activity programming into the school day, evaluators need methods to measure how much physical activity students are being offered through this programming. Because classroom-based physical activity is often offered in 3-minute to 5-minute bouts at various times of the day, depending on the teachers' time to incorporate it, it is a challenge to evaluate this activity. This article describes a method to estimate the number of physical activity minutes provided before, during, and after school. The web-based tool can be used to gather data cost-effectively from a large number of schools. Strategies to increase teacher response rates and assess intensity of activity should be explored.

  14. Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

  15. Epidemiologic surveillance program for evaluating occupational reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, O.; Morgan, R.W.; Whorton, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    A noninvasive and inexpensive epidemiologic program for evaluating the possible effects of occupational exposures on fertility is proposed. This surveillance program utilizes reproductive information obtainable from a short questionnaire (1-2 pages in length) or directly from existing medical, employment, or insurance records, and results can be generated readily on a routine basis. The proposed method should be viewed as a mechanism to provide an early signal for any potential hazard and to direct priority for other more in-depth epidemiologic or physiologic studies. The procedure is illustrated with data from individuals exposed to EDB, DBCP, and waste-water treatment plant processes. The method can be modified to compare the reproductive performance of an exposed group to that of an internal control group. With an internal control group, additional confounding factors can be taken into consideration. The relative merits of this approach compared to another method of fertility evaluation, semen analysis, are discussed.

  16. Energy-Related Inventions Program: an overview of the evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Bronfman, L.M.; Rorke, M.G.

    1983-09-01

    The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) is jointly administered by the US Departments of Energy and Commerce. Grants were awarded for 165 of 208 inventions recommended by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Of the 165 inventions, 46 have been able to acquire follow-on financing from a variety of sources. Further, 35 of the inventions have reached the marketplace, and their cumulative sales to date total $178 million. An additional 10 inventions are now starting into production. Jobs that have been created directly by production related to the inventions total 756; additional spin-off jobs attributable to the inventions include component and material suppliers, jobbers, franchisees, and distributors. The program was recently evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the following conclusions: (1) the evaluation process at NBS has been successful in identifying technically and economically feasible inventions, (2) the success rate for the program is about equivalent to the reported success rates of private venture capital firms, (3) the program is supporting inventions at a point in their development where they are supported by neither the venture capital community nor industry, and (4) the one-time DOE grants and the associated ERIP support to inventors have been successful in readying inventors for follow-on financing from the private sector.

  17. Evaluation of resources for an interactive infection control instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate educational resources used in developing and implementing an interactive infection control instructional program for first year (n=26) and second year (n=26) dental hygiene students in a baccalaureate program. An educator's toolkit was used to develop online and interactive learning modalities for teaching infection control content. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses on a post instruction opinion survey on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Following the instructional program, most students reported on an opinion survey that they understood infection control principles (92% first year, 100% second year), felt prepared to work safely in clinic (96% first year, 100% second year) and liked working at their own pace (88% first year, 100% second year). First year students valued the online learning components and were less favorable toward supplemental textbook readings and the limited time to complete all 10 modules. Most second year students valued the interactive workshop but did not take the time to complete the online videos and did not watch all of them. Seventy-nine percent of second year students (n=20) preferred the interactive workshop method over traditional lecture instruction completed during their first year. This paper describes 1 institution's process of developing and implementing an infection control instructional program utilizing an educator's toolkit.

  18. Program evaluation of an integrated basic science medical curriculum in Shiraz Medical School, using CIPP evaluation model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AZADEH ROOHOLAMINI; MITRA AMINI; LEILA BAZRAFKAN; MOHAMMAD REZA DEHGHANI; ZOHREH ESMAEILZADEH; PARISA NABEIEI; RITA REZAEE; JAVAD KOJURI

    2017-01-01

    ...) for undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the program evaluation of this curriculum for undergraduate medical students, using CIPP program evaluation model. Methods...

  19. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Stanìk Frantiek

    2002-01-01

    Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves) based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from anothe...

  20. Methane emission by plant communities in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: a new experimental study of alpine meadows and oat pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiping; Yang, Xiaoxia; Lin, Xingwu; Hu, Yigang; Luo, Caiyun; Xu, Guangping; Zhang, Zhenhua; Su, Ailing; Chang, Xiaofen; Chao, Zengguo; Duan, Jichuang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, plant-derived methane (CH4) emission has been questioned because limited evidence of the chemical mechanism has been identified to account for the process. We conducted an experiment with four treatments (i.e. winter-grazed, natural alpine meadow; naturally restored alpine meadow eight years after cultivation; oat pasture and bare soil without roots) during the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008 to examine the question of CH4 emission by plant communities in the alpine meadow. Each treatment consumed CH4 in closed, opaque chambers in the field, but two types of alpine meadow vegetation reduced CH4 consumption compared with bare soil, whereas oat pasture increased consumption. This result could imply that meadow vegetation produces CH4. However, measurements of soil temperature and water content showed significant differences between vegetated and bare soil and appeared to explain differences in CH4 production between treatments. Our study strongly suggests that the apparent CH4 production by vegetation, when compared with bare soil in some previous studies, might represent differences in soil temperature and water-filled pore space and not the true vegetation sources of CH4. PMID:19411273

  1. The SBIRT program matrix: a conceptual framework for program implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boca, Frances K; McRee, Bonnie; Vendetti, Janice; Damon, Donna

    2017-02-01

    Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a comprehensive, integrated, public health approach to the delivery of services to those at risk for the adverse consequences of alcohol and other drug use, and for those with probable substance use disorders. Research on successful SBIRT implementation has lagged behind studies of efficacy and effectiveness. This paper (1) outlines a conceptual framework, the SBIRT Program Matrix, to guide implementation research and program evaluation and (2) specifies potential implementation outcomes. Overview and narrative description of the SBIRT Program Matrix. The SBIRT Program Matrix has five components, each of which includes multiple elements: SBIRT services; performance sites; provider attributes; patient/client populations; and management structure and activities. Implementation outcomes include program adoption, acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, costs, penetration, sustainability, service provision and grant compliance. The Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment Program Matrix provides a template for identifying, classifying and organizing the naturally occurring commonalities and variations within and across SBIRT programs, and for investigating which variables are associated with implementation success and, ultimately, with treatment outcomes and other impacts. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program: foundational elements for program evaluation planning, implementation, and use of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Goldie; Garcia, Danyael; Zaza, Stephanie; Schooley, Michael; Compton, Don; Bryant, Terry; Bagnol, Lulu; Edgerly, Cathy; Haverkate, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The Steps to a HealthierUS Cooperative Agreement Program (Steps Program) enables funded communities to implement chronic disease prevention and health promotion efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes, obesity, asthma, and related risk factors. At both the national and community levels, investment in surveillance and program evaluation is substantial. Public health practitioners engaged in program evaluation planning often identify desired outcomes, related indicators, and data collection methods but may pay only limited attention to an overarching vision for program evaluation among participating sites. We developed a set of foundational elements to provide a vision of program evaluation that informs the technical decisions made throughout the evaluation process. Given the diversity of activities across the Steps Program and the need for coordination between national- and community-level evaluation efforts, our recommendations to guide program evaluation practice are explicit yet leave room for site-specific context and needs. Staff across the Steps Program must consider these foundational elements to prepare a formal plan for program evaluation. Attention to each element moves the Steps Program closer to well-designed and complementary plans for program evaluation at the national, state, and community levels.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  4. Impact evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Taylor, Z.T.; Schrock, D.W.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Chin, R.I.

    1995-10-01

    This document supplements the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) impact evaluation report, Lee et al. (1995). MAP is a voluntary energy-efficiency program for HUD-code manufactured homes conducted in the Pacific Northwest beginning in April 1992. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this and the impact evaluation reports for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville). Lee et al. (1995) presents the objectives, methodology, and findings of the program evaluation. This report presents more details about specific aspects of the analysis. The authors used a three-tier approach to analyze the energy consumption of MAP and baseline homes. Chapter 2 discusses Tier 1, the billing data and simplified regression analysis. Chapter 3 presents the details of the Tier 2 analysis, the PRInceton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). Chapter 4 presents details of the primary analysis technique that they used, a comprehensive regression analysis. Chapter 5 and 6 review two other studies of energy savings associated with MAP. Chapter 5 discusses the simulation model analysis conducted by Ecotope, Inc. Chapter 6 reviews the analysis by Regional Economic Research conducted for three Pacific Northwest investor-owned utilities. The final chapter, Chapter 7, presents details of the Bonneville levelized cost methodology used to estimate the cost of energy savings associated with MAP. Results are presented and discussed in many cases for the three different climate zones found in the Pacific Northwest. 18 refs., 29 tabs.

  5. Using Evaluability Assessment to Improve Program Evaluation for the Blue-Throated Macaw Environmental Education Project in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra da Silva, Daniela; Jacobson, Susan K.; Monroe, Martha C.; Israel, Glenn D.

    2016-01-01

    An evaluability assessment of a program to save a critically endangered bird helped prepare the Blue-throated Macaw Environmental Education Project for evaluation and program improvement. The evaluability assessment facilitated agreement among key stakeholders on evaluation criteria and intended uses of evaluation information in order to maximize…

  6. Position Paper: General Practice Residency and Advanced Education in General Dentistry Programs: Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    The currently used internal and external program evaluation processes for general practice residency and advanced education in general dentistry programs are discussed, noting accrediting and evaluation groups, criteria, and designs. A generalized evaluation plan is proposed. (MSE)

  7. Threshold evaluation data revision and computer program enhancement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-27

    The Threshold Evaluation System was developed to assist the Division of Buildings and Community Systems of the Department of Energy in performing preliminary evaluation of projects being considered for funding. In addition, the evaluation has been applied to on-going projects, because information obtained through RD and D may alter the expected benefits and costs of a project, making it necessary to reevaluate project funding. The system evaluates each project according to its expected energy savings and costs. A number of public and private sector criteria are calculated, upon which comparisons between projects may be based. A summary of the methodology is given in Appendix B. The purpose of this task is to upgrade both the quality of the data used for input to the system and the usefulness and efficiency of the computer program used to perform the analysis. The modifications required to produce a better, more consistent set of data are described in Section 2. Program changes that have had a significant impact on the methodology are discussed in Section 3, while those that affected only the computer code are presented as a system flow diagram and program listing in Appendix C. These improvements in the project evaluation methodology and data will provide BCS with a more efficient and comprehensive management tool. The direction of future work will be toward integrating this system with a large scale (at ORNL) so that information used by both systems may be stored in a common data base. A discussion of this, and other unresolved problems is given in Section 4.

  8. The 2011 Program Evaluation Standards: a framework for quality in medical education programme evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Valerie; Boudreau, J Donald

    2013-10-01

    Based on input from 400 stakeholders over 6 years, the 2011 Program Evaluation Standards represents an in-depth analysis of values, meaning and measurement and their relationships in programme evaluation. Evaluation quality is achieved by balancing five attributes: utility, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and evaluation accountability. These attributes are used to organize 30 standards, 200 strategies and 197 hazards. In response to a call from the authors of the standards, we have used them to guide our meta-evaluation of McGill's undergraduate physicianship programme. Our findings show how the standards illuminate the tensions, dilemmas and hazards inherent in all stages of programme evaluation studies and offer helpful strategies for designing and conducting high-quality evaluation studies. Based on our experience, the third edition needs to be used as a reference document in all stages of evaluations of medical education programmes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs: program impact on dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, S; Vermeersch, J; Gale, S

    1984-08-01

    This article describes the dietary analysis component of the National Evaluation of School Nutrition Programs. It addresses two research questions: 1) do participants and nonparticipants in the school nutrition programs have different calorie and nutrient intakes for 24 h, breakfast, and/or lunch and 2) if there are differences in the nutritional quality or total quantity of food consumed? Students who participate in the School Lunch Program get more than nonparticipants of almost all nutrients that were examined, both at lunch and during 24 h. The superior lunch and 24-h intakes of Lunch Program participants are due to the higher nutritional quality of the School Lunch compared with lunches that nonparticipants eat. The most important impact of the School Breakfast is that when the program is available, it increases the likelihood that children will eat breakfast, and children who eat breakfast have significantly higher intakes of nutrients than children who skip breakfast. The School Breakfast provides more calcium, phosphorus, protein, and magnesium than a non-US Department of Agriculture breakfast, but less vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron. The positive impacts of calcium and phosphorus carry over 24 h, while the negative impacts for vitamin A, vitamin B6, niacin, thiamin, and iron are made up during the remainder of the day. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn about the impact of the Milk Program, milk is an important component of all US Department of Agriculture school nutrition programs and makes a major contribution to student dietary intake. Its presence in the meal patterns probably accounts for some of the greater nutrient intakes associated with participation in the School Lunch Program and most of the greater intakes associated with participation in the School Breakfast Program.

  10. Evaluation of a Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Hibberd, Elizabeth

    2017-11-15

    Previous literature has theorized that alterations in shoulder physical characteristics are present in wheelchair athletes and contribute to shoulder pain and injury. Limited empirical evidence is present that evaluates the effectiveness of a shoulder injury prevention program focusing on improving these altered characteristics. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program at improving characteristics that increases the risk of developing pain or shoulder injury. Pre and post-test. Home-based and controlled laboratory. Seven collegiate wheelchair athletes. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) and scapular muscle strength were assessed, and a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants. Participants completed the intervention 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Following completion of the program, a post-intervention screening was performed. Internal/external rotation ROM, retraction strength, and internal/external rotation strength. Participants experienced a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder internal rotation ROM (t6=3.56,p=0.012) with an average increase of 11.4° of IR ROM, and a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM (t6=2.79,p=0.032) with an average increase of 8.0° of ER ROM. There were no significant increases in shoulder IR or ER strength and scapular retraction strength (p>0.05). Improvements in ROM have previously been linked to decreases in shoulder pain and injury in other upper-extremity dominant sports by improving scapular kinematics. These results provide evidence that a 6-week strengthening and stretching intervention program may decrease risk factors for shoulder injury in wheelchair athletics.

  11. Integrating Oncology Massage Into Chemoinfusion Suites: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun J; Wagner, Karen E; Seluzicki, Christina M; Hugo, Audra; Galindez, Laura K; Sheaffer, Heather; Fox, Kevin R

    2017-03-01

    This article reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of an integrative clinical oncology massage program for patients undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer in a large academic medical center. We describe the development and implementation of an oncology massage program embedded into chemoinfusion suites. We used deidentified program evaluation data to identify specific reasons individuals refuse massage and to evaluate the immediate impact of massage treatments on patient-reported outcomes using a modified version of the Distress Thermometer delivered via iPad. We analyzed premassage and postmassage data from the Distress Thermometer using paired t test and derived qualitative data from participants who provided written feedback on their massage experiences. Of the 1,090 massages offered, 692 (63%) were accepted. We observed a significant decrease in self-reported anxiety (from 3.9 to 1.7), nausea (from 2.5 to 1.2), pain (from 3.3 to 1.9), and fatigue (from 4.8 to 3.0) premassage and postmassage, respectively (all P massage, and 649 (94%) would recommend it to another patient undergoing treatment. Spontaneous patient responses overwhelmingly endorsed the massage as relaxing. No adverse events were reported. Among the 398 patients (36%) who declined a massage, top reasons were time concerns and lack of interest. A clinical oncology massage program can be safely and effectively integrated into chemoinfusion units to provide symptom control for patients with breast cancer. This integrative approach overcomes patient-level barriers of cost, time, and travel, and addresses the institutional-level barrier of space.

  12. Vegetation Classification, Inventory, and Ecological Integrity Assessment of the Wet Meadow Habitats: Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this biotic inventory contribute greatly to the construction of a solid foundation for wet meadow management on the Refuge and the wildlife that it...

  13. Species status assessment report New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus) (jumping mouse) lives in dense riparian herbaceous vegetation along streams from southern Colorado to...

  14. Bird Nesting Effort in Wet Meadows at Baca National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summers of 2013, 2015, and 2016, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service staff conducted research to determine nesting effort of avian species in the wet meadow...

  15. Outreach Plan : Crane Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Special Deer & Turkey Hunting Opportunities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a plan for special deer and turkey hunting opportunities at Crane Meadows NWR. Goals, strategies, messages, and key dates relevant to this plan are outlined.

  16. Draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental assessment: Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cokeville Meadows NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision...

  17. Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area...

  18. Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sunkhaze Meadows NWR, Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area, Benton Unit, and Unity Unit outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  19. Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Carlton Pond National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Fiscal year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sunhaze Meadows NWR and Carlton Pond WPA outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with...

  20. Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Carlton Pond National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Fiscal year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sunhaze Meadows NWR and Carlton Pond WPA outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with...

  1. Assessment of Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Wyoming for creosote contamination of wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Semi-permeable devices (SPMDs) were deployed in wetlands along a railroad right-of-way at the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Wyoming to...

  2. Soil acidity, temperature, and water relationships of four clovers in Sierra Nevada meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Ethelynda E. Harding

    1993-01-01

    Sites in meadows of the Sierra Nevada near Fresno, California, were studied to learn whether Bolander's (Trifolium holanderi Gray.), longstalked (T. longipes Nutt.), carpet (T. monanthum Gray.), and mountain (T. wormskioldii Lehm.) clovers occurred under the same soil acidity, temperature...

  3. Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001: Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Supawna Meadows NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  4. Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Supawna Meadows NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  5. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. Wet Meadow Plant Associations, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes vegetation data collected in July 2012 and July 2013 in wet meadow habitats on the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. It incorporates portions...

  8. Bacterial biomass and DNA diversity in an alluvial meadow soil upon long-term fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naumova, N.B.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis of bacterial DNA fragments and the assessment of bacterial biomass revealed changes in the diversity of the bacterial community in a meadow alluvial soil upon long-term fertilization.

  9. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  10. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  11. Sediment toxicity of Long Meadow Lake Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long Meadow Lake on the Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge - an important waterfowl production area - serves as a major urban stormwater receptor in the...

  12. Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Supawna Meadows NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  13. Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Supawna Meadows NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  14. Contaminant survey of Sunkhaze Stream and Baker Brook: Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1993 a screening-level contaminant survey of the Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge was conducted by the Maine Field Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  15. Burrowing shrimps and seagrass dynamics in shallow-water meadows off Bolinao (Nw Philippines)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nacorda, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: sediment gaps, Alpheus macellarius, Thalassinidea, burrows, seagrass canopies, sediment characteristics, Philippines Small-scale disturbance of seagrass meadows by burrowing shrimps was assessed by mapping and quantifying apparent disturbance marks (burrow openings, sand patches, sand

  16. A Program Evaluation Process to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellante, Donna; Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The process of program evaluation was utilized to evaluate the education program, provide information to make decisions on its ability to comply with mandates from the state education department, and develop or improve the program to meet the goals of the new initiative to meet the needs of English language learners. The program evaluation process…

  17. Ecological status of seagrass ecosystems: An uncertainty analysis of the meadow classification based on the Posidonia oceanica multivariate index (POMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott; Roca, Guillem; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2011-08-01

    Quantifying the uncertainty associated with monitoring protocols is essential to prevent the misclassification of ecological status and to improve sampling design. We assessed the Posidonia oceanica multivariate index (POMI) bio-monitoring program for its robustness in classifying the ecological status of coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive. We used a 7-year data set covering 30 sites along 500 km of the Catalonian coastline to examine which version of POMI (14 or 9 metrics) maximises precision in classifying the ecological status of meadows. Five factors (zones within a site, sites within a water body, depth, years and surveyors) that potentially generate classification uncertainty were examined in detail. Of these, depth was a major source of uncertainty, while all the remaining spatial and temporal factors displayed low variability. POMI 9 matched POMI 14 in all factors, and could effectively replace it in future monitoring programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anthropogenic Disturbance of Montane Meadows May Cause Substantial Loss of Soil Carbon to the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. C.; Sullivan, B. W.; Hart, S. C.; Drew, M.; Merrill, A.

    2016-12-01

    High-elevation meadows are biological hotspots that contain high densities of soil carbon (C). The capacity of these ecosystems to sequester C depends on a combination of high primary productivity, seasonally low temperatures, and anaerobic soil conditions associated with water tables at or near the soil surface. However, anthropogenic disturbances in many montane meadows in California's Sierra Nevada have lowered water tables, decreased primary productivity, and created aerobic soil conditions - changes that may alter the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reverse meadows from a net C sink to a net source. Recently, C policy in California has spurred interest in the potential of hydrologic restoration to increase C sequestration in meadows. However, soil C pools and fluxes in degraded meadows must be quantified before the impacts of restoration can accurately be assessed. In this study, we measured soil C stocks in surface soil (1 m) and annual soil GHG fluxes (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O)) in three degraded, northern Sierra Nevada meadows. In a parallel laboratory incubation, we manipulated meadow soil water content to determine target goals for restoration of anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that degraded meadows contain large reservoirs of existing C, but that this C may be vulnerable to decomposition under current conditions. Soil CO2 fluxes ranged from 26.7-33.1 Mg of CO2 ha-1 y-1, roughly equivalent to the amount of C sequestered annually by 70 acres of U.S. forests. These high rates of soil respiration, combined with low primary productivity, resulted in substantial losses of soil C with implications for climate change, ecosystem function, and restoration. Soils from these meadows were a net source of N2O and a net sink of CH4, but these fluxes were 4 orders of magnitude smaller than CO2. Also, we found substantial GHG emissions persist in these organic soils at peak soil moisture, suggesting that

  19. Integrative Reiki for cancer patients: a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Kimberly A; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Frankel, Eitan S; Seluzicki, Christina; Casarett, David; Mao, Jun J

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study sought to evaluate the outcomes of an integrative Reiki volunteer program in an academic medical oncology center setting. We used de-identified program evaluation data to perform both quantitative and qualitative analyses of participants' experiences of Reiki sessions. The quantitative data were collected pre- and postsession using a modified version of the distress thermometer. The pre- and postsession data from the distress assessment were analyzed using a paired Student's : test. The qualitative data were derived from written responses to open-ended questions asked after each Reiki session and were analyzed for key words and recurring themes. Of the 213 pre-post surveys of first-time sessions in the evaluation period, we observed a more than 50% decrease in self-reported distress (from 3.80 to 1.55), anxiety (from 4.05 to 1.44), depression (from 2.54 to 1.10), pain (from 2.58 to 1.21), and fatigue (from 4.80 to 2.30) with P Reiki, we found 176 (82.6%) of participants liked the Reiki session, 176 (82.6%) found the Reiki session helpful, 157 (73.7%) plan to continue using Reiki, and 175 (82.2%) would recommend Reiki to others. Qualitative analyses found that individuals reported that Reiki induced relaxation and enhanced spiritual well-being. An integrative Reiki volunteer program shows promise as a component of supportive care for cancer patients. More research is needed to evaluate and understand the impact that Reiki may have for patients, caregivers, and staff whose lives have been affected by cancer.

  20. [The beetle and spider fauna of meadows affected by traffic pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R

    1974-12-01

    1. The comparative effects of heavy versus light motor traffic on the composition of two fauna, beetles and spiders, were investigated. All meadows chosen for the study were morphologically and topographically similar. Three of the meadows were adjacent to a very busy road and two to a little-used road. The fauna were examined at the edge and in the interior of each meadow and the meadows on the busy road were then compared with these on the other road. 2. The numbers of species and of individual specimens of Carabidae were significantly lower (Wilcoxon test 0.05). 3. Comparison of the number of individuals of representative species in the differently situated meadows revealed a reduction in the number of specimens of Clivina fossor, Bembidion lampros, Amara communis, Ocypus olens, Lycosa pullata, Lycosa tarsalis on the sites adjacent to the busy road. Whereas some species showed no demonstrable change, a few (Pterostichus cupreus, Philonthus varius, Pachygnatha degeeri) exhibited greater number of individual specimens on the sites adjacent to the busy road than on those near the rural road. 4. The diversity index of Shannon and Weaver generally yielded a lower value for the border zone of the meadows on the busy road, while there was no change observed for the meadows bordering on the rural toad. 5. The presence or absence of lead within an animal carcass was taken as an indicator of motor vehicle pollution. Quantitative estimation of body content of lead was performed in three representative beetle species by flame spectrometry. Individuals of Carabus auratus and Pterostichus cupreus captured near the edge of the busy road showed a significantly higher level of body lead than those captured in the middle of the field. No significant differences in lead deposits were observed between specimens of Ocypus olens captured on the roadside and those captured at other locations in the meadow, perhaps due to the greater range of mobility of this species.

  1. Participants' evaluation of a weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeldt-Beman, M K; Corrigan, S A; Stevens, V J; Sugars, C P; Dalcin, A T; Givi, M J; Copeland, K C

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate participants' perceptions of the weight-loss intervention used in a hypertension prevention clinical trial. A total of 308 overweight and moderately obese subjects participated in the weight-management intervention. After the 18-month program, 281 participants completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their perceptions of the program's effectiveness. Adult participants (224 men and 84 women) in the weight-loss modality of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Phase I, surveyed in 1991. chi 2 Analyses were used to test for statistical significance of group differences. Intervention components that were most useful are presented. Older participants (older than 50 years) were most likely to attend sessions and women were most likely to identify stress and frustration because of disappointing results. Successful participants were more likely to incorporate exercise into their daily activities, exercise regularly, and use self-monitoring strategies. Few participants found group exercise to be useful. These findings suggest that interventionists in weight-loss programs need to find flexible and creative ways to maintain contact with participants, continue to develop better methods of self-monitoring, obtain the skills needed to recognize frustration and provide timely support, continue to couple the message of diet and exercise, and emphasize helping participants develop their problem-solving skills. This may require training outside the traditional field of dietetics.

  2. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  3. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    The computational procedures used in the evaluation of spacecraft technology programs that impact upon commercial communication satellite operations are discussed. Computer programs and data bases are described.

  4. Implementing and evaluating a program to facilitate chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: a mixed methods program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva

    2014-10-08

    The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of the program are improved clinical outcomes, reduction in the burden of chronic disease, and improved sustainability of the health-care system through improved CDPS in primary care. The BETTER 2 program aims to expand the implementation of the intervention used in the original BETTER trial into communities across Canada (Alberta, Ontario, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories and Nova Scotia). This proactive approach provides at-risk patients with an intervention from the prevention practitioner, a health-care professional. Using the BETTER toolkit, the prevention practitioner determines which CDPS actions the patient is eligible to receive, and through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing, develops a unique and individualized 'prevention prescription' with the patient. This intervention is 1) personalized; 2) addressing multiple conditions; 3) integrated through linkages to local, regional, or national resources; and 4) longitudinal by assessing patients over time. The BETTER 2 program brings together primary care providers, policy/decision makers and researchers to work towards improving CDPS in primary care. The target patient population is adults aged 40-65. The reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintain (RE-AIM) framework will inform the evaluation of the program through qualitative and quantitative methods. A composite index will be used to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the prevention practitioner intervention. The CDPS actions

  5. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  6. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  7. Monitoring and evaluation of green public procurement programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, Aure [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Schaefer, Bettina [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Corry, Jenny [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Effective procurement policies can help governments save considerable amounts of money while also reducing energy consumption. Additionally, private sector companies which purchase large numbers of energy-consuming devices can benefit from procurement policies that minimize life-cycle energy costs. Both public and private procurement programs offer opportunities to generate market-transforming demand for energy efficient appliances and lighting fixtures. In recent years, several governments have implemented policies to procure energy efficient products and services. When deploying these policies, efforts have focused on developing resources for implementation (guidelines, energy efficiency specifications for tenders, life cycle costing tools, training, etc.) rather than defining monitoring systems to track progress against the set objectives. Implementation resources are necessary to make effective policies; however, developing Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E) mechanisms are critical to ensure that the policies are effective. The purpose of this article is to provide policy makers and procurement officials with a preliminary map of existing approaches and key components to monitor Energy Efficient Procurement (EEP) programs in order to contribute to the improvement of their own systems. Case studies are used throughout the paper to illustrate promising approaches to improve the M and E of EEP programs, from the definition of the system or data collection to complementary instruments to improve both the monitoring response and program results.

  8. Iterative Evaluation in a Mobile Counseling and Testing Program to Reach People of Color at Risk for HIV--New Strategies Improve Program Acceptability, Effectiveness, and Evaluation Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Freya; Kurth, Ann; Reidy, William; McKnight, Teka; Dikobe, Wame; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights findings from an evaluation that explored the impact of mobile versus clinic-based testing, rapid versus central-lab based testing, incentives for testing, and the use of a computer counseling program to guide counseling and automate evaluation in a mobile program reaching people of color at risk for HIV. The program's…

  9. Evaluation of the suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, using the CIPP evaluation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Wei; Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lee, Ming-Been; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kaohsiung Suicide Prevention Center (KSPC) of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, during the period from June 2005 to June 2008. We used a modified CIPP evaluation model to evaluate the suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung. Four evaluation models were applied to evaluate the KSPC: a context evaluation of the background and origin of the center, an input evaluation of the resources of the center, a process evaluation of the activities of the suicide prevention project, and a product evaluation of the ascertainment of project objectives. The context evaluation revealed that the task of the KSPC is to lower mortality. The input evaluation assessed the efficiency of manpower and the grants supported by Taiwan's Department of Health and Kaohsiung City government's Bureau of Health. In the process evaluation, we inspected the suicide prevention strategies of the KSPC, which are a modified version of the National Suicide Prevention Strategy of Australia. In the product evaluation, four major objectives were evaluated: (1) the suicide rate in Kaohsiung, (2) the reported suicidal cases, (3) crisis line calls, and (4) telephone counseling. From 2005 to 2008, the number of telephone counseling sessions (1,432, 2,010, 7,051, 12,517) and crisis line calls (0, 4,320, 10,339, 14,502) increased. Because of the increase in reported suicidal cases (1,328, 2,625, 2,795, and 2,989, respectively), cases which were underreported in the past, we have increasingly been able to contact the people who need help. During this same time period, the half-year suicide re-attempt rate decreased significantly for those who received services, and the committed suicide rate (21.4, 20.1, 18.2, and 17.8 per 100,000 populations, respectively) also decreased. The suicide prevention program in Kaohsiung is worth implementing on a continual basis if financial constraints are addressed.

  10. Evaluator and Program Manager Perceptions of Evaluation Capacity and Evaluation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Leslie A.; Christie, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation community has demonstrated an increased emphasis and interest in evaluation capacity building in recent years. A need currently exists to better understand how to measure evaluation capacity and its potential outcomes. In this study, we distributed an online questionnaire to managers and evaluation points of contact working in…

  11. The impact of dredge-fill on Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows: regression and patterns of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalamenti, Fabio; Alagna, Adriana; D'Anna, Giovanni; Terlizzi, Antonio; Di Carlo, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Posidonia oceanica meadows can be severely damaged by dredge-fill operations. We report on the construction of gas pipelines that occurred between 1981 and 1993 in SW Sicily, Italy. A large portion of the meadow was mechanically removed, and the excavated trench was filled with a mosaic of substrates, ranging from sand to consolidated rock debris. Meadow loss and recovery were quantified over 7 years after the end of operations. We recorded an overall loss of 81.20 ha of meadow. Substrate strongly affected recovery as the percent cover by P. oceanica consistently increased on calcareous rubble, reaching values of 44.37 ± 3.05% in shallow sites after 7 years, whereas no significant increase occurred on other substrates. As in the Mediterranean Sea exploitation of coastal areas continues to grow with consequent impacts on P. oceanica meadows, this case study illustrates how artificial rubble-like materials could be employed to support the restoration of damaged meadows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a Secure Laptop-Based Testing Program in an Undergraduate Nursing Program: Students' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinyuan; Gunter, Glenda; Tsai, Ming-Hsiu; Lim, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the many robust learning management systems, and the availability of affordable laptops, have made secure laptop-based testing a reality on many campuses. The undergraduate nursing program at the authors' university began to implement a secure laptop-based testing program in 2009, which allowed students to use their newly purchased laptops to take quizzes and tests securely in classrooms. After nearly 5 years' secure laptop-based testing program implementation, a formative evaluation, using a mixed method that has both descriptive and correlational data elements, was conducted to seek constructive feedback from students to improve the program. Evaluation data show that, overall, students (n = 166) believed the secure laptop-based testing program helps them get hands-on experience of taking examinations on the computer and gets them prepared for their computerized NCLEX-RN. Students, however, had a lot of concerns about laptop glitches and campus wireless network glitches they experienced during testing. At the same time, NCLEX-RN first-time passing rate data were analyzed using the χ2 test, and revealed no significant association between the two testing methods (paper-and-pencil testing and the secure laptop-based testing) and students' first-time NCLEX-RN passing rate. Based on the odds ratio, however, the odds of students passing NCLEX-RN the first time was 1.37 times higher if they were taught with the secure laptop-based testing method than if taught with the traditional paper-and-pencil testing method in nursing school. It was recommended to the institution that better quality of laptops needs to be provided to future students, measures needed to be taken to further stabilize the campus wireless Internet network, and there was a need to reevaluate the Laptop Initiative Program.

  13. Validation of a proposal for evaluating hospital infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2011-02-01

    To validate the construct and discriminant properties of a hospital infection prevention and control program. The program consisted of four indicators: technical-operational structure; operational prevention and control guidelines; epidemiological surveillance system; and prevention and control activities. These indicators, with previously validated content, were applied to 50 healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the hospitals and indicator scores, and Cronbach's α coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The discriminant validity was analyzed by comparing indicator scores between groups of hospitals: with versus without quality certification. The construct validity analysis was based on exploratory factor analysis with a tetrachoric correlation matrix. The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically significant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certification or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identified for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identified. Validation of the measurement properties of the hospital infection prevention and control program indicators made it possible to develop a tool for evaluating these programs

  14. Sediment Properties as Important Predictors of Carbon Storage in Zostera marina Meadows: A Comparison of Four European Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dahl

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal down to ~35 cm depth. We also tested how sedimentary organic carbon in Z. marina meadows relates to different sediment characteristics, a range of seagrass-associated variables and water depth. The seagrass carbon storage varied greatly among areas, with an average organic carbon content ranging from 2.79 ± 0.50% in the Gullmar Fjord to 0.17 ± 0.02% in the area of Sozopol. We found that a high proportion of fine grain size, high porosity and low density of the sediment is strongly related to high carbon content in Z. marina sediment. We suggest that sediment properties should be included as an important factor when evaluating high priority areas in management of Z. marina generated carbon sinks.

  15. Development of an Automated Remedy Performance Evaluation Program - 13622

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkin, Matthew J.; Kennel, Jonathan [S.S. Papadopulos and Assoc., Inc., 7944 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); Biebesheimer, Frederick; Dooley, David [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Performance monitoring is a vital element of groundwater remediation. Unfortunately, the enormous efforts and costs that are expended procuring, managing, processing and storing monitoring data are often not subject to correspondingly rigorous evaluation. This is despite the fact that many steps in the process are predictable and are repeated many times over the remedy life cycle. At the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, a program is underway to automate many of these steps - processing, formatting any analyzing large volumes of heterogeneous data associated with the operation of several groundwater pump-and-treat (P and T) and in-situ remedies. The Automated Remedy Performance Evaluation Program (ARPEP) was developed from a work-flow process designed to deliver (a) monthly data summaries and preliminary analysis, (b) quarterly performance assessments, and (c) annual roll-up analyses that detect changes in long-term monitoring datasets and support remedy optimization. The intent of the ARPEP is to provide detailed, systematic and traceable data summaries, depictions and analyses that can be used by project scientists to complete their evaluation of remedy performance. The ARPEP work-flow was formalized following extensive review of applicable guidance, regulation and industry standards. The ARPEP incorporates disparate data types collected over different frequencies, such as water levels and pumping rates recorded every minute, and groundwater sample results obtained on quarterly, annual or irregular intervals. The data are processed, reduced to frequencies suitable for assessment, and combined in various ways leading to performance indicators such as (a) pumped well capacities and system downtime that reflect operational performance; (b) hydraulic gradients and areas of hydraulic containment that reflect hydraulic performance; and (c) time-series (longitudinal) and geo-statistical (spatial) trend analyses that reflect progress toward attainment of Remedial

  16. An Evaluation System for the Online Training Programs in Meteorology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhi, Xiefei

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the current evaluation system for the online training program in meteorology and hydrology. CIPP model that includes context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation and product evaluation differs from Kirkpatrick model including reactions evaluation, learning evaluation, transfer evaluation and results evaluation in…

  17. The Lassen Astrobiology Intern Program - Concept, Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Dueck, S. L.; Davis, H. B.; Parenteau, M. N.; Kubo, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The program goal was to provide a hands-on astrobiology learning experience to high school students by introducing astrobiology and providing opportunities to conduct field and lab research with NASA scientists. The program sought to increase interest in interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, math and related careers. Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP), Red Bluff High School and the Ames Team of the NASA Astrobiology Institute led the program. LVNP was selected because it shares aspects of volcanism with Mars and it hosts thermal springs with microbial mat communities. Students documented volcanic deposits, springs and microbial mats. They analyzed waters and sampled rocks, water and microorganisms. They cultured microorganisms and studied chemical reactions between rocks and simulated spring waters. Each student prepared a report to present data and discuss relationships between volcanic rocks and gases, spring waters and microbial mats. At a "graduation" event the students presented their findings to the Red Bluff community. They visited Ames Research Center to tour the facilities and learn about science and technology careers. To evaluate program impact, surveys were given to students after lectures, labs, fieldwork and discussions with Ames scientists. Students' work was scored using rubrics (labs, progress reports, final report, presentation). Students took pre/post tests on core astrobiology concepts. Parents, teachers, rangers, Ames staff and students completed end-of-year surveys on program impact. Several outcomes were documented. Students had a unique and highly valued learning experience with NASA scientists. They understood what scientists do through authentic scientific work, and what scientists are like as individuals. Students became knowledgeable about astrobiology and how it can be pursued in the lab and in the field. The students' interest increased markedly in astrobiology, interdisciplinary studies and science generally.

  18. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  19. Evaluation of emergency medicine training programs in Egypt: Trainees’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser, T.

    2013-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) is in the early development phase in Egypt. There is an Egyptian Board of Emergency Medicine that has been in existence for approximately 10 years, along with academic master degree in EM from three medical schools (Alexandria, Tanta and Suez Canal). Until now, there is not a specialty society in emergency medicine or national annual meetings to evaluate the training progress and give the trainees the chance to see and be seen. It is known that each program has two-fol...

  20. Evaluating Vocational Educators' Training Programs: A Kirkpatrick-Inspired Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicchio, Fabrizio; Trentin, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to describe the assessment model adopted by the SCINTILLA Project, a project in Italy aimed at the online vocational training of young, seriously-disabled subjects and their subsequent work inclusion in smart-work mode. It will thus describe the model worked out for evaluation of the training program conceived for the…

  1. Evaluating a Graduate Professional Development Program for Informal Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jeremy Paul

    This study is an examination and evaluation of the outcomes of a series of courses that I helped build to create a graduate certificate. Specifically, I wanted to evaluate whether or not the online iteration of the Informal Science Institutions Environmental Education Graduate Certificate Program truly provided the long term professional development needed to enhance the skills of the formal and informal educators participating so that they could contribute meaningfully to the improvement of science literacy in their respective communities. My role as an internal evaluator provided an extraordinary opportunity to know the intent of the learning opportunities and why they were constructed in a particular fashion. Through the combination of my skills, personal experiences both within the certificate's predecessor and as an educator, I was uniquely qualified to explore the outcomes of this program and evaluate its effectiveness in providing a long-term professional development for participants. After conducting a literature review that emphasized a need for greater scientific literacy in communities across America, it was evident that the formal education enterprise needs the support of informal educators working on the ground in myriad different settings in ways that provide science as both content and process, learning science facts and doing real science. Through a bridging of informal science educators with formal teachers, it was thought each could learn the culture of the other, making each more fluent in accessing community resources to help make these educators more collaborative and able to bridge the classroom with the outside world. This bridge promotes ongoing, lifelong learning, which in turn can help the national goal of greater scientific literacy. This study provided insight into the thinking involved in the learners' growth as they converted theory presented in course materials into practice. Through an iterative process of reviewing the course

  2. Small Commercial Program DOE Project: Impact evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathgate, R.; Faust, S. [Energy and Solid Waste Consultants, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    1992-08-12

    In 1991, Washington Electric Cooperative (WEC) implemented a Department of Energy grant to conduct a small commercial energy conservation project. The small commercial ``Mom, and Pop`` grocery stores within WEC`s service territory were selected as the target market for the project. Energy & Solid Waste Consultant`s (E&SWC) Impact Evaluation is documented here. The evaluation was based on data gathered from a variety of sources, including load profile metering, kWh submeters, elapsed time indicators, and billing histories. Five stores were selected to receive measures under this program: Waits River General Store, Joe`s Pond Store, Hastings Store, Walden General Store, and Adamant Cooperative. Specific measures installed in each store and description of each are included.

  3. Characterisation of a new potyvirus species infecting meadow saffron Colchicum autumnale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutaraud, A; Desbiez, C; Lemaire, O; Lecoq, H; Herrbach, E

    2004-07-01

    The alkaloids contained in Colchicum autumnale seeds are used in numerous medicines. Good quality seeds are difficult to obtain from this undomesticated plant. Therefore, a research program was set up aiming to cultivate C. autumnale in order to improve alkaloid contents and seed yields. In this context, a collection was established in 1999 by transplanting corms from twelve different locations in Eastern France. However, serious symptoms of necrosis and decay have appeared in this collection since 2001. Electron microscopic observations of plants showing symptoms revealed the presence of filamentous particles and pinwheel-like structures characteristic of the Potyviridae family. Leaves and corms from symptomatic plants were assayed with potyvirus-specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test. Positive reactions were obtained with plants from all the geographic origins, which exhibited flower breaking symptoms on petals. RT-PCR tests with family Potyviridae-specific primers confirmed the ELISA results and showed that the virus can be detected in corms, roots and flowers of symptomatic plants. The 3' region of the genome was cloned, sequenced and compared to other potyvirus species. Phylogenetic analyses suggest the presence of a new viral species tentatively named Meadow saffron breaking virus (MSBV) in C. autumnale.

  4. Evaluation of a respiratory rehabilitation program in children with scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solache-Carranco, Angela; Sánchez-Bringas, María Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Thoracic scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the spine associated with restrictive lung defects, manifested by a decrease in respiratory function tests. We undertook this study to evaluate the effect of a respiratory rehabilitation program over lung function in children with scoliosis. We carried out a prospective and deliberate intervention study including 25 consecutive patients, aged 6 to 18 years, diagnosed with thoracic scoliosis. The respiratory rehabilitation program was structured into two phases: institutional and private residence. Statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive parameters and paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. Spearman correlation was used to measure intensity of association among variables. Statistical significance was considered when p respiratory symptoms were dyspnea with poor effort tolerance in 52%. After treatment, 88% of patients were asymptomatic and only 4% presented poor effort tolerance. Oxygen saturation and forced vital capacity percentage had a significant increment after the program. Respiratory rehabilitation has a positive effect on increasing pulmonary function of children with scoliosis.

  5. Evaluation of Integrated Child Development Services program in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Rajesh K; Kadri, A M; Verma, Pramod B; Patel, Umed V; Joshi, Nirav; Zalavadiya, Dipesh; Bhola, Chirag

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program in terms of infrastructure of Anganwadi centers, inputs, process, coverage and utilization of services, and issues related to program operation in twelve districts of Gujarat, India. Facility (Anganwadi) based study. Twelve districts of Gujarat, India (April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013). ICDS service providers (60 Anganwadi workers from 46 rural and 14 urban Anganwadi centers) and their beneficiaries. Coverage of supplementary nutrition, pre-school education, immunization and referral services. Supplementary nutrition coverage was reported in 48.3% in children. Interruption in supply of supplementary nutrition during last six months was reported in 61.7% Anganwadi centers. Only 20% centers reported 100% pre-school education coverage among children. Immunization of all children was recorded in only 10% Anganwadi centers, while in 76.7% centers, no such records were available. Regular health checkup of beneficiaries was done in 30% centers. Referral slips were available in 18.3% Anganwadi centers and referral of sick children was done from only 8.3% centers. There are program gaps in coverage of supplementary nutrition in children, its regular supply to the beneficiaries, in pre-school activities coverage, recording of immunization, and regular health check-up of beneficiaries and referral of sick children.

  6. [Evaluation of the school-lunch program in Campinas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salay, E; de Carvalho, J F

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the calorie and protein adequacies, to establishoffe operation model and the operational difficulties of the School-Lunch Program in Campinas, Brazil. Six schools randomly selected (1,237 children) were investigated. Calorie and protein consumption were estimated by weighed records. A model food project was developed in order to analyse the city food-service operation. The adequacy values were very low: 48.6 +/- 17.3% for energy and 52.7 +/- 17.2% for protein. The Tukey test indicated that schools did not differ regarding adequacies (alpha = 0.005). The results suggested that the efficiency and/or the impact of Campinas program may be limited by both, lack of resources and several operation failures such as: preparation of large amount of food which is not served to the children; the type of the food served; the ineffective administrative controls; the low supervision frequency, low school garden production and inefficient staff training; as well as the lack of food quality control, evaluations, community participation, nutritional education had integration with health programs.

  7. Object-oriented fault tree evaluation program for quantitative analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    Object-oriented programming can be combined with fault free techniques to give a significantly improved environment for evaluating the safety and reliability of large complex systems for space missions. Deep knowledge about system components and interactions, available from reliability studies and other sources, can be described using objects that make up a knowledge base. This knowledge base can be interrogated throughout the design process, during system testing, and during operation, and can be easily modified to reflect design changes in order to maintain a consistent information source. An object-oriented environment for reliability assessment has been developed on a Texas Instrument (TI) Explorer LISP workstation. The program, which directly evaluates system fault trees, utilizes the object-oriented extension to LISP called Flavors that is available on the Explorer. The object representation of a fault tree facilitates the storage and retrieval of information associated with each event in the tree, including tree structural information and intermediate results obtained during the tree reduction process. Reliability data associated with each basic event are stored in the fault tree objects. The object-oriented environment on the Explorer also includes a graphical tree editor which was modified to display and edit the fault trees.

  8. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and outreach. In support of NASA's and NLSI's objective to train the next generation of scientists, CLSE's High School Lunar Research Projects program is a conduit through which high school students can actively participate in lunar science and learn about pathways into scientific careers. The objectives of the program are to enhance 1) student views of the nature of science; 2) student attitudes toward science and science careers; and 3) student knowledge of lunar science. In its first three years, approximately 140 students and 28 teachers from across the United States have participated in the program. Before beginning their research, students undertake Moon 101, a guided-inquiry activity designed to familiarize them with lunar science and exploration. Following Moon 101, and guided by a lunar scientist mentor, teams choose a research topic, ask their own research question, and design their own research approach to direct their investigation. At the conclusion of their research, teams present their results to a panel of lunar scientists. This panel selects four posters to be presented at the annual Lunar Science Forum held at NASA Ames. The top scoring team travels to the forum to present their research. Three instruments have been developed or modified to evaluate the extent to which the High School Lunar Research Projects meets its objectives. These three instruments measure changes in student views of the nature of science, attitudes towards science and science careers, and knowledge of lunar science. Exit surveys for teachers, students, and mentors were also developed to elicit general feedback about the program and its impact. The nature of science

  9. 75 FR 27992 - Solicitation of Applications for the Research and Evaluation Program: FY 2010 Mapping Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Economic Development Administration Solicitation of Applications for the Research and Evaluation Program: FY 2010 Mapping Regional Innovation Clusters Project Competition AGENCY: Economic Development... Research and Evaluation program, the Economic Development Administration (EDA) solicits applications to...

  10. Carbon storage in the seagrass meadows of Gazi Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Githaiga

    Full Text Available Vegetated marine habitats are globally important carbon sinks, making a significant contribution towards mitigating climate change, and they provide a wide range of other ecosystem services. However, large gaps in knowledge remain, particularly for seagrass meadows in Africa. The present study estimated biomass and sediment organic carbon (Corg stocks of four dominant seagrass species in Gazi Bay, Kenya. It compared sediment Corg between seagrass areas in vegetated and un-vegetated 'controls', using the naturally patchy occurence of seagrass at this site to test the impacts of seagrass growth on sediment Corg. It also explored relationships between the sediment and above-ground Corg, as well as between the total biomass and above-ground parameters. Sediment Corg was significantly different between species, range: 160.7-233.8 Mg C ha-1 (compared to the global range of 115.3 to 829.2 Mg C ha-1. Vegetated areas in all species had significantly higher sediment Corg compared with un-vegetated controls; the presence of seagrass increased Corg by 4-6 times. Biomass carbon differed significantly between species with means ranging between 4.8-7.1 Mg C ha-1 compared to the global range of 2.5-7.3 Mg C ha-1. To our knowledge, these are among the first results on seagrass sediment Corg to be reported from African seagrass beds; and contribute towards our understanding of the role of seagrass in global carbon dynamics.

  11. Evaluation of the Radiography Program at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute--Summer, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipes, V. David

    As part of a periodic evaluation of the occupational programs at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute (CCC&TI), a study of the radiography program was conducted to collect information to facilitate planning, aid in program improvement, and meet accountability demands. The specific objectives of the program evaluation were to…

  12. Patterns and drivers of scattered tree loss in agricultural landscapes: orchard meadows in Germany (1968-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    Full Text Available Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts.

  13. Patterns and Drivers of Scattered Tree Loss in Agricultural Landscapes: Orchard Meadows in Germany (1968-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Levers, Christian; Mantel, Martin; Costa, Augusta; Schaich, Harald; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Scattered trees support high levels of farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, but they are threatened by agricultural intensification, urbanization, and land abandonment. This study aimed to map and quantify the decline of orchard meadows (scattered fruit trees of high nature conservation value) for a region in Southwestern Germany for the 1968 2009 period and to identify the driving forces of this decline. We derived orchard meadow loss from 1968 and 2009 aerial images and used a boosted regression trees modelling framework to assess the relative importance of 18 environmental, demographic, and socio-economic variables to test five alternative hypothesis explaining orchard meadow loss. We found that orchard meadow loss occurred in flatter areas, in areas where smaller plot sizes and fragmented orchard meadows prevailed, and in areas near settlements and infrastructure. The analysis did not confirm that orchard meadow loss was higher in areas where agricultural intensification was stronger and in areas of lower implementation levels of conservation policies. Our results demonstrated that the influential drivers of orchard meadow loss were those that reduce economic profitability and increase opportunity costs for orchards, providing incentives for converting orchard meadows to other, more profitable land uses. These insights could be taken up by local- and regional-level conservation policies to identify the sites of persistent orchard meadows in agricultural landscapes that would be prioritized in conservation efforts. PMID:25932914

  14. THE FERTILIZATION EFFECT OF PERMANENT MEADOWS WITH SPENT MUSHROM SUBSTRATE ON THE UPTAKING OF MANGANESE, COPPER AND ZINC BY THE MEADOW SWARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wiśniewska-Kadżajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the years 1999–2001 in a meadow with the following fertilizer combinations: control object (without fertilizer, NPK mineral fertilization, fertilizing with manure, manure with NPK fertilization, fertilizing with spent mushroom substrate; spent mushroom substrate with NPK fertilization. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of permanent grassland fertilization both with spent mushroom substrate and the one supplemented with NPK on the uptaking of manganese, copper and zinc by the meadow sward. After the cultivation of mushrooms, in comparison to the standard manure, the substrate used in the experiment was characterized by more than twice higher amount of manganese and zinc. However, the amount of copper in the organic materials was similar. In spite of having supplied lager amount of manganese, zinc and similar amount of copper to the mushrooms substrate, it caused the reduction of the uptake of the elements in the meadow sward. In spite of supplying larger amounts of manganese, zinc and copper the reduction of their uptaking by meadow sward was observed in comparison to manure mushroom substrate. This may be connected with a slightly alkaline reaction of the soil environment, thus limiting the uptake of the studied micronutrients.

  15. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conan O' Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three of PEARL program during the period of October 2002 to April 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The products tested are 20 models of screw-based compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) of various types and various wattages made or marketed by 12 different manufacturers, and ten models of residential lighting fixtures from eight different manufacturers.

  16. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conan O' Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Four and Cycle Five of PEARL program during the period of October 2003 to April 2004, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle Four is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Five are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  17. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conan O' Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three and Cycle Four of PEARL program during the period of April 2003 to October 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle three is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Four are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  18. Evaluating Realized Impacts of DOE/EERE R&D Programs. Standard impact evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc. (United States); O' Connor, Alan C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Loomis, Ross J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments of research and development (R&D) programs for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). It is also targeted at EERE program staff responsible for initiating and managing commissioned impact studies. The guide specifies how to estimate economic benefits and costs, energy saved and installed or generated, environmental impacts, energy security impacts, and knowledge impacts of R&D investments in advanced energy technologies.

  19. Interfacing theories of program with theories of evaluation for advancing evaluation practice: Reductionism, systems thinking, and pragmatic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey T

    2016-12-01

    Theories of program and theories of evaluation form the foundation of program evaluation theories. Theories of program reflect assumptions on how to conceptualize an intervention program for evaluation purposes, while theories of evaluation reflect assumptions on how to design useful evaluation. These two types of theories are related, but often discussed separately. This paper attempts to use three theoretical perspectives (reductionism, systems thinking, and pragmatic synthesis) to interface them and discuss the implications for evaluation practice. Reductionism proposes that an intervention program can be broken into crucial components for rigorous analyses; systems thinking view an intervention program as dynamic and complex, requiring a holistic examination. In spite of their contributions, reductionism and systems thinking represent the extreme ends of a theoretical spectrum; many real-world programs, however, may fall in the middle. Pragmatic synthesis is being developed to serve these moderate- complexity programs. These three theoretical perspectives have their own strengths and challenges. Knowledge on these three perspectives and their evaluation implications can provide a better guide for designing fruitful evaluations, improving the quality of evaluation practice, informing potential areas for developing cutting-edge evaluation approaches, and contributing to advancing program evaluation toward a mature applied science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of a child sexual abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, L; Tabachnick, J

    1999-10-01

    A half-million children are believed to be sexually abused each year in the United States. In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual assault "a silent violent epidemic." The majority of efforts to stop child sexual abuse have focused on punishing abusers and treating victims and their families; prevention programs are uncommon and rely on educating children to report sexual abuse. This case study describes the evaluation of the first public health campaign designed to target adults for prevention. A baseline assessment of attitudes, awareness, knowledge, and policies was conducted in Vermont to identify facilitators and barriers to adult prevention of child sexual abuse. These included predisposing factors (50% of Vermont residents did not know the characteristics of an abuser), enabling factors (60% of Vermont residents did not know where to refer someone who may have sexual behavior problems), and reinforcing factors (when focus group participants knew an abuser, they were less likely to take action). This process guided the intervention, which included a broad-based media campaign targeting adults; a one-to-one communications strategy that provided information to agencies working with families at risk and a toll-free helpline for adults in an abuse situation; and a systems change strategy designed to educate decision-makers and leaders. Program evaluation measures included a random-digit dial survey, focus groups, a survey of Vermont decision-makers, and other data sets. The successes and limitations of these interventions, both as strategies in themselves and as data sources for evaluation, are discussed.

  1. Breaking a Spell of Silence: The Tasmanian Evaluation of the 2006 Pride & Prejudice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Doug

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of the Pride & Prejudice program, which ran in three Tasmanian schools in 2006, suggests that students who completed the program had more positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. This finding parallels an earlier evaluation of the same anti-homophobia program undertaken in Victoria. The evaluation leads to a discussion…

  2. 75 FR 69399 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Coastal Resources Management Program evaluation site visit will be held January 3-7, 2011. One public... Program. Please direct written comments to Kate Barba, Chief, National Policy and Evaluation Division... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and...

  3. Evaluating RITES, a Statewide Math and Science Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. P.; Caulkins, J. L.; Burns, A. L.; de Oliveira, G.; Dooley, H.; Brand, S.; Veeger, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Rhode Island Technology-Enhanced Science project (RITES) is a NSF-MSP Program that seeks to improve science education by providing professional development to science teachers at the 5th through 12th grade levels. At it's heart, RITES is a complex, multifaceted project that is challenging to evaluate because of the nature of its goal: the development of a large, statewide partnership between higher education and K12 public school districts during a time when science education strategies and leadership are in flux. As a result, these difficulties often require flexibility and creativity regarding evaluation, study design and data collection. In addition, the research agenda of the project often overlaps with the evaluator's agenda, making collaboration and communication a crucial component of the project's success. In it's 5th year, RITES and it's evaluators have developed a large number of instruments, both qualitative and quantitative, to provide direction and feedback on the effectiveness of the project's activities. RITES personnel work closely with evaluators and researchers to obtain a measure of how RITES' 'theory-of-action' affects both student outcomes and teacher practice. Here we discuss measures of teacher and student content gains, student inquiry gains, and teacher implementation surveys. Using content questions based on AAAS and MOSART databases, teachers in the short courses and students in classrooms showed significant normalized learning gains with averages generally above 0.3. Students of RITES-trained teachers also outperformed their non-RITES peers on the inquiry-section of the NECAP test, and The results show, after controlling for race and economic status, a small but statistically significant increase in test scores for RITES students. Technology use in the classroom significantly increased for teachers who were 'expected implementers' where 'expected implementers' are those teachers who implemented RITES as the project was designed. This

  4. Toward a More Nuanced Approach to Program Effectiveness Assessment: Hierarchical Linear Models in K-12 Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Xiaoxia A.; Llosa, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Most K-12 evaluations are designed to make inferences about how a program implemented at the classroom or school level affects student learning outcomes and such inferences inherently involve hierarchical data structure. One methodological challenge for evaluators is linking program implementation factors typically measured at the classroom or…

  5. Evaluating environmental education, citizen science, and stewardship through naturalist programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenlender, Adina M; Crall, Alycia W; Drill, Sabrina; Prysby, Michelle; Ballard, Heidi

    2016-12-01

    Amateur naturalists have played an important role in the study and conservation of nature since the 17th century. Today, naturalist groups make important contributions to bridge the gap between conservation science and practice around the world. We examined data from 2 regional naturalist programs to understand participant motivations, barriers, and perspectives as well as the actions they take to advance science, stewardship, and community engagement. These programs provide certification-based natural history and conservation science training for adults that is followed by volunteer service in citizen science, education, and stewardship. Studies in California and Virginia include quantitative and qualitative evaluation data collected through pre- and postcourse surveys, interviews, and long-term tracking of volunteer hours. Motivations of participants focused on learning about the local environment and plants and animals, connecting with nature, becoming certified, and spending time with people who have similar interests. Over half the participants surveyed were over 50 years old, two-thirds were women, and a majority reported household incomes of over $50,000 (60% in California, 85% in Virginia), and <20% of those surveyed in both states described themselves as nonwhite. Thus, these programs need to improve participation by a wider spectrum of the public. We interviewed younger and underrepresented adults to examine barriers to participation in citizen science. The primary barrier was lack of time due to the need to work and focus on career advancement. Survey data revealed that participants' ecological knowledge, scientific skills, and belief in their ability to address environmental issues increased after training. Documented conservation actions taken by the participants include invasive plant management, habitat restoration, and cleanups of natural areas and streams. Long-term data from Virginia on volunteer hours dedicated to environmental citizen science

  6. Light availability and temperature, not increased CO2, will structure future meadows of Posidonia oceanica

    KAUST Repository

    Hendriks, Iris E.

    2017-02-15

    We evaluated the photosynthetic performance of Posidonia oceanica during short-term laboratory exposures to ambient and elevated temperatures (24–25°C and 29–30°C) warming and pCO2 (380, 750 and 1000ppm pCO2) under normal and low light conditions (200 and 40μmol photons m−2s−1 respectively). Plant growth was measured at the low light regime and showed a negative response to warming. Light was a critical factor for photosynthetic performance, although we found no evidence of compensation of photosynthetic quantum efficiency in high light. Relative Electron Rate Transport (rETRmax) was higher in plants incubated in high light, but not affected by pCO2 or temperature. The saturation irradiance (Ik) was negatively affected by temperature. We conclude that elevated CO2 does not enhance photosynthetic activity and growth, in the short term for P. oceanica, while temperature has a direct negative effect on growth. Low light availability also negatively affected photosynthetic performance during the short experimental period examined here. Therefore increasing concentrations of CO2 may not compensate for predicted future conditions of warmer water and higher turbidity for seagrass meadows.

  7. Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

  8. Contribution of seagrass plants to CO2 capture in a tropical seagrass meadow under experimental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Deyanova

    Full Text Available Coastal vegetative habitats are known to be highly productive environments with a high ability to capture and store carbon. During disturbance this important function could be compromised as plant photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and/or growth are reduced. To evaluate effects of disturbance on CO2 capture in plants we performed a five-month manipulative experiment in a tropical seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii meadow exposed to two intensity levels of shading and simulated grazing. We assessed CO2 capture potential (as net CO2 fixation using areal productivity calculated from continuous measurements of diel photosynthetic rates, and estimates of plant morphology, biomass and productivity/respiration (P/R ratios (from the literature. To better understand the plant capacity to coping with level of disturbance we also measured plant growth and resource allocation. We observed substantial reductions in seagrass areal productivity, biomass, and leaf area that together resulted in a negative daily carbon balance in the two shading treatments as well as in the high-intensity simulated grazing treatment. Additionally, based on the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and starch in the rhizomes, we found that the main reserve sources for plant growth were reduced in all treatments except for the low-intensity simulated grazing treatment. If permanent, these combined adverse effects will reduce the plants' resilience and capacity to recover after disturbance. This might in turn have long-lasting and devastating effects on important ecosystem functions, including the carbon sequestration capacity of the seagrass system.

  9. Shifting the evaluative gaze: Community-based program evaluation in the homeless sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Wallace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness is a growing social issue that is a consequence of structural inequities and contributor to the development of health inequities. Community-based research (CBR has been proposed as an effective research strategy for addressing health equities and promoting social justice through participatory processes. The purpose of this article is to examine the application of CBR principles and practices in the homeless sector and the implications for the production of knowledge and social change to address homelessness. Drawing on our experiences as researchers and service providers, we reflect on the significant successes and challenges associated with using CBR in the homelessness sector. In our discussion we emphasise insights, challenges and lessons learned from a community-university partnership that focused on an evaluation of a transitional shelter program in a large urban centre where housing is expensive and often unavailable. Keywords: Homelessness, housing, transitional housing, transitional shelter, program evaluation, community-based research

  10. Modeling Alpine Meadow Restoration Techniques and their Effects on Stream Stage Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. E.; Lundquist, J. D.; Loheide, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    Meadow ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada of California often suffer from negative anthropogenic impacts, resulting in stream incision and meadow aridification. Groundwater dependent ecosystems, such as meadows, are especially vulnerable to channel degradation because alteration of stream stage propagates through the groundwater system to affect riparian vegetation. Restoration aimed at raising water table elevation of degraded meadow systems is becoming a salient and viable option as managers recognize the importance of intact headwaters. Stream stage controls groundwater levels and thus, vegetation communities, more dramatically than stream discharge in groundwater dependent ecosystems. Here we use a one dimensional hydraulic model, Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) to model stream stage along the Tuolumne River, given a time series of stream discharge. Extensive hydroclimatic monitoring since 2001, and groundwater monitoring since 2006, make Tuolumne Meadows, in Yosemite National Park, California a prime location for a validated case study, applicable to other snow dominated basins. In order to determine the most plausible, efficient and effective strategy of restoring impacted meadows, different management scenarios are modeled. HEC-RAS modeling provides critical stream stage boundary conditions for groundwater modeling. Scenarios are chosen that are most effective at increasing stream stage and therefore water table levels. The effectiveness is quantified by modeling how each scenario changes the rating curve for a particular channel. Additionally, surface stage modeling allows decision makers to see under what flow conditions and what time period of the hydrograph is affected by restoration. Quantification of stream stage alterations is key for understanding restoration impacts during the short growing season in alpine meadows. Results of HEC-RAS modeling at Tuolumne Meadows are presented in the following formats to highlight the

  11. Pilot Evaluation Study of the Life Skills Program REBOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Jungaberle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is pilot evaluation of the life skills program REBOUND in a school context focusing on substance use, risk perception, and knowledge about psychoactive substances ( n IG + CG = 723 students in five schools and 46 classes, Mage = 14.8, range 14-18 for the total sample and in the subgroups gender, age, and school type. Main goal of the study is collecting evidence for program optimization. A controlled study was carried out with repeated measurement before and after the intervention (4-6 months. Multilevel analyses, ANCOVA, and logistic regression analyses were applied to measure the effects. Overall, significantly lower incidence rates of drunkenness (odds ratio [OR] = .55; p = .033, improved knowledge about psychoactive substances (p = .006, lower personal (p = .013 and general tobacco risk perception among users (p = .002, and lower general tobacco (p = .018 and cannabis (p = .000 risk perception in non-users were found in the total intervention group. In subgroups, significantly lower rates for the incidence of drunkenness can be shown for males (p = .008 and for younger participants (p = .004. Students at academic high school (German Gymnasium showed a decrease in 30-day prevalence for alcohol (p = .017 and cannabis (p = .014, and they improved in their knowledge about psychoactive substances (p = .000. In vocational high school classes (German Realschule, there was an increase in the relative alcohol risk perception of the students (p = .019. REBOUND contributes to a controlled use of alcohol and increases knowledge about psychoactive substances. REBOUND has various effects on the examined subgroups age, gender, and school type: Males, younger students, and students in academic high school benefitted more from the course regarding consumption-related criteria. We suggest a program optimization specific to school form and age, inclusion of a tobacco intervention, and the use of more gender-segregated interventions.

  12. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  13. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  14. A program evaluation of classroom data collection with bar codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, M D; Saunders, J L; Saunders, R R

    1993-01-01

    A technology incorporating bar code symbols and hand-held optical scanners was evaluated for its utility for routine data collection in a special education classroom. A different bar code symbol was created for each Individualized Educational Plan objective, each type of response occurrence, and each student in the first author's classroom. These symbols were organized by activity and printed as data sheets. The teacher and paraprofessionals scanned relevant codes with scanners when the students emitted targeted behaviors. The codes, dates, and approximate times of the scans were retained in the scanner's electronic memory until they could be transferred by communication software to a computer file. The data from the computer file were organized weekly into a printed report of student performance using a program written with commercially available database software. Advantages, disadvantages, and costs of using the system are discussed.

  15. Evaluating Patient Preferences for Different Incentive Programs to Optimize Pharmacist-Provided Patient Care Program Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Daniel; Cernohous, Tim; Vaidyanathan, Rajiv

    2017-11-01

    Employers have increased efforts to engage employees in health and wellness programs. Providing employees with incentives to participate in these programs has been shown to improve overall enrollment and engagement. One program that has had challenges with enrollment and engagement is medication therapy management (MTM). To (a) determine how individuals evaluate different financial incentives to improve participation in an MTM program and (b) measure the effect of participant characteristics on incentive preference. This study was composed of a paper-based survey administered to participants after focus group sessions. Participants included MTM-eligible beneficiaries from 2 employer groups and included MTM-naive and MTM-experienced participants. Incentive preference was measured based on 3 bipolar scales that compared 3 incentives: $100 gift certificates, $8 copay reduction for 6 months, and $100 added to paycheck. A total of 72 participants completed the survey: 34 participants were MTM experienced, and 38 were MTM naive. Overall participant preference reporting resulted in inconsistencies. Copay reduction was preferred to a gift certificate (55.6% vs. 37.5%); money in paycheck was preferred over copay reduction (48.6% vs. 40.3%); and gift certificates were preferred over money in paycheck (56.9% vs. 22.2%). However, subgroup analysis resulted in a more consistent preference reporting, with MTM-experienced participants consistently preferring copay reduction over gift certificates (67.6% vs. 23.5%) and money in paycheck (55.9% vs. 29.4%). MTM-naive participants preferred a gift certificate over copay reduction (51.4% vs. 44.7%) and cash in paycheck (68.4% vs. 23.7%). The results of this study suggest that gift certificates were preferred by MTM-naive participants, which supports the use of gift certificates as an incentive for MTM-naive patients to enroll in an MTM program. Conversely, the use of a copay reduction program was preferred by MTM

  16. A formative evaluation of the SWITCH® obesity prevention program: print versus online programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Gregory J; Chen, Senlin; Nam, Yoon Ho; Weber, Tara E

    2015-01-01

    SWITCH® is an evidence-based childhood obesity prevention program that works through schools to impact parenting practices. The present study was designed as a formative evaluation to test whether an online version of SWITCH® would work equivalently as the established print version. Ten elementary schools were matched by socio-economic status and randomly assigned to receive either the print (n = 5) or online (n = 5) version. A total of 211 children from 22, 3(rd) grade classrooms were guided through the 4 month program by a team of program leaders working in cooperation with the classroom teachers. Children were tasked with completing weekly SWITCH® Trackers with their parents to monitor goal setting efforts in showing positive Do (≥60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), View (≤2 hours of screen time), and Chew (≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables) behaviors on each day. A total of 91 parents completed a brief survey to assess project-specific interactions with their child and the impact on their behaviors. The majority of parents (93.2%) reported satisfactory experiences with either the online or print SWITCH® program. The return rate for the SWITCH® Trackers was higher (42.5% ± 11%) from the print schools compared to the online schools (27.4% ± 10.9%). District program managers rated the level of teacher engagement in regards to program facilitation and the results showed a higher Trackers return rate in the highly engaged schools (38.5% ± 13.3%) than the lowly engaged schools (28.6 ± 11.9%). No significant differences were observed in parent/child interactions or reported behavior change (ps > .05) suggesting the equivalence in intervention effect for print and online versions of the SWITCH® program. The findings support the utility of the online SWITCH® platform but school-based modules are needed to facilitate broader school engagement by classroom teachers and PE teachers.

  17. Evaluations of Structural Failure Probabilities and Candidate Inservice Inspection Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Simonen, Fredric A.

    2009-05-01

    The work described in this report applies probabilistic structural mechanics models to predict the reliability of nuclear pressure boundary components. These same models are then applied to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative programs for inservice inspection to reduce these failure probabilities. Results of the calculations support the development and implementation of risk-informed inservice inspection of piping and vessels. Studies have specifically addressed the potential benefits of ultrasonic inspections to reduce failure probabilities associated with fatigue crack growth and stress-corrosion cracking. Parametric calculations were performed with the computer code pc-PRAISE to generate an extensive set of plots to cover a wide range of pipe wall thicknesses, cyclic operating stresses, and inspection strategies. The studies have also addressed critical inputs to fracture mechanics calculations such as the parameters that characterize the number and sizes of fabrication flaws in piping welds. Other calculations quantify uncertainties associated with the inputs calculations, the uncertainties in the fracture mechanics models, and the uncertainties in the resulting calculated failure probabilities. A final set of calculations address the effects of flaw sizing errors on the effectiveness of inservice inspection programs.

  18. Evaluation of Electric Power Procurement Strategies by Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yuichi; Hayashi, Taketo; Fujii, Yasumasa; Yamaji, Kenji

    In deregulated electricity markets, the role of a distribution company is to purchase electricity from the wholesale electricity market at randomly fluctuating prices and to provide it to its customers at a given fixed price. Therefore the company has to take risk stemming from the uncertainties of electricity prices and/or demand fluctuation instead of the customers. The way to avoid the risk is to make a bilateral contact with generating companies or install its own power generation facility. This entails the necessity to develop a certain method to make an optimal strategy for electric power procurement. In such a circumstance, this research has the purpose for proposing a mathematical method based on stochastic dynamic programming and additionally considering the characteristics of the start-up cost of electric power generation facility to evaluate strategies of combination of the bilateral contract and power auto-generation with its own facility for procuring electric power in deregulated electricity market. In the beginning we proposed two approaches to solve the stochastic dynamic programming, and they are a Monte Carlo simulation method and a finite difference method to derive the solution of a partial differential equation of the total procurement cost of electric power. Finally we discussed the influences of the price uncertainty on optimal strategies of power procurement.

  19. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  20. The estimation of some wild flowers seed material from the natural-valuable meadow habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicka Maria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the species composition of the meadow habitats is often linked to the introduction of the typical species’ seeds. The effectiveness of that treatment requires getting the acquired detailed knowledge of the germination biology of peculiar species. Eight typical plant species of four non-forest habitats of the river valleys, representing the following types: Cnidion dubii (6440, Molinion (6410, Arrhenatherion (6510 and Festuco-Brometea (6210 were investigated. The diasporas were collected in the years 2014–2015 on the meadows of PLH 140016 protection area near Mniszew (Kozienice county, Mazovian voivodeship. The ability of seeds’ germination in the laboratory conditions was studied. It was stated that Cnidion and Molinion meadows’ species require pre-chilling to break the seeds’ dormancy, while the Arrhenatherion meadows and xerotermophilous swards do not require such treatment. The Allium angulosum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium and Eryngium planum were characterized by high vigour and germination capability as well as the low share of dead seeds. The extremely drought in 2015 caused the decreasing in germination capability and increasing in the dead seeds’ share. The preliminary studies, presented in this paper, show that Cnidion and Molinion meadows may be most difficult to restore because of the necessity of breaking the seeds’ dormancy and higher sensitiveness for the unfavourable weather conditions during the seed ripening stage. The studies have practical significance for the works connected with the floristic diversity’ increasing of threatened communities and the restoration of the destroyed meadow habitats.

  1. Dynamic of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows in the northwestern Mediterranean: Could climate change be to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergent, Gérard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Bein, Aymeric; Dedeken, Marine; Oberti, Pascal; Orsini, Antoine; Santucci, Jean-François; Short, Frederic

    2015-07-01

    The distribution and the vitality of the P. oceanica meadow were monitored in the western Mediterranean at 15 sites along the coasts of Corsica (1000 km of coastline) using two monitoring systems, the Posidonia Monitoring Network and SeagrassNet, between 2004 and 2013. While the vitality of the meadow is satisfactory overall, due to the low impact of human pressure along these coasts, patterns of change over time show a slight degradation of the main descriptors of the meadow. The meadow's vitality index had declined on average by 8.6%, the BiPo index by 9.8%, and there was a regression of the lower limit at six sites. While this pattern of change may reflect local alterations in the environment (increase or decline in human pressure), the regressive dynamic of the meadow observed at the lower limit at several reference sites (e.g., Marine Protected Areas, sites distant from sources of human impact) is more worrying. Two hypotheses might explain the regression observed: (i) the rise in mean sea level during the study period, which may have resulted in a significant regression in sectors where the slope is relatively slight, and (ii) the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which declined from 2002 to reach very low values in 2010. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  3. Stability and resilience of seagrass meadows to seasonal and interannual dynamics and environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo; McGlathery, Karen J.; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    2012-03-01

    Shallow coastal bays provide habitat for diverse fish and invertebrate populations and are an important source of sediment for surrounding marshes. The sediment dynamics of these bays are strongly affected by seagrass meadows, which limit sediment resuspension, thereby providing a more favorable light environment for their own survival and growth. Due to this positive feedback between seagrass and light conditions, it has been suggested that bare sediment and seagrass meadows are potential alternate stable states of the benthos in shallow coastal bays. To investigate the stability and resilience of seagrass meadows subjected to variation in environmental conditions (e.g., light, temperature), a coupled model of vegetation-sediment-water flow interactions and vegetation growth was developed. The model was used to examine the effect of dynamically varying seasonal and interannual seagrass density on sediment resuspension, water column turbidity, and the subsequent light environment on hourly time steps and then run over decadal time scales. A daily growth model was designed to capture both belowground biomass and the growth and senescence of aboveground biomass structural components (e.g., leaves and stems). This allowed us to investigate how the annual and seasonal variability in shoot and leaf density within a meadow affects the strength of positive feedbacks between seagrass and their light environment. The model demonstrates both the emergence of bistable behavior from 1.6 to 1.8 m mean sea level due to the strength of the positive feedback, as well as the limited resilience of seagrass meadows within this bistable range.

  4. Development of a Program Logic Model and Evaluation Plan for a Participatory Ergonomics Intervention in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegers, Lisa; Dale, Ann Marie; Weaver, Nancy; Buchholz, Bryan; Welch, Laura; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Background Intervention studies in participatory ergonomics (PE) are often difficult to interpret due to limited descriptions of program planning and evaluation. Methods In an ongoing PE program with floor layers, we developed a logic model to describe our program plan, and process and summative evaluations designed to describe the efficacy of the program. Results The logic model was a useful tool for describing the program elements and subsequent modifications. The process evaluation measured how well the program was delivered as intended, and revealed the need for program modifications. The summative evaluation provided early measures of the efficacy of the program as delivered. Conclusions Inadequate information on program delivery may lead to erroneous conclusions about intervention efficacy due to Type III error. A logic model guided the delivery and evaluation of our intervention and provides useful information to aid interpretation of results. PMID:24006097

  5. Subjective Outcome Evaluation of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Secondary 2 Program: Views of the Program Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 196 secondary schools participated in the Secondary 2 Program of the Full Implementation Phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. After completion of the Tier 1 Program, 30,731 students responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form A to assess their perceptions of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the schools to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Findings demonstrated that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as beneficial to them. Correlation analyses showed that perceived program and instructor characteristics were positively associated with perceived benefits of the program.

  6. 7 CFR 634.50 - Program and project monitoring and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program and project monitoring and evaluation. 634.50... Evaluation § 634.50 Program and project monitoring and evaluation. (a) Comprehensive USDA/EPA joint water quality monitoring, evaluation, and analysis. (1) Representative RCWP project areas will be selected to...

  7. Evaluation of a Reproductive Health Program to Support Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and ...

  8. Evaluation framework for nursing education programs: application of the CIPP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mina D

    2004-01-01

    It is advised that all nursing education programs conduct program evaluations to address accountability requirements and information for planning and guiding the delivery of the programs. Stufflebeam's CIPP Model, supported by triangulation of multiple modes of data collection provides such a theoretical framework for evaluations. This article proposes a total CIPP evaluation framework for nursing education programs. While this evaluation framework is applicable to any nursing evaluation program, it is practically useful for collaborative nursing programs as it allows a full assessment of each partner in its context. Under the direction of this author, the York-Seneca-Georgian-Durham collaborative BScN Program Evaluation Committee in Ontario developed and utilized a CIPP process evaluation.

  9. Evaluation of a naturopathic nutrition program for type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Erica B.; Bradley, Ryan D.; Allen, Jason; McCrory, Megan A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a naturopathic dietary intervention in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Prospective observational pilot study evaluating the change in clinical and patient-centered outcome measures following a 12-week individualized and group dietary education program delivered in naturopathic primary care. Results HbA1c improved in all participants (n=12); mean - 0.4% +/– .49% SD, (p=0.02). Adherence to healthful eating increased from 3.5 d/wk to 5.3 d/wk (p=0.05). Specific nutritional behavior modification included: days/week consuming ≥5 servings of fruit/vegetables (p=0.01), attention to fat intake (p=0.05), and –11.3% carbohydrate reduction. Measures of physical activity, self-efficacy and self-management also improved significantly. Conclusion A naturopathic dietary approach to diabetes appears to be feasible to implement among Type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention may also improve self-management, glycemic control, and have influences in other domains of self-care behaviors. Clinical trials evaluating naturopathic approaches to Type 2 diabetes are warranted. PMID:21742282

  10. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  11. Financial evaluations of antibiotic stewardship programs-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Vemer, Pepijn; Friedrich, Alex W; Hendrix, Ron; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; Sinha, Bhanu; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness to counteract problems due to incorrect antimicrobial use. Interventions that are implemented are often part of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). Studies publishing results from these interventions are increasing, including reports on the economical effects of ASPs. This review will look at the economical sections of these studies and the methods that were used. A systematic review was performed of articles found in the PubMed and EMBASE databases published from 2000 until November 2014. Included studies found were scored for various aspects and the quality of the papers was assessed following an appropriate check list (CHEC criteria list). 1233 studies were found, of which 149 were read completely. Ninety-nine were included in the final review. Of these studies, 57 only mentioned the costs associated with the antimicrobial medication. Others also included operational costs (n = 23), costs for hospital stay (n = 18), and/or other costs (n = 19). Nine studies were further assessed for their quality. These studies scored between 2 and 14 out of a potential total score of 19. This review gives an extensive overview of the current financial evaluation of ASPs and the quality of these economical studies. We show that there is still major potential to improve financial evaluations of ASPs. Studies do not use similar nor consistent methods or outcome measures, making it impossible draw sound conclusions and compare different studies. Finally, we make some recommendations for the future.

  12. [Evaluation of a teaching program of nutrition in agronomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Andrade, M; Harper, L; Kain, J; Eskenazi, M E; Sánchez, F; Domínguez, J I; Valiente, S

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of teaching materials on food, nutrition and agriculture, adapted at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, within the scope of a project with AID and the School of Agronomy of the Chilean Catholic University (U. C.) aimed at incorporating the teaching of human nutrition into the curriculum of Latin American agronomists. A one semester course (54 hours) was given to 22 students of the 7th semester of Agronomy and two Ecuatorian agronomists (with AID scholarships). A set of knowledge evaluation instruments was applied at the beginning and at the end of the course. A total of 83.3% of the students passed the final examination (with more than 75% of correct answers). The difference between the initial and final performance was highly significant (p less than 0.001). According to the students' and teachers' opinions, the general textbook and the teachers book contributed effectively to meet the learning objectives whereas the students handbook needed some modifications. In conclusion, the program is an important contribution to the education of agronomists in a new conception of their role in regard to improvement of the nutritional status and quality of life of the rural population. With a few minor modifications, a final version to be used in the countries of the Region, shall soon become available.

  13. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanìk František

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from another in their development by variability of seam thickness and seam quality within coal deposit etc. In addition to this, coal deposits are disturbed by tectonic failures and deformations. The system of evaluation of coal deposits is based on development of planar models of particular seams where calculation blocks are created and coal reserves contained in them are determined. Subsequently coal reserves of particular seams and of the whole deposit are determined. Natural limitation of seam model is given by determined minimum seam thickness and maximum ash content (i.e. content of inorganic component in coal. Basic model is structured according to detected main tectonic lines into tectonic blocks. According to further geological factors (e.g. erosion and contractual boundaries (e.g. demarcations, the deposit is structured into smaller units - calculation blocks. The whole system operates in a maximum automated regime with minimum manual interventions into solving procedure. The system enables rapid alternative calculations of coal reserves according to varying limit values of basic calculation parameters.

  14. Developing Your Evaluation Plans: A Critical Component of Public Health Program Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinghouze, S Rene; Snyder, Kimberly

    A program's infrastructure is often cited as critical to public health success. The Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) identifies evaluation as essential under the core component of engaged data. An evaluation plan is a written document that describes how to monitor and evaluate a program, as well as how to use evaluation results for program improvement and decision making. The evaluation plan clarifies how to describe what the program did, how it worked, and why outcomes matter. We use the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) "Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health" as a guide for developing an evaluation plan. Just as using a roadmap facilitates progress on a long journey, a well-written evaluation plan can clarify the direction your evaluation takes and facilitate achievement of the evaluation's objectives.

  15. Commercial Midstream Energy Efficiency Incentive Programs: Guidelines for Future Program Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milostan, Catharina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Muehleisen, Ralph T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guzowski, Leah Bellah B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many electric utilities operate energy efficiency incentive programs that encourage increased dissemination and use of energy-efficient (EE) products in their service territories. The programs can be segmented into three broad categories—downstream incentive programs target product end users, midstream programs target product distributors, and upstream programs target product manufacturers. Traditional downstream programs have had difficulty engaging Small Business/Small Portfolio (SBSP) audiences, and an opportunity exists to expand Commercial Midstream Incentive Programs (CMIPs) to reach this market segment instead.

  16. Evaluation of programs to improve complementary feeding in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of complementary feeding programs is needed to enhance knowledge on what works, to document responsible use of resources, and for advocacy. Evaluation is done during program conceptualization and design, implementation, and determination of effectiveness. This paper explains the role of evaluation in the advancement of complementary feeding programs, presenting concepts and methods and illustrating them through examples. Planning and investments for evaluations should occur from the beginning of the project life cycle. Essential to evaluation is articulation of a program theory on how change would occur and what program actions are required for change. Analysis of program impact pathways makes explicit the dynamic connections in the program theory and accounts for contextual factors that could influence program effectiveness. Evaluating implementation functioning is done through addressing questions about needs, coverage, provision, and utilization using information obtained from process evaluation, operations research, and monitoring. Evaluating effectiveness is done through assessing impact, efficiency, coverage, process, and causality. Plausibility designs ask whether the program seemed to have an effect above and beyond external influences, often using a nonrandomized control group and baseline and end line measures. Probability designs ask whether there was an effect using a randomized control group. Evaluations may not be able to use randomization, particularly for programs implemented at a large scale. Plausibility designs, innovative designs, or innovative combinations of designs sometimes are best able to provide useful information. Further work is needed to develop practical designs for evaluation of large-scale country programs on complementary feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Summative evaluation of a pilot aquatic exercise program for children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; O'Neil, Margaret E; Haley, Stephen M

    2010-07-01

    Children with disabilities have lower physical activity levels and participate less in community-based sport and exercise programs than do children without disabilities. This in part is due to environmental barriers and lack of appropriate resources in these programs. Adaptive programs encouraging increased physical activity for children with disabilities are needed, and as these programs are developed, they should be critically evaluated. The purposes of this article are to describe a pilot aquatic exercise program for children with disabilities, to evaluate the program, and to determine areas of strength and areas needing modifications. A summative program evaluation design was used to assess this twice per week aquatic exercise program lasting 14 weeks. Sixteen children, ages 6-12 years, with developmental disabilities participated in the program. Children swam laps, participated in relay races and water basketball games, and performed arm and leg strengthening exercises using aquatic noodles, foam barbells, and water for resistance. Swimming skills, program evaluation questionnaires, physical activity questionnaires, and interviews of pool site directors were used to determine program outcomes. Findings suggest that children made improvements in their swimming skills, parents were satisfied with the program, and children increased their physical activity levels during the program and maintained the increased physical activity levels six months after the program ended. The program continued in some form after the 14-week intervention ended. The program was successful in achieving its objectives and recommendations for application of this program are provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meadow development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica on the rocky seabed: a preliminary study in the Ligurian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Vacchi, Matteo; Schiaffino, Chiara Francesca; Morri, Carla; Cristina, Carbone; Cabella, Roberto; Elter, Franco Marco; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Seagrass meadows are key ecosystems in coastal waters, influencing coastal zone features in terms of wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization. Landscape patterns observed in seagrass habitats are often associated with natural effects by waves or currents, as well as by human induced disturbances. Posidonia oceanica, the most important and abundant seagrass in the Mediterranean Sea, forms large meadows from the sea surface down to 40 m depth, colonizing a wide range of substratum typologies. Several studies have correlated the occurrence of P. oceanica meadows with sedimentological features, but few have investigated the role of substratum typology in shaping the geometry of a meadow. Meadows often develop on sand, but may also colonize rock. The present study relates geological parameters (structural, geotechnical, and mineralogical) of the rocky substrata with the development and characteristics of two shallow P. oceanica meadows in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). Preliminary results show that the seagrass, in situations of high hydrodynamics, may colonize only specific lithotypes of the rocky substratum such as the clastic sedimentary rocks (mainly sandstone) that are characterized by low porosity and high values of strength. Under these conditions, the plant is capable to settle in areas with high hydrodynamics, where its development is usually prevented by lack of strong rhizome anchoring. When the upper portion of the meadow is installed on sub-verticalized layered rock, on which differential erosion acts, the arrangement of the more tenacious layers becomes the main element characterizing meadow geometry.

  19. Effects of Spring Drought on Carbon Sequestration, Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency in the Songnen Meadow Steppe in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang Dong; Jixun Guo; Jiquan Chen; Ge Sun; Song Gao; et al

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change projections suggest an increasing frequency of droughts and extreme rain events in the steppes of the Eurasian region. Using the eddy covariance method, we measured carbon and water balances of a meadow steppe ecosystem in Northeast China during 2 years which had contrasting precipitation patterns in spring seasons in 2007 and 2008. The meadow...

  20. Evaluating health communication programs to enhance health care and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2014-12-01

    Health communication programs are essential and ubiquitous tools in the delivery of care and promotion of health. Yet, health promotion experts are not always well informed about the influences communication programs have on the audiences they are designed to help. Too often health communication programs evoke unintended, and even negative, responses from diverse audiences. It is critically important to conduct regular, rigorous, ongoing, and strategic evaluation of health communication programs to assess their effectiveness. Evaluation data should guide program refinements and strategic planning. This article outlines key strategies for conducting meaningful evaluation research for guiding the development, implementation, refinement, and institutionalization of effective health communication programs.