WorldWideScience

Sample records for evaluation general approach

  1. A unified simulation approach for the fast outage capacity evaluation over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-06-14

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gain (equivalently squared enveloped/amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. In this paper, we develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte-Carlo simulations.

  2. A Unified Simulation Approach for the Fast Outage Capacity Evaluation over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-01-06

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gains (equivalently squared enveloped/ amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. We develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Power System Reliability Evaluation Using Fault Tree Approach Based on Generalized Fuzzy Number

    OpenAIRE

    Yaduvir Singh; Amit Kumar; Manjit Verma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a fault tree technique based on generalized fuzzy numbers to a possibility distribution of reliability indices for power systems. Due to uncertainty in the collected data, all the failure probabilities are represented by generalized trapezoidal fuzzy number. In this paper, the fault-tree incorporated with the generalized trapezoidal fuzzy number and minimal cut sets approach is used for reliability assessment of power systems. An example of gas power plant is given to dem...

  4. On the equivalence of generalized least-squares approaches to the evaluation of measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, A.; Clare, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of CIPM international comparisons is increasingly being carried out using a model-based approach that leads naturally to a generalized least-squares (GLS) solution. While this method offers the advantages of being easier to audit and having general applicability to any form of comparison protocol, there is a lack of consensus over aspects of its implementation. Two significant results are presented that show the equivalence of three differing approaches discussed by or applied in comparisons run by Consultative Committees of the CIPM. Both results depend on a mathematical condition equivalent to the requirement that any two artefacts in the comparison are linked through a sequence of measurements of overlapping pairs of artefacts. The first result is that a GLS estimator excluding all sources of error common to all measurements of a participant is equal to the GLS estimator incorporating all sources of error, including those associated with any bias in the standards or procedures of the measuring laboratory. The second result identifies the component of uncertainty in the estimate of bias that arises from possible systematic effects in the participants' measurement standards and procedures. The expression so obtained is a generalization of an expression previously published for a one-artefact comparison with no inter-participant correlations, to one for a comparison comprising any number of repeat measurements of multiple artefacts and allowing for inter-laboratory correlations.

  5. Applications of a Within-Study Comparison Approach for Evaluating Bias in Generalized Causal Inferences From Comparison Groups Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaciw, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Past studies have examined factors associated with reductions in bias in comparison group studies (CGSs). The companion work to this article extends the framework to investigate the accuracy of generalized inferences from CGS. This article empirically examines levels of bias in CGS-based impact estimates when used for generalization, and reductions in bias resulting from covariate adjustment. It assesses potential for bias reduction against criteria from past studies. Multisite trials are used to generate impact estimates based on cross-site comparisons that are evaluated against site-specific experimental benchmarks. Strategies for reducing bias are evaluated. Results from two experiments are considered. Students in Grades K-3 in 79 schools in Tennessee and students in Grades 4-8 in 82 schools in Alabama. Grades K-3 Stanford Achievement Test reading and math scores; Grades 4-8 Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) 10 reading scores. Generalizing impacts to sites through estimates based on between-site nonexperimental comparisons leads to bias from differences between sites in average performance, and in impact, and covariation between these quantities. The first of these biases is larger. Covariate adjustments reduce bias but not completely. Criteria for bias reduction from past studies appear to extend to generalized inferences based on CGSs. When generalizing from a CGS, results may be affected by bias from differences between the study and inference sites in both average performance and average impact. The same factors may underlie both forms of bias. Researchers and practitioners can assess the validity of generalized inferences from CGSs by applying criteria for bias reduction from past studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  7. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  8. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  9. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology...

  10. The Micromorphic Approach to Generalized Heat Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Saanouni, Khemais; Forest, Samuel; Hu, Ping

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the micromorphic approach, previously developed in the mechanical context is applied to heat transfer and shown to deliver new generalized heat equations as well as the nonlocal effects. The latter are compared to existing formulations: the classical Fourier heat conduction, the hyperbolic type with relaxation time, the gradient of temperature or entropy theories, the double temperature model, the micro-temperature model or micro-entropy models. A new pair of thermodynamically-consistent micromorphic heat equations are derived from appropriate Helmholtz-free energy potentials depending on an additional micromorphic temperature and its first gradient. The additional micromorphic temperature associated with the classical local temperature is introduced as an independent degree of freedom, based on the generalized principle of virtual power. This leads to a new thermal balance equation taking into account the nonlocal thermal effects and involving an internal length scale which represents the characteristic size of the system. Several existing extended generalized heat equations could be retrieved from constrained micromorphic heat equations with suitable selections of the Helmholtz-free energy and heat flux expressions. As an example the propagation of plane thermal waves is investigated according to the various generalized heat equations. Possible applications to fast surface processes, nanostructured media and nanosystems are also discussed.

  11. Heterogeneous nucleation in solutions: generalized Gibbs' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, Alexander S; Schmelzer, Jürn W P

    2014-06-28

    Heterogeneous nucleation in solutions on planar solid surfaces is modeled taking into account changes of the state parameters of the critical clusters in dependence on supersaturation. The account of the variation of the state parameters of the cluster phase on nucleation is performed in the framework of the generalized Gibbs' approach. A regular solution is chosen as a model for the analysis of the basic qualitative characteristics of the process. It is shown that, employing the generalized Gibbs approach, contact angle and catalytic activity factor for heterogeneous nucleation become dependent on the degree of metastability (supersaturation) of the solution. For the case of formation of a cluster in supersaturated solutions on a surface of low wettability (the macroscopic equilibrium contact angles being larger than 90°), the solid surface has only a minor influence on nucleation. In the alternative case of high wettability (for macroscopic equilibrium contact angles being less than 90°), nucleation is significantly enhanced by the solid surface. Effectively, the existence of the solid surface results in a significant shift of the spinodal to lower supersaturations as compared with homogeneous nucleation. Qualitatively, the same behavior is observed now near the new (solid surface induced) limits of instability of the solution as compared with the behavior near to the spinodal curve in the case of homogeneous nucleation.

  12. MONEY LAUNDERING TECHNIQUES COMMONLY USED. GENERAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Upward trend of criminality in Romania is the result both of the impact of serious social and economic problems typical of the period of transition to a market economy, and misunderstanding of freedoms by a lot of people interested in reaping benefits by evasion, doubled by the tendency of subjects infringing the law to set up illegal contacts in other countries, particularly among immigrant groups and even within some structures of “organized crime”. The provisional state that existed in all sectors of socio-political and economic life, including in respect of public order observance, facilitated expansion of criminal phenomenon, particularly in the area of violent crimes and against public and private property, inappropriate settlement of each and any social tension and conflict created precedents that led to escalating protest demonstrations and personal or collective justice. In the study hereby, we shall approach a number of money laundering techniques commonly used, limiting ourselves to their general overview, exclusively.

  13. [Approach of acute bronchitis in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, S

    2010-09-01

    Acute bronchitis is a frequent infection in general practice. Its origin is usually viral, but frequently, antibiotics are prescribed in this situation, without any clinical benefit. There are several reasons for this, the most important is probably the difficulty of GP's to distinguish on clinical ground alone between "viral type, meaning spontaneously healing ", and "bacterial type, meaning potentially dangerous" acute respiratory infections. The emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics is defined by the W.H.O. as a major problem of public health. One of the most important measures is the diminution of antibiotic prescriptions. The approach outlined here will help this purpose. The combination of four clinical parameters (fever acute bronchitis being sufficiently characteristic of "a viral type" of infection. In case of doubt, the measurement of the CRP, allows to avoid antibiotics if the value is normal (or slightly elevated). This approach is valuable in adults with an otherwise normal health, outside severe chronic illness (which could weaken immunity) and for adults <65 years of age.

  14. Performance and Perception in the Flipped Learning Model: An Initial Approach to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a New Teaching Methodology in a General Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, David; Jeong, Jin Su; Airado Rodríguez, Diego; Cañada-Cañada, Florentina

    2016-06-01

    "Flipped classroom" teaching methodology is a type of blended learning in which the traditional class setting is inverted. Lecture is shifted outside of class, while the classroom time is employed to solve problems or doing practical works through the discussion/peer collaboration of students and instructors. This relatively new instructional methodology claims that flipping your classroom engages more effectively students with the learning process, achieving better teaching results. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of the flipped classroom on the students' performance and perception of this new methodology. This study was conducted in a general science course, sophomore of the Primary Education bachelor degree in the Training Teaching School of the University of Extremadura (Spain) during the course 2014/2015. In order to assess the suitability of the proposed methodology, the class was divided in two groups. For the first group, a traditional methodology was followed, and it was used as control. On the other hand, the "flipped classroom" methodology was used in the second group, where the students were given diverse materials, such as video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home by them. Online questionnaires were as well provided to assess the progress of the students before the class. Finally, the results were compared in terms of students' achievements and a post-task survey was also conducted to know the students' perceptions. A statistically significant difference was found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. In addition, most students had a favorable perception about the flipped classroom noting the ability to pause, rewind and review lectures, as well as increased individualized learning and increased teacher availability.

  15. Operational Approach to Generalized Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    Generalized coherent states for general potentials, constructed through a controlling mechanism, can also be obtained applying on a reference state suitable operators. An explicit example is supplied.

  16. Generalized closed sets: a unified approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiling Cao

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate various classes of generalized closed sets of a topological space in a unified way by studying the notion of qr-closed sets. New characterizations of some existing classes of generalized closed sets and topological spaces are given. A new class of generalized closed sets are introduced.

  17. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part II. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: A Classical Test Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the second of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. This article begins our quantitative investigation of the data. We describe how we scored students' responses to four conceptual cosmology surveys, and we present evidence for the inter-rater…

  18. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part III. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: An Item Response Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…

  19. Four Approaches to Project Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus; Svejvig, Per; Rode, Anna Le Gerstrøm

    There are many theoretical and practical reasons for evaluating projects – including explorative arguments focusing on expanding descriptive knowledge on project work as well as normative arguments focusing on improving prescriptive models of project performance. Despite the need for project...... management methodologies that work and combat project failure, and research methods that can assess effective project management and methodologies, as well as empirical research on the actuality of projects as practice, evaluation research on projects including project management and methodologies is scarce....... Each of the framework’s four approaches provides a distinct evaluation that sheds light on some issues while leaving others unattended. Following these lines, the paper calls for more multi-faceted project evaluations. Introducing a framework that can help analyze existing evaluations and structure...

  20. Multi-criterial evaluation - general overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Lukas; Jasek, Roman; Senkerik, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of this paper is to provide basic knowledge background for further work. The basis is classification of available methods for multi-criterial evaluation. This classification will serve as a support of project (Comparison of methods of multi-criteria evaluation with user ratings of ITIL tools). In first part of this paper are described different approaches to multi-criterial evaluation and decision-making. Second part presents basics of methods of determining criteria strength and mainly their classification and division into categories.

  1. Monitoring approaches in general anesthesia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senhadji, Lotfi; Wodey, Eric; Claude, Ecoffey

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give an overview of recent developments in the field of general anesthesia monitoring. We measure different physiological signals related to the functioning of several nervous systems. Using statistical or signal processing methods, monitors are derived and correlated to the dosage of anesthetic agents and to the status of the patient. Comparisons among existing monitors show that there is no one universal monitor applicable to all general anesthesia--each has its own characteristics and might be useful in particular clinical situations. Modeling of the underlying physiological mechanisms of the anesthesia may help for better understanding the interactions between anesthetic agents and nervous systems. Physiological-model-based general anesthesia monitoring and control can then be considered and optimized for each patient.

  2. General approaches in ensemble quantum computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. We have developed methodology for NMR quantum computing focusing on enhancing the efficiency of initialization, of logic gate implementation and of readout. Our general strategy involves the application of rotating frame pulse sequences to prepare pseudopure states and to perform logic opera- tions.

  3. General approaches in ensemble quantum computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed methodology for NMR quantum computing focusing on enhancing the efficiency of initialization, of logic gate implementation and of readout. Our general strategy involves the application of rotating frame pulse sequences to prepare pseudopure states and to perform logic operations. We demonstrate ...

  4. Position Paper: General Practice Residency and Advanced Education in General Dentistry Programs: Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    The currently used internal and external program evaluation processes for general practice residency and advanced education in general dentistry programs are discussed, noting accrediting and evaluation groups, criteria, and designs. A generalized evaluation plan is proposed. (MSE)

  5. A New Approach for the Generalized First Derivative and Extension It to the Generalized Second Derivative of Nonsmooth Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Erfanian; M. H. Noori Skandari; Kamyad, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, first derivative of smooth function is defined by the optimal solution of a special optimization problem. In the next step, by using this optimization problem for nonsmooth function, we obtain an approximation for first derivative of nonsmooth function which it is called generalized first derivative. We then extend it to define generalized second derivative for nonsmooth function. Finally, we show the efficiency of our approach by evaluating derivative and generalized first and...

  6. Multidisciplinary approach for evaluation of neurocutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidisciplinary approach for evaluation of neurocutaneous disorders in children in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt. ... rhabdomyoma. Conclusion: Neurocutaneous disorders had multiple clinical presentations and required a team work approach including various specialties in their evaluation and management.

  7. a general review and performance evaluation of multi a general

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    REVIEW AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF MULTI-LEVEL CONVERTERS FOR EFFICIENT … O. C Omeje. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 1, January 2016. 175 point clamped converter (NPC) [9]. In 1992, Meynard and Foch invented a low power flying capacitor topology called multi-cell flying capacitor ...

  8. Depressive symptoms in the general population : a multifactorial social approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Vivian Petronella

    2004-01-01

    This book aims to provide a more systematic theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationships between social factors and depressive symptoms in the general population. A multifactorial social approach has been applied to study depressive symptoms in the general population more profoundly,

  9. A Tandem Learning Approach to Task Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Timothy; スチュワート, ティモシー

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to task evaluation that emerged out of the process of course development. The multi-layered approach to task evaluation described synthesizes student and teacher evaluations of tasks written in journals with more traditional course evaluation data in a reflective process of course development. Ultimately, the approach opens up dynamic insights into the appropriateness of tasks by incorporating the views of both students and teachers.The paper concludes by illu...

  10. Evaluating interventions in health: a reconciliatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonathan; Edwards, Sarah; Richmond, Sarah; Orr, Shepley; Rees, Geraint

    2012-11-01

    Health-related Quality of Life measures have recently been attacked from two directions, both of which criticize the preference-based method of evaluating health states they typically incorporate. One attack, based on work by Daniel Kahneman and others, argues that 'experience' is a better basis for evaluation. The other, inspired by Amartya Sen, argues that 'capability' should be the guiding concept. In addition, opinion differs as to whether health evaluation measures are best derived from consultations with the general public, with patients, or with health professionals. And there is disagreement about whether these opinions should be solicited individually and aggregated, or derived instead from a process of collective deliberation. These distinctions yield a wide variety of possible approaches, with potentially differing policy implications. We consider some areas of disagreement between some of these approaches. We show that many of the perspectives seem to capture something important, such that it may be a mistake to reject any of them. Instead we suggest that some of the existing 'instruments' designed to measure HR QoLs may in fact successfully already combine these attributes, and with further refinement such instruments may be able to provide a reasonable reconciliation between the perspectives. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Evaluate to Improve: Useful Approaches to Student Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Clinton; Adam, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many teachers in higher education use feedback from students to evaluate their teaching, but only some use these evaluations to improve their teaching. One important factor that makes the difference is the teacher's approach to their evaluations. In this article, we identify some useful approaches for improving teaching. We conducted focus groups…

  12. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction, transformation, and enumeration, this work encompasses the full range of measurement data processing. It includes many examples that illustrate the application of general theory to typical problems encountered in measurement practice. As a result, the book serves as an inclusive reference work for data processing of all types of measurements: single and multiple, combined and simultaneous, direct (both linear and nonlinear), and indirect (both dependent and independent). It is a working tool for experimental scientists and engineers of all disciplines who work with instrumentation. It is also a good resource for natural science and engineering students and for technicians performing measurements in industry. A key feature of the book is...

  13. A General Symbolic Approach to Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Stolz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is popular to study a time-dependent nonlinear system by encoding outcomes of measurements into sequences of symbols following certain symbolization schemes. Mostly, symbolizations by threshold crossings or variants of it are applied, but also, the relatively new symbolic approach, which goes back to innovative works of Bandt and Pompe—ordinal symbolic dynamics—plays an increasing role. In this paper, we discuss both approaches novelly in one breath with respect to the theoretical determination of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy (KS entropy. For this purpose, we propose and investigate a unifying approach to formalize symbolizations. By doing so, we can emphasize the main advantage of the ordinal approach if no symbolization scheme can be found that characterizes KS entropy directly: the ordinal approach, as well as generalizations of it provide, under very natural conditions, a direct route to KS entropy by default.

  14. A MIXTURE LIKELIHOOD APPROACH FOR GENERALIZED LINEAR-MODELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEDEL, M; DESARBO, WS

    1995-01-01

    A mixture model approach is developed that simultaneously estimates the posterior membership probabilities of observations to a number of unobservable groups or latent classes, and the parameters of a generalized linear model which relates the observations, distributed according to some member of

  15. Hardy-Weinberg law: asymptotic approach to a generalized form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A E

    1976-09-17

    The equilibrium frequencies of a generalized Hardy-Weinberg law are approached at a geometric rate under assortative mating, irrespective of the initial genotypic frequencies. The asymptotic form is similar to that of Wright, and the pattern of assortative mating is based on deviations from the mean genotypic value.

  16. Maskandi : A critical general inductive approach of Zulu indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although different researchers have written various papers about Zulu culture, very little is known about the close connection between maskandi music and Zulu culture. As a result this study reports on maskandi music as a means of preserving cultural treasures from the perspective of a critical general inductive approach ...

  17. Essential Hypertension: The General Practitioner's Approach in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential Hypertension: The General Practitioner's Approach in an Urban Community. ... Various reasons have been adduced for this difference ranging from climatic factors the hot arid climate compelling blacks to conserve sodium for survival, to dietary – blacks consuming less potassium which theoretically makes them ...

  18. Putting dementia awareness into general practice : The CADIF approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzek, Michael; Vollmar, Horst Christian; Wilm, Stefan; Leve, Verena

    2017-05-01

    International studies show that dementia is often recognized at later stages in general practice. Pure knowledge-sharing interventions could not change this in a sustainable manner. Concepts for changing attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) are required. What barriers affect GPs' recognition of and diagnostic approach to dementia? What recommendations for a GP-specific diagnostic procedure can be derived from this? Metasynthesis of qualitative studies with GPs on barriers to dementia recognition, explication of the "frailty" concept and the diagnostic approach described therein and the development of an approach in cases of suspected cognitive decline in a multiprofessional team. A metasynthesis of qualitative studies revealed a lack of a general practice framework in the diagnostic approach of GPs, characterized by poor patient-centeredness and confusion of early detection, diagnostics and disclosure. The embedding of cognitive decline into the geriatric triad is intended to promote the focus on everyday function and quality of life, i.e. on caring instead of curing. The proposed concept for a transfer into practice emphasizes increased awareness for cognitive warning signs among practice personnel, a geriatric and personal approach to the patient, as well as follow-up assessment and monitoring. In contrast to early recognition, awareness initially does not imply an active search for cognitive deficits with questions and tests but a vigilance for red flags. The described scheme is a component of a complex intervention for attitude change among GPs towards dementia.

  19. Bacteriological Evaluation of Kwale General Hospital Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological investigations were carried out on staff hands, used beddings, floors, wash basins and air in the wards of Kwale General Hospital environment, in Ndokwa West Local Government Area of Delta State. Surface swabbing and settle plate methods were employed for sampling surfaces and air respectively. Of the ...

  20. Investment Portfolio Evaluation by the Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambovska Maya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fuzzy approach for the evaluation of investment portfolio, where the approach is viewed by the authors as a sub-phase of the management process of these portfolios. The approach defines the mutual and delayed effects among the significant variables of the investment portfolio. The evaluation of the effects is described as fuzzy trapezoidal numbers and they are aggregated by mathematical operations with incidence matrices and fuzzy functions “experton”.

  1. Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

    1991-09-12

    Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

  2. Evaluating Astronomy Literacy of the General Public

    CERN Document Server

    Love, C; Bonora, S

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically literate society is important for many different reasons, some of which include democratic and scientific topics. This study was performed in order to identify topics in astronomy and science in general that may not be well understood by the general public. Approximately 1,000 adults at a popular science museum in Philadelphia, PA completed True-False survey questions about basic astronomy concepts. The participants were also asked to provide their age, gender, and highest degree obtained. Although 93 +/- 0.8% of the participants correctly answered that scientists can calculate the age of the Earth, only 58 +/- 2% provided the correct response that scientists can calculate the age of the Universe. Some participants (30 +/- 1%) responded that scientists have found life on Mars. Females scored an average total score of 78 +/- 2%, whereas males scored an average 85 +/- 1%. Participants with an age of 56 and over had an average score of 78 +/- 4% compared to participants under the age of 56 that ...

  3. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  4. Oral and General Health Promotion for Children: A Holistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak

    of Oral and General Health Promotion, Health Behavior Theories and Children'.This book provides further evidence that children's general and oral health are interrelated by common lifestyle and family factors, and both should be supported by holistic health promotion strategies and empowerment of families......Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all...... Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept...

  5. Evaluating Clinical Ethics Support: A Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Suzanne; Widdershoven, Guy; Porz, Rouven; Molewijk, Bert

    2017-05-01

    The current process towards formalization within evaluation research, in particular the use of pre-set standards and the focus on predefined outcomes, implies a shift of ownership from the people who are actually involved in real clinical ethics support services (CESS) in a specific context to external stakeholders who increasingly gain a say in what 'good CESS' should look like. The question is whether this does justice to the insights and needs of those who are directly involved in actual CESS practices, be it as receivers or providers. We maintain that those actually involved in concrete CESS practices should also be involved in its evaluation, not only as respondents, but also in setting the agenda of the evaluation process and in articulating the criteria by which CESS is evaluated. Therefore, we propose a participatory approach to CESS evaluation. It focuses on (1) the concrete contexts in which CESS takes place, (2) reflective and dialogical learning processes, and (3) how to be democratic and inclusive. In particular, this approach to CESS evaluation is akin to realist evaluation, dialogical evaluation, and responsive evaluation. An example of a participatory approach to evaluating CESS is presented and some critical issues concerning this approach are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluating Rural Electrification Projects - Methodological Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the international community has expanded efforts in programme evaluation to improve the accountability of development projects. This paper presents approaches to implementing state-of-the-art evaluations in rural electrification projects, taking into account specific challenges that researchers face in such interventions. Furthermore, it suggests a particular approach to assess impacts before an intervention is implemented by surveying the yet non-electrified target region of...

  7. Evaluation and Opportunities in Overtraining Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, Jolanda; de Vries, Wouter R.; Schmikli, Sandor L.; Backx, Frank J. G.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Overtraining (OT) as a sports phenomenon can be caused by stressors on various levels (physical, emotional, psychological, and social) and evokes responses on these levels. This study evaluated research and new opportunities in the field of OT by introducing an integrated multidisciplinary approach, based on the single and multistressors approach.…

  8. A fractional generalization of the classical lattice dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2016-11-01

    We develop physically admissible lattice models in the harmonic approximation which define by Hamilton's variational principle fractional Laplacian matrices of the forms of power law matrix functions on the n -dimensional periodic and infinite lattice in n=1,2,3,..n=1,2,3,.. dimensions. The present model which is based on Hamilton's variational principle is confined to conservative non-dissipative isolated systems. The present approach yields the discrete analogue of the continuous space fractional Laplacian kernel. As continuous fractional calculus generalizes differential operators such as the Laplacian to non-integer powers of Laplacian operators, the fractional lattice approach developed in this paper generalized difference operators such as second difference operators to their fractional (non-integer) powers. Whereas differential operators and difference operators constitute local operations, their fractional generalizations introduce nonlocal long-range features. This is true for discrete and continuous fractional operators. The nonlocality property of the lattice fractional Laplacian matrix allows to describe numerous anomalous transport phenomena such as anomalous fractional diffusion and random walks on lattices. We deduce explicit results for the fractional Laplacian matrix in 1D for finite periodic and infinite linear chains and their Riesz fractional derivative continuum limit kernels.

  9. Structure versus level: A unified approach to campaign evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Based on a modified version of the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985), a general model for the evaluation of social interventions is developed. Whilst common practice defines campaign success in terms of absolute levels of the target variables, the present approach stresses changes...

  10. A groupoid approach to spaces of generalized connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhinho, J. M.

    2002-02-01

    The quantum completion Ā of the space of connections in a manifold can be seen as the set of all morphisms from the groupoid of the edges of the manifold to the (compact) gauge group. This algebraic construction generalizes an analogous description of the gauge-invariant quantum configuration space overlineA/ G of Ashtekar and Isham, clarifying the relation between the two spaces. We present a description of the groupoid approach which brings the gauge-invariant degrees of freedom to the foreground, thus making the action of the gauge group more transparent.

  11. A general stochastic calculus approach to insider trading

    OpenAIRE

    Biagini, Francesca; Øksendal, Bernt

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general stochastic calculus approach to insider trading. In a market driven by a standard Brownian motion B(t) on a filtered probability space (Ω, F, {F}t>0, P), by an insider we mean a person who has access to a filtration (information) G = {Gt}0≤t≤T which is strictly bigger than the filtration F = {Ft}0≤t≤T of B(t). In this context an insider strategy is represented by a Gt-adapted process φ(t) and we interpret the portfolio of an insider as the for...

  12. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  13. General Evaluation Plan: Fleet Test and Evaluation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Document details the process used by the NREL Fleet Test & Evaluation team to choose the types of fleets, sites, and technologies they will evaluate. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Fleet Test & Evaluation (FT&E) team was formed to accomplish the objectives of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) current and emerging programs. Composed of NREL and Battelle personnel, the team supports vehicle test projects initiated by DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) and the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT). FT&E projects help fleet owners and operators facilitate purchase decisions by providing them with comprehensive laboratory and fleet test data on viable alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and advanced technology vehicles (ATVs). ATVs include hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles.

  14. Domain-specific and domain-general processes in social perception--A complementary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In this brief discussion, we explicate and evaluate Heyes and colleagues' deflationary approach to interpreting apparent evidence of domain-specific processes for social perception. We argue that the deflationary approach sheds important light on how functionally specific processes in social perception can be subserved at least in part by domain-general processes. On the other hand, we also argue that the fruitfulness of this approach has been unnecessarily hampered by a contrastive conception of the relationship between domain-general and domain-specific processes. As an alternative, we propose a complementary conception: the identification of domain-general processes that are engaged in instances of social perception can play a positive, structuring role by adding additional constraints to be accounted for in modelling the domain-specific processes that are also involved in such instances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of generalization of mands during functional communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Vinquist, Kelly; Dutt, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalization of mands during functional communication training (FCT) and sign language training across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). A secondary purpose was to evaluate a training procedure based on stimulus control to teach manual signs. During the treatment evaluation, we implemented sign language training in 1 functional context (e.g., positive reinforcement by attention) while continuing the functional analysis conditions in 2 other contexts (e.g., positive reinforcement by tangible item; negative reinforcement by escape). During the generalization evaluation, we tested for the generalization of trained mands across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement) by implementing extinction in the 2 nontarget contexts. The results suggested that the stimulus control training procedure effectively taught manual signs and treated destructive behavior. Specific patterns of generalization of trained mands and destructive behavior also were observed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Evaluation of an interview training course for general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Sluijs, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an experimental training in doctor-patient communication for general practitioners. The training was based on Rogerian theory and accommodated to the specific situation of the general practitioner. The main concept of this theory is the notion of

  17. Evaluation of an interview training course for general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Sluijs, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an experimental training in doctor-patient communication for general practitioners. The training was based on Rogerian theory and accommodated to the specific situation of the general practitioner. The main concept of this theory is the notion of

  18. A neurodynamic approach to convex optimization problems with general constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sitian; Liu, Yadong; Xue, Xiaoping; Wang, Fuqiang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a neurodynamic approach with a recurrent neural network for solving convex optimization problems with general constraint. It is proved that for any initial point, the state of the proposed neural network reaches the constraint set in finite time, and converges to an optimal solution of the convex optimization problem finally. In contrast to the existing related neural networks, the convergence rate of the state of the proposed neural network can be calculated quantitatively via the Łojasiewicz exponent under some mild assumptions. As applications, we estimate explicitly some Łojasiewicz exponents to show the convergence rate of the state of the proposed neural network for solving convex quadratic optimization problems. And some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neural network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlations in a generalized elastic model: fractional Langevin equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloni, Alessandro; Chechkin, Aleksei; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The generalized elastic model (GEM) provides the evolution equation which governs the stochastic motion of several many-body systems in nature, such as polymers, membranes, and growing interfaces. On the other hand a probe (tracer) particle in these systems performs a fractional Brownian motion due to the spatial interactions with the other system's components. The tracer's anomalous dynamics can be described by a fractional Langevin equation (FLE) with a space-time correlated noise. We demonstrate that the description given in terms of GEM coincides with that furnished by the relative FLE, by showing that the correlation functions of the stochastic field obtained within the FLE framework agree with the corresponding quantities calculated from the GEM. Furthermore we show that the Fox H -function formalism appears to be very convenient to describe the correlation properties within the FLE approach.

  20. An Evaluation of Generalization of Mands during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Wacker, David P.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vinquist, Kelly; Dutt, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalization of mands during functional communication training (FCT) and sign language training across functional contexts (i.e., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement). A secondary purpose was to evaluate a training procedure based on stimulus control to teach manual signs. During…

  1. Alternative approaches to forestry research evaluation: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Earl C. Leatherberry

    1986-01-01

    Reviews research evaluation techniques in a variety of fields an assesses the usefulness of various approaches or combinations of approaches for forestry research evaluation. Presents an evaluation framework that will help users develop an approach suitable for their specific problem.

  2. Bayesian statistical approaches to evaluating cognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Jeffrey; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2017-11-28

    Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable. We explore three key elements used to formally evaluate cognitive models: parameter estimation, model prediction, and model selection. We compare and contrast traditional approaches with Bayesian statistical approaches to performing each of these three elements. Traditional approaches rely on an array of seemingly ad hoc techniques, whereas Bayesian statistical approaches rely on a single, principled, internally consistent system. We illustrate the Bayesian statistical approach to evaluating cognitive models using a running example of the Linear Ballistic Accumulator model of decision making (Brown SD, Heathcote A. The simplest complete model of choice response time: linear ballistic accumulation. Cogn Psychol 2008, 57:153-178). This article is categorized under: Neuroscience > Computation Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making Psychology > Theory and Methods. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Approaches to Macroevolution: 1. General Concepts and Origin of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, David

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i.e. epigenetics and plasticity), all requiring modification of standard microevolutionary models, and rendering difficult any simple definition of evolutionary novelty. The developmental factors underlying macroevolution create anisotropic probabilities-i.e., an uneven density distribution-of evolutionary change around any given phenotypic starting point, and the potential for coordinated changes among traits that can accommodate change via epigenetic mechanisms. From this standpoint, "punctuated equilibrium" and "phyletic gradualism" simply represent two cells in a matrix of evolutionary models of phenotypic change, and the origin of trends and evolutionary novelty are not simply functions of ecological opportunity. Over long timescales, contingency becomes especially important, and can be viewed in terms of macroevolutionary lags (the temporal separation between the origin of a trait or clade and subsequent diversification); such lags can arise by several mechanisms: as geological or phylogenetic artifacts, or when diversifications require synergistic interactions among traits, or between traits and external events

  4. A general approach to mixed effects modeling of residual variances in generalized linear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Kadir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a general Bayesian approach to heteroskedastic error modeling for generalized linear mixed models (GLMM in which linked functions of conditional means and residual variances are specified as separate linear combinations of fixed and random effects. We focus on the linear mixed model (LMM analysis of birth weight (BW and the cumulative probit mixed model (CPMM analysis of calving ease (CE. The deviance information criterion (DIC was demonstrated to be useful in correctly choosing between homoskedastic and heteroskedastic error GLMM for both traits when data was generated according to a mixed model specification for both location parameters and residual variances. Heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were fitted, respectively, to BW and CE data on 8847 Italian Piemontese first parity dams in which residual variances were modeled as functions of fixed calf sex and random herd effects. The posterior mean residual variance for male calves was over 40% greater than that for female calves for both traits. Also, the posterior means of the standard deviation of the herd-specific variance ratios (relative to a unitary baseline were estimated to be 0.60 ± 0.09 for BW and 0.74 ± 0.14 for CE. For both traits, the heteroskedastic error LMM and CPMM were chosen over their homoskedastic error counterparts based on DIC values.

  5. Evaluating Pain Education Programs: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dubrowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of educational programs and assessment of learning are essential to maintain high-standard health science education, which includes pain education. Current models of program evaluations applied to the education of the health professions, such as the Kirkpatrick model, are mainly outcome based. More recently, efforts have been made to examine other process-based models such as the Context Input Process Product model. The present article proposes an approach that integrates both outcome- and process-based models with models of clinical performance assessment to provide a deeper understanding of a program function. Because assessment instruments are a critical part of program evaluation, it is suggested that standardization and rigour should be used in their selection, development and adaptation. The present article suggests an alternative to currently used models in pain education evaluation.

  6. Generalized joint fractional fourier transform correlators: a compact approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C J; Luo, Y

    1998-12-10

    Fractional correlation was introduced recently. We generalize the architecture of a joint (Fourier) transform correlator (JTC) to achieve the joint fractional (Fourier) transform correlator (JFrTC) such that fractional correlation can be obtained. Here the Fourier transform in the JTC is replaced by the fractional Fourier transform, and four different JFrTC architectures can be implemented. The mathematical derivations for these JFrTC architectures are given, together with the simulation verifications. The JFrTC can provide a correlation signal similar to a delta function but with a small discrimination ratio, such that it is insensitive to additive noise. In a conventional JTC the distance between the two desired correlation signals at the output plane is fixed and depends on the distance between the input and the reference signals. However, with a given fractional order and an additional phase mask the separation distance between the two correlation signals at the output plane of a JFrTC can be larger or smaller than that of a JTC. This property is useful for the applications of real-time target tracking. Unlike in a previous approach [Appl. Opt. 36, 7402 (1997)], we need only two fractional Fourier transformations instead of three to achieve fractional correlation.

  7. A General Approach to Study the Reliability of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Repici

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years new complex systems have been developed in the automotive field to increase safety and comfort. These systems integrate hardware and software to guarantee the best results in vehicle handling and make products competitive on the market.However, the increase in technical details and the utilization and integration of these complicated systems require a high level of dynamic control system reliability. In order to improve this fundamental characteristic methods can be extracted from methods used in the aeronautical field to deal with reliability and these can be integrated into one simplified method for application in the automotive field.Firstly, as a case study, we decided to analyse VDC (the Vehicle Dynamics Control system by defining a possible approach to reliability techniques. A VDC Fault Tree Analysis represents the first step in this activity: FTA enables us to recognize the critical components in all possible working conditions of a car, including cranking, during 'key-on'-'key-off ' phases, which is particularly critical for the electrical on-board system (because of voltage reduction.By associating FA (Functional Analysis and FTA results with a good FFA (Functional Failure Analysis, it is possible to define the best architecture for the general system to achieve the aim of a high reliability structure.The paper will show some preliminary results from the application of this methodology, taken from various typical handling conditions from well established test procedures for vehicles.

  8. Navigation Aids Performance Evaluation for Precision Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Domenico Tromboni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the expected performance of aircraft approaches and landings operated with different navigation systems, both traditional and satellite-based. Flight dynamics characteristics and control authority of the approaching aircraft are considered in order to obtain an overall manoeuvre evaluation. The technique from the presented analysis applies to different operative conditions, taking into account aircraft requirements, navigation systems features, and environmental constraints. The aim is to offer a tool to be used in the very preliminary design phase for system performance analysis in different scenarios, such as airport ground systems adoption and air traffic control requirements compliance; later, the same tool can be tuned to complement and direct the required real flight trials to validate an already fielded solution. A numerical code referring to the presented analytical model has been implemented and some applications concerning the system's performance evaluation and planning are proposed to illustrate the algorithm capabilities. The tool and the proposed analysis technique indeed are successful in providing a quantitative assessment of the differences among several possible approaches.

  9. General practitioners' experience and benefits from patient evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Frede

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has now for many years been recognised that patient evaluations should be undertaken as an integral part of the complex task of improving the quality of general practice care. Yet little is known about the general practitioners' (GPs' benefit from patient evaluations. Aim 1 was to study the impact on the GPs of a patient evaluation and subsequent feedback of results presented at a plenary session comprising a study guide for the results and group discussions. Aim 2 was to study possible facilitators and barriers to the implementations of the results raised by the patient evaluation process. Methods A patient evaluation survey of 597 voluntarily participating GPs was performed by means of the EUROPEP questionnaire. Evaluation results were fed back to the GPs as written reports at a single feedback meeting with group discussions of the results. Between 3 and 17 months after the feedback, the 597 GPs received a questionnaire with items addressing their experience with and perceived benefit from the evaluations. Results 79.4% of the GPs responded. 33% of the responding GPs reported that the patient evaluation had raised their attention to the patient perspective on the quality of general practice care. Job satisfaction had improved among 26%, and 21% had developed a more positive attitude to patient evaluations. 77% of the GPs reported having learnt from the evaluation. 54% had made changes to improve practice, 82% would recommend a patient evaluation to a colleague and 75% would do another patient evaluation if invited. 14% of the GPs had become less positive towards patient evaluations, and job satisfaction had decreased among 3%. Conclusions We found a significant impact on the GPs regarding satisfaction with the process and attitude towards patient evaluations, GPs' attention to the patients' perspective on care quality and their job satisfaction. Being benchmarked against the average seemed to raise barriers to the

  10. A Statistical Approach to Evaluating Bank Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Dmitrović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, when a new cycle in the process of economic transition was vigorously launched in the country, the Serbian banking sector has incurred deep changes. This issue has acutely affected the banking sector in Serbia proper, directly influencing its performance and efficiency. This paper deals with the application of a new statistical approach – the I-distance method - in measuring the financial performance of banks that do business in Serbia in order to determine their productivity level, thus stressing the performance of banks from the perspective of productivity. Additionally, this point of view is essential for projecting productivity in evaluating overall bank operation efficiency.

  11. [Implementation and evaluation of quality circles in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, B; Härter, M; Niebling, W; Dieter, G; Berger, M

    1995-08-01

    In the beginning of 1993, society of panel doctors Südbaden, Germany, has constituted a group of experts from the Department of General Medicine of the university hospital and practising general practitioners (GPs) to develop an organisational and conceptional framework for setting up quality circles. At present, 23 quality circles with 6-12 participants are holding regular meetings every 4 to 8 weeks in the region of Südbaden. The group members, who are all physicians working in primary health care, are selecting and discussion topics which are important in general practice. In order to facilitate the discussions, the research group has developed predefined guidelines covering a wide range of common and important conditions in general practice (Hypertension, sleeping disorders, diabetes mellitus, COPD, dementia, lower back pain, cardio-vascular disease, depression, headache, vertigo etc). In presenting these structurized guidelines, the moderator prompts and encourage the group members to identify common problems in their own practices. The use of these guidelines in, quality circles and research may provide a starting point for developing consensus guidelines. The quality circle projects is given as systematic evaluation for both participants and moderators at different levels. Main objectives of the assessment are the recruitment, motivation and the specific goals of general practitioners to participate in quality circles. Currently, we are evaluating the development of quality circle for a period of 18 months.

  12. Television Reporting of the Bereaved: A General Semantics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Patrick J.

    Knowledge and application of basic general semantics principles when interviewing the bereaved can heighten social sensitivity, reduce misinterpretations, and minimize misevaluations. General semantics is concerned with the need to make transformations between sensory input and language output more isomorphic. It is an attempt to produce the best…

  13. Quality aspects of Dutch general practicebased data: a conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, C.; Hoeymans, N.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Oers, H.J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: General practice-based data, collected within general practice registration networks (GPRNs), are widely used in research. The quality of the data is important but the recording criteria about what type of information is collected and how this information should be recorded differ

  14. Image quality evaluation: the data mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chengwu

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult if not impossible to derive a model to adequately describe the entire visual, cognitive and preference decision process of image quality evaluation and to replace it with objective alternatives. Even if some parts of the process can be modeled based on the current knowledge of the visual system, there is often a lack of sufficient data to support the modeling process. On the other hand, image quality evaluation is constantly required for those working on imaging devices and software. Measurements and surveys are regularly conducted to test a newer processing algorithm or a methodology. Large scale subjective measurement or surveys are often conducted before a product is released. Here we propose to combine the two processes and apply data mining techniques to achieve both goals of routine subjective testing and modeling. Specifically, we propose to use relational databases to log and store regular evaluation processes. When combined with web applications, the relational databases approach allow one to maximally improve the efficiency of designing, conducting, analyzing, and reporting test data. The collection of large amounts of data makes it possible to apply data mining techniques to discover knowledge and patterns in the data. Here we report one such system for printing quality evaluation and some theories on data mining including data visualization, observer mining, text comment mining, test case mining, model mining. We also present some preliminary results based on some of these techniques.

  15. General practice ethnicity data: evaluation of a tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuwelt P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that the collection of ethnicity data in New Zealand primary care is variable and that data recording in practices does not always align with the procedures outlined in the Ethnicity Data Protocols for the Health and Disability Sector. In 2010, The Ministry of Health funded the development of a tool to audit the collection of ethnicity data in primary care. The aim of this study was to pilot the Ethnicity Data Audit Tool (EAT in general practice. The goal was to evaluate the tool and identify recommendations for its improvement. METHODS: Eight general practices in the Waitemata District Health Board region participated in the EAT pilot. Feedback about the pilot process was gathered by questionnaires and interviews, to gain an understanding of practices’ experiences in using the tool. Questionnaire and interview data were analysed using a simple analytical framework and a general inductive method. FINDINGS: General practice receptionists, practice managers and general practitioners participated in the pilot. Participants found the pilot process challenging but enlightening. The majority felt that the EAT was a useful quality improvement tool for handling patient ethnicity data. Larger practices were the most positive about the tool. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that, with minor improvements to the toolkit, the EAT has the potential to lead to significant improvements in the quality of ethnicity data collection and recording in New Zealand general practices. Other system-level factors also need to be addressed.

  16. Social Evaluation Approaches in Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Miccoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of world heritage and, in the last few years, landscape projects have played a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. As reported in the European Landscape Convention, landscape means an area, as perceived by people, of which the character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, in landscape planning and assessment, the community is necessarily involved. In order to improve the effectiveness of a project for landscape enhancement, this study suggests strategies for an integrated project, taking into account the numerous, heterogeneous variables involved. A landscape project, therefore, is a complex project that requires structured valuation stages, open to the community dimension. The qualitative, intergenerational, and inclusive characteristics of landscapes suggest that the limits of traditional economic analysis should be exceeded by adopting new assessment methods. With this aim in mind, this paper proposes social evaluation approaches, which operate by combining deliberative processes with total economic and multidimensional approaches. In this paper, we present: (1 a brief overview of the main features and issues concerning landscape projects; (2 strategies for integrated projects in landscape enhancement; and (3 social approaches in landscape assessment that account for complexity and social inclusion.

  17. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  18. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  19. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  20. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  1. General-equilibrium approach to energy/environmental economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groncki, P J

    1978-08-01

    This paper presents a brief critique of the use of fixed-coefficient input-output models for use in energy/environmental modeling systems, a shortcoming of input-output models that has been often been noted. Then, given the existence of aggregate, general-equilibrium, variable-coefficient growth models, a methodology is presented for using this information to adjust a recent disaggregated input-output table. This methodology takes into account all of the general-equilibrium aspects of the aggregate model in making the changes in the disaggregate model. The use of various weighting schemes and the implicit technological change biases they embody are examined. The methodology is being tested on historical tables for the United States, and preliminary results are discussed. This methodology's ability to fully capture the general-equilibrium nature of the economy should enhance the usefulness of input-output models in energy/environmental modeling systems.

  2. APPROACHES FOR EVALUATING AND FINANCING INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-LOREDANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the financial investment approach and the investment evaluation methods, which are criteria for assessing both investment projects and their funding sources. An important role in the analysis carried out is played by the investment decision and financing decision quality. Making an investment decision implies computing the related investment efficiency indicators. They allow the comparison of several variants of the same investment project as well as their comparison with other projects in the same industry or in other industries. The financing decision concerns the selection between their own sources (share capital, depreciation fund, profits, reserve funds, additional capital, revenues from investments, attracted sources (domestic resource mobilization and borrowed sources (credits.

  3. Induction heating processes optimization a general optimal control approach

    CERN Document Server

    Favennec, Y; Bay, F

    2003-01-01

    A general automatic optimization procedure coupled to a finite element induction heating process simulation has been developed. The mathematical model and the numerical methods are presented along with results validating the model. The first part of this paper presents the direct induction heating mathematical model, the related main numerical choices and especially the ultra-weak coupling procedure. The general optimization problem is then presented with the full detailed transposition of the ultra-weak coupling procedure to the adjoint problem. Numerical results provided at the end prove the efficiency and robustness of the adjoint model in optimizing induction heating processes.

  4. [Precision medicine : a required approach for the general internist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Gérard; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Guessous, Idris; Mooser, Vincent; Perrier, Arnaud; Simonet, Martine Louis

    2017-01-18

    The general internist cannot be a passive bystander of the anticipated medical revolution induced by precision medicine. This latter aims to improve the predictive and/or clinical course of an individual by integrating all biological, genetic, environmental, phenotypic and psychosocial knowledge of a person. In this article, national and international initiatives in the field of precision medicine are discussed as well as the potential financial, ethical and limitations of personalized medicine. The question is not to know if precision medicine will be part of everyday life but rather to integrate early the general internist in multidisciplinary teams to ensure optimal information and shared-decision process with patients and individuals.

  5. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    all students the opportunity to become proficient with Macintosh computers, which are used for data manipulation in some experiments. Another feature of the laboratory design is worthy of note. The experiments do not necessarily follow the topic chronologically as it is presented in the lecture. Instead, each cluster has a fairly extensive introduction, which summarizes the chemistry in that cluster. We had a reason in mind when we did this. In the past we have been content to cover the material in the lectures and to use the laboratory for confirmation of what the student had already learned. The results of laboratory experiments are known beforehand, and the students expect these results. An "unknown" given to the student merely allows the teacher to assess the student's lab technique and/or ability to calculate from the data a particular parameter of the unknown, such as its molar mass or its concentration. This, of course, is not the way science is done; the answers are not known before the experiment. In the normal course of scientific investigation, experiments are carried out to provide information needed for advancing knowledge, and not simply to confirm what is already known. In our design, ideally the students do the experiments to generate useful data. It is clear to them from the outset that there are no "correct answers." Data sampling and statistical analysis of the results are part of the experiments. In the course of developing these clusters, some questions arose that required further research. Several more advanced students have become involved in addressing these problems. One study on the "golden penny" demonstration resulted in a recent publication in this Journal (1). Student Evaluation of the Course An evaluation instrument was developed by two professors of the Psychology Department at Canisius College. It was administered at the end of each semester to all students taking General Chemistry. In addition, at the end of the second semester, the

  6. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop™ ?‘Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)’ was held from 31st January to 5th February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary aim of the workshop was to provide objective advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers, whether in industry, government or academia. The aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an environmental hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on six endocrine active substances (EAS not necessarily proven EDS), that are representative of a range of endocrine system perturbations and considered to be data-rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organisation for one or more ecologically-relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17á-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17â-trenbolone, tributyltin and vinclozolin. The six case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations, but provided the foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the environmental hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve

  7. The generalized pseudospectral approach to the bound states of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The generalized pseudospectral (GPS) method is employed to calculate the bound states of the Hulthén and the Yukawa potentials in quantum mechanics, with special emphasis on higher excited states and stronger couplings. Accurate energy eigenvalues, expectation values and radial probability densities are ...

  8. Multi-Level Approach for the Discriminative Generalized Hough Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruppertshofen, H.; Künne, D.; Lorenz, C.; Schmidt, S.; Beyerlein, P.; Salah, Z.; Rose, G.; Schramm, Hauke

    2011-01-01

    The Discriminative Generalized Hough Transform (DGHT) is a method for object localization, which combines the standard GHT with a discriminative training technique. Thereby the aim of the discriminativetraining is to equip the models used in the GHT with individual model point weights such that the

  9. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  10. General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Newman S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…

  11. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  12. A generalized cellular automata approach to modeling first order ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions are inhibited in a number of ways such as inhibitors competing for the binding site directly, inhibitors deforming the allosteric site or inhibitors changing the structure of active substrate. Using an in silico approach, the concentration of various reaction agents can be monitored ...

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns.

  14. Evaluation of General Nutrition Knowledge in Australian Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullen, Charina J; Iredale, Laura; Prvan, Tania; O'Connor, Helen T

    2016-02-01

    Sound nutrition knowledge and a balanced diet are essential for operational readiness and optimal health of military personnel. Few studies have examined nutrition knowledge in this population. To assess the level of general nutrition knowledge across military occupations (ie, officers [OFFRs], physical training instructors [PTIs], cooks [CKs], and soldiers [SOLs]) compared with a civilian, community (C) sample. Cross-sectional study. Convenience sample of Australian military (M) and C participants. General nutrition knowledge measured using the validated General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ). Knowledge scores and the influence of demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, level of education, and living arrangement) within and between M and C groups were evaluated. Analysis of variance, general linear models, independent-samples median test, t tests, χ(2) test, and Spearman's correlation. A sample of 1,295 participants were recruited with 622 (48%) from C. The M sample (n=673) consisted of SOLs 62.1%, OFFRs 9.1%, PTIs 12.8%, and CKs 16.0%. Mean age was higher for C than M (35.5±14 y vs 29.7±9.2 y; Pmilitary personnel, nutrition education programs particularly targeted at SOLs and CKs seem warranted. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Matrix Approach for General Higher Order Linear Recurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    properties of linear recurrences (such as the well-known Fibonacci and Pell sequences). In [2], Er defined k linear recurring sequences of order at...the nth term of the ith generalized order-k Fibonacci sequence. Communicated by Lee See Keong. Received: March 26, 2009; Revised: August 28, 2009...Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject

  16. General approach to boat simulation in virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranov, Vladislav Y.; Belyaev, Sergey Y.

    2002-02-01

    The paper is dedicated to real time simulation of sport boats, particularly a kayak and high-speed skimming boat, for training goals. This training is issue of the day, since kayaking and riding a high-speed skimming boat are both extreme sports. Participating in such types of competitions puts sportsmen into danger, particularly due to rapids, waterfalls, different water streams, and other obstacles. In order to make the simulation realistic, it is necessary to calculate data for at least 30 frames per second. These calculations may take not more than 5% CPU time, because very time-consuming 3D rendering process takes the rest - 95% CPU time. This paper describes an approach for creating minimal boat simulator models that satisfy the mentioned requirements. Besides, this approach can be used for other watercraft models of this kind.

  17. General Video Game Evaluation Using Relative Algorithm Performance Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorbjørn; Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    In order to generate complete games through evolution we need generic and reliably evaluation functions for games. It has been suggested that game quality could be characterised through playing a game with different controllers and comparing their performance. This paper explores that idea through...... investigating the relative performance of different general game-playing algorithms. Seven game-playing algorithms was used to play several hand-designed, mutated and randomly generated VGDL game descriptions. Results discussed appear to support the conjecture that well-designed games have, in average, a higher...... performance difference between better and worse game-playing algorithms....

  18. Evaluation of Workflow Management Systems - A Meta Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosemann

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The automated enactment of processes through the use of workflow management systems enables the outsourcing of the control flow from application systems. By now a large number of systems, that follow different workflow paradigms, are available. This leads to the problem of selecting the appropriate workflow management system for a given situation. In this paper we outline the benefits of a meta model approach for the evaluation and comparison of different workflow management systems. After a general introduction on the topic of meta modeling the meta models of the workflow management systems WorkParty (Siemens Nixdorf and FlowMark (IBM are compared as an example. These product specific meta models can be generalized to meta reference models, which helps to specify a workflow methodology. Exemplary, an organisational reference meta model is presented, which helps users in specifying their requirements for a workflow management system.

  19. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, S., E-mail: s.baars@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Viebahn, J.P., E-mail: viebahn@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, T.E., E-mail: t.e.mulder@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Kuehn, C., E-mail: ckuehn@ma.tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Faculty of Mathematics, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wubs, F.W., E-mail: f.w.wubs@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, H.A., E-mail: h.a.dijkstra@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial differential equations near fixed points, under a small noise approximation. Key innovation is the efficient solution of a generalized Lyapunov equation using an iterative method involving low-rank approximations. We apply and illustrate the capabilities of the method using a problem in physical oceanography, i.e. the occurrence of multiple steady states of the Atlantic Ocean circulation.

  20. A revolutionary approach to general aviation airplane design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Jan; Gomer, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of such advanced technologies as digital guidance/display concepts, flow laminarization techniques, smart structures, and composite primary structures, is presently considered systematically with a view to such novel features' integration in a next-generation general aviation aircraft. This Advanced Personal Transport is conceived as a six-passenger aircraft with 1200 nautical mile range; a tractor and a pusher configuration were considered, with the pusher configuration being of twin-boom empennage, three-lifting-surface type. Attention is given to pilot-workload reductions achievable through the proposed Integrated GPS/Glonass system.

  1. Anterior Colporrhaphy Technique and Approach Choices: Turkey Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the diversity in techniques and approaches for anterior colporrhaphy among operators in Turkey. Methods: A survey evaluating the preoperative examination, technique of anterior colporrhaphy, operation choice and postoperative care was presented to surgeons. We contacted via directly, mail or telephone. We used 28 item questionnaire. Results: Majority (87.9% was composed of young gynecologists. Urologists composed of the 9.5% of the study population. The rate of paravaginal defect evaluation was 75.9% and mostly by inspection the presence of vaginal rugae. The use of transperineal 3D pelvic floor ultrasonography was low (5.7%. The evaluation of levator ani muscle defect was 46.6%. The usage of the transperineal 3D ultrasonography for levator ani muscle defect was 19 percent of operators. There were diversity in use of hydrodissection, fascial plication, excision of vaginal mucosa and suture choice. Usage of mesh for anterior colporrhaphy was limited (17.8% and mostly in recurrent cases (12.2%. Paravaginal defect repair rate was 31.9%. The urinary catheter was generally removed one or two day after operation. Vaginal pack usually removed 24 hours after. Conclusion: Several techniques and approaches for anterior vaginal wall repair among operators in Turkey. The variety of techniques suggested that there is no consensus on best surgical technique.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  3. A Neuroevolution Approach to General Atari Game Playing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hausknecht, Matthew; Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    of network topology and weights (NEAT), and indirect network encoding (HyperNEAT). State representations include an object representation of the game screen, the raw pixels of the game screen, and seeded noise (a comparative baseline). Results indicate that direct-encoding methods work best on compact state...... representations while indirect-encoding methods (i.e. HyperNEAT) allow scaling to higher-dimensional representations (i.e. the raw game screen). Previous approaches based on temporal- dierence learning had trouble dealing with the large state spaces and sparse reward gradients often found in Atari games. Neuro...

  4. Topological approach to the generalized n-centre problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, S. V.; Kozlov, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper considers a natural Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom and Hamiltonian H=\\Vert p\\Vert^2/2+V(q). The configuration space M is a closed surface (for non-compact M certain conditions at infinity are required). It is well known that if the potential energy V has n>2χ(M) Newtonian singularities, then the system is not integrable and has positive topological entropy on the energy level H=h>\\sup V. This result is generalized here to the case when the potential energy has several singular points a_j of type V(q)∼ -\\operatorname{dist}(q,a_j)-α_j. Let A_k=2-2k-1, k\\in{N}, and let n_k be the number of singular points with A_k≤slant α_jk+1. It is proved that if \\displaystyle \\sum2≤slant k≤slant∞n_kA_k>2χ(M), then the system has a compact chaotic invariant set of collision-free trajectories on any energy level H=h>\\sup V. This result is purely topological: no analytical properties of the potential energy are used except the presence of singularities. The proofs are based on the generalized Levi-Civita regularization and elementary topology of coverings. As an example, the plane n-centre problem is considered. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  5. Oxytocin in General Anxiety and Social Fear: A Translational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Inga D; Slattery, David A

    2016-02-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been revealed as a profound anxiolytic and antistress factor of the brain, besides its many prosocial and reproductive effects. Therefore, there is substantial scientific and medical interest in its potential therapeutic use for the treatment of psychopathologies associated with anxiety, fear, and social dysfunctions, such as generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder, as well as autism and schizophrenia, among others. Focusing on preclinical studies, we review the existing evidence for the regulatory capacity of OXT to fine-tune general and social anxiety-related behaviors, as well as cued and social fear conditioning from a translational perspective. The available evidence from animal and human studies substantiates the hypothesis of an imbalance of the endogenous brain OXT system in the etiology of anxiety disorders, particularly those with a social component such as social anxiety disorder. In addition, such an imbalance of the OXT system is also likely to be the consequence of chronic OXT treatment resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in OXT receptor availability and increased anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anemia: An approach to evaluation, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kuriakose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is very commonly encountered in general clinical practice among all age groups. The more commonly used way to classify anemia has been to categorize it as being microcytic (mean corpuscular volume [MCV] 100 fL, which in turn allows for a more practical way to attempt to come up with a cause for any decrease in hemoglobin. Microcytic anemias are usually due to iron deficiency (in turn, a result of a number of different etiologies ranging from decreased intake, malabsorption, or blood loss, hemoglobinopathies (thalassemic syndromes, and some cases of severe anemia resulting from chronic disease. Normocytic anemia is often a result of anemia of chronic disease, hemolysis, or secondary to bone marrow failure. Macrocytic anemias are frequently caused by deficiencies of folic acid and/or Vitamin B12, exposure to toxic agents like drugs that interfere with DNA metabolism and alcohol, as also bone marrow failure states, such as from myelodysplastic syndrome. A comprehensive history, physical examination, and directed laboratory evaluation will help to identify a specific cause for anemia.

  7. An investigative, cooperative learning approach to the general microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience involving culture and identification of microbial isolates that the students obtained from various environments. To assess whether this strategy was successful, students were asked to complete a survey at the beginning and at the end of the semester regarding their comfort level with a variety of topics. For most of the topics queried, the students reported that their comfort had increased significantly during the semester. Furthermore, this group of students thought that the quality of this investigative lab experience was much better than that of any of their previous lab experiences.

  8. Interacting holographic dark energy models: A general approach

    CERN Document Server

    Som, S

    2014-01-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density $\\rho_d=3(\\alpha H^2+\\beta\\dot{H})$. Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy(RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for $\\beta>0.5$ irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of $\\alpha=1$ and $\\beta=2/3$ leads to a varying $\\Lambda$-like model introducing an IR cutoff length $\\Lambda^{-1/2}$. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form $Q\\propto H\\rho_m$ suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  9. Single Step, a general approach for genomic selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarra, Andres; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Aguilar, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    can be modelled using pedigree relationships. Based on this, an extension of the genomic relationship matrix can be constructed in which genomic relationships are propagated to all individuals, resulting in a combined relationship matrix, which can be used in a BLUP procedure called the Single Step...... Genomic BLUP. This procedure provides so far the most comprehensive option for genomic evaluation. Several extensions, options and details are described: compatibility of genomic and pedigree relationships, Bayesian regressions, multiple trait models, computational aspects, etc. Many details scattered...

  10. Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorick, Todd; Smith, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG) signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014), the concept of information equilibrium (IE) in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates) information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.

  11. Nontraditional approach to algebra-based general physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, David E.

    1997-03-01

    In order to improve the degree of conceptual learning in our algebra-based general physics course, the second semester (of a two-semester sequence) has been taught in a nontraditional format during the past year. The key characteristics of this course were: 1) Intense and continuous use of interactive-engagement methods and cooperative learning; 2) coverage of less than half of the conventional number of topics, 3) heavy emphasis on qualitative questions as opposed to quantitative problems, 4) adjustment of the pacing of the course based on continuous (twice per week) formative assessment. The students enrolled in the course were relatively poorly prepared, with weak mathematical skills. Open-book quizzes stressing qualitative concepts in electricity and magnetism were given twice per week; most were given in "group quiz" format, allowing collaboration. Exams (also open-book) were all done individually. Most of the class time was taken up by quizzes, and by interactive discussion and group work related to quiz questions. New topics were not introduced until a majority of the class demonstrated competence in the topic under discussion. Despite lengthy and intensive focus on qualitative, conceptual questions and simple quantitative problems, only a small minority of the class ultimately demonstrated mastery of the targeted concepts. Frequent testing and re-testing of the students on basic concepts disclosed tenacious persistence of misconceptions.

  12. Preferred Spatial Directions in the Universe: a General Relativity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein is constructed, using General Relativity, the space metric along the Earth’s trajectory in the Galaxy, where the Earth traces outs a complicated spiral in its orbital motion around the Sun and its concomitant motion with the solar system around the centre of the Galaxy. It is deduced herein that this space is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. The observable properties of the space, characterizing its gravitation, rotation, deformation, and curvature, are obtained. The theory predicts that the observable velocity of light is anisotropic, due to the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of space caused by the presence of gravitation and the space rotation, despite the world-invariance of the velocity of light remaining unchanged. It is calculated that two pairs of synchronised clocks should record a different speed of light for light beams travelling towards the Sun and orthogonal to this direction, of about 4×10−4 c (i. e. 120 km/sec, 0.04% of the measured velocity of light c. This effect should have oscillations with a 12-hour period (due to the daily rotation of the Earth and 6 month period (due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. The best equipment for detecting the effect is that being used by R. T. Cahill (Flinders University, Australia in his current experiments measuring the velocity of light in an RF coaxial-cable equipped with a pair of high precision synchronized Rb atomic clocks.

  13. Bronchiolitis: A Practical Approach for the General Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winningham, Peter J; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Betancourt, Sonia L; Restrepo, Carlos S; Eraso, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Radiologists consciously or unconsciously encounter bronchiolitis on images frequently. The purpose of this article is to simplify the concept of bronchiolitis to facilitate the formulation of a succinct and accurate differential diagnosis and suggest potential causes for the imaging findings. Direct and indirect signs of bronchiolitis that are seen on computed tomographic images are detailed. The most common causes of bronchiolitis are covered, including several distinct entities to be considered in specific clinical scenarios. In order of prevalence, the top two causes of bronchiolitis are infection and aspiration. Less common entities include respiratory bronchiolitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which tend to manifest with ground-glass centrilobular nodules. Some types of bronchiolitis affect specific ethnic groups or are associated with a characteristic clinical history. For example, diffuse panbronchiolitis typically affects Japanese subjects. Constrictive bronchiolitis should be considered in lung transplant recipients with ongoing rejection. Given the high frequency of bronchiolitis, radiologists should develop a systematic approach to both cellular and constrictive bronchiolitis. Recognition of specific clinical or imaging characteristics may be sufficient for providing a relevant differential diagnosis. ©RSNA, 2017.

  14. Enhanced crystallizability by protein engineering approaches: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Smaldone, Giovanni; Squeglia, Flavia; Berisio, Rita

    2012-07-01

    The limiting step in macromolecular crystallography is the preparation protein crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. A strong prerequisite for the success of crystallization experiments is the ability to produce monodisperse and properly folded protein samples. Since the production of most protein is usually achieved using recombinant methods, it has become possible to engineer target proteins with increased propensities to form well diffracting crystals. Recent advances in bioinformatics, which takes advantage from an enhanced information in the protein databases, are of enormous help for the design of modified proteins. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the reduction of the structural complexity of proteins or their site-specific mutagenesis has proven to have a dramatic impact on both the yield of heterologous protein expression and its crystallizability. Therefore, protein engineering represents a valid tool which supports the classical crystallization screenings with a more rational approach. This review describes key methods of protein-engineering and provides a number of examples of their successful use in crystallization. Scope of proposed topic: This Topic is focused on state-of-art protein engineering techniques to increase the propensity of proteins to form crystals with suitable X-ray diffraction properties. Protein engineering methods have proven to be of great help for the crystallization of difficult targets. We herein review molecular biology and chemical methods to help protein crystallization.

  15. Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Seeing evaluation as an opportunity for learning rather than as an accountability exercise;; Defining the uses of evaluation, and making sure findings are utilized; and; Ensuring participation from all stakeholders in the evaluation process. You can read the evaluation reports from the five projects: Communication Policy ...

  16. Development of a General Approach to the Modeling of Free and Confined Polyatomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, V. V.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Jensen, P.; Potekaev, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The concepts of the project ATOMSK are outlined. The project aims at developing a general approach to the theoretical study of free and localized polyatomic systems including the development of appropriate computational tools. Basic physical principles and general scheme of the approach are stated. Calculation of the energy states of molecular hydrogen in single-crystal silicon was considered as an example.

  17. General practitioners' approach to malingering in basic military training centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokcu, Alper Tunga; Kurt, E

    2017-04-01

    Malingering can be defined as the abuse of the right to benefit from the health services. In this study, the frequency of the malingering cases in Basic Military Training Centres (BMTCs) and the behaviours and the attitudes of the military physicians towards the recruits who are suspected malingerers were described. A total of 17 general practitioners in nine different BMTCs in different regions of Turkey constitute the universe of this descriptive study. In the questionnaire, there were a total of 30 questions about the descriptive characteristics of the participants and their attitudes and behaviours towards malingering. Informed consent form and a questionnaire were applied through the intranet via participants' emails. In the study, 15 physicians were reached with a response rate of 88.2%. All of the physicians suspected malingering in some of the soldiers who were examined. A total of 80% of the physicians (n=12) suspected malingering in at least 10% of the patients they examined. Only 13.3% of the physicians (n=2) had officially diagnosed a case of malingering in the last training period. All of the participants stated that they did not report the official decision for every soldier suspected of malingering. Instead of reporting official decision for malingering, the military physicians apply alternative procedures for suspected malingerers. In countries where the military service is compulsory, prevalence of malingering is estimated to be higher (approximately 5-25%). The problem of malingering is often underestimated due to the fact it is usually overlooked. Malingering remains a problem for the entire military healthcare system, due to the difficulties in exact diagnosis. Therefore, it can be useful to take some practical administrative measures for the soldiers who are prone to malingering, in order to discourage the behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. A STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR DERIVING KEY NFC EVALUATION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. KIM

    2014-02-01

    As a result of analyzing the weight of evaluation criteria with the sample of nuclear power experts and the general public, both sides recognized safety as the most important evaluation criterion, and the social factors such as public acceptance appeared to be ranked as more important evaluation criteria by the nuclear energy experts than the general public.

  19. Evaluation of the general three-loop vacuum Feynman integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen P.; Robertson, David G.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the systematic evaluation of three-loop vacuum integrals with arbitrary masses. Using integration by parts, the general integral of this type can be reduced algebraically to a few basis integrals. We define a set of modified finite basis integrals that are particularly convenient for expressing renormalized quantities. The basis integrals can be computed numerically by solving coupled first-order differential equations, using as boundary conditions the analytically known special cases that depend on only one mass scale. We provide the results necessary to carry this out and introduce an implementation in the form of a public software package called 3vil (three-loop Vacuum Integral Library), which efficiently computes the numerical values of the basis integrals for any specified masses. Note that 3vil is written in c, and can be linked from c, c++, or fortran code.

  20. Test and evaluation of the generalized gate logic system simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the initial testing of the Generalized Gate Level Logic Simulator (GGLOSS) are discussed. The simulator is a special purpose fault simulator designed to assist in the analysis of the effects of random hardware failures on fault tolerant digital computer systems. The testing of the simulator covers two main areas. First, the simulation results are compared with data obtained by monitoring the behavior of hardware. The circuit used for these comparisons is an incomplete microprocessor design based upon the MIL-STD-1750A Instruction Set Architecture. In the second area of testing, current simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained using precursors of the current tool. In each case, a portion of the earlier experiment is confirmed. The new results are then viewed from a different perspective in order to evaluate the usefulness of this simulation strategy.

  1. Toward the Future of Stakeholder Approaches in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of the assumptions underlying the stakeholder approach to evaluation combined with the limited experience in testing the approach reported in this volume, suggests that some claims are cogent and others problematical. (Author)

  2. The approach of general surgeons to oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery in Turkey: a survey of practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroğlu, Mustafa; Sert, İsmail; İnal, Abdullah; Karaali, Cem; Peker, Kemal; İlhan, Enver; Gülcelik, Mehmet; Erol, Varlık; Güngör, Hilmi; Can, Didem; Aydın, Cengiz

    2014-12-01

    Oncoplastic Breast Surgery (OBS), which is a combination of oncological procedures and plastic surgery techniques, has recently gained widespread use. To assess the experiences, practice patterns and preferred approaches to Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery (ORBS) undertaken by general surgeons specializing in breast surgery in Turkey. Cross-sectional study. Between December 2013 and February 2014, an eleven-question survey was distributed among 208 general surgeons specializing in breast surgery. The questions focused on the attitudes of general surgeons toward performing oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), the role of the general surgeon in OBS and their training for it as well as their approaches to evaluating cosmetic outcomes in Breast Conserving Surgery (BCS) and informing patients about ORBS preoperatively. Responses from all 208 surgeons indicated that 79.8% evaluated the cosmetic outcomes of BCS, while 94.2% informed their patients preoperatively about ORBS. 52.5% performed BCS (31.3% themselves, 21.1% together with a plastic surgeon). 53.8% emphasized that general surgeons should carry out OBS themselves. 36.1% of respondents suggested that OBS training should be included within mainstream surgical training, whereas 27.4% believed this training should be conducted by specialised centres. Although OBS procedure rates are low in Turkey, it is encouraging to see general surgeons practicing ORBS themselves. The survey demonstrates that our general surgeons aspire to learn and utilize OBS techniques.

  3. Mentoring approach improves evaluation capacity of ICTD ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... An innovative IDRC initiative is improving evaluation capacities of researchers studying Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICTD). Developing Evaluation Capacity in ICTD (DECI) provides researchers from five IDRC-funded projects in Asia ongoing mentorship to learn and ...

  4. Forensic evaluation of medical liability cases in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, H; Magalhães, T; Dinis-Oliveira, Rj; Taveira-Gomes, A

    2014-10-01

    Although medical liability (disciplinary, civil and criminal) is increasingly becoming an issue, few studies exist, particularly from the perspective of forensic science, which demonstrate the extent to which medical malpractice occurs, or when it does, the reasons for it. Our aims were to evaluate the current situation concerning medical liability in general surgery (GS) in Portugal, the reasons for claims, and the forensic evaluations and conclusions, as well as the association between these issues and the judicial outcomes. We analysed the Medico-Legal Council (CML) reports of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal related to GS during 2001-2010. The judicial outcomes of each case were requested from the Public Prosecutor Office (PPO) and the court. Alleged cases of medical liability in GS represented 11.2% of the total cases analysed by the CML. We estimated that in Portugal, 4:100,000 surgeries are subject to litigation. The majority of complaints were due to the patient's death (75.4%), with laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgeries representing 55.2% of cases. In 76.1% of the cases, the CML believed that there was no violation of legesartis and in 55.2% of cases, no causal nexus was found between the medical practice and the alleged harm. The PPO prosecuted physicians in 6.4% of the cases and resulted in one conviction. Finally, the importance of the CML reports as a relevant technical-scientific tool for judicial decision was evident because these reports significantly (p prosecutor's decision, whether to prosecute or not. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. The Stakeholder Approach to Evaluation: Origins and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1983-01-01

    The promise of the stakeholder approach to evaluation lies in its potential to counter criticism that evaluation is too narrow, unrealistic in its standards for success, unfair to program staff and participants, and irrelevant to decision makers. (Author)

  6. An Approach to Evaluating Distance Learning Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wisher, Robert

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with an agreement with the National Guard Bureau (NGB) a simplified evaluation form was developed that assessed demographic, instructional, and technology factors for distance learning training events of short duration...

  7. Evaluating Emergency Physicians: Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, Javier; Farion, Ken; Michalowski, Wojtek; Patrick, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation tool to assess performance of Emergency Physicians according to such criteria as resource utilization, patient throughput and the quality of care. Evaluation is conducted using a mathematical programming model known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Use of this model does not require the subjective assignment of weights associated with each criterion – a feature typical of methodologies that rely on composite scores. The DEA model presented in this paper was developed using a hypothetical data set describing a representative set of profiles of Emergency Physicians. The solution to the model relates the performance of each Emergency Physician in relation to the others and to a benchmark. We discuss how such an evaluation tool can be used in practice. PMID:24551348

  8. Evaluating emergency physicians: data envelopment analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos, Javier; Farion, Ken; Michalowski, Wojtek; Patrick, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an evaluation tool to assess performance of Emergency Physicians according to such criteria as resource utilization, patient throughput and the quality of care. Evaluation is conducted using a mathematical programming model known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Use of this model does not require the subjective assignment of weights associated with each criterion - a feature typical of methodologies that rely on composite scores. The DEA model presented in this paper was developed using a hypothetical data set describing a representative set of profiles of Emergency Physicians. The solution to the model relates the performance of each Emergency Physician in relation to the others and to a benchmark. We discuss how such an evaluation tool can be used in practice.

  9. Mentoring for NHS general practitioners: a prospective pilot study of an action learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Richard; Ball, Kerry; Watson, Gill

    2011-07-01

    Annual GP appraisal provides a standardised system to identify poorly performing or underperforming doctors as well as development needs. Mentoring is widely used for enhancing personal and professional development and might help address these needs. However, doubts have been expressed in the literature about the strength of the supporting evidence. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the possible benefits of using a specified 'action learning' approach to mentoring through a prospective study design. Both mentors and mentees were recruited using open invitation through the local appraisal service. Mentees were allocated to either one-to-one or group sessions. Each participant received four sessions of mentoring. All sessions were evaluated using a learning needs log, visual plots and feedback forms. Fourteen GPs participated as mentees (via either self-referral or the appraisal process). Twelve completed the four sessions of action learning mentoring. The average duration of one-to-one sessions was 1 hour 45 minutes. Each group session was 3 hours long. Time between sessions varied from 7 to 30 days. The average number of days between each session was 17. Benefits were observed in several areas of personal and professional development. The mentoring intervention piloted in this study demonstrates a feasible approach to identifying and developing learning needs. Small numbers in the study make it difficult to attribute this specifically to the action learning approach taken. However, the framework presented was recognised as useful by the mentors. Future work will aim to identify if the approach is due to action learning specifically or the more general effect of counselling.

  10. A Catalyst-for-Change Approach to Evaluation Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Luna, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) has become a popular approach for helping community-based organizations (CBOs) to meet their funders' demands for accountability. This case study reports the ECB process with one staff member using a catalyst-for-change approach. The authors analyzed the role of the catalyst in diffusing evaluation knowledge and…

  11. Evaluating survival model performance: a graphical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, M; Galai, N; Simchen, E

    2005-06-30

    In the last decade, many statistics have been suggested to evaluate the performance of survival models. These statistics evaluate the overall performance of a model ignoring possible variability in performance over time. Using an extension of measures used in binary regression, we propose a graphical method to depict the performance of a survival model over time. The method provides estimates of performance at specific time points and can be used as an informal test for detecting time varying effects of covariates in the Cox model framework. The method is illustrated on real and simulated data using Cox proportional hazard model and rank statistics. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Raza

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students. Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The survey of the medical students was carried out between January and March, 2012. The survey was administered to all the medical students present in lecture halls on day of data collection, while general education students were randomly selected from four subject areas at two universities. In total, 976 medical students and 912 general students participated in the study. Of the general students, 494(54%) were boys and 418(46%)were girls with an overall mean age of 20.53±1.77 years (range: 17-27 years). The medical students' perceptions of their learning environment and their learning preferences were broadly similar to that of general education students with the exception of workload. The medical students perceived the workload to be less appropriate (Mean = 2.06±0.72) than the students in general education (Mean = 2.84±0.90). The medical students were more likely to use the deep approach to studying (Mean = 3.66±0.59) than the students in general education (Mean = 3.16±0.91). The students in general education were slightly more likely to use the organized studying (Mean = 3.44±0.90) than the medical students (Mean =3.23±0.90). Both medical students and the students in general education tended to use the surface approaches along with other approaches to studying. There was not a great difference between the medical students and the students pursuing general education with regard to perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning.

  13. Teaching Web Evaluation: A Cognitive Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjes-Small, Candice; Archer, Alyssa; Tucker, Katelyn; Vassady, Lisa; Resor, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Web evaluation has been a standard information literacy offering for years and has always been a challenging topic for instruction librarians. Over time, the authors had tried a myriad of strategies to teach freshmen how to assess the credibility of Web sites but felt the efforts were insufficient. By familiarizing themselves with the cognitive…

  14. Selected Approaches to the Business Environment Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains views of managers on the quality of business environment and also reflects the results of the World Bank, which annually assesses the conditions for doing business in different countries, including the Czech Republic. The business environment of the Czech Republic was evaluated based upon the results of the World Bank, which assesses conditions for doing business in various parts of the world. Secondly, views of SME managers on the quality of the business environment were presented. The World Bank’s „Doing Business 2011“ report puts the Czech Republic in the 63rd place (out of 183 examined countries when it comes to the quality of the business environment. The Czech Republic improved its score in two categories (Property Registration and Ending a Business compared to the same evaluation conducted in 2010. SME managers evaluated the business environment with SWOT Analysis. „Technical and technological development along with increase in demand for innovated products made by new technologies“ was perceived as the most significant opportunity (82% while „Competition and rivalry in the industry“ was identified as the most significant threat by almost all respondents (92% in their 2010 evaluation.

  15. Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Richard; Dias, Monica Costa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the most popular policy evaluation methods in empirical microeconomics: social experiments, natural experiments, matching, instrumental variables, discontinuity design, and control functions. It discusses identification of traditionally used average parameters and more complex distributional parameters. The adequacy,…

  17. The First Flight Decision for New Human Spacecraft Vehicles - A General Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Sumrall, John Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Determining when it is safe to fly a crew on a launch vehicle/spacecraft for the first time, especially when the test flight is a part of the overall system certification process, has long been a challenge for program decision makers. The decision on first flight is ultimately the judgment of the program and agency management in conjunction with the design and operations team. To aid in this decision process, a NASA team undertook the task to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program or commercial provider has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to safely fly on human spaceflight systems for the first time. It was the team s goal to establish a generic framework that could easily be applied to any new system, although the system design and intended mission would require specific assessment. Historical data shows that there are multiple approaches that have been successful in first flight with crew. These approaches have always been tailored to the specific system design, mission objectives, and launch environment. Because specific approaches may vary significantly between different system designs and situations, prescriptive instructions or thorough checklists cannot be provided ahead of time. There are, however, certain general approaches that should be applied in thinking through the decision for first flight. This paper addresses some of the most important factors to consider when developing a new system or evaluating an existing system for whether or not it is safe to fly humans to/from space. In the simplest terms, it is time to fly crew for the first time when it is safe to do so and the benefit of the crewed flight is greater than the residual risk. This is rarely a straight-forward decision. The paper describes the need for experience, sound judgment, close involvement of the technical and management teams, and established decision processes. In addition, the underlying level of confidence the

  18. 33 CFR 167.200 - In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.200 Section 167.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.200 In the approaches to Chesapeake Bay Traffic Separation Scheme: General. (a) The traffic...

  19. A General and Flexible Approach to Estimating the Social Relations Model Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtke, Oliver; Robitzsch, Alexander; Kenny, David A.; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The social relations model (SRM) is a conceptual, methodological, and analytical approach that is widely used to examine dyadic behaviors and interpersonal perception within groups. This article introduces a general and flexible approach to estimating the parameters of the SRM that is based on Bayesian methods using Markov chain Monte Carlo…

  20. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  1. A general approach for optimal kinematic design of 6-DOF parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal kinematic design of parallel manipulators is a challenging problem. In this work, an attempt has been made to present a generalized approach of kinematic design for a 6-legged parallel manipulator, by considering only the minimally required design parameters. The same approach has been used to design a ...

  2. Teaching Web Evaluation: A Cognitive Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Benjes-Small

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Web evaluation has been a standard information literacy offering for years and has always been a challenging topic for instruction librarians. Over time, the authors had tried a myriad of strategies to teach freshmen how to assess the credibility of Web sites but felt the efforts were insufficient. By familiarizing themselves with the cognitive development research, they were able to effectively revamp Web evaluation instruction to improve student learning. This article discusses the problems of traditional methods, such as checklists; summarizes the cognitive development research, particularly in regards to its relationship to the ACRL Information Literacy Standards; and details the instructional lesson plan developed by the authors that incorporates cognitive development theories.

  3. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between "structural factors," which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge) which influence risk and vulnerability, and "structural drivers," which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A "structural diagnostic approach" is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities shaping patterns of sexual practices. Future HIV prevention efforts

  4. Stakeholder approach for evaluating organizational change projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Alho, Antti; Kujala, Jaakko; Aitamurto, Johanna; Parvinen, Petri

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to create a model for evaluating organizational change initiatives from a stakeholder resistance viewpoint. The paper presents a model to evaluate change projects and their expected benefits. Factors affecting the challenge to implement change were defined based on stakeholder theory literature. The authors test the model's practical validity for screening change initiatives to improve operating room productivity. Change initiatives can be evaluated using six factors: the effect of the planned intervention on stakeholders' actions and position; stakeholders' capability to influence the project's implementation; motivation to participate; capability to change; change complexity; and management capability. The presented model's generalizability should be explored by filtering presented factors through a larger number of historical cases operating in different healthcare contexts. The link between stakeholders, the change challenge and the outcomes of change projects needs to be empirically tested. The proposed model can be used to prioritize change projects, manage stakeholder resistance and establish a better organizational and professional competence for managing healthcare organization change projects. New insights into existing stakeholder-related understanding of change project successes are provided.

  5. Methodological approaches to performance evaluation of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Каріна Ромеовна Немашкало

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is developed a methodical approach that will allow performance evaluation of social capital at the macro-, meso- and micro levels, which consists of evaluation of social capital and evaluation of the impact of social capital on the effectiveness of economic system in which it is reproduced. It is determined the difference in terms of «evaluation of social capital» and «evaluation of the functioning of social capital»

  6. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; Traum, D.; Alexandersson, J.; A. JONSSON; Zukerman, I.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts, the slot level dialogue manager and the global dialogue manager. Our implemented dialogue manager prototype can handle hundreds of slots; each slot might have many values. A first evaluation of th...

  7. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest...... assessed on the basis of analyses of Landsat images. This biophysical evidence was then linked to changes in actual management practices, assessed through records, interviews and participatory observations, to provide a measure of the conservation impact of the policy change. Both forests in the study were...... that decentralized management had led to increased control of forest use and the observed divergence in forest disturbance levels appeared to be linked to differences in the way that village-level forest managers prioritized conservation objectives and forest-based livelihood strategies. The study illustrates...

  8. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive exposition of the theory of measurement accuracy and provides solutions that fill significant and long-standing gaps in the classical theory. It eliminates the shortcomings of the classical theory by including methods for estimating accuracy of single measurements, the most common type of measurement. The book also develops methods of reduction and enumeration for indirect measurements, which do not require Taylor series and produce a precise solution to this problem. It produces grounded methods and recommendations for summation of errors. The monograph also analyzes and critiques two foundation metrological documents, the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) and the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and discusses directions for their revision. This new edition adds a step-by-step guide on how to evaluate measurement accuracy and recommendations on how to calculate systematic error of multiple measurements. There is also an e...

  9. Structural approaches for prevention of sexually transmitted HIV in general populations: definitions and an operational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin O Parkhurst

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although biomedical HIV prevention efforts have seen a number of recent promising developments, behavioural interventions have often been described as failing. However, clear lessons have been identified from past efforts, including the need to address influential social, economic and legal structures; to tailor efforts to local contexts; and to address multiple influencing factors in combination. Despite these insights, there remains a pervasive strategy to try to achieve sexual behaviour change through single, decontextualized, interventions or sets of activities. With current calls for structural approaches to HIV as part of combination HIV prevention, though, there is a unique opportunity to define a structural approach to HIV prevention as one which moves beyond these past limitations and better incorporates our knowledge of the social world and the lessons from past efforts. Discussion: A range of interlinked concepts require delineation and definition within the broad concept of a structural approach to HIV. This includes distinguishing between “structural factors,” which can be seen as any number of elements (other than knowledge which influence risk and vulnerability, and “structural drivers,” which should be reserved for situations where an empirically established relationship to a target group is known. Operationalizing structural approaches similarly can take different paths, either working to alter structural drivers or alternatively working to build individual and community resilience to infection. A “structural diagnostic approach” is further defined as the process one undertakes to develop structural intervention strategies tailored to target groups. Conclusions: For three decades, the HIV prevention community has struggled to reduce the spread of HIV through sexual risk behaviours with limited success, but equally with limited engagement with the lessons that have been learned about the social realities

  10. Integrated modelling approach for the evaluation of low emission zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana; Antunes, António Pais

    2016-07-15

    Low emission zones (LEZ) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted or deterred from entering. In recent years, LEZ became a popular option to reduce traffic-related air pollution and have been implemented in many cities worldwide, notably in Europe. However, the evidence about their effectiveness is inconsistent. This calls for the development of tools to evaluate ex-ante the air quality impacts of a LEZ. The integrated modelling approach we propose in this paper aims to respond to this call. It links a transportation model with an emissions model and an air quality model operating over a GIS-based platform. Through the application of the approach, it is possible to estimate the changes induced by the creation of a LEZ applied to private cars with respect to air pollution levels not only inside the LEZ, but also, more generally, in the city where it is located. The usefulness of the proposed approach was demonstrated for a case study involving the city of Coimbra (Portugal), where the creation of a LEZ is being sought to mitigate the air quality problems that its historic centre currently faces. The main result of this study was that PM10 and NO2 emissions from private cars would decrease significantly inside the LEZ (63% and 52%, respectively) but the improvement in air quality would be small and exceedances to the air pollution limits adopted in the European Union would not be fully avoided. In contrast, at city level, total emissions increase and a deterioration of air quality is expected to occur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    very specific context of dam construction will be identified. Special focus will be on the constraints arising from the need to jointly evaluate qualitative and quantitative aspects and the methodological potential of multi-criteria evaluation in this respect.

  12. Evaluation of general dentists’ knowledge regarding management of dental trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Seyfi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs are of the most common dental problems in children and adolescents, which usually occur in the anterior segment and have a significant role in patient’s physical and psychological health. Immediate intervention for damaged teeth can elevate the success rate of treatment in TDI. Thus, general dentists’ knowledge and their effective intervention in TDI are important factors in prognosis of traumatized teeth. The objective of this study was to assess the general dentists’ knowledge and awareness regarding the diagnosis and management of traumatic dental injuries. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the questionnaire data were collected from 130 general dentists, including the demographic data and general dentists’ knowledge about TDIs. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Spearman’s and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The mean score of general dentists’ knowledge was 8.5 ± 1.5 (total score:10 and it was the same between both males and females (P=0.083. Dentists’ work place does not have any influence in their knowledge (P=0.133. Also, there was no statically significant relationship between the age, job experience and dentists’ knowledge (P=0.805. The relationship between the frequency of TDI managed cases and dentists’ knowledge was not significant (P=0.507. Conclusion: Considering that the overall knowledge of general dentists regarding the management of TDI was sufficient, it could be a good opportunity in treating these injuries. As TDI is a developing science, it is important to motivate general dentists being up to date regarding this matter.

  13. Explanatory approach for evaluation of machine learning-induced knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorman, Milan; Verlic, M

    2009-01-01

    Progress in biomedical research has resulted in an explosive growth of data. Use of the world wide web for sharing data has opened up possibilities for exhaustive data mining analysis. Symbolic machine learning approaches used in data mining, especially ensemble approaches, produce large sets of patterns that need to be evaluated. Manual evaluation of all patterns by a human expert is almost impossible. We propose a new approach to the evaluation of machine learning-induced knowledge by introducing a pre-evaluation step. Pre-evaluation is the automatic evaluation of patterns obtained from the data mining phase, using text mining techniques and sentiment analysis. It is used as a filter for patterns according to the support found in online resources, such as publicly-available repositories of scientific papers and reports related to the problem. The domain expert can then more easily distinguish between patterns or rules that are potential candidates for new knowledge.

  14. Empowerment evaluation: An approach that has literally altered the landscape of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Stewart I

    2017-08-01

    The quest for credible and actionable evidence to improve decision making, foster improvement, enhance self-determination, and promote social betterment is now a global phenomenon. Evaluation theorists and practitioners alike have responded to and overcome the challenges that limited the effectiveness and usefulness of traditional evaluation approaches primarily focused on seeking rigorous scientific knowledge about social programs and policies. No modern evaluation approach has received a more robust welcome from stakeholders across the globe than empowerment evaluation. Empowerment evaluation has been a leader in the development of stakeholder involvement approaches to evaluation, setting a high bar. In addition, empowerment evaluation's respect for community knowledge and commitment to the people's right to build their own evaluation capacity has influenced the evaluation mainstream, particularly concerning evaluation capacity building. Empowerment evaluation's most significant contributions to the field have been to improving evaluation use and knowledge utilization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    OpenAIRE

    McCourt, Christine A; Morgan, Philip A; Youll, Penny

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Me...

  16. 12 CFR 1805.700 - Evaluation and selection-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1805.700 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection of Applications... Applicants that vary by institution type, total asset size, stage of organizational development, markets...

  17. Ontology Evaluation:Consideration of Criteria, Approaches and Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Fathian Dastgerdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontology is commonly used as a structure capturing knowledge about a certain area via providing relevant concepts and relations between them. Nowadays, because of the increase in designing ontologies in different domains, it is important to describe some criteria for selecting the most appropriate ontology. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ontology evaluation criteria, approaches and layers. At first, different evaluation stages in ontology evaluation were explained. Then the most important approaches to ontology evaluation were described: included gold standard, task-based, data-driven and criteria based evaluation. Another part of this paper was about ontology evaluation criteria such as those mentioned by experts of ontology domain as well as the criteria that proposed by US National Center for ontological Research. Lastly, the levels of ontology evaluation, involved lexical, vocabulary, or data layer, hierarchy or taxonomy layer, other semantic relations layer, context or application level, syntactic level, structure, architecture and design layer were characterized.

  18. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Thomas T.H.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced.

  19. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas T H

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced.

  20. Toward a More Holistic Evaluation Approach for Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The discussion on and development of a holistic evaluation approach for rural development will be indispensable to improving and enriching the lives of rural people. This approach can be developed by considering the conceptualization of community policy structure in rural areas, the localization of policy structure in the rural community, and the…

  1. Salt Affected Soils Evaluation and Reclamative Approaches for Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a field experiment was conducted on salt (saline) affected soils during the cropping seasons of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 to evaluate the soil properties, determine their effects on two test crop performances, and its reclaim ability under three different approaches. Reclamative approaches were employed not ...

  2. Evaluation of the NASTRAN General Purpose Computer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    of shallow shell theory . 7.3.3. Evaluation Results Although Narayanaswami presented two numerical examples (spherical cap, Scordelis -Lo cylindrical...7-25 7.3.2. Theory . .. .......................... 7-26 7.3.3. Evaluation Results. .. .................... 7-28 7.3.4...Conclusions .. .......... ............... 7-28 7.4. The TRIM6 and TRPLT1 Elements .. ................ 7-31 7.4.1. Theory . .. .......................... 7-31

  3. Evaluation of the general health of the infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction. Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples.Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software. Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001 on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001, social dysfunction (p=0.0001 and severe depression (p=0.0001. GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples.

  4. Clinical psychology in general practice: a controlled trial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earll, Louise; Kincey, John

    1982-01-01

    A controlled trial study is described in which 50 consecutive potential referrals for psychological treatment from one general practice were randomly allocated either to behavioural treatment or no-treatment conditions. Treatment-group patients received treatment from a clinical psychologist working within the practice; the control-group patients continued to be managed by their general practitioner. The patients' use of NHS resources was assessed during the treatment period (or its equivalent for the control group) and at a follow-up comparison point, when the patients' subjective ratings of their progress were also obtained. Between referral and the end of treatment the treated group received significantly less psychotropic medication than the control group. This difference was not, however, maintained at the longer-term follow-up. No differences in general practice consultation rates, in the subjective ratings of psychological distress, in control orientation or life satisfaction were found between the two groups, but the level of patient satisfaction was high. Implications for the design of future studies and for psychological health care delivery systems are discussed. PMID:7086742

  5. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  6. Identifying approaches and tools for evaluating community-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A literature search was carried out to identify approaches and tools that could be used in Africa to evaluate CBE programmes. The search included published, peer-reviewed literature as well as grey literature and websites. Evaluation tools considered appropriate were obtained from the articles or their authors for ...

  7. Sex Role Stereotyping and Evaluation: A Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, Gail T.

    The usefulness of applying the Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) Evaluation Model to school systems or projects where social change is needed is examined. The author introduces a systems approach to the examination of sex stereotyping, using the CIPP evaluation model, and sketches briefly the relationship between this model and the…

  8. A critical evaluation of the paradigm approach in Sepedi lemmatisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be evaluated in ...

  9. Taking Teacher Quality Seriously: A Collaborative Approach to Teacher Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2012-01-01

    If narrow, test-based evaluation of teachers is unfair, unreliable, and has negative effects on kids, classrooms, and curricula, what's a better approach? By demonizing teachers and unions, and sharply polarizing the education debate, the corporate reform movement has actually undermined serious efforts to improve teacher quality and evaluation.…

  10. Evaluation of a stratiform cloud parameterization for general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); McCaa, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of horizontal advection of cloud versus cloud formation within the grid cell of a single column model (SCM), we have performed a series of simulations with our SCM driven by a fixed vertical velocity and various rates of horizontal advection.

  11. Towards a general theory of landscape systems: the integration of the geoecological and bioecological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandarić Neven

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since its beginnings, landscape ecology has been developing in two different directions: the bioecological and the geoecological. While the bioecological approach is focused on the relationship between organisms and their abiotic environment, the geoecological approach is based on the relationship between human society and its, primarily abiotic, environment. Therefore, the geoecological approach can be applied in planning human use of the environment in a long term sustainable manner, while the bioecological approach could represent the basis for the planning of conservational and environmental usage. The merging of these two approaches will result in a comprehensive and more holistic landscape ecology, which will thus gain the potential for coordinating interdisciplinary landscape research and a more prominent role in contributing to spatial planning. The merge will also enhance attempts to create a general theory of landscape systems.

  12. A Task-Centered Approach to Freshman-Level General Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Greg; Bybee, David; Wolfersberger, Mark; Mendenhall, Anne; Merrill, M. David

    2009-01-01

    Many new instructional theories advocate centering instruction around a set of authentic tasks to improve application and transfer of knowledge and help students take more responsibility for their own learning. At BYU-Hawaii, a general education biology course was redesigned to follow this task-centered approach and then taught to two groups of…

  13. Worth assessments of approach to landing. [for general aviation and air carrier pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of worth assessment is to determine a descriptive model of how attributes of a set of objects are combined into preferences for the objects. The technique is described and is applied to the assessment of worth functions in approach to landing for general aviation and air carrier pilots.

  14. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  15. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  16. Concurrent evaluation of general, immune, and genetic toxicity endpoints as part of an integrated testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisler, Melissa R; Sura, Radhakrishna; Visconti, Nicolo R; Sosinski, Lindsay K; Murphy, Lynea A; LeBaron, Matthew J; Boverhof, Darrell R

    2014-08-01

    Integrated testing strategies involve the assessment of multiple endpoints within a single toxicity study and represent an important approach for reducing animal use and streamlining testing. The present study evaluated the ability to combine general, immune, and genetic toxicity endpoints into a single study. Specifically, this study evaluated the impact of sheep red blood cell (SRBC) immunization, as part of the T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) assay, on organ weights, micronuclei (MN) formation (bone marrow and peripheral blood), and the Comet assay response in the liver of female F344/DuCrl rats treated with cyclophosphamide (CP) a known immunosuppressive chemical and genotoxicant. For the TDAR assay, treatment with CP resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the antibody response with a suppression of greater than 95% at the high dose. Injection with SRBC had no impact on evaluated organ weights, histopathology, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters. Analysis of MN formation in bone marrow and peripheral blood revealed a dose-dependent increase in response to CP treatment. Injection with SRBC had no impact on the level of MN in control animals and did not alter the dose response of CP. There was a slight increase in liver DNA damage in response to CP as measured by the Comet assay; however, injection with SRBCs did not alter this endpoint. Overall these data provide strong support for the concurrent assessment of general, immune, and genetic toxicology endpoints within a single study as part of an integrated testing strategy approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Evaluation of lercanidipine in the general practice setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, N R; Canelada, J A; Iglesias, M; Angulo, E; López Acedo, A; Díaz Olea, E; Cidoncha, F; Guerras, M; Fuentes, J; Garrido, J; Lapie, J; Peña, J; Aguilar, A; Hidalgo, P

    2003-06-01

    To determine the efficacy and tolerability of a long-acting dihydropyridine in the clinical settings of general practice. 110 essential hypertensives were included (age 62.3 +/- 10.8 years, 51 men and 53 women, 38/ obese -IMC >30 kg/m2, ten diabetics). 104 patients ended the followup. Patients were treated with lercanidipine 10 mg once daily in the morning. Follow-up lasted 6 months. When blood pressure was not controlled (BP < 140/90 mmHg) in any visit, a second drug was added, excluding calcium channel blockers. Antiadrenergic drugs were recommended. If patients were not controlled ittwo consecutive visits they were excluded from follow-up. Significant reductions in both systolic (baseline 157.4 +/- 11.7 vs 131.1 +/- 6.8 mmHg, p < 0,001) and diastolic BP (baseline 94.7 +/- 5.8 vs 80.0 +/- 5.5 mmHg, p < 0,001) were attained at six months. Mean SBP decrease was 26.7 mmHg and mean DBP reduction was 15.6 mmHg. At the study end, 84.3/ of the patients achieved a BP < 140/90 mmHg. Thirty patients needed a second drug to become controlled (26 at the study end). The overall incidence of adverse effects was 4,4/ (n=6) and just three patients withdrew the treatment due to untoward effects. Plasmatic cholesterol lowered from 225.3 +/- 41.0 to 216.7 +/- 25.3 mg/dl (p = 0,03) and urate decreased from 5.6 +/- 1.6 to 5.1 +/- 1.4 mgldl, p = 0,03). Lercanidipine is a calcium channel blockers of high efficacy and low incidence of adverse effects in the clinical settings of general practice. It seems to have a positive metabolic effects on plasmatic levels of cholesterol and urate.

  18. Effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems: a general approach and examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blekhman, I. I.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics equat.......g., the requirement for the involved nonlinearities to be weak. The approach is illustrated by several relevant examples from various fields of science, e.g., mechanics, physics, chemistry and biophysics.......A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics...

  19. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Student evaluation of an OSCE in General Medicine at Mamata Medical College, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Rao V, Pramod Kumar Reddy M, Rajaneesh Reddy M, HanumiahA, Shyam Sunder P, Narasingha Reddy T, Kishore Babu SPV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of student’s clinical competence is of paramount importance, and there are several means of evaluating student performance in medical examinations. The OSCE is an approach to student assessment in which aspects of clinical competence are evaluated in a comprehensive, consistent and structured manner with close attention to the objectivity of the process. The faculty of general medicine in collaboration with other clinical departments, Mamata Medical College, Khammam first implemented the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE in the final MBBS Part-II examination during the internal assessment examination for the 2011-2012 academic years. The study was set out to explore student acceptance of the OSCE as part of an evaluation of final MBBS students. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by successive groups of students immediately after the OSCE. Main outcome measures were student perception of examination attributes, which included the quality of instructions and organization, the quality of performance, authenticity and transparency of the process, and usefulness of the OSCE as an assessment instrument compared to other formats. There was an overwhelming acceptance of OSCE in general medicine with respect to comprehensiveness (90% transparency (90% & authenticity of required tasks. Students felt that it was a useful form of examination. Student’s feedback was invaluable in influencing faculty teaching curriculum direction and appreciation of student opinion and overall the students were agreeable with newer form of OSCE. The majority of the students felt that OSCE is a fair assessment tool compared to traditional long and short cases and it covers a wide range of knowledge and clinical skills in general medicine.

  1. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  2. General Managers' and building managers' different evaluation of building value and quality - as built and over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2007-01-01

    This paper is one of the results of a research project on real estate strategies and building values based on a case study of the corporate buildings of DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation). The paper presents some of the results from a questionnaire survey among select groups of managers in DR...... manner. The respondents were evenly distributed on general managers and building managers and a third purpose was to investigate the differences in the evaluations between these two groups. The evaluations were based on the respondents’ answers to questions concerning a number of quality factors for each...... the evaluations of general managers’ and building managers’ views on the values and quality of corporate buildings. The implications of such differences for the way building managers communicate with general managers and how architects approach and collaborate with large corporations is discussed....

  3. Evaluation of Detection Performance under Employment of the Generalized Detector in Radar Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shbat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection performance of the generalized detector (GD constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing in noise is evaluated under homogeneous and non-homogeneous noise. The GD adaptive threshold is derived and defined applying an appropriate noise power estimation using the sliding window technique. The direct close expressions for the GD average probability of detection and probability of false alarm are also derived. Typical constant false alarm rate (CFAR detectors, namely, the cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR detector, the ordered statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR detector, the generalized censored mean level (GCML detector, and the adaptive censored greatest-of CFAR (ACGO-CFAR detector are compared with the GD by detection performance under both homogenous and non-homogeneous noise conditions, i.e. when the interfering targets are absent or present, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate a superiority of GD in detection performance in comparison with the above mentioned CFAR detectors under both homogeneous and non-homogeneous noise conditions.

  4. Nanoparticle risk management and cost evaluation: a general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Dominique; Bomfim, João A. S.; Metz, Sébastien; Bouillard, Jacques X.; Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Industrial production of nano-objects has been growing fast during the last decade and a wide range of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to the public in various markets (automotive, electronics, textiles...). The issues encountered in monitoring the presence of nano-objects in any media cause a major difficulty for controlling the risk associated to the production stage. It is therefore very difficult to assess the efficiency of prevention and mitigation solutions, which potentially leads to overestimate the level of the protection barriers that are recommended. The extra costs in adding nano-objects to the process, especially that of nanosafety, must be estimated and optimized to ensure the competitiveness of the future production lines and associated products. The risk management and cost evaluation methods presented herein have been designed for application in a pilot production line of injection-moulded nanocomposites.

  5. Evaluation of thromboprophylaxis in medium-sized general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Roberto Busato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a serious, common disease whose complications include pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE and postthrombotic syndrome. The importance and benefits of correct and effective pharmacological prophylaxis for DVT are well documented. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate adequacy of prophylaxis for DVT and PTE at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Ponta Grossa (SCMPG, Paraná, Brazil, and determine risk stratification for patients hospitalized in this institution. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted to assess DVT prophylaxis of patients hospitalized on May 15th, 2009. The study population consisted of a sample of 104 patients, subdivided into clinical and surgical groups and stratified into different specialties. Correct use of DVT prophylaxis was evaluated according to recommendations published by The Brazilian Society for Angiology and Vascular Surgery and took into account prophylactic methods specified explicitly in information found in each patient's medical chart. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients interviewed, 51 (49.04% were clinical patients and 53 (50.96% surgical. Based on risk stratification, 17 (16.35% were classified as low risk, 37 (35.58% as moderate risk, 46 (44.23% as high risk and 4 (3.85% as extremely high risk for DVT/PTE. A total of 68 patients (65.38% received prophylaxis, but of these only 56 (53.85% received the correct prophylaxis, and 36 (34.62% did not receive any prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: The rates of prophylaxis use for DVT and PTE in this service are higher than rates published in the literature.

  6. A systematic review of COTS evaluation and selection approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, a number of researchers have made their significant contributions to develop different approaches for solving a very challenging problem of commercial off-the shelf (COTS selection. The development of software with high quality and minimum development time has always been a difficult job for the software developers. Therefore, in today’s scenario, software developers move towards the implementation of component based software engineering that relies on the integration of small pieces of code namely (COTS. In this study, we present a comprehensive descriptive explanation of the various COTS evaluation and selection approaches developed by various researchers in the past to understand the concept of COTS selection. The advantages and disadvantages of each COTS selection approach are also provided, which will give a better prospect to the readers to understand the various existing COTS evaluation and selection approaches.

  7. Evaluation of speech and language assessment approaches with bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lamo White, Caroline; Jin, Lixian

    2011-01-01

    British society is multicultural and multilingual, thus for many children English is not their main or only language. Speech and language therapists are required to assess accurately the speech and language skills of bilingual children if they are suspected of having a disorder. Cultural and linguistic diversity means that a more complex assessment procedure is needed and research suggests that bilingual children are at risk of misdiagnosis. Clinicians have identified a lack of suitable assessment instruments for use with this client group. This paper highlights the challenges of assessing bilingual children and reviews available speech and language assessment procedures and approaches for use with this client group. It evaluates different approaches for assessing bilingual children to identify approaches that may be more appropriate for carrying out assessments effectively. This review discusses and evaluates the efficacy of norm-referenced standardized measures, criterion-referenced measures, language-processing measures, dynamic assessment and a sociocultural approach. When all named procedures and approaches are compared, the sociocultural approach appears to hold the most promise for accurate assessment of bilingual children. Research suggests that language-processing measures are not effective indicators for identifying speech and language disorders in bilingual children, but further research is warranted. The sociocultural approach encompasses some of the other approaches discussed, including norm-referenced measures, criterion-referenced measures and dynamic assessment. The sociocultural approach enables the clinician to interpret results in the light of the child's linguistic and cultural background. In addition, combining approaches mitigates the weaknesses inherent in each approach. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. An Extensive Evaluation of Portfolio Approaches for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amadini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Constraint Programming, a portfolio approach exploits the complementary strengths of a portfolio of different constraint solvers. The goal is to predict and run the best solver(s of the portfolio for solving a new, unseen problem. In this work we reproduce, simulate, and evaluate the performance of different portfolio approaches on extensive benchmarks of Constraint Satisfaction Problems. Empirical results clearly show the benefits of portfolio solvers in terms of both solved instances and solving time.

  9. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity.

  10. Evaluation of Teaching Performance: Considerations from the Competency-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rueda Beltrán

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the main arguments and characteristics attributed to the Competency-based Approach in education, so as to analyze the various definitions available and some of the proposals on the subject of teaching skills. Approaches and strategies are suggested for developing teacher-evaluation programs in the context of a generalized environment in the educational sector which is adopting the model of competencies for school reform, curriculum redesign, modifications in teaching strategies, and manners and functions of evaluation.

  11. Approaches to evaluation in Australian child and family welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Alicia; Rose, David; Connolly, Marie

    2014-06-01

    Child and family welfare organizations around the world aspire to achieve missions that will improve outcomes for vulnerable children and families and ultimately reduce the prevalence and impact of child maltreatment. In Australia, this work is currently being influenced by an increasingly turbulent political and economic climate; one that is requiring organizations to engage with evaluation in new and advanced ways so that they are not left behind in the increasingly complex and competitive environment that they now operate in. Despite the apparent awareness and understanding of the essential place of evaluation in quality and effective service delivery, it is also understood that evaluation of the human services work that child and family welfare organizations undertake is extremely challenging due to its intricate, ever-changing and often innovative nature. Embedding evaluation within such organizations therefore requires a tailored and planned decision-making and implementation process. This paper will briefly describe the recent socio-political history and environment that Australian child and family welfare organizations operate in and how this has impacted on engagement with evaluation. With consideration to this, it will describe the evaluation approaches available to organizations and the factors that may influence selection of a specific approach. It will then explore the benefits and challenges of these evaluation approaches, and consider the implications for child and family welfare agencies more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Symbolic Evaluation Graphs and Term Rewriting — A General Methodology for Analyzing Logic Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, J.; Ströder, T.; Schneider-Kamp, P.

    2013-01-01

    There exist many powerful techniques to analyze termination and complexity of term rewrite systems (TRSs). Our goal is to use these techniques for the analysis of other programming languages as well. For instance, approaches to prove termination of definite logic programs by a transformation...... to TRSs have been studied for decades. However, a challenge is to handle languages with more complex evaluation strategies (such as Prolog, where predicates like the cut influence the control flow). We present a general methodology for the analysis of such programs. Here, the logic program is first...... information on the termination or complexity of the original logic program. More information can be found in the full paper [1]. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....

  13. Parallel Approach for Time Series Analysis with General Regression Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Cuevas-Tello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy on time delay estimation given pairs of irregularly sampled time series is of great relevance in astrophysics. However the computational time is also important because the study of large data sets is needed. Besides introducing a new approach for time delay estimation, this paper presents a parallel approach to obtain a fast algorithm for time delay estimation. The neural network architecture that we use is general Regression Neural Network (GRNN. For the parallel approach, we use Message Passing Interface (MPI on a beowulf-type cluster and on a Cray supercomputer and we also use the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA™ language on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. We demonstrate that, with our approach, fast algorithms can be obtained for time delay estimation on large data sets with the same accuracy as state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Evaluation Framework for Telemedicine Using the Logical Framework Approach and a Fishbone Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Technological advances using telemedicine and telehealth are growing in healthcare fields, but the evaluation framework for them is inconsistent and limited. This paper suggests a comprehensive evaluation framework for telemedicine system implementation and will support related stakeholders' decision-making by promoting general understanding, and resolving arguments and controversies. Methods This study focused on developing a comprehensive evaluation framework by summarizing themes across the range of evaluation techniques and organized foundational evaluation frameworks generally applicable through studies and cases of diverse telemedicine. Evaluation factors related to aspects of information technology; the evaluation of satisfaction of service providers and consumers, cost, quality, and information security are organized using the fishbone diagram. Results It was not easy to develop a monitoring and evaluation framework for telemedicine since evaluation frameworks for telemedicine are very complex with many potential inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed that incorporates the key dimensions that need to be considered in the evaluation of telehealth implementation for a formal structured approach to the evaluation of a service. The suggested framework consists of six major dimensions and the subsequent branches for each dimension. Conclusions To implement telemedicine and telehealth services, stakeholders should make decisions based on sufficient evidence in quality and safety measured by the comprehensive evaluation framework. Further work would be valuable in applying more comprehensive evaluations to verify and improve the comprehensive framework across a variety of contexts with more factors and participant group dimensions. PMID:26618028

  15. Evaluation Framework for Telemedicine Using the Logical Framework Approach and a Fishbone Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyejung

    2015-10-01

    Technological advances using telemedicine and telehealth are growing in healthcare fields, but the evaluation framework for them is inconsistent and limited. This paper suggests a comprehensive evaluation framework for telemedicine system implementation and will support related stakeholders' decision-making by promoting general understanding, and resolving arguments and controversies. This study focused on developing a comprehensive evaluation framework by summarizing themes across the range of evaluation techniques and organized foundational evaluation frameworks generally applicable through studies and cases of diverse telemedicine. Evaluation factors related to aspects of information technology; the evaluation of satisfaction of service providers and consumers, cost, quality, and information security are organized using the fishbone diagram. It was not easy to develop a monitoring and evaluation framework for telemedicine since evaluation frameworks for telemedicine are very complex with many potential inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed that incorporates the key dimensions that need to be considered in the evaluation of telehealth implementation for a formal structured approach to the evaluation of a service. The suggested framework consists of six major dimensions and the subsequent branches for each dimension. To implement telemedicine and telehealth services, stakeholders should make decisions based on sufficient evidence in quality and safety measured by the comprehensive evaluation framework. Further work would be valuable in applying more comprehensive evaluations to verify and improve the comprehensive framework across a variety of contexts with more factors and participant group dimensions.

  16. An approach to evaluating reactive airborne wind shear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Joseph P., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An approach to evaluating reactive airborne windshear detection systems was developed to support a deployment study for future FAA ground-based windshear detection systems. The deployment study methodology assesses potential future safety enhancements beyond planned capabilities. The reactive airborne systems will be an integral part of planned windshear safety enhancements. The approach to evaluating reactive airborne systems involves separate analyses for both landing and take-off scenario. The analysis estimates the probability of effective warning considering several factors including NASA energy height loss characteristics, reactive alert timing, and a probability distribution for microburst strength.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of radiative heating and cooling rates in planetary atmospheres: general linearization and adjoint approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiative heating and cooling provide primary source and ultimate sink of energy driving lower planetary atmospheres. Evaluating the sensitivities of atmospheric dynamics models on these primary atmospheric parameters requires knowing how heating and cooling rates depend on these same parameters. We discuss two approaches that make it possible to directly compute the sensitivities of heating and cooling rates in parallel with evaluation of heating and cooling rates themselves.

  18. Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascia, Michael B.; Pailler, Sharon; Thieme, Michele L.

    2014-01-01

    Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are not well articulated, creating the potential for confusion, misuse, and missed opportunities to inform conservation policy and practice. We examine the relationships among five approaches...... to conservation M&E, characterizing each approach in eight domains: the focal question driving each approach, when in the project cycle each approach is employed, scale of data collection, the methods of data collection and analysis, the implementers of data collection and analysis, the users of M&E outputs......, and the decisions informed by these outputs. Ambient monitoring measures status and change in ambient social and ecological conditions, independent of any conservation intervention. Management assessment measures management inputs, activities, and outputs, as the basis for investments to build management capacity...

  19. Evaluating a Pivot-Based Approach for Bilingual Lexicon Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pivot-based approach for bilingual lexicon extraction is based on the similarity of context vectors represented by words in a pivot language like English. In this paper, in order to show validity and usability of the pivot-based approach, we evaluate the approach in company with two different methods for estimating context vectors: one estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word association between source words (resp., target words and pivot words and the other estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word alignment tools for statistical machine translation. Empirical results on two language pairs (e.g., Korean-Spanish and Korean-French have shown that the pivot-based approach is very promising for resource-poor languages and this approach observes its validity and usability. Furthermore, for words with low frequency, our method is also well performed.

  20. Evaluation of the generalized gamma as a tool for treatment planning optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil I Petrou

    2014-12-01

    independent software. Furthermore, it was proved that after a small change in dose, the organ that is being affected most is the organ with the highest Generalized Gamma. Apart from that, the validity of the theoretical expressions that describe the change in response and the associated Generalized Gamma was verified but only for the case of small change in dose. Especially for the case of 50% TCP and NTCP, the theoretical values (ΔPapprox. and those calculated by the RayStation show close agreement, which proves the high importance of the D50 parameter in specifying clinical response levels. Finally, the presented findings show that the behavior of ΔPapprox. looks sensible because, for both of the models that were used (Poisson and Probit, it significantly approaches the real ΔP around the region of 37% and 50% response. The present study managed to evaluate the mathematical expression of Generalized Gamma for the case of non-uniform dose delivery and the accuracy of the RayStation to calculate its values for different organs. Conclusion: A very important finding of this work is the establishment of the usefulness and clinical relevance of Generalized Gamma. That is because it gives the planner the opportunity to precisely determine which organ will be affected most after a small increase in dose and as a result an optimal treatment plan regarding tumor control and normal tissue complications can be found.

  1. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, J.P. [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gómez Dumm, D., E-mail: dumm@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [IFLP, CONICET – Dpto. de Física, FCE, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scoccola, N.N. [CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Department, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Favaloro, Solís 453, 1078 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP) and Lifshitz (LP) points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  2. Generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach to inhomogeneous phases in nonlocal chiral quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Carlomagno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the presence of inhomogeneous phases in the QCD phase diagram within the framework of nonlocal chiral quark models. We concentrate in particular in the positions of the tricritical (TCP and Lifshitz (LP points, which are studied in a general context using a generalized Ginzburg–Landau approach. We find that for all the phenomenologically acceptable model parametrizations considered the TCP is located at a higher temperature and a lower chemical potential in comparison with the LP. Consequently, these models seem to favor a scenario in which the onset of the first order transition between homogeneous phases is not covered by an inhomogeneous, energetically favored phase.

  3. 20 CFR 416.920 - Evaluation of disability of adults, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of disability of adults, in general. 416.920 Section 416.920 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... § 416.920 Evaluation of disability of adults, in general. (a) General—(1) Purpose of this section. This...

  4. The Evaluation of Mineral Resources Development Efficiency Based on Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Approach and Modified TODIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of mineral resources development efficiency is a typical multicriteria decision-making issue. Meanwhile, due to the limited existing technology, there might be subjectivity, ambiguity, and inaccuracy of the measurement of the evaluation index of mineral resources development efficiency. In this paper, we, considering the incomplete information, use the hesitant fuzzy linguistic approach to describe the psychological hesitation and ambiguity of the decision-maker in the actual evaluation process and then construct the general model of the development efficiency evaluation of the mineral resources by using the hesitant fuzzy linguistic terms sets and modified TODIM. Finally, this paper takes the Panxi area as an example to study the development efficiency of vanadium-titanium magnetite. The results show that the hesitant fuzzy linguistic multicriteria decision-making (MCDM approach can be implemented to mineral resources evaluation and resources management.

  5. A Generalized Hopfield Network for Nonsmooth Constrained Convex Optimization: Lie Derivative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaojie; Yu, Xinghuo; Huang, Tingwen; Chen, Guo; He, Xing

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a generalized Hopfield network for solving general constrained convex optimization problems. First, the existence and the uniqueness of solutions to the generalized Hopfield network in the Filippov sense are proved. Then, the Lie derivative is introduced to analyze the stability of the network using a differential inclusion. The optimality of the solution to the nonsmooth constrained optimization problems is shown to be guaranteed by the enhanced Fritz John conditions. The convergence rate of the generalized Hopfield network can be estimated by the second-order derivative of the energy function. The effectiveness of the proposed network is evaluated on several typical nonsmooth optimization problems and used to solve the hierarchical and distributed model predictive control four-tank benchmark.

  6. Ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation using generalized anisotropic interface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael D.

    The motivation for this work is a goal to inspect interfaces between thick layers of materials that can be anisotropic. The specific application is a thick composite bonded to a metal substrate. The interface is inspected for disbonds between the metal and composite. The large thickness allows the problem to be modeled as a half space. The theory behind guided waves in plates is presented. This theory includes the calculation and analysis of dispersion curves and the resulting wave structure. It is noted that for high frequency-thickness values, certain modes will converge to the half-space waves, e.g. the Rayleigh wave and the Stoneley wave. Points of high energy, especially shear energy, at the interface are desirable for interfacial inspection. Therefore, the wave structure for all modes and frequencies is searched for ideal inspection points. Interface waves are inherently good modes to use for interface inspection. Results from the dispersion curves and wave structures are verified in the finite element model software package called Abaqus. It is confirmed that the group speeds and wave structures of the modes match the predicted values. A theoretical development of interface waves is given wherein Rayleigh, Stoneley, and generalized interface waves are discussed. This is applied to both isotropic and anisotropic materials. It is shown that the Stoneley wave only exists for a certain range of material parameters. Because the Stoneley wave is the interface wave between two solid half spaces, it might appear that only certain pairs of solids would allow for inspection via interface wave. However, it is shown that for perturbations of the Stoneley-wave-valid material properties, interface waves which leak energy away from the interface can still propagate. They can also be used for inspection. Certain choices of materials will leak less energy and will therefore allow for longer inspection distances. The solutions to the isotropic leaky wave problem exist on

  7. Perturbative dynamics of thin-shell wormholes beyond general relativity: An alternative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubín de Celis, Emilio; Tomasini, Cecilia; Simeone, Claudio

    Recent studies relating the approximations for the equations-of-state for thin shells and their consequent perturbative evolution are extended to thin-shell wormholes in theories beyond general relativity and more than four spacetime dimensions. The assumption of equations-of-state of the same form for static and slowly evolving shells appears as a strong restriction excluding the possibility of oscillatory evolutions. Then the new results considerably differ from previous ones obtained within the usual linearized approach.

  8. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Implementing guidelines for depression on antidepressant prescribing in general practice : a quasi-experimental evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, Gerdien; Huyser, Jochanan; Koetsenruijter, Jan; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; Grol, Richard P. T. M.; Wensing, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internationally, guidelines for depression recommend a stepped care approach, implying that antidepressant medication should not be offered as a first step treatment to patients with sub-threshold or mild depression. In the Netherlands, antidepressant prescribing rates in general

  10. A Humanistic-Educative Approach to Evaluation in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Dolly; Dietrich, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    A humanistic-educative evaluation method for nursing education emphasizes collaboration, caring, creativity, critical thinking, and self-assessment. A teacher-student shared home visit in family nursing illustrates the use of the approach for developing self-directed and competent nurses. (Contains 34 references.) (SK)

  11. An Integrated Approach to Disability Policy Development, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Luckasson, Ruth; Schalock, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a framework for an integrated approach to disability policy development, implementation, and evaluation. The article discusses how a framework that combines systems thinking and valued outcomes can be used by coalition partners across ecological systems to implement disability policy, promote the effective use of resources,…

  12. Evaluation Design for Clusters Approach to Career Education (CACO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Eldon E.; Dudley, Gerald O.

    A three-part evaluation plan is presented for the occupational clusters approach to career orientation project, which attempted to design and field-test a two-semester curriculum package for orienting junior high students to the world of work. Project effectiveness will be estimated at three points in its development. In the laboratory setting…

  13. A Critical Evaluation of the Paradigm Approach in Sepedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-. Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba. 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be ...

  14. An approach to the ethical evaluation of innovative surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Veronique K M; Chow, Pierce K H

    2011-01-01

    While there is an ethical obligation to improve clinical outcomes by developing better therapies, surgical innovation has largely progressed without the strict regulations required of novel pharmaceutical products. We explore the reasons why new surgical techniques are frequently introduced without the benefit of randomised controlled trials, and present an approach to the ethical evaluation of novel surgical procedures.

  15. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  16. Can complex health interventions be evaluated using routine clinical and administrative data? - a realist evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riippa, Iiris; Kahilakoski, Olli-Pekka; Linna, Miika; Hietala, Minni

    2014-12-01

    Interventions aimed at improving chronic care typically consist of multiple interconnected parts, all of which are essential to the effect of the intervention. Limited attention has been paid to the use of routine clinical and administrative data in the evolution of these complex interventions. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of routinely collected data when evaluating complex interventions and to demonstrate how a theory-based, realist approach to evaluation may increase the feasibility of routine data. We present a case study of evaluating a complex intervention, namely, the chronic care model (CCM), in Finnish primary health care. Issues typically faced when evaluating the effects of a complex intervention on health outcomes and resource use are identified by using routine data in a natural setting, and we apply context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) approach from the realist evaluation paradigm to improve the feasibility of using routine data in evaluating complex interventions. From an experimentalist approach that dominates the medical literature, routine data collected from a single centre offered a poor starting point for evaluating complex interventions. However, the CMO approach offered tools for identifying indicators needed to evaluate complex interventions. Applying the CMO approach can aid in a typical evaluation setting encountered by primary care managers: one in which the intervention is complex, the primary data source is routinely collected clinical and administrative data from a single centre, and in which randomization of patients into two research arms is too resource consuming to arrange. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A humanistic-educative approach to evaluation in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Dolly; Dietrich, Pamela

    2002-05-01

    A continuing challenge for nurse educators is to create a learning environment in which students receive fair and timely evaluations. Traditional or behavioural evaluation methods have been criticized as being too limited. A humanistic-educative evaluation method is offered with its emancipation of faculty and students and emphasis on collaboration, caring, creativity, critical thinking and self-assessment. A teacher-student shared home visit for a Family Nursing clinical assignment is provided to illustrate this approach. The potential benefit of the method for developing self-directed and competent professional nurses is proposed. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Youmin; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xie, Fengyun

    2017-05-18

    The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD). Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features' information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  19. Evaluating Complex Healthcare Systems: A Critique of Four Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Boon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to the emerging conceptual and methodological literature that focuses on understanding and evaluating complex or ‘whole’ systems of healthcare. An international working group reviewed literature from interdisciplinary or interprofessional groups describing approaches to the evaluation of complex systems of healthcare. The following four key approaches were identified: a framework from the MRC (UK, whole systems research, whole medical systems research described by NCCAM (USA and a model from NAFKAM (Norway. Main areas of congruence include acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of many healthcare interventions and the need to find new ways to evaluate these; the need to describe and understand the components of complex interventions in context (as they are actually practiced; the necessity of using mixed methods including randomized clinical trials (RCTs (explanatory and pragmatic and qualitative approaches; the perceived benefits of a multidisciplinary team approach to research; and the understanding that methodological developments in this field can be applied to both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM as well as conventional therapies. In contrast, the approaches differ in the following ways: terminology used, the extent to which the approach attempts to be applicable to both CAM and conventional medical interventions; the prioritization of research questions (in order of what should be done first especially with respect to how the ‘definitive’ RCT fits into the process of assessing complex healthcare systems; and the need for a staged approach. There appears to be a growing international understanding of the need for a new perspective on assessing complex healthcare systems.

  20. Maritime clusters productivity and competitiveness evaluation methods: Systematic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viederytė Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists underline the importance of the clusters as agglomerated industries, working for the same purpose with joined resources and potential. This article analyses the basic assumptions which turn organizations to be clustered: the Productivity and the Competitiveness. For the evaluation of those assumptions in Maritime Clusters, many of the methods practically are applied without systematic approach - some are focused to the port efficiency, others provide quantity of resources growth dynamics, infrastructure parameters or even explain productivity and competitiveness as the same assumption. This article presents the analysis of Maritime Clusters' Productivity and Competitiveness evaluation methods in systematic approach, providing the analysis on the mostly-used variables and parameters of the evaluation the assumptions to be examined.

  1. Effects of Various Methods of Assigning and Evaluating Required Reading in One General Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John L., III; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Wiley, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Different approaches to creating out-of-class reading assignments for university general education courses might affect the amount of time students actually spend reading. Five instructors of a required religion/philosophy class used different approaches to assign out-of-class reading. Subsequently, their students (n = 504) were surveyed about…

  2. 38 CFR 4.75 - General considerations for evaluating visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for evaluating visual impairment. 4.75 Section 4.75 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... § 4.75 General considerations for evaluating visual impairment. (a) Visual impairment. The evaluation of visual impairment is based on impairment of visual acuity (excluding developmental errors of...

  3. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    emphasize one flood typology or one flood dynamic (for example flash floods are often over-represented than slow dynamic floods in existing databases). Thus, the selected criteria have to introduce a general overview of flooding risk in France by integrating all typologies: storm surges, torrential floods, rising groundwater level and resulting to flood, etc. The methodology developed for the evaluation grid is inspired by several scientific works related to historical hydrology (Bradzil, 2006; Benito et al., 2004) or extreme floods classification (Kundzewics et al. 2013; Garnier E., 2005). The referenced information are mainly issued from investigations realized for the PFRA (archives, local data),from internet databases on flooding disasters, and from a complementary bibliography (some scientists such as Maurice Pardé a geographer who largely documented French floods during the 20th century). The proposed classification relies on three main axes. Each axis is associated to a set of criteria, each one related to a score (from 0.5 to 4 points), and pointing out a final remarkability score. • The flood intensity characterizing the flood's hazard level. It is composed of the submersion duration, important to valorize floods with slow dynamics as flooding from groundwater, the event peak discharge's return period, and the presence of factors increasing significantly the hazard level (dykes breaks, log jam, sediment transport…) • The flood severity focuses on economic damages, social and political repercussions, media coverage of the event, fatalities number or eventual flood warning failures. Analyzing the flood consequences is essential in order to evaluate the vulnerability of society at disaster date. • The spatial extension of the flood, which contributes complementary information to the two first axes. The evaluation grid was tested and applied on the sample of 176 remarkable events. Around twenty events (from 1856 to 2010) come out with a high remarkability rate

  4. Approach for evaluating inundation risks in urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Chen, Zhihe; Chen, Xiaohong; He, Peiying

    2016-05-15

    Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers. Hence, inundation evaluation is becoming increasingly important around the world. This comprehensive assessment involves numerous indices in urban catchments, but the high-dimensional and non-linear relationship between the indices and the risk presents an enormous challenge for accurate evaluation. Therefore, an approach is hereby proposed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate inundation risks in urban drainage systems based on a storm water management model, the projection pursuit method, the ordinary kriging method and the K-means clustering method. This approach is tested using a residential district in Guangzhou, China. Seven evaluation indices were selected and twenty rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate and validate the parameters of the rainfall-runoff model. The inundation risks in the study area drainage system were evaluated under different rainfall scenarios. The following conclusions are reached. (1) The proposed approach, without subjective factors, can identify the main driving factors, i.e., inundation duration, largest water flow and total flood amount in this study area. (2) The inundation risk of each manhole can be qualitatively analyzed and quantitatively calculated. There are 1, 8, 11, 14, 21, and 21 manholes at risk under the return periods of 1-year, 5-years, 10-years, 20-years, 50-years and 100-years, respectively. (3) The areas of levels III, IV and V increase with increasing rainfall return period based on analyzing the inundation risks for a variety of characteristics. (4) The relationships between rainfall intensity and inundation-affected areas are revealed by a logarithmic model. This study proposes a novel and successful approach to assessing risk in urban drainage systems and provides guidance for improving urban drainage systems and inundation preparedness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. General traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids via the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method is significant, powerful and straightforward mathematical tool for finding exact traveling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs arise in the field of engineering, applied mathematics and physics. Dispersive effects due to microstructure of materials combined with nonlinearities give rise to solitary waves. In this article, the new approach of generalized (G′/G-expansion method has been applied to construct general traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation in microstructured solids. Abundant exact traveling wave solutions including solitons, kink, periodic and rational solutions have been found. These solutions might play important role in engineering fields.

  6. Generalized GW+Boltzmann Approach for the Description of Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, Marco; Sánchez-Barriga, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-phase transitions between trivial insulators and topological insulators differ from ordinary metal-insulator transitions in that they arise from the inversion of the bulk band structure due to strong spin–orbit coupling. Such topological phase transitions are unique in nature as they lead to the emergence of topological surface states which are characterized by a peculiar spin texture that is believed to play a central role in the generation and manipulation of dissipationless surface spin currents on ultrafast timescales. Here, we provide a generalized GW+Boltzmann approach for the description of ultrafast dynamics in topological insulators driven by electron–electron and electron–phonon scatterings. Taking the prototypical insulator Bi2Te3 as an example, we test the robustness of our approach by comparing the theoretical prediction to results of time- and angle-resolved photoemission experiments. From this comparison, we are able to demonstrate the crucial role of the excited spin texture in the subpicosecond relaxation of transient electrons, as well as to accurately obtain the magnitude and strength of electron–electron and electron–phonon couplings. Our approach could be used as a generalized theory for three-dimensional topological insulators in the bulk-conducting transport regime, paving the way for the realization of a unified theory of ultrafast dynamics in topological materials. PMID:28773171

  7. Approach to the Pretransplant Evaluation of the Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the potential kidney donor is a complex activity that differs substantially from other types of preoperative assessments. The well being of the donor, who derives no medical benefit from this surgery, must be assured in both the short term and long term, and the potential adverse consequences to the recipient must be determined as well. The criteria that must be met for a person to donate a kidney are rigorous and include medical, social, psychosocial, ethical, and legal issues. Donor evaluation can be divided into assessments to protect the health and safety of the donor and assessments to protect the health and safety of the recipient. This article provides an approach to evaluating a donor, focusing on the complex issues that an evaluator is faced with. A careful assessment of risks and benefits to both the donor and recipient can lead to favorable outcomes.

  8. Towards a consistent design approach for steel joints under generalized loading

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, L. Simões da

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of steel joints is complex and requires the proper consideration of a multitude of phenomena, ranging from material non-linearity (plasticity, strain-hardening), non-linear contact and slip, geometrical non-linearity (local instability) to residual stress conditions, and complicated geometrical configurations. The component method is widely accepted as the practical approach in predicting the behaviour of steel joints and it provides detailed procedures to evaluate the strength ...

  9. Critical Applied Linguistics: An Evaluative Interdisciplinary Approach in Criticism and Evaluation of Applied Linguistics’ Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Davari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of some significant critical approaches and directions in the field of applied linguistics from the mid-1980s onwards has met with various positive and opposite reactions. On the basis of their strength and significance, such approaches and directions have challenged some of the mainstream approaches’ claims, principles and assumptions. Among them, critical applied linguistics can be highlighted as a new approach, developed by the Australian applied linguist, Alastair Pennycook. The aspects, domains and concerns of this new approach were introduced in his book in 2001. Due to the undeniable importance of this approach, as well as partial negligence regarding it in Iranian academic setting, this paper first intends to introduce this approach, as an approach that evaluates various disciplines of applied linguistics through its own specific principles and interests. Then, in order to show its step-by-step application in the evaluation of different disciplines of applied linguistics, with a glance at its significance and appropriateness in Iranian society, two domains, namely English language education and language policy and planning, are introduced and evaluated in order to provide readers with a visible and practical picture of its interdisciplinary nature and evaluative functions. The findings indicate the efficacy of applying this interdisciplinary framework in any language-in-education policy and planning in accordance with the political, social and cultural context of the target society.

  10. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  11. An approach to evaluating alternatives for wind power plant locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman, Ateekh Ur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-criteria decision approaches are preferred for achieving multi-dimensional sustainable renewable energy goals. A more critical issue faced by the wind power industry is the selection of a location to tap prospective energy, which needs to be evaluated on multiple measures. In this paper, the aim is to assess and rank alternative wind power plant locations in Saudi Arabia. The approach presented here takes multiple criteria into consideration, such as wind speed, wind availability, site advantages, terrain details, risk and uncertainty, technology used, third party support, projected demand, types of customers, and government policies. A comparative analysis of feasible alternatives that satisfy all multi- criteria objectives is carried out. The results obtained are subjected to sensitivity analysis. Concepts such as ‘threshold values’ and ‘attribute weights’ make the approach more sensitive.

  12. Wellness general of the United States: a creative approach to promote family and community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2002-10-01

    This article offers a creative approach to promote family and community health, beginning with the conversion of the office of Surgeon General of the United States into the Wellness General of the United States. The content ranges from federal initiatives to promote quality health research to individuals and families who will be the beneficiaries at medical clinics and community health programs. The proposal recommends changes to institutions and policies, including junk food taxes, the National Institutes of Health, the United States Preventive Services Task Force, the Healthy People 2010 initiative, the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set, the Medicare Coverage Advisory Committee, state health mandates, local health plans, community medical clinics, and community health programs. The goal is to stimulate ideas and actions among policymakers, researchers, practitioners, educators, and students.

  13. MGF Approach to the Analysis of Generalized Two-Ray Fading Models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consist of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase plus a diffuse component. We derive a closedform expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for this model, which greatly simplifies its analysis. This expression arises from the observation that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of a conditional underlying Rician distribution. We illustrate the approach to derive simple expressions for statistics and performance metrics of interest such as the amount of fading, the level crossing rate, the symbol error rate, and the ergodic capacity in GTR fading channels. We also show that the effect of considering a more general distribution for the phase difference between the LOS components has an impact on the average SNR.

  14. Analytic Semigroup Approach to Generalized Navier-Stokes Flows in Besov Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Min

    2017-12-01

    The energy dissipation of the Navier-Stokes equations is controlled by the viscous force defined by the Laplacian -Δ , while that of the generalized Navier-Stokes equations is determined by the fractional Laplacian (-Δ )^α . The existence and uniqueness problem is always solvable in a strong dissipation situation in the sense of large α but it becomes complicated when α is decreasing. In this paper, the well-posedness regarding to the unique existence of small time solutions and small initial data solutions is examined in critical homogeneous Besov spaces for α ≥ 1/2. An analytic semigroup approach to the understanding of the generalized Navier-Stokes equations is developed and thus the well-posedness on the equations is examined in a manner different to earlier investigations.

  15. A General Multidimensional Monte Carlo Approach for Dynamic Hedging under Stochastic Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a feasible and constructive methodology which allows us to compute pure hedging strategies with respect to arbitrary square-integrable claims in incomplete markets. In contrast to previous works based on PDE and BSDE methods, the main merit of our approach is the flexibility of quadratic hedging in full generality without a priori smoothness assumptions on the payoff. In particular, the methodology can be applied to multidimensional quadratic hedging-type strategies for fully path-dependent options with stochastic volatility and discontinuous payoffs. In order to demonstrate that our methodology is indeed applicable, we provide a Monte Carlo study on generalized Föllmer-Schweizer decompositions, locally risk minimizing, and mean variance hedging strategies for vanilla and path-dependent options written on local volatility and stochastic volatility models.

  16. Renumbering Methods to Unleash Multi-Threaded Approaches for a General Navier-Stokes Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezolle, Pascal; Fournier, Yvan; Tallet, Nicolas; Heymans, Jerrold; D'Amora, Bruce

    2010-09-01

    Our investigation leverages the general industrial Navier-Stokes open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application, Code_Saturne, developed by Électricité de France (EDF). We deal with how to take advantage of the emerging processor features such as many-cores, Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) and Thread Level Speculation (TLS), through a mixed MPI/multithreads approach. We focus here on the per-node performance improvements and present the constraints for a multithreads implementation to solve the general 3D Navier-Stokes equations using a finite volume discretization into polyhedral cells. We describe a simple and efficient mesh numbering scheme allowing us to introduce OpenMP and Thread Level Speculation implementations with minimal impact to overall code structure.

  17. A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid and deformable ellipsoids in ductile flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dazhi

    2012-01-01

    A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid or deformable objects in viscous flows is presented. It is shown that the rotation of a 3D object in a viscous fluid, regardless of the mechanical property and shape of the object, is defined by a common and simple differential equation, dQ/dt=-Θ˜Q, where Q is a matrix defined by the orientation of the object and Θ˜ is the angular velocity tensor of the object. The difference between individual cases lies only in the formulation for the angular velocity. Thus the above equation, together with Jeffery's theory for the angular velocity of rigid ellipsoids, describes the motion of rigid ellipsoids in viscous flows. The same equation, together with Eshelby's theory for the angular velocity of deformable ellipsoids, describes the motion of deformable ellipsoids in viscous flows. Both problems are solved here numerically by a general approach that is much simpler conceptually and more economic computationally, compared to previous approaches that consider the problems separately and require numerical solutions to coupled differential equations about Euler angles or spherical (polar coordinate) angles. A Runge-Kutta approximation is constructed for solving the above general differential equation. Singular cases of Eshelby's equations when the object is spheroidal or spherical are handled in this paper in a much simpler way than in previous work. The computational procedure can be readily implemented in any modern mathematics application that handles matrix operations. Four MathCad Worksheets are provided for modeling the motion of a single rigid or deformable ellipsoid immersed in viscous fluids, as well as the evolution of a system of noninteracting rigid or deformable ellipsoids embedded in viscous flows.

  18. A Paraphrase-Based Approach to Machine Translation Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    We propose a novel approach to automatic machine translation evaluation based on paraphrase identification. The quality of machine-generated output can be viewed as the extent to which the conveyed meaning matches the semantics of reference translations, independent of lexical and syntactic divergences. This idea is implemented ill linear regression models that attempt to capture human judgments of adequacy and fluency, based on features that have previously been shown to be effective

  19. Typological approach to the dimensions of evaluating others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dušanka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the latent structure of interpersonal evaluation space from both dimensional and typological points of view, considering typological approach to be a complement of the dimensional. The Interpersonal Evaluation Questionnaire (containing 72 items, with 5-degree Likert scales, measuring the desirability of behaviour and personal characteristics of other people was administered to the sample of 398 respondents of both sexes, aged 15 - 61. According to the Scree criterion, 8 principal components were extracted, which were interpreted as communicativeness, good manners, aggressiveness, self - love, leadership, kindness, reserve and intrusiveness. Second-order analysis singled out two factors, the first one representing the evaluation of the characteristics usually perceived as positive in social interaction, and the second one representing the evaluation of characteristics which make communication between equals difficult. Although the dimensions of interpersonal evaluation do not fit the circumplex structure, their content is similar to the content of Wiggins' dimensions. Using Ward's method of hierarchical cluster analysis, assuming that the evaluation of others reflects both basic personality structure and the characteristic pattern of personality processes, three prototypical personality organizations were identified: the group oriented towards power, the group oriented towards affiliation and the hostile group. The differences between the results of this study and the results obtained by self - estimation were determined by the evaluative nature of the process of estimating others.

  20. A Fuzzy Approach Using Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for Multiobjective Linear Fractional Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiobjective linear fractional transportation problem (MLFTP with several fractional criteria, such as, the maximization of the transport profitability like profit/cost or profit/time, and its two properties are source and destination. Our aim is to introduce MLFTP which has not been studied in literature before and to provide a fuzzy approach which obtain a compromise Pareto-optimal solution for this problem. To do this, first, we present a theorem which shows that MLFTP is always solvable. And then, reducing MLFTP to the Zimmermann’s “min” operator model which is the max-min problem, we construct Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for solving the obtained problem. Furthermore, we provide an illustrative numerical example to explain this fuzzy approach.

  1. A total generalized variation approach for near-field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2017-01-01

    Near-field methods based on microphone array measurements are useful to understand how a source radiates sound. Due to discretization errors, these methods are typically restricted to low frequencies. Sparse approaches have gained considerable attention, as they can potentially recover a seemingly...... under-sampled signal with remarkable accuracy, extending the valid frequency range. However, near-field problems are generally not spatially sparse, and it is more appropriate to promote block-sparse solutions (i.e. spatially extended) rather than direct spatial sparsity. In this paper, a method...... is examined that promotes solutions with sparse spatial derivatives. The method seeks spatially extended solutions, valid over a wide frequency range, and suitable to near-fields and extended sources. The methodology is based on a Total Variation approach using higher order derivatives. The frequency range...

  2. A generalized estimating equations approach to mixed-effects ordinal probit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy R; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2004-11-01

    Clustered ordinal responses, which are commonplace in behavioural and educational research, are often analysed using mixed-effects ordinal probit models. Likelihood-based inference for these models can be computationally burdensome, and may compromise the consistency of estimators if the model is misspecified. We propose an alternative inferential approach based on generalized estimating equations. We show that systems of estimating equations can be specified for mixed-effects ordinal probit models that avoid the potentially heavy computational demands of maximum likelihood estimation, and can also provide inferences that are robust with respect to some forms of model misspecification--particularly serial effects in longitudinal data.

  3. Fractional generalization of Fick's law: a microscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Ivan [CIEMAT, Madrid; Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; van Milligen, B. Ph. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT

    2007-01-01

    In the study of transport in inhomogeneous systems it is common to construct transport equations invoking the inhomogeneous Fick law. The validity of this approach requires that at least two ingredients be present in the system. First, finite characteristic length and time scales associated to the dominant transport process must exist. Secondly, the transport mechanism must satisfy a microscopic symmetry: global reversibility. Global reversibility is often satisfied in nature. However, many complex systems exhibit a lack of finite characteristic scales. In this Letter we show how to construct a generalization of the inhomogeneous Fick law that does not require the existence of characteristic scales while still satisfying global reversibility.

  4. Understanding price discovery in interconnected markets: Generalized Langevin process approach and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Natalya A.; Horvath, Philip A.; Sinha, Amit K.

    2018-02-01

    While the literature on price discovery process and information flow between dominant and satellite market is exhaustive, most studies have applied an approach that can be traced back to Hasbrouck (1995) or Gonzalo and Granger (1995). In this paper, however, we propose a Generalized Langevin process with asymmetric double-well potential function, with co-integrated time series and interconnected diffusion processes to model the information flow and price discovery process in two, a dominant and a satellite, interconnected markets. A simulated illustration of the model is also provided.

  5. Linear response to perturbation of nonexponential renewal process: A generalized master equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, I M

    2006-06-01

    The work by Barbi, Bologna, and Grigolini [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 220601 (2005)] discusses a response to alternating external field of a non-Markovian two-state system, where the waiting time between the two attempted changes of state follows a power law. It introduced a new instrument for description of such situations based on a stochastic master equation with reset. In the present Brief Report we provide an alternative description of the situation within the framework of a generalized master equation. The results of our analytical approach are corroborated by direct numerical simulations of the system.

  6. A Simple and General Approach to Determination of Self and Mutual Inductances for AC machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    Modelling of AC electrical machines plays an important role in electrical engineering education related to electrical machine design and control. One of the fundamental requirements in AC machine modelling is to derive the self and mutual inductances, which could be position dependant. Theories...... developed so far for inductance determination are often associated with complicated machine magnetic field analysis, which exhibits a difficulty for most students. This paper describes a simple and general approach to the determination of self and mutual inductances of different types of AC machines. A new...

  7. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-09-11

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Theory-based evaluation of a comprehensive Latino education initiative: an interactive evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesman, Teresa M; Batsche, Catherine; Hernandez, Mario

    2007-08-01

    Latino student access to higher education has received significant national attention in recent years. This article describes a theory-based evaluation approach used with ENLACE of Hillsborough, a 5-year project funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation for the purpose of increasing Latino student graduation from high school and college. Theory-based evaluation guided planning, implementation as well as evaluation through the process of developing consensus on the Latino population of focus, adoption of culturally appropriate principles and values to guide the project, and identification of strategies to reach, engage, and impact outcomes for Latino students and their families. The approach included interactive development of logic models that focused the scope of interventions and guided evaluation designs for addressing three stages of the initiative. Challenges and opportunities created by the approach are discussed, as well as ways in which the initiative impacted Latino students and collaborating educational institutions.

  9. Evaluating interprofessional education: the tautological need for interdisciplinary approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nick

    2006-06-01

    This paper explores some issues associated with evaluating interprofessional education (IPE) programs. It proposes options that harness the synergy made possible through interdisciplinary and multi-method approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches are suggested. It is argued that traditional, control group experimental designs may not be adequate, appropriate or reasonable as the sole means of evaluating interprofessional education. The example of the four-year Rural IPE (RIPE) project, from southeastern Australia, is provided to suggest ways to identify indicators and implement features of successful IPE programs. It offers an interdisciplinary approach to measuring the effectiveness of IP programs. A particular focus is the use of self-assessment to both monitor and promote structured reflective learning and practice. Sample triangulatory data are presented from a range of evaluation methods collected from the RIPE project. The results suggest evidence of some significant educational gains as a result of this intervention. The data, the methods and the analyses may be useful for others interested in implementing or strengthening interprofessional education. The paper suggests a judicious, customized and balanced blend of methods and methodologies may offer more useful ways forward than relying on single method controlled studies which are, in any case, rarely feasible.

  10. Finding common ground: A participatory approach to evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sutherland

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article describes the efforts of a group of donors and activists to collectively develop a national base line on organisations working for human rights in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI in Kenya to develop an ongoing monitoring and evaluation process.Objectives: The purpose of the base line was to support both activist strategising and ongoing reflection, and more effective donor collaboration and grant making.Method: Drawing on interviews with key stakeholders, the authors examined the dominant approach to funding and evaluation on social change globally. They analysed the impact of this dominant approach on developing and sustaining a SOGI movement in Kenya. They developed an alternative theory of change and participatory methodology and worked with a range of donors and SOGI organisations to conceptualise and support the collaborative collection of information on four themes: legislation and policy, organisational mapping, political and cultural context, and lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people.Results: This was a useful process and tool for activists and donors to develop a shared understanding of the current context and capacities influencing efforts to promote SOGI rights. It served as a basis for improved strategising and participants expected it to prove useful for monitoring progress in the longer term.Conclusion: This theory of change and participatory approach to base line development could be helpful to donors, activists and monitoring and evaluation specialists concerned with supporting social change in the region and globally.

  11. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  12. A general approach for discriminative de novo motif discovery from high-throughput data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Jan; Posch, Stefan; Grosse, Ivo; Keilwagen, Jens

    2013-11-01

    De novo motif discovery has been an important challenge of bioinformatics for the past two decades. Since the emergence of high-throughput techniques like ChIP-seq, ChIP-exo and protein-binding microarrays (PBMs), the focus of de novo motif discovery has shifted to runtime and accuracy on large data sets. For this purpose, specialized algorithms have been designed for discovering motifs in ChIP-seq or PBM data. However, none of the existing approaches work perfectly for all three high-throughput techniques. In this article, we propose Dimont, a general approach for fast and accurate de novo motif discovery from high-throughput data. We demonstrate that Dimont yields a higher number of correct motifs from ChIP-seq data than any of the specialized approaches and achieves a higher accuracy for predicting PBM intensities from probe sequence than any of the approaches specifically designed for that purpose. Dimont also reports the expected motifs for several ChIP-exo data sets. Investigating differences between in vitro and in vivo binding, we find that for most transcription factors, the motifs discovered by Dimont are in good accordance between techniques, but we also find notable exceptions. We also observe that modeling intra-motif dependencies may increase accuracy, which indicates that more complex motif models are a worthwhile field of research.

  13. Particle alignment reliability in single particle electron cryomicroscopy: a general approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, J; Otón, J; Marabini, R; Carazo, J M; Sorzano, C O S

    2016-02-22

    Electron Microscopy is reaching new capabilities thanks to the combined effect of new technologies and new image processing methods. However, the reconstruction process is still complex, requiring many steps and elaborated optimization procedures. Therefore, the possibility to reach a wrong structure exists, justifying the need of robust statistical tests. In this work, we present a conceptually simple alignment test, which does not require tilt-pair images, to evaluate the alignment consistency between a set of projection images with respect to a given 3D density map. We test the approach on a number of problems in 3DEM, especially the ranking and evaluation of initial 3D volumes and high resolution 3D maps, where we show its usefulness in providing an objective evaluation for maps that have recently been subject to a strong controversy in the field. Additionally, this alignment statistical test can be linked to the early stages of structure solving of new complexes, streamlining the whole process.

  14. A statistical mechanical approach for the computation of the climatic response to general forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lucarini

    2011-01-01

    parameter alone for a general class of chaotic Lorenz 96 models. We then verify the theoretical predictions from the outputs of the simulations up to a high degree of precision. The theory is used to explain differences in the response of local and global observables, to define the intensive properties of the system, which do not depend on the spatial resolution of the Lorenz 96 model, and to generalize the concept of climate sensitivity to all time scales. We also show how to reconstruct the linear Green function, which maps perturbations of general time patterns into changes in the expectation value of the considered observable for finite as well as infinite time. Finally, we propose a simple yet general methodology to study general Climate Change problems on virtually any time scale by resorting to only well selected simulations, and by taking full advantage of ensemble methods. The specific case of globally averaged surface temperature response to a general pattern of change of the CO2 concentration is discussed. We believe that the proposed approach may constitute a mathematically rigorous and practically very effective way to approach the problem of climate sensitivity, climate prediction, and climate change from a radically new perspective.

  15. A statistical mechanical approach for the computation of the climatic response to general forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, V.; Sarno, S.

    2011-01-01

    general class of chaotic Lorenz 96 models. We then verify the theoretical predictions from the outputs of the simulations up to a high degree of precision. The theory is used to explain differences in the response of local and global observables, to define the intensive properties of the system, which do not depend on the spatial resolution of the Lorenz 96 model, and to generalize the concept of climate sensitivity to all time scales. We also show how to reconstruct the linear Green function, which maps perturbations of general time patterns into changes in the expectation value of the considered observable for finite as well as infinite time. Finally, we propose a simple yet general methodology to study general Climate Change problems on virtually any time scale by resorting to only well selected simulations, and by taking full advantage of ensemble methods. The specific case of globally averaged surface temperature response to a general pattern of change of the CO2 concentration is discussed. We believe that the proposed approach may constitute a mathematically rigorous and practically very effective way to approach the problem of climate sensitivity, climate prediction, and climate change from a radically new perspective.

  16. Communication: General variational approach to nuclear-quadrupole coupling in rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Küpper, Jochen

    2017-10-01

    A general algorithm for computing the quadrupole-hyperfine effects in the rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules is presented for the case of ammonia (NH3). The method extends the general variational approach TROVE [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 126-140 (2007)] by adding the extra term in the Hamiltonian that describes the nuclear quadrupole coupling, with no inherent limitation on the number of quadrupolar nuclei in a molecule. We applied the new approach to compute the nitrogen-nuclear-quadrupole hyperfine structure in the rovibrational spectrum of NH143. These results agree very well with recent experimental spectroscopic data for the pure rotational transitions in the ground vibrational and ν2 states and the rovibrational transitions in the ν1, ν3, 2ν4, and ν1 + ν3 bands. The computed hyperfine-resolved rovibrational spectrum of ammonia will be beneficial for the assignment of experimental rovibrational spectra, further detection of ammonia in interstellar space, and studies of the proton-to-electron mass variation.

  17. A generalized estimating equations approach to quantitative trait locus detection of non-normal traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, most statistical developments in QTL detection methodology have been directed at continuous traits with an underlying normal distribution. This paper presents a method for QTL analysis of non-normal traits using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Development of this method has been motivated by a backcross experiment involving two inbred lines of mice that was conducted in order to locate a QTL for litter size. A Poisson regression form is used to model litter size, with allowances made for under- as well as over-dispersion, as suggested by the experimental data. In addition to fixed parity effects, random animal effects have also been included in the model. However, the method is not fully parametric as the model is specified only in terms of means, variances and covariances, and not as a full probability model. Consequently, a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach is used to fit the model. For statistical inferences, permutation tests and bootstrap procedures are used. This method is illustrated with simulated as well as experimental mouse data. Overall, the method is found to be quite reliable, and with modification, can be used for QTL detection for a range of other non-normally distributed traits.

  18. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    units when evaluating the global warming potential (GWP) of a WWTP. Finally, the paper demonstrates the potential of using the proposed approach as a general model-based tool for determining the most sustainable WWTP operational strategies, which is essential in a water sector where climate change......The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been...

  19. The Adolescent Mentalization-based Integrative Treatment (AMBIT) approach to outcome evaluation and manualization: adopting a learning organization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuggle, Peter; Bevington, Dickon; Cracknell, Liz; Hanley, James; Hare, Suzanne; Lincoln, John; Richardson, Garry; Stevens, Nina; Tovey, Heather; Zlotowitz, Sally

    2015-07-01

    AMBIT (Adolescent Mentalization-Based Integrative Treatment) is a developing team approach to working with hard-to-reach adolescents. The approach applies the principle of mentalization to relationships with clients, team relationships and working across agencies. It places a high priority on the need for locally developed evidence-based practice, and proposes that outcome evaluation needs to be explicitly linked with processes of team learning using a learning organization framework. A number of innovative methods of team learning are incorporated into the AMBIT approach, particularly a system of web-based wiki-formatted AMBIT manuals individualized for each participating team. The paper describes early development work of the model and illustrates ways of establishing explicit links between outcome evaluation, team learning and manualization by describing these methods as applied to two AMBIT-trained teams; one team working with young people on the edge of care (AMASS - the Adolescent Multi-Agency Support Service) and another working with substance use (CASUS - Child and Adolescent Substance Use Service in Cambridgeshire). Measurement of the primary outcomes for each team (which were generally very positive) facilitated team learning and adaptations of methods of practice that were consolidated through manualization. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study.

  1. Mass transfer simulation of nanofiltration membranes for electrolyte solutions through generalized Maxwell-Stefan approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshyargar, Vahid; Fadaei, Farzad; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed for simulation of ion transport through nanofiltration membranes. The model is based on the Maxwell-Stefan approach and takes into account steric, Donnan, and dielectric effects in the transport of mono and divalent ions. Theoretical ion rejection for multi-electrolyte mixtures was obtained by numerically solving the 'hindered transport' based on the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equation for the flux of ions. A computer simulation has been developed to predict the transport in the range of nanofiltration, a numerical procedure developed linearization and discretization form of the governing equations, and the finite volume method was employed for the numerical solution of equations. The developed numerical method is capable of solving equations for multicomponent systems of n species no matter to what extent the system shows stiffness. The model findings were compared and verified with the experimental data from literature for two systems of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+NaCl and MgCl{sub 2}+NaCl. Comparison showed great agreement for different concentrations. As such, the model is capable of predicting the rejection of different ions at various concentrations. The advantage of such a model is saving costs as a result of minimizing the number of required experiments, while it is closer to a realistic situation since the adsorption of ions has been taken into account. Using this model, the flux of permeates and rejections of multi-component liquid feeds can be calculated as a function of membrane properties. This simulation tool attempts to fill in the gap in methods used for predicting nanofiltration and optimization of the performance of charged nanofilters through generalized Maxwell-Stefan (GMS) approach. The application of the current model may weaken the latter gap, which has arisen due to the complexity of the fundamentals of ion transport processes via this approach, and may further facilitate the industrial

  2. Generalized signal-tuned Gabor approach for signal representation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreão, José R. A.

    The signal-tuned Gabor approach is based on spatial or spectral Gabor functions whose parameters are determined, respectively, by the Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms of a given “tuning” signal. The sets of spatial and spectral signal-tuned functions, for all possible frequencies and positions, yield exact representations of the tuning signal. Moreover, such functions can be used as kernels for space-frequency transforms which are tuned to the specific features of their inputs, thus allowing analysis with high conjoint spatio-spectral resolution. Based on the signal-tuned Gabor functions and the associated transforms, a plausible model for the receptive fields and responses of cells in the primary visual cortex has been proposed. Here, we present a generalization of the signal-tuned Gabor approach which extends it to the representation and analysis of the tuning signal’s fractional Fourier transform of any order. This significantly broadens the scope and the potential applications of the approach.

  3. On the generalization of the hazard rate twisting-based simulation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-11-17

    Estimating the probability that a sum of random variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold is a well-known challenging problem. A naive Monte Carlo simulation is the standard technique for the estimation of this type of probability. However, this approach is computationally expensive, especially when dealing with rare events. An alternative approach is represented by the use of variance reduction techniques, known for their efficiency in requiring less computations for achieving the same accuracy requirement. Most of these methods have thus far been proposed to deal with specific settings under which the RVs belong to particular classes of distributions. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the well-known hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling-based approach that presents the advantage of being logarithmic efficient for arbitrary sums of RVs. The wide scope of applicability of the proposed method is mainly due to our particular way of selecting the twisting parameter. It is worth observing that this interesting feature is rarely satisfied by variance reduction algorithms whose performances were only proven under some restrictive assumptions. It comes along with a good efficiency, illustrated by some selected simulation results comparing the performance of the proposed method with some existing techniques.

  4. General Approach for Composite Thermoelectric Systems with Thermal Coupling: The Case of a Dual Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuautli Yanehowi Flores-Niño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM has different thermoelectric (TE properties, namely thermal conductance, electrical resistance and the Seebeck coefficient. The system is coupled by thermal conductances to heat reservoirs. The proposed approach consists of derivation of the dimensionless thermoelectric properties for the whole system. Thus, we obtain an equivalent figure of merit whose impact and meaning is discussed. We make use of dimensionless equations to study the impact of the thermal conductance matching on the cooling capacity and the coefficient of the performance of the system. The equivalent thermoelectric properties derived with our formalism include the external conductances and all intrinsic thermoelectric properties of each component of the system. Our proposed approach permits us changing the thermoelectric parameters of the TEMs and the working conditions of the composite system. Furthermore, our analysis shows the effect of the number of thermocouples on the system. These considerations are very useful for the design of thermoelectric composite systems. We reproduce the qualitative behavior of a commercial composite TEM connected electrically in series.

  5. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  6. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  7. Evaluating deceased organ donation: a programme theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Ana; Pawson, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Organ donation and transplantation services represent a microcosm of modern healthcare organisations. They are complex adaptive systems. They face perpetual problems of matching supply and demand. They operate under fierce time and resource constraints. And yet they have received relatively little attention from a systems perspective. The purpose of this paper is to consider some of the fundamental issues in evaluating, improving and policy reform in such complex systems. The paper advocates an approach based on programme theory evaluation. The paper explains how the death to donation to transplantation process depends on the accumulation of series of embedded, institutional sub-processes. Evaluators need to be concerned with this whole system rather than with its discrete parts or sectors. Policy makers may expect disappointment if they seek to improve donation rates by applying nudges or administrative reforms at a single point in the implementation chain. These services represent concentrated, perfect storms of complexity and the paper offers guidance to practitioners with bio-medical backgrounds on how such services might be evaluated and improved. For the methodological audience the paper caters for the burgeoning interest in programme theory evaluation while illustrating the design phase of this research strategy.

  8. Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense -- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement existing methods to rank univer...

  9. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Christine A; Morgan, Philip A; Youll, Penny

    2006-10-18

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme--the 'Health of Londoners Programme'--in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face) commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66); structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within the research commissioning process. This may enhance access

  10. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Philip A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Methods A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66; structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. Results The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. Conclusion There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within

  11. An evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach. Part II: The evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, H; Guarna, F; Dutil, E; Riley, E; Arsenault, A B; Drouin, G

    1988-01-01

    A protocol of evaluation of the hemiplegic patient based on the Bobath approach to treatment is presented. Six parameters are evaluated: sensorium, muscle tone, reflex activity, active movement, postural reactions and pain. The first and last of these are included because of their possible effects on the motor recovery process of the hemiplegic patient. The other four are directly borrowed from the Bobath modality of treatment. For each of these parameters, the procedures are given for its evaluation along with its respective rating scales. These scales are of an ordinal nature ranging from 0 to 3. It is suggested that this new evaluation protocol is fully compatible with the therapeutic modality developed by Bobath and as well is adequate to quantify patient progress in the principle aspects treated by this well used rehabilitation approach.

  12. A generalized nonlinear model-based mixed multinomial logit approach for crash data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqiang; Zhu, Wenbo; Ke, Ruimin; Ash, John; Wang, Yinhai; Xu, Jiuping; Xu, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    The mixed multinomial logit (MNL) approach, which can account for unobserved heterogeneity, is a promising unordered model that has been employed in analyzing the effect of factors contributing to crash severity. However, its basic assumption of using a linear function to explore the relationship between the probability of crash severity and its contributing factors can be violated in reality. This paper develops a generalized nonlinear model-based mixed MNL approach which is capable of capturing non-monotonic relationships by developing nonlinear predictors for the contributing factors in the context of unobserved heterogeneity. The crash data on seven Interstate freeways in Washington between January 2011 and December 2014 are collected to develop the nonlinear predictors in the model. Thirteen contributing factors in terms of traffic characteristics, roadway geometric characteristics, and weather conditions are identified to have significant mixed (fixed or random) effects on the crash density in three crash severity levels: fatal, injury, and property damage only. The proposed model is compared with the standard mixed MNL model. The comparison results suggest a slight superiority of the new approach in terms of model fit measured by the Akaike Information Criterion (12.06 percent decrease) and Bayesian Information Criterion (9.11 percent decrease). The predicted crash densities for all three levels of crash severities of the new approach are also closer (on average) to the observations than the ones predicted by the standard mixed MNL model. Finally, the significance and impacts of the contributing factors are analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Leehwa [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-06-23

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  14. Students’ perceptions regarding the objective, structured, clinical evaluation as an assessment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Frederick Small

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The nursing profession is characterised by the fact that a significant amount of time is spent on competency-related activities. The assessment of clinical competence is therefore an important issue in nursing education and the utilisation of objective structured clinical evaluation for that purpose was considered to be very important in this study. The objective of this research was to explore and describe the perceptions of first- and third-year student nurses with regard to the objective structured clinical evaluation assessment approach. A quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical research design was used. The instrument was a questionnaire (ordinal. This questionnaire focused on the perceptions of student nurses with regard to the objective structured clinical evaluation approach in particular, and with regard to aspects such as reality, execution, time allocation and student and assessor variables. The findings indicated that, as an assessment tool, the objective structured clinical evaluation approach was perceived as not being totally realistic, especially by the more senior nursing students (third-year as compared with the first-year nursing students. Varying degrees of stress were experienced by the nursing students in their first and third years but, in general, the overall perception appeared to be that the approach was well organised and that the respective students would be able to perform equally well in the clinical field. It may be concluded that the majority of students appreciate the format of the objective structured clinical evaluation approach. However, the study further highlighted the fact that more extensive training of students on time management and the relief of emotional stress is necessary during the implementation of this approach.

  15. Unintended outcomes evaluation approach: A plausible way to evaluate unintended outcomes of social development programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Sumera

    2017-09-18

    Social development programmes are deliberate attempts to bring about change and unintended outcomes can be considered as inherent to any such intervention. There is now a solid consensus among the international evaluation community regarding the need to consider unintended outcomes as a key aspect in any evaluative study. However, this concern often equates to nothing more than false piety. Exiting evaluation theory suffers from overlap of terminology, inadequate categorisation of unintended outcomes and lack of guidance on how to study them. To advance the knowledge of evaluation theory, methods and practice, the author has developed an evaluation approach to study unintended effects using a theory building, testing and refinement process. A comprehensive classification of unintended outcomes on the basis of knowability, value, distribution and temporality helped specify various type of unintended outcomes for programme evaluation. Corresponding to this classification, a three-step evaluation process was proposed including a) outlining programme intentions b) forecasting likely unintended effects c) mapping the anticipated and understanding unanticipated unintended outcomes. This unintended outcomes evaluation approach (UOEA) was then trialled by undertaking a multi-site and multi-method case study of a poverty alleviation programme in Pakistan and refinements were made to the approach.The case study revealed that this programme was producing a number of unintended effects, mostly negative, affecting those already disadvantaged such as the poorest, women and children. The trialling process demonstrated the effectiveness of the UOEA and suggests that this can serve as a useful guide for future evaluation practice. It also provides the discipline of evaluation with an empirically-based reference point for further theoretical developments in the study of unintended outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lexical adaptation of link grammar to the biomedical sublanguage: a comparative evaluation of three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Salakoski, Tapio; Aubin, Sophie; Nazarenko, Adeline

    2006-11-24

    We study the adaptation of Link Grammar Parser to the biomedical sublanguage with a focus on domain terms not found in a general parser lexicon. Using two biomedical corpora, we implement and evaluate three approaches to addressing unknown words: automatic lexicon expansion, the use of morphological clues, and disambiguation using a part-of-speech tagger. We evaluate each approach separately for its effect on parsing performance and consider combinations of these approaches. In addition to a 45% increase in parsing efficiency, we find that the best approach, incorporating information from a domain part-of-speech tagger, offers a statistically significant 10% relative decrease in error. When available, a high-quality domain part-of-speech tagger is the best solution to unknown word issues in the domain adaptation of a general parser. In the absence of such a resource, surface clues can provide remarkably good coverage and performance when tuned to the domain. The adapted parser is available under an open-source license.

  17. Qualitative evaluation of general practices developing training for a range of health disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lesley A

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted an interpretative approach, using focus groups and face-to-face interviews to evaluate the development of a five-year pilot project within general practice. The aim of the project is for these practices to offer training to a range of health disciplines from varying academic levels, develop capacity and provide interprofessional education as part of the learning ethos. Eight consortia are involved in the project, which is funded by the workforce and education directorate and the Deanery of the Yorkshire and Humber Strategic Health Authority. The evaluation was undertaken 18 months into the project, to understand the views and experiences of primary care practitioners and university educationalists, in order to identify achievements and barriers to the project's development. The study revealed positive attitudes towards the project, and that steps are being taken to engage in dialogue with universities to increase student numbers, but progress is slow. Early experiences of student nurses taking up placements in the practices reveal incompatible learning outcomes between what is expected for curriculum and learning opportunities within primary care. A common concern is the impact increased students may pose on existing support structures, and that this may compromise student learning. Concern is evident over self-belief and competencies to teach across professions, and the ambiguity over the learning outcomes for IPE and the training required to support this. It is recommended that a systems theory be adopted to provide strategic planning across clinical and education organisations to ensure that structures of communication, leadership and training adequately meet the aims of the project. The paper will be of interest to practitioners in primary care who may be considering expanding services and training, and to educationalists seeking to allocate students to placements in primary care.

  18. Sedimentological evaluation of general circulation model simulations for the ?greenhouse? Earth: Cretaceous and Jurassic case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G. D.; Sellwood, B. W.; Valdes, P. J.

    1995-12-01

    Conceptual climate models, based on the workings of the present-day climate system, provided a first-order approach to ancient climate systems. They are potentially very subjective in character. Their main drawback was that they involved the relocation of continents beneath a stable atmospheric circulation modelled upon that of the present. General circulation models (GCMs) use the laws of physics and an understanding of past geography to simulate climatic responses. They are objective in character. However, they require super computers to handle vast numbers of calculations. Nonetheless it is now possible to compare results from different GCMs for a range of times and over a wide range of parameterisations. GCMs are currently producing simulated climate predictions which compare favourably with the distributions of climatically sensitive facies (e.g. coals, evaporites and palaeosols). They have been used effectively in the prediction of oceanic upwelling sites and the distribution of petroleum source-rocks and phosphorites. Parameterisation is the main weakness in GCMs (e.g. sea-surface temperature, orography, cloud behaviour). Sensitivity experiments can be run on GCMs which simulate the effects of Milankovitch forcing and thus provide insights into possible patterns of climate change both globally and locally (i.e. provide predictions that can be evaluated against the rock record). Future use of GCMs could be in the forward modelling of sequence stratigraphic evolution and in the prediction of the diagenetic characteristics of reservoir units in frontier exploration areas. The sedimentary record provides the only way that GCMs may themselves be evaluated and this is important because these same GCMs are being used currently to predict possible changes in future climate.

  19. A FUZZY MULTICRITERIA APPROACH FOR IT GOVERNANCE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Cobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work seeks to provide a new multi-criteria approach to assess IT Governance (ITG in the area of Strategic Alignment. The complete methodological development process is described. The evaluation model uses Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP and it is targeted to IT processes, more specifically to the COBIT© IT maturity levels, domains and processes, thus providing a differentiated analysis of importance for each item. Its relevance is related to addressing isolated and individual evaluation criteria that are normally practiced in audits of processes. The model allows generating information that extends the guarantees of compliance and corporate governance from different organizations. This research demonstrates that the combined use of multi-criteria decision methodologies and soft computing proves to be particularly suitable for Strategic Alignment such as the focal area of COBIT. The model was applied in a big retail Brazilian company.

  20. An Anatomical Approach to Evaluating and Treating Cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Mitalee P; Belkin, Daniel; Geronemus, Roy G; Brauer, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    Cellulite is the common rippling or dimpling of skin of the thighs and buttocks of women, formed from a confluence of skin laxity, tethering fibrous septa, and fat herniation. We describe an anatomical approach to evaluating the cellulite patient and selecting the best treatment from among available non-invasive, minimally invasive, and invasive therapies. It is crucial to consider the anatomy of the patient and the morphology of cellulite while choosing a treatment. Diffuse rippling represents increased adiposity and/or increased skin laxity which may stand to benefit from lipolytic and skin tightening modalities. Dimpling represents tethering by fibrous septa which may stand to improve from subcision by minimally invasive devices such as Cell na. Patients with both morphologies may be treated with a combination of treatments or Cellulaze. Careful evaluation of the patient can help identify the best therapeutic strategy. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(1):58-61..

  1. A design thinking approach to evaluating interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Peter S; Bzowyckyj, Andrew; Collins, Lauren; Dow, Alan; Goodell, Kristen; Johnson, Alex F; Klocko, David; Knab, Mary; Parker, Kathryn; Reeves, Scott; Zierler, Brenda K

    2016-05-01

    The complex challenge of evaluating the impact of interprofessional education (IPE) on patient and community health outcomes is well documented. Recently, at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study in the United States, leaders in health professions education met to help generate a direction for future IPE evaluation research. Participants followed the stages of design thinking, a process for human-centred problem solving, to reach consensus on recommendations. The group concluded that future studies should focus on measuring an intermediate step between learning activities and patient outcomes. Specifically, knowing how IPE-prepared students and preceptors influence the organisational culture of a clinical site as well as how the culture of clinical sites influences learners' attitudes about collaborative practice will demonstrate the value of educational interventions. With a mixed methods approach and an appreciation for context, researchers will be able to identify the factors that foster effective collaborative practice and, by extension, promote patient-centred care.

  2. Re-evaluating the general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jonas Steinbauer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography integrates temporal changes in ecological circumstances with diversification processes, and has stimulated current research in island biogeography. In the original publication, a set of testable hypotheses was analysed using regression models: specifically, whether island data for four diversity indices are consistent with the ‘B~ATT2’ model, in which B is a diversity index, A is log(area and T is time. The four indices were species richness, the number and percentage of single‐island endemic species, and a diversification index. Whether the relationships between these indices and time are unimodal (i.e., ‘hump‐shaped’ was a key focus, based on the characteristic ontogeny of a volcanic oceanic island. However, the significance testing unintentionally used zero, rather than the mean of the diversity index, as the null hypothesis, greatly inflating F‐ values and reducing P‐values compared with the standard regression approach. Here we first re‐analyze the data used to evaluate the general dynamic model in the seminal paper, using the standard null hypothesis, to provide an important qualification of its empirical results. This supports the significance of about half the original tests, the rest becoming non‐significant but mostly suggestive of the hypothesized relationship. Then we expand the original analysis by testing additional, theoretically derived functional relationships between the diversity indices, island area and time, within the framework of the ATT2 model and using a mixed‐effects modelling approach. This shows that species richness peaks earlier in island life‐cycles than endemism. Area has a greater effect on species richness and the number of single‐island endemics than on the proportion of single‐island endemics and the diversification index, and was always better fit as a log–log relationship than as a semi‐log one. Finally, the richness

  3. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  4. A Meta-heuristic Approach for Variants of VRP in Terms of Generalized Saving Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    Global logistic design is becoming a keen interest to provide an essential infrastructure associated with modern societal provision. For examples, we can designate green and/or robust logistics in transportation systems, smart grids in electricity utilization systems, and qualified service in delivery systems, and so on. As a key technology for such deployments, we engaged in practical vehicle routing problem on a basis of the conventional saving method. This paper extends such idea and gives a general framework available for various real-world applications. It can cover not only delivery problems but also two kind of pick-up problems, i.e., straight and drop-by routings. Moreover, multi-depot problem is considered by a hybrid approach with graph algorithm and its solution method is realized in a hierarchical manner. Numerical experiments have been taken place to validate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Computer vision for general purpose visual inspection: a fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.

    In automatic visual industrial inspection, computer vision systems have been widely used. Such systems are often application specific, and therefore require domain knowledge in order to have a successful implementation. Since visual inspection can be viewed as a decision making process, it is argued that the integration of fuzzy logic analysis and computer vision systems provides a practical approach to general purpose visual inspection applications. This paper describes the development of an integrated fuzzy-rule-based automatic visual inspection system. Domain knowledge about a particular application is represented as a set of fuzzy rules. From the status of predefined fuzzy variables, the set of fuzzy rules are defuzzified to give the inspection results. A practical application where IC marks (often in the forms of English characters and a company logo) inspection is demonstrated, which shows a more consistent result as compared to a conventional thresholding method.

  6. Modeling two-vehicle crash severity by a bivariate generalized ordered probit approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yu-Chiun; Hwang, Cherng-Chwan; Chang, Chih-Chin; Fu, Chiang

    2013-03-01

    This study simultaneously models crash severity of both parties in two-vehicle accidents at signalized intersections in Taipei City, Taiwan, using a novel bivariate generalized ordered probit (BGOP) model. Estimation results show that the BGOP model performs better than the conventional bivariate ordered probit (BOP) model in terms of goodness-of-fit indices and prediction accuracy and provides a better approach to identify the factors contributing to different severity levels. According to estimated parameters in latent propensity functions and elasticity effects, several key risk factors are identified-driver type (age>65), vehicle type (motorcycle), violation type (alcohol use), intersection type (three-leg and multiple-leg), collision type (rear ended), and lighting conditions (night and night without illumination). Corresponding countermeasures for these risk factors are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reprint of "Modeling two-vehicle crash severity by a bivariate generalized ordered probit approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Yu-Chiun; Hwang, Cherng-Chwan; Chang, Chih-Chin; Fu, Chiang

    2013-12-01

    This study simultaneously models crash severity of both parties in two-vehicle accidents at signalized intersections in Taipei City, Taiwan, using a novel bivariate generalized ordered probit (BGOP) model. Estimation results show that the BGOP model performs better than the conventional bivariate ordered probit (BOP) model in terms of goodness-of-fit indices and prediction accuracy and provides a better approach to identify the factors contributing to different severity levels. According to estimated parameters in latent propensity functions and elasticity effects, several key risk factors are identified-driver type (age>65), vehicle type (motorcycle), violation type (alcohol use), intersection type (three-leg and multiple-leg), collision type (rear ended), and lighting conditions (night and night without illumination). Corresponding countermeasures for these risk factors are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion - GENIE, a general model-independent TCP/IP run manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffels, Christopher T.; Schreuder, Willem A.; Doherty, John E.; Karanovic, Marinko; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Hunt, Randall J.; Welter, David E.

    2012-01-01

    GENIE is a model-independent suite of programs that can be used to generally distribute, manage, and execute multiple model runs via the TCP/IP infrastructure. The suite consists of a file distribution interface, a run manage, a run executer, and a routine that can be compiled as part of a program and used to exchange model runs with the run manager. Because communication is via a standard protocol (TCP/IP), any computer connected to the Internet can serve in any of the capacities offered by this suite. Model independence is consistent with the existing template and instruction file protocols of the widely used PEST parameter estimation program. This report describes (1) the problem addressed; (2) the approach used by GENIE to queue, distribute, and retrieve model runs; and (3) user instructions, classes, and functions developed. It also includes (4) an example to illustrate the linking of GENIE with Parallel PEST using the interface routine.

  9. Theory of transformation groups I general properties of continuous transformation groups a contemporary approach and translation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen Band I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, p...

  10. Continuous curricular feedback: a formative evaluation approach to curricular improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Stanley; Morrison, Gail

    2014-02-01

    Curriculum evaluations are used to plan future revisions and other improvements in curriculum design. Most models are summative and occur at the end of a course, so improvements in instruction may be delayed. In this article, the authors describe the formative curriculum evaluation model adopted at the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. In their model, representative student feedback is gathered in real time and used to modify courses and improve instruction. The central features of their continuous feedback model include developing a small cadre of preclinical and clinical student evaluators who are trained to obtain classwide input regarding all aspects of the curriculum, including teacher effectiveness, and meet regularly (weekly or monthly) with relevant faculty and administrators. The authors show how this curriculum evaluation approach maximizes student involvement in course development and provides opportunities for rapid improvements in course content and instruction as well as for the identification of barriers to effective clinical and preclinical educational experiences.

  11. Patients and general practitioners have different approaches to e-mail consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Camilla Skanderup; Christensen, Katja Lynghøj; Ertmann, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The few extant Danish studies on e-mail consultations were undertaken before it became manda-tory under Danish law to offer patients this form of consultation. This study investigates the ways in which patients and general practitioners communicate with each other by e-mail, explores factors influencing this means of communication and puts into perspective the potential of e-mail consultations in patient treatment. The study is explorative and based on an individual interview and four qualitative focus group interviews. The empirical data were analysed from a social constructivist and a practice-theoretical approach. The study indicated that patients wanted to be able to use the general practitioner (GP) as a sparring partner in e-mail consultations. They expected a reply in case of uncertainties. The GPs found it difficult to handle complicated medical problems by e-mail and they tended to send a standard reply. A number of patients perceived the wording of the standard reply as a rejection of their problem. Patients highlighted the logistical advantages of e-mail consultations, the physical separation of doctor and patient which made it easier for them to disclose psychological or intimate issues. The GPs preferred short uncomplicated questions with no option for the patient to enter into a discussion. Patients and GPs have different approaches to e-mail. The development of clear guidelines for patients and revised guidelines for GPs regarding e-mail consultations is therefore recommended. not relevant. journal no. 2012-41-0063 with the Danish Data Protection Agency.

  12. Generalized Langevin dynamics of a nanoparticle using a finite element approach: thermostating with correlated noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, B; Swaminathan, T N; Ayyaswamy, P S; Eckmann, D M; Radhakrishnan, R

    2011-09-21

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure is employed to study the thermal motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian stationary fluid medium with the generalized Langevin approach. We consider both the Markovian (white noise) and non-Markovian (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and Mittag-Leffler noise) processes. Initial locations of the particle are at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. At thermal equilibrium, the numerical results are validated by comparing the calculated translational and rotational temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical results. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of mean square displacements are compared with analytical results. In the non-Markovian Langevin approach, an appropriate choice of colored noise is required to satisfy the power-law decay in the velocity autocorrelation function at long times. The results obtained by using non-Markovian Mittag-Leffler noise simultaneously satisfy the equipartition theorem and the long-time behavior of the hydrodynamic correlations for a range of memory correlation times. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process does not provide the appropriate hydrodynamic correlations. Comparing our DNS results to the solution of an one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation, it is observed that where the thermostat adheres to the equipartition theorem, the characteristic memory time in the noise is consistent with the inherent time scale of the memory kernel. The performance of the thermostat with respect to equilibrium and dynamic properties for various noise schemes is discussed.

  13. Learning about fishery management: Evaluation of a contextualized responsive evaluation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouevi, T.A.; Mierlo, van B.; Leeuwis, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the extent to which a responsive evaluation (RE) approach contributed to learning by stakeholders in a case of high complexity. Fishery management in Grand-Popo, Benin is characterized by ambiguity, that is contrasting views among fishery stakeholders about what should be

  14. Recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners: a marketing approach reveals new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.

  15. High-Order Fully General-Relativistic Hydrodynamics: new Approaches and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach for achieving high-order convergence in fully general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. The approach is implemented in WhiskyTHC, a new code that makes use of state-of-the-art numerical schemes and was key in achieving, for the first time, higher than second-order convergence in the calculation of the gravitational radiation from inspiraling binary neutron stars Radice et al. (2013). Here, we give a detailed description of the algorithms employed and present results obtained for a series of classical tests involving isolated neutron stars. In addition, using the gravitational-wave emission from the late inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars, we make a detailed comparison between the results obtained with the new code and those obtained when using standard second-order schemes commonly employed for matter simulations in numerical relativity. We find that even at moderate resolutions and for binaries with large compactness, the phase accuracy is improved by a factor 50 or mo...

  16. A general and fast scoring function for protein-ligand interactions: a simplified potential approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, I; Martin, Y C

    1999-03-11

    A fast, simplified potential-based approach is presented that estimates the protein-ligand binding affinity based on the given 3D structure of a protein-ligand complex. This general, knowledge-based approach exploits structural information of known protein-ligand complexes extracted from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank and converts it into distance-dependent Helmholtz free interaction energies of protein-ligand atom pairs (potentials of mean force, PMF). The definition of an appropriate reference state and the introduction of a correction term accounting for the volume taken by the ligand were found to be crucial for deriving the relevant interaction potentials that treat solvation and entropic contributions implicitly. A significant correlation between experimental binding affinities and computed score was found for sets of diverse protein-ligand complexes and for sets of different ligands bound to the same target. For 77 protein-ligand complexes taken from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank, the calculated score showed a standard deviation from observed binding affinities of 1.8 log Ki units and an R2 value of 0.61. The best results were obtained for the subset of 16 serine protease complexes with a standard deviation of 1.0 log Ki unit and an R2 value of 0.86. A set of 33 inhibitors modeled into a crystal structure of HIV-1 protease yielded a standard deviation of 0.8 log Ki units from measured inhibition constants and an R2 value of 0.74. In contrast to empirical scoring functions that show similar or sometimes better correlation with observed binding affinities, our method does not involve deriving specific parameters that fit the observed binding affinities of protein-ligand complexes of a given training set. We compared the performance of the PMF score, Böhm's score (LUDI), and the SMOG score for eight different test sets of protein-ligand complexes. It was found that for the majority of test sets the PMF score performs best. The strength of the new approach

  17. An Evaluation of the Instruction of Generalization in Elementary School Social Studies Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mükerrem AKBULUT TAŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalizations are important content materials that should be instructed in the Social Studies program. The instruction of generalizations and the causal relationships emphasized in generalizations are important for students to have meaningful learning experiences and to gain causal reasoning and critical thinking skills. Social Studies program emphasizes the acquisition of creating scientific generalization skill as a fundamental skill to be instructed directly, and the importance of generalization instruction is highlighted. Therefore, this study is important in that it draws attention to the importance of teaching generalization and creates basis for the future research in the field. In this regard, it aims at evaluating the instruction of the generalizations in the “Our Country and the World” unit in Social Studies program for 6th grades in Primary School. In line with this general purpose, the instruction of the generalizations in the unit was analyzed qualitatively. The study was conducted with three social studies teachers working in three different schools located in Seyhan, Adana. The data were collected through the observation technique with a view to obtaining in depth data about the instruction of generalization in social studies lesson. Semi-structured observation form, prepared in the light of the generalization content elements, was used as the data collection tool. These content elements consisted of four aspects: generalization statement, concepts related to generalization, cause-effect relationships between concepts, and facts about generalization. In addition to observation, document analysis was conducted with a view to supporting results and strengthening the implications. The documentary analysis was performed based on the generalizations and previously identified elements about the generalizations in the scope of the six topics in the “Our Country and the World” unit. The data collected from the observations were

  18. A multi-diagnostic approach to cloud evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keith D.; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Most studies evaluating cloud in general circulation models present new diagnostic techniques or observational datasets, or apply a limited set of existing diagnostics to a number of models. In this study, we use a range of diagnostic techniques and observational datasets to provide a thorough evaluation of cloud, such as might be carried out during a model development process. The methodology is illustrated by analysing two configurations of the Met Office Unified Model - the currently operational configuration at the time of undertaking the study (Global Atmosphere 6, GA6), and the configuration which will underpin the United Kingdom's Earth System Model for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6; GA7). By undertaking a more comprehensive analysis which includes compositing techniques, comparing against a set of quite different observational instruments and evaluating the model across a range of timescales, the risks of drawing the wrong conclusions due to compensating model errors are minimized and a more accurate overall picture of model performance can be drawn. Overall the two configurations analysed perform well, especially in terms of cloud amount. GA6 has excessive thin cirrus which is removed in GA7. The primary remaining errors in both configurations are the in-cloud albedos which are too high in most Northern Hemisphere cloud types and sub-tropical stratocumulus, whilst the stratocumulus on the cold-air side of Southern Hemisphere cyclones has in-cloud albedos which are too low.

  19. The Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM): Achieving Sustainability in Organizational Intervention through a Participatory Evaluation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Lundmark, Robert; Hasson, Henna

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there have been calls to develop ways of using a participatory approach when conducting interventions, including evaluating the process and context to improve and adapt the intervention as it evolves over time. The need to integrate interventions into daily organizational practices, thereby increasing the likelihood of successful implementation and sustainable changes, has also been highlighted. We propose an evaluation model-the Dynamic Integrated Evaluation Model (DIEM)-that takes this into consideration. In the model, evaluation is fitted into a co-created iterative intervention process, in which the intervention activities can be continuously adapted based on collected data. By explicitly integrating process and context factors, DIEM also considers the dynamic sustainability of the intervention over time. It emphasizes the practical value of these evaluations for organizations, as well as the importance of their rigorousness for research purposes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A real-world approach to Evidence-Based Medicine in general practice: a competency framework derived from a systematic review and Delphi process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Kevin; Ward, Alison; Heneghan, Carl

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) skills have been included in general practice curricula and competency frameworks. However, GPs experience numerous barriers to developing and maintaining EBM skills, and some GPs feel the EBM movement misunderstands, and threatens their traditional role. We therefore need a new approach that acknowledges the constraints encountered in real-world general practice. The aim of this study was to synthesise from empirical research a real-world EBM competency framework for general practice, which could be applied in training, in the individual pursuit of continuing professional development, and in routine care. We sought to integrate evidence from the literature with evidence derived from the opinions of experts in the fields of general practice and EBM. We synthesised two sets of themes describing the meaning of EBM in general practice. One set of themes was derived from a mixed-methods systematic review of the literature; the other set was derived from the further development of those themes using a Delphi process among a panel of EBM and general practice experts. From these two sets of themes we constructed a real-world EBM competency framework for general practice. A simple competency framework was constructed, that acknowledges the constraints of real-world general practice: (1) mindfulness - in one's approach towards EBM itself, and to the influences on decision-making; (2) pragmatism - in one's approach to finding and evaluating evidence; and (3) knowledge of the patient - as the most useful resource in effective communication of evidence. We present a clinical scenario to illustrate how a GP might demonstrate these competencies in their routine daily work. We have proposed a real-world EBM competency framework for general practice, derived from empirical research, which acknowledges the constraints encountered in modern general practice. Further validation of these competencies is required, both as an educational resource and as a

  1. Generalized Metropolis dynamics with a generalized master equation: an approach for time-independent and time-dependent Monte Carlo simulations of generalized spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Drugowich de Felício, José Roberto; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2012-06-01

    The extension of Boltzmann-Gibbs thermostatistics, proposed by Tsallis, introduces an additional parameter q to the inverse temperature β. Here, we show that a previously introduced generalized Metropolis dynamics to evolve spin models is not local and does not obey the detailed energy balance. In this dynamics, locality is only retrieved for q=1, which corresponds to the standard Metropolis algorithm. Nonlocality implies very time-consuming computer calculations, since the energy of the whole system must be reevaluated when a single spin is flipped. To circumvent this costly calculation, we propose a generalized master equation, which gives rise to a local generalized Metropolis dynamics that obeys the detailed energy balance. To compare the different critical values obtained with other generalized dynamics, we perform Monte Carlo simulations in equilibrium for the Ising model. By using short-time nonequilibrium numerical simulations, we also calculate for this model the critical temperature and the static and dynamical critical exponents as functions of q. Even for q≠1, we show that suitable time-evolving power laws can be found for each initial condition. Our numerical experiments corroborate the literature results when we use nonlocal dynamics, showing that short-time parameter determination works also in this case. However, the dynamics governed by the new master equation leads to different results for critical temperatures and also the critical exponents affecting universality classes. We further propose a simple algorithm to optimize modeling the time evolution with a power law, considering in a log-log plot two successive refinements.

  2. Gestures, Speech, and the Sprouting of Signs: A Semiotic-Cultural Approach to Students' Types of Generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Contrasts students' presymbolic and symbolic procedures in generalizing activities. Uses the semiotic-cultural theoretical approach and focuses on the role of body, discourse, and signs when students refer to mathematical objects. Identifies types of generalizations and discusses a specific kind of rupture in the ostensive gestures and…

  3. 33 CFR 167.500 - In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. 167.500 Section 167.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.500 In the approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic...

  4. Interstitial granulomatous pulmonary diseases: a diagnostic approach for the general pathologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aloísio S. Felipe da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of interstitial pneumonia present a histopathological pattern dominated by sarcoid - necrotizing or non-necrotizing - granulomas, which can be divided into two main groups: infectious and non-infectious. The infectious causes include tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, fungi in general, paracoccidioidomycosis, ascaridiasis, echinococcosis and dirophilariosis. The non-infectious causes include histiocytosis-X, hipersensitivity pneumonia, vasculitis, lymphomas, sarcoidosis, and pneumoconioses such as silicosis and berylliosis. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guideline to enable general pathologists to make the differential diagnosis of granulomatous pulmonary diseases. For this purpose, anatomical-clinical-radiological correlations will be presented and targeted to each diagnosis discussed. Whenever a granulomatous inflammatory process is in progress, the search for infective agents by direct observation, by culture, and by histochemical methods should be mandatory. The histological aspects of infectious granulomas to be analyzed should include their random histo-anatomical location, the type of inflammatory reaction, and necrosis. A panel of complementary reactions (immunohistochemistry and PCR should identify the infectious agent and, whenever their results and the culture are negative, the possibility of non-infectious granulomatous diseases has to be evaluated. In such cases, the histo-anatomical distribution (bronchocentric, lymphangitic, angiocentric, random, the qualitative characteristics of the lesions (type of necrosis and inflammatory reaction, and the correlation with the X-ray findings will help the diagnosis.

  5. Relational information moderates approach-avoidance instruction effects on implicit evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; De Houwer, Jan; Smith, Colin Tucker

    2017-04-25

    Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions). Results showed that self-agent instructions produced stronger effects than stimulus-agent instructions on implicit evaluations of the non-existing words. These findings support the idea that propositional processes play an important role in effects of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation and in implicit evaluation in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydration education: developing, piloting and evaluating a hydration education package for general practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    McCotter, L; Douglas, P; Laur, C; Gandy, J.; Fitzpatrick, L; Rajput-Ray, M; Ray, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To (1) assess the hydration knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of doctors; (2) develop an evidence-based training package; and (3) evaluate the impact of the training package. Design Educational intervention with impact evaluation. Setting Cambridgeshire, UK. Participants General practitioners (GPs (primary care physicians)). Interventions Hydration and healthcare training. Main outcome measures Hydration KAP score before and immediately after the training session. Results Kn...

  7. Probabilistic multi-model ensemble prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall using general circulation models: A non-parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Nachiketa; Mohanty, Uma Charan; Sahoo, Lokanath

    2013-03-01

    Probabilistic prediction has the ability to convey the intrinsic uncertainty of forecast that helps the decision makers to manage the climate risk more efficiently than deterministic forecasts. In recent times, probabilistic predictions obtained from the products from General Circulation Models (GCMs) have gained considerable attention. The probabilistic forecast can be generated in parametric (assuming Gaussian distribution) as well as non-parametric (counting method) ways. The present study deals with the non-parametric approach that requires no assumption about the form of the forecast distribution for the prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) based on the hindcast run of seven general circulation models from 1982 to 2008. Probabilistic prediction from each of the GCM products has been generated by non-parametric methods for tercile categories (viz. below normal (BN), near-normal (NN), and above normal (AN)) and evaluation of their skill is assessed against observed data. Five different types of PMME schemes have been used for combining probabilities from each GCM to improve the forecast skill as compared to the individual GCMs. These schemes are different in nature of assigning the weights for combining probabilities. After a rigorous analysis through Rank Probability Skill Score (RPSS) and relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the superiority of PMME has been established over climatological probability. It is also found that, the performances of PMME1 and PMME3 are better than all the other methods whereas PMME3 has showed more improvement over PMME1.

  8. A Matrix Approach for Divisibility Properties of the Generalized Fibonacci Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yalçiner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We give divisibility properties of the generalized Fibonacci sequence by matrix methods. We also present new recursive identities for the generalized Fibonacci and Lucas sequences.

  9. Technological Evaluation Report 42. Contrasting LMS Marketing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Carriere

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this report examines the CourseCompass learning management system (LMS, made available to educators by the Pearson publishing group as a vehicle for the company’s extensive content library. The product’s features are discussed, and the implications of Pearson’s software/ textbook “bundling” policy for the integrity of course design. The second section of the report reviews Wordcircle, an open source (OS LMS provided as a free hosted service or as source code downloadable for installation on the user’s own server. The contrasting marketing approaches of these two products are discussed in the light of the increasing move by distance educators from proprietary to open source LMS products. As in previous reports in the series, the reviews are based on the six evaluation criteria of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD: cost, complexity, control, clarity, common technical framework, and features.

  10. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauno, M.H.; Larsen, C.C.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2013-01-01

    of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose...... in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution......Pharmaceutically relevant material characteristics are often analyzed based on univariate descriptors instead of utilizing the whole information available in the full distribution. One example is droplet size distribution, which is often described by the median droplet size and the width...

  11. Risk evaluation of uranium mining: a new kinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scislewski, Alexandro [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Comission (CNEN), Avenida Santana, 680, Centro, Caetite-Bahia, 46400-000 (Brazil); Zuddas, Pierpaolo [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris-Sorbonne, ISTEP place Jussieu, Tour 56-55, case 116, F75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Release of uranium and associated heavy metals is the main environmental concern regarding exploitation and processing of U-ore. Increasing uranium mining activities potentially increase the risks linked to radiation exposure. As a tool to evaluate these risks, a geochemical inverse modeling approach was developed to estimate the water-mineral interaction in the presence of uranium. Our methodology is based on the estimation of dissolution rate and reactive surface area of the different minerals participating in the reaction by reconstructing the chemical evolution of the interacting fluids. We found that the reactive surface area of parent-rock minerals changes over several orders of magnitude during the investigated reaction time. We propose that the formation of coatings on dissolving mineral surfaces significantly reduces reactivity. Our results show that negatively charged uranium complexes decrease when alkalinity and rock buffer capacity is similarly lower, indicating that the dissolved carbonate is an important parameter impacting uranium mobility. (authors)

  12. Measurement of general and specific approaches to physical activity parenting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia

    2013-08-01

    Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably.

  13. Measurement of General and Specific Approaches to Physical Activity Parenting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Samantha; Cohen, Alysia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents play a significant role in shaping youth physical activity (PA). However, interventions targeting PA parenting have been ineffective. Methodological inconsistencies related to the measurement of parental influences may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this article is to review the extant peer-reviewed literature related to the measurement of general and specific parental influences on youth PA. Methods A systematic review of studies measuring constructs of PA parenting was conducted. Computerized searches were completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO. Reference lists of the identified articles were manually reviewed as well as the authors' personal collections. Articles were selected on the basis of strict inclusion criteria and details regarding the measurement protocols were extracted. A total of 117 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Methodological articles that evaluated the validity and reliability of PA parenting measures (n=10) were reviewed separately from parental influence articles (n=107). Results A significant percentage of studies used measures with indeterminate validity and reliability. A significant percentage of articles did not provide sample items, describe the response format, or report the possible range of scores. No studies were located that evaluated sensitivity to change. Conclusion The reporting of measurement properties and the use of valid and reliable measurement scales need to be improved considerably. PMID:23944923

  14. Process evaluation of a tailored intervention programme of cardiovascular risk management in general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntink, E.; Wensing, M.; Timmers, I.M.; Lieshout, J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A tailored implementation programme to improve cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) in general practice had little impact on outcomes. The questions in this process evaluation concerned (1) impact on counselling skills and CVRM knowledge of practice nurses, (2) their use of the various

  15. Estimating morbidity rates from electronic medical records in general practice. Evaluation of a grouping system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.C.J.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Robbe, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated the internal validity of EPICON, an application for grouping ICPC-coded diagnoses from electronic medical records into episodes of care. These episodes are used to estimate morbidity rates in general practice. METHODS: Morbidity rates based on EPICON were

  16. Applicability/evaluation of flux based representations for linear/higher order elements for heat transfer in structures - Generalized gamma(T)-family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburu, R. R.; Tamma, K. K.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability and evaluation of a generalized gamma(T) family of flux-based representations are examined for two different thermal analysis formulations for structures and materials which exhibit no phase change effects. The so-called H-theta and theta forms are demonstrated for numerous test models and linear and higher-order elements. The results show that the theta form with flux-based representations is generally superior to traditional approaches.

  17. The Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Constipation: Suggestions for a General Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Paré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a frequent complaint. Symptoms of obstructive defecation (straining, hard and lumpy stools, or incomplete evacuation are more frequent and bothersome than the frequency of bowel movements. Patient assessment is clinically based on the presence or absence of red flags. Commonly used therapies (eg, bulk-forming agents, stool softeners and stimulant laxatives have only been evaluated in small studies of short duration. Polyethylene glycol was shown to be effective and safe in several rigorous trials with durations of more than one year. New drugs (prucalopride, lubiprostone and linaclotide were shown to be effective and safe in well-designed and rigorous studies. Trials conducted in primary care patients are lacking for all therapies. Biofeedback and behavioural therapies are effective, but should be reserved for selected patients after proper diagnostic evaluation. A practical management algorithm is proposed using a multistep approach favouring early introduction of combined therapies and long-term step-down strategy to the lowest satisfactory regimen.

  18. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  19. Recruitment of general practices: Is a standardised approach helpful in the involvement of healthcare professionals in research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Riis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R-factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices, which was fewer than planned (100 practices. In this evaluation, five of Solberg’s seven R-factors were successfully addressed and two factors were not. The need to involve (reciprocity end users in the development of new software and the amount of time needed to conduct recruitment (resolution were underestimated. Conclusion: The framework of the seven R-factors was a feasible tool in our recruitment process. However, we suggest further investigation in developing systematic approaches to support the recruitment of healthcare professionals to research.

  20. A combined ANP-delphi approach to evaluate sustainable tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Melon, Monica, E-mail: mgarciam@dpi.upv.es [INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gomez-Navarro, Tomas, E-mail: tgomez@dpi.upv.es [Depto. Proyectos Ingenieria, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Acuna-Dutra, Silvia, E-mail: sacuna@unime.edu.ve [Universidad Metropolitana de Caracas, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The evaluation of sustainable tourism strategies promoted by National Parks (NP) related stakeholders is a key concern for NP managers. To help them in their strategic evaluation procedures, in this paper we propose a methodology based on the Analytic Network Process and a Delphi-type judgment-ensuring procedure. The approach aims at involving stakeholders in a participatory and consensus-building process. The methodology was applied to Los Roques NP in Venezuela. The problem included three sustainable tourism strategies defined by the stakeholders: eco-efficient resorts, eco-friendly leisure activities and ecological transportation systems. Representatives of eight stakeholders participated in the methodology. 13 sustainability criteria were selected. Results provide some important insights into the overall philosophy and underlying participants' conception of what sustainable development of Los Roques NP means. This conception is broadly shared by stakeholders as they coincided in the weights of most of the criteria, which were assigned individually through the questionnaire. It is particularly noteworthy that tourists and environmentalists almost fully match in their assessments of criteria but not of the alternatives. Moreover, there is a great agreement in the final assessment. This suggests that the regular contact among the different stakeholders, i.e. tourists with inhabitants, authorities with environmentalists, tour operators with representatives of the ministry, etc. has led to a common understanding of the opportunities and threats for the NP. They all agreed that the procedure enhances participation and transparency and it is a necessary source of information and support for their decisions.

  1. Evaluation of the results of oral food challenges conducted in specialized and general hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazunori; Sasaki, Kemal; Furuta, Tomoko; Sugiura, Shiro; Watanabe, Yukari; Kobayashi, Takae; Kawabe, Takashi; Morishita, Masashi; Nakanishi, Kumiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral food challenge (OFC) tests are conducted in both specialized institutions and general hospitals. We aimed to compare the severity of the conditions of the patients between these 2 types of institutions in order to consider the role of such institutions in society. Objective We evaluated the results of OFC tests for hen's egg, cow's milk, and wheat that were conducted in a specialized institution (Aichi Children's Health and Medical Center [ACHMC], n = 835) and in 4 general hospitals (n = 327) in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Methods The symptoms provoked were scored using the total score (TS) of the Anaphylaxis Scoring Aichi scoring system in combination with the total ingested protein dose (Pro) before the appearance of allergic symptoms. Results The total ingested dose of the challenge-positive patients in ACHMC was significantly less than that in the general hospitals (p < 0.01). The median TS of the provoked symptoms in ACHMC and the general hospitals did not differ to a statistically significant extent in the hen's egg or cow's milk challenges; however, the median TS in ACHMC was significantly lower than that in the general hospitals for the wheat challenge (p = 0.02). The median TS/Pro values in ACHMC were almost identical to the upper 25% of the TS/Pro values in the general hospitals, suggesting that the specialized institution usually managed more severe patients. Conclusion The specialized institution performed OFC tests at a lower threshold dose, but provoked similar TSs to the general hospitals. This evaluation may help in optimizing the distribution of patients to general hospitals and specialized institutions. PMID:29094022

  2. Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

  3. A generalized fuzzy linear programming approach for environmental management problem under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yurui; Huang, Guohe; Veawab, Amornvadee

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a generalized fuzzy linear programming (GFLP) method was developed to deal with uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets that exist in the constraints and objective function. A stepwise interactive algorithm (SIA) was advanced to solve GFLP model and generate solutions expressed as fuzzy sets. To demonstrate its application, the developed GFLP method was applied to a regional sulfur dioxide (SO2) control planning model to identify effective SO2 mitigation polices with a minimized system performance cost under uncertainty. The results were obtained to represent the amount of SO2 allocated to different control measures from different sources. Compared with the conventional interval-parameter linear programming (ILP) approach, the solutions obtained through GFLP were expressed as fuzzy sets, which can provide intervals for the decision variables and objective function, as well as related possibilities. Therefore, the decision makers can make a tradeoff between model stability and the plausibility based on solutions obtained through GFLP and then identify desired policies for SO2-emission control under uncertainty.

  4. A general approach to low noise readout of terahertz imaging arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisum, Jonathan D; Grossman, Erich N; Popović, Zoya

    2011-06-01

    This article describes the theory and design of an ultra-low noise electronic readout circuit for use with room temperature video-rate terahertz imaging arrays. First, the noise characteristics of various imaging detectors, including low resistance bolometers and high resistance diodes are discussed. Theoretical approaches to white and 1/f noise mitigation are examined, and a corresponding low-noise readout circuit is designed, built, and tested. It is shown that the circuit is capable of achieving detector limited noise performance for use in room temperature terahertz imaging systems. A thorough noise analysis of the circuit provides the necessary information for applying the readout circuit to any type of imaging detector, and more generally, any measurement of small signals from various source impedances in the presence of white and 1/f noise. W-band measurements of an 8-element, high-resistance detector array, and a 32-element, low-resistance detector array demonstrate the usefulness of the readout circuit. Finally, recommended circuit configurations for various detectors in the literature are provided, with theoretical performance metrics summarized. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. A Generalized Approach to the Calculation Procedure of Distribution Network Steady-state and Transient Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The low-voltage electrical distribution networks are characterized by ramified topology and spatial distribution of the consumers connected to the power supply. This leads to certain difficulties in calculation of such circuits even in the case of steady state mode, since even in stationary case a new separate problem must be solved each time. We have to mention that these difficulties are even more pronounced in the case of the circuit transient analysis. This paper proposes a generalized approach to calculation of steady-state and transient regimes in the branched distribution networks with RLC loads. To solve this problem we propose to use the mesh currents method, representation of the system of equations in matrix form and the Laplace transform. This gives the possibility to determine the characteristics of the current and voltage changes over time in the network and in the load. The difference between the obtained results and the known results, published in the open sources, is determined by the fact that the calculation of stationary and transient modes, is performed using the same calculations algorithm for both stationary and transient regimes.

  6. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE and high-density polyethylene (HDPE, are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.

  8. Diagnostic evaluation of dementia in general practice in Denmark. A national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Møller, S

    2001-01-01

    . SUBJECTS: All 3379 GPs in Denmark. RESULTS: The questionnaire was completed by 75.1%. According to our Diagnostic Evaluation Index, 47.2% of the GPs were classified as conducting a good basic diagnostic evaluation of dementia, and tended to have the following characteristics: they conducted regular follow......OBJECTIVE: To examine GPs' self-reported basic diagnostic evaluation of dementia according to the recommendations in multidisciplinary consensus guidelines and to analyse explanatory factors for GP performance. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire study, spring 1998. SETTING: General practice in Denmark......-up consultations with demented patients (odds ratio (OR) 2.4), they were inclined to state that all patients with possible dementia should undergo diagnostic evaluation (OR 2.0), they considered that the GP should play the major role in diagnostic evaluation (OR 1.7) and they believed their methods were adequate...

  9. Esclerosis múltiple: aspectos generales y abordaje farmacológico Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez Denis

    2009-08-01

    disease of central nervous system (CNS of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There are different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future.

  10. Evaluation of the microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) using generalized system performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    The performance of a newly developed, high resolution, microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35 μm pixel pitch and 300 μm thick CsI phosphor) was evaluated using a generalized linear system analysis and compared with that of a standard amorphous Si thin film transistor flat panel detector (FPD) (194 μm pixel pitch and 600 μm thick CsI phosphor). The linear system metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency (DQE) are commonly used to gauge the intrinsic detector performance in the detector plane. However, these linear system metrics do not provide information about the image receptor performance in a real system since they do not include the effects of other parameters such as focal spot distribution, scatter radiation, and geometric unsharpness, which may compromise detector performance characteristics. Use of generalized linear system metrics [generalized modulation transfer function (GMTF), generalized normalized noise power spectrum (GNNPS), and generalized detection quantum efficiency (GDQE)] that include these effects gives a more meaningful, complete, and appropriate evaluation of detector performance as part of the imaging system. A uniform head equivalent phantom was used to simulate realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra. The detector MTFs were measured using the slanted edge method and the focal spot MTFs were measured using a pinhole assembly. The scatter MTF was simulated and the scatter fraction was measured for a head-equivalent phantom. The generalized system metrics were calculated for different combinations of three choices of focal spots and three different magnifications with two different air-gaps. The performance of the MAF was also illustrated using stent images obtained with different focal spots under similar conditions. Results for the generalized metrics provide a quantitative description of the performance of the imaging system for both detectors. This generalized

  11. Evaluation of the microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) using generalized system performance metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amit [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Bednarek, Daniel R. [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosurgery, and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States); Rudin, Stephen [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosurgery, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The performance of a newly developed, high resolution, microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35 {mu}m pixel pitch and 300 {mu}m thick CsI phosphor) was evaluated using a generalized linear system analysis and compared with that of a standard amorphous Si thin film transistor flat panel detector (FPD) (194 {mu}m pixel pitch and 600 {mu}m thick CsI phosphor). The linear system metrics such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency (DQE) are commonly used to gauge the intrinsic detector performance in the detector plane. However, these linear system metrics do not provide information about the image receptor performance in a real system since they do not include the effects of other parameters such as focal spot distribution, scatter radiation, and geometric unsharpness, which may compromise detector performance characteristics. Use of generalized linear system metrics [generalized modulation transfer function (GMTF), generalized normalized noise power spectrum (GNNPS), and generalized detection quantum efficiency (GDQE)] that include these effects gives a more meaningful, complete, and appropriate evaluation of detector performance as part of the imaging system. Methods: A uniform head equivalent phantom was used to simulate realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra. The detector MTFs were measured using the slanted edge method and the focal spot MTFs were measured using a pinhole assembly. The scatter MTF was simulated and the scatter fraction was measured for a head-equivalent phantom. The generalized system metrics were calculated for different combinations of three choices of focal spots and three different magnifications with two different air-gaps. The performance of the MAF was also illustrated using stent images obtained with different focal spots under similar conditions. Results: Results for the generalized metrics provide a quantitative description of the performance of the imaging system

  12. Evaluation of Green IT services with Fuzzy Screening approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Shokouhyar‎

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding development of Information Technology, the world of industry has inordinately benefited, albeit that has some losses. Unless the losses are considered, advanced losses will be seen after progress with which is more difficult to cope. Neglecting the future and the risk involved in the industry, not to mention the lack of knowledge in dealing with sudden alterations, compel irrecoverable loss. In this context, information technology services in organizations are aimed to be cost-effective and have minimum environmental impact, according to green information technology strategies. Concerning significance of the issue, purpose of this research is assessment of information technology services with respect to greenness level in a general contractor organization by combination of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Screening Procedure to enhance the greenness level of IT services. The effectiveness of using this approach is including qualitative, quantitative, and uncertainty nature of the problem. In this paper, to consider the Green IT services criteria, literatures have been studied by meta-synthesis method, then the importance of the criteria has been determined by questionnaires so as to rank Green IT criteria. Eventually, the organization level has been concluded in terms of the greenness level of IT services. As a case study, IT experts and managers of KAYSON Inc. organization are considered as statistical population of this research. The reduction had the highest weight among other criteria- recycling and reusing - in KAYSON Inc. organization. Finally, the organization greenness level was determined moderate in terms of IT services.

  13. EVALUATION OF WOOD PERFORMANCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION THROUGH SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pedreschi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Building construction is considered to be the leading market for the wood industry, in developed and developingcountries. The greatest amount of wood produced in Brazil is consumed as firewood and energy, followed by production of celluloseand third as machined wood. The use of wood from planted forests can be increased. This would lead to a better use of naturalresources, and consequently to an increased sustainability of forest activity in many regions of the country. The performance of woodcan be observed from many different insights: symbolic performance, technical performance and economical performance, conductedby the method of systems approach to architecture. Usages of wood related to the performances of the material, with the redefinitionof parameters of use, elaborating a new culture linked to new technologies were outlined. This work diagnosed the usage of wood inbuilding construction based in system analysis. Through an opinion research related to the acceptation of the use of wood we observethe possibilities of utilization according to physical and mechanical proprieties, aesthetics and appearance performance and postoccupation.According to the results obtained related to the culture and knowledge about the use of wood from planted forest, it canconclude that there is not enough knowledge in this area, and it is, therefore, necessary to create an information system forprofessionals and for people in general.

  14. Scientific Approaches to Determining the Economic Essence of Investment Activity of Ukrainian Enterprises and its Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhovetskaya Natalya Ye.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to systematize theoretical approaches to determining the economic essence of investment activity of enterprises and general evaluation of the current trends in its changing in Ukraine. Based on the analysis of differences in scientific approaches, it is found that investment activity can be considered both as a characteristic of an investment process and as intensity of investing. As a result of the research, there suggested a combination of these approaches that makes it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of actions aimed at increasing investment attractiveness, reducing investment risks and gives grounds for drawing conclusions about the level of innovative development of enterprises, intellectualization of production, activation of human capital of an enterprise and its social responsibility. The study of the level of investment activity in the economy of Ukraine, which was carried out using estimation of gross fixed capital formation, shows a stable tendency to its decreasing. This situation provides prerequisites for further de-industrialization of the national economy. Prospects for further research are substantiated by the need to develop theoretical provisions for formation of a system of indicators for evaluating the level of investment activity of enterprises and justification of the mechanism for ensuring investment activity that would contribute to increasing the value added at enterprises through activation of human capital, innovative development and efficient use of resources.

  15. New method for evaluation of the matrix representation of the generators in the unitary-group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-Lun; Cao, Yu-Fang

    1988-01-01

    A new superposition method is presented for evaluating the matrix representation of the generators in the unitary-group approach. This superposition method is based on the Weyl graphical method for the calculation of matrix elements; the latter is an extension of Harter's jawbone formula for the evaluation of the matrix elements of Ei,i-1 to the more general case Ei,j and can also deal with both fermion and boson.

  16. Evaluation and Management of Patch Test-Negative Patients With Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen M

    Patients with generalized dermatitis are common in dermatology practices. Allergic contact dermatitis is often suspected, and patients frequently undergo patch testing. When the patch testing result is negative, further evaluation and management of these patients are challenging. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society regarding the evaluation and management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis. Generalized dermatitis was the most common term identified for patch test-negative patients with diffuse dermatitis. After having negative expanded patch testing results, most physicians proceeded with additional testing including skin biopsy, complete blood cell count with differential, and liver and renal function tests. The most commonly used systemic treatment is prednisone, followed by methotrexate. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (UVB) is the most commonly used light source. Antihistamines are frequently prescribed. Food allergy is not felt to be causative. This cohort of patients experiences significant impairment in quality of life, stress on personal relationships, and time off work. The management of patch test-negative patients with generalized dermatitis is challenging. This study provides insight into management of these complex patients. It also demonstrates practice gaps in the management of these patients, indicating a need for further studies to direct the evaluation and management of this patient population.

  17. A general approach for fabrication of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets and its application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dewei; Min, Yonggang; Yu, Youhai; Peng, Bo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a general and efficient strategy has been developed to produce nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (NGs) based on hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory. Under hydrothermal conditions, any salt with amphiprotic character have a strong tendency to hydrolysis, it is possible to provide reducing agent and nitrogen source simultaneously. It is worth noting that, NGs can be prepared under hydrothermal conditions by using some common ammonium salts with hard acid-soft base pairs as nitrogen-doping agents. The morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared NGs were studied in detail. The results demonstrated that large amount of nitrogen was incorporated into the nanocarbon frameworks at the same time as the graphene oxide (GO) sheets were reduced. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized NGs as supercapacitor electrodes was evaluated in a symmetric two-electrode cell configuration with 1M H2SO4 as the electrolytes. It was found that the nitrogen groups making the as-prepared NGs exhibited remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance when used as electrode materials in supercapacitors. The supercapacitor based on the NGs exhibited a high specific capacitance of 242 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), and remains a relatively high capacitance even at a high current density. This work will put forward to understand and optimize heteroatom-doped graphene in energy storage systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN THE D.R.CONGO: A GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wabenga Yango

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the contribution of agricultural growth to poverty reduction in the D.R.Congo over the projection period 2013 - 2020. It raises questions over the investment options to sustain such growth effort. We use a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model combine with survey-based micro simulation analysis at both national and subnational levels. We assume in the simulations that the additional growth in total factor productivity is an exogenous factor and find the following results. First, we find that 8.21 % agricultural annual growth rate is more effective at reducing poverty and achieves the goal of halving poverty by 2020. Second, we identify agricultural investment priorities and the required levels of public spending to achieve such growth and poverty reduction goals. We further analyze the growth at the subsector level and find that cereals and roots are more pro-poor. From this perspective, agricultural strategy based on expanding food crops production should be afforded the highest priority.

  19. Development of psychiatric risk evaluation checklist and routine for nurses in a general hospital: ethnographic qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Ana Luiza Lourenço Simões; Maluf Neto, Alfredo; Colman, Fátima Tahira; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    There is high prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders in general hospitals, thus triggering psychiatric risk situations. This study aimed to develop a psychiatric risk assessment checklist and routine for nurses, the Psychiatric Risk Evaluation Check-List (PRE-CL), as an alternative model for early identification and management of these situations in general hospitals. Ethnographic qualitative study in a tertiary-level private hospital. Three hundred general-unit nurses participated in the study. Reports were gathered through open groups conducted by a trained nurse, at shift changes for two months. The questions used were: "Would you consider it helpful to discuss daily practice situations with a psychiatrist? Which situations?" The data were qualitatively analyzed through an ethnographic approach. The nurses considered it useful to discuss daily practice situations relating to mental and behavioral disorders with a psychiatrist. Their reports were used to develop PRE-CL, within the patient overall risk assessment routine for all inpatients within 24 hours after admission and every 48 hours thereafter. Whenever one item was present, the psychosomatic medicine team was notified. They went to the unit, gathered data from the nurses, patient files and, if necessary, attending doctors, and decided on the risk management: guidance, safety measures or mental health consultation. It is possible to develop a model for detecting and intervening in psychiatric and behavioral disorders at general hospitals based on nursing team observations, through a checklist that takes these observations into account and a routine inserted into daily practice.

  20. An In silico approach for the evaluation of DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad Wasim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA barcoding is a key tool for assessing biodiversity in both taxonomic and environmental studies. Essential features of barcodes include their applicability to a wide spectrum of taxa and their ability to identify even closely related species. Several DNA regions have been proposed as barcodes and the region selected strongly influences the output of a study. However, formal comparisons between barcodes remained limited until now. Here we present a standard method for evaluating barcode quality, based on the use of a new bioinformatic tool that performs in silico PCR over large databases. We illustrate this approach by comparing the taxonomic coverage and the resolution of several DNA regions already proposed for the barcoding of vertebrates. To assess the relationship between in silico and in vitro PCR, we also developed specific primers amplifying different species of Felidae, and we tested them using both kinds of PCR Results Tests on specific primers confirmed the correspondence between in silico and in vitro PCR. Nevertheless, results of in silico and in vitro PCRs can be somehow different, also because tuning PCR conditions can increase the performance of primers with limited taxonomic coverage. The in silico evaluation of DNA barcodes showed a strong variation of taxonomic coverage (i.e., universality: barcodes based on highly degenerated primers and those corresponding to the conserved region of the Cyt-b showed the highest coverage. As expected, longer barcodes had a better resolution than shorter ones, which are however more convenient for ecological studies analysing environmental samples. Conclusions In silico PCR could be used to improve the performance of a study, by allowing the preliminary comparison of several DNA regions in order to identify the most appropriate barcode depending on the study aims.

  1. A novel deliberative multicriteria evaluation approach to ecosystem service valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Mavrommati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although efforts to address ecosystem services in decision making have advanced considerably in recent years, there remain challenges related to valuation. In particular, conventional economic approaches have been criticized for their inability to capture the collective nature of ecosystem services, for their emphasis on monetary metrics, and the difficulty of assessing the value of ecosystem services to future generations. We present a deliberative multicriteria evaluation (DMCE method that combines the advantages of multicriteria decision analysis with a deliberation process that allows citizens and scientists to exchange knowledge and evaluate ecosystem services in a social context. Compared with previous applications we add the following: (i a choice task that can be expected to lead to a more reliable assessment of trade-offs among ecosystem services, and (ii an explicit consideration of the future by both presenting specific socioeconomic scenarios and asking participating citizens to serve as "trustees" for future generations. We implemented our DMCE framework with 11 panels of residents of the upper Merrimack River watershed in New Hampshire with the goal of assessing the relative value of 10 different ecosystem services in the form of trade-off weights. We found that after group deliberation and expert scientific input, all groups except one were able to reach internal consensus on the relative value of these ecosystem services. Additionally, the pattern of trade-off weights across groups was reasonably similar; there was no statistically significant effect of the specific future scenarios that were presented to the groups. Results of a survey given to participants after the deliberative process revealed that most felt that their opinion during the deliberation was heard by the others and that they were influential on the outcome. Further, the vast majority were satisfied with the outcome of the deliberation. We conclude by discussing

  2. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  3. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr

    2015-09-15

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO{sub 4} (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O{sub 4} materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra. - Graphical abstract: Scheelites AMO{sub 4} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids with high specific surface areas and narrow size distributions. The optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Ca

  4. Routine general practice care for panic disorder within the lifestyle approach to managing panic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Lambert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Routine general practice (GP care is rarely comprehensively described in clinical trials. This paper examines routine GP care within the lifestyle approach to managing panic (LAMP study. The aim of this paper is to describe/discuss routine GP care for panic disorder (PD patients within both study arms in the LAMP study. An unblinded pragmatic randomised controlled trial in 15 East of England GP practices (2 primary care trusts. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for PD with/without agoraphobia. Follow-up measures recorded at 20 weeks/10 months following randomisation. Control arm, unrestricted routine GP care (practice appointments, referrals and prescriptions. Trial arm, occupational therapyled lifestyle treatment comprising lifestyle review of fluid intake, diet pattern, exercise, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Primary outcome measure: beck anxiety inventory. At baseline, participants attended 2-3 times more GP appointments than population average, reducing at 10 months to 1.6 times population average for routine GP care and 0.97 population average for lifestyle arm. At 10 months, 33% fewer referrals (6 referrals; 0 mental health than at baseline (9 referrals; 2 mental health were made for lifestyle arm patients compared with 42% increase (from 12 referrals; 8 mental health at baseline to 17 referrals; 7 mental health in GP care arm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were prescribed most often. Benzodiazepines and beta-blockers were prescribed more often than tricyclic against current clinical guidelines. In conclusion, we found that PD patients at baseline were high healthcare resource users. Treatment in both study arms reduced resource use. Routine GP care requires further review for this patient group.

  5. Life Expectancy of Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Approaches the Life Expectancy of the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hannah; Björkholm, Magnus; Dickman, Paul W; Höglund, Martin; Lambert, Paul C; Andersson, Therese M-L

    2016-08-20

    A dramatic improvement in the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) occurred after the introduction of imatinib mesylate, the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). We assessed how these changes affected the life expectancy of patients with CML and life-years lost as a result of CML between 1973 and 2013 in Sweden. Patients recorded as having CML in the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1973 to 2013 were included in the study and followed until death, censorship, or end of follow-up. The life expectancy and loss in expectation of life were predicted from a flexible parametric relative survival model. A total of 2,662 patients with CML were diagnosed between 1973 and 2013. Vast improvements in the life expectancy of these patients were seen over the study period; larger improvements were seen in the youngest ages. The great improvements in life expectancy translated into great reductions in the loss in expectation of life. Patients of all ages diagnosed in 2013 will, on average, lose life-years as a result of CML. Imatinib mesylate and new TKIs along with allogeneic stem cell transplantation and other factors have contributed to the life expectancy in patients with CML approaching that of the general population today. This will be an important message to convey to patients to understand the impact of a CML diagnosis on their life. In addition, the increasing prevalence of patients with CML will have a great effect on future health care costs as long as continuous TKI treatment is required. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. A General Approach for Haplotype Phasing across the Full Spectrum of Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaneau, Olivier; Pirastu, Nicola; Ulivi, Sheila; Cocca, Massimiliano; Traglia, Michela; Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Rudan, Igor; McQuillan, Ruth; Fraser, Ross M.; Campbell, Harry; Polasek, Ozren; Asiki, Gershim; Ekoru, Kenneth; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Vitart, Veronique; Navarro, Pau; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Wilson, James F.; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo; Soranzo, Nicole; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Marchini, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Many existing cohorts contain a range of relatedness between genotyped individuals, either by design or by chance. Haplotype estimation in such cohorts is a central step in many downstream analyses. Using genotypes from six cohorts from isolated populations and two cohorts from non-isolated populations, we have investigated the performance of different phasing methods designed for nominally ‘unrelated’ individuals. We find that SHAPEIT2 produces much lower switch error rates in all cohorts compared to other methods, including those designed specifically for isolated populations. In particular, when large amounts of IBD sharing is present, SHAPEIT2 infers close to perfect haplotypes. Based on these results we have developed a general strategy for phasing cohorts with any level of implicit or explicit relatedness between individuals. First SHAPEIT2 is run ignoring all explicit family information. We then apply a novel HMM method (duoHMM) to combine the SHAPEIT2 haplotypes with any family information to infer the inheritance pattern of each meiosis at all sites across each chromosome. This allows the correction of switch errors, detection of recombination events and genotyping errors. We show that the method detects numbers of recombination events that align very well with expectations based on genetic maps, and that it infers far fewer spurious recombination events than Merlin. The method can also detect genotyping errors and infer recombination events in otherwise uninformative families, such as trios and duos. The detected recombination events can be used in association scans for recombination phenotypes. The method provides a simple and unified approach to haplotype estimation, that will be of interest to researchers in the fields of human, animal and plant genetics. PMID:24743097

  7. Evaluating a multigene environmental DNA approach for biodiversity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Alexei J; Newcomb, Richard D; Buckley, Thomas R; Xie, Dong; Dopheide, Andrew; Potter, Benjamin Cm; Heled, Joseph; Ross, Howard A; Tooman, Leah; Grosser, Stefanie; Park, Duckchul; Demetras, Nicholas J; Stevens, Mark I; Russell, James C; Anderson, Sandra H; Carter, Anna; Nelson, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for rapid biodiversity assessment tools that have a broad taxonomic coverage. Here we evaluate a suite of environmental DNA (eDNA) markers coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) that span the tree of life, comparing them with traditional biodiversity monitoring tools within ten 20×20 meter plots along a 700 meter elevational gradient. From six eDNA datasets (one from each of 16S, 18S, ITS, trnL and two from COI) we identified sequences from 109 NCBI taxonomy-defined phyla or equivalent, ranging from 31 to 60 for a given eDNA marker. Estimates of alpha and gamma diversity were sensitive to the number of sequence reads, whereas beta diversity estimates were less sensitive. The average within-plot beta diversity was lower than between plots for all markers. The soil beta diversity of COI and 18S markers showed the strongest response to the elevational variation of the eDNA markers (COI: r=0.49, pbiodiversity measures. Using a soil-based eDNA approach, we demonstrate that standard phylogenetic markers are capable of recovering sequences from a broad diversity of eukaryotes, in addition to prokaryotes by 16S. The COI and 18S eDNA markers are the best proxies for aboveground biodiversity based on the high correlation between the pairwise beta diversities of these markers and those obtained using traditional methods.

  8. Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Thomas G; Pardi, Darrell S

    2017-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, particularly in the elderly. The accompanying symptoms, which include abdominal pain and fatigue, can markedly impair patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic histologic findings of the colonic mucosa. This review focuses on the current approach to evaluation and management of patients with microscopic colitis. Although the incidence of microscopic colitis has been increasing over time, recent epidemiological studies show stabilization at 21.0-24.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Recent research has further expanded our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and emphasized the entity of drug-induced microscopic colitis and the association with celiac disease. Two recent randomized studies have confirmed the effectiveness of oral budesonide for both induction and maintenance treatment of microscopic colitis and is now endorsed by the American Gastroenterological Association as first-line treatment. The incidence of microscopic colitis has stabilized at just over 20 cases per 100,000 person-years. Celiac disease and drug-induced microscopic colitis should be considered in all patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis. There are a number of treatments available for patients with microscopic colitis; however, budesonide is the only option well studied in controlled trials and is effective for both induction and maintenance treatment.

  9. An evaluation study on a university general education subject in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated a university general education subject on leadership and intrapersonal development ("Tomorrow's Leaders", TL) offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) based on an online survey using the Student Feedback Questionnaire (SFQ). At the end of the first semester of the 2013/2014 academic year, 725 Year-1 students completed the online questionnaire. Results showed that the students generally had positive ratings on both the subject attributes and the qualities of teachers. The majority of the participants perceived the subject as beneficial to their holistic development and leadership competencies. Students from the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences (FHSS) and the Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles (FAST) had more favorable evaluation of the subject than students from the Faculty of Construction and Environment (FCE). Students' perceived benefit of the subject was significantly predicted by the subject attributes and teacher attributes. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  11. Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, S.; Sarkis, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of literature to supplier evaluation and selection exists. Literature on green supplier evaluation that considers environmental factors are relatively limited. Recently, in supply chain management decision making, approaches for evaluating green supplier performance have...

  12. Design and Evaluation of Two Blended Learning Approaches: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we share two blended learning approaches used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore. We have been using these two approaches in the last twelve years in many courses ranging from the diploma to graduate programs. For the first blended learning approach, we integrated one asynchronous communication tool with face to…

  13. Learning about fishery management: evaluation of a contextualized responsive evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouévi, T A; van Mierlo, B; Leeuwis, C

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the extent to which a responsive evaluation (RE) approach contributed to learning by stakeholders in a case of high complexity. Fishery management in Grand-Popo, Benin is characterized by ambiguity, that is contrasting views among fishery stakeholders about what should be done, why, how, where, and when to resolve fishery problems like the depletion of fish-stock and absence of income alternatives. It was also characterized by great gaps (mismatches) between interventionists' plans and actions, despite generations of interventions and evaluations of their effectiveness. The RE approach aimed at facilitating interactions between interventionists and fishing people to stimulate learning and hence reduce the ambiguity and mismatches. In this article, we take distance and evaluate the results of this action research approach. We found that in the interaction some learning indeed occurred. The fishing people learned among others that intervention resources are limited and that they should organize themselves to lobby for and monitor interventions to solve their problems. Interventionists learned that they could share knowledge about their roles and limited resources with fishing people so that the latter could lobby for more resources. Fishing people however, did not learn to adopt more sustainable fishing practices. Also, interventionists did not learn to influence politicians and financial partners themselves for sufficient resources. Both categories of stakeholders developed ideas for how to collaborate to improve fishery management. We conclude that although some single-loop, double-loop and social learning occurred, the learning was limited and reflect on the related challenges for RE in natural resource management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Approach toward Fuzzy Generalized Bi-Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faiz Muhammad; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Khan, Hidayat Ullah

    2014-01-01

    In several advanced fields like control engineering, computer science, fuzzy automata, finite state machine, and error correcting codes, the use of fuzzified algebraic structures especially ordered semigroups plays a central role. In this paper, we introduced a new and advanced generalization of fuzzy generalized bi-ideals of ordered semigroups. These new concepts are supported by suitable examples. These new notions are the generalizations of ordinary fuzzy generalized bi-ideals of ordered semigroups. Several fundamental theorems of ordered semigroups are investigated by the properties of these newly defined fuzzy generalized bi-ideals. Further, using level sets, ordinary fuzzy generalized bi-ideals are linked with these newly defined ideals which is the most significant part of this paper. PMID:24883375

  15. Vertical Integration in Teaching And Learning (VITAL): an approach to medical education in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Marie-Louise B; King, David B; Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Kelly, Glynn D; Buckley, John F; Garside, Susan J

    2007-07-16

    There is increasing demand to provide clinical and teaching experiences in the general practice setting. Vertical integration in teaching and learning, whereby teaching and learning roles are shared across all learner stages, has the potential to decrease time demands and stress on general practitioners, to provide teaching skills and experience to GP registrars, and to improve the learning experience for medical students, and may also help meet the increased demand for teaching in general practice. We consider potential advantages and barriers to vertical integration of teaching in general practice, and provide results of focus group discussions with general practice principals and registrars about vertical integration. We recommend further research into the feasibility of using vertical integration to enhance the capacity to teach medical students in general practice.

  16. Evaluating the Use of an Object-Based Approach to Lithological Mapping in Vegetated Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grebby

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based approaches to lithological mapping are traditionally pixel-oriented, with classification performed on either a per-pixel or sub-pixel basis with complete disregard for contextual information about neighbouring pixels. However, intra-class variability due to heterogeneous surface cover (i.e., vegetation and soil or regional variations in mineralogy and chemical composition can result in the generation of unrealistic, generalised lithological maps that exhibit the “salt-and-pepper” artefact of spurious pixel classifications, as well as poorly defined contacts. In this study, an object-based image analysis (OBIA approach to lithological mapping is evaluated with respect to its ability to overcome these issues by instead classifying groups of contiguous pixels (i.e., objects. Due to significant vegetation cover in the study area, the OBIA approach incorporates airborne multispectral and LiDAR data to indirectly map lithologies by exploiting associations with both topography and vegetation type. The resulting lithological maps were assessed both in terms of their thematic accuracy and ability to accurately delineate lithological contacts. The OBIA approach is found to be capable of generating maps with an overall accuracy of 73.5% through integrating spectral and topographic input variables. When compared to equivalent per-pixel classifications, the OBIA approach achieved thematic accuracy increases of up to 13.1%, whilst also reducing the “salt-and-pepper” artefact to produce more realistic maps. Furthermore, the OBIA approach was also generally capable of mapping lithological contacts more accurately. The importance of optimising the segmentation stage of the OBIA approach is also highlighted. Overall, this study clearly demonstrates the potential of OBIA for lithological mapping applications, particularly in significantly vegetated and heterogeneous terrain.

  17. Approach, attitudes, and knowledge of general practitioners in relation to Helicobacter pylori is inadequate. There is much room for improvement!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Contreras, A D; Rascón, O; Amieva-Balmori, M; Ríos-Gálvez, S; Maza, Y J; Meixueiro-Daza, A; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Remes-Troche, J M

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is one of the most common infections in humans. Due to its worldwide prevalence, a series of guidelines and recommendations has been developed for the appropriate screening, diagnosis, and management of patients with Hp infection. To evaluate the approach, attitudes, and knowledge of a group of Mexican general practitioners in relation to Hp. A cross-sectional study was conducted that evaluated the knowledge of Hp diagnosis and treatment through the application of a questionnaire. From the total of 430 questionnaires delivered, information was obtained from 411 (95% response rate). The most frequent indications for eradication treatment were peptic ulcer (48.4%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (41.8%), and dyspepsia (39.2%). Thirty-one percent of the physicians surveyed used more than one test to look for Hp, and serology was the most commonly employed method. The most widely used antibiotic regimen was clarithromycin plus amoxicillin (63.8%), followed by metronidazole plus tetracycline (16%). Ninety-two percent of the physicians confirmed eradication through endoscopy for the histologic analysis and only 23% utilized the breath test. Our results show the lack of knowledge about the established diagnostic and treatment recommendations for Hp infection. The implementation of workshops, courses, and conferences, or the formulation of practical guidelines should be directed at primary care physicians to strengthen the practice of medicine based on scientific evidence. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Methyl-Binding Domain Based Enrichment Approaches Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A Aberg

    Full Text Available Methyl-binding domain (MBD enrichment followed by deep sequencing (MBD-seq, is a robust and cost efficient approach for methylome-wide association studies (MWAS. MBD-seq has been demonstrated to be capable of identifying differentially methylated regions, detecting previously reported robust associations and producing findings that replicate with other technologies such as targeted pyrosequencing of bisulfite converted DNA. There are several kits commercially available that can be used for MBD enrichment. Our previous work has involved MethylMiner (Life Technologies, Foster City, CA, USA that we chose after careful investigation of its properties. However, in a recent evaluation of five commercially available MBD-enrichment kits the performance of the MethylMiner was deemed poor. Given our positive experience with MethylMiner, we were surprised by this report. In an attempt to reproduce these findings we here have performed a direct comparison of MethylMiner with MethylCap (Diagenode Inc, Denville, NJ, USA, the best performing kit in that study. We find that both MethylMiner and MethylCap are two well performing MBD-enrichment kits. However, MethylMiner shows somewhat better enrichment efficiency and lower levels of background "noise". In addition, for the purpose of MWAS where we want to investigate the majority of CpGs, we find MethylMiner to be superior as it allows tailoring the enrichment to the regions where most CpGs are located. Using targeted bisulfite sequencing we confirmed that sites where methylation was detected by either MethylMiner or by MethylCap indeed were methylated.

  19. Evaluation of dyspnoea in a sample of elderly subjects recruited from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, F; Mehlsen, J; Raymond, I

    2007-01-01

    . Of 129 subjects with dyspnoea, 68 (53%) had signs of lung disease, 27 (21%) had heart disease, a total of 43 (33%) were obese, 20 (16%) were obese without other causes of dyspnoea and five (4%) had general physical deconditioning. Twelve per cent had none of the above-mentioned potential causes...... in most cases, the most frequent being lung disease followed by heart disease and obesity. These data shed light on the diagnostic yield that can be expected from a relatively simple diagnostic approach, including the most frequent recommended initial screening tests. As expected, the incremental nature...

  20. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  1. Testing for Spanning with Futrures Contracts and Nontraded Assets : A General Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper generalizes the notion of mean-variance spanning as de- ned in the seminal paper of Huberman & Kandel (1987) in three di- mensions.It is shown how regression techniques can be used to test for spanning for more general classes of utility functions, in case some as- sets are nontraded, and

  2. Quality aspects of Dutch general practice based data : A conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, C.; Hoeymans, N.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. General practice–based data, collected within general practice registration networks (GPRNs), are widely used in research. The quality of the data is important but the recording criteria about what type of information is collected and how this information should be recorded differ

  3. Quality aspects of Dutch general practice-based data: a conceptual approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, C. van den; Hoeymans, N.; Schellevis, F.G.; Oers, H.J.A.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: General practice–based data, collected within general practice registration networks (GPRNs), are widely used in research. The quality of the data is important but the recording criteria about what type of information is collected and how this information should be recorded differ

  4. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  5. A new approach for modeling generalization gradients: a case for hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbrabant, Koen; Boddez, Yannick; Verduyn, Philippe; Mestdagh, Merijn; Hermans, Dirk; Raes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    A case is made for the use of hierarchical models in the analysis of generalization gradients. Hierarchical models overcome several restrictions that are imposed by repeated measures analysis-of-variance (rANOVA), the default statistical method in current generalization research. More specifically, hierarchical models allow to include continuous independent variables and overcomes problematic assumptions such as sphericity. We focus on how generalization research can benefit from this added flexibility. In a simulation study we demonstrate the dominance of hierarchical models over rANOVA. In addition, we show the lack of efficiency of the Mauchly's sphericity test in sample sizes typical for generalization research, and confirm how violations of sphericity increase the probability of type I errors. A worked example of a hierarchical model is provided, with a specific emphasis on the interpretation of parameters relevant for generalization research. PMID:26074834

  6. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  7. Alternatives for Mixed-Effects Meta-Regression Models in the Reliability Generalization Approach: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José Antonio; Botella, Juan; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio

    2013-01-01

    Since heterogeneity between reliability coefficients is usually found in reliability generalization studies, moderator analyses constitute a crucial step for that meta-analytic approach. In this study, different procedures for conducting mixed-effects meta-regression analyses were compared. Specifically, four transformation methods for the…

  8. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; Traum, D.; Alexandersson, J.; Jonsson, A.; Zukerman, I.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts,

  9. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts,

  10. Land Surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) - A Generalized Framework for Land Surface Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Santanello, Joseph; Harrison, Ken; Liu, Yuqiong; Shaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Model evaluation and verification are key in improving the usage and applicability of simulation models for real-world applications. In this article, the development and capabilities of a formal system for land surface model evaluation called the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) is described. LVT is designed to provide an integrated environment for systematic land model evaluation and facilitates a range of verification approaches and analysis capabilities. LVT operates across multiple temporal and spatial scales and employs a large suite of in-situ, remotely sensed and other model and reanalysis datasets in their native formats. In addition to the traditional accuracy-based measures, LVT also includes uncertainty and ensemble diagnostics, information theory measures, spatial similarity metrics and scale decomposition techniques that provide novel ways for performing diagnostic model evaluations. Though LVT was originally designed to support the land surface modeling and data assimilation framework known as the Land Information System (LIS), it also supports hydrological data products from other, non-LIS environments. In addition, the analysis of diagnostics from various computational subsystems of LIS including data assimilation, optimization and uncertainty estimation are supported within LVT. Together, LIS and LVT provide a robust end-to-end environment for enabling the concepts of model data fusion for hydrological applications. The evolving capabilities of LVT framework are expected to facilitate rapid model evaluation efforts and aid the definition and refinement of formal evaluation procedures for the land surface modeling community.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF IPAD IN TEACHING GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB TO FRESHMEN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. EID

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the use of iPad enhances students’ engagement in the classroom. However, assessing the benefits of using iPad in teaching laboratory sessions have seen less attention, due to the hands-on nature of these courses. To do this assessment, iPad was applied in teaching two pilot sessions of the General Chemistry Lab, and students’ evaluation was compared to that of other students in sections taught by conventional teaching techniques. The evaluation was based on the students’ assessment of their achievements in meeting the main course outcomes, which indicated that the students in the classes taught using iPad showed more satisfaction with the course, and believed that they have better achieved the outcomes of the course compared to the conventional classes. Furthermore, the comparison process included the overall students’ quantitative performance, which showed insignificant difference between the two classes, with slightly better performance of students in normal classes in quizzes, whereas final exam marks were almost the same for both the iPad piloted students and conventional class students. The differences in quizzes results were attributed to the normal variation in the students’ academic merits. In addition, the piloted students were asked about their experience of using iPad in class and their satisfaction by using different iPad Apps. The feedback was collected and analysed, and the results showed that the students generally enjoyed using iPad in the class and appreciated all Apps.

  12. Elementary Students' Generalization and Representation of Functional Relationships: A Learning Progressions Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Fonger, Nicole L.; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our learning progressions approach to early algebra research that involves the coordination of a curricular framework, an instructional sequence, written assessments, and levels of sophistication describing the development of students' thinking. We focus in particular on what we have learning through this approach about…

  13. Evaluating Perry's Structured Approach for Professional Doctorate Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Michael; Farr-Wharton, Ben; von der Heidt, Tania; Sheldon, Neroli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate examiner reactions to doctorate of business administration (DBA) theses at an Australian university applying Perry's structured approach to thesis presentation, which had its origin in the marketing discipline, but is now widely applied to other business disciplines. Design/methodology/approach:…

  14. Evaluation of physiologic complexity in time series using generalized sample entropy and surrogate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Luiz; Otavio Murta, Luiz

    2012-12-01

    Complexity in time series is an intriguing feature of living dynamical systems, with potential use for identification of system state. Although various methods have been proposed for measuring physiologic complexity, uncorrelated time series are often assigned high values of complexity, errouneously classifying them as a complex physiological signals. Here, we propose and discuss a method for complex system analysis based on generalized statistical formalism and surrogate time series. Sample entropy (SampEn) was rewritten inspired in Tsallis generalized entropy, as function of q parameter (qSampEn). qSDiff curves were calculated, which consist of differences between original and surrogate series qSampEn. We evaluated qSDiff for 125 real heart rate variability (HRV) dynamics, divided into groups of 70 healthy, 44 congestive heart failure (CHF), and 11 atrial fibrillation (AF) subjects, and for simulated series of stochastic and chaotic process. The evaluations showed that, for nonperiodic signals, qSDiff curves have a maximum point (qSDiffmax) for q ≠1. Values of q where the maximum point occurs and where qSDiff is zero were also evaluated. Only qSDiffmax values were capable of distinguish HRV groups (p-values 5.10×10-3, 1.11×10-7, and 5.50×10-7 for healthy vs. CHF, healthy vs. AF, and CHF vs. AF, respectively), consistently with the concept of physiologic complexity, and suggests a potential use for chaotic system analysis.

  15. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  16. Process evaluation of a tailored intervention programme of cardiovascular risk management in general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntink, E; Wensing, M; Timmers, I M; van Lieshout, J

    2016-12-15

    A tailored implementation programme to improve cardiovascular risk management (CVRM) in general practice had little impact on outcomes. The questions in this process evaluation concerned (1) impact on counselling skills and CVRM knowledge of practice nurses, (2) their use of the various components of the intervention programme and adoption of recommended practices and (3) patients' perceptions of counselling for CVRM. A mixed-methods process evaluation was conducted. We assessed practice nurses' motivational interviewing skills on audio-taped consultations using Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI). They also completed a clinical knowledge test. Both practice nurses and patients reported on their experiences in a written questionnaire and interviews. A multilevel regression analysis and an independent sample t test were used to examine motivational interviewing skills and CVRM knowledge. Framework analysis was applied to analyse qualitative data. Data from 34 general practices were available, 19 intervention practices and 14 control practices. No improvements were measured on motivational interviewing skills in both groups. There appeared to be better knowledge of CVRM in the control group. On average half of the practice nurses indicated that they adopted the recommended interventions, but stated that they did not necessarily record this in patients' medical files. The tailored programme was perceived as too large. Time, follow-up support and reminders were felt to be lacking. About 20% of patients in the intervention group visited the general practice during the intervention period, yet only a small number of these patients were referred to recommended options. The tailored programme was only partly used by practice nurses and had little impact on either their clinical knowledge and communication skills or on patient reported healthcare. If the assumed logical model of change is valid, a more intensive programme is needed to have an impact on CVRM

  17. Quality aspects of Dutch general practice-based data: a conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Dungen, Catharina; Hoeymans, Nancy; Schellevis, François G; van Oers, Hans J A M

    2013-06-01

    General practice-based data, collected within general practice registration networks (GPRNs), are widely used in research. The quality of the data is important but the recording criteria about what type of information is collected and how this information should be recorded differ between GPRNs. We aim to identify aspects that describe the quality of general practice-based data in the Netherlands. To investigate the quality aspects, we used the method of concept mapping, a structured conceptualization process for a complex multi-dimensional topic. We explored the ideas of representatives from 10 Dutch GPRNs on the quality of general practice-based data in five steps: preparation, generation of statements, structuring, representation and interpretation. In a brainstorm session, 10 experts generated statements about good data quality from general practice, which we completed with information from the literature. In total, 18 experts participated in the ranking and clustering of the statements. These results were analysed using ARIADNE software, using a combination of principal component analysis and cluster analysis techniques. Finally, the clusters were labelled based on their content. A total of 72 statements were analysed, which resulted in a two-dimensional picture with six clusters, 'complete health record', 'coding of information', 'episode oriented recording', 'diagnostic validity', 'recording agreements' and 'residual category'. The quality of general practice-based data can be considered on five content-based aspects. These aspects determine the quality of recording.

  18. The potential role of temporal dynamics in approach biases: delay-dependence of a general approach bias in an alcohol approach-avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Thomas E; Mohr, Sören E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    Attractive cues have been shown to evoke automatic approach biases in tasks such as the Automatic Approach Task or Stimulus Response Compatibility task. An important but as yet not studied question is the role of temporal dynamics in such tasks: the impact of automatic processes may depend on the interval between cue and response. The current proof of principle study tested this hypothesized time-dependence of the approach bias. Secondary goals included the exploration of effects of alcohol cues and virtual hand stimuli. 22 participants performed an SRC task in which the delay between the presentation of the cue and the possibility to select the response was manipulated. Results revealed an approach bias that decayed over longer delays. Thus, the approach bias was indeed dependent on processes that are transiently evoked by cues. The results did not show significant effects of alcohol cues or a virtual hand. Temporal dynamics may be an essential feature of approach biases.

  19. [Evaluation of gastroenterology procedures by general practitioners in the Czech Republic--contribution to interdisciplinary cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, B; Díte, P; Vojtisková, J

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of different management strategies in primary and secondary care is important for cooperation between specialists and general practitioners in clinical practice. The Institut of General Practice at First Faculty of Medicine carried out a survey for gastroenterologists concerning their opinions on general practitioners and their current knowledge, competence and management of GI disorders as a contribution to interdisciplinary communication. Questionnaires were sent to 552 gastroenterologists in the country. There was a response rate of 31% without any reminder, 170 questionnaires were included in a study. The most of gastroenterologists (92%) support practical guidelines development. There is an insufficient confidence that these guidelines are implemented in practice. Four from five gastroenterologists consider knowledge of their colleagues GPs in gastroenterology as average. In particular cases (irritable bowel syndrome, step up and step down approach) are specialists rather sceptic. There is a low support for the increase of GP competence in gastroenterology, as for urea breath test availibility, particularly in private gastroenterologists (p=0,04). Results of the survey could facilitate the interdisciplinary communication in gastroenterology, contribute to CME programs development and may serve as an example for other specialities.

  20. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feder Gene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation

  1. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaster, Henrique; Campos, Anna Carolina Leonelli Pires de; Auer, Luciellen Bach; Los, Francine Gomes Basso; Salem, Renata Dinnies Santos; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; Nogueira, Alessandro; Demiate, Ivo Mottin

    2014-01-01

    Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price...

  2. Numerical generalized vibration density of states evaluation for inelastic neutron scattering in solid matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kazmianec, V; Aranghel, D

    2002-01-01

    A computational method for improved evaluation of the generalized vibration density of states (GVDS) is proposed. It is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FPT) technique and gives the possibility for more precise analyses of the neutron double differential scattering cross section. The method was applied to zirconium hydride investigation. The results were presented for ZrH sub 1 sub . sub 6 U sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 2 sample at various temperatures on time-of-flight (TOF) Spectrometry at IBR-2 reactor of JINR-Dubna and were compared to GVDS values obtained by traditional single-phonon approximation method

  3. Evaluating impacts using a BACI design, ratios, and a Bayesian approach with a focus on restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mary M; Saunders, W Carl; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Jordan, Chris

    2015-10-01

    Before-after-control-impact (BACI) designs are an effective method to evaluate natural and human-induced perturbations on ecological variables when treatment sites cannot be randomly chosen. While effect sizes of interest can be tested with frequentist methods, using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods, probabilities of effect sizes, such as a ≥20 % increase in density after restoration, can be directly estimated. Although BACI and Bayesian methods are used widely for assessing natural and human-induced impacts for field experiments, the application of hierarchal Bayesian modeling with MCMC sampling to BACI designs is less common. Here, we combine these approaches and extend the typical presentation of results with an easy to interpret ratio, which provides an answer to the main study question-"How much impact did a management action or natural perturbation have?" As an example of this approach, we evaluate the impact of a restoration project, which implemented beaver dam analogs, on survival and density of juvenile steelhead. Results indicated the probabilities of a ≥30 % increase were high for survival and density after the dams were installed, 0.88 and 0.99, respectively, while probabilities for a higher increase of ≥50 % were variable, 0.17 and 0.82, respectively. This approach demonstrates a useful extension of Bayesian methods that can easily be generalized to other study designs from simple (e.g., single factor ANOVA, paired t test) to more complicated block designs (e.g., crossover, split-plot). This approach is valuable for estimating the probabilities of restoration impacts or other management actions.

  4. Hydration education: developing, piloting and evaluating a hydration education package for general practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, L; Douglas, P; Laur, C; Gandy, J; Fitzpatrick, L; Rajput-Ray, M; Ray, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To (1) assess the hydration knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of doctors; (2) develop an evidence-based training package; and (3) evaluate the impact of the training package. Design Educational intervention with impact evaluation. Setting Cambridgeshire, UK. Participants General practitioners (GPs (primary care physicians)). Interventions Hydration and healthcare training. Main outcome measures Hydration KAP score before and immediately after the training session. Results Knowledge gaps of doctors identified before the teaching were the definition of dehydration, European Food Safety Authority water intake recommendations, water content of the human body and proportion of water from food and drink. A face-to-face teaching package was developed on findings from the KAP survey and literature search. 54 questionnaires were completed before and immediately after two training sessions with GPs. Following the training, total hydration KAP scores increased significantly (phydration care to allow policymakers to incorporate hydration awareness and care with greater precision in local and national policies. PMID:27927656

  5. Teaching surgical residents to evaluate scholarly articles: a constructivist approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, Tiffany; Hagglund, Karen; Edhayan, Elango

    2013-03-01

    The ability to critically appraise scholarly journals is an essential skill for surgical residents in their journey to being lifelong learners. Methods to teach evaluation of scholarly articles are scant in the educational literature. Residents completed a pre-test on evaluation of surgical literature. Two lectures on methodology and statistics followed. A board-certified surgeon and residents evaluated 7 articles using a scoring form. A post-test followed. Four additional sessions on evaluating surgical articles were held without the rating form. Residents completed a second post-test. Residents showed improved knowledge and skills on evaluating surgical literature on the first and second post-tests when compared with the pretest ( P constructivist Educational theory. There was a significant improvement in knowledge and the skills of literature evaluation, which persisted after the educational aid was removed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a Comprehensive Approach for the Early Diagnosis of Geriatric Syndromes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Nicolas; Monod, Stéfanie

    2015-01-01

    According to demographic projections, a significant increase in the proportion of the elderly population is anticipated worldwide. This aging of the population will lead to an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and functional impairment. This expected increase will result in growing use of the health care system that societies are largely unprepared to address. General practitioners (GPs) are at the front line of this huge epidemiological challenge, but appropriate tools to diagnose and manage elderly patients in routine general practice are lacking. Indeed, while primary prevention and the management of common chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiac ischemic diseases, are routinely and mostly adequately performed in primary care, the management of geriatric syndromes is often incomplete. In order to address these shortcomings, this theoretical work aims to first develop, based on the best available evidence, a brief assessment tool (BAT) specifically designed for geriatric syndromes identification in general practice and, second, to propose a conceptual framework for the management of elderly patients in general practice that integrates the BAT instrument into the usual care of GPs. To avoid proposing unachievable goals for the care of elderly patients in general practice (for example, performing all the best screening tools for geriatric conditions identification and care), this work proposes an innovative way to combine geriatric assessment with the management of common chronic diseases.

  7. The potential role of temporal dynamics in approach biases : Delay-dependence of a general approach bias in an alcohol approach-avoidance task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; Mohr, S.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Attractive cues have been shown to evoke automatic approach biases in tasks such as the Automatic Approach Task or Stimulus Response Compatibility task. An important but as yet not studied question is the role of temporal dynamics in such tasks: the impact of automatic processes may depend on the

  8. A STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR DERIVING KEY NFC EVALUATION CRITERIA

    OpenAIRE

    S.K. KIM; G.B. KANG; W.I. KO; S.R. YOUN; R.X. GAO

    2014-01-01

    This study suggests 5 evaluation criteria (safety and technology, environmental impact, economic feasibility, social factors, and institutional factors) and 24 evaluation indicators for a NFC (nuclear fuel cycle) derived using factor analysis. To do so, a survey using 1 on 1 interview was given to nuclear energy experts and local residents who live near nuclear power plants. In addition, by conducting a factor analysis, homogeneous evaluation indicators were grouped with the same evaluatio...

  9. Evaluation of Approaches for Tracking Virus Particles in Fluorescence Microscopy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, W. J.; Lampe, M.; Wörz, S.; Müller, B.; Eils, R.; Rohr, K.

    Tracking virus particles in fluorescence microscopy image sequences enables the characterization of the dynamical behavior of these objects. Several approaches have been developed for the task of virus tracking. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated the performance of the different approaches. Such a comparison is essential to predict the performance of the approaches under realistic conditions. In this paper, we present a quantitative evaluation of eight approaches for tracking virus particles. We have investigated deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The evaluation is based on nine real microscopy image sequences of virus particles, for which ground truth was obtained by manual tracking.

  10. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  11. Generalized Theory and Decoupled Evaluation Criteria for Unmatched Despreading of Modernized GNSS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Yao, Zheng; Lu, Mingquan

    2016-07-20

    In order to provide better navigation service for a wide range of applications, modernized global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) employs increasingly advanced and complicated techniques in modulation and multiplexing of signals. This trend correspondingly increases the complexity of signal despreading at the receiver when matched receiving is used. Considering the numerous low-end receiver who can hardly afford such receiving complexity, it is feasible to apply some receiving strategies, which uses simplified forms of local despreading signals, which is termed unmatched despreading. However, the mismatch between local signal and received signal causes performance loss in code tracking, which is necessary to be considered in the theoretical evaluation methods of signals. In this context, we generalize the theoretical signal evaluation model for unmatched receiving. Then, a series of evaluation criteria are proposed, which are decoupled from unrelated influencing factors and concentrates on the key factors related to the signal and its receiving, thus better revealing the inherent performance of signals. The proposed evaluation criteria are used to study two GNSS signals, from which constructive guidance are derived for receivers and signal designer.

  12. A revolutionary approach to composite construction and flight management systems for small, general aviation airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Jan; Wenninger, ED

    1992-01-01

    The design studies for two composite general aviation airplanes are presented. The main consideration for both of the designs was to avoid the typical 'metal replacement' philosophy that has hindered the widespread use of composites in general aviation aircraft. The first design is for a low wing aircraft based on the Smith Aircraft Corporation GT-3 Global Trainer. The second aircraft is a composite version of the Cessna 152. The project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in aeronautics. The results obtained from the Fall semester of 1991 and the Spring semester of 1992 are presented.

  13. A Global Optimization Approach for Solving Generalized Nonlinear Multiplicative Programming Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Peng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization algorithm for solving globally the generalized nonlinear multiplicative programming (MP with a nonconvex constraint set. The algorithm uses a branch and bound scheme based on an equivalently reverse convex programming problem. As a result, in the computation procedure the main work is solving a series of linear programs that do not grow in size from iterations to iterations. Further several key strategies are proposed to enhance solution production, and some of them can be used to solve a general reverse convex programming problem. Numerical results show that the computational efficiency is improved obviously by using these strategies.

  14. Generalized Mittag-Leffler relaxation: clustering-jump continuous-time random walk approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurlewicz, Agnieszka; Weron, Karina; Teuerle, Marek

    2008-07-01

    A stochastic generalization of renormalization-group transformation for continuous-time random walk processes is proposed. The renormalization consists in replacing the jump events from a randomly sized cluster by a single renormalized (i.e., overall) jump. The clustering of the jumps, followed by the corresponding transformation of the interjump time intervals, yields a new class of coupled continuous-time random walks which, applied to modeling of relaxation, lead to the general power-law properties usually fitted with the empirical Havriliak-Negami function.

  15. Robust Position Tracking for Electro-Hydraulic Drives Based on Generalized Feedforward Compensation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a robust tracking control concept based on accurate feedforward compensation for hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed feedforward compensator is obtained utilizing a generalized description of the valve flow that takes into account any asymmetry of valves and/or cylin......This paper presents a robust tracking control concept based on accurate feedforward compensation for hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed feedforward compensator is obtained utilizing a generalized description of the valve flow that takes into account any asymmetry of valves and...

  16. Development of psychiatric risk evaluation checklist and routine for nurses in a general hospital: ethnographic qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Lourenço Simões Camargo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There is high prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders in general hospitals, thus triggering psychiatric risk situations. This study aimed to develop a psychiatric risk assessment checklist and routine for nurses, the Psychiatric Risk Evaluation Check-List (PRE-CL, as an alternative model for early identification and management of these situations in general hospitals.DESIGN AND SETTING:Ethnographic qualitative study in a tertiary-level private hospital.METHOD:Three hundred general-unit nurses participated in the study. Reports were gathered through open groups conducted by a trained nurse, at shift changes for two months. The questions used were: "Would you consider it helpful to discuss daily practice situations with a psychiatrist? Which situations?" The data were qualitatively analyzed through an ethnographic approach.RESULTS:The nurses considered it useful to discuss daily practice situations relating to mental and behavioral disorders with a psychiatrist. Their reports were used to develop PRE-CL, within the patient overall risk assessment routine for all inpatients within 24 hours after admission and every 48 hours thereafter. Whenever one item was present, the psychosomatic medicine team was notified. They went to the unit, gathered data from the nurses, patient files and, if necessary, attending doctors, and decided on the risk management: guidance, safety measures or mental health consultation.CONCLUSION:It is possible to develop a model for detecting and intervening in psychiatric and behavioral disorders at general hospitals based on nursing team observations, through a checklist that takes these observations into account and a routine inserted into daily practice.

  17. SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO PROBLEM PERTAINING TO EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENT QUALITY IN REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Voytov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a scientific and innovative approach to solution of an important problem in the field of rational nature management and ecology which presupposes realization of evaluation, analysis and monitoring of environment  quality  (EQ in Belarus.  This  approach is based on methods and  facilities  of  administrative-command  and  partially  automatic-control  management.   The  main components of the innovative approach are an automatic  system for  evaluation and monitoring of EQ including estimation and formation of nature-resource potential within 11 cadaster and other data base, general principles on evaluation and monitoring of EQ, structural and algorithmic schemes for evaluation of ecological state of administrative territories, calculation of generalized indices of nature-territorial complexes and solution of nature protection problems in respect of EQ monitoring. A system of equation calculation for the analysis and evaluation of technogenic load on main nature components of the environment (free air, water objects, soil cover, realization of monitoring function in respect of EQ and ecological state of local and urban territories, nature resources  and enterprises, pollution and state of some recipients and also data resources for execution of analytical calculations and functions directed on monitoring quality of nature components of the environment is advanced in the paper.

  18. A systematic assessment of MHC class II peptide binding predictions and evaluation of a consensus approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of MHC class II restricted peptide epitopes is an important goal in immunological research. A number of computational tools have been developed for this purpose, but there is a lack of large-scale systematic evaluation of their performance. Herein, we used a comprehensive dataset consisting of more than 10,000 previously unpublished MHC-peptide binding affinities, 29 peptide/MHC crystal structures, and 664 peptides experimentally tested for CD4+ T cell responses to systematically evaluate the performances of publicly available MHC class II binding prediction tools. While in selected instances the best tools were associated with AUC values up to 0.86, in general, class II predictions did not perform as well as historically noted for class I predictions. It appears that the ability of MHC class II molecules to bind variable length peptides, which requires the correct assignment of peptide binding cores, is a critical factor limiting the performance of existing prediction tools. To improve performance, we implemented a consensus prediction approach that combines methods with top performances. We show that this consensus approach achieved best overall performance. Finally, we make the large datasets used publicly available as a benchmark to facilitate further development of MHC class II binding peptide prediction methods.

  19. Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder: Evidence for a Dimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabany, Liron; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Bragdon, Laura B; Pittman, Brian P; Zertuche, Luis; Tolin, David F; Goethe, John W; Assaf, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are currently considered distinct diagnostic categories. Accumulating data suggest the study of anxiety disorders may benefit from the use of dimensional conceptualizations. One such dimension of shared dysfunction is emotion regulation (ER). The current study evaluated dimensional (ER) and categorical (diagnosis) neurocorrelates of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with GAD and SAD and healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rsFC was estimated between all regions of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and bilateral amygdala (N = 37: HC-19; GAD-10; SAD-8). Thereafter, rsFC was predicted by both ER, (using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale [DERS]), and diagnosis (DSM-5) within a single unified analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). For the ER dimension, there was a significant association between impaired ER abilities and anticorrelated rsFC of amygdala and DMN (L.amygdala-ACC: p = 0.011, beta = -0.345), as well as amygdala and SN (L.amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex [PCC]: p = 0.032, beta = -0.409). Diagnostic status was significantly associated with rsFC differences between the SAD and HC groups, both within the DMN (PCC-MPFC: p = 0.009) and between the DMN and SN (R.LP-ACC: p = 0.010). Although preliminary, our results exemplify the potential contribution of the dimensional approach to the study of GAD and SAD and support a combined categorical and dimensional model of rsFC of anxiety disorders.

  20. Clinical evaluation of three caries removal approaches in primary teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phonghanyudh, A; Phantumvanit, P; Songpaisan, Y

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance and radiographic outcome of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restoration in primary molars using three caries removal techniques.......To evaluate the clinical performance and radiographic outcome of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restoration in primary molars using three caries removal techniques....

  1. A new axiomatic approach to the evaluation of population health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the implications of normative principles for the evaluation of population health. We formalize those principles as axioms for social preferences over distributions of health for a given population. We single out several focal population health evaluation functions, which ...... to capture concerns for distributive justice, without resorting to controversial assumptions on individual preferences....

  2. Evaluation of soil disturbance using fuzzy indicator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil disturbance is great problem and the evaluation of soil disturbance is very important for making decisions on agricultural and ecological management. In this manuscript, a new method for potentially evaluating soil disturbance is described. With this method the use of two indicators called “Dis...

  3. New Technologies, New Approaches to Evaluating Academic Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Peter J.; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Technology has enabled a proliferation of publication venues for disseminating academic work. The task of evaluating the relative quality of each of these venues is simultaneously exacerbated and resolved by the use of new technologies. In this article, the authors propose a three-pronged framework for evaluating the quality of scholarly work that…

  4. The use of general systems theory as metatheory for developing and evaluating theories in the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGare, M

    1987-04-01

    The general designations of neural systems and their levels of organization as presently applied in the neurosciences are described as being at variance with rigorous systems thinking. It is proposed that the rule-driven use of systems terminology and hierarchies would facilitate investigations of neural functioning in the natural case. General systems theory with its major propositions for hierarchical organization, open systems, and equifinality, is presented as providing the guidelines for developing systems-type theories for neuroscience investigations. General systems theory as metatheory is also used to evaluate hierarchies and systems designations in the neurosciences as these concepts are now applied in theories, models, and research. The metatheory is comprised of three sets of rules: the criteria for hierarchies; the properties of the open biological system; the criteria for the final conditions of open biological systems. The notion of the discovery of neural systems is contrasted with the apparent design of systems as frequently practiced by neuroscientists. The metatheory is summarized as directions for developing theories and as questions directed toward any neuroscience theory proposing levels of organization and systems.

  5. Evaluation of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions on a general medicine practice experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones JD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As colleges of pharmacy prepare a new generation of practitioners, it is important that during practice experiences students learn the impact of clinical interventions. For over ten years, pharmacy students have been a vital part of the multidisciplinary team at the military treatment facility. The overall impact of the student interventions on patient care has not been evaluated. To evaluate the impact, the students began documenting their clinical interventions in Medkeeper RxInterventions™, an online database. The program is used to document faculty and fourth year pharmacy students’ pharmaceutical interventions.Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the interventions completed by fourth year pharmacy students during a general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience at a military treatment facility.Methods: The students completing their general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience at the military treatment facility are responsible for self reporting all interventions made during clinical rounds into the Medkeeper RxIntervention™ database. The researchers retrospectively collected and analyzed interventions made from June 2008 to June 2009.Results: The total number of interventions recorded by 8 fourth year pharmacy students was 114. Students averaged a number of 14.3 interventions during an eight week practice experience. Students spent an average of 5 minutes per intervention. Ninety- five percent of the interventions were accepted.Conclusion: Fourth year pharmacy students’ recommendations were accepted at a high rate by resident physicians. The high acceptance rate may have the ability to positively impact patient care.

  6. Addressing decisions about new hospitals' siting: a multidimensional evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppio, Alessandra; Buffoli, Maddalena; Dell'Ovo, Marta; Capolongo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Site selection for urban facilities is a crucial topic in planning decision processes for the several side effects they produce and the multiple criteria involved, especially for healthcare facilities. Nevertheless, the location problem has been ignored by most of the existing evaluation systems. Starting from a deep literature review and the analysis of hospitals in 10 European cities, the paper proposes an evaluation system divided into four macro-areas (Functional quality, Location quality, Environmental quality, Economical aspects), each in turn composed by criteria and sub-criteria. The evaluation system has been applied for the site selection of "La Città della Salute" in Milan, Italy. Furthermore, the ShOS (Selection hospitals' Site) Evaluation Tool has been defined, with the aim of assessing the land suitability for new healthcare structures. The ShOS evaluation tool improves the transparency and robustness of the decision-making process and it could be broadly applied.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Banks in India – A Shannon-DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. JAYARAMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is widely used in banking sector to measure the efficiency of the banks. This paper evaluates the performance of the banks in India using cost, revenue and profit models of DEA and comes out with a comprehensive efficiency index for banks, by combing the efficiency scores of various DEA models, using the Shannon entropy. In general, the banks included in this study are sound in terms of total assets, manpower, branch network etc., and they have been ranked based on their performance, which depends on optimal utilization of select variables. In order to measure the degree of agreement between rankings of banks based on three different models, namely cost, revenue and profit model, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance have been used. The study observes that Shannon-DEA approach provides a comprehensive efficiency index for banks and a reasonable way of ranking.

  8. Enzymatic studies on planar supported membranes using a widefield fluorescence LAURDAN Generalized Polarization imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Jonathan R.; Thoke, Henrik Seir; Stock, Robeto

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a custom-built instrument designed to perform fast LAURDAN Generalized Polarization (GP) imaging on planar supported membranes. It is mounted on a widefield fluorescence microscope and allows kinetic analysis of the GP function in the millisecond time scale, largely improving the tem...

  9. 33 CFR 167.170 - Off Delaware Bay Approach Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Separation Scheme: General. 167.170 Section 167.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.170 Off Delaware...

  10. Environmental-Economic Modelling of Novel Protein Foods: A General Equilibrium Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: General equilibrium modelling, Welfare programs, Non-convexities, Novel Protein Foods, Environmental life cycle assessment.

    Intensive animal production systems in

  11. General Surveillance of the soil ecosystem: An approach to monitoring unexpected adverse effects of GMO's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Bergmans, H.; Bloem, J.; Griffiths, B.; Rutgers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union (EU) necessitates, according to EU legislation, the setting up of a General Surveillance (GS) system that should be able to detect unanticipated effects of GM crops on the environment. Although the applicant is

  12. Generalization in Qualitative IS Research - Approaches and their Application to a Case Study on SOA Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Goeken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In qualitative information systems research little methodological support has been provided so far for the generalization of data. Generalizability, however, is a major concern in this field. It has been subject to a number of publications in recent years but commonly accepted frameworks of generalizability and methodological guidance are still missing. In order to address these problems, this paper investigates if and how abstraction mechanisms from the field of conceptual modeling can be used to generalize empirical data. An explorative single case study on the development of service-oriented architectures provides the raw data for an exemplary application. Abstraction mechanisms are used to generalize observations from the case study and to transform them into hypotheses. Finally, another abstraction leads to three models illustrating relationships of certain concepts and abstract categories as a major result of this case study. The paper shows that abstraction mechanisms from the field of conceptual modeling can be used for the generalization of case study data and provides guidance on how to use these mechanisms.

  13. School-Based Management: An Approach to Decision-Making Quality in Egyptian General Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelegy, Reda Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The current research aims at clarifying how school-based management (SBM) can contribute to achieve the decision-making quality in Egyptian general secondary schools and determine the requirements of quality decision-making. It depends on the descriptive method in order to acknowledge the basics of the SBM and its relationship with the quality of…

  14. Size-extensive wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo: A linear scaling generalized valence bond approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracchia, F.; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, C.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new class of multideterminantal Jastrow–Slater wave functions constructed with localized orbitals and designed to describe complex potential energy surfaces of molecular systems for use in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). Inspired by the generalized valence bond formalism, we elaborate a

  15. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Students' Approach to General Gymnastics Course and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    The subjects of the present study are comprised of 50 university students who were enrolled in two classes of the general gymnastics course in the first year of Physical Education and Athletics Teaching during the 2009 to 2010 academic years. The purpose of this research, is to determine the effect of two different (cooperative and traditional)…

  16. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  17. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  18. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  19. Neural Plasticity: Single Neuron Models for Discrimination and Generalization and an Experimental Ensemble Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    this experimental framework. An outline of th. biology of the entorhinal cortex to dentate gyrus projection is therefore included at the end of Part IV...equilibria. For aq> aqa they are stable, otherwise they *repel" states. StLablit.L in uaia~ environments Isolated attractors are generally stable in

  20. Designing A General Deep Web Access Approach Based On A Newly Introduced Factor; Harvestability Factor (HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The growing need of accessing more and more information draws attentions to huge amount of data hidden behind web forms defined as deep web. To make this data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need to have a general-purpose harvester

  1. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  2. Recommendations and Improvements for the Evaluation of Integrated Community-Wide Interventions Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koperen, Tessa M; Renders, Carry M; Spierings, Eline J M; Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Westerman, Marjan J; Seidell, Jacob C; Schuit, Albertine J

    2016-01-01

    Background. Integrated community-wide intervention approaches (ICIAs) are implemented to prevent childhood obesity. Programme evaluation improves these ICIAs, but professionals involved often struggle with performance. Evaluation tools have been developed to support Dutch professionals involved in

  3. Collective acoustic modes in liquids: a comparison between the generalized-hydrodynamics and memory-function approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, F; Gapiński, J; Pochylski, M; Ponterio, R C; Saija, F; Vasi, C

    2011-11-01

    The most familiar approaches used to describe the dynamical structure factor from adiabatic density fluctuations in liquids are based on generalized hydrodynamics and on the memory function, respectively. We show that, contrary to the common belief, the two approaches are not fully equivalent. In particular, models based on the memory function of a normalized damped oscillator fail in reproducing the correct experimental spectral profiles of systems close to the relaxation process. The discrepancy is due to misleading interpretation of the theoretical memory-function expressions, producing an unavoidable mixing of spectral contribution at different wave vectors when the theory is forced beyond its limits of validity.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Affinity Propagation Approaches on Data Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Refianti, R.; Mutiara, A. B.; A.A. Syamsudduha

    2016-01-01

    Classical techniques for clustering, such as k-means clustering, are very sensitive to the initial set of data centers, so it need to be rerun many times in order to obtain an optimal result. A relatively new clustering approach named Affinity Propagation (AP) has been devised to resolve these problems. Although AP seems to be very powerful it still has several issues that need to be improved. In this paper several improvement or development are discussed in , i.e. other four approaches: Adap...

  5. Archeovirtual 2011: An evaluation approach to virtual museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pescarin, S.; Pagano, A.; Wallergård, M.; Hupperetz, W.; Ray, C.; Guidi, G.; Addison, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    November 2011 saw the opening of the exhibition "Archeovirtual" organized by CNR ITABC - Virtual Heritage Lab - and V-MusT Network of Excellence, in Paestum, Italy, under the general direction of BMTA1. The event, that was part of a wider European project focus on virtual museums, turned to be a

  6. A new axiomatic approach to the evaluation of population health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    functions, which represent social preferences, as a result of combinations of those axioms. Our results provide rationale for popular theories in health economics (such as the unweighted aggregation of QALYs or HYEs, and generalizations of the two, aimed to capture concerns for distributive justice) without...

  7. Lazy evaluation of FP programs: A data-flow approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y.H. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Gaudiot, J.L. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Computer Research Inst.

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents a lazy evaluation system for the list-based functional language, Backus` FP in data-driven environment. A superset language of FP, called DFP (Demand-driven FP), is introduced. FP eager programs are transformed into DFP lazy programs which contain the notions of demands. The data-driven execution of DFP programs has the same effects of lazy evaluation. DFP lazy programs have the property of always evaluating a sufficient and necessary result. The infinite sequence generator is used to demonstrate the eager-lazy program transformation and the execution of the lazy programs.

  8. An Integer Programming-Based Generalized Vehicle Routing Approach for Printed Circuit Board Assembly Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Production planning and scheduling for printed circuit, board assembly has so far defied standard operations research approaches due to the size and complexity of the underlying problems, resulting in unexploited automation flexibility. In this thesis, the increasingly popular collect-and-place machine configuration is studied and the assembly…

  9. The approach to equilibrium in quantum statistics : a perturbation treatment to general order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Léon van

    1957-01-01

    The approach of a quantum system to statistical equilibrium under the influence of a perturbation is described by a well known transport equation, now often called master equation (see (1.1) hereunder). This equation holds only when the perturbation is taken into account to lowest non-vanishing

  10. Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, B.P.; Leong, K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Scaffolds represent important components for tissue engineering. However, researchers often encounter an enormous variety of choices when selecting scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper aims to review the functions of scaffolds and the major scaffolding approaches as important guidelines for selecting scaffolds and discuss the tissue-specific considerations for scaffolding, using intervertebral disc as an example.

  11. Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    original protocol) and 2002- ... evaluation in managing critically ill pregnant women with complications of abortion, coupled with an .... (petechiae, echymoses and bleeding injection sites) were looked for on clinical examination. The haematocrit ...

  12. An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Nancarrow, Susan; Dyas, Jane; Williams, Martin

    2008-06-27

    This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT) approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB) which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU) as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development). The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in

  13. An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyas Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily

  14. Modern approach to improving the math evaluation process

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana; Jovanovska, Dobrila

    2015-01-01

    Checking and evaluation are someof the most important elements of the learning process, because they provide information to different factors about the extent to which students achieved the previously set educational standards. This paper presents a proposal how to improve the evaluation process in mathematics by using standardized electronic tests created by multimedia software Wondershare quizcreator software. For creating electronic tests, there are various electronic tools to cho...

  15. Feedback – A systems approach to evaluation and course design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Holmes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses feedback and evaluation in classroom materials and in course design, very important issues for language teachers, from the point of view of systems analysis. It compares both open-loop feedback (less controlled and closed-loop feedback (more controlled and explores both the application and the consequences of choosing between one or the other within the language learning process. Apart from the theoretical discussion, examples of practical materials that integrate evaluation and meaningful meaning are provided.

  16. A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Grobauer, Bernd; Rhiger, Morten

    2001-01-01

    Goal-directed evaluation, as embodied in Icon and Snobol, is built on the notions of backtracking and of generating successive results, and therefore it has always been something of a challenge to specify and implement. In this article, we address this challenge using computational monads...... code, and OCaml byte code. Binding-time analysis and partial evaluation of the continuation-based interpreter automatically give rise to C programs that coincide with the result of Proebsting’s optimized compiler....

  17. A Formal Approach to P3P Privacy Policies Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cridlig, Vincent; Festor, Olivier; Guyard, Jacques; Moreau, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; Writing and evaluating policies is a recurrent problem over the Internet. These policies, which deal with fields like privacy (P3P), security (P3P) and provisioning (COPS-PR) are often made of many ordered rules. In this paper, we present our work related to P3P rules formalization and validation in an evaluation environnement based on rewriting process. We also develop an environnement which returns the right ...

  18. FUZZY APPROACH IN EVALUATION OF OPERATIONS IN FOOD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Tadic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points is a scientifically based set of principles that is designed to prevent food borne illness. This dynamic system uses a combination of food handling procedures, monitoring and record keeping to have food safe. HACCP is based around seven established principles. This paper proposes fuzzy approach in establishing critical limits in process of ensuring food safety.

  19. Independent Evaluators of Federal Programs: Approaches, Devices, and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    86 The assessment is to cover the quality and completeness of guidance relating to the procurement of services , the extent to which best practices...are being developed for setting requirements, the contracting approaches and types used for the procurement of services , and whether effective

  20. From defiance to engagement: An evaluation of Shell's approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing from learned experiences of Shell's successes and failures as well as of Nigeria's power relations and institutional architecture, this essay contends that while compensatory gestures could play a major role in the resolution of conflicts, that approach alone cannot guarantee conflict resolution and reconciliation in ...

  1. Pilot performance evaluation of simulated flight approach and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research work examines the application of different statistical and empirical analysis methods to quantify pilot performance. A realistic approach and landing flight scenario is executed using the reconfigurable flight simulator at National Aerospace Laboratories and both subjective and quantitative measures are applied ...

  2. A Youth Development Approach to Evaluation: Critical Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller-Berkman, Sarah; Muñoz-Proto, Carolina; Torre, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Across the U.S., youth development approaches are being tested in out-of-school time programs as a strategy to combat the growing opportunity gap between privileged and underprivileged youth (Gardner, Roth, & Brooks-Gunn, 2009). Along with increased recognition of the value of youth development programming has come increased financial support…

  3. Evaluation of the AHRQ patient safety initiative: framework and approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna O; Battles, James B

    2009-04-01

    Describe the evaluation performed of the patient safety initiative operated by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). AHRQ PATIENT SAFETY INITIATIVE When patient safety became a national priority in 2000, Congress charged and funded AHRQ to improve health care safety. Over the next 6 years, AHRQ funded more than 300 research projects and other activities, addressing diverse patient safety issues and practices. AHRQ contracted with RAND in 2002 to perform a 4-year evaluation of the initiative, which was completed in 2006. This formative evaluation used the CIPP program evaluation model, which emphasizes multiple stakeholders' interests (e.g., patients, providers, funded researchers). We monitored the progress of the patient safety initiative and provided AHRQ annual feedback that assessed each year's activities, identifying issues and offering suggestions for actions by AHRQ. Given the size and complexity of the initiative, the evaluation needed to examine key individual components and synthesize results across them, and it also had to be responsive to changes in the initiative over time. We used a conceptual framework to bring together the disparate pieces to synthesize overall findings. The remaining articles in this issue describe selected results from this evaluation.

  4. The Crash Intensity Evaluation Using General Centrality Criterions and a Geographically Weighted Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiriyan Arani, M.; Pahlavani, P.; Effati, M.; Noori Alamooti, F.

    2017-09-01

    Today, one of the social problems influencing on the lives of many people is the road traffic crashes especially the highway ones. In this regard, this paper focuses on highway of capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States namely Atlanta. Geographically weighted regression and general centrality criteria are the aspects of traffic used for this article. In the first step, in order to estimate of crash intensity, it is needed to extract the dual graph from the status of streets and highways to use general centrality criteria. With the help of the graph produced, the criteria are: Degree, Pageranks, Random walk, Eccentricity, Closeness, Betweenness, Clustering coefficient, Eigenvector, and Straightness. The intensity of crash point is counted for every highway by dividing the number of crashes in that highway to the total number of crashes. Intensity of crash point is calculated for each highway. Then, criteria and crash point were normalized and the correlation between them was calculated to determine the criteria that are not dependent on each other. The proposed hybrid approach is a good way to regression issues because these effective measures result to a more desirable output. R2 values for geographically weighted regression using the Gaussian kernel was 0.539 and also 0.684 was obtained using a triple-core cube. The results showed that the triple-core cube kernel is better for modeling the crash intensity.

  5. THE CRASH INTENSITY EVALUATION USING GENERAL CENTRALITY CRITERIONS AND A GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghadiriyan Arani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the social problems influencing on the lives of many people is the road traffic crashes especially the highway ones. In this regard, this paper focuses on highway of capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia and the ninth largest metropolitan area in the United States namely Atlanta. Geographically weighted regression and general centrality criteria are the aspects of traffic used for this article. In the first step, in order to estimate of crash intensity, it is needed to extract the dual graph from the status of streets and highways to use general centrality criteria. With the help of the graph produced, the criteria are: Degree, Pageranks, Random walk, Eccentricity, Closeness, Betweenness, Clustering coefficient, Eigenvector, and Straightness. The intensity of crash point is counted for every highway by dividing the number of crashes in that highway to the total number of crashes. Intensity of crash point is calculated for each highway. Then, criteria and crash point were normalized and the correlation between them was calculated to determine the criteria that are not dependent on each other. The proposed hybrid approach is a good way to regression issues because these effective measures result to a more desirable output. R2 values for geographically weighted regression using the Gaussian kernel was 0.539 and also 0.684 was obtained using a triple-core cube. The results showed that the triple-core cube kernel is better for modeling the crash intensity.

  6. Generalization of ray tracing in a linear inhomogeneous anisotropic medium: a coordinate-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Danner, Aaron J

    2010-12-01

    The Hamiltonian of an optical medium is important in both the design and the description of optical devices in the geometrical optics limit. The results calculated in this article show in detail how ray tracing in anisotropic materials in arbitrary coordinate systems and curved spaces can be carried out. Writing Maxwell's equations in the most general form, we derive a coordinate-free form for the eikonal equation and hence the Hamiltonian of a general purpose medium. The expression works for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal coordinate systems, and we show how it can be simplified for biaxial and uniaxial media in orthogonal coordinate systems. In order to show the utility of the equations in a real case, we study both the isotropic and the uniaxially transmuted birefringent Eaton lens and derive the ray trajectories in spherical coordinates for each case.

  7. Developing General Cultural Literacy through Teaching English in a Russian University: Competence and Semiotic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Zolotareva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some of the issues of teaching English in a Russian university, which arouse as a result of introducing new educational standards and it discusses the ways of forming students’ general cultural competence by using authentic curricula, in order to meet the requirements of those standards. It also shows the importance of semiotics for acquisition a foreign language and culture, and reveals the worth of “personalia” as a culture language sign, as well as peculiarity of its functioning, which lies in its ability to represent social and cultural values and priorities in personal-precedential form, thus making a contribution to developingan individual’sconcept scheme and, consequently, general cultural literacy.

  8. Generalized proportional integral control for periodic signals under active disturbance rejection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Romero, John; Ramos, Germán A; Coral-Enriquez, Horacio

    2014-11-01

    Conventional repetitive control has proven to be an effective strategy to reject/track periodic signals with constant frequency; however, it shows poor performance in varying frequency applications. This paper proposes an active disturbance rejection methodology applied to a large class of uncertain flat systems for the tracking and rejection of periodic signals, in which the possibilities of the generalized proportional integral (GPI) observer-based control to address repetitive control problems are studied. In the proposed scheme, model uncertainties and external disturbances are lumped together in a general additive disturbance input that is estimated and rejected on-line. An illustrative case study of mechatronic nature is considered. Experimental results show that the proposed GPI observer-based control successfully rejects periodic disturbances even under varying speed conditions. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic systems with unknown dead-zone input: observer-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Ching; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Liao, Teh-Lu; Yan, Jun-Juh

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the synchronization problem of drive-response chaotic systems with a scalar coupling signal. By using the scalar transmitted signal from the drive chaotic system, an observer-based response chaotic system with dead-zone nonlinear input is designed. An output feedback control technique is derived to achieve generalized projective synchronization between the drive system and the response system. Furthermore, an adaptive control law is established that guarantees generalized projective synchronization without the knowledge of system nonlinearity, and/or system parameters as well as that of parameters in dead-zone input nonlinearity. Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  10. Generalizing about Public Health Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Approach to External Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Laura C

    2017-03-20

    Public health researchers and practitioners are calling for greater focus on external validity, the ability to generalize findings of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) beyond the limited number of studies testing effectiveness. For public health, the goal is applicability: to translate, disseminate, and implement EBIs for an impact on population health. This article is a review of methods and how they might be combined to better assess external validity. The methods include (a) better description of EBIs and their contexts; (b) combining of statistical tools and logic to draw inferences about study samples; (c) sharper definition of the theory behind the intervention and core intervention components; and (d) more systematic consultation of practitioners. For population impact, studies should focus on context features that are likely to be both important (based on program theory) and frequently encountered by practitioners. Mixed-method programs of research will allow public health to expand causal generalizations.

  11. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts, the slot level dialogue manager and the global dialogue manager. It has two new features: (1) being able to deal with a large number of slots and (2) being able to take into account some aspects o...

  12. General Methodology for Metabolic Pathways Modeling and Simulation using Discrete Event Approach. Example on glycolysis of Yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine-Santoni, Thierry; Bernardi, Fabrice; Giamarchi, François

    2007-01-01

    7 pages; International audience; In the Bioinformatics research domain, the systemics approach (considering a cell as a system) is growing up very quickly. Most of the significant current researches focus on mathematical formalisms. However, the discrete event simulation domain is so mature nowadays, that it can be considered as the pending of differential equations in the continuous models domain. In this paper, we introduce a general methodology using the DEVS formalism in the bioinformatic...

  13. A New Approach to Evaluation of University Teaching Considering Heterogeneity of Students' Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Marija; Savic, Gordana; Popovic, Milena; Martic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Students' evaluations of teaching are increasingly used by universities to evaluate teaching performance. However, these evaluations are controversial mainly due to the fact that students value various aspects of excellent teaching differently. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new approach to students' evaluations of university…

  14. A Generalized Approach to Soil Strength Prediction With Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    begins to map the noise in the training data. This phenomena is known as “overtraining,” which results in an overspecialized network that performs...become overspecialized and fail to generalize well to new data. Similar to using a validation set to avoid overtraining, another subset of the data...As discussed earlier (section 4.2.3), models tend to overspecialize in that they perform better on the cases that they have been trained with, but

  15. Environmental-Economic Modelling of Novel Protein Foods: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: General equilibrium modelling, Welfare programs, Non-convexities, Novel Protein Foods, Environmental life cycle assessment.Intensive animal production systems inEurope, particularly in theNetherlands, result in a series of environmental problems mainly due to manure surplus. This thesis aims to make contributions to identifying solutions to the problems related to protein production and consumption.The first contribution concerns the theoretical modelling of environmental problems. ...

  16. A covariant approach to general field space metric in multi-field inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    We present a covariant formalism for general multi-field system which enables us to obtain higher order action of cosmological perturbations easily and systematically. The effects of the field space geometry, described by the Riemann curvature tensor of the field space, are naturally incorporated. We explicitly calculate up to the cubic order action which is necessary to estimate non-Gaussianity and present those geometric terms which have not yet known before.

  17. A covariant approach to general field space metric in multi-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Tanaka, Takahiro, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@cern.ch, E-mail: tanaka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-03-01

    We present a covariant formalism for general multi-field system which enables us to obtain higher order action of cosmological perturbations easily and systematically. The effects of the field space geometry, described by the Riemann curvature tensor of the field space, are naturally incorporated. We explicitly calculate up to the cubic order action which is necessary to estimate non-Gaussianity and present those geometric terms which have not yet been known before.

  18. Symptoms, signs, and tests: The general practitioner's comprehensive approach towards a cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Benedicte Iversen; Holtedahl, Knut

    2015-01-01

    To study the relative importance of different tools a GP can use during the diagnostic process towards cancer detection. Retrospective cohort study with prospective registration of cancer in general practice. One hundred and fifty-seven Norwegian general practitioners (GPs) reported 261 cancer patients. During 10 consecutive days, GPs registered all patient consultations and recorded any presence of seven focal symptoms and three general symptoms, commonly considered as warning signs of cancer (WSC). Follow-up was done six to 11 months later. For each patient with new or recurrent cancer, the GP completed a questionnaire with medical-record-based information concerning the diagnostic procedure. In 78% of cancer cases, symptoms, signs, or tests helped diagnose cancer. In 90 cases, there were 131 consultation-recorded WSC that seemed related to the cancer. Further symptoms were reported for another 74 cases. Different clinical signs were noted in 41 patients, 16 of whom had no previous recording of symptoms. Supplementary tests added information in 59 cases; in 25 of these there were no recordings of symptoms or signs. Sensitivity of any cancer-relevant symptom or clinical finding ranged from 100% for patients with uterine body cancer to 57% for patients with renal cancer. WSC had a major role as initiator of a cancer diagnostic procedure. Low-risk-but-not-no-risk symptoms also played an important role, and in 7% of patients they were the only symptoms. Clinical findings and/or supplementary procedures were sometimes decisive for rapid referral.

  19. General Time Dependent Approach to Vibronic Spectroscopy Including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller, and Duschinsky Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-09-10

    An effective time-dependent (TD) approach to compute vibrationally resolved optical spectra from first principles is presented for the computation of one-photon electronic spectra induced by either electric or magnetic transition dipoles or by their mutual interaction, namely absorption, emission, and circular dichroism. Particular care has been devoted to generality, modularity, and numerical stability including all the contributions that play a role at the harmonic level of approximation, namely Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller, and Dushinsky (i.e., mode mixing) effects. The implementation shares the same general framework of our previous time-independent (TI) model, thus allowing an effective integration between both approaches with the consequent enhancement of their respective strengths (e.g., spectrum completeness and straightforward account of temperature effects for the TD route versus band resolution and assignment for the TI route) using a single set of starting data. Implementation of both models in the same general computer program allows comprehensive studies using several levels of electronic structure description together with effective account of environmental effects by atomistic and/or continuum models of different sophistication. A few medium-size molecules (furan, phenyl radical, anthracene, dimethyloxirane, coumarin 339) have been studied in order to fully validate the approach.

  20. Pulse Oximetry: Evaluation of Accuracy during Outpatient General Anesthesia for Oral Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay A.; Lambert, David M.; Kafer, Enid R.; Dolan, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Pulse oximetry has been shown to be accurate under steady state conditions. In this study, the accuracy of four pulse oximeters are evaluated and compared during outpatient general anesthesia for third molar extractions. The oximeters evaluated are the Nellcor N-100, the Ohmeda 3700, the Novametrix model 500, and the Bird 4400 portable pulse oximeter. Ultralight general anesthesia for oral surgery presents a unique challenge for respiratory monitoring in that patients are often not intubated and commonly experience periods of hyper- and hypoventilation. Airway obstruction, apnea, and laryngospasm may occur easily and patients often vocalize and move during surgery. Because hypoxemia is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality during anesthesia, an accurate, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of oxygenation is critical to risk management. Twenty ASA class I and II patients underwent outpatient general anesthesia for third molar removal using nitrous oxide-oxygen, midazolam, fentanyl, and methohexital. Arterial blood samples were obtained at five-minute intervals during anesthesia, as well as any time a desaturation of >5% occurred, for measurement of arterial SaO2 with an IL282 CO-Oximeter. These values were compared with simultaneously recorded saturations observed for each pulse oximeter. A total of 122 arterial samples were obtained over a range of PaO2 from 52-323 mm Hg and observed saturations of 70-100%. The Bird 4400 portable pulse oximeter proved to be the most accurate and reliably predicted arterial saturation under these conditions (y = 1.03x - 2.8, r = 0.85). The Novametrix model 500 pulse oximeter also demonstrated a high degree of accuracy by linear regression analysis, but displayed the lowest correlation coefficient (spread of data points) overall (y = 0.97x + 2.8, r = 0.80.) The Nellcor N-100 pulse oximeter also proved to be highly accurate. (y = 1.05x - 4.1, r = 0.84.) In contrast, regression analysis of the observed saturations obtained with

  1. General approach to high power, coherent visible and ultraviolet light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer

    -doped GdCOB crystals. The crystals are optimized for noncritical phasematching in the blue-UV spectral region through co-doping with Lu and Sc, a nonlinear coefficient for these crystals of 0.78, 0.81 and 0.89 pm/V are measured, which is comparable to LBO. The ability to adjust the noncritical......The main goal of this project is to develop a generic approach to synthesise any wavelength in the visible and UV spectral region based on sum frequency generation. The approach is based on a hybrid system combining solid state and semiconductor technology. The generation of light in the UV...... phasematching by co-doping of these crystals makes them promising candidates for generation of light in the blue-UV region. A novel method for cavity dumping based on nonlinear frequency conversion is investigated. A high finesse laser is constructed with an intracavity nonlinear material inserted in a beam...

  2. Financial and testamentary capacity evaluations: procedures and assessment instruments underneath a functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Liliana B; Simões, Mário R; Firmino, Horácio; Peisah, Carmelle

    2014-02-01

    Mental health professionals are frequently involved in mental capacity determinations. However, there is a lack of specific measures and well-defined procedures for these evaluations. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a review of financial and testamentary capacity evaluation procedures, including not only the traditional neuropsychological and functional assessment but also the more recently developed forensic assessment instruments (FAIs), which have been developed to provide a specialized answer to legal systems regarding civil competencies. Here the main guidelines, papers, and other references are reviewed in order to achieve a complete and comprehensive selection of instruments used in the assessment of financial and testamentary capacity. Although some specific measures for financial abilities have been developed recently, the same is not true for testamentary capacity. Here are presented several instruments or methodologies for assessing financial and testamentary capacity, including neuropsychological assessment, functional assessment scales, performance based functional assessment instruments, and specific FAIs. FAIs are the only specific instruments intended to provide a specific and direct answer to the assessment of financial capacity based on legal systems. Considering the need to move from a diagnostic to a functional approach in financial and testamentary capacity evaluations, it is essential to consider both general functional examination as well as cognitive functioning.

  3. HEURISTIC APPROACH BY GEOTECHNICAL HAZARD EVALUATION OF THE MEDVEDNICA NATURE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Miklin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In making the article, several thematic maps with scale 1:25000 were used. It is the lithological map with outlined engineering geological units, the inclination map with four categories and the landslide map with the areas with increased erosion and generally unstable areas are shown, structural-geomorphological map, surface and groundwater condition map and hydrogeological map. The last one was used with the aim to evaluate the influence of hydrogeological relationship on the synthetic hazard map. The integration of facts from all the maps and engineering evaluation lead to new quality that was presented in the last - synthetic, qualitative map of prognostic meaning. They have been adopted as the factor maps and with their overlapping the map with new contents was made. The Preliminary qualitative map of sliding hazard, including the erosion, was made by heuristic approach, as a predecessor to the hazard map. Such maps proved to be very useful as bases for spatial and development planning on the regional level as well as for evaluation of the site suitability for building.

  4. Low Complexity Distributed SDP Approach for General OPF Problems with Reactive Power Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Optimal power flow (OPF) problem is a class of large-scale and non-convex optimization problem. Various algorithms are proposed to solve the challenging OPF problem. Recent studies show that semidefinite programming (SDP) can either provide an exact or near global optima for many existing OPF problems. However, SDP-based approaches usually have the complexity growing exponentially with respect to the network size, which may not be suitable for large-scale OPF problem. In this paper, we rewrit...

  5. A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH TO TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING IN THE MALAYSIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amin,Abul Quasem; Jaafar, Abdul Hamid; Siwar, Chamhuri

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution is now a serious problem in many developing countries. One approach to mitigate the problem is to implement various pollution control policies. However, due to a lack of adequate quantitative models, the economic impacts and effectiveness of many pollution control policies are still unknown. Therefore, there is a greater need to know whether economic liberalization, trade, environment and social welfare can be joined in one direction under environmental taxation and po...

  6. Evaluating Efficiencies in Preventive Medicine: Comparing Approaches Between the Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    biological changes indicative of overexposure to a hazard, caused or aggravated by employment as described in Occupational Injury and Illness Reporting...during the Civil War, where there were 1.6 disease, non-battle injuries (DNBI) to every 1 combat casualty.22 This rate remained steady until the stage...was set for the birth of Bioenvironmental Engineering. On 30 June 1917, the Army Surgeon General created the Army Sanitary Corp to address the

  7. INTRACELLULAR CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS:A GENERALIZED APPROACH WITH HIGH-SPATIAL RESOLUTION USING FUNCTIONALIZED NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, T

    2007-03-05

    We are developing an alternative approach to optical probes that will ultimately allow us to measure chemical concentrations in microenvironments within cells and tissues. This approach is based on monitoring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of functionalized metal nanoparticles (50-100 nm in diameter). SERS allows for the sensitive detection of changes in the state of chemical groups attached to individual nanoparticles and small clusters. We present the development of a nanoscale pH meter. The pH response of these nanoprobes is tested in a cell-free medium, measuring the pH of the solution immediately surrounding the nanoparticles. We developed and used SERS correlation spectroscopy and single particle/cluster SERS spectroscopy to characterize heterogeneities in the SERS signal, which result from the formation of small nanoparticle clusters. These heterogeneities have historically provided inconsistent response to pH, leading a poor sensitivity of {approx}1 pH unit. The response of the nanoscale pH meters is tested under a wide range of conditions to approach the complex environment encountered inside living cells and to optimize probe performance. We have also developed a rapid scanning technique to obtain pH information using confocal microscopic imaging. Together with the development of hollow gold nanoshells with collaborators, this project enables future cell-based studies of pH using SERS. This research will be continued as a collaboration with the Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology (CBST) at UC Davis Medical Center.

  8. A consistency approach for evaluation of biosimilar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hwang, Wong-Shian; Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biosimilars have attracted much attention from sponsors and regulatory authorities, while patents on early biological products will soon expire in the next few years. The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) of the European Union (EU) published a guideline on similar biological medicinal products for approval of these products in 2005 . Based on the foundational principles of the EMEA guideline, biosimilars are expected to be similar, not identical, to the innovator biologics they seek to copy. In this article, we develop a consistency approach for assessment of similarity between a biosimilar product and the innovator biologic. A method for sample size determination for conducting a clinical trial to assess the biosimilar product is also proposed. A numerical example is given to illustrate applications of the proposed approach in different scenarios.

  9. A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Grobauer, Bernd; Rhiger, Morten

    2001-01-01

    semantics coincides with Gudeman's continuation semantics of Icon.We then compile Icon programs by specializing their interpreter (i.e., by using the first Futamura projection), using type-directed partial evaluation. Through various back ends, including a run-time code generator, we generate ML code, C...... code, and OCaml byte code. Binding-time analysis and partial evaluation of the continuation-based interpreter automatically give rise to C programs that coincide with the result of Proebsting's optimized compiler....... and partial evaluation.We consider a subset of Icon and we specify it with a monadic semantics and a list monad. We then consider a spectrum of monads that also fit the bill, and we relate them to each other. For example, we derive a continuation monad as a Church encoding of the list monad. The resulting...

  10. A Unifying Approach to Goal-Directed Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten; Grobauer, Bernd

    2001-01-01

    semantics coincides with Gudeman’s continuation semantics of Icon. We then compile Icon programs by specializing their interpreter (i.e., by using the first Futamura projection), using type-directed partial evaluation. Through various back ends, including a run-time code generator, we generate ML code, C...... code, and OCaml byte code. Binding-time analysis and partial evaluation of the continuation-based interpreter automatically give rise to C programs that coincide with the result of Proebsting’s optimized compiler....... and partial evaluation. We consider a subset of Icon and we specify it with a monadic semantics and a list monad. We then consider a spectrum of monads that also fit the bill, and we relate them to each other. For example, we derive a continuation monad as a Church encoding of the list monad. The resulting...

  11. Evaluation of ERP implementation: A multi-perspective approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Møller, Charles

    2004-01-01

    ERP-implementation is and has been a practical challenge to most industrial enterprises for several years. In the literature, we have seen cases of extremely successful implementation as well as the opposite. However, practical experiences tell us that companies still are having difficulties...... in assessing and evaluating ERP-implementation. Without having this reference, learning is quite complicated. Quite a lot of theory is written about critical success factors in regard to ERP-implementation. The literature, however, does not provide enterprises with any operational framework for evaluating...... the implementation. The purpose of this paper is to offer a framework for evaluation of ERP-implementation in relation to the strategic development of the company. First, the paper defines the ERP-implementation process in the context of the new business challenges that industrial enterprises experience...

  12. Aplasia cutis congenita: approach to evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John C

    2013-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) refers to any condition in which there is absence of skin at birth. This can be isolated ACC occurring on the scalp, with or without underlying ectopic neural tissue, or ACC can be associated with other conditions such as Adams-Oliver syndrome or epidermolysis bullosa. We discuss the different types of ACC and associated anomalies along with an approach to diagnosis and management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluating machine learning classification for financial trading: An empirical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlein, EA; McGinnity, TM; Belatreche, A; S Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Technical and quantitative analysis in financial trading use mathematical and statistical tools to help investors decide on the optimum moment to initiate and close orders. While these traditional approaches have served their purpose to some extent, new techniques arising from the field of computational intelligence such as machine learning and data mining have emerged to analyse financial information. While the main financial engineering research has focused on complex computational models s...

  14. ARTICLE Evaluations on Some Perturbative Quantum Dissipation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ding, Jin-jin; Xu, Rui-xue

    2010-12-01

    We compare the results of some perturbative quantum dissipation approaches to the exact linear absorption of two state systems. The considered approximate methods are the so-called complete second-order quantum dissipation theories, in either the chronological ordering prescription or the correlated driving-dissipation form. Analytical results can be derived for the linear absorption of two-state systems. Assessments on their applicability are then made by comparison to the exact results.

  15. Evaluating Efficiencies of Dual AAV Approaches for Retinal Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Livia S; Turunen, Heikki T; Wassmer, Sarah J; Luna-Velez, María V; Xiao, Ru; Bennett, Jean; Vandenberghe, Luk H

    2017-01-01

    Retinal gene therapy has come a long way in the last few decades and the development and improvement of new gene delivery technologies has been exponential. The recent promising results from the first clinical trials for inherited retinal degeneration due to mutations in RPE65 have provided a major breakthrough in the field and have helped cement the use of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) as the major tool for retinal gene supplementation. One of the key problems of AAV however, is its limited capacity for packaging genomic information to a maximum of around 4.8 kb. Previous studies have demonstrated that homologous recombination and/or inverted terminal repeat (ITR) mediated concatemerization of two overlapping AAV vectors can partially overcome the size limitation and help deliver larger transgenes. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the use of different AAV dual-vector approaches in the mouse retina using a systematic approach comparing efficiencies in vitro and in vivo using a unique oversized reporter construct. We show that the hybrid approach relying on vector genome concatemerization by highly recombinogenic sequences and ITRs sequence overlap offers the best levels of reconstitution both in vitro and in vivo compared to trans-splicing and overlap strategies. Our data also demonstrate that dose and vector serotype do not affect reconstitution efficiency but a discrepancy between mRNA and protein expression data suggests a bottleneck affecting translation.

  16. Evaluating Efficiencies of Dual AAV Approaches for Retinal Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia S. Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal gene therapy has come a long way in the last few decades and the development and improvement of new gene delivery technologies has been exponential. The recent promising results from the first clinical trials for inherited retinal degeneration due to mutations in RPE65 have provided a major breakthrough in the field and have helped cement the use of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV as the major tool for retinal gene supplementation. One of the key problems of AAV however, is its limited capacity for packaging genomic information to a maximum of around 4.8 kb. Previous studies have demonstrated that homologous recombination and/or inverted terminal repeat (ITR mediated concatemerization of two overlapping AAV vectors can partially overcome the size limitation and help deliver larger transgenes. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the use of different AAV dual-vector approaches in the mouse retina using a systematic approach comparing efficiencies in vitro and in vivo using a unique oversized reporter construct. We show that the hybrid approach relying on vector genome concatemerization by highly recombinogenic sequences and ITRs sequence overlap offers the best levels of reconstitution both in vitro and in vivo compared to trans-splicing and overlap strategies. Our data also demonstrate that dose and vector serotype do not affect reconstitution efficiency but a discrepancy between mRNA and protein expression data suggests a bottleneck affecting translation.

  17. Generalizing DTW to the multi-dimensional case requires an adaptive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Jin, Hongxia; Wang, Jun; Keogh, Eamonn

    2017-01-01

    In recent years Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) has emerged as the distance measure of choice for virtually all time series data mining applications. For example, virtually all applications that process data from wearable devices use DTW as a core sub-routine. This is the result of significant progress in improving DTW’s efficiency, together with multiple empirical studies showing that DTW-based classifiers at least equal (and generally surpass) the accuracy of all their rivals across dozens of datasets. Thus far, most of the research has considered only the one-dimensional case, with practitioners generalizing to the multi-dimensional case in one of two ways, dependent or independent warping. In general, it appears the community believes either that the two ways are equivalent, or that the choice is irrelevant. In this work, we show that this is not the case. The two most commonly used multi-dimensional DTW methods can produce different classifications, and neither one dominates over the other. This seems to suggest that one should learn the best method for a particular application. However, we will show that this is not necessary; a simple, principled rule can be used on a case-by-case basis to predict which of the two methods we should trust at the time of classification. Our method allows us to ensure that classification results are at least as accurate as the better of the two rival methods, and, in many cases, our method is significantly more accurate. We demonstrate our ideas with the most extensive set of multi-dimensional time series classification experiments ever attempted. PMID:29104448

  18. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic torque analysis is one of the key issues in the analysis of electric machines. It plays an important role in machine design and control. The common method described in most of the textbooks is to calculate the torque in the machine variables and then transform them to the dq...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  19. A general unified approach to modelling switching dc-to-dc converters in discontinuous conduction mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, S.; Middlebrook, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for modelling switching converters in the discontinuous conduction mode is developed, whose starting point is the unified state-space representation, and whose end result is a complete linear circuit model which correctly represents all essential features, namely, the input, output, and transfer properties (static dc as well as dynamic ac small signal). While the method is generally applicable to any switching converter operating in the discontinuous conduction mode, it is extensively illustrated for the three common power stages (buck, boost, and buck-boost). The results for these converters are then easily tabulated owing to the fixed equivalent circuit topology of their canonical circuit model.

  20. A projection-based approach to general-form Tikhonov regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilmer, Misha E.; Hansen, Per Christian; Espanol, Malena I.

    2007-01-01

    We present a projection-based iterative algorithm for computing general-form Tikhonov regularized solutions to the problem minx| Ax-b |2^2+lambda2| Lx |2^2, where the regularization matrix L is not the identity. Our algorithm is designed for the common case where lambda is not known a priori....... It is based on a joint bidiagonalization algorithm and is appropriate for large-scale problems when it is computationally infeasible to transform the regularized problem to standard form. By considering the projected problem, we show how estimates of the corresponding optimal regularization parameter can...

  1. Self-evaluation of decision-making: A general Bayesian framework for metacognitive computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2017-01-01

    People are often aware of their mistakes, and report levels of confidence in their choices that correlate with objective performance. These metacognitive assessments of decision quality are important for the guidance of behavior, particularly when external feedback is absent or sporadic. However, a computational framework that accounts for both confidence and error detection is lacking. In addition, accounts of dissociations between performance and metacognition have often relied on ad hoc assumptions, precluding a unified account of intact and impaired self-evaluation. Here we present a general Bayesian framework in which self-evaluation is cast as a "second-order" inference on a coupled but distinct decision system, computationally equivalent to inferring the performance of another actor. Second-order computation may ensue whenever there is a separation between internal states supporting decisions and confidence estimates over space and/or time. We contrast second-order computation against simpler first-order models in which the same internal state supports both decisions and confidence estimates. Through simulations we show that second-order computation provides a unified account of different types of self-evaluation often considered in separate literatures, such as confidence and error detection, and generates novel predictions about the contribution of one's own actions to metacognitive judgments. In addition, the model provides insight into why subjects' metacognition may sometimes be better or worse than task performance. We suggest that second-order computation may underpin self-evaluative judgments across a range of domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. How do general practitioners, pharmacists and patients evaluate the substitution system for prescription in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Sune; Andersen, Marie-Louise Elkjær; Mainz, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Aim/Objectives: Evaluation of how the substitution system has been implemented, how it was assessed by the general practitioners (GPs), pharmacists (PHs) and patients, and clarification of benefits and problems related to the system. Methods: The study was based on specific question-naires to GPs......, PHs and patients. The questionnaires were based on qualitative interviews with all three groups and afterwards validated and pilot tested. Results: 80% of 300 GPs, 72% of PHs and 82% of 105 patients responded. The study showed that 84% of the patients were satisfied with the system. Of the patients...... than the disadvantages in the system. All GPs and nearly all PHs were of the opinion that analogue substitution (substitution between drugs with the same effect obtained by different means) was medically unjustifiable, did not have potentially desirable effects, and should therefore not be introduced...

  3. Evaluating the Evidence for the General Factor of Personality across Multiple Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Wright, Aidan G C; Donnellan, M Brent

    2011-11-01

    A general factor of personality (GFP) has been proposed as the apex of a personality trait hierarchy that explains covariance among the lower-order factors measured by various personality inventories. In this study we evaluated the GFP hypothesis across several personality inventories, unlike most previous research in which the GFP has been derived from individual instruments in isolation. Exploratory analyses did not produce substantial evidence for the existence of a single cross-instrument higher-order factor of factors and efforts to specify a range of GFP-inspired models in a confirmatory framework led to significant estimation difficulties and poor fit to the data. Overall these results fail to support a common GFP that is positioned at the top of a personality trait hierarchy.

  4. Evaluate More General Integrals Involving Universal Associated Legendre Polynomials via Taylor’s Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Navarro, G.; Sun, Guo-Hua; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Chang-Yuan; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2017-08-01

    A few important integrals involving the product of two universal associated Legendre polynomials {P}{l\\prime}{m\\prime}(x), {P}{k\\prime}{n\\prime}(x) and x2a(1 - x2)-p-1, xb(1 ± x)-p-1 and xc(1 -x2)-p-1 (1 ± x) are evaluated using the operator form of Taylor’s theorem and an integral over a single universal associated Legendre polynomial. These integrals are more general since the quantum numbers are unequal, i.e. l‧ ≠ k‧ and m‧ ≠ n‧. Their selection rules are also given. We also verify the correctness of those integral formulas numerically. Supported by 20170938-SIP-IPN, Mexico

  5. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  6. Evaluating the Evidence for the General Factor of Personality across Multiple Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    A general factor of personality (GFP) has been proposed as the apex of a personality trait hierarchy that explains covariance among the lower-order factors measured by various personality inventories. In this study we evaluated the GFP hypothesis across several personality inventories, unlike most previous research in which the GFP has been derived from individual instruments in isolation. Exploratory analyses did not produce substantial evidence for the existence of a single cross-instrument higher-order factor of factors and efforts to specify a range of GFP-inspired models in a confirmatory framework led to significant estimation difficulties and poor fit to the data. Overall these results fail to support a common GFP that is positioned at the top of a personality trait hierarchy. PMID:22879686

  7. Demonstrating and Evaluating an Action Learning Approach to Building Project Management Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnour, Tim; Starr, Stan; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper contributes a description of an action-learning approach to building project management competence. This approach was designed, implemented, and evaluated for use with the Dynacs Engineering Development Contract at the Kennedy Space Center. The aim of the approach was to improve three levels of competence within the organization: individual project management skills, project team performance. and organizational capabilities such as the project management process and tools. The overall steps to the approach, evaluation results, and lessons learned are presented. Managers can use this paper to design a specific action-learning approach for their organization.

  8. Addressing Different Approaches for Evaluating Low-Exergy Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Meggers, Forrest; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    The IEA Annex 64 focusing on low-ex communities aims at the improvement of energy conversion chains on a community scale, using exergy analysis as the primary evaluation mode. Within this Annex the participants discuss important aspects and available methods for energy and exergy assessment as well

  9. A Graphical Approach to Evaluating Equating Using Test Characteristic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Adam E.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    An essential concern in the application of any equating procedure is determining whether tests can be considered equated after the tests have been placed onto a common scale. This article clarifies one equating criterion, the first-order equity property of equating, and develops a new method for evaluating equating that is linked to this…

  10. Reconceptualisation of Approaches to Teaching Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nga D.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of using Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) in higher education is inherently controversial. Issues mostly resolve around whether the instrument is reliable and valid for the purpose for which it was intended. Controversies exist, in part, due to the lack of a theoretical framework upon which SETs can be based and tested for their…

  11. Teachers' Development Model to Authentic Assessment by Empowerment Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchai, Charin; Phuseeorn, Songsak; Phengsawat, Waro

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Study teachers authentic assessment, teachers comprehension of authentic assessment and teachers needs for authentic assessment development. 2) To create teachers development model. 3) Experiment of teachers development model. 4) Evaluate effectiveness of teachers development model. The research is divided into 4…

  12. Evaluating Comparative Judgment as an Approach to Essay Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedle, Jeffrey T.; Ferrara, Steve

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative to rubric scoring, comparative judgment generates essay scores by aggregating decisions about the relative quality of the essays. Comparative judgment eliminates certain scorer biases and potentially reduces training requirements, thereby allowing a large number of judges, including teachers, to participate in essay evaluation.…

  13. Evaluating Mixed Research Studies: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Dellinger, Amy B.; Brannagan, Kim B.; Tanaka, Hideyuki

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate application of a new framework, the validation framework (VF), to assist researchers in evaluating mixed research studies. Based on an earlier work by Dellinger and Leech, a description of the VF is delineated. Using the VF, three studies from education, health care, and counseling fields are…

  14. Evaluation of the Blended Learning approach to Teaching Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter, they evaluated the learning environment with questionnaires. The results indicate that MOODLE is a highly accepted learning management system for teaching and learning in a resource limited country. However, for a learning management system like MOODLE to be effectively implemented in a University ...

  15. Evaluating public space pedestrian accessibility: a GIS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morar, T.; Bertolini, L.; Radoslav, R.

    2013-01-01

    Public spaces are sources of quality of life in neighborhoods. Seeking to help professionals and municipalities assess how well a public space can be used by the community it serves, this paper presents a GIS-based methodology for evaluating its pedestrian accessibility. The Romanian city of

  16. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  17. Economic evaluation of an implementation strategy for the management of low back pain in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Riis, Allan; Petersen, Karin Dam; Jensen, Martin Bach; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller

    2017-05-01

    In connection with the publication of a clinical practice guideline on the management of low back pain (LBP) in general practice in Denmark, a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted. In this trial, a multifaceted guideline implementation strategy to improve general practitioners' treatment of patients with LBP was compared with a usual implementation strategy. The aim was to determine whether the multifaceted strategy was cost effective, as compared with the usual implementation strategy. The economic evaluation was conducted as a cost-utility analysis where cost collected from a societal perspective and quality-adjusted life years were used as outcome measures. The analysis was conducted as a within-trial analysis with a 12-month time horizon consistent with the follow-up period of the clinical trial. To adjust for a priori selected covariates, generalised linear models with a gamma family were used to estimate incremental costs and quality-adjusted life years. Furthermore, both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results showed that costs associated with primary health care were higher, whereas secondary health care costs were lower for the intervention group when compared with the control group. When adjusting for covariates, the intervention was less costly, and there was no significant difference in effect between the 2 groups. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were sensitive to uncertainty. In conclusion, the multifaceted implementation strategy was cost saving when compared with the usual strategy for implementing LBP clinical practice guidelines in general practice. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in effect, and the estimate was sensitive to uncertainty.

  18. Evaluation of features to support safety and quality in general practice clinical software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schattner Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic prescribing is now the norm in many countries. We wished to find out if clinical software systems used by general practitioners in Australia include features (functional capabilities and other characteristics that facilitate improved patient safety and care, with a focus on quality use of medicines. Methods Seven clinical software systems used in general practice were evaluated. Fifty software features that were previously rated as likely to have a high impact on safety and/or quality of care in general practice were tested and are reported here. Results The range of results for the implementation of 50 features across the 7 clinical software systems was as follows: 17-31 features (34-62% were fully implemented, 9-13 (18-26% partially implemented, and 9-20 (18-40% not implemented. Key findings included: Access to evidence based drug and therapeutic information was limited. Decision support for prescribing was available but varied markedly between systems. During prescribing there was potential for medicine mis-selection in some systems, and linking a medicine with its indication was optional. The definition of 'current medicines' versus 'past medicines' was not always clear. There were limited resources for patients, and some medicines lists for patients were suboptimal. Results were provided to the software vendors, who were keen to improve their systems. Conclusions The clinical systems tested lack some of the features expected to support patient safety and quality of care. Standards and certification for clinical software would ensure that safety features are present and that there is a minimum level of clinical functionality that clinicians could expect to find in any system.

  19. Evaluation of features to support safety and quality in general practice clinical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Electronic prescribing is now the norm in many countries. We wished to find out if clinical software systems used by general practitioners in Australia include features (functional capabilities and other characteristics) that facilitate improved patient safety and care, with a focus on quality use of medicines. Methods Seven clinical software systems used in general practice were evaluated. Fifty software features that were previously rated as likely to have a high impact on safety and/or quality of care in general practice were tested and are reported here. Results The range of results for the implementation of 50 features across the 7 clinical software systems was as follows: 17-31 features (34-62%) were fully implemented, 9-13 (18-26%) partially implemented, and 9-20 (18-40%) not implemented. Key findings included: Access to evidence based drug and therapeutic information was limited. Decision support for prescribing was available but varied markedly between systems. During prescribing there was potential for medicine mis-selection in some systems, and linking a medicine with its indication was optional. The definition of 'current medicines' versus 'past medicines' was not always clear. There were limited resources for patients, and some medicines lists for patients were suboptimal. Results were provided to the software vendors, who were keen to improve their systems. Conclusions The clinical systems tested lack some of the features expected to support patient safety and quality of care. Standards and certification for clinical software would ensure that safety features are present and that there is a minimum level of clinical functionality that clinicians could expect to find in any system.

  20. Evaluation of the generalized Ohm's law at the subsolar magnetopause diffusion region with MMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Giulia; Retino, Alessandro; Le Contel, Olivier; Califano, Francesco; Chasapis, Alexandros; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Mirioni, Laurent; Vaivads, Andris; Lavraud, Benoit; Breuillard, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process occurring in thin current sheets where a change in the magnetic field topology leads to fast magnetic energy conversion into energy of charged particles. A key yet poorly understood aspect is how the reconnection electric field is sustained in the diffusion region by the different terms in the generalized Ohm's law. In particular, the role of the pressure and inertia terms is not yet fully understood as well as the importance of the anomalous resistivity term and its source. Simulations have provided some estimations of the different terms; however direct observations have been scarce so far. The four-spacecraft Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (NASA/MMS) allows, for the first time, the full evaluation of the generalized Ohm's law in the diffusion region. Here we present MMS observations at a few subsolar diffusion region crossings on October,3 rd 2015 where MMS spacecraft were separated by 25 km. We compare the measured electric field with the electric field due to both kinetic effects (electron pressure tensor, electron inertia terms) and to anomalous resistivity associated to different wave modes. The electric field is balanced by the Hall term at ion scales as expected. At smaller scales, preliminary results indicate that the electric field is mainly balanced by the divergence of the electron pressure tensor, although the contribution of anomalous resistivity is not negligible.