Sample records for evaluating sediment quality

  1. An Evaluation of Bera Lake (Malaysia Sediment Contamination Using Sediment Quality Guidelines

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    Mohammadreza Gharibreza


    Full Text Available Bera Lake is known as the first RAMSAR site and is the largest natural lake in Malaysia. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs and Geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate Bera Lake sediment contamination. Five undisturbed cores were collected from Bera Lake sediment. Major and trace levels of elements were determined for 132 subsamples using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results marked two major groups of metallic elements bonded to the terrestrial and organic-rich sediments. Terrestrial sediments were strongly associated with accumulation of Li, Al, Pb, Cu, Cr, Na, Mg, Sr, and K during main fluxes of metals. However, a strong positive correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ca, and Cd elements and TOC and TN. The Mn/Fe ratio revealed a long-term redox and acidic condition at Bera Lake. Geoaccumulation index for all individual metals has classified Bera Lake sediment as low to moderately polluted. However, elemental values when compared with thresholds limits of SQG indicated that Bera Lake sediments were contaminated by arsenic and iron. Results prove that deforestation during the five phases of land developments since 1972 has significantly contributed to the existence of metals fluxes into the area.

  2. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

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    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Texas Gulf Coast Field Station; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Center for Coastal Studies


    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  3. Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters (United States)

    MacDonald, Donald D.; Carr, R. Scott; Calder, Fred D.; Long, Edward R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.


    The weight-of-evidence approach to the development of sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was modified to support the derivation of biological effects-based SQGs for Florida coastal waters. Numerical SQGs were derived for 34 substances, including nine trace metals, 13 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three groups of PAHs, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), seven pesticides and one phthalate ester. For each substance, a threshold effects level (TEL) and a probable effects level (PEL) was calculated. These two values defined three ranges of chemical concentrations, including those that were (1) rarely, (2) occasionally or (3) frequently associated with adverse effects. The SQGs were then evaluated to determine their degree of agreement with other guidelines (an indicator of comparability) and the percent incidence of adverse effects within each concentration range (an indicator of reliability). The guidelines also were used to classify (using a dichotomous system: toxic, with one or more exceedances of the PELs or non-toxic, with no exceedances of the TELs) sediment samples collected from various locations in Florida and the Gulf of Mexico. The accuracy of these predictions was then evaluated using the results of the biological tests that were performed on the same sediment samples. The resultant SQGs were demonstrated to provide practical, reliable and predictive tools for assessing sediment quality in Florida and elsewhere in the southeastern portion of the United States.

  4. Evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in marine sediments quality using multivariate statistical techniques. (United States)

    Alvarez, Odalys Quevedo; Tagle, Margarita Edelia Villanueva; Pascual, Jorge L Gómez; Marín, Ma Teresa Larrea; Clemente, Ana Catalina Nuñez; Medina, Miriam Odette Cora; Palau, Raiza Rey; Alfonso, Mario Simeón Pomares


    Spatial and temporal variations of sediment quality in Matanzas Bay (Cuba) were studied by determining a total of 12 variables (Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Ni, Co, Al, Fe, Mn, V, CO₃²⁻, and total hydrocarbons (THC). Surface sediments were collected, annually, at eight stations during 2005-2008. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component (PCA), cluster (CA), and lineal discriminant (LDA) analyses were applied for identification of the most significant variables influencing the environmental quality of sediments. Heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, V, and As) and THC were the most significant species contributing to sediment quality variations during the sampling period. Concentrations of V and As were determined in sediments of this ecosystem for the first time. The variation of sediment environmental quality with the sampling period and the differentiation of samples in three groups along the bay were obtained. The usefulness of the multivariate statistical techniques employed for the environmental interpretation of a limited dataset was confirmed.

  5. Using a Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate benthic toxicity in the Lower Hackensack River, New Jersey. (United States)

    Sorensen, Mary T; Conder, Jason M; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Martello, Linda B; Wenning, Richard J


    A Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study consisting of chemical characterization in sediment, sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation testing, and benthic community assessments was performed in the Lower Hackensack River, New Jersey. Chemistry data in sediment and porewater were evaluated based on the equilibrium partitioning approach and other published information to investigate the potential for chemical effects on benthic organisms and communities. Relationships were supported by laboratory toxicity and bioaccumulation experiments to characterize chemical effects and bioavailability. Benthic community results were evaluated using a regional, multimetric benthic index of biotic integrity and four heterogeneity indices. Evidence of slight benthic community impairment was observed in five of nine sediment sample stations. Severe lethal toxicity to amphipods (Leptocheirus plumulosus) occurred in four of these five stations. Although elevated total chromium concentrations in sediment (as high as 1900 mg/kg) were the rationale for conducting the investigation, toxicity was strongly associated with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rather than total chromium. PAH toxic units (SigmaPAH TU) in sediment and SigmaPAH concentrations in laboratory organisms from the bioaccumulation experiment showed a clear dose-response relationship with toxicity, with 0% survival observed in sediments in which SigmaPAH TU > 1-2 and SigmaPAH concentrations in Macoma nasuta were >2 micromol/g, lipid weight. Metals detected in sediment and porewater, with the possible exception of copper, did not correlate with either toxicity or levels in tissue, likely because acid-volatile sulfide levels exceeded concentrations of simultaneous extracted metals at all sample locations. The study reinforces the value of using multiple lines of evidence approaches such as the SQT and the importance of augmenting chemical and biological analyses with modeling and/or other approaches to

  6. Haw River sediment quality assessment (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents an evaluation of chemical contaminants in, and toxicity of, sediments collected from impoundments created by dams on the Haw River in Alamance...

  7. Water Quality And Sediment Evaluation for Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Lock Replacement Project, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States)


    Leptocheirus plumulosus 10-day solid phase toxicity tests. .............................................. 127 Table 44. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater...solid phase bioaccumulation tests. ................... 131 Table 45. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater solid phase bioaccumulation tests...132 Table 46. Corbicula fluminea 28-day freshwater solid phase bioaccumulation potential evaluation

  8. Evaluation of surface water and sediment quality in Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek, and Chapora Bay from Goa coast, India - a statistical approach

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    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Gauns, M.U.; Ansari, Z.A.

        Author Version: Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.188; 2016; no.472 doi:10.1007/s10661-016-5445-6 Evaluation of surface water and sediment quality in Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay from Goa Coast, India—a statistical approach P. S. Shenai... environmental 3    factors, it is difficult to draw a clear conclusion directly. However, statistical analysis can extract the underlying information and explain the structure of data in detail. In recent years, multivariate statistical techniques have been...

  9. [Environmental evaluation near a fuel vendor within Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela. II: Water quality, sediments and biota]. (United States)

    Rada, M; Losada, F


    This paper is the second part of a base line study carried out in the coastal region near a marine service station located in Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. Results from a physical and chemical characterization of the water and sediments of four sites located around the service station are presented. The physical and chemical factors measured in water included: temperature, salinity, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, saturation percentage of dissolved oxygen, pH, total suspended solids, transparency, oil and grease, total residual petroleum hydrocarbon, vanadium and lead, total coliform bacteria, and the presence of coliform bacteria. The factors measured in sediments include: granulometry, organic material, total carbonates, vanadium, lead, oil and grease, and total hydrocarbons. In addition, the amount of vanadium and lead in sample tissue from three species which are abundant and widely distributed in each site was measured in order to evaluate the potential of these species as bio-indicators. The water in the area where this study was conducted is shallow, warm, and thermally homogeneous, with high salinity and normal pH and dissolved oxygen, and supersaturated with oxygen in certain hours in sites adjacent to abundant underwater vegetation. The water is moderately turbid with a tendency towards less dissolved oxygen with increased depth. The estimated values of NMP/100 ml of the coliform fecal organisms is within legal limits even though the total number of water coliforms measured in Site 2 was ten times higher than in Site 1. This increase is associated with the proximity of Site 2 to an outflow of pre-treated sewage. The values of TRPH in the water collected from each site were low and very close to the detection limit (0.8/ml). Vanadium was not found, while lead was detected in 11 of the 12 samples. Compared to the values measured for Site 1, which was the local reference, only one sample had a concentration of three times the maximum baseline

  10. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies. (United States)

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita


    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage.

  11. Evaluation of sediment quality guidelines derived using the screening-level concentration approach for application at uranium operations in Saskatchewan, Canada. (United States)

    Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten


    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) can be derived using different approaches and are commonly used in environmental management, reclamation, and risk assessment. The screening-level concentration (SLC) approach has been used in Ontario, Canada, to derive lowest effect levels (LELs) and severe effect levels for use as SQGs. This approach was adopted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to set guidelines for metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, U, and V) and radionuclides (Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210) in sediment at northern Saskatchewan uranium mining and milling operations. The SLC approach is based on total metal and radionuclide concentrations in sediment, and corresponding benthic community composition data for a specific sampling site. In this study, sediment chemistry (total metals and radionuclides) and benthic community data from northern Saskatchewan uranium operations were compiled and examined. Results indicate that the CNSC-derived SQGs had limited relationships to observed effects, or lack thereof, on benthic invertebrate communities near uranium operations in Saskatchewan. The LELs were found to correctly align with effects at 95% of the sites that had effects, on a general basis, but on an element-specific basis many of the elements had concentrations at effect sites below their LELs. Furthermore, concentrations of the evaluated elements exceeded at least one LEL at 60% of the no-effect sites. The high number of exceedences of LELs at reference and no-effect sites (false-positives) calls to question the appropriateness of the CNSC-derived SQGs. It is suggested that alternatives to the SLC approach be explored.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical indices. (United States)

    Mohammad Ali, Bibi Noorarlijannah; Lin, Chin Yik; Cleophas, Fera; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Musta, Baba


    This paper describes the concentration of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the Mamut river sediments and evaluate the degree of contamination of the river polluted by a disused copper mine. Based on the analytical results, copper showed the highest concentration in most of the river samples. A comparison with Interim Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (ICSQG) and Germany Sediment Quality Guidelines (GSQG) indicated that the sediment samples in all the sampling stations, except Mamut river control site (M1), exceeded the limit established for Cu, Ni, and Pb. On the contrary, Zn concentrations were reported well below the guidelines limit (ICSQG and GSQG). Mineralogical analysis indicated that the Mamut river sediments were primarily composed of quartz and accessory minerals such as chalcopyrite, pyrite, edenite, kaolinite, mica, and muscovite, reflected by the geological character of the study area. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in river sediments. Igeo values indicated that all the sites were strongly polluted with the studied metals in most sampling stations, specifically those located along the Mamut main stream. The enrichment factor with value greater than 1.5 suggested that the source of heavy metals was mainly derived from anthropogenic activity such as mining. The degree of metal changes (δfold) revealed that Cu concentration in the river sediments has increased as much as 20 to 38 folds since the preliminary investigation conducted in year 2004.

  13. Sediment quality in the Atlantic coast of Spain. (United States)

    Riba, Inmaculada; Casado-Martínez, Carmen; Forja, Jesús M; DelValls, Angel


    Sediments from the Atlantic coast of Spain have been studied to evaluate environmental quality by using an integrated approach including chemical and toxicological data. Sediment samples were collected in four littoral ecosystems located in Spain, Bay of Cádiz, Guadalquivir River estuary, Ría of Huelva, and Ría of Coruña. To characterize the sediments, organic carbon, granulometric content, total sulfide, eight trace metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Ni, and Cr), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. The toxicity of sediments was assessed with the amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, juveniles of the fish Solea senegalensis, populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, and populations of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox). The results obtained show that in general, stations located in the Ría of Huelva were associated with heavy metal contamination and with the highest toxicity. Only chronic toxicity tests were capable of identifying the effects associated with PCB concentrations. The sediment quality guidelines calculated by means of a multivariate analysis approach for contaminants not associated with biological effects (mg/kg) are Hg, 0.54; Cd, 0.51; Pb, 260; Cu, 209; Zn, 513; As, 27.4; and total PCBs, 0.05.

  14. A rapid, small-scale sedimentation method to predict breadmaking quality of hard winter wheat (United States)

    Breeders and processors are always looking for rapid and accurate methods to evaluate wheat quality. A rapid small-scale hybrid sedimentation method was developed for predicting breadmaking quality of breeders samples by combining the sodium dodecyl-sulfate (SDS) sedimentation method (AACC 56-70) an...

  15. Integrated sediment quality assessment in Paranaguá Estuarine System, Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Torres, R J; Abessa, D M S; Morais, R D; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; Riba, I; DelValls, T A


    Sediment quality from Paranaguá Estuarine System (PES), a highly important port and ecological zone, was evaluated by assessing three lines of evidence: (1) sediment physical-chemical characteristics; (2) sediment toxicity (elutriates, sediment-water interface, and whole sediment); and (3) benthic community structure. Results revealed a gradient of increasing degradation of sediments (i.e. higher concentrations of trace metals, higher toxicity, and impoverishment of benthic community structure) towards inner PES. Data integration by principal component analysis (PCA) showed positive correlation between some contaminants (mainly As, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and toxicity in samples collected from stations located in upper estuary and one station placed away from contamination sources. Benthic community structure seems to be affected by both pollution and natural fine characteristics of the sediments, which reinforces the importance of a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate sediments of PES.

  16. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

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    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica


    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  17. Indices of benthic community tolerance in contaminated Great Lakes sediments: Relations with sediment contaminant concentrations, sediment toxicity, and the sediment quality triad (United States)

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Schmitt, C.J.


    We evaluated the toxic-units model developed by Wildhaber and Schmitt (1996) as a predictor of indices of mean tolerance to pollution (i.e., Lenat, 1993; Hilsenhoff, 1987) and other benthic community indices from Great Lakes sediments containing complex mixtures of environmental contaminants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls – PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – PAHs, pesticides, chlorinated dioxins, and metals). Sediment toxic units were defined as the ratio of the estimated pore-water concentration of a contaminant to its chronic toxicity as estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) or other applicable standard. The total hazard of a sediment to aquatic life was assessed by summing toxic units for all contaminants quantified. Among the benthic community metrics evaluated, total toxic units were most closely correlated with Lenat's (1993) and Hilsenhoff's (1987) indices of community tolerance (TL and TH, respectively); toxic units accounted for 42% TL and 53% TH of variability in community tolerance as measured by Ponar grabs. In contrast, taxonomic richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity were not correlated (P > 0.05) with toxic units. Substitution of order- or family-level identifications for lowest possible (mostly genus- or species-) level identifications in the calculation of TL and TH indices weakened the relationships with toxic units. Tolerance values based on order- and family-level identifications of benthos for artificial substrate samples were more strongly correlated with toxic units than tolerance values for benthos from Ponar grabs. The ability of the toxic-units model to predict the other two components (i.e., laboratory-measured sediment toxicity and benthic community composition) of the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) may obviate the need for the SQT in some situations.


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    S. M. Praveena, M. Radojevic, M. H. Abdullah, A. Z. Aris


    Full Text Available There have been numerous sediment quality guidelines developed to monitor the sediments. Sediment quality guidelines are very useful to screen sediment contamination by comparing sediment contaminant concentration with the corresponding quality guideline, provide useful tools for screening sediment chemical data to identify pollutants of concern and prioritise problem sites and relatively good predictors of contaminations. However, these guidelines are chemical specific and do not include biological parameters. Aquatic ecosystems, including sediments, must be assessed in multiple components (biological data, toxicity, physicochemistry by using intregrated approaches in order to establish a complete and comprehensive set of sediment quality guidelines. Numerous sediment quality guidelines Washington Department of Ecology Sediment Quality Guideline, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Swedish Environmental Sediment Quality, Screening Quick Reference Table, Portuguese Legislation on the Classification of Dredged Materials in Coastal Zones and Interim Sediment Quality Guideline for Hong Kong have been applied to the Mengkabong lagoon mangrove sediment and discussed. The most appropriate guideline that meets the prioritization criteria consistent with international initiatives and regulations is interim sediment quality values for Hong Kong. The guideline verifies that all the metals are below the Interim Sediment Quality Value-low. However, site-specific, biological testing and ecological analysis of exisiting benthics community structure related to sediment contamination are needed for final decision making in the case of Mengkabong lagoon.

  19. An evaluation of weight of evidence approach to assess sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the metal concentrations. The inclusion of the bioaccumulation data ensures that the information gathered during sediment quality assessments is interpreted correctly, by taking potential and current ecological effects into account. Keywords: benthos, bioaccumulation, invertebrates, sediment quality triad, sediment toxicity ...

  20. Identifying cause in sediment assessments : bioavailability and the sediment quality triad

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    Borgmann, U.; Norwood, W.P.; Reynoldson, T.B.; Rosa, F. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). National Water Research Inst.


    A study was conducted to examine the biological impacts of metals in sediments found in the Sudbury area lakes. This study included the analysis of the standard Sediment Quality Triad components from a 1996 study. Metal bioavailability or bioaccumulation in Hyalella azteca was also measured under laboratory conditions with fresh sediments collected in 1998 to determine the adequacy of the Sediment Quality Triad. The objective of the study was to determine first of all if contaminants are getting into the system, and if so, whether they are bioavailable. The second objective was to see if there is a measurable response and to determine what is causing the response. The application of the Sediment Quality Triad approach to non-pH-stressed area lakes showed increased levels of cadmium, cobalt, copper and nickel, with decreased amounts of benthic invertebrates and significant sediment toxicity to amphipods and mayflies. The cause of sediment toxicity was determined by comparing metal bioaccumulation with critical body concentrations previously shown to cause toxicity. Nickel was the only metal that was clearly identified as contributing to toxicity in chronic tests with Hyalella exposed to Sudbury area sediments. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. [Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in a Drinking Water Reservoir]. (United States)

    Huang, Ting-lin; Liu, Fei; Shi, Jian-chao


    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the influence of nutrients distribution in sediments on the eutrophication of drinking water reservoir. The sediments of three representative locations were field-sampled and analyzed in laboratory in March 2015. The distribution characteristics of TOC, TN and TP were measured, and the pollution status of sediments was evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index and the manual for sediment quality assessment. The content of TOC in sediments decreased with depth, and there was an increasing trend of the nitrogen content. The TP was enriched in surface sediment, implying the nutrients load in Zhoucun Reservoir was aggravating as the result of human activities. Regression analysis indicated that the content of TOC in sediments was positively correlated with contents of TN and TP in sediments. The TOC/TN values reflected that the vascular land plants, which contain cellulose, were the main source of organic matter in sediments. The comprehensive pollution index analysis result showed that the surface sediments in all three sampling sites were heavily polluted. The contents of TN and TP of surface sediments in three sampling sites were 3273-4870 mg x kg(-1) and 653-2969 mg x kg(-1), and the content of TOC was 45.65-83.00 mg x g(-1). According to the manual for sediment quality assessment, the TN, TP and TOC contents in sediments exceed the standard values for the lowest level of ecotoxicity, so there is a risk of eutrophication in Zhoucun Reservoir.

  2. Assessing contamination in Great Lakes sediments using benthic invertebrate communities and the sediment quality triad approach (United States)

    Canfield, Timothy J.; Dwyer, F. James; Fairchild, James F.; Haverland, Pamela S.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Mount, David R.; La Point, Thomas W.; Burton, G. Allen; Swift, M. C.


    Sediments in many Great Lakes harbors and tributary rivers are contaminated. As part of the USEPA's Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment (ARCS) program, a number of studies were conducted to determine the nature and extent of sediment contamination in Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC). This paper describes the composition of benthic invertebrate communities in contaminated sediments and is one in a series of papers describing studies conducted to evaluate sediment toxicity from three AOC's (Buffalo River, NY; Indiana Harbor, IN; Saginaw River, MI), as part of the ARCS Program. Oligochaeta (worms) and Chironomidae (midge) comprised over 90% of the benthic invertebrate numbers in samples collected from depositional areas. Worms and midge consisted of taxa identified as primarily contaminant tolerant organisms. Structural deformities of mouthparts in midge larvae were pronounced in many of the samples. Good concurrence was evident between measures of laboratory toxicity, sediment contaminant concentration, and benthic invertebrate community composition in extremely contaminated samples. However, in moderately contaminated samples, less concordance was observed between the benthos community composition and either laboratory toxicity test results or sediment contaminant concentration. Laboratory sediment toxicity tests may better identify chemical contamination in sediments than many commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate community composition. Benthic measures may also reflect other factors such as habitat alteration. Evaluation of non-contaminant factors are needed to better interpret the response of benthic invertebrates to sediment contamination.

  3. Effects of dredging operations on sediment quality. Contaminant mobilization in dredged sediments from the Port of Santos, SP, Brazil

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    Torres, Ronaldo J.; Santos, Fernando C.; Mozeto, Antonio A. [Lab. de Biogeoquimica Ambiental, Dept. de Quimica, Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abessa, Denis M.S.; Maranho, Luciane A.; Davanso, Marcela B. [Campus Experimental do Litoral Paulista, UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista ' Julio de Mesquita Filho' , Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos R.L. do [Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC), CNEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, MG (Brazil)


    Background, aim, and scope Contaminated sediments are a worldwide problem, and mobilization of contaminants is one of the most critical issues in environmental risk assessment insofar as dredging projects are concerned. The investigation of how toxic compounds are mobilized during dredging operations in the channel of the Port of Santos, Brazil, was conducted in an attempt to assess changes in the bioavailability and toxicity of these contaminants. Materials and methods Bulk sediment samples and their interstitial waters and elutriates were subjected to chemical evaluation and ecotoxicological assessment. Samples were collected from the channel before dredging, from the dredge's hopper, and from the disposal site and its surroundings. Results The results indicate that the bulk sediments from the dredging site are contaminated moderately with As, Pb, and Zn and severely with Hg, and that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations are relatively high. Our results also show a 50% increase in PAH concentrations in suspended solids in the water collected from the hopper dredge. This finding is of great concern, since it refers to the dredge overflow water which is pumped back into the ecosystem. Acute toxicity tests on bulk sediment using the amphipod Tiburonella viscana showed no toxicity, while chronic tests with the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus showed toxicity in the interstitial waters and elutriates. Results are compared with widely used sediment quality guidelines and with a sediment quality assessment scheme based on various lines of evidence. Conclusions The data presented here indicate that the sediments collected in this port show a certain degree of contamination, especially those from the inner part of the channel. The classification established in this study indicated that sediments from the dredged channel are impacted detrimentally and that sea disposal may disperse contaminants. According to this classification, the sediments are

  4. Factors governing sediment quality (PAH) in rivers (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Rügner, Hermann; Scherer, Ulrike; Rode, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter


    The contamination of riverine sediments and suspended matter with hydrophobic pollutants is typically associated with urban land use. It is, however, rarely related to the sediment supply of the watershed. We show for a suite of catchments in two regions of Germany with contrasting land use and geology, that the contamination of suspended particles with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be predicted based on the ratio of inhabitants residing within the catchment and the catchment's sediment yield. The applicability of this concept is demonstrated for catchments ranging in size from 100 to >3000 km2. This implies that the loading of particles with PAH is more or less time invariant which is also indicated by long term measurements from sub catchments of the upper Neckar River in Southwest Germany. Data on sediment yields are rare and the installation of appropriate measurement stations is expensive, the establishment of data series time-consuming. Therefore, modeling of sediment yields based on the universal soil loss equation is proposed. Although this method lacks a physical basis, it is feasible at larger scales and is shown to lead to reasonable results at low costs. The importance of catchment properties in terms of sediment supply and the implications of the presented concept for water resources management are discussed. For instance, it may easily be used to estimate the vulnerability of river systems to particle-associated urban pollutants with similar input pathways as the PAH or to indicate if contaminant point sources such as sites of legacy pollution exist in a river catchment.

  5. Methods of assessment of stormwater sediments quality

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    Sałata Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Concentration of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in sediments collected from the stormwater treatment plant located in the urbanised catchment were investigated using geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor to determine metal accumulation and pollution status. Total metal concentrations varied widely in studied materials and the mean values were higher than their background values. The Igeo results indicate that tested sediments were uncontaminated with respect to Cd. The study area is moderately to strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cu. The other elements are within the scope moderate contamination.

  6. Sediment Quality Characterization Naval Station San Diego (United States)


    silversides (Menidia beryllina), the bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Gonyaulax polyhedra), the bioluminescent bacteria (Photo- I bacterium phosphoreum ), and...also observed in the diatom at Stations NSB-2, NSB-4, and NSB-5. None of the station sediments produced an IC50 in the bacteria Photobacterium ... phosphoreum (Microtox), 42 while IC 0,,, were observed in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyhedra (QwikSed) at all six stations. Figures 15 through 17 are

  7. An evaluation of the toxicity of contaminated sediments from Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, following remediation (United States)

    Kemble, N.E.; Hardesty, D.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Dwyer, F.J.; MacDonald, D.D.


    Waukegan Harbor in Illinois was designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to high concentrations of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 20 sediment samples collected after remediation (primarily dredging) of Waukegan Harbor for PCBs. A 42-day whole sediment toxicity test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day sediment exposure followed by a 14-day reproductive phase) and sediment toxicity tests with Microtox® were conducted to evaluate sediments from Waukegan Harbor. Endpoints measured were survival, growth, and reproduction (amphipods) and luminescent light emission (bacteria). Survival of amphipods was significantly reduced in 6 of the 20 sediment samples relative to the control. Growth of amphipods (either length or weight) was significantly reduced relative to the control in all samples. However, reproduction of amphipods identified only two samples as toxic relative to the control. The Microtox basic test, conducted with organic extracts of sediments identified only one site as toxic. In contrast, the Microtox solid-phase test identified about 50% of the samples as toxic. A significant negative correlation was observed between reproduction and the concentration of three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) normalized to total organic carbon. Sediment chemistry and toxicity data were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (consensus-based probable effect concentrations, PECs). Results of these analyses indicate that sediment samples from Waukegan Harbor were toxic to H. azteca contaminated at similar contaminant concentrations as sediment samples that were toxic to H. azteca from other areas of the United States. The relationship between PECs and the observed toxicity was not as strong for the Microtox test. The results of this study indicate that the first phase of sediment remediation in Waukegan Harbor successfully lowered concentrations of PCBs at the site

  8. Assessment of river Po sediment quality by micropollutant analysis. (United States)

    Camusso, Marina; Galassi, Silvana; Vignati, Davide


    Trace metals, PCB congeners and DDT homologues were determined in composite sediment samples collected from 10 representative sites along the river Po in two separate seasons. The aim was to identify the most anthropogenically impacted areas for future monitoring programmes and to aid development of Italian sediment quality criteria. The surface samples were collected during low flow conditions. Trace metal concentrations were assayed by electrothermal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb), flame (Fe, Mn, Zn) or hydride generation (As) atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave assisted acid digestion. Hg was determined on solid samples by automated analyser. Organic microcontaminants were determined by gas-chromatography with 63Ni electron capture detector after Soxhlet extraction. Concentrations of trace metals, total PCB and DDT homologues showed two distinct peaks at the sites immediately downstream of Turin and Milan, respectively, and in each case decreased progressively further downstream. Principal component analysis identified three major factors (from a multi-dimensional space of 35 variables) which explained 85-90% of the total observed variance. The first and second factors corresponded to anthropogenic inputs and geological factors on sediment quality; the third included seasonal processes of minor importance. Sediment quality assessment identified Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn and organic microcontaminants as posing the most serious threats to river sediment quality. A reference site within the Po basin provided useful background values. Moderate pollution by organochlorine compounds was ascribed both to local sources and to atmospheric deposition.

  9. Field Observations of Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water and Sediment Quality in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary (United States)

    Bruno, M. S.; Glenn, S.; Chant, R.; Rankin, K.; Korfiatis, G.; Dimou, N.; Creed, E.; Fullerton, B.; Pence, A.; Burke, P.; Haldeman, C.; Hires, R.; Hunter, E.


    The New York-New Jersey Harbor estuary system is of enormous ecological and economic importance to the region. The presence of toxic chemicals in the water and sediments results in reduced water quality, fisheries restrictions/advisories, and general adverse impacts to the estuarine ecosystem. The Port of New York and New Jersey is central to the economy of the region. However, in recent years, problems associated with the management of contaminated dredged material, including high costs and the lack of suitable disposal/use alternatives, have threatened to impact the volume of shipping in the Harbor. Sources of contaminants include atmospheric deposition, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities, combined sewer and stormwater outfalls, and rainfall-induced runoff (non-point sources). In addition, Harbor sediments can act as a continuing source as they are re-suspended and moved throughout the system by both natural and man-made means. As part of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan, Stevens Institute of Technology and Rutgers University are conducting hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water and suspended sediment quality measurements in Newark Bay, the Arthur Kill and the Kill van Kull. The goals of the project include: (1) collection of high resolution (event-driven and long-term) hydrodynamic, sediment transport and water and suspended sediment quality measurements for use in the assessment of the dominant physics of the system and in the development of a combined hydrodynamic-sediment transport-water/sediment quality model for the region. (2) identification of those tributaries to NY-NJ Harbor that are significant sources of the chemicals of concern, and evaluation of the importance of non-point sources and existing contaminated bottom sediments as sources of the chemicals of concern. (3) identification of point discharges that represent significant sources of the chemicals of concern. Observations were obtained over a two-year period

  10. Seasonal variations of water and sediment quality parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 16, 2012 ... Water samples were collected and their nutrient and chlo- rophyll a concentrations were determined, while various other water quality parameters were measured in situ. Sediment samples were analysed for physical and chemical properties, namely, grain size and organic carbon content. The seasonal.

  11. Seasonal variations of water and sediment quality parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four reed pans were selected and assessed to determine seasonal trends of a variety of water and sediment quality parameters. The study took place over one seasonal cycle from 2008–2009; samples were collected seasonally to account for various hydrological extremes. Water samples were collected and their nutrient ...

  12. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003 (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  13. Sediment quality criteria: A review with recommendations for developing criteria for the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.


    Criteria for determining the quality of liver sediment are necessary to ensure that concentrations of contaminants in aquatic systems are within acceptable limits for the protection of aquatic and human life. Such criteria should facilitate decision-making about remediation, handling, and disposal of contaminants. Several approaches to the development of sediment quality criteria (SQC) have been described and include both descriptive and numerical methods. However, no single method measures all impacts at all times to all organisms (U.S. EPA 1992b). The U.S. EPA`s interest is primarily in establishing chemically based, numerical SQC that are applicable nation-wide (Shea 1988). Of the approaches proposed for SQC development, only three are being considered for numerical SQC on a national level. These approaches include an Equilibrium Partitioning Approach, a site-specific method using bioassays (the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach), and an approach similar to EPA`s water quality criteria (Pavlou and Weston 1984). Although national (or even regional) criteria address a number of political, litigative, and engineering needs, some researchers feel that protection of benthic communities require site-specific, biologically based criteria (Baudo et al. 1990). This is particularly true for areas where complex mixtures of contaminants are present in sediments. Other scientifically valid and accepted procedures for freshwater SQC include a background concentration approach, methods using field or spiked bioassays, a screening level concentration approach, the Apparent Effects Threshold Approach, the Sediment Quality Triad, the International Joint Commission Sediment Assessment Strategy, and the National Status and Trends Program Approach. The various sediment assessment approaches are evaluated for application to the Hanford Reach and recommendations for Hanford Site sediment quality criteria are discussed.

  14. Water quality and bed sediment quality in the Albemarle Sound, North Carolina, 2012–14 (United States)

    Moorman, Michelle C.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rhoni-Aref, Ahmed; Loftin, Keith A.


    , 12 metals in surficial bed sediments were detected at levels above a published sediment-quality threshold. These metals included chromium, mercury, copper, lead, arsenic, nickel, and cadmium. Sites with several metal concentrations above the respective thresholds had relatively high concentrations of organic carbon or fine sediment (silt plus clay), or both and were predominantly located in the western and northwestern parts of the Albemarle Sound.Results from the second phase were generally similar to those of the first in that relatively few constituents exceeded a water-quality threshold, both pH and chlorophyll a were detected above the respective water-quality thresholds, and many of these elevated concentrations occurred in the northern embayments and in Currituck Sound. In contrast to the results from phase one, the cyanotoxin, microcystin was detected at more than 10 times the water-quality threshold during a phytoplankton bloom on the Chowan River at Mount Gould, North Carolina in August of 2013. This was the only cyanotoxin concentration measured during the entire study that exceeded a respective water-quality threshold.The information presented in this report can be used to improve understanding of water-quality conditions in the Albemarle Sound, particularly when evaluating causal and response variables that are indicators of eutrophication. In particular, this information can be used by State agencies to help develop water-quality criteria for nutrients, and to understand factors like cyanotoxins that may affect fisheries and recreation in the Albemarle Sound region.

  15. Evaluating Sediment Stability at Offshore Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Facilities (United States)

    Jones, C. A.; Magalen, J.; Roberts, J.; Chang, G.


    Development of offshore alternative energy production methods through the deployment of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) devices (e.g. wave, tidal, and wind generators) in the United States continues at a rapid pace, with significant public and private investment in recent years. The installation of offshore MHK systems includes cabling to the shoreline and some combination of bottom foundation (e.g., piles, gravity bases, suction buckets) or anchored floating structure. Installation of any of this infrastructure at the seabed may affect coastal sediment dynamics. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate the interrelationships between hydrodynamics and seabed dynamics and the effects of MHK foundations and cables on sediment transport. If sufficient information is known about the physical processes and sediment characteristics of a region, hydrodynamic and sediment transport models may be developed to evaluate near and far-field sediment transport. The ultimate goal of these models and methods is to quantitatively evaluate changes to the baseline seabed stability due to the installation of MHK farms in the water. The objective of the present study is to evaluate and validate wave, current, and sediment transport models (i.e., a site analysis) that may be used to estimate risk of sediment mobilization and transport. While the methodology and examples have been presented in a draft guidance document (Roberts et al., 2013), the current report presents an overall strategy for model validation, specifically for a case study in the Santa Cruz Bight, Monterey Bay, CA. Innovative techniques to quantify the risk of sediment mobility has been developed to support these investigations. Public domain numerical models are utilized to estimate the near-shore wave climate (SWAN: Simulating Waves Near-shore) and circulation and sediment transport (EFDC: Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) regimes. The models were validated with field hydrodynamic data. Sediment size information was

  16. Evaluation of sediment toxicity in different Portuguese estuaries: Ecological impact of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (United States)

    Serafim, A.; Company, R.; Lopes, B.; Pereira, C.; Cravo, A.; Fonseca, V. F.; França, S.; Bebianno, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.


    Estuaries are exposed to multiple sources of different pollutants which tend to be trapped in sediments. Estuarine sediments can become reservoirs of contaminants that under certain circumstances may be released back to the water column, increasing their availability to the biota. Therefore, assessing sediment quality, of which toxicity testing is one of the lines-of-evidence, is a key element in ecological risk assessment strategies for these ecosystems. The use of Vibrio fischeri as luminescence bacteria is particularly effective in evaluating contaminated sediment. In this study, the ecotoxicity of sediments from five Portuguese estuaries (Aveiro, Tejo, Sado, Mira and Guadiana), was evaluated with a bioassay considering the 50% bioluminescence reduction of V. fischeri bacterium (EC50). Also, the levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) were determined in the same sites. Moreover the Sediment Quality Guideline Quotient index (SQG-Q) was assessed for all sediments. The EC50 values varied significantly between estuaries but were strongly correlated with the metal concentrations in the different sites. In general Tejo estuary show higher toxicity levels compared to the other estuaries (5-min EC50 values of 5.6 mg mL-1). The integration of sediment contamination data shows that regarding the metallic contamination all sites are moderately impacted, with a higher SQG-Q in the Tejo estuary. On the other hand, when this index is applied to the PAHs levels, all sites are considered unimpacted. This suggests that metal contaminants are the most significant cause of toxicity in these sediments. Nevertheless, other factors can be relevant for this outcome due to the geochemical complexity of estuarine sediments (which affects contaminant speciation and bioavailability) and probably the presence of multiple xenobiotics in these sediments.

  17. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    The inhibitory effects of the organics from the sediment along the east coast of India on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in-vitro were evaluated. Sediment samples collected from the surface layers at various depths were extracted. Each of the extracts...

  18. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Marine Ecotoxicology Research Station; Long, E.R. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); MacDonald, D.D. [MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., Ladysmith, British Columbia (Canada)


    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  19. Chemical evaluations of John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.


    In October 1989, the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted sampling, geological characterization, and chemical evaluation studies on sediment from a proposed ship channel in San Francisco Bay, California. This channel extends from the San Francisco Bar, through San Pablo Bay, into Carquinez Strait, and on to Sacramento. The 1989 study area included a 28-mile-long portion of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel that extended from West Richmond to and including Carquinez Strait. The objective of our study was to determine physical characteristics and chemical contaminant levels in sediment to the proposed project depth of {minus}45 ft mean lower low water (MLLW) (plus 2 ft of overdepth). Sediment core samples were collected at 47 locations throughout the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel using a vibratory hammer core sampler. Ten of these locations were from West Richmond, 29 from San Pablo Bay, and 8 from Carquinez Strait. The geological properties of sediment core samples were described, the sediment from the cores was composited into 72 separate samples based on those descriptions, and chemical analyses were conducted of 13 metals, 16 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 18 pesticides, 7 PCBs, 3 butyltins, and 4 conventional sediment chaacteristics. These data were then compared with sediment values from Oakland and Richmond harbors, reference values from Point Reyes fine- and coarse-grained sediments, and from typical shale sediment. 22 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Students' Evaluation of Teaching Quality (United States)

    Vevere, Nina; Kozlinskis, Vulfs


    Students' evaluations of teaching quality are one of the crucial components of the teaching quality evaluation (along with external evaluation, opinions of colleagues, etc.). According to our research and professional experience, the teaching quality has to be examined in correlation with personality traits of a lecturer. Students' surveys (aiming…

  1. Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y


    The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of sediment yield and sediment data-collection network in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado (United States)

    Kircher, J.E.; Von Guerard, Paul


    Statistical relationships were developed between suspended-sediment discharge and several regional factors of climate, physiography, and land use in the Piceance basin, northwestern Colorado. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the existing sediment collection network, especially in regard to detecting changes in suspended-sediment discharge due to the development in the basin. Spatial- and time variability were examined using multiple linear regression techniques. Because of the short period of record, monthly mean sediment loads were used to determine shifts or changes in trends due to mining and related activities in the basin. Dummy variable analysis was used to detect these premining and postmining differences in the regression lines and also to detect seasonal differences in the sediment discharge. Differences did exist in the sediment discharge from season to season and before and after mining; however, due to the variability and short period of record the cause of these differences could not be adequately determined. Part of the high variability in sediment discharge was due to variability in the water discharge. Therefore, if the network is to be improved, the emphasis needs to be on improvement of the water-discharge. The results of the monthly mean regression analysis were used in the mean monthly and mean annual analysis for determination of initial network design equations. These were only preliminary in nature and could be improved with additional data. (USGS)

  3. The use of two microbiotests to evaluate the toxicity of sediment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of chrome at all three sites exceeded the interim sediment quality guidelines (37 mg/kg), with the sample collected at the upstream site exceeding the probable effect level (90 mg/kg). The findings from this study indicated that the Phytotoxkit and Ostracodtoxkit F test kits are sensitive enough to evaluate ...

  4. Evaluating Sediment Mobility for Siting Nearshore Berms (United States)


    estimate the potential volume of sediment that a placement operation might yield to beneficially nourish a wetland or nearshore region, thereby allowing...1 3 50 2 1 (3)  * * . . exp . . cr θ D D       0 30 0 055 1 0 020 1 1 2 (4) and ERDC/CHL...CHETN-IV-108 April 2016 4   cr cr sτ θ g ρ ρ d  50 (5) where *D is the dimensionless grain size, d50 is the median grain size, g is the

  5. Evaluation of erosion and sedimentation associated with tracked vehicle training (United States)

    Jackie F. Crim; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard; John W. Groninger; James J. Zaczek; Charles M. Ruffner


    A project was designed to assess erosion and sedimentation associated with tracked vehicle training in the Ft. Knox Military Reservation in Kentucky. The project provided an extensive physical and biotic characterization of the training area, including hydrology, water quality, soils, and vegetation. To determine any changes in channel morphology, cross sections were...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric


    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  7. Ejercicio interlaboratorio de bioensayos marinos para la evaluacion de la calidad ambiental de sedimentos costeros en Espana. II Ensayo de inhibicion dela bioluminiscencia para la evaluacion rapida de la toxicidad de sedimentos = Interlaboratory assessment of marine bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality of coastal sediments in Spain. II. Bioluminescence inhibition test for rapid sediment toxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Campisi, T.; Diaz, A.; Re, Lo R.; Obispo, R.; Postma, J.F.; Riba, I.; Sneekes, A.C.; Buceta, J.L.; DelValls, T.A.


    The Microtox (R) bioassay was tested in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the variability when using solid-phase samples. The exercise consisted of two consecutive phases each one carried out with six sediment samples from Spanish ports. Phase I included six laboratories that reported results for

  8. Chemical quality of water and bottom sediment, Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, Lahontan Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Thodal, Carl E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected data on water and bottom-sediment chemistry to be used to evaluate a new water rights acquisition program designed to enhance wetland habitat in Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge and in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, Nevada. The area supports habitat critical to the feeding and resting of migratory birds travelling the Pacific Flyway. Information about how water rights acquisitions may affect the quality of water delivered to the wetlands is needed by stakeholders and Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge managers in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach to wetlands management. A network of six sites on waterways that deliver the majority of water to Refuge wetlands was established to monitor the quality of streamflow and bottom sediment. Each site was visited every 4 to 6 weeks and selected water-quality field parameters were measured when flowing water was present. Water samples were collected at varying frequencies and analyzed for major ions, silica, and organic carbon, and for selected species of nitrogen and phosphorus, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, and other trace organic compounds. Bottom-sediment samples were collected for analysis of selected trace elements.Dissolved-solids concentrations exceeded the recommended criterion for protection of aquatic life (500 milligrams per liter) in 33 of 62 filtered water samples. The maximum arsenic criterion (340 micrograms per liter) was exceeded twice and the continuous criterion was exceeded seven times. Criteria protecting aquatic life from continuous exposure to aluminum, cadmium, lead, and mercury (87, 0.72, 2.5, and 0.77 micrograms per liter, respectively) were exceeded only once in filtered samples (27, 40, 32, and 36 samples, respectively). Mercury was the only trace element analyzed in bottom-sediment samples to exceed the published probable effect concentration (1,060 micrograms per kilogram).

  9. Anthropogenic effects on sediment quality offshore southwestern Taiwan: Assessing the sediment core geochemical record

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Selvaraj, K.; Parthiban, G.; Chen, C.T.A.; Lou, J.Y.

    Slag material was dumped in two sites off southwestern Taiwan by the China Steel Corporation during 1984-1995. By geochemically analyzing four sediment cores, the impact of slag on the sediment chemistry is investigated. Elemental profiles from...

  10. Evaluation of the sedimentation rate in a sediment profile of Bortolan Dam, MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Heleine C. de; Soares, Flávio V.T.S.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Poços de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)


    Volcanic extrusion is one of the main causes for the high levels of environmental radioactivity in the region of Poços de Caldas (MG, Brazil). Uranium mining during the 80's further increased the background radiation in the region, especially in the Ribeirao das Antas watershed, where Bortolan Dam is located. Besides the uranium mining facility operating in the region, other activities, such as agriculture, were also responsible for the enhancement of the levels of radioactivity. The dam sediment profile provides an appropriate compartment for the study of the temporal variation of these radionuclides and for the evaluation of anthropogenic contamination. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the sedimentation rate and the dating of a profile collected in Bortolan Dam, by using the geochronology method. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were measured in the sediment profile by gamma spectrometry. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb varied from (217 ± 9) Bq kg{sup -1} to (286 ± 12) Bq kg{sup -1} and from (262 ± 11) Bq kg{sup -1} to (322 ± 34) Bq·kg{sup -1} respectively; and the sedimentation rates varied from 0.021 to 0.144 g cm{sup -2}y{sup -1}. (author)

  11. The Effect of Sediment Quality and Stocking Density on Survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sediment quality and stocking density on the survival and growth of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra reared in nursery ponds and in pens was studied at Aqua-Lab Farm in Toliara, south west Madagascar. Three types of sediment (micro-atoll, mangrove and seagrass bed) were tested for their food quality ...

  12. Several benthic species can be used interchangeably in integrated sediment quality assessment. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, A; Khosrovyan, A; Del Valls, T A; Obispo, R; Serrano, F; Conradi, M; Riba, I


    The selection of the best management option for contaminated sediments requires the biological assessment of sediment quality using bioindicator organisms. There have been comparisons of the performance of different test species when exposed to naturally occurring sediments. However, more research is needed to determine their suitability to be used interchangeably. The sensitivity of two amphipod species (Ampelisca brevicornis and Corophium volutator) to sediments collected from four different commercial ports in Spain was tested. For comparison the lugworm, Arenicola marina, which is typically used for bioaccumulation testing, was also tested. Chemical analyses of the sediments were also conducted. All species responded consistently to the chemical exposure tests, although the amphipods, as expected, were more sensitive than the lugworm. It was found that C. volutator showed higher vulnerability than A.brevicornis. It was concluded that the three species can be used interchangeably in the battery of tests for integrated sediment quality assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Discharge, suspended sediment, bedload, and water quality in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2010-12 (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Savard, Charles S.


    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Sierra Nevada near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the U.S. Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. A baseline study from water years 2004–07 collected and evaluated data at three Clear Creek sampling sites. These data included discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields. This study builds on what was learned from the baseline study in water years 2004–07 and serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-quality and sediment concentrations and loads during water years 2010–12.

  14. Sediment quality benchmarks for assessing oil-related impacts to the deep-sea benthos. (United States)

    Balthis, William L; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Cooksey, Cynthia; Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Ricker, Robert W; Lewis, Christopher


    Paired sediment contaminant and benthic infaunal data from prior studies following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed using logistic regression models (LRMs) to derive sediment quality benchmarks for assessing risks of oil-related impacts to the deep-sea benthos. Sediment total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were used as measures of oil exposure. Taxonomic richness (average number of taxa/sample) was selected as the primary benthic response variable. Data are from 37 stations (1300-1700 m water depth) in fine-grained sediments (92%-99% silt-clay) sampled within 200 km of the DWH wellhead (most within 40 km) in 2010 and 32 stations sampled in 2011 (29 of which were common to both years). Results suggest the likelihood of impacts to benthic macrofauna and meiofauna communities is low (80%) at concentrations greater than 2144 mg kg-1 and 2359 mg kg-1 respectively, and intermediate at concentrations in between. For total PAHs, the probability of impacts is low (80%) at concentrations greater than 24 mg kg-1 and 25 mg kg-1 for macrofauna and meiofauna, respectively, and intermediate at concentrations in between. Although numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) are available for total PAHs and other chemical contaminants based on bioeffect data for shallower estuarine, marine, and freshwater biota, to our knowledge, none have been developed for measures of total oil (e.g., TPH) or specifically for deep-sea benthic applications. The benchmarks presented herein provide valuable screening tools for evaluating the biological significance of observed oil concentrations in similar deep-sea sediments following future spills and as potential restoration targets to aid in managing recovery. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:840-851. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This

  15. Sediment quality assessment studies in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Biedenbach, J.M. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Texas Gulf Coast Field Station; Long, E.R. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Thursby, G. [Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States); MacDonald, D.D. [MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., Ladysmith, British Columbia (Canada)


    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends program, a bioeffects assessment study was conducted in the vicinity of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. Surficial sediment samples were collected at 55 sites and subsamples were tested for toxicity using (1) the 10-day whole sediment test with Ampelisca abdita, (2) the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays with sediment pore water, and (3) Microtox{trademark} assay with organic sediment extracts. Eleven percent of the samples were significantly toxic in the amphipod test, only 4% were toxic in the sea urchin fertilization test whereas all of the samples were highly toxic in the sea urchin embryological development assay; the Microtox assay determined 56% of the organic sediment extracts to be significantly toxic. Sediment chemical analyses for metals, AVS/SEM, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides were performed on 30 of the 55 samples. Twenty-seven of the 30 samples exceeded at least one probable effects level (PEL) value. For the 20 samples that exceeded 5 or more PELS, the concordance between the predicted and observed toxicity was 20% for the amphipod test, 60% for the Microtox test, and 100% for the sea urchin embryological development assay. There were no significant correlations among the different toxicity tests or between the tests and the contaminant concentrations in the bulk sediment. Possible explanations for the apparent lack of correlation between the sediment chemistry and the toxicity tests will be discussed.

  16. Sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability, John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas, 1964-2009 (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information, bottom-sediment coring, and historical streamgage information was used to investigate sedimentation, sediment quality, and upstream channel stability for John Redmond Reservoir, east-central Kansas. Ongoing sedimentation is reducing the ability of the reservoir to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited between 1964 and 2009 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was 1.46 billion cubic feet and 55.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 41 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 1 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1964 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 1.24 billion pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the reservoir basin was estimated to be 411,000 pounds per square mile per year Information from sediment cores shows that throughout the history of John Redmond Reservoir, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform indicating consistent nitrogen inputs to the reservoir. Total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were more variable than total nitrogen indicating the possibility of changing phosphorus inputs to the reservoir. As the principal limiting factor for primary production in most freshwater environments, phosphorus is of particular importance because increased inputs can contribute to accelerated reservoir eutrophication and the production of algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of the reservoir were estimated to be 2,350,000 pounds per year and 1,030,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual

  17. Preparation of an estuarine sediment quality control material for the determination of trace metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatje Vanessa


    Full Text Available Quality Control Materials (QCM have being used routinely in daily laboratory work as a tool to fill the gap between need and availability of Certified Reference Materials (CRM. The QCM are a low-cost alternative to CRMs, and they are in high demand, especially, for the implementation of quality control systems in laboratories of several areas. This paper describes the preparation of a QCM for the determination of trace metals in estuarine sediments and the results of an interlaboratory exercise. Homogeneity and stability studies were performed and analysis of variance was carried out with the results. No statistical significant differences were observed in the concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn between- or within bottle results. Neither the storage nor temperature affected the results. Therefore, the QCM produced is considered homogeneous and stable and can be used for statistical control charts, evaluation of reproducibility and interlaboratory exercises.

  18. 1992 Sediment Quality Report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment quality was assessed in 1992 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at six backwater sites along the Upper Mississippi River. Five of the backwater sites...

  19. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.


    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  20. Sediment quality assessment studies of Tampa Bay, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Long, E.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). ORCA/Coastal Monitoring and Bioeffects Assessment Div.; Windom, H.L. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States); Thursby, G. [Scientific Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States); Sloane, G.M. [Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wolfe, D.A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States). ORCA/Coastal Monitoring and Bioeffects Assessment Div.


    A survey of the toxicity of sediments throughout the Tampa Bay estuary was performed as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine the spatial extent and severity of toxicity and to identify relationships between chemical contamination and toxicity. Three independent toxicity tests were performed: a 10-d amphipod survival test of the whole sediments with Ampelisca abdita, a sea urchin fertilization test of sediment pore water with Arbacia punctulata, and a 5-min Microtox{reg_sign} bioluminescence test with solvent extracts of the sediments. Seventy-three percent of the 165 undiluted sediment pore-water samples were significantly toxic in the amphipod tests. The causes of toxicity were not determined. However, concentrations of numerous trace metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ammonia were highly correlated with pore-water toxicity. Concentrations of many substances, especially total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endrin, total PCBs, certain PAHs, lead, and zinc, occurred at concentrations in the toxic samples that equaled or exceeded concentrations that have been previously associated with sediment toxicity.

  1. Sediment quality assessment studies of Tampa bay, Florida (United States)

    Carr, Scott R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Long, Edward R.; Windom, Herbert L.; Thursby, Glen; Sloane, Gail M.; Wolfe, Douglas A.


    A survey of the toxicity of sediments throughout the Tampa Bay estuary was performed as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine the spatial extent and severity of toxicity and to identify relationships between chemical contamination and toxicity. Three independent toxicity tests were performed: a 10-d amphipod survival test of the whole sediments with Ampelisca abdita, a sea urchin fertilization test of sediment pore water with Arbacia punctulata, and a 5-min Microtox® bioluminescence test with solvent extracts of the sediments. Seventy-three percent of the 165 undiluted sediment pore-water samples were significantly toxic relative to reference samples with the sea urchin fertilization test. In contrast, only 2% of the 165 samples were significantly toxic in the amphipod tests. The causes of toxicity were not determined. However, concentrations of numerous trace metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ammonia were highly correlated with pore-water toxicity. Concentrations of many substances, especially total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endrin, total PCBs, certain PAHs, lead, and zinc, occurred at concentrations in the toxic samples that equaled or exceeded concentrations that have been previously associated with sediment toxicity.

  2. Environmental geochemistry and sediment quality in Lake Pontchartrain: database development and review (United States)

    Manheim, Frank T.; Flowers, George C.; McIntire, Andrew G.; Marot, Marcie; Holmes, Charles


    This paper reports on preliminary results of a project to develop a comprehensive data base of chemical and environmental information on sediments from Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and surrounding water bodies. The goal is to evaluate all data for reliability and comparability, and to make it widely accessible and useful to all users. Methods for processing heterogeneous, historical data follow previous methods employed in the Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay area. Data from 11 different data sets, encompassing about 900 total samples, have been entered to date. Questionable or anomalous data were noted in a minority of cases. Problems tend to follow distinct patterns and are relatively easy to identify. Hence, comparability of data has not proven to be the major obstacle to synthesis efforts that was anticipated in earlier years (NRC, 1989). Quality-controlled data sets show that the bulk of sediment samples in the more central parts of Lake Pontchartrain have values within normal background for heavy metals like Cu, Pb, and Zn. The same or lower concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, representing influx from the Mississippi River. Mean concentrations for Cu, Pb, and Zn were 17, 21, and 74 µg/g (total dissolution analyses), respectively. However, values as high as 267 µg/g Pb and comparable increases for other metal and organic contaminants are found in sediments within 2 km of the coastal strip of New Orleans. Additional sampling in such areas and in other inland coastal waterways is needed, since such levels are above the threshold for potential toxic effects on benthic organisms, according to effects-based screening criteria. The most contaminated sites, Bayou Trepagnier and Bayou Bonfouca, involve industrial areas where waste discharge has now been controlled or remediated, but where sediments may retain large concentrations of contaminants, e.g. tenths of a percent of Pb, Cr, and Zn or more for Bayou Trepagnier.

  3. Spatial Assessment of the Effect of Sediment Quality on the Nutrient Levels in Shallow Waters: Cernek Lake Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Cüce


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the water-sediment quality and trophic status changes of Cernek Lake located in the Kızılırmak Delta (one of the most important wetlands in Turkey and protected as a Ramsar site. The main objective, was evaluated and examined the effects on trophic level of surface water that the layers of lake sediments can create. In the study, the periodic exchange on trophic level have been evaluated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS by identifying existing water of lake and sediment quality of lake. Spatial analysis was realized for water and sediment quality parameters (pH, salinity, Secchi disc depth and chlorophyll-a, total phosphate and total organic carbon (TOC concentrations. The results of field studies conducted at Cernek Lake for three seasons (2010-2011 showed that the sediments contain high phosphate (annual average 541 mg / kg PO4-P, dry weight and high organic carbon content (annual average 22.4 G / kg TOC, Dry weight. During the summer, Carlson Index values relatively declined during this period compared to autumn (81 to 79, but the eutrophic structure of the lake is still found to be high character. Findings, showed that the contaminated lake sediment layer would be highly effective in trophic level of the lake therefore it has revealed the necessity of taking measures for eutrophication. According to the results of study, taking the medium and long term measures to eutrophication and implementation of the strategic action plan is required.

  4. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations


    Youn Shik Park; Bernie A. Engel


    Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST), provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load) on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment ...

  5. Environmental impact of the Midia Port - Black Sea (Romania, on the coastal sediment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catianis Irina


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the upstream anthropogenic sources and port-related activities. The in-vestigated area covered a wide range of anthropogenic im-pacts (e.g., industrial wastes, storm water runoff, acciden-tal oil spills, intentional discharges and shipping activities. The quality of water and Sediments was assessed us-ing Standard methods, as physical-chemical parameters, chemistry and biology (microbiology, ecotoxicology aim-ing to figure the level of pollution and the effect of port-related activities. Seawater quality results agreed generally with environmental Standards. Though, in some samples the concentrations of sulphates (mg/1 and heavy metals (μg/1, as B, As and Se exceeded the recommended lim-its, without posing a serious environmental concern. Most of the surface sediment samples contain critical levels of hydrocarbons (C>12, (mg/kg, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ng/g and polychlorobiphenyls (ng/g. For some heavy metals (mg/kg, exchangeable concentrations were found to be very close or above the regulations. The signifi-cance of this study is incontestable taking into account the lack of previous relevant historical data of this area. In this sense, it was possible to indicate, in general, good environmental conditions, despite the industrial and concentrated local port-related activities in the investigated area.

  6. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granberg, Maria E.; Selck, Henriette


    of sediment-associated pyrene in Nereis diversicolor (Annelida) and Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata), as well as the combined effect of SOM quality and infaunal bioturbation on pyrene distribution and metabolism in the sediment. After 45 d of exposure, SOM quality almost doubled pyrene bioaccumulation...

  7. Application of sediment quality guidelines in the assessment and management of contaminated surficial sediments in Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), Australia. (United States)

    Birch, Gavin F; Taylor, Stuart E


    Sediments in the Port Jackson estuary are polluted by a wide range of toxicants and concentrations are among the highest reported for any major harbor in the world. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), developed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the United States are used to estimate possible adverse biological effects of sedimentary contaminants in Port Jackson to benthic animals. The NOAA guidelines indicate that Pb, Zn, DDD, and DDE are the most likely contaminants to cause adverse biological effects in Port Jackson. On an individual chemical basis, the detrimental effects due to these toxicants may occur over extensive areas of the harbor, i.e., about 40%, 30%, 15% and 50%, respectively. The NOAA SQGs can also be used to estimate the probability of sediment toxicity for contaminant mixtures by determining the number of contaminants exceeding an upper guideline value (effects range medium, or ERM), which predicts probable adverse biological effects. The exceedence approach is used in the current study to estimate the probability of sediment toxicity and to prioritize the harbour in terms of possible adverse effects on sediment-dwelling animals. Approximately 1% of the harbor is mantled with sediment containing more than ten contaminants exceeding their respective ERM concentrations and, based on NOAA data, these sediments have an 80% probability of being toxic. Sediment with six to ten contaminants exceeding their respective ERM guidelines extend over approximately 4% of the harbor and have a 57% probability of toxicity. These areas are located in the landward reaches of embayments in the upper and central harbor in proximity to the most industrialised and urbanized part of the catchment. Sediment in a further 17% of the harbor has between one and five exceedences and has a 32% probability of being toxic. The application of SQGs developed by NOAA has not been tested outside North America, and the validity of using them in Port

  8. Sediment pollutant evaluation at priority dam removal sites in North Carolina (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — North Carolina dam removal mitigation guidelines call for site-specific evaluation of sediment issues, including sediment contamination. From 2004 to 2008, the U.S....

  9. Water and sediment quality of Ashtamudi estuary, a Ramsar site, southwest coast of India--a statistical appraisal. (United States)

    Babu, K Narendra; Omana, P K; Mohan, Mahesh


    Ashtamudi estuary, situated on the southwest coast of India, is enormously affected by anthropogenic interventions. Physicochemical quality of water and sedimentological features of the estuary are evaluated during monsoon and nonmonsoon seasons to elucidate its quality variations and to link the same with existing environmental scenario. The whole data has been factorized using principal component analysis for extracting the total variability and linear relationships existing among a set of different physicochemical parameters of the backwater system. In PCA, high loadings were obtained for conductivity, salinity, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, boron, and pH. The results were revealed that all the physicochemical processes depend upon seasonal fluctuation of freshwater input and seawater intrusion. Wide spatial concentration fluctuations of organic carbon and iron in bottom sediment have been noticed and both constituents reveal good correlation with sediment texture. The results showed high deterioration of the physicochemical quality of water during nonmonsoon season with respect to monsoon season.

  10. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso


    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  11. Sediment quality dredging from Viareggio harbour; Valutazione della qualita` di sedimenti del porto di Viareggio da sottoporre ad escavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausili, A.; Pellegrini, D. [ICRAM, Istituto Centrale per la -ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Onorati, F.; De Ranieri, S. [CIBM, Centro Interuniversitario di Biologia Marina, Livorno (Italy)


    Several areas of Viareggio Harbour (Italy) (inside, outer-port and harbour-entrance) a tourist attended port close to the Thyrrhenian coast, has to be dredged. This operation requires accurate determination of physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics before the following disposal or alternative uses (e.g. in beach nourishment). Sediment texture, heavy metal concentrations, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined, and preliminary bioassays were performed in order to evaluate sediment quality and toxicity. This study shows that harbour-entrance sediments are mainly clean sands, while in the other sites the finer fraction is dominant. High concentrations of anthropic contaminants in the inner port make them not suitable for the disposal in the dumping site.

  12. Climate Change Impacts on Sediment Quality of Subalpine Reservoirs: Implications on Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziali Laura


    Full Text Available Reservoirs are characterized by accumulation of sediments where micropollutants may concentrate, with potential toxic effects on downstream river ecosystems. However, sediment management such as flushing is needed to maintain storage capacity. Climate change is expected to increase sediment loads, but potential effects on their quality are scarcely known. In this context, sediment contamination by trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organics (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs, Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs and C > 12 hydrocarbons was analyzed in 20 reservoirs located in Italian Central Alps. A strong As and a moderate Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment was emphasized by Igeo, with potential ecotoxicological risk according to Probable Effect Concentration quotients. Sedimentation rate, granulometry, total organic carbon (TOC and altitude resulted as the main drivers governing pollutant concentrations in sediments. According to climate change models, expected increase of rainfall erosivity will enhance soil erosion and consequently the sediment flow to reservoirs, potentially increasing coarse grain fractions and thus potentially diluting pollutants. Conversely, increased weathering may enhance metal fluxes to reservoirs. Increased vegetation cover will potentially result in higher TOC concentrations, which may contrast contaminant bioavailability and thus toxicity. Our results may provide elements for a proper management of contaminated sediments in a climate change scenario aiming at preserving water quality and ecosystem functioning.

  13. Recent Trends in Suspended Sediment Load & Water Quality in the Upper Chesapeake Bay (United States)

    Freeman, L. A.; Ackleson, S. G.


    The Chesapeake Bay spans several major cities on the US east coast and drains a large watershed (164,200 km2) to the Atlantic Ocean. Upstream deforestation and agriculture have led to a major decline in water quality (increased sediment and nutrient load) of the Bay over the past century. Sediment flux into the Chesapeake Bay is a natural process, but has become an environmental concern as land use changes have exacerbated natural suspended sediment loads and saturated the capacity of the estuary to filter and remove sediments. In situ measurements of suspended sediments and surface reflectance from the Potomac, Patapsco, and Severn River were used to develop algorithms that convert surface reflectance from Landsat (1-3, 4-5, 7, 8) imagery to suspended sediment concentration for the entire Chesapeake Bay. A unique time series of suspended sediment load in the Chesapeake Bay was compiled from Landsat imagery dating from 1977-2015. Particular focus is given to the upper Chesapeake Bay near Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD to understand urban effects. In particular, the Potomac, Patapsco, and Severn River are examined from both remote sensing and in situ measurements. Landsat imagery combined with in situ monitoring provides environmental scientists and resource managers with detailed trends in sediment distribution and concentration, a key measure of water quality. Trends of suspended sediment load in several rivers and the upper Chesapeake Bay will be presented, along with a discussion of suspended sediment algorithms for Landsat imagery. Advantages of Landsat 8 (improved signal-to-noise performance and more bands) versus previous sensors will be examined for suspended sediment applications.

  14. Assessment of stream bottom sediment quality in the vicinity of the Caldas uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila E.S. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (ProAmb/UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental; Filho, Carlos A.C.; Moreira, Rubens M.; Ramos, Maria E.A.F.; Dutra, Pedro H.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas


    An evaluation of the quality of stream bottom sediments was performed in the surroundings of the Caldas Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities (UMMF), sited on Pocos de Caldas Plateau (southeastern Brazil), to verify whether the sediments in the water bodies downstream the plant, were impacted by effluents from a large waste rock pile, named Waste Rock Pile 4 (WRP4), and from the Tailings Dam (TD). In order to perform the research, twelve sampling stations were established in the watersheds around Caldas UMMF: the Soberbo creek, the Consulta brook, and the Taquari river. One of the stations was located inside the Bacia Nestor Figueiredo, a retention pond that receives effluents from WRP4, and another in a settling tank (D2) for radium, which receives the effluents from TD. A monitoring scheme has been developed, comprising four sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011, and the samples were analyzed for selected metals-metalloids and radionuclides, using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Spectrometry. The results suggest that effluents discharged from retention ponds to watercourses, causing an increase in the concentration of As, B, Ba, Cr, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in sediments. Detailed investigation in sub-superficial layers is recommended at these locations to evaluate the need of implementing mitigation actions such as lining and constructing hydraulic barriers downstream the ponds. Actually, the UTM/Caldas operator is already implementing control measures. (author)

  15. Piracicaba River Basin: evaluation of chemical elements in deep sediment profile by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Elvis J. de; Santos, Robson A.; Santos, Katarine M. Barbosa; Silva, Gleyce K. A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (DIAMB/CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div, de Monitoração Ambiental; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O., E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)


    Many hydrographic basins have been impacted by anthropogenic sources, the Piracicaba River Basin of the State of São Paulo, is one of that. The total concentrations of chemical elements in deep sediments of basin may be indicate those available in ecosystem. Therefore, in this research concentration of chemical elements on deep sediment profile sampled of Piracicaba River Basin was determined by k0-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. After collecting the 60 cm depth profile, samples were obtained by sectioning the sediment profile in 5 cm layers, totalizing 12 samples. Analytical portions were transferred to polyethylene vials for neutron irradiation at the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN. After waiting for radiation safe levels, irradiated samples were transported to the Radioisotopes Laboratory from the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura CENA/USP. High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry using HPGe detectors was applied to measure the induced radioactivity. The chemical element mass fractions and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties (95% confidence level) were determined by k0-INAA using the in-house software Quantu. Geological reference materials were analyzed with samples to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. Results indicated the presence of enriched surface sediments (0-10 cm depth) for As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, Sb, Sc, Sr, Yb and Zn, despite no alteration was observed for Eu, Ta and Tb. Therefore, the evaluation of deep sediment profile afford the chemical element dynamics for the Piracicaba Basin. (author)

  16. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  17. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007 (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.


    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  18. An evaluation of cause-effect relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and sediment toxicity to benthic invertebrates. (United States)

    Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Barber, Timothy R; Lawton, Jennifer C; Leigh, Katrina B


    Cause-effect sediment-quality benchmarks for the protection of benthic invertebrates are needed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to support predictive risk assessments and retrospective evaluations of the causes of observed sediment toxicity. An in-depth evaluation of PCB aquatic toxicity and organic carbon partitioning was conducted to predict sediment effect concentrations using the equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach. This evaluation was limited to invertebrate toxicity data, because PCBs may exert toxicity to invertebrates and fish via different toxicological mechanisms. As a result of differences in organic carbon partitioning among PCBs of differing levels of chlorination, the estimated EqP benchmarks increase with increasing degree of chlorination for various commercial and environmental PCB mixtures. Studies of spiked sediment toxicity using PCBs were reviewed, and their results generally were consistent with EqP predictions. Additionally, toxicity and benthic community data were reviewed for eight PCB-contaminated sites; these data also showed agreement with EqP predictions. None of these lines of evidence supports previously proposed, empirical sediment-quality guidelines for PCBs. Reasons for the lack of agreement between cause-effect and association-based benchmarks are discussed, and areas of future research to further refine EqP predictions for PCBs are identified.

  19. Evaluation of toxicity: Whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures with amphipod Hyalella azteca (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Kemble, N.E.


    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of whole-sediment versus overlying-water exposures to the amphipod Hyalella azteca using field-collected sediments. Severe toxic effects (5-63% survival) were observed with amphipods exposed for 10 d in direct contact with sediment. In contrast, amphipods exposed only to overlying water in these sediment exposures did not exhibit any toxic effects.

  20. Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan. (United States)

    Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan


    Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water.

  1. Characterization and evaluation of potential reuse options for wastewater sludge and combined sewer system sediments in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Mendez, J.M.; Barrios, J.A.; Salgado, G.; Sheinbaum, C.


    Combined sewer systems generate sediments that have characteristics similar to those of primary sludge. Mexico City has such a system composed of a network of pipes, regulation structures (dams, basins) and open channels. The annual generation of sediments is estimated in 2.8 Mm{sup 3}, which includes 0.41 Mm{sup 3} of sludge. As a result, the total capacity for transporting water is reduced considerably, making necessary to extract yearly an approximate 0.85 Mm{sup 3} of those materials and to send them to a final disposal site with a capacity that is being exhausted. As part of the local Governmental effort, this project evaluates the quality of sediments from 6 dams, 4 regulation basins, 2 open channels, and 3 transfer stations. Also, sludge from 20 wastewater treatment plants was sampled. The results showed an important presence of lead and hydrocarbons in some sediments, and some sludge samples contained arsenic and nickel above the limits. Moreover, microbial levels exceeded the limits in all the sediments and sludge samples. Erosion was linked to the generation of an important amount of sediments based on lead concentration. A classification was established to determine the degree of contamination of the sediments as well as the required treatment to allow their potential reuse. (author)

  2. Using an integrated approach to assess the sediment quality of an estuary from the semi-arid coast of Brazil. (United States)

    Souza, Ivanildo Surini; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Fonseca, Tainá Garcia; Camargo, Julia Beatriz Duarte Alves; Medeiros, Guilherme Fulgêncio; Abessa, Denis M S


    The Jundiaí-Potengi Estuary (JPE) on the semi-arid coast of Brazil is influenced by multiple sources of pollution. Sediment quality at 10 JPE sites was evaluated through an integrated approach. Rainy and dry seasons were considered. Collected sediments were analyzed for texture, metal, nitrogen, phosphorus concentrations, and toxicity to invertebrates. Geochemical and ecotoxicological data were integrated using qualitative approaches and multivariate techniques. We observed decreased sediment quality in both seasons, particularly in the mid-estuary. In the dry season, the contamination-toxicity relationship was clearer, as hydrological conditions favor contaminant retention within the estuary. Rainy season conditions were found to be worse, since stormwater drainage from agricultural and urban areas carries the contamination into the estuary. Because of the contamination sources and dissolved and particle-bound metal transport, contamination and toxicity did not correlate as clearly in the rainy season. The results suggest that unmeasured contaminants are contributing to JPE sediment degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Atmospheric deposition, water-quality, and sediment data for selected lakes in Mount Rainer, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington, 2008-10 (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Moran, Patrick W.; Swarzenski, Peter W.


    To evaluate the potential effect from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to high-elevation lakes, the U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the National Park Service to develop a "critical load" of nitrogen for sediment diatoms. A critical load is defined as the level of a given pollutant (in this case, nitrogen) at which detrimental effects to a target endpoint (sediment diatoms) result. Because sediment diatoms are considered one of the "first responders" to ecosystem changes from nitrogen, they are a sensitive indicator for nitrogen deposition changes in natural areas. This report presents atmospheric deposition, water quality, sediment geochronology, and sediment diatom data collected from July 2008 through August 2010 in support of this effort.

  4. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.


    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  5. Evaluating the impact of field-scale management strategies on sediment transport to the watershed outlet. (United States)

    Sommerlot, Andrew R; Pouyan Nejadhashemi, A; Woznicki, Sean A; Prohaska, Michael D


    Non-point source pollution from agricultural lands is a significant contributor of sediment pollution in United States lakes and streams. Therefore, quantifying the impact of individual field management strategies at the watershed-scale provides valuable information to watershed managers and conservation agencies to enhance decision-making. In this study, four methods employing some of the most cited models in field and watershed scale analysis were compared to find a practical yet accurate method for evaluating field management strategies at the watershed outlet. The models used in this study including field-scale model (the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2 - RUSLE2), spatially explicit overland sediment delivery models (SEDMOD), and a watershed-scale model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT). These models were used to develop four modeling strategies (methods) for the River Raisin watershed: Method 1) predefined field-scale subbasin and reach layers were used in SWAT model; Method 2) subbasin-scale sediment delivery ratio was employed; Method 3) results obtained from the field-scale RUSLE2 model were incorporated as point source inputs to the SWAT watershed model; and Method 4) a hybrid solution combining analyses from the RUSLE2, SEDMOD, and SWAT models. Method 4 was selected as the most accurate among the studied methods. In addition, the effectiveness of six best management practices (BMPs) in terms of the water quality improvement and associated cost were assessed. Economic analysis was performed using Method 4, and producer requested prices for BMPs were compared with prices defined by the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). On a per unit area basis, producers requested higher prices than EQIP in four out of six BMP categories. Meanwhile, the true cost of sediment reduction at the field and watershed scales was greater than EQIP in five of six BMP categories according to producer requested prices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Microfluidic sedimentation cytometer for milk quality and bovine mastitis monitoring. (United States)

    Garcia-Cordero, Jose L; Barrett, Louise M; O'Kennedy, Richard; Ricco, Antonio J


    We report a rapid, low-cost, portable microfluidic sedimentation cytometer (SeCy) for assessing the somatic cell count and fat content of milk in 15 min using a "sample-in, answer-out" approach. The system consists of 12 independent microfluidic devices, essentially flattened funnel structures, fabricated on the footprint of a single plastic compact disc (CD). Each funnel structure holds 150 μL of milk, has an inlet for milk filling and an outlet for air to escape, and ends in a narrow, closed-end microfluidic channel that facilitates packing of the cells into a column whose length is proportional to cell count. The closed-end channel provides accurate cell counts over the range 50,000->3,000,000 cells per mL. The assay separates cells and fat globules based on their densities (by differential sedimentation), concentrating white cells in the closed-end channel near the outer rim of the CD for estimation of total "cell pellet" volume, while fat globules move toward the center of disc rotation, forming a fat "band" in the funnel. After adding milk to two or more microfluidic devices, the CD is loaded onto a custom-built reader unit that spins the disc for 15 min. Two low-cost microscopes in the reader image the centrifuged cell pellet and the fat band, providing a sufficiently accurate cell count to diagnose mastitis and measuring fat content as an indication of health and nutritional status.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries (northern Persian Gulf) using sediment quality indices (United States)

    Davoodi, Hamid; Gharibreza, Mohammadreza; Negarestan, Hossein; Mortazavi, Mohammad Sedigh; Lak, Razieh


    The Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries are located in Nayband Bay in the northern Persian Gulf, which faces long-term contamination and ecological risks. The research objectives of this study were designed to assess the ecological risks for human health and aquatic life and to evaluate impacts on environmental changes. Accordingly, an index analysis approach (using the contamination factor Cf, contamination degree Cd, potential ecological risk factor for individual metals Er, and potential ecological risk index for the basin, RI) in conjunction with the enrichment factor (Ef) and sediment quality levels (comprised of the threshold effect level, TEL, the probable effect level, PEL, and the effects range medium, ERM) were employed. In total, 147 sediment samples were tested to determine the content of organic matter and sulfur, as well as the concentrations of terrestrial and rare earth elements (REEs) and toxic metals, namely As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Hg, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Gulf War oil spills in addition to oil and gas industries of the Pars South Especial Economic Zone (PSEEZ) were identified as the primary source of pollution in the study area. Gulf War contamination in the study area is highlighted by increased levels of Cd and RI at key horizons at 29 cm, 35 cm and 49 cm depth in the sedimentary columns of the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries and Gavbandi River, respectively. Adverse effects of PSEEZ were revealed by increasing concentrations of toxic metals, P and S in the top 25-30 cm of the sedimentary columns. As a result, superficial sediments have been severely polluted by As, Ni, Cd, Cu and Cr, while the entire sedimentary column of the Assaluyeh estuary has been polluted by Hg. Based on the locations of the key horizons, the sedimentation rates of the previous decade at the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries and the Gavbandi River were calculated to be 1.26 cm, 1.52 cm, and 2.13 cm, respectively. The

  8. Developing the new method measuring thickness and quality of bottom sediments in using ultrasonic wave (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomonari; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Naohiro


    Measuring the quality and thickness of bottom sediment that it causes some environmental problem, the shortage of water storage volume and anaerobic zone in the bottom of reservoirs, takes huge costs and long time. The purpose of our research is to develop a new method to measure the thickness and size characteristics of bottom sediment using ultrasonic waves that allow obtaining the quality of it indirectly. This new method applies the echo characteristic of bottom sediment in each particle size using the higher frequency than another method, which uses for measuring geological layer at seabed survey. In this research, we attempted to estimate the particle size of bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves irradiating from two different directions such as horizontal and vertical direction, and compare these experiments. We use sediment that we sampled from the lake bottom classified by particle size. At first, we acquired the results that show a relation between particle size and intensity; the obtained echo intensities, which were observed with oscilloscope, were changed depending on the particle sizes. In addition, peaks, which were obtained by power spectrum analysis, appeared on the same frequency band even though the different particle size. However the relation between the experiments of horizontal and vertical direction is not clear. This research indicated the possibility of estimating the characteristics of each particle size in bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves.

  9. Image quality metrics for the evaluation of print quality (United States)

    Pedersen, Marius; Bonnier, Nicolas; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Albregtsen, Fritz


    Image quality metrics have become more and more popular in the image processing community. However, so far, no one has been able to define an image quality metric well correlated with the percept for overall image quality. One of the causes is that image quality is multi-dimensional and complex. One approach to bridge the gap between perceived and calculated image quality is to reduce the complexity of image quality, by breaking the overall quality into a set of quality attributes. In our research we have presented a set of quality attributes built on existing attributes from the literature. The six proposed quality attributes are: sharpness, color, lightness, artifacts, contrast, and physical. This set keeps the dimensionality to a minimum. An experiment validated the quality attributes as suitable for image quality evaluation. The process of applying image quality metrics to printed images is not straightforward, because image quality metrics require a digital input. A framework has been developed for this process, which includes scanning the print to get a digital copy, image registration, and the application of image quality metrics. With quality attributes for the evaluation of image quality and a framework for applying image quality metrics, a selection of suitable image quality metrics for the different quality attributes has been carried out. Each of the quality attributes has been investigated, and an experimental analysis carried out to find the most suitable image quality metrics for the given quality attributes. For the sharpness attributes the Structural SIMilarity index (SSIM) by Wang et al. (2004) is the the most suitable, and for the other attributes further evaluation is required.

  10. Use of ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) as bioindicator to assess sediment quality of two constructed mangrove sewage treatment belts in Southern China. (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Hua; Xu, Run-Lin; Tam, Nora F Y; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S


    To complement physical and chemical data, information of biological communities is important to assess the qualities of mangrove sediments receiving wastewater. Ciliate communities have cosmopolitan distribution, short life cycle and high sensitivity to pollutants, which make them useful as biological indicators of the sediment environment. In most literature, ciliates are widely used as bioindicators for the state of water quality. In this study, the physico-chemical parameters and ciliate community structure of surface sediment collected at different sampling points from two constructed mangrove (Aegiceras and Sonneratia) belts for treatment of municipal sewage in southern China were investigated. Results showed that most (> 80%) of the 216 species ciliates identified at the two constructed mangrove belts were either omnivorous or bacterivorous. Sediment redox potential (Eh) was considered an important factor to govern the distribution of ciliate species within the mangrove sediment. The saprobic system originally derived from freshwater ecosystem was used to evaluate the saprobic degrees of these constructed mangrove belts. Saprobic index (SI) values declined from the sewage inlet to the outlet points of the constructed belts, suggesting better sediment quality at the outlet point caused by treatment processes within the mangrove belt system. Sediment quality of the sewage outlet area of the constructed Aegiceras belt was determined as class II-III (SI = 2.48), while that of the Sonneratia belt was as class III (SI = 2.71) according to the saprobic classification, indicating that a better sewage treatment efficiency was apparent in the Aegiceras than Sonneratia belt. The present data suggested that ciliates could serve as a good bioindicator in assessing organically polluted sediment qualities.

  11. Toxicity of Halifax Harbour sediments: An evaluation of the Microtox solid phase bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, N.H.; Wells, P.G. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). School for Resource and Environmental Studies


    Subtidal sediments were collected from 8 stations in Halifax Harbour, N.S., in July and August, 1992, to initiate a study of sediment toxicity and hazards near the proposed location of a sewage treatment plant and outfall. A set of 110 samples was evaluated. Interstitial water from aerobic surface (0--2cm) and anaerobic subsurface (2-4cm) sediments was analyzed by the Microtox{reg_sign} toxicity test protocol; the sediment particles were analyzed using the Microtox Solid Phase Test (SPT). Toxicity was expressed as 5, 15, and 30min-EC50`s for the interstitial samples, and 5min-EC50`s for the sediments, the endpoint being the inhibition of photoluminescence of Photobacterium phosphoreum. Interstitial water from surface and subsurface sediments from all stations was usually non-toxic, when compared to a phenol standard. The mean 5min-EC50 of surface sediments (n = 57) was 5,433mg/L; the mean 5min-EC50 of subsurface sediments (n = 50) was 804 mg/L. Toxicity thresholds were compared with NRC sediment reference materials and a selection of natural sediments; then ranked based on criteria suggested by Environment Canada. Intra- and inter-sample variability in toxicity at different locations in relation to time, sediment depth, sediment properties, types and concentrations of contaminants, was evaluated by multivariate and PCA techniques. An experiment with marine reference sediments (certified for PAHs and trace metals) and their mixtures showed the ability of the STP to discriminate between different levels of contaminated sediments, i.e. a dose-response relationship was demonstrated. This laboratory-field study provided insights into the sensitivity, reproducibility, significance and discriminatory ability of the Microtox{reg_sign} SPT, characteristics necessary for its deployment in a tiered hazard assessment of contaminated harbor sediments.

  12. Seasonality of contamination, toxicity, and quality values in sediments from littoral ecosystems in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain). (United States)

    DelValls, T Angel; Forja, Jesús M; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo


    To seasonally evaluate littoral contamination, toxicity and quality values of sediments from the Gulf of Cádiz, we measured chemical concentrations and conducted toxicity tests in winter and summer and linked these results by means of multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were subjected to two separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests (Microdeutopus gryllotalpa amphipod survival, and Ruditapes philippinarum clam reburial), and to comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses (grain size, organic carbon, 14 heavy metals, and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS)). Only sediments associated with an untreated urban discharge were toxic and related to high levels of surfactant LAS, Ag, and Pb. Multivariate analysis indicated that variables and chemicals associated with geochemical matrix and background levels (specific surface, Fe, Zn, Cu, V, Ni, and Co), chemicals associated with untreated urban discharge sources, and toxicity effects showed no seasonal variability. Only copper concentrations showed seasonal differences, being toxic during the winter and not toxic during summer. Multivariate analysis permits us to derive sediment quality values (SQVs); in terms of concentrations at or below which biological effects were not measured (mg kg(-1) dry sediment), are: LAS, 2.6; lead, 66.8; silver, 0.78; copper, 69.6.

  13. Evaluation of a bioassays battery for ecotoxicological screening of marine sediments from Ionian Sea (Mediterranea Sea, Southern Italy). (United States)

    Prato, Ermelinda; Parlapiano, Isabella; Biandolino, Francesca


    Sediments are an ecologically important component of the aquatic environment and may play a key role in mediating the exchange of contaminants between particulate, dissolved, and biological phases. For a comprehensive assessment of potential sediment toxicity, the use of a single species may not detect toxicant with a specific mode of action. Therefore it is advisable to carry out ecotoxicological tests on a base-set of taxa utilizing test species belonging to different trophic levels. This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments from seven sites of Mar Piccolo estuary (Southern, Italy), four of them were located in the first inlet and three in the second inlet of Mar Piccolo estuary. Sediment samples from a site in Taranto Gulf were used as control sediment. Dunaliella tertiolecta, Tigriopus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Corophium insidiosum, were employed to identify the quality of sediments. The integration of biological tests results showed that all sampling sites located in the first inlet of Mar Piccolo were identified as toxic, according to all tests, while the sites of second inlet were found not toxic. The results obtained in this study indicate that the use of a battery of biological tests have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine e coastal waters.


    The availability of heavy metals in contaminated sediment evaluated for beneficial reuse, before and after chemical amendment, was evaluated using poultry manure as the amendment. The dredged sediment was only slightly contaminated with heay metals.Availability tests on the amend...

  15. Development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for North and South Atlantic littoral zones: comparison against national and international sediment quality benchmarks. (United States)

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Abessa, D M S; Torres, R J; Morais, R D; Riba, I; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; DelValls, T A


    We aimed to develop site-specific sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for two estuarine and port zones in Southeastern Brazil (Santos Estuarine System and Paranaguá Estuarine System) and three in Southern Spain (Ría of Huelva, Bay of Cádiz, and Bay of Algeciras), and compare these values against national and traditionally used international benchmark values. Site-specific SQGs were derived based on sediment physical-chemical, toxicological, and benthic community data integrated through multivariate analysis. This technique allowed the identification of chemicals of concern and the establishment of effects range correlatively to individual concentrations of contaminants for each site of study. The results revealed that sediments from Santos channel, as well as inner portions of the SES, are considered highly polluted (exceeding SQGs-high) by metals, PAHs and PCBs. High pollution by PAHs and some metals was found in São Vicente channel. In PES, sediments from inner portions (proximities of the Ponta do Félix port's terminal and the Port of Paranaguá) are highly polluted by metals and PAHs, including one zone inside the limits of an environmental protection area. In Gulf of Cádiz, SQGs exceedences were found in Ria of Huelva (all analysed metals and PAHs), in the surroundings of the Port of Cádiz (Bay of Cádiz) (metals), and in Bay of Algeciras (Ni and PAHs). The site-specific SQGs derived in this study are more restricted than national SQGs applied in Brazil and Spain, as well as international guidelines. This finding confirms the importance of the development of site-specific SQGs to support the characterisation of sediments and dredged material. The use of the same methodology to derive SQGs in Brazilian and Spanish port zones confirmed the applicability of this technique with an international scope and provided a harmonised methodology for site-specific SQGs derivation.

  16. Determination of the water and sediment quality of the Ellah river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in water samples and sediments from the Ellah River in Esan South East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria were investigated to assess the quality status of the river. Four sampling stations were chosen from upstream (station 1), the bridge (station 2) ...

  17. Sediment Quality in Near Coastal Waters of the Gulf of Mexico: Influence of Hurricane Katrina (United States)

    The results from this study represent a synoptic analysis of sediment quality in coastal waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi Sound two months after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Post-hurricane conditions were compared to pre-hurricane (2000-2004) conditions, for se...

  18. The assessment of water quality for irrigation and sediment along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Asa river in which effluent from different industries is discharged was studied for heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd) to ascertain its water quality for irrigation ... and soil organism induction to the soil ecosystem through a reduction in the soil microbial population and the concomitant soil nutrient transformation.

  19. Sediment quality and ecorisk assessment factors for a major river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, J.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cutshall, N.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Sediment-related water quality and risk assessment parameters for the Columbia River were developed using heavy metal loading and concentration data from Lake Roosevelt (river km 1120) to the mouth and adjacent coastal zone. Correlation of Pb, Zn, Hg, and Cd concentrations in downstream sediments with refinery operations in British Columbia suggest that solutes with K{sub d}`s > 10{sup 5} reach about 1 to 5 {mu}g/g per metric ton/year of input. A low-suspended load (upriver avg. <10 mg/L) and high particle-surface reactivity account for the high clay-fraction contaminant concentrations. In addition, a sediment exposure path was demonstrated based on analysis of post-shutdown biodynamics of a heavy metal radiotracer. The slow decline in sediment was attributed to resuspension, bioturbation, and anthropogenic disturbances. The above findings suggest that conservative sediment quality criteria should be used to restrict additional contaminant loading in the upper drainage basin. The issuance of an advisory for Lake Roosevelt, due in part to Hg accumulation in large sport fish, suggests more restrictive controls are needed. A monitoring strategy for assessing human exposure potential and the ecological health of the river is proposed.

  20. Evaluation of Perceived Spatial Audio Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Berg


    Full Text Available The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  1. Commencement Bay Study. Volume VII. Sediments, Noise, Climate, and Air Quality, Aesthetics, Birds. (United States)


    Passeriformes VI. Sand-spit at mouth of Puyallup River numerous shore birds feeding Western Grede-large flocks Double Crested Cormorant-spring only...L Of S.AN3ARDSl V-0 ICOMMENCEMENT BAY STUDY ~~ Sediments Noise Climate, and Air Qualt Aesthetics Birds .. . . ... . . .......... 2..... VV.X D0O~U~T...Sediments, Noise, Climate 5. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER and Air Quality, Birds 682-021-05 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBR(s) DACW67-80-C

  2. Evaluating urban runoff pollution: sediments deposited on a road surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía


    Full Text Available The pollution caused by runoff water continues being a great problem in urban areas. Studying the behavior of sediments depo-sited on a road surface serves to determine the characteristics of their build-up during dry times and wash-off during rainy pe-riods. It will also lead to establishing pollution control mechanisms associated with the sediment deposited on particular types of road surfaces. This paper presents data regarding the sediment accumulating on a road surface in the city of Torrelavega in northern Spain during a 65-day period, during which time 132 samples were collected. Two types of sediment collection samples were obtained: vacuumed dry samples (free load and those swept up following vacuuming (fixed load. Sediment loading, particle size distribution and moisture were determined for each type of sample. The data showed that the sediment loading (gm−2 and vacuumed availability of the load which adhered most strongly to the surface (fixed load increased with the number of dry days. Collected sediment particle size distribution tended to be finer with the increase in the number of dry days. <125 μm particle sizes presented the greatest rate of build-up during dry time and those which were <500 μm had the greatest susceptibi-lity to being washed off during rain.

  3. Influence of sediment-organic matter quality on growth and polychlorobiphenyl bioavailability in Echinodermata (Amphiura filiformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, J.S.; Granberg, M.E.; Nilsson, H.C.; Rosenberg, R.; Hellman, B.


    Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) content is considered to be a primary food source for benthic invertebrates and a major factor influencing the partitioning and bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants. Most studies report that both toxicity and uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by benthic organisms are inversely proportional to sediment TOC content. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the TOC quality for the bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants and the growth of benthic macrofauna. The common infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis was exposed to a base sediment covered by a {sup 14}C-polychlorobipenyl (3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)) contaminated top layer (0--2 cm), enriched to the same TOC content with 31 g TOC/m{sup 2} of different quality and origin. The following carbon sources, ranging from labile to refractory, were used: (1) green macroalga (Ulva lactuca), (2) brown macroalga (Ascophyllum nodosum), (3) eelgrass (Zostera Marina), (4) phytoplankton (Ceratium spp.), and (5) lignins of terrestrial origin. Characterization of the organic matter quality was accomplished by measuring the content of amino acids, lipids, C, N, and polyphenolic compounds. The reactivity of the sedimentary organic matter was assessed by means of respiration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux measurements. The experiment was carried out in 1-L glass jars, each containing four brittle stars and the contaminated and enriched sediment. The jars were circulated in a flow-through mode with filtered seawater. Somatic growth (regeneration of a precut arm) and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}C-TCB were measured at 10 sampling occasions during 48 d of exposure. Growth rates, TCB uptake rates, and steady-state concentrations differed significantly between treatments and were correlated to the qualities of the organic substrates. The greatest TCB accumulation and growth were observed in

  4. Evaluation of Physical Training Lesson Quality


    Nina V. Skorik


    The article considers approaches to evaluation of a PT lesson quality, using qualimetry methods, develops “quality tree” of a PT lesson, presents factors, enabling to estimate a PT lesson quality qualitatively and determine quantitative meanings of certain components of this estimation, determines validity of characteristics, involved in “quality tree” of a PT lesson. Analysis of quantitative estimation of a PT lesson quality, conducted on the basis of qualimetry methods enables to online the...

  5. Financial audit services quality: analysis and evaluation


    Vaicekauskas, Darius


    The object of the doctoral dissertation is financial audit service quality (further – audit service quality). The aim of the doctoral dissertation is to conceptualize audit service quality and based on the conceptual model to analyse and evaluate audit service quality in Lithuania while providing recommendations for quality improvements. The aim is achieved while applying following research methods: analysis of scientific literature, content analysis, questionnaire survey, expert judgement. ...

  6. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    . The variation of the inhibition of AChE is attributed to the presence of the residues of various neurotoxic substances in the sediment contaminatEd. by the river runoff as well industrial effluents and sewage....

  7. Mercury contaminated sediment sites—An evaluation of remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Chattopadhyay, Sandip, E-mail: [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)


    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ► Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ► Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ► Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ► Mathematical

  8. Effect of seaweed proliferation on benthic habitat quality assessed by Sediment Profile Imaging (United States)

    Bona, Francesca


    Changes in sediment quality, with special reference to benthic habitat conditions resulting from macroalgae overgrowth, were studied in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Data were collected biweekly in spring and summer from 1993 to 1998 and from 2001 to 2002, as part of the macroalgae growth control strategies managed by the Venice Water Authority-Consorzio Venezia Nuova. Benthic habitat conditions were studied by means of Sediment Profile Imaging, which allowed the collection of several variables: aRPD (apparent redox potential discontinuity), prism penetration depth, presence of anoxia on the surface of the sediment, presence of reduced gas bubbles, stage of benthic colonization. All these variables led to the calculation of an environmental index (Organism-Sediment Index, OSI), which was then related to physical variables and macroalgae abundance. Until 1996, the overall benthic habitat of the Venice Lagoon showed almost stressed conditions; from 1997, the seaweed biomass rapidly declined and the OSI increased significantly. The OSI seemed to be affected by seaweed biomass, sediment compactness and water depth. Macroalgae biomass greater than 4.5 kg/m 2 led to the complete disappearance of stage III of benthic colonization; values as low as 0.70 kg m 2 already had a severe impact on recolonization. SPI attributes indicated the main mechanisms that could have contributed to the benthic quality: seaweed proliferation is often followed by rapid decay of macroalgae biomass, especially when present in large amounts. The decrease in seaweed biomass often results in oxygen depletion in the water column and thus in the sediment, preventing complete benthic colonization. This research confirms the importance of in situ rapid reconnaissance surveys to assess the impact of eutrophication on the benthic habitat.

  9. Managing Air Quality - Ongoing Evaluation of Progress (United States)

    Describes the importance of evaluating if air quality programs are achieving the desired results to inform environmental program managers, regulated industry and the public, and provides EPA examples.

  10. Effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in the Sunraysia region of the Murray-Darling Rivers, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharley, David J. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail:; Hoffmann, Ary A. [Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation Research-Hoffmann Laboratory, Zoology Department, University of Melbourne, Level 2, Bio 21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Pettigrove, Vincent [Research and Technology, Melbourne Water, PO Box 4342, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)


    A field-based microcosm approach was tested to identify deterioration of sediment quality in waterways using freshwater macroinvertebrates. The method can potentially identify the nature of contaminants based on species-specific responses. Sediments were collected from the Murray and Darling Rivers and irrigation drains within the Sunraysia region of south-eastern Australia and compared to non-polluted reference sediment. Clean sediments were also spiked with fertiliser to test whether nutrients affected the aquatic fauna. Seven of the eight sediments from the Sunraysia region had a negative impact on the macroinvertebrates, in particular sediment from the Darling River, which supported an impoverished fauna. Three species of chironomid showed varied responses to sediment quality and, although it was hypothesised that nutrients may have impacted on the macroinvertebrate fauna, the results suggest that other pollutants are also involved. The field-based microcosm method proved effective for determining the impact of sediment quality on indigenous macroinvertebrates. - Sediment quality effects on freshwater macroinvertebrates are isolated.

  11. Multivariate methods for evaluating the efficiency of electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    , dry/wet sediment, cell set-up as well as sediment properties. Evaluation of the model showed that remediation time and current density had the highest comparative influence on the clean-up levels. Individual models for each heavy metal showed variance in the variable importance, indicating...... that the targeted heavy,metals were bound to different sediment fractions. Based on the results, a PLS model was used to design five new EDR experiments of a sixth sediment to achieve specified clean-up levels of Cu and Pb. The removal efficiencies were up to 82% for Cu and 87% for Pb and the targeted clean...

  12. A modeling framework for evaluating streambank stabilization practices for reach-scale sediment reduction (United States)

    Streambank stabilization techniques are often implemented to reduce sediment loads from unstable streambanks. Process-based models can predict sediment yields with stabilization scenarios prior to implementation. However, a framework does not exist on how to effectively utilize these models to evalu...

  13. Application of a new sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and of the Aquatic Lemna test to assess the sediment quality of Lake Skadar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stesevic, D.; Sundic, D.; Mijovic, S. [Montenegro Univ., Podgorica (ME). Faculty of Sciences; Feiler, U.; Heininger, P. [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Koblenz (Germany); Erdinger, L. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hygiene; Seiler, T.B.; Hollert, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Zoology; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltforschung - Biologie V


    Goal, Scope and Background: Situated in the transboundary belt between Montenegro and Albania, the Lake Skadar is the largest freshwater reservoir in Southeastern Europe. Because of the wide range of endemic, rare or endangered plant and animal species it supports, Lake Skadar and its extensive adjacent wetlands are internationally recognised as a site of significance and importance (Ramsar site). Within the last 10 to 20 years, Lake Skadar was exposed to intensive pollution. For the assessment of the ecotoxic load of the sediments sampled in Lake Skadar, a triad approach was recently applied. Overall, a complex spectrum of ecotoxic loads was elucidated. The aim of the present study was to use plant-based bioassays for assessing the sediment quality of Lake Skadar in order to facilitate and complement the triad test battery. The newly developed sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum and the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor were applied to native sediments and pore water, respectively, allowing the investigation of different toxicity-effects caused by particle-bound pollutants as well as pollutants in the interstitial water. This investigation is the first application of the novel sediment contact test with Myriophyllum aquaticum to lake sediments. Materials and Methods: Sediment samples were taken from nine selected sites at Lake Skadar and investigated by the sediment contact assay with Myriophyllum aquaticum. The pore water was extracted from these sediment samples to be analysed in the aquatic growth inhibition test with Lemna minor. The results of the sediment contact tests were compared with each other and with those of the aquatic growth inhibition test. Results and Discussion: Both applied macrophyte biotests revealed distinct changes in the growth behaviour of the two macrophytes subsequent to the exposure to the investigated natural sediments of Lake Skadar. The Myriophyllum sediment contact test revealed significant toxicity in

  14. A distributed approach for sediment yield evaluation in Alpine regions (United States)

    Bemporad, Giorgio A.; Alterach, Julio; Amighetti, Flavio F.; Peviani, Maximo; Saccardo, Italo


    A distributed model for the simulation of the water budget and prediction of the sediment yield in Alpine catchments is presented. The strongly variable landscape typical of Alpine regions was schematically represented through a raster of square cells. The hydrological phenomena were modelled at this cell scale. A well-gauged Alpine catchment was selected to validate the model. A catchment digital terrain model (DTM) was created through an automatic treatment of the catchment contour lines, selected stream lines, and soil and vegetation cover maps. Water and sediment routing to the catchment outlet was performed by integrating simplified versions of the equations of continuity and motion for both water and sediment. The governing equations were integrated and calibrated on a monthly time scale by using available field data on rainfall, discharge and sediment yield at the catchment outlet. The numerical simulations showed that the proposed mathematical model was able to adequately simulate the water and sediment budgets of the test catchment on a yearly and a monthly scale.

  15. [Research progress on quality evaluation of saffron]. (United States)

    Liu, Jiang-di; Ouyang, Zhen; Yang, Bin


    Saffron, a precious spice and a traditional medicinal herb in the international trade market, has attracted much attention about its quality evaluation.Saffron has been successfully cultivated in some areas in China,such as Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, but few studies were focused on the quality difference between saffron cultivated in China and in foreign countries, which obstructed the entrance of saffron cultivated in China into international trade market. The paper is to review the current research progress on quality evaluation of saffron from the following respects: the chemical composition, the identification of authenticity and adulterants, the detection of artificial colorants, the indexes and methods of quality evaluation,the quality evaluation of different specifications in the international trade market, and the parameters which affected the quality of saffron. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. The use of ecocores to evaluate biodegradation in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Nielsen, Jef


    A laboratory sediment microcosm called the ecocore is described. It has been used to test the biodegradability of substances which predominantly enter the sediment. A new method for introducing hydrophobic test substances such as hydrocarbons to the test system is also described. In a series...... of tests using 14C-labelled hydrocarbons, it has been demonstrated that evolved and trapped 14C02 in all probability reflects the rates of mineralization of the test substance. The fate of the substances within the test system has been described and the total recovery exceeds 80%. The system shows good...

  17. Ecotoxicological evaluation of industrial port of Venice (Italy) sediment samples after a decontamination treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libralato, Giovanni [Environmental Sciences Department, Venice University Ca Foscari, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy)], E-mail:; Losso, Chiara; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra [Environmental Sciences Department, Venice University Ca Foscari, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy); Citron, Marta; Della Sala, Stefano; Zanotto, Emanuele [Environmental Department, Venice Port Authority, Zattere 1401, I-30123, Venice (Italy); Cepak, Franka [Institute of Public Health, Vojkovo nabrezje 4a, 6000 Koper (Slovenia); Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria [Environmental Sciences Department, Venice University Ca Foscari, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy)


    This work assesses the ecotoxicological effects of polluted sediment after a decontamination treatment process using a new sediment washing technique. Sediment samples were collected from four sites in Marghera Port industrial channels (Venice, Italy). Ecotoxicological evaluations were performed with Vibrio fischeri and Crassostrea gigas bioassays. Whole sediment and elutriate were deemed as the most suitable environmental matrices for this study. Toxicity scores developed in the Lagoon of Venice for V. fischeri on whole sediment and for C. gigas on elutriate were considered for the final ranking of samples. Ecotoxicological results showed that the treated sediment samples presented both acute and sub-chronic toxicities, which were mainly attributed to the presence of some remaining chemicals such as metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The acute toxicity ranged from low to medium, while the sub-chronic one from absent to very high, suggesting that treated sediments could not be reused in direct contact with seawater. - A sediment washing technique was assessed for port contaminated sediment remediation and reuse, indicating its reduced efficiency and the need for further improvements.

  18. Evaluating sedimentation problems in activated sludge treatment plants operating at complete sludge retention time. (United States)

    Amanatidou, Elisavet; Samiotis, Georgios; Trikoilidou, Eleni; Pekridis, George; Taousanidis, Nikolaos


    Zero net sludge growth can be achieved by complete retention of solids in activated sludge wastewater treatment, especially in high strength and biodegradable wastewaters. When increasing the solids retention time, MLSS and MLVSS concentrations reach a plateau phase and observed growth yields values tend to zero (Yobs ≈ 0). In this work, in order to evaluate sedimentation problems arised due to high MLSS concentrations and complete sludge retention operational conditions, two identical innovative slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plants were studied. Measurements of wastewaters' quality characteristics, treatment plant's operational conditions, sludge microscopic analysis and state point analysis were conducted. Results have shown that low COD/Nitrogen ratios increase sludge bulking and flotation phenomena due to accidental denitrification in clarifiers. High return activated sludge rate is essential in complete retention systems as it reduces sludge condensation and hydraulic retention time in the clarifiers. Under certain operational conditions sludge loading rates can greatly exceed literature limit values. The presented methodology is a useful tool for estimation of sedimentation problems encountered in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with complete retention time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination. (United States)

    Carr, R S; Nipper, M; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S


    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log K(ow), but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  20. Ambient sediment quality conditions in Minnesota lakes, USA: Effects of watershed parameters and aquatic health implications. (United States)

    Crane, Judy L


    Surficial sediments were collected from 50 randomly selected Minnesota lakes, plus four a priori reference lakes, in 2007. The lakes encompassed broad geographic coverage of the state and included a variety of major land uses in the surrounding watersheds. Sediment samples were analyzed for a suite of metals, metalloids, persistent organic pollutants, total organic carbon, and particle size fractions. In addition, a small fish survey was conducted to assess PBDEs in both whole fish and fish tissues. Sediment quality in this set of lakes ranged from good (43%) to moderate (57%) based on an integrative measure of multiple contaminants. On an individual basis, some contaminants (e.g., arsenic, lead, DDD, and DDE) exceeded benchmark values in a small number of lakes that would be detrimental to benthic invertebrates. The sediments in two developed lakes tended to be more contaminated than sediments in lakes from other major watershed land uses. These differences were often statistically significant (plakes with developed versus cultivated land uses for arsenic, lead, zinc, and numerous PAH compounds. Multivariate statistical approaches were used on a subgroup of contaminants to show the two urban lakes, as well as a few northeastern Minnesota lakes, differed from the rest of the data set. Background threshold values were calculated for data with lake sediment samples, whereas fish at the top of the food chain (i.e., predator trophic group) had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean lipid-normalized concentrations of BDEs-47, 100, and 153 than lower trophic fish. These results will be used for future status and trends work. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil (United States)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza


    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  2. Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Di [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ding, Shiming, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Sun, Qin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Zhong, Jicheng [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wu, Wei; Jia, Fei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)


    Evaluation of in situ capping with clean soils to control phosphate release from the sediments of a eutrophic bay in Lake Taihu was performed after 18 months of capping. The concentrations of dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) in pore waters and DRP resupply from native sediments and capped sediments were determined using high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and a Zr-oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) technique. The adsorption isotherm of these sediments was further investigated using a modified Langmuir model. The results showed low concentrations of DRP in pore waters with a low resupply from the sediments for sustaining pore water DRP concentration after capping. The calculated flux to the overlying water following the capping treatment was approximately half of that for the native sediments, implying that the capping reduced the release of phosphate from the sediments. The low resupply of the sediments after capping was further demonstrated by larger partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) values and greater adsorption capacity (Q{sub max}) values, while zero equilibrium concentrations (EPC{sub 0}s) were similar to those in native sediments. The larger K{sub p} and Q{sub max} were attributed to higher active Fe and Al introduced by the capping, indicating that the binding of phosphate onto the active Fe and Al played a critical role in reducing the internal loading of phosphorous. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of capping with soils was performed through high-resolution sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the concentrations of DRP in pore waters and its release to waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capping decreased the resupply of pore water DRP from the sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capped sediments had stronger abilities to adsorb and retain P. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Active Fe and Al introduced by capping played a critical role.

  3. Evaluation of toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Texas (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sediments collected from the Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, Hidalgo Co in southern Texas, USA. A...

  4. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine ...

  5. Pilot Study Evaluating Nearshore Sediment Placement Sites, Noyo Harbor, CA (United States)


    Comparison of calculated morphology change .......................................................... 28  4.4  PTM simulations...the interface for coupling the CMS and PTM . The improved modeling technology will be used in other Corps projects. An intensive field data...Demirbilek and Rosati 2011; Lin et al. 2008, 2011). The particle tracking model, CMS- PTM (Demirbilek et al. 2008), was applied to simulate the fine sediment

  6. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur. Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sites in lacustrine ...

  7. A new method to evaluate floodwater for control/use in high-sediment rivers of Northwest China. (United States)

    Li, Xungui


    Evaluating the quantity of flood season floodwater that is difficult to control or use in rivers with high sediment concentration is an important part of water resource evaluation and floodwater resource utilisation. This study proposes a method coupling water quantity and quality to evaluate such floodwater. The method divides floodwater into floodwater that is difficult to control ('difficult-controllable') and floodwater that is controllable but difficult to use ('controllable but difficult-use'). A case study of the Bajiazui Reservoir in the Jing River in China's Loess Plateau is presented. The average annual quantity of difficult-controllable floodwater is 10.4 million m3. The annual mean quantity of the difficult-controllable/-use floodwater is 38.1 million m3. The majority of that amount (78.21%) comprised controllable but difficult-use floodwater. An analysis of 64 combinations of factors influencing the quantity of the difficult-controllable/-use floodwater shows that the sediment concentration of run-off is the primary factor influencing the difficult-controllable/-use floodwater. The reservoir's maximum flood release capacity and floodwater rejection coefficient are the primary factors affecting the difficult-controllable and controllable but difficult-use floodwater, respectively. The new evaluation method is superior to traditional methods and is suitable for evaluating difficult-controllable/-use floodwater in high-sediment rivers.

  8. Effects of harbor activities on sediment quality in a semi-arid region in Brazil. (United States)

    Moreira, Lucas B; Castro, Ítalo B; Hortellani, Marcos A; Sasaki, Silvio T; Taniguchi, Satie; Petti, Mônica A V; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Bícego, Márcia C; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Abessa, Denis M S


    Tropical marine environments are rich in biodiversity and the presence of harbor activities in these areas can harm the coastal ecosystems. In this study, we assessed sediment quality of two harbors from a tropical region in Brazil by applying multiple lines-of-evidence approach. This approach included the integration of results on: (1) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes, and tributyltin; (2) acute toxicity of whole sediments and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; and (3) benthic community descriptors. Our results revealed that the main contaminants detected in sediments from Mucuripe and Pecém Harbors were chromium, copper, nitrogen, zinc, and tributyltin. These toxicants arise from typical harbor activities. However, the changes in benthic composition and structure appear to depend on a combination of physical impacts, such as the deposition of fine sediments and the toxic potential of contaminants, especially in Mucuripe. Thus, apart from toxicants physical processes are important in describing risks. This information may assist in management and conservation of marine coastal areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NCEI Accession 0000702) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  10. Development of a Sound Quality Evaluation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Preben; Thomsen, Carsten; Lee, Sanjil


    This paper describes the development of the first version of the Sound Quality Evaluation System. The purpose of the system is to predict the subjective sound quality of home theater systems from objective measurements. 16 home theater systems were measured in an anechoic room. Several metrics...... expected to correlate w ith the subjective quality were proposed and tested. A model for the sound quality was created by mapping the subjective evaluations of the Home Theater System s with the metrics calculated for each system. Correlation between subjective listening test and the prediction is presente...

  11. Suspended-sediment transport and storage: A demonstration of acoustic methods in the evaluation of reservoir management strategies for a small water-supply reservoir in western Colorado (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Collins, Kent L.


    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and local stakeholder groups are evaluating reservoir-management strategies within Paonia Reservoir. This small reservoir fills to capacity each spring and requires approximately half of the snowmelt-runoff volume from its sediment-laden source waters, Muddy Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting high-resolution (15-minute data-recording interval) sediment monitoring to characterize incoming and outgoing sediment flux during reservoir operations at two sites on Muddy Creek. The high-resolution monitoring is being used to establish current rates of reservoir sedimentation, support USBR sediment transport and storage models, and assess the viability of water-storage recovery in Paonia Reservoir. These sites are equipped with in situ, single-frequency, side-looking acoustic Doppler current meters in conjunction with turbidity sensors to monitor sediment flux. This project serves as a demonstration of the capability of using surrogate techniques to predict suspended-sediment concentrations in small streams (less than 20 meters in width and 2 meters in depth). These two sites provide the ability to report near real-time suspended-sediment concentrations through the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) web interface and National Real-Time Water Quality websites (NRTWQ) to aid in reservoir operations and assessments.

  12. Town Lake bottom sediments : a chronicle of water quality changes in Austin, Texas, 1960-98 (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.


    Town Lake, the last in the chain of Highland Lakes on the Colorado River, runs through the center of Austin, Texas. On any given day, grebes and coots dot the water, rowers skim alongside, and the sparkle of the sun on the water can be admired from the adjacent hike and bike path and from the windows of nearby office buildings. During the summer months, crowds gather along the shores of Town Lake to watch as many as 1 million Mexican Free-Tail bats emerge from under the Congress Avenue bridge. But below the lazily moving azure water lies a bed of sediment about 1 meter (m) thick?sediment that has been deposited gradually since the reservoir was formed in 1959 and that has been recording changes in water quality since that time. What can this sediment tell us about the history of water quality in the Colorado River? And what does it say about the effects of the rapid urbanization of Austin and the future health of our environment?

  13. Evaluating model accuracy: Predicted and observed sediment deposition following the Chiloquin Dam removal (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.; Cox, M.


    Hydrodynamic and sediment transport models are often used to reduce uncertainty regarding the outcomes of dam removal, though the accuracy of these models is not regularly evaluated post-removal. With the goal of improving our understanding on the accuracy and limitations of making predictions about sediment dynamics following dam removal, we compare predicted and observed sediment deposition at sites downstream of the Chiloquin Dam removal. Results from 1D hydraulic and sediment transport modeling are compared to cross-sectional and longitudinal profile and sediment surveys collected one year following the dam removal. Model predictions provide estimates of mass and thickness for different grain sizes of sediment remaining in downstream channel features following one year of winter flows. Pre-removal and post-removal bathymetry and grain size distributions document the changes in depth, size, and mass of sediment deposited downstream. Field observations are coupled with continuous TSS monitoring, resulting in a sediment budget for the reservoir and downstream reach. The relationships between the model predictions and observations are presented, model uncertainty and observation error is characterized, and approaches for improving model predictions are discussed.

  14. Kankakee River Basin: Evaluation of Sediment Management Strategies (United States)


    basin, and development of a SIAM model from an existing US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ...4 SIAM Model A SIAM model was developed from an existing calibrated HEC - RAS model provided by the Rock Island District. The limits of the HEC - RAS ...model are shown in Figure 4.1. No further effort was made to verify the calibration of the HEC - RAS model. The estimated sediment loads were used to

  15. Evaluation of bleach-sedimentation for sterilising and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens. (United States)

    Chew, Rusheng; Calderón, Carmen; Schumacher, Samuel G; Sherman, Jonathan M; Caviedes, Luz; Fuentes, Patricia; Coronel, Jorge; Valencia, Teresa; Hererra, Beatriz; Zimic, Mirko; Huaroto, Lucy; Sabogal, Ivan; Escombe, A Rod; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A


    Bleach-sedimentation may improve microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis by sterilising sputum and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We studied gravity bleach-sedimentation effects on safety, sensitivity, speed and reliability of smear-microscopy. This blinded, controlled study used sputum specimens (n = 72) from tuberculosis patients. Bleach concentrations and exposure times required to sterilise sputum (n = 31) were determined. In the light of these results, the performance of 5 gravity bleach-sedimentation techniques that sterilise sputum specimens (n = 16) were compared. The best-performing of these bleach-sedimentation techniques involved adding 1 volume of 5% bleach to 1 volume of sputum, shaking for 10-minutes, diluting in 8 volumes distilled water and sedimenting overnight before microscopy. This technique was further evaluated by comparing numbers of visible acid-fast bacilli, slide-reading speed and reliability for triplicate smears before versus after bleach-sedimentation of sputum specimens (n = 25). Triplicate smears were made to increase precision and were stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen method. M. tuberculosis in sputum was successfully sterilised by adding equal volumes of 15% bleach for 1-minute, 6% for 5-minutes or 3% for 20-minutes. Bleach-sedimentation significantly decreased the number of acid-fast bacilli visualised compared with conventional smears (geometric mean of acid-fast bacilli per 100 microscopy fields 166, 95%CI 68-406, versus 346, 95%CI 139-862, respectively; p = 0.02). Bleach-sedimentation diluted paucibacillary specimens less than specimens with higher concentrations of visible acid-fast bacilli (p = 0.02). Smears made from bleach-sedimented sputum were read more rapidly than conventional smears (9.6 versus 11.2 minutes, respectively, p = 0.03). Counting conventional acid-fast bacilli had high reliability (inter-observer agreement, r = 0.991) that was significantly reduced (p = 0.03) by bleach-sedimentation (to r = 0

  16. Evaluation of the Gravataí River sediment quality (Rio Grande do Sul- Brazil using Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820 as the test-organism for toxicity assays Avaliação da qualidade dos sedimentos do rio Gravataí (Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil a partir de testes de toxicidade utilizando Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820 como organismo-teste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Lucheta


    Full Text Available AIM: Persistent pollutants released to riverbeds return to the trophic system, damaging living organisms thereof. Ecotoxicological assays express the effect of environmental interactions with organisms found there. Assays were performed with microcrustacean Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820 in sediment samples, from the headwaters to the mouth, in order to evaluate the Gravataí River quality; METHODS: Bottom sediment was used to evaluate the responses of cladocerans to environmental changes in 15 samples collected between Jan./06 and May/09. The microcrustaceans were submitted to stress for 21 days from birth (2-26 hours old. Duncan Test, percentage survival, reproduction and Spearman Correlation were used to evaluate the quality of the sites; RESULTS: Duncan Test showed a significant difference (p OBJETIVO: Poluentes persistentes lançados no leito dos rios retornam ao sistema trófico danificando os organismos que o integram. Os ensaios ecotoxicológicos expressam o efeito das interações ambientais com os organismos ali presentes. Visando avaliar a qualidade do rio Gravataí foram realizados ensaios com o microcrustáceo Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820, em amostras do sedimento, da nascente até a foz; MÉTODOS: Sedimento de fundo foi utilizado na avaliação das respostas dos cladóceros às alterações ambientais de 15 amostras coletadas entre Jan./06 e Maio/09. Os microcrustáceos foram colocados em situação de estresse durante 21 dias desde o início de suas vidas (2-26 horas. O Teste de Duncan, percentual de sobrevivência, reprodução e Correlação de Spearman foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade dos locais; RESULTADOS: O Teste de Duncan mostrou diferença significativa (p < 0,05 na reprodução em 14 das 15 amostragens, sendo a ação crônica mais constante (88% que a aguda (23%. Somente em algumas ocasiões foram observadas alterações na sobrevivência e na reprodução relacionadas à estação climática ou regime de chuvas. Os

  17. Preliminary sediments quality assessment of the Midia Port aquatorium - Black Sea - Romania (United States)

    Catianis, I.; Ungureanu, C.; Stanica, A.


    This study shows the present environmental quality of superficial sediments within the aquatorium of an industrial harbor. These results help better understand the correlation between historical pollution and present environmental state of the harbor sediments and related environmental hazards in case of dredging. The study area is the Port of Midia, situated in Romania, western Black Sea coast. The port is located at the boundary between the Danube Delta coast (widest nature protected biosphere reserve in the EU) in the north - and the almost entirely human controlled coast - starting south of the port. Midia Harbor was first built in 1942, expanded during the late 1970`s, and currently operates as an oil and general merchandise terminal. This port receives a double impact of waters: brackish Black Sea waters, as well as Danube fresh waters arriving into the aquatorium through the inshore Danube - Black Sea Canal Lock. To understand the environmental status of the port aquatorium one sampling campaign was performed during August 2011. Samples were collected within the aquatorium and in in the surrounding area outside the harbor. For a better correlation with the particularities related to the transitions in water salinity, the aquatorium was divided into five sectors with specific characteristics: Cargo Terminal Area, Oil Terminal Enclosure Area, Ships Transit Area, Waste Oil Buffer Area and Marine Area. The following analyses were performed on water and sediment samples: physical and chemical characteristics of the waters (dissolved oxygen, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, pH, redox potential, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, heavy metals), bulk sediments (particle size, grain size distribution, mineralogy, organic matter and carbonates content, heavy minerals load, organic compounds) and microbiological and ecotoxicological assays. The grain size analysis reveals the prevalence of very fine-silt and silty-clay fractions, and

  18. Ecological-Evaluation of Organotin-Contaminated Sediment. (United States)


    C. Clavell (1978). Measurement of Cu and Zn in San Diego Bay by automated anodic stripping voltammetry . Env. Sci. Tech. 12(1):73-70. 21 FILMED 1-85 I- DTIC ,616,1.1.16"% ...H. Ryther (1969). Organic chelators: factors affecting primary production in the Cromwell Current upwelling. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 3:191-199...concentration an order of magnitude above control clams (2.82 ppm TBTO vs 0.26 ppm TBTO) and a factor of four above treatment sediment. CONCLUSIONS

  19. Biomarker responsiveness in different tissues of caged Ruditapes philippinarum and its use within an integrated sediment quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Gomez, Julia, E-mail: [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Coz, Alberto; Viguri, Javier R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. los Castros, s/n 39005 Santander (Spain); Luque, Angel [Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria, The Canary Islands (Spain); Martin-Diaz, M. Laura [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Centro Andaluz de Ciencia y Tecnologia Marinas (CACYTMAR), Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T. Angel [UNITWIN/UNESCO/WiCoP, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Cadiz, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Campus Universitario de Puerto Real, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    Biomarkers comprising activities of biotransformation enzymes (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase -EROD-, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase -DBF-, glutathione S-transferase -GST), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase -GR- and glutathione peroxidase -GPX), lipid peroxidation -LPO- and DNA strand breaks were analyzed in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum caged at Cadiz Bay, Santander Bay and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port (Spain). Sediments were characterized. Digestive gland was the most sensitive tissue to sediment contamination. In Cadiz Bay, changes in LPO regarding day 0 were related with metals. In LPGC Port, DBF, EROD, and GST activity responses suggested the presence of undetermined contaminants which might have led to DNA damage. In Santander Bay, PAHs were related with EROD activity, organic and metal contamination was found to be associated with GR and GST activities and DNA damage presented significant (p < 0.05) induction. R. philippinarum was sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. Biomarkers allowed chemical exposure and sediment quality assessment. - Highlights: > Ruditapes philippinarum is sensitive to sediment contamination at biochemical level. > Digestive gland biomarkers showed the best correlations with sediment contaminants. > Presence of potentially toxic chemicals not analyzed in this research was unmasked. > Multivariate analysis allowed the identification of toxic xenobiotic and possible sources. > Inner area of Santander Bay presented the highest sediment toxicity. - Integration of Ruditapes philippinarum biomarker results and sediment chemistry distinguished xenobiotic exposure and sediment toxicity in coastal areas of Spain.

  20. Trace-metal and organic constituent concentrations in bed sediment at Big Base and Little Base Lakes, Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas—Comparisons to sediment-quality guidelines and indications for timing of exposure (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Hays, Phillip D.; Hart, Rheannon M.


    This report compares concentrations for a wide range of inorganic and organic constituents in bed sediment from Big Base Lake and Little Base Lake, which are located on Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, to sediment-quality guidelines. This report also compares trace-metal concentrations in a bed-sediment core sample to sediment age to determine when the highest concentrations of trace metals were deposited in Big Base Lake.

  1. Development of a blind reference sediment for use in upper Mississippi River and other sediment quality studies (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Mississippi River has a history of abuse and neglect by Man, resulting in the past contamination of its sediments by heavy metals and organic compounds...

  2. Towards science-based sediment quality standards—Effects of field-collected sediments in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus, E-mail: [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eichbaum, Kathrin; Reininghaus, Mathias; Koglin, Sven [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Baumann, Lisa; Segner, Helmut [Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstr. 122, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Zennegg, Markus [Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, 1 Tiansheng Road Beibei, Chongqing 400715 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University (China)


    Highlights: • Particle-bound DLCs were readily bioavailable during re-suspension of sediments. • DLC uptake and effects in fish were proportional to the concentration in sediments. • Responses of biomarkers reflected the contamination levels of different sediments. • Cyp1a mRNA expression and EROD activity in livers of fish responded immediately. • Histopathological lesions were strong indicators of potential long-term effects. - Abstract: Sediments can act as long-term sinks for environmental pollutants. Within the past decades, dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted significant attention in the scientific community. To investigate the time- and concentration-dependent uptake of DLCs and PAHs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their associated toxicological effects, we conducted exposure experiments using suspensions of three field-collected sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe, which were chosen to represent different contamination levels. Five serial dilutions of contaminated sediments were tested; these originated from the Prossen and Zollelbe sampling sites (both in the river Elbe, Germany) and from Ehrenbreitstein (Rhine, Germany), with lower levels of contamination. Fish were exposed to suspensions of these dilutions under semi-static conditions for 90 days. Analysis of muscle tissue by high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and of bile liquid by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that particle-bound PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PAHs were readily bioavailable from re-suspended sediments. Uptake of these contaminants and the associated toxicological effects in fish were largely proportional to their sediment concentrations. The changes in the investigated biomarkers closely reflected the different sediment contamination levels: cytochrome P450 1A m

  3. Evaluating the variability of sediment and nutrient loading from riverine systems into Texas estuaries and bays (United States)

    Lee, Michael T.


    The water quality in estuaries and bays and the health of these coastal ecosystems are affected by sediment and nutrient loads transported by streams. Large sediment loads delivered to an estuary or bay can degrade water quality. Concentrations of suspended sediment are affected by natural conditions (such as soil erosion and streambed resuspension) and can also be affected by human activities (such as development, timber harvesting, certain agricultural practices, and hydraulic alteration). An increased sediment load delivered to an estuary or bay can reduce water clarity and light penetration (Senus and others, 2005) in the water column. Senus and others (2005, p. 1) also note that nutrients are needed to sustain life, but excess nutrient loads from human activities may cause unbalanced and unhealthy changes in water quality that are harmful to aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus are two known nutrients of concern. Poor water quality caused by an abundance of these nutrients can stimulate the excessive growth of phytoplankton, promote algal blooms, reduce dissolved oxygen levels, and cause fish kills.

  4. Programme evaluation: Maintaining quality in higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery ...

  5. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface waters in the Wind River basin, Wyoming (United States)

    Colby, B.R.; Hembree, C.H.; Rainwater, F.H.


    This report gives results of an investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey of chemical quality of surface waters and sedimentation in the Wind River Basin, Wyo. The sedimentation study was begun in 1946 to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams in the basin; the probable sources of the sediment; the effect of large irrigation projects on sediment yield, particularly along Fivemile Creek; and the probable specific weight of the sediment when initially deposited in a reservoir. The study of the chemical quality of the water was begun in 1945 to obtain information on the sources, nature, and amounts of dissolved material that is transported by streams and on the suitability of the waters for different uses. Phases of geology and hydrology pertinent to the sedimentation and chemical quality were studied. Results of the investigation through September 30, 1952, and some special studies that were made during the 1953 and 1954 water years are reported. The rocks in the Wind River Basin are granite, schist, and gneiss of Precambrian age and a thick series of sedimentary strata that range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age are confined to the mountains, rocks of Mesozoic age crop out along the flank of the Wind River and Owl Creek Mountains and in denuded anticlines in the floor of the basin, and rocks of Tertiary age cover the greater part of the floor of the basin. Deposits of debris from glaciers are in the mountains, and remnants of gravel-capped terraces of Pleistocene age are on the floor of the basin. The lateral extent and depth of alluvial deposits of Recent age along all the streams are highly variable. The climate of the floor of the basin is arid. The foothills probably receive a greater amount of intense rainfall than the areas at lower altitudes. Most precipitation in the Wind River Mountains falls as snow. The foothill sections, in general, are transitional zones between the cold, humid

  6. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways in South China: incorporating bioavailabillity-based measurements into whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation. (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyi; Li, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; You, Jing


    Sediments in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China, were contaminated by a variety of chemicals and showed prevalent toxicity to benthic organisms. A combination of whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and bioavailability-based extraction was used to identify the causes of sediment toxicity. Of the 6 sediment samples collected, 4 caused 100% mortality to Chironomus dilutus in 10-d bioassays, and the potential toxicants were assessed using TIE in these sediments after dilution. The results of phase I characterization showed that organic contaminants were the principal contributors to the mortality of the midges in 2 sediments and that metals and organics jointly caused the mortality in the other 2 sediments. Ammonia played no role in the mortality for any samples. Conventional toxic unit analysis in phase II testing identified Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn as the toxic metals, with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and fipronils being the toxic organics. To improve the accuracy of identifying the toxicants, 4-step sequential extraction and Tenax extraction were conducted to analyze the bioavailability of the metals and organics, respectively. Bioavailable toxic unit analysis narrowed the list of toxic contributors, and the putative toxicants included 3 metals (Zn, Ni, and Pb) and 3 pesticides (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fipronils). Metals contributed to the mortality in all sediments, but sediment dilution reduced the toxicity and confounded the characterization of toxicity contribution from metals in 2 sediments in phase I. Incorporating bioavailability-based measurements into whole-sediment TIE improved the accuracy of identifying the causative toxicants in urban waterways where multiple stressors occurred and contributed to sediment toxicity jointly. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. An 80-year record of sediment quality in the lower Mississippi River (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Horowitz, Arthur J.


    In 1937, the US Army Corps of Engineers cut through the "neck" of a large meander on the lower Mississippi River (below the confluence with the Ohio River) forming the Caulk Neck cutoff and creating Lake Whittington, a 26-km long oxbow lake, in northern Mississippi. Since 1938, seasonal flooding and a boat channel connecting the lake with the Mississippi River have led to sediment accumulation in the lake, resulting in an 80-year record of sediment quality in the river. On the basis of an age-dated sediment core from the lake, trends in trace metals and hydrophobic organic compounds (except polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) follow well-known patterns with upward trends from the 1930s to the ca 1970s, followed by downward trends to the present. Two factors contribute to these patterns: reservoir construction and changes in emissions. The construction of seven large reservoirs on the Missouri River, in particular the closure of the Fort Randall (1953) and Gavins Point (1955) Dams, greatly reduced the load of relatively clean sediment to the Mississippi River, likely contributing to downstream increases in contaminant concentrations in the Mississippi River. Increasing anthropogenic emissions also contributed to upward trends until ca 1970 when major environmental policy actions began resulting in broad decreases in emissions and downward trends in the concentrations of most of the contaminants monitored. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phosphorus are partial exceptions to this pattern, with increases to the 1960s and variable concentrations showing no clear trend since. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Improving sediment-quality guidelines for nickel: development and application of predictive bioavailability models to assess chronic toxicity of nickel in freshwater sediments (United States)

    Vangheluwe, Marnix L. U.; Verdonck, Frederik A. M.; Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Schlekat, Christan E.; Rogevich Garman, Emily


    Within the framework of European Union chemical legislations an extensive data set on the chronic toxicity of sediment nickel has been generated. In the initial phase of testing, tests were conducted with 8 taxa of benthic invertebrates in 2 nickel-spiked sediments, including 1 reasonable worst-case sediment with low concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and total organic carbon. The following species were tested: amphipods (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus), mayflies (Hexagenia sp.), oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex, Lumbriculus variegatus), mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), and midges (Chironomus dilutus, Chironomus riparius). In the second phase, tests were conducted with the most sensitive species in 6 additional spiked sediments, thus generating chronic toxicity data for a total of 8 nickel-spiked sediments. A species sensitivity distribution was elaborated based on 10% effective concentrations yielding a threshold value of 94 mg Ni/kg dry weight under reasonable worst-case conditions. Data from all sediments were used to model predictive bioavailability relationships between chronic toxicity thresholds (20% effective concentrations) and AVS and Fe, and these models were used to derive site-specific sediment-quality criteria. Normalization of toxicity values reduced the intersediment variability in toxicity values significantly for the amphipod species Hyalella azteca and G. pseudolimnaeus, but these relationships were less clearly defined for the mayfly Hexagenia sp. Application of the models to prevailing local conditions resulted in threshold values ranging from 126 mg to 281 mg Ni/kg dry weight, based on the AVS model, and 143 mg to 265 mg Ni/kg dry weight, based on the Fe model


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Many institutions will be providing data to the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI. Current technical background of the NSDI is based on syntactic web services. It is expected that this will be replaced by semantic web services. The quality of the data provided is important in terms of the decision-making process and the accuracy of transactions. Therefore, the data quality needs to be tested. This topic has been neglected in Turkey. Data quality control for NSDI may be done by private or public “data accreditation” institutions. A methodology is required for data quality evaluation. There are studies for data quality including ISO standards, academic studies and software to evaluate spatial data quality. ISO 19157 standard defines the data quality elements. Proprietary software such as, 1Spatial’s 1Validate and ESRI’s Data Reviewer offers quality evaluation based on their own classification of rules. Commonly, rule based approaches are used for geospatial data quality check. In this study, we look for the technical components to devise and implement a rule based approach with ontologies using free and open source software in semantic web context. Semantic web uses ontologies to deliver well-defined web resources and make them accessible to end-users and processes. We have created an ontology conforming to the geospatial data and defined some sample rules to show how to test data with respect to data quality elements including; attribute, topo-semantic and geometrical consistency using free and open source software. To test data against rules, sample GeoSPARQL queries are created, associated with specifications.

  10. Ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments using free and immobilized phytoplanktonic algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Giacco


    Full Text Available Marine sediments play an important role in the accumulation-storage and/or release of contaminants in seawaters; sedimets bioassays provide for general information on pollutant bioavailability. This work points out the importance to utilize free and immobilised (Na-alginate marine algae for the ecotoxicological evaluation of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu as well as of elutriates and whole sediment samples collected in harbour sites. The bioassay was carried out with the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica; algal growth inhibition was determined after 24 and 48 hours as percent growth in comparison to controls. After 24 hours a lower toxicity of metals for the immobilised algae than for free algae was observed; this trend decreased in time. Algae exposed to whole sediment ahowed a greater reduction of growth than algae exposed to the relative elutriate. This result emphasizes that the whole sediments seem to be suitable to detect the toxicity of such complex environmental matrix.

  11. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment. (United States)

    Remaili, Timothy M; Simpson, Stuart L; Amato, Elvio D; Spadaro, David A; Jarolimek, Chad V; Jolley, Dianne F


    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53-100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Classification of sediments by means of Self-Organizing Maps and sediment quality guidelines in sites of the southern Spanish coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. VESES


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to classify 112 marine and estuarine sites of the southern Spanish coastline (about 918 km long according to similar sediment characteristics by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs such as Self-Organizing Maps (SOM and sediment quality guidelines from a dataset consisted of 16 physical and chemical parameters including sediment granulometry, trace and major elements, total N and P and organic carbon content. The use of ANNs such as SOM made possible the classification of the sampling sites according to their similar chemical characteristics. Visual correlations between geochemical parameters were extracted due to the powerful visual characteristics (component planes of the SOM revealing that ANNs are an excellent tool to be incorporated in sediment quality assessments. Besides, almost 20% of the sites were classified as medium-high or high priority sites in order to take future remediation actions due to their high mean Effects Range-Median Quotient (m-ERMQ value. Priority sites included the estuaries of the major rivers (Tinto, Odiel, Palmones, etc. and several locations along the eastern coastline.

  13. Chemical quality of water, sediment, and fish in Mountain Creek Lake, Dallas, Texas, 1994-97 (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Jones, S.A.; Moring, J. Bruce; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.


    The occurrence, trends, and sources of numerous inorganic and organic contaminants were evaluated in Mountain Creek Lake, a reservoir in Dallas, Texas. The study, done in cooperation with the Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command, was prompted by the Navy’s concern for potential off-site migration of contaminants from two facilities on the shore of Mountain Creek Lake, the Naval Air Station Dallas and the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant. Sampling of stormwater (including suspended sediment), lake water, bottom sediment (including streambed sediment), and fish was primarily in Mountain Creek Lake but also was in stormwater outfalls from the Navy facilities, nearby urban streams, and small streams draining the Air Station.Volatile organic compounds, predominantly solvents from the Reserve Plant and fuel-related compounds from the Air Station, were detected in stormwater from both Navy facilities. Fuel-related compounds also were detected in Mountain Creek Lake at two locations, one near the Air Station inlet where stormwater from a part of the Air Station enters the lake and one at the center of the lake. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds at the two lake sites were small, all less than 5 micrograms per liter.Elevated concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc, from 2 to 4 times concentrations at background sites and urban reference sites, were detected in surficial bottom sediments in Cottonwood Bay, near stormwater outfalls from the Reserve Plant. Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, compared to background and urban reference sites, were detected in surficial sediments in Cottonwood Bay. Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, indicative of urban sources, also were detected in Cottonwood Creek, which drains an urbanized area apart from the Navy facilities. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the Sequoia Scientific LISST-ABS acoustic backscatter sediment sensor (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.


    Sequoia Scientific’s LISST-ABS is an acoustic backscatter sensor designed to measure suspended-sediment concentration at a point source. Three LISST-ABS were evaluated at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF). Serial numbers 6010, 6039, and 6058 were assessed for accuracy in solutions with varying particle-size distributions and for the effect of temperature on sensor accuracy. Certified sediment samples composed of different ranges of particle size were purchased from Powder Technology Inc. These sediment samples were 30–80-micron (µm) Arizona Test Dust; less than 22-µm ISO 12103-1, A1 Ultrafine Test Dust; and 149-µm MIL-STD 810E Silica Dust. The sensor was able to accurately measure suspended-sediment concentration when calibrated with sediment of the same particle-size distribution as the measured. Overall testing demonstrated that sensors calibrated with finer sized sediments overdetect sediment concentrations with coarser sized sediments, and sensors calibrated with coarser sized sediments do not detect increases in sediment concentrations from small and fine sediments. These test results are not unexpected for an acoustic-backscatter device and stress the need for using accurate site-specific particle-size distributions during sensor calibration. When calibrated for ultrafine dust with a less than 22-µm particle size (silt) and with the Arizona Test Dust with a 30–80-µm range, the data from sensor 6039 were biased high when fractions of the coarser (149-µm) Silica Dust were added. Data from sensor 6058 showed similar results with an elevated response to coarser material when calibrated with a finer particle-size distribution and a lack of detection when subjected to finer particle-size sediment. Sensor 6010 was also tested for the effect of dissimilar particle size during the calibration and showed little effect. Subsequent testing revealed problems with this sensor, including an inadequate temperature

  15. Water- and air-quality and surficial bed-sediment monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir watershed, San Diego County, California, 2003-09 (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew Y.


    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed in San Diego County, California. This study was designed to provide a data set that could be used to evaluate potential effects from the construction and operation of State Route 125 within the broader context of the water quality and air quality in the watershed. The study included regular sampling of water, air, and surficial bed sediment at Sweetwater Reservoir (SWR) for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), base-neutral and acid- extractable organic compounds (BNAs) that include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals. Additionally, water samples were collected for anthropogenic organic indicator compounds in and around SWR. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for VOCs, BNAs, pesticides, and metals. Surficial bed-sediment samples were collected for PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals at Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs.

  16. Fluvial sediment and chemical quality of water in the Little Blue River basin, Nebraska and Kansas (United States)

    Mundorff, J.C.; Waddell, K.M.


    The Little Blue River drains about 3,37)0 square miles in south-central Nebraska and north-central Kansas. The uppermost bedrock in the basin is limestone and shale of Permian age and sandstone, shale, and limestone of Cretaceous age. Bedrock is exposed in many places in the lower one-third of the basin but elsewhere is buried beneath a thin to thick mantle of younger sediments, mostly of Quaternary age. These younger sediments are largely fluvial and eolian deposits but also include some glacial till. Consisting in large part of sand and gravel, the fluvial deposits are an important source of ground-water supplies throughout much of the upper two-thirds of the basin. Loess, an eolian deposit of clayey silt, is by far the most widespread surficial deposit. The climate is continental. Temperatures ranging from -38 ? F to 118 ? F have been recorded in the basin. Average annual precipitation as low as 10.31 and as high as 49.32 inches has been recorded. During most years in the period 1956-62, when nearly all the water-quality data were obtained, annual precipitation and annual runoff were greater than normal. Flow-duration data indicate, however, that the flow distribution for the period was near normal. The Little Blue River has the same suspended-sediment characteristics as nearly all unregulated streams in the Great Plains--a wide range in concentrations, low concentrations during low-flow periods, and high concentrations during almost all periods of significant overland runoff. The maximum instantaneous concentration normally occurs many hours before maximum water discharge during any given rise in stage; the maximum daily mean concentration during any given year normally occurs at a moderate stream stage, not during a major flood. Suspended-sediment data for Little Blue River near Deweese, Nebr., which receives drainage from the upstream third of the basin, approximately, show that during the 1!}57-61 water years concentrations of 100 ppm (parts per million) or

  17. Improving system quality through software evaluation. (United States)

    McDaniel, James G


    The role of evaluation is examined with respect to quality of software in healthcare. Of particular note is the failure of the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine. This example provides evidence of several types of defect which could have been detected and corrected using appropriate evaluation procedures. The field of software engineering has developed metrics and guidelines to assist in software evaluation but this example indicates that software evaluation must be extended beyond the formally defined interfaces of the software to its real-life operating context.

  18. Quality and Research Evaluation in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    A central issue in science policy today is the changing role and function ofresearch evaluation. How is quality selected, has local organizational traditionsand managerial practices influence on the research evaluation? Who isperceived as peers or evaluators by the researchers and by managers......? Recentorganizational theory has focused on organizational and social dimensions inprivate knowledge-based companies, but left out research organizations. Howimportant is the organizational context for the research evaluation processes?The paper will present results from an interview-based study of four privateand...... public research organizations and discuss the importance of theorganizational context on the production of new knowledge....

  19. An Objective Train Timetabling Quality Evaluation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang


    Full Text Available The train timetable dominates the rail traffic organization. The timetabling quality should be evaluated to check the work skill of train timetable managers. The values of existing timetable evaluation indexes vary with infrastructure features and traffic flow; therefore, they are not comparable in fact. Furthermore, subjective inputs like expert scores are involved in evaluation; this will lead to unreliable results because the experts may have different opinions. To overcome these shortages, we propose a relative train path efficiency index by taking the train paths as production units. Each unit consumes some transport resources and produces some feedback outputs. A DEA model is applied to compute the train path efficiency. Two statistical functions of train path efficiency are used to evaluate the timetabling quality. We verify our method with real-world timetables. First, we use the Shibantan-to-Xinqiao line timetable to test the relative feature of the index proposed, and the results show that the train path efficiency value is relative and can reflect whether the stops are evenly distributed or not. Second, we evaluate the timetabling quality of another two timetables of the Qingdao-to-Jinan line with different traffic flows, and the results show that, compared with the 2012 timetable, the timetabling quality decreased in 2013.

  20. Evaluation of Baermann apparatus sedimentation time on recovery of Strongylus vulgaris and S. edentatus third stage larvae from equine coprocultures. (United States)

    Bellaw, Jennifer L; Nielsen, Martin K


    Traditional methods of diagnosing equine Strongylinae infections require culturing feces, sedimenting the culture media in Baermann apparatuses, collecting the sediment, and morphologically identifying recovered third stage larvae. However, this method is plagued by low negative predictive values. This study evaluated sedimentation time within the Baermann apparatus by comparing larval recovery from the traditionally collected sediment, "sediment 1", and from the usually discarded remaining fluid contents, "sediment 2", of the Baermann apparatus after 12, 24, and 48 h. A grand total of 147,482 larvae were recovered and examined. Sedimentation time did not significantly influence total larval recovery. At all three durations, significantly more Cyathostominae and Strongylus vulgaris larvae were covered from sediment 1 than from sediment 2. However, less than 60% of all recovered Strongylus edentatus were recovered from sediment 1. As 95% of S. vulgaris larvae were always recovered from sediment 1, the need for collection and examination of the remaining fluid contents of the Baermann apparatus is obviated when performing coprocultures for diagnosis of S. vulgaris infections, and sedimentation for 12h is adequate. Approximately 70% of Cyathostominae were recovered in sediment 1 at all durations, suggesting that 12h of sedimentation is adequate, although there is a need for future research to evaluate the risk of selection bias at differing sedimentation times among individual cyathostomin species. In contrast to S. vulgaris, collecting and examining the entire contents of the Baermann apparatus may be necessary when an increased diagnostic sensitivity and negative predictive value is desired in diagnosing S. edentatus infections as only 38-61% of larvae were recovered from sediment 1 portion of the Baermann apparatus. This information will allow researchers and practitioners to make more informed decisions in choosing appropriate larval recovery techniques, balancing

  1. Water- and sediment-quality effects on Pimephales promelas spawning vary along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient. (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R; Klaper, Rebecca D; Weber, Daniel N; Bannerman, Roger T


    Many streams in the U.S. are "impaired" due to anthropogenic influence. For watershed managers to achieve practical understanding of these impairments, a multitude of factors must be considered, including point and nonpoint-source influence on water quality. A spawning assay was developed in this study to evaluate water- and sediment-quality effects that influenced Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) egg production over a gradient of urban and agricultural land use in 27 small watersheds in Eastern Wisconsin. Six pairs of reproducing fathead minnows were contained in separate mesh cartridges within one larger flow-through chamber. Water- and sediment quality were sampled for an array of parameters. Egg production was monitored for each pair providing an assessment of spawning success throughout the 21-day test periods. Incidences of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in many of these streams negatively impacted spawning success. Nine of 27 streams experienced DO less than 3.1mg/L and 15 streams experienced DO less than 4.8mg/L. Low DO was observed in urban and agricultural watersheds, but the upper threshold of minimum DO decreased with increasing urban development. An increase in specific conductance was related to a decrease in spawning success. In previous studies for streams in this region, specific conductance had a linear relation with chloride, suggesting the possibility that chloride could be a factor in egg production. Egg production was lower at sites with substantial urban development, but sites with low egg production were not limited to urban sites. Degradation of water- and sediment-quality parameters with increasing urban development is indicated for multiple parameters while patterns were not detected for others. Results from this study indicate that DO must be a high priority watershed management consideration for this region, specific conductance should be investigated further to determine the mechanism of the relation with egg production, and water- and

  2. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.


    Water-quality trends reflect the relation between water quality and human activities, chronicling changes in concentrations of environmental contaminants, introduction of new contaminants, and successful efforts in environmental pollution remediation. Historical data available for analyzing trends often have severe limitations, from questionable accuracy to unknown sampling and analytic methodologies. Where data are unavailable or have such limitations, water-quality trends sometimes can be reconstructed using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs.

  3. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea (United States)

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.


    The Anniston Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site is located in the vicinity of the municipality of Anniston in Calhoun County, in the north-eastern portion of Alabama. Although there are a variety of land-use activities within the Choccolocco Creek watershed, environmental concerns in the area have focused mainly on releases of PCBs to aquatic and riparian habitats. PCBs were manufactured by Monsanto, Inc. at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971. The chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments at the Anniston PCB Site include: PCBs, mercury, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of PCB-contaminated sediments to the juvenile fatmucket mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and to characterize relationships between sediment chemistry and the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Anniston PCB Site using laboratory sediment testing. Samples were collected in August 2010 from OU-4 of the Anniston PCB Site, as well as from selected reference locations. A total of 32 samples were initially collected from six test sites and one reference site within the watershed. A total of 23 of these 32 samples were evaluated in 28-day whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with juvenile mussels (L. siliquoidea). Physical and chemical characterization of whole sediment included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients, PCBs, parent and alkylated PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/PCDFs, total metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment collected from Snow Creek and Choccolocco Creek contained a variety of COPCs. Organic contaminants detected in sediment included PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDDs/PCDFs, and PAHs. In general, the highest

  4. Characterization of the quality of water, bed sediment, and fish in Mittry Lake, Arizona, 2014–15 (United States)

    Hermosillo, Edyth; Coes, Alissa L.


    Water, bed-sediment, and fish sampling was conducted in Mittry Lake, Arizona, in 2014–15 to establish current water-quality conditions of the lake. The parameters of temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. Water samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved pesticides, bacteria, and suspended-sediment concentrations. Bed-sediment and fish samples were analyzed for trace elements, halogenated compounds, total mercury, and methylmercury.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels in drinking water were exceeded for sulfate, chloride, and manganese in the water samples. Trace-element concentrations were relatively similar between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Concentrations for nutrients in all water samples were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s water-quality standards for aquatic and wildlife uses, and all bacteria levels were below the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality’s recommended recreational water-quality criteria. Three out of 81 pesticides were detected in the water samples.Trace-element concentrations in bed sediment were relatively consistent between the inlet, middle, and outlet locations. Lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc concentrations, however, decreased from the inlet to outlet locations. Concentrations for lead, nickel, and zinc in some bed-sediment samples exceeded consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect concentrations. Eleven out of 61 halogenated compounds were detected in bed sediment at the inlet location, whereas three were detected at the middle location, and five were detected at the outlet location. No methylmercury was detected in bed sediment. Total mercury was detected in bed sediment at concentrations below the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines probable effect

  5. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor


    BACKGROUND: Evaluating quality of health care is increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the advancement of health-care delivery. We recently developed a set of quality indicators for headache care, intended to be applicable across countries, cultures and settings so...... that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg...... welcomed, reassured and educated, and were mostly satisfied. Discussion points arose over inclusion of psychological therapies in treatment plans; over recording of outcomes; over indicators of efficiency and equitability (protocols to limit wastage of resources, systems to measure input costs and means...

  6. Quality Evaluation Based on Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin


    Full Text Available Quality prediction models are constructed based on multivariate statistical methods, including ordinary least squares regression (OLSR, principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLSR, and modified partial least squares regression (MPLSR. The prediction model constructed by MPLSR achieves superior results, compared with the other three methods from both aspects of fitting efficiency and prediction ability. Based on it, further research is dedicated to selecting key variables to directly predict the product quality with satisfactory performance. The prediction models presented are more efficient than tradition ones and can be useful to support human experts in the evaluation and classification of the product quality. The effectiveness of the quality prediction models is finally illustrated and verified based on the practical data set of the red wine.

  7. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael


    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  8. Recent Developments in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Innovations in Manipulations and Endpoints (United States)

    Whole sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods were developed primarily in the late 1990s and early 2000s in research programs dedicated to developing manipulations and endpoints to characterize and identify causes of toxicity to benthic freshwater and marine org...

  9. Evaluation and selection of test methods for assessment of contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari; Ahvo, Aino; Berezina, Nadya

    The purpose of the CONTEST project (2014-15) is to test, develop, evaluate and select suitable biological methods to be applied in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of toxicity of anthropogenically contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea marine region. Here is presented results from...

  10. Post-dredging effect assessment based on sediment chemical quality in urban rivers of Yangzhou. (United States)

    Weng, Jia-Xing


    Deteriorating of urban river environment in Yangzhou is gradually serious in recent years. Treatment measures including pollution source control, sewage interception, and sludge dredging have been carried out in recent years, but urban river environment is still poor. In order to ascertain the causes, post-dredging effects were assessed based on sediment chemical quality in urban rivers of Yangzhou. Results indicate that post-dredging effects are not ideal because of backward dredging technique and incomplete pollution control. Eutrophication degree is still relatively high for most of them and pollution degree of nutrients is total phosphorus (TP) > total nitrogen (TN) > organic matter (OM). Although the pollution of heavy metals is not serious, the major pollution factors Cd and Hg should still be monitored intensively in the sludge dredging for the toxic effect of heavy metals.

  11. Theoretical Evaluation of the Sediment/Water Exchange Description in Generic Compartment Models (SimpleBox)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Fauser, P.; Carlsen, L.

    in the calculations, the one box model needs to be evaluated in relation to a more complete solution of the differential equations for diffusion. General guidelines that are based on the system parameters are set up in order to establish the importance of diffusion and deposition respectively. These define the range......It is shown how diffusion and deposition of solids drive the flux of substance between the water column and the sediment. The generic compartment models (Mackay type) use a one box model for the sediment in order to keep the calculations simple. However, when diffusion needs to be included...

  12. Integrated River and Coastal Flow, Sediment and Escherichia coli Modelling for Bathing Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxian Huang


    Full Text Available Due to the increasing economic and cultural value of bathing waters and the shellfish industry in the UK and worldwide, water quality in estuarine and coastal waters has attracted considerable public attention in recent years. To obtain accurate predictions of the concentration distributions of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs in coastal waters for better management of bathing water compliance, it is necessary to build an integrated modelling system to predict the complete diffuse and point source inputs from river and catchment basins. In the present paper, details are given of the development of such an integrated modelling system for simulating the transport and decay processes of FIOs, from catchment areas upstream from the coastal region, in which a distributed catchment module, a 1D river network module and a 2D estuarine and coastal module are linked dynamically by boundary inputs and outputs. Extensive measured data from the catchments, river networks and estuaries have been collated to determine the model parameters. Verification results of the distribution of water levels, flows and velocities, and suspended sediment and Escherichia coli concentrations, at controlled monitoring sites are presented, which show that the integrated model predictions generally agree well with the measurements, although locally appreciable errors can occur. The model results also highlight the importance of including the flux of FIOs via sediments being an important factor in terms of assessing the quality of bathing waters. The main factors influencing the relatively high concentration values in the bathing region are analysed, based on the model predictions and measured data, with four categories of FIO concentration levels being reviewed.

  13. Evaluating local and regional scales of environmental change from sediment characteristics of a tributary of the upper Chesapeake Bay: a geospatial approach to understanding the role of humans on elemental transport and fate (United States)

    Krahforst, C.; Hartman, S.; Eisen-Cuadra, A.; Bruce, S.; Sherman, L.; Kehm, K.


    Most of our coastal systems have experienced changes in ecosystem quality due to increased anthropogenic activities, often resulting in the degradation of water and habitat quality. Estuaries are often the first of marine systems that experience these changes. The distribution of trace elements (V, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, As, Sn, Ag, Zn, and Cd) and other sediment characteristics in surface sediments and sediment cores from the Chester River - an estuary located in a predominantly agricultural watershed of the upper Chesapeake Bay, USA - is being determined in order to add to the understanding of contaminant transport and fate and evaluate the likelihood for success of strategies designed to meet or improve the ecological condition of estuaries. The high amount of suspended sediment in the Chester River (10-20 mg L-1) is an important factor controlling water quality conditions and a prime focus for environmental management. Sources of suspended mater and its elemental composition are the result of local runoff, atmospheric deposition, local resuspension, and exchange with the Chesapeake Bay. Preliminary results from multivariate analytic and geospatial mapping analyses of sediment surface grabs display significant covariance with Al for many of the elements investigated which may indicate limited exogenic sources of contamination for of sediments of this watershed. For example total Pb sediment concentrations were mostly below the NOAA's low toxic effects level (94%) and appear to be dominated by crustal weathering or from accelerated soil erosion (Pb vs. Al, r2 = 0.84). These analyses, coupled with sequential leaching of elements from these sediments, sediment organic carbon, activities of selected radionuclides of sediment cores and main stem water quality surveys provide added information of the roles of local land use and region scale processes on ecosystem condition and may direct future management for improving environmental quality of estuaries.

  14. Image quality evaluation: the data mining approach (United States)

    Cui, Chengwu


    It is difficult if not impossible to derive a model to adequately describe the entire visual, cognitive and preference decision process of image quality evaluation and to replace it with objective alternatives. Even if some parts of the process can be modeled based on the current knowledge of the visual system, there is often a lack of sufficient data to support the modeling process. On the other hand, image quality evaluation is constantly required for those working on imaging devices and software. Measurements and surveys are regularly conducted to test a newer processing algorithm or a methodology. Large scale subjective measurement or surveys are often conducted before a product is released. Here we propose to combine the two processes and apply data mining techniques to achieve both goals of routine subjective testing and modeling. Specifically, we propose to use relational databases to log and store regular evaluation processes. When combined with web applications, the relational databases approach allow one to maximally improve the efficiency of designing, conducting, analyzing, and reporting test data. The collection of large amounts of data makes it possible to apply data mining techniques to discover knowledge and patterns in the data. Here we report one such system for printing quality evaluation and some theories on data mining including data visualization, observer mining, text comment mining, test case mining, model mining. We also present some preliminary results based on some of these techniques.

  15. Evaluation and mapping spatial distribution of bottom sediment heavy metal contamination in Burullus Lake, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. El-Amier


    Full Text Available Burullus Lake is one of most important lakes in north Delta of Egypt. It is exposed to huge amounts of serious pollutants especially heavy metals. The sediments within the lake aid in the dispersion of these metals. The main objectives of this research were to evaluate and map the spatial distribution of heavy metals in Burullus Lake sediments. Accordingly, 37 locations were randomly distributed within the lake. Sediment samples were taken from these locations. These samples were analyzed for seven metals including Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd and Pb. Also, five indices were used to identify the status of metal pollutants in the Lake. These indices are: enrichment factor (EF, contamination factor (CF, degree of contamination (DC, pollution load index (PLI and geo-accumulation index (Igeo. Ordinary Kriging was used to interpolate the spatial distribution of the studied elements within the lake. The obtained results indicated that cadmium was the most enriched element in the lake sediments due to industrial and agricultural wastes drained into the lake. The Igeo index revealed that Cd and Pb were the common pollutants in lake sediments. The DC values ranged between low (near El-Boughaz and moderate (near drainage areas. The spatial distribution of pollutants within the lake indicated that the highly polluted areas are located close to the drains, whereas as the less polluted areas were close to El-Boughaz.

  16. Evaluation Framework for Quality Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Hrgarek


    Full Text Available Identifying and specifying user requirements is an integral part of information systems design and is critical for the project success. More than 50% of the reasons for the project failure presented in the CHAOS report [36] and study of a US Air Force project by Sheldon et al. [33] are related to requirements. The goal of this paper is to assess the relevant user and software requirements which are the basis for an electronic quality management system selection in medical device companies. This paper describes the structured evaluation and selection process of different quality management software tools that shall support business processes. The purpose of this paper is to help the small to medium size medical device companies to choose the right quality management software which meets the company's business needs.

  17. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.


    of the samples below the TT were toxic to benthic invertebrates), low rates of false positive errors (only 0 to 6 percent of the samples greater than the TT were not toxic to benthic invertebrates), and high rates of correct classification (that is, 92 to 96 percent). The site-specific TTs for PCBs and other COPCs derived in this study also were compared to empirically based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), to equilibrium-partitioning based SQGs, and to the results of spiked-sediment toxicity tests. The results of this evaluation indicated that the site-specific sediment TTs for PCBs were comparable to the consensus-based SQGs that were derived for PCBs. In addition, the site-specific sediment TTs for PCBs are well within the range of SQGs derived using the equilibrium partitioning approach. The site-specific sediment TTs for PCBs also are consistent with the results of chronic TTs that have been estimated for benthic invertebrates using the results of spiked-sediment toxicity tests. As the site-specific sediment TTs for PCBs are consistent with empirically based SQGs, equilibrium-partitioning based SQGs, and results of sediment-spiking studies, these site- specific sediment TTs likely represent the concentrations of PCBs that are sufficient to cause toxicity to benthic invertebrates (as opposed to simply being correlated with adverse effects on the survival, weight, or reproduction of benthic invertebrates). Importantly, such site-specific sediment TTs have been demonstrated to accurately classify sediment samples as toxic or not toxic to benthic invertebrates at the Anniston PCB Site. In contrast, the TTs for metals, PAHs, and organochlorine pesticides were generally lower than consensus-based SQGs (that is, probable effect concentrations), and LC50s (median lethal effect concentrations) generated in spiked-sediment toxicity tests, indicating that these COPCs are likely not the main contributors to the observed toxicity of the site sediments evaluated in this

  18. Spatial and seasonal toxicity in a stormwater management facility: evidence obtained by adapting an integrated sediment quality assessment approach. (United States)

    Tixier, Guillaume; Rochfort, Quintin; Grapentine, Lee; Marsalek, Jiri; Lafont, Michel


    Stormwater ponds have been widely used to control increased surface runoff resulting from urbanization, and to enhance runoff quality. As receiving waters, they are impacted by intermittent stormwater pollution while also serving as newly created aquatic habitats, which partly offset changes of aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity by urbanization. Thus, determining ecological risks in stormwater ponds is important for the preservation and rehabilitation of biodiversity in urban areas. Limitations of the conventional toxicity assessment techniques in stormwater ponds have led us to use the sediment quality triad approach with the specific analyses of oligochaetes. The latter analyses build on the earlier work by the Cemagref (Lyon, France) and use the oligochaetes as bioindicators of the sediment quality. This integrative approach was tested at eight sites in the Terraview-Willowfield stormwater facility in Toronto, Ontario, in all four seasons (summer 2008-spring 2009). The facility receives direct runoff from the MacDonald-Cartier freeway with a traffic intensity of 340,000 vehicles/d. Sediment chemistry results indicate that several heavy metals and PAH compounds exceeded the Ontario sediment quality guidelines in the facility. Regardless of the season, laboratory bioassays revealed a strong spatial variation in sediment toxicity along the flow path from the inlet to the outlet, agreeing with decreasing concentrations of contaminants in sediment, especially of heavy metals. However, in situ assessments of the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and in particular of the oligochaete community revealed an overriding influence of seasonally varying toxicity. This seasonal pattern was described as high toxicity in spring and recovery in fall and corresponded to the influx and flushing-out of road salts and of several heavy metals within the facility. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Over the years, numerous and varied techniques have been used for evaluation of meat quality and carcass composition. Very few existing assessment techniques meet industrial requirements, the most promising being cited as ultrasonic measurements for assessment of potential texture on live animals and whole carcasses and image processing and NIR spectroscopy of meat joints and cuts. In this article besides these techniques, electronic nose and NMR techniques are reviewed.

  20. Evaluation of Biomonitoring Systems for Assessment of Contaminated Waters and Sediments at U.S. Army Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, Dennis


    .... Both aqueous and sediment phase tests were evaluated. The studies were structured, where possible, to provide toxicity system evaluation data as well as data for various Superfund sites at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland...

  1. A new method to evaluate floodwater for control/use in high-sediment rivers of Northwest China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xungui Li


    Evaluating the quantity of flood season floodwater that is difficult to control or use in rivers with high sediment concentration is an important part of water resource evaluation and floodwater resource utilisation...

  2. Sediment transport, light and algal growth in the Markermeer : a two-dimensional water quality model for a shallow lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, van E.H.S.


    This thesis reports on a study of the water quality in the Markermeer, focusing on the relationships between sediment transport, the light field and the growth of Oscillatoria agardhii . The study comprises two aspects: an extensive data collection program with the data

  3. Review on the quality of sediments from the stormwater drainage system in the urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawrot Nicole


    Full Text Available The main task of the stormwater drainage system (SDS is a safe drainage of rainwater and snowmelt from the urban area to the receiver. The flow of rain water in the drainage pipes is directly related with the formation of sediments in the whole stormwater system. In addition, pollutants from land runoff get adsorbed to the sediments. The sludge is mainly formed in those elements of SDS, wherein the flow conditions allow for sedimentation. This article provides an overview of the literature concerning the characteristics of sediments from SDS, with a particular focus on heavy metals in sediments deposited in the urban catchment area.

  4. Evaluation of Video Quality in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Shakir; Obaid Ur Rehman; Zeeshan Abbas; Abdullah Masood; Wajeeha Shahid


    .... Scenarios involving multimedia transmissions with characteristics of video quality control and evaluation must be computed on the basis of Quality of Experience which relies on user's perception...

  5. [Evaluation of Mexican 'Sicalidad' health quality program]. (United States)

    Rivera-Buendía, Frida; Bello-Chavolla, Omar Y; Zubieta-Zavala, Adriana; Hernández-Ramírez, Luz; Zepeda-Tena, Carolina; Durán-Arenas, Luis


    To analize the implementation of the Sistema Integral de Calidad en Salud (Sicalidad) program of the Ministry of Health in the 2011. The study follows a cross sectional design, hybrid, with a qualitative and quantitative components. A cluster probabilístic sample was used with two stages. A total of 3 034 interviews were carried out in 13 states to evaluate the implementation of the eight components of the Sicalidad program. General indexes of performance (GIP) were formulated for structure process and satisfaction of users, physicians and nurses with the program. The GIP with the lower score was accreditation of health facilities with a range of scores between 25.4 and 28% in the medical units evaluated; The highest range of scores was in the component of nosocomial infection prevention between 78.3 and 92%. In brief the Sicalidad components evaluated suggest problems with both structure and critical process elements in the implementation of the quality initiatives.

  6. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.


    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  7. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea. (United States)

    Ruiz-Compean, Pedro; Ellis, Joanne; Cúrdia, João; Payumo, Richard; Langner, Ute; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana


    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm -2 and 160piecesm -2 ) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Baseline evaluation of sediment contamination in the shallow coastal areas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz Compean, Pedro Javier


    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of water and sediment quality there is still limited information on contamination levels in many regions globally including the Red Sea. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of three classes of contaminants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - PAH; metals; plastics) in coastal sediments along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea mainly collected using grabs. Background concentrations are provided for metals in the region. Concentrations of metals and PAH were generally low in comparison to international guidelines. A clear relationship between the concentration of metals and anthropogenic sources was not always apparent and dust and vegetation may be relevant players in the region. Microplastic items (mainly polyethylene) were abundant (reaching up to 1gm−2 and 160piecesm−2) and in general associated with areas of high human activity. This study provides critical information for future monitoring and the development of national policies within the Red Sea region.

  9. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment. (United States)

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M


    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  11. Method of evaluation of process of red blood cell sedimentation based on photometry of droplet samples. (United States)

    Aristov, Alexander; Nosova, Ekaterina


    The paper focuses on research aimed at creating and testing a new approach to evaluate the processes of aggregation and sedimentation of red blood cells for purpose of its use in clinical laboratory diagnostics. The proposed method is based on photometric analysis of blood sample formed as a sessile drop. The results of clinical approbation of this method are given in the paper. Analysis of the processes occurring in the sample in the form of sessile drop during the process of blood cells sedimentation is described. The results of experimental studies to evaluate the effect of the droplet sample focusing properties on light radiation transmittance are presented. It is shown that this method significantly reduces the sample volume and provides sufficiently high sensitivity to the studied processes.

  12. Ecotoxicological evaluation of harbour sediments using marine organisms from different trophic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane, L.; Giacco, E.; Mariottini, G.L. [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biology; Corra, C.; Greco, G.; Faimali, M. [CNR - ISMAR-Marine Technology Section, Genova (Italy); Varisco, F. [Multiproject S.r.l., Gorizia (Italy)


    Background, aim and scope. The toxicity of contaminated sediments should be evaluated considering the direct exposure of laboratory organisms to whole sediments and the indirect exposure to elutriates or extracts (Tay et al. 1992, Byrne and Halloran 1999, Nendza 2002). The alga Dunaliella tertiolecta is indicated for the use in toxicity bioassays because it is highly sensitive to several xenobiotics. Harpacticoid copepods have been already used for toxicity testing and Tigriopus fulvus is a promising Mediterranean target-species in ecotoxicology (Todaro et al. 2001, Faraponova et al. 2003, Pane et al. 2005a). In this study, the toxicity of sediments collected in harbour sites of the Northeastern Adriatic Sea was evaluated by growth inhibition test with free living and alginate-immobilized Dunaliella tertiolecta and acute toxicity test with nauplii and adult Tigriopus fulvus with the aim of pointing out the importance to utilize model organisms from different trophic levels in sediment ecotoxicology. Methodology. Elutriates and whole sediments were tested on free living and immobilized (Pane et al. 1998) algal cells, and on laboratory reared copepods. Free-living D. tertiolecta were exposed to diluted elutriates in a static, multi-well plate system. Na-alginate immobilized D. tertiolecta were placed in polystyrene inserts fitted with polyester mesh bottoms and exposed to a thin layer (2 mm) of whole sediments in multi-well plates (EPS 1992, Pane and Bertino 1999). Toxicity tests with copepods were carried out on Tigriopus fulvus nauplii (elutriates) and adults (whole sediments and elutriates). Same-aged nauplii useful for toxicity tests were obtained by egg sac detaching and consequent hatching stimulation (Pane et al. 2006). Newborn nauplii (I-II stage) were exposed to elutriates in multi-well plates provided with polystyrene inserts. Adult T. fulvus maintained in polystyrene inserts fitted with polyester mesh bottoms were placed in contact with a thin layer (2 mm

  13. Evaluation of metal contamination in sediments from north of Morocco: geochemical and statistical approaches. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barroso, M R; Benhamou, Y; El Moumni, B; El Hatimi, I; García-Morales, J L


    Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg were evaluated in surface sediments of two rivers from north of Morocco, known as Souani and Mghogha rivers. Significantly higher concentrations in mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) of Mn (747.6 vs. 392.9), Cr (86.4 vs. 56.3), Zn (299.5 vs. 138.5) were found in sediment samples from Mghogha when compared with Souani river. Average concentrations of Cd and Hg in several sediment samples from both rivers were above the effect range median that predicts toxic effects to aquatic organisms. The calculation of enrichment factors showed that Mn, Cr, Cu and Ni were depleted, whereas Pb and Hg were enriched. The results of geoaccumulation index revealed that sediments of both rivers were unpolluted with most of the metals and moderately contaminated with Fe and Hg. Some of elevated concentrations of Hg, principally in Mghogha River, were due to anthropogenic sources including the direct discharges of industrial zone.

  14. Allowance for radial dilution in evaluating the concentration dependence of sedimentation coefficients for globular proteins. (United States)

    Patel, Trushar R; Winzor, Donald J; Scott, David J


    The accuracy with which the concentration dependence of the sedimentation coefficient, s = s 0(1 - kc), can be quantified for globular proteins by commonly used procedures has been examined by subjecting simulated sedimentation velocity distributions for ovalbumin to c(s)‒s analysis. Because this procedure, as well as its g(s)‒s counterpart, is based on assumed constancy of s over the time course of sedimentation coefficient measurement in a given experiment, the best definition of the concentration coefficient k is obtained by associating the measured s with the mean of plateau concentrations for the initial and final distributions used for its determination. The return of a slightly underestimated k (by about 3%) is traced to minor mislocation of the air‒liquid meniscus position as the result of assuming time independence of s in a given experiment. Although more accurate quantification should result from later SEDFIT and SEDANAL programs incorporating the simultaneous evaluation of s 0 and k, the procedures based on assumed constancy of s suffice for determining the limiting sedimentation coefficient s 0-the objective of most s‒c dependence studies.

  15. Biomarker responsiveness in different tissues of caged Ruditapes philippinarum and its use within an integrated sediment quality assessment. (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Julia; Coz, Alberto; Viguri, Javier R; Luque, Angel; Martín-Díaz, M Laura; DelValls, T Ángel


    Biomarkers comprising activities of biotransformation enzymes (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase -EROD-, dibenzylfluorescein dealkylase -DBF-, glutathione S-transferase -GST), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase -GR- and glutathione peroxidase -GPX), lipid peroxidation -LPO- and DNA strand breaks were analyzed in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum caged at Cádiz Bay, Santander Bay and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (LPGC) Port (Spain). Sediments were characterized. Digestive gland was the most sensitive tissue to sediment contamination. In Cádiz Bay, changes in LPO regarding day 0 were related with metals. In LPGC Port, DBF, EROD, and GST activity responses suggested the presence of undetermined contaminants which might have led to DNA damage. In Santander Bay, PAHs were related with EROD activity, organic and metal contamination was found to be associated with GR and GST activities and DNA damage presented significant (p contamination at biochemical level. Biomarkers allowed chemical exposure and sediment quality assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of four porewater sampling methods for metal mixtures and dissolved organic carbon and the implications for sediment toxicity evaluations (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G.; MacDonald, Donald D.


    Evaluations of sediment quality conditions are commonly conducted using whole-sediment chemistry analyses but can be enhanced by evaluating multiple lines of evidence, including measures of the bioavailable forms of contaminants. In particular, porewater chemistry data provide information that is directly relevant for interpreting sediment toxicity data. Various methods for sampling porewater for trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important moderator of metal bioavailability, have been employed. The present study compares the peeper, push point, centrifugation, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) methods for the quantification of 6 metals and DOC. The methods were evaluated at low and high concentrations of metals in 3 sediments having different concentrations of total organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide and different particle-size distributions. At low metal concentrations, centrifugation and push point sampling resulted in up to 100 times higher concentrations of metals and DOC in porewater compared with peepers and DGTs. At elevated metal levels, the measured concentrations were in better agreement among the 4 sampling techniques. The results indicate that there can be marked differences among operationally different porewater sampling methods, and it is unclear if there is a definitive best method for sampling metals and DOC in porewater.

  17. Derivation of no-effect and reference-level sediment quality values for application at Saskatchewan uranium operations. (United States)

    Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten


    To date, the majority of empirical approaches used to derive sediment quality values (SQVs) have focused on metal concentrations in sediment associated with adverse effects on benthic invertebrate communities. Here, we propose the no-effect (NE) approach. This SQV derivation methodology uses metal concentrations in sediment associated with unaffected benthic communities (i.e., from reference sites and lightly contaminated no-effect sites) and accounts for local benthic invertebrate tolerance and potential chemical interactions at no-effect exposure sites. This NE approach was used to propose alternative regional SQVs for uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. Three different sets of NE values were derived using different combinations of benthic invertebrate community effects criteria (abundance, richness, evenness, Bray-Curtis index). Additionally, reference values were derived based solely on sediment metal concentrations from reference sites. In general, NE values derived using abundance, richness, and evenness (NE1 and NE2 values) were found to be higher than the NE values derived using all four metrics (NE3 values). Derived NE values for Cr, Cu, Pb, and V did not change with the incorporation of additional effects criteria due to a lack of influence from the uranium operations on the concentrations of these metals in sediment. However, a gradient of exposure concentrations was apparent for As, Mo, Ni, Se, and U in sediment which allowed for tolerable exposure levels of these metals in sediment to be defined. The findings from this assessment have suggested a range of new, alternate metal SQVs for use at uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan.

  18. Evaluating the Impacts of Unexpected Forest Disturbances on Paired Catchment Calibrations of Sediment Yield and Turbidity (United States)

    Herlein, K.; Silins, U.; Williams, C.; Wagner, M. J.; Martens, A. M.


    The paired catchment approach of studying the impacts of disturbance on catchment hydrology remains as perhaps the most powerful approach for direct verification of catchment scale impacts from disturbance. However, paired catchment studies are also dependent on the stability of the relationships between treated and reference catchments during calibration and evaluation periods. A long-term paired catchment study of forest harvest impacts on sediment yield and turbidity in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Alberta, Canada has a robust 11-year pre-treatment data record. The study intends to evaluate three alternative logging practices: clear-cutting, strip-shelterwood, and partial cutting. 3 sub-catchments in Star Creek (1035 ha) underwent harvest treatments while North York Creek (865 Ha) serves as the reference. The objective of this particular study was to explore the potential effects of unplanned and unanticipated watershed changes in two watersheds during an 11-year calibration. Sediment yield (kg ha-1 d-1) and turbidity (NTU) were monitored throughout the calibration period (2004-2014) prior to the 2015 harvest in Star Creek. Two unanticipated disturbances including backcountry trail rehabilitation in North York (2010) followed by a >100 year storm event in both watersheds in June 2013 may have affected the sediment yield and turbidity calibration relationships. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of this trail rehabilitation and flooding by comparing the calibration relationships before and after these disturbances. Despite qualitative field observations of periodically affected sediment regimes, no impact on pre- or post- calibration relationships was observed. Backcountry trail rehabilitation in North York (p=0.904 and 0.416 for sediment yield and turbidity, respectively) or flooding in both watersheds (p=0.364 and 0.204 for sediment yield and turbidity, respectively) did not produce significant changes to the calibrations

  19. Microbial Community Analysis in Water Storage Tank Sediment Exposed to Monochloramine (United States)

    Sediment accumulation in water storage facilities causes water quality degradation, including enhanced biological growth and more rapid disinfectant decay. The current research evaluated the microbial community composition after a drinking water storage facility’s sediment was e...

  20. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico. (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso


    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities.

  1. Quality of protection evaluation of security mechanisms. (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail


    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  2. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ksiezopolski


    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  3. Sensitivity-Based Modeling of Evaluating Surface Runoff and Sediment Load using Digital and Analog Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya


    Full Text Available Analyses of runoff- sediment measurement and evaluation using automated and convectional runoff-meters was carried out at Meteorological and Hydrological Station of Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi using two runoff plots (ABCDa and EFGHm of area 2m 2 each, depth 0.26 m and driven into the soil to the depth of 0.13m. Runoff depths and intensities were measured from each of the positioned runoff plot. Automated runoff-meter has a measuring accuracy of ±0.001l/±0.025 mm and rainfall depth-intensity was measured using tipping-bucket rainguage during the period of 14-month of experimentation. Minimum and maximum rainfall depths of 1.2 and 190.3 mm correspond to measured runoff depths (MRo of 0.0 mm for both measurement approaches and 60.4 mm and 48.9 mm respectively. Automated runoffmeter provides precise, accurate and instantaneous result over the convectional measurement of surface runoff. Runoff measuring accuracy for automated runoff-meter from the plot (ABCDa produces R 2 = 0.99; while R 2 = 0.96 for manual evaluation in plot (EFGHm. WEPP and SWAT models were used to simulate the obtained hydrological variables from the applied measurement mechanisms. The outputs of sensitivity simulation analysis indicate that data from automated measuring systems gives a better modelling index and such could be used for running robust runoff-sediment predictive modelling technique under different reservoir sedimentation and water management scenarios.

  4. The leaf-bag and the sediment sample: Two sides of the same ecological quality story? (United States)

    Quintino, Victor; Sangiorgio, Franca; Mamede, Renato; Ricardo, Fernando; Sampaio, Leandro; Martins, Roberto; Freitas, Rosa; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Basset, Alberto


    A growing number of studies suggest that ecological quality status assessment in transitional waters should rely upon functional indicators rather than structural indices. The experimental study of decomposition rates using leaf-bags are among the former. A recent example was conducted in Ria de Aveiro, Western Portugal, and the decomposition rates of Phragmites australis obtained through the registration of the biomass decrease in leaf samples left in the estuary for fixed periods of time (7, 15, 30 and 60 days). The leaf-bags were recollected from the field and the accompanying fauna retained, for comparison to that obtained in sediment samples taken with a hand-held corer. The study was conducted in five areas covering the full salinity gradient, in three sites per area and four replicates per site. A total of 89 taxa were registered, 70 in the leaf-bags and 50 in the sediment samples. 39 taxa were sampled only in the leaf-bags, 19 only in the corers and 31 were common. From marine to freshwater areas, average abundance increased in both types of samples, and species richness and diversity diminished, except in freshwater and in the leaf-bags. Both samplers portrayed the succession from the marine to the freshwater areas, and the benthic community was found significantly different between all areas except between the two located closer to the estuarine entrance, equally by both samplers. Despite these similarities, the benthic communities sampled by the two methods were significantly different, either dominated by annelids (corers), or by arthropods (leaf-bags), amphipods in the estuary and insects in freshwater. These differences were not significant neither in the freshwater, due to paucity of the endofauna in freshwater, nor in the fully marine area, possibly due to the high variability of samples within the area. These results indicate that the estuarine benthic invertebrates upon which the taxonomic indices are calculated and those which contribute to the

  5. Source Evaluation and Trace Metal Contamination in Benthic Sediments from Equatorial Ecosystems Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak U Benson

    Full Text Available Trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in benthic sediments were analyzed through multi-step fractionation scheme to assess the levels and sources of contamination in estuarine, riverine and freshwater ecosystems in Niger Delta (Nigeria. The degree of contamination was assessed using the individual contamination factors (ICF and global contamination factor (GCF. Multivariate statistical approaches including principal component analysis (PCA, cluster analysis and correlation test were employed to evaluate the interrelationships and associated sources of contamination. The spatial distribution of metal concentrations followed the pattern Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Ni. Ecological risk index by ICF showed significant potential mobility and bioavailability for Cu, Cu and Ni. The ICF contamination trend in the benthic sediments at all studied sites was Cu>Cr>Ni>Cd>Pb. The principal component and agglomerative clustering analyses indicate that trace metals contamination in the ecosystems was influenced by multiple pollution sources.

  6. Field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in Spanish ports. (United States)

    Martín-Díaz, M L; Blasco, J; Sales, D; Delvalls, T A


    Two marine invertebrates, the crab Carcinus maenas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four Spanish ports Cadiz (SW Spain), Huelva (SW Spain), Bilbao (NE Spain) and Pasajes (NE Spain). In an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (MTLPs), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In parallel, physical and chemical characterization of the different sediments was performed and biological responses related to the contaminants. Significant induction of MTLPs was observed when organisms were exposed to metal contaminated sediments (port of Huelva), and EROD and GPX activities after exposure to sediments containing organic compounds (port of Bilbao and Pasajes). No significant interspecies differences were observed in biomarker responses except for the GST and GR.

  7. Evaluating spatial patterns of dioxins in sediments to aid determination of potential implications for marine reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanussen, S.; Gaus, C. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Brisbane (Australia); Limpus, C.J. [Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane (Australia); Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany); Blanshard, W. [Sea World, Gold Coast (Australia); Connell, D. [School of Public Health, Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia)


    Recent investigations have identified elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) in marine sediments and wildlife of Queensland, Australia. While it has been demonstrated that the contamination is widespread and predominantly land-based, limited information exists on the pathways and fate of these compounds within the near-shore marine system. This environment supports unique and threatened species including green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Adult green turtles are predominantly herbivorous, feeding on seagrass and algae. Apart from initial migration to feeding grounds (at {proportional_to}10 years of age) and intermittent migrations to breeding grounds (at {proportional_to}30-50 years and thereafter), green turtles remain and feed within relatively small home ranges. Long life-span (50 years or more), near-shore feeding grounds and highly specialized food requirements render green turtles potentially vulnerable to contaminant exposure. Recent studies have shown a relationship between PCDD/F concentrations found in herbivorous marine wildlife and concentrations in sediments of their habitats. Hence, the spatial evaluation of sediment PCDD/F distribution may assist the assessment of green turtle exposure and its potential implications. The present study provides baseline information on green turtle PCDD/F concentrations in Queensland, Australia and investigates exposure pathways. In addition, spatial distribution of PCDD/Fs in sediments from known green turtle feeding regions is assessed using geographic information systems. This represents the first stage of a large scale investigation into the exposure and sensitivity of marine reptiles to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and to evaluate whether poor health status observed in some populations may be related to contaminant exposure.

  8. Evaluation of the plasma quality after filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mahmoodian Shooshtari


    Full Text Available "n  "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: The quality of some of the human plasma derived drugs such as coagulation factor VIII and coagulation factor IX which can be used for the treatment of hemophilia A and B, depends on their activity which may be affected by filtration. In this study the quality of plasma with respect to coagulation factors FVII, FVIII, FIX, FV, FXI, Fibrinogen, antithrombin III, anti-plasmin and antitrypsin activities obtained after plasma filtration with CPD (citrate-phosphate-dextrose using integral filter was evaluated. "nMethods:Sixty units of plasma were individually separated from whole blood by centrifugation and immediately filtered by integral filter system. Specific plasma filtration was carried out between 4 and 20 hrs after blood donation. Before filtration, 60 units of non filtered fresh plasmas were kept as control. "nCoagulation factors were determined by one-stage clotting assay in an automated system. Antithrombin III activity was determined by immunochrom assay in an automated system. Activity of anti-plasmin was determined by Berichrom α2 - antiplasmin and antitrypsin activity was assayed with human neutrophil elastase. "n  "nResults:The activity of coagulation factors FVIII, FIX, Fibrinogen, FV, and FXI, were not affected by filtration, in all experiments. Filtration only caused negligible change in FVII activity. Antithrombin III, anti-plasmin and antitrypsin activities were not influenced by filtration. Non-filtrated and filtrated plasma values were not significantly different (P> 0.05. Conclusions:Plasma filtration dose not result in a measurable impairment of coagulation factors and inhibitors. Although a little changes in FVII activity was observed after filtration, but these filtration-dependent changes apparently have no impact on the therapeutic quality of whole blood- filtered fresh plasma for transfusion.

  9. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of cadmium in water and sediment in Longjiang River, China: Implication on water quality management after pollution accident. (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Yao, Ling-Ai; Ma, Qian-Li; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Wang, Li; Fang, Qiao-Li; Xu, Zhen-Cheng


    In early January 2012, the Longjiang River was subjected to a serious cadmium (Cd) pollution accident, which led to negatively environmental and social impacts. A series of measures of emergency treatment were subsequently taken to reduce water Cd level. However, little information was available about the change of Cd level in environmental matrices and long-term effect of this pollution accident to aquatic ecosystem. Thus, this study investigated the distribution of Cd in water and sediment of this river for two years since pollution accident, as well as assessed its ecological risk to aquatic ecosystem of Longjiang River. The results showed that it was efficient for taking emergency treatment measures to decrease water Cd concentration to below the threshold value of national drinking water quality standard of China. There was high risk (HQ > 1) to aquatic ecosystem in some of reaches between February and July 2012, but low or no risk (HQ polluted reaches increased after pollution accident and emergency treatments in 2012, but decreased in 2013. During flood period, the sediment containing high concentration of Cd in Longjiang River was migrated to downstream Liujiang River. Cd content in sediment was reduced to background level after two years of the pollution accident occurrence. The study provides basic information about Cd levels in different media after pollution accident, which is helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of emergency treatments and the variation of ecological risk, as well as in conducting water management and conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The application of a weight of evidence approach to compare the quality of coastal sediments affected by acute (Prestige 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); UNESCO UNITWIN/WiCop, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail:; Riba, Inmaculada [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); UNESCO UNITWIN/WiCop, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Sarasquete, Carmen [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); Valls, T. Angel del [Unidad Asociada de Calidad Ambiental y Patologia (CSIC and UCA), Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia (ICMAN-CSIC), Avda. Republica Saharaui s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain); UNESCO UNITWIN/WiCop, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz (Spain)


    To evaluate sediment quality in different areas affected by oil spills, a weight of evidence approach was employed by including a complete set of parameters as part of four lines of evidence: sediment contamination, biological effects (including biomarkers) and bioaccumulation under laboratory conditions, toxicity in field conditions and benthic community structure. The methodology was applied to sediments from the Bay of Algeciras (S Spain) chronically impacted by different spills, and the Galician Coast (NW Spain) acutely impacted by an oil spill (Prestige 2002). Results obtained have elucidated the sources and fates of pollutants and the type of risk involved for the ecosystem. Factorial analysis revealed that the main factors were those containing toxicity, chemistry and benthic community variables indicating degradation in Algeciras. It has been demonstrated that the impact associated with chronic event of contamination by oil spills are significantly more dangerous and polluted than those related to acute effects. - Chronic inputs due to the continuous entrance of contaminants result in much more harm to coastal ecosystems than major but precise environmental impacts.

  11. A coupled upland-erosion and instream hydrodynamic-sediment transport model for evaluating sediment transport in forested watersheds (United States)

    W. J. Conroy; R. H. Hotchkiss; W. J. Elliot


    This article describes a prototype modeling system for assessing forest management-related erosion at its source and predicting sediment transport from hillslopes to stream channels and through channel networks to a watershed outlet. We demonstrate that it is possible to develop a land management tool capable of accurately assessing the primary impacts of...

  12. A manipulative field experiment to evaluate an integrative methodology for assessing sediment pollution in estuarine ecosystems. (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, Carlos; Marín, Arnaldo


    The assessment of sediment contamination is of crucial importance for the management of estuarine ecosystems. Environmental risk assessment of oil pollution must be specific to these ecosystems because of their unique toxicant bioavailability dynamics, which is not comparable with that of other ecosystems where the environmental parameters are less variable. The goal of this work was to test in two European estuarine areas (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal; La Manga, Spain) whether the common methodology used to evaluate sediment pollution in marine sediment (amphipod toxicity tests and community structure analysis) is suited to these physico-chemically unique systems. Manipulative field experiments were conducted at three oil concentration levels, to compare resulting changes in community structure with laboratory and in situ amphipod toxicity tests carried out with native amphipod species Corophium multisetosum (Atlantic area) and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (Mediterranean area). The impact of the toxicant was reflected in the community structure and toxicity tests, both of which were correlated with oil concentration. These results point to this methodology being a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring pollution in estuarine areas.

  13. Scour hole ('wielen') sediments as historical archive of floods, vegetation, and air and water quality in lowlands (United States)

    Cremer, Holger; van Hoof, Thomas; Bunnik, Frans; Donders, Timme


    The sediment record from a maximum 18 m deep scour hole lake (Haarsteegse Wiel) near the embanked Meuse River in the Netherlands was studied for past changes in flooding frequency, water quality, and landscape change using a combined geochemical, geobiological and historical approach. The results are highly significant for determining long-term trends of river flood frequency, eutrophication, atmospheric pollution, and vegetation development. Haarsteegse Wiel consists of two basins connected by a shallow sill. The first flooding event is indicated in the sediment at AD 1610 when the 8 m deep southern basin of the lake was created by flood water masses bursting through the embankment. In AD 1740 embankments burst again and resulted in the formation of the northern basin of Haarsteegse Wiel. This part of the lake was originally 21 m deep and was filled up with a 3.50 m thick sediment layer since then. The sediment was dated by combining 137Cs activity measurements, biostratigraphical ages of pollen, microtephra, and historically documented floods indicated by the magnetic susceptibility of the sediment. The resulting chronology is highly accurate and shows that sedimentation rates decrease sharply with the widespread change from cereal cultivation to pasture land from around AD 1875 (agricultural crisis) as a direct result of falling wheat prices and intensified cattle farming. Water quality (total phosphorus concentration) was reconstructed using a diatom-based transfer function. Results show that the currently nutrient enriched lake has mostly been in a mesotrophic state prior to AD 1920, with the exception of several sharp eutrophication events that are generally coeval with river floods. After 1920, eutrophication of Haarsteegse Wiel is clearly documented and generally caused by the increased population, enhanced use of fertilizers and settlement of dairy industry in the region. Industrial development in both the vicinity and the hinterland of Haarsteegse Wiel

  14. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability (United States)

    Rekha, P.; Suman Raj, D. S.; Aparna, C.; Bindu, V. Hima; Anjaneyulu, Y.


    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. “Bioremediation”, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums – upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO−3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated lake sediments and evaluation of maturity indicies as indicators of compost stability. (United States)

    Rekha, P; Suman Raj, D S; Aparna, C; Hima Bindu, V; Anjaneyulu, Y


    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. iBioremediatio nî, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non-toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums--upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO-3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content

  16. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anjaneyulu


    Full Text Available Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. “Bioremediation”, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums – upper (0.25 m and lower (0.5m to set up as Pile I (Upper and Pile II (Lower in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon, CNw (Cw/Nw, nitrification index (NH4/NO-3, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC, germination index, humification ratio, compost

  17. Evaluation of quality in social-work practice


    Blom, Björn; Morén, Stefan


    This theoretical article describes and discusses the concept of quality in relation to the evaluation of social-work practice. Of particular interest are the difference between quality of services and quality of life and the importance of balancing the stakeholders’ different interests in order to make a sound judgement of quality in social work possible. This article begins with presenting some basic perspectives on quality as well as the transference of the concept of quality from man...

  18. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and bottom sediment at three stormwater detention ponds, Pinellas County, Florida (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario; Hutchinson, C.B.


    An investigation of three detention ponds in Pinellas County, Florida indicated little potential for chemical contamination of surficial-aquifer ground water; however, concentrations of contami- nants in some sediments are sufficient to indicate possible hazardous levels of bioconcentration in benthic organisms. The general direction of ground- water movement at three pond sites indicates that the ponds are ground-water discharge points. Shallow ground water tends to move laterally toward these ponds, which have surface outflow, instead of from the ponds into the aquifer. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from a 1-year-old pond were collected and analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The concentrations were either near or below analytical detection limits. Surface-water and pond-sediment samples from the other two ponds, 20- and 30-years old, respectively, also were analyzed for inorganic constituents and organic compounds. The water quality of these older ponds was not significantly different from that of the 1-year-old pond. However, bottom sediments in the 20- and 30-year-old ponds contained 16 and 23 organic compounds, respectively. None of the organic compounds were in sufficient concentrations to cause concern about their chronic effects on aquatic life. Concentrations of dichlordiphenyl-trichlorethane, dieldrin, and heptachlor were above the hazardous level with respect to bioconcentration in the food chain.

  19. Environmental contaminant investigation of water quality, sediment and biota of the upper Gila River Basin, Arizona (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water, sediment, lizard, and avian samples and fish (whole body and fillet) were collected in 1990 form several locations along the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in...

  20. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  1. Ecotoxicological evaluation of Mediterranean dredged sediment ports based on elutriates with oyster embryotoxicity tests after composting process. (United States)

    Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Libralato, Giovanni; Roméo, Michèle; Hurel, Charlotte; Losso, Chiara; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Marmier, Nicolas


    The ecotoxicological effect of dredged sediments was estimated by embryo-larval toxicity of the oyster Crassosstrea gigas in sediment elutriates (filtered and unfiltered). The study covers the main ports from the French Mediterranean coast. Composted sediments from a navy harbour (A), a commercial port (B) and two composite specimens (C and D) obtained after mixing various sediments were taken into consideration. Effective concentrations affecting 50% of larvae (EC50) were obtained from different elutriate concentrations (from 0 to 100%). Toxicity results obtained from filtered elutriates decreased according to the following gradient: sample A (5.68%), B (20.50%), C (37.60%) and D (47.17%). Chemical concentrations in whole sediments were in agreement with those in elutriates. Among the measured contaminants in elutriates, Cu and Zn resulted as the main contributors to toxicity. Dissolved organic carbon played an important role by exerting a protective effect against the toxicity of dissolved Cu. Toxicity results were interpreted on the basis of toxicity scores to give indication about sediment quality which provided more severe judgement than risk score based on chemical concentrations in sediments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing erosion, sediment transport and water quality in drained peatland catchments


    Marttila, H. (Hannu)


    Abstract Peatland drainage changes catchment conditions and increases the transport of suspended solids (SS) and nutrients. New knowledge and management methods are needed to reduce SS loading from these areas. This thesis examines sediment delivery and erosion processes in a number of peatland drainage areas and catchments in order to determine the effects of drainage on sediment and erosion dynamics and mechanics. Results from studies performed in peat mining, peatland forestry and distu...

  3. Characteristics and quality of reservoir sediments, Mujib Dam, Central Jordan, as a case study. (United States)

    El-Radaideh, Nazem; Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Al Khateeb, Wesam M


    This paper focuses on characterizing the current status of physiochemical properties of Mujib Dam sediments. Five types of granulometric textural facies were observed for the bottom sediments of Mujib reservoir bed; these are clayey facies, clayey-silt facies, sand-silt-clay facies, sand facies, and granule facies. This average grain size will likely play a vital role in adsorption-desorption of the majority trace metals to the reservoir lake. Other sediment parameters including the total averages were 5.9% (total organic matter (TOM)), 7.5 (pH), 25.8% (CaCO3), and 88.0 meq/100 g (cation exchange capacity), with dominant mineralogical constituents of quartz, calcite, dolomite, and minor feldspar and with variability in clay mineral types. The vast majority of trace metals in sediment exhibited values in the range or near the upper limit of the normal worldwide soil ranges. TOM and grain size of sediment are major factors governing the trace metal concentrations. The calculated geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF) of metals in sediments of Mujib Dam were ranked as follows: cadmium (Cd) > copper (Cu) > zinc (Zn) > lead (Pb) > cobalt (Co) > iron (Fe) > chromium (Cr) > nickel (Ni) > manganese (Mn) > Sr based on the I geo and Cd > Zn > Pb > Co > Cr > Cu > Sr > Ni > Mn according to the EF values. The estimated percentage loss in volumetric capacity of the reservoir due to sedimentation was 1.55% per year, indicating that the sediment currently occupied 18.63% of the original reservoir storage capacity. The maximum life span of reservoir is about 64.46 years.

  4. Glomalin accumulated in seagrass sediments reveals past alterations in soil quality due to land-use change (United States)

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Serrano, Oscar; Adame, María Fernanda; Mateo, Miguel Ángel; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), symbionts with most terrestrial plants, produce glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), which plays a major role in soil structure and quality. Both fungi hyphae and protein production in soils are affected by perturbations related to land-use changes, implying that GRSP is a sensitive indicator of soil quality. Unfortunately, GRSP degrades within years to decades in oxic environments, preventing its use as palaeoecological proxy. However, GRSP is transported to marine, near-shore anoxic sediments, where it accumulates and remains non-degraded, enabling the assessment of its potential as a palaeoecological proxy for soil ecosystem's health. Exploiting this fact, we have obtained for the first time a long-term record (c. 1250 years) of GRSP content using a Posidonia oceanica seagrass mat sediment core from the Western Mediterranean (Portlligat Bay, Spain). The trends in GRSP content matched well with land-use changes related to agrarian activities reconstructed by pollen analysis. In periods of cultivation, GRSP accumulation in the mat decreased. Given the role played by GRSP, the results suggest that agrarian intensification may have resulted in perturbations to soil quality. Thus, GRSP in seagrass mat sediments can be used to assess long-term trends in continental soil quality induced by human activities. These findings open new possibilities in long-term ecology research, as other anoxic environments could be potentially valid too. Testing them would open the possibility to identify long-term patterns in soil quality and other environmental stressors that could also affect AMF and GRSP production in soils.

  5. Water and sediment quality assessment in the Colastiné-Corralito stream system (Santa Fe, Argentina): impact of industry and agriculture on aquatic ecosystems. (United States)

    Regaldo, Luciana; Gutierrez, María F; Reno, Ulises; Fernández, Viviana; Gervasio, Susana; Repetti, María R; Gagneten, Ana M


    The present study focuses on the evaluation of metal (chromium, copper, and lead), arsenic, and pesticide (atrazine and endosulfan) contamination in freshwater streams of one of the most important agricultural and industrial areas of central-eastern Argentina, which has not been reported earlier. The environmental fate of inorganic microcontaminants and pesticides was assessed. Samples were collected monthly for a year. Pesticide concentrations were measured in water; metal and arsenic concentrations were measured in water and sediments, and physicochemical variables were analyzed. In most cases, metals and arsenic in water exceeded the established guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota: 98 and 56.25% of the samples showed higher levels of Cr and Pb, while 81.25 and 85% of the samples presented higher values for Cu and As, respectively. Cr, Pb, Cu, and As exceeded 181.5 times, 41.6 times, 57.5 times, and 12.9 times, respectively, the guideline level values. In sediment samples, permitted levels were also surpassed by 40% for Pb, 15% for As, 4% for Cu, and 2% for Cr. Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediment samples were highly polluted by Cr and Cu and very seriously polluted by Pb, which indicates progressive deterioration of the sediment quality. Atrazine never exceeded them, but 27% of the 48 water samples contained total endosulfan that surpassed the guidelines. The findings of this study suggest risk to the freshwater biota over prolong periods and possible risk to humans if such type of contaminated water is employed for recreation or human use. Improper disposal of industrial effluents and agricultural runoffs need to be controlled, and proper treatment should be done before disposal to avoid further deterioration of the aquifers of this area.

  6. Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhuang

    Full Text Available The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals.

  7. Evaluation of sediment capping with activated carbon and nonwoven fabric mat to interrupt nutrient release from lake sediments. (United States)

    Gu, Bon-Wun; Lee, Chang-Gu; Lee, Tae-Gu; Park, Seong-Jik


    The aim of this study was to assess the potential application of activated carbon (AC) and nonwoven fabric mats (NWFM) for thin-layer capping in remediation of sediments containing high amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Laboratory column incubation experiments were performed to analyze the efficiencies of AC and NWFM for blocking nutrients. Under uncapped conditions, dissolved oxygen (DO) was exhausted within three days but under NWFM/AC capping conditions (with NWFM above the AC capping layer), the presence of DO was prolonged until Day 33. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was lower under all capped conditions than under uncapped conditions, with lowest COD observed with NWFM/AC capping. NH4-N occupied the highest percentage of total nitrogen in the overlying water and its percentage increased as the DO concentration decreased. The capping efficiencies for NH4-N, T-N, and PO4-P with NWFM/AC capping were (66.0, 54.2, and 73.1) %, respectively, which were higher than for other capping conditions. In the case of T-P, capping efficiencies under all capping conditions were almost 100%, indicating that both AC and NWFM effectively interrupted phosphorus release from sediments. Placing NWFM above the AC capping layer was more effective than the opposite arrangement. It can be concluded that NWFM and AC can be successfully used for remediation of lake sediments with high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in situ capping sediments with purple parent rock to control the eutrophication. (United States)

    Huang, Xuejiao; Shi, Wenhao; Ni, Jiupai; Li, Zhenlun


    In this study, the effectiveness of controlling the eutrophication using purple parent rock to cap the sediments was evaluated in the laboratory scale. Sediments were collected from Sanxikou reservoir (China) in July 2013. Then, three types of purple parent rock (T 1 f, J 3 p, and J 2 s) which are distributed widely in southwest China were used to cap the sediments. Limestone and calcite were used as the contrast group, because they had been reported as effective controls on eutrophication. Then, they were incubated at 20 °C for 46 days. The results indicated that the application of purple parent rock as a barrier material can effectively inhibit the release of nutrient elements in sediments, and the inhibition rates of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), ammonium (NH 4 -N), and nitrate (NO 3 -N) were much better than that of limestone and calcite. Among the three types of purple parent rock, J 3 p exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the release of nitrogen in sediments, and the inhibition efficiency of TN, NH 4 -N, and NO 3 -N was 59.7, 77.6, and 45.1%, respectively. As for T 1 f, it exhibited the best inhibitory effect on the release of TP in sediments with the inhibition rate of 94.4%. Whereas all these capping materials showed weak inhibition on release of organic matter in sediments, and the inhibition efficiencies were less than 20%. Moreover, these treatments could also cause distinct changes in the microbial community in sediments and overlying water, and the contents of TN and TP in all capping materials increased. All results demonstrated that purple parent rock could inhibit the release of nutrient in sediments through mechanical interception, physical adsorption, and chemical absorption as well as changing the microbial activity in the covering layer, sediments, or overlying water.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A combined multidisciplinary approach has been applied to calculate minimum values of the stratigraphic completeness and, secondarily, sedimentation rates in 9.2 m thick Rosso Ammonitico facies from central Apennines (Italy and 11 m thick deposits of the same facies in Southern Spain. Middle - Upper Toarcian expanded sedimentation in Valdorbia section (Umbria-Marche Apennines and extremely condensed Oxfordian-Tithonian sedimentation at Puerto Escaño section (External Subbetic have been investigated using combined taphonomic, ichnologic and sedimentologic data and analyses. At Valdorbia, infaunal tiering is largely preserved and 27 horizons of infaunal-tiering truncation and casting reveal strong erosional activity forced by tempestite/turbidite events. Therefore, microstratigraphic gaps could be evaluated without biostratigraphic control. In this expanded section, 13 horizons of firm- and hardgrounds have been recorded showing simple or gradational tiering. Conversely, in the condensed Puerto Escaño section, taphonomic analysis reveals 25 horizons of bioclasts truncation (mainly in ammonites, and 56 horizons of firm-hardgrounds intensively bioturbated. In Valdorbia rather than in Puerto Escaño section, the evaluation of flattening in burrows and spherical bioclasts reveal a measurable mechanical compaction and dissolution. In addition, Rosso Ammonitico at Valdorbia section favoured the calculation of decompaction coefficients (nd for each lithology easier than in Puerto Escaño section. In condensed and essentially hiatal Rosso Ammonitico, mottled deposits due to intense bioturbation dominate and tiering cannot be recognizable. This fact is accentuated by usual overprinting of elementary depositional events, which in turn hampered the accurate calculation of missing deposits. Therefore, in condensed Rosso Ammonitico the latter was only available in terms of minimal missing-record trough the analysis of truncated bioclasts. 

  10. A numerical model study to evaluate the effect of sedimentation on the thermal structure of extensional basin (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lee, Changyeol


    Sedimentation on extensional basins allows fast cooling of the shallow crust because the overlying sediments efficiently transfer heats from the shallow crust to the surface and hinders heat transfer from the underlying deep crust and mantle to the surface, which lowers the surface heat flux (e.g., covering effect). Therefore, it is important to evaluate the impact of transient sedimentation on the thermal structure of the extensional basin. We designed a numerical model which considers transient sedimentation based on the kinematic basin extension formulated by Jarvis and McKenzie (1980). In the model study, we vary duration of extension, stretch factor (β) and sediment thickness of the basin with 100 Myr of cooling since the basin extension ceases. First, we evaluate the effect of duration of extension on the thermal structure of the basin by using the stretch factor (β) and sediment thickness of 2 and 2 km, respectively. Our model calculations show that longer duration of extension results in larger decreases in the geotherm and surface heat flux of the basin. Second, we evaluate the effect of stretch factor (β) on the thermal structure of the basin by using the duration of extension and sediment thickness of 20 Myr and 2 km, respectively. The results indicate that larger stretch factor (β) results in larger decreases in the geotherm and surface heat flux of the basin. Evaluation of the effect of the sediment thickness is ongoing by keeping the duration of extension and stretch factor (β) of 20 Myr and 2, respectively. We will apply our findings to analyze the thermal structure of the Ulleung and Yamato Basins in the East (Japan) Sea.

  11. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples. (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku


    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  12. Evaluation of CASP8 model quality predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico


    The model quality assessment problem consists in the a priori estimation of the overall and per-residue accuracy of protein structure predictions. Over the past years, a number of methods have been developed to address this issue and CASP established a prediction category to evaluate their performance in 2006. In 2008 the experiment was repeated and its results are reported here. Participants were invited to infer the correctness of the protein models submitted by the registered automatic servers. Estimates could apply to both whole models and individual amino acids. Groups involved in the tertiary structure prediction categories were also asked to assign local error estimates to each predicted residue in their own models and their results are also discussed here. The correlation between the predicted and observed correctness measures was the basis of the assessment of the results. We observe that consensus-based methods still perform significantly better than those accepting single models, similarly to what was concluded in the previous edition of the experiment. © 2009 WILEY-LISS, INC.

  13. A mathematical model of reservoir sediment quality prediction based on land-use and erosion processes in watershed (United States)

    Junakova, N.; Balintova, M.; Junak, J.


    The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model for determining of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in eroded soil particles with emphasis on prediction of bottom sediment quality in reservoirs. The adsorbed nutrient concentrations are calculated using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) extended by the determination of the average soil nutrient concentration in top soils. The average annual vegetation and management factor is divided into five periods of the cropping cycle. For selected plants, the average plant nutrient uptake divided into five cropping periods is also proposed. The average nutrient concentrations in eroded soil particles in adsorbed form are modified by sediment enrichment ratio to obtain the total nutrient content in transported soil particles. The model was designed for the conditions of north-eastern Slovakia. The study was carried out in the agricultural basin of the small water reservoir Klusov.

  14. Evaluation of quality protein maize hybrids for yield, association of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality protein and carbohydrates products in Africa including Ethiopia. The study was initiated with the objectives to evaluate quality protein maize pipeline varieties in terms of yield and yield related traits, and to investigate association of yield with ...

  15. Field validation of a battery of biomarkers to assess sediment quality in Spanish ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Diaz, M.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail:; Blasco, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Departamento Ciencias Ambientales y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Poligono Rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    Two marine invertebrates, the crab Carcinus maenas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, were used as bioindicator species to assess contamination when exposed in situ to sediment from different sites from four Spanish ports Cadiz (SW Spain), Huelva (SW Spain), Bilbao (NE Spain) and Pasajes (NE Spain). In an attempt to determine sediments toxicity, a combination of exposure biomarkers was analyzed in both species: metallothionein-like-proteins (MTLPs), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). In parallel, physical and chemical characterization of the different sediments was performed and biological responses related to the contaminants. Significant induction of MTLPs was observed when organisms were exposed to metal contaminated sediments (port of Huelva), and EROD and GPX activities after exposure to sediments containing organic compounds (port of Bilbao and Pasajes). No significant interspecies differences were observed in biomarker responses except for the GST and GR. - A battery of biomarkers shows exposure to metals and organic compounds.

  16. Patients' Evaluation of the Quality of Diabetes Care (PEQD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J


    OBJECTIVES: To develop a brief measure of patients' evaluation of the quality of diabetes care and to study predictors of consumers' rating of the quality of diabetes care. DESIGN: A prospective design. SUBJECTS: 176 adults with type 1 (39%) or type 2 (61%) diabetes. MAIN MEASURES: Demographic...... care. CONCLUSIONS: The PEQD comprises different aspects of quality of diabetes care and can be regarded as a suitable instrument for evaluating patients' judgements about the quality of their care....

  17. Water and Sediment Output Evaluation Using Cellular Automata on Alpine Catchment: Soana, Italy - Test Case (United States)

    Pasculli, Antonio; Audisio, Chiara; Sciarra, Nicola


    In the alpine contest, the estimation of the rainfall (inflow) and the discharge (outflow) data are very important in order to, at least, analyse historical time series at catchment scale; determine the hydrological maximum and minimum estimate flood and drought frequency. Hydrological researches become a precious source of information for various human activities, in particular for land use management and planning. Many rainfall- runoff models have been proposed to reflect steady, gradually-varied flow condition inside a catchment. In these last years, the application of Reduced Complexity Models (RCM) has been representing an excellent alternative resource for evaluating the hydrological response of catchments, within a period of time up to decades. Hence, this paper is aimed at the discussion of the application of the research code CAESAR, based on cellular automaton (CA) approach, in order to evaluate the water and the sediment outputs from an alpine catchment (Soana, Italy), selected as test case. The comparison between the predicted numerical results, developed through parametric analysis, and the available measured data are discussed. Finally, the analysis of a numerical estimate of the sediment budget over ten years is presented. The necessity of a fast, but reliable numerical support when the measured data are not so easily accessible, as in Alpine catchments, is highlighted.

  18. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats


    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of OM. The accumulation of pore water sulphides were reduced and fluxes of nutrients across the sediment-water interface increased. Additional calculations suggest that the effects of polychaetes were mainly indirect and driven by increased microbial activity due to the borrowing activity...... of the polychaetes. Trends of increasing decomposition with increasing polychaete density suggest that the decomposition could be further enhanced by higher densities. Overall, we concluded that H. diversicolor is a potentially strong candidate for remediation of mussel farm sediments. The results show...

  19. An evaluation of temporal changes in sediment accumulation and impacts on carbon burial in Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.


    The estuarine environment can serve as either a source or sink of carbon relative to the coastal ocean carbon budget. A variety of time-dependent processes such as sedimentation, carbon supply, and productivity dictate how estuarine systems operate, and Mobile Bay is a system that has experienced both natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influenced depositional processes and carbon cycling. Sediments from eight box cores provide a record of change in bulk sediment accumulation and carbon burial over the past 110 years. Accumulation rates in the central part of the basin (0.09 g cm−2) were 60–80 % less than those observed at the head (0.361 g cm−2) and mouth (0.564 g cm−2) of the bay. Sediment accumulation in the central bay decreased during the past 90 years in response to both anthropogenic (causeway construction) and natural (tropical cyclones) perturbations. Sediment accumulation inevitably increased the residence time of organic carbon in the oxic zone, as observed in modeled remineralization rates, and reduced the overall carbon burial. Such observations highlight the critical balance among sediment accumulation, carbon remineralization, and carbon burial in dynamic coastal environments. Time-series analysis based solely on short-term observation would not capture the long-term effects of changes in sedimentation on carbon cycling. Identifying these relationships over longer timescales (multi-annual to decadal) will provide a far better evaluation of coastal ocean carbon budgets.

  20. Spatial and temporal analysis of land cover change, sedimentation and water quality in the Lake Issaqueena watershed, South Carolina (United States)

    Pilgrim, Cassie Mechele

    Soil erosion and increased sediment yields within a watershed lead to impaired water quality, decreased availability of wildlife habitat and reduced recreational opportunities. While some sedimentation occurs naturally within a water system, most erosion processes are the result of anthropogenic activities across a landscape, namely changes in land use and land cover (LULC). This study was conducted to determine temporal and spatial sedimentation trends in the Lake Issaquena watershed using sonar logging equipment, geographic information systems (GIS) and limited hydrologic data from the Soil Conservation Service (1941 and 1949). Sediment deposition was analyzed in relation to several key factors that influence erosion and sediment yields; these being dominant land cover, topography and slopes, soils and geology, rainfall and climatological aspects. Significant sedimentation has occurred in the Sixmile Creek delta, located at the northern end of Lake Issaqueena. Sedimentation rates inferred from an analysis of afore mentioned factors show considerable changes in erosion potential that correspond with substantial changes in riparian vegetation, extreme variations in rainfall events, conversion of land from agricultural to forestland and application of management practices. Water quality data, including sampling depth, water temperature, dissolved oxygen content, Fecal coliform levels, inorganic nitrogen concentrations and turbidity, were obtained from the South Carolina Department of Environmental Health and Safety (SCDHEC) for two stations and analyzed for trends as they related to land cover change. Data was available for the Sixmile Creek site for dates ranging from 1962 to 2005 and from 1999 to 2005 for the Lake Issaqueena site. From 1951 to 2009, the watershed experienced an increase of tree cover and bare ground (+17.4% evergreen, +62.3% deciduous, +9.8% bare ground) and a decrease of pasture/ grassland and cultivated (-42.6% pasture/ grassland, -57

  1. Quality evaluation of simvastatin compounded capsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Dias Marques-Marinho


    Full Text Available Simvastatin is commercially available as tablets and compounded capsules in Brazil. Very few reports regarding these capsules' quality, and consequently their efficacy, are available. The pharmaceutical quality of 30 batches of 20 mg simvastatin capsules from the market was evaluated by weight determination, content uniformity, disintegration (Brazilian Pharmacopeia, assay and dissolution test (USP32 tablet monograph. A HPLC method was developed for assay, content uniformity and dissolution test, and specifications were also established. Out of the 30 batches evaluated, 29 showed capsule disintegration within 45 min and individual weight variation was within ±10% or ±7.5% relative to average weight, for 300 mg, respectively. Only 27 batches met dissolution test criteria with values >80% of the labeled amount in 45 min; 21 batches showed simvastatin content between 90.0-110.0% of the labeled amount and 19 batches had at least 9 out of 10 capsules with content uniformity values between 85.0-115.0% of the labeled amount with RSDNo Brasil, a sinvastatina está comercialmente disponível na forma de comprimidos e cápsulas manipuladas. Poucos relatos estão disponíveis sobre a qualidade e, consequentemente, a eficácia dessas cápsulas. A qualidade de 30 lotes de sinvastatina 20 mg cápsulas do mercado foi avaliada através da determinação de peso, uniformidade de conteúdo, desintegração (Farmacopéia Brasileira, doseamento e teste de dissolução (monografia comprimidos USP32. Método por CLAE foi desenvolvido para o doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e teste de dissolução; além disso, especificações foram estabelecidas. Dos 30 lotes avaliados, 29 apresentaram desintegração da cápsula até 45 min e a variação do peso individual foi ± 10% ou ± 7,5% em relação ao peso médio, se 300 mg, respectivamente. Apenas 27 lotes preencheram os critérios do teste de dissolução com valores > 80% da quantidade rotulada, em 45 min, 21

  2. Sediment quality assessment using survival and embryo malformation tests in amphipod crustaceans: The Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea AS case study (United States)

    Strode, Evita; Jansons, Mintauts; Purina, Ingrida; Balode, Maija; Berezina, Nadezhda A.


    The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of bottom sediment and to estimate the potential effects of contaminated sediment on health of benthic organisms in the Gulf of Riga (eastern Baltic Sea). Two endpoints were used: survival rate (acute toxicity test) of five crustacean amphipod species and frequency of embryo malformation (samples were collected from the field) in the two species. Toxic resistance of living animals to sediment quality was measured as survival rate (%) at 25 study sites from 2010-2012. Significant differences in the toxic resistance between species were found: 80-100% for Monoporeia affinis, 70-95% for Corophium volutator, 38-88% for Pontogammarus robustoides, 38-100% for Bathyporeia pilosa and 60-100% for Hyalella azteca. Reproductive disorders, measured as percentage (%) of malformed embryos per female, varied in the ranges of 0.0-9.5% in deep water species M. affinis and 0.3-7.5% in littoral species P. robustoides. Both the acute toxicity test and embryo malformation test (only M. affinis was used) indicated moderate and poor sediment quality at 20% and 12% accordingly in the study sites, low toxicity of sediment was estimated in 64% of cases, and no toxicity was recorded in the rest of the cases (4%). Additionally, sediment toxicity test using aquatic organisms was combined with sediment chemical analysis (trace metals) and the Benthic Quality Index (macrozoobenthos) was based on data collected from 13 sites in the Gulf of Riga in 2010 and used for triad sediment quality assessment. According to this combined approach, 23% of the bottom sediments were classified as likely impacted and 23% as possibly impacted (central and southern part of the Gulf). However, the remaining 54% was identified as likely un-impacted. The sediment quality assessment with single survival test or chemical analyses showed better sediment quality in the Gulf than the triad method. The embryo malformation test appeared to be more sensitive to pollution than

  3. Applying multivariate analysis as decision tool for evaluating sediment-specific remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland


    Multivariate methodology was employed for finding optimum remediation conditions for electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment from an Arctic location in Norway. The parts of the experimental domain in which both sediment- and technology-specific remediation objectives were met were...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Quality of life is a theme that is becoming more and more prominent. Every man can express his opinion about the quality of their life, which allows a realistic assessment of the quality of life of a particular population on the basis of subjective feelings of its members. Therefore, in this study through surveys and questionnaires with more than 80 questions from 11 subject areas is attempted to form a picture of the quality of life of the student population of the University of Montenegro (UM. The survey covered 14 units and 60 university students and the results of this survey have provided answers to some key questions by which the guidelines for raising the quality of life of students were obtained.

  5. A field experiment to evaluate the cleaning performance of sewer flushing on non-uniform sediment deposits. (United States)

    Shahsavari, Gashin; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Campisano, Alberto


    The results of a field experiment to evaluate the scouring effect of a single flush operation in a compound-section sewer channel in Paris, France, are presented in this paper. Full monitoring of the experiment allowed identifying flush-related transport/deposition key processes playing a role on the evolution of the deposited sediments. Overall, the flush was able to scour sediments accumulated over the channel invert up to a significant distance from the gate. The analysis of the results revealed that the flush had a different impact on the various sediments present in the bed mixtures, with most of the eroded volume including sediment particles smaller than the median grain size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Referenceless image quality evaluation for whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Objective: The image quality in whole slide imaging (WSI is one of the most important issues for the practical use of WSI scanners. In this paper, we proposed an image quality evaluation method for scanned slide images in which no reference image is required. Methods: While most of the conventional methods for no-reference evaluation only deal with one image degradation at a time, the proposed method is capable of assessing both blur and noise by using an evaluation index which is calculated using the sharpness and noise information of the images in a given training data set by linear regression analysis. The linear regression coefficients can be determined in two ways depending on the purpose of the evaluation. For objective quality evaluation, the coefficients are determined using a reference image with mean square error as the objective value in the analysis. On the other hand, for subjective quality evaluation, the subjective scores given by human observers are used as the objective values in the analysis. The predictive linear regression models for the objective and subjective image quality evaluations, which were constructed using training images, were then used on test data wherein the calculated objective values are construed as the evaluation indices. Results: The results of our experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed image quality evaluation method in both objective and subjective image quality measurements. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed evaluation method to the WSI image quality assessment and automatic rescanning in the WSI scanner.

  7. Water Quality Research Program. A Model of Manganese and Iron Fluxes from Sediments (United States)


    set equal to s = SODIO 2(0), the ratio of the sediment oxygen demand and the overlying water dissolved oxygen concentration, as in the previous models...seasonal variations are reproduced up to 32X. Since the manganese model requires the surface mass transfer coefficient: s = SODIO 2(0), it is important

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Skimmer Versus the Perforated Riser in Sedimentation Basins


    Hoechst, Lisa Marie


    Erosion, transportation, and deposition of sediment into receiving waters can have substantial environmental and economic impacts. Sedimentation basins are a remediation technique used to limit sediment transport from earth disturbance activities. Retention efficiency is used as a measure of a sedimentation basin's effectiveness. Several factors influence retention efficiency including the type of principal spillway used. The most common spillway is the perforated riser which dewate...

  9. Impact of sediments resuspension on metal solubilization and water quality during recurrent reservoir sluicing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frémion, Franck; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Bordas, François, E-mail: [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lenain, Jean-François [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Jugé, Philippe [CETU – ELMIS Ingénieries, Université François Rabelais, , 60 Rue du Plat d' Étain, 37000 Tours (France); Kestens, Tim [EDF – DPIH, Unité de Production Centre, 19 bis avenue de la Révolution, BP 406, 87012 Limoges Cedex (France); Mourier, Brice [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)


    In dam contexts, sluicing operations can be performed to reestablish sediments continuity, as proposed by the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as to preserve the reservoirs' water storage capacity. Such management permits the rapid release of high quantities of reservoir sediments through the opening of dam bottom valves. This work aims to study the impact of such operation on the evolution of environmental physicochemical conditions notably changes in dissolved metallic elements concentrations (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) through field and laboratory investigations. Results were interpreted in terms of concentrations and fluxes, and compared with data collected on an annual basis regarding both suspended matter and metallic elements. The release of high quantities of sediments (4,500 tons dry weight in 24 h), with concentrations representing up to 300 times the inter-annual mean suspended sediments discharge, significantly modified water parameters, notably solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, pH and redox conditions. Despite the fact that they are mainly trapped in stable phases, a clear increase of the solubilized metals content was measured, representing up to 60 times the maximum values of current exploitation. This solubilization is related to desorption phenomena from sediments through changes in chemical equilibriums as highlighted by laboratory characterizations and experiments. These chemical modifications are mainly attributed to S/L ratio variations. Indeed, the low S/L ratios (≤ 1.3 g·L{sup −1}) measured in situ are typically the ones for which metals solubilization is the highest, as shown by laboratory experiments. Additional thermodynamic modeling highlighted that the decrease in pH measured during the operation favors the release of the free forms of metallic elements (Al and Cu), and decreases the OM complexation influence. These changes, either in term of physical conditions or speciation, increasing metals long term

  10. Sediment quality in the Guadalquivir estuary: lethal effects associated with the Aznalcóllar mining spill. (United States)

    Riba, I; Conradi, M; Forja, J M; DelValls, T A


    Monitoring from 1998 to 2001 has assessed the impact of the Aznalcóllar mining spill on the sediment quality in the Guadalquivir estuary. Chemical analysis has been completed with biological effects measured in different organisms. The toxicity of sediments obtained from dilutions of toxic mud and from environmental stations affected by the accidental spill was tested using the amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis and the clam Scrobicularia plana. The results obtained show that amphipods are more sensitive to the accidental spill than the clams. A dilution of clean sediment by more than 1.8% of toxic mud produced 100% mortality of amphipods. In GR2 station is detected toxicity to amphipods but not to clams. The rest of the environmental stations show no toxicity. Toxicity to amphipods in GR2 station decreased along time (from 50% to 60% of mortality in 1998 to 10 to 15% in 2001) and it can be associated with a recovery of the areas impacted by the accidental spill.

  11. Evaluation of sediment management strategies on reservoir storage depletion rate: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.; Sterk, G.


    Sedimentation aspects have a major role during the design of new reservoir projects because life of the reservoir mainly depends upon sediment handling during reservoir operation. Therefore, proper sediment management strategies should be adopted to enhance the life span of reservoirs. Basha

  12. A preliminary evaluation of Trinity river sediment and nutrient loads into Galveston Bay, Texas, during two periods of high flow (United States)

    Lee, Michael T.


    Suspend-sediment and water-quality data were measured during two periods o high flow, one during April 20-23, 2009 and a second during September 22-November 3, 2009. On the basis of streamflow and continuous and discrete water-quality measurements, the two periods of high flow had different flood and nutrient loading characteristics. Some differences in the nature of these two periods of high flow were evident. Preliminary results indicate that it might be possible to better understand the extent of sediment and nutrient loading in Galveston Bay using selected measurements of discrete and continuous water-quality data. An apparent correlation was observed between the concentrations of selected nutrients and suspended sediment, and an apparent correlation was observed between suspended sediment and total nutrient concentration measured with in-situ turbidity measurements during periods of high flow in Trinity River at the Wallisville, Texas gage, about 3.5 miles upstream from where the Trinity River enters Galveston Bay. Additional data are needed to confirm these preliminary results.  

  13. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  14. Comparative performances of eggs and embryos of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) in toxicity bioassays used for assessment of marine sediment quality. (United States)

    Khosrovyan, A; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Riba, I; Serrano, F


    The potential toxicity of sediments from various ports was assessed by means of two different liquid-phase toxicity bioassays (acute and chronic) with embryos and eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Performances of embryos and eggs of P. lividus in these bioassays were compared for their interchangeable applicability in integrated sediment quality assessment. The obtained endpoints (percentages of normally developed plutei and fertilized eggs) were linked to physical and chemical properties of sediments and demonstrated dependence on sediment contamination. The endpoints in the two bioassays were strongly correlated and generally exhibited similar tendency throughout the samples. Therein, embryos demonstrated higher sensitivity to elutriate exposure, compared to eggs. It was concluded that these tests could be used interchangeably for testing toxicity of marine sediments. Preferential use of any of the bioassays can be determined by the discriminatory capacity of the test or vulnerability consideration of the test subject to the surrounding conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Quality of manuscript evaluation in Gaceta Sanitaria]. (United States)

    García, A M; Plasència, A; Fernández, E


    To describe strengths and weaknesses of peer reviews of manuscripts received in Gaceta Sanitaria in order to guide reviewers selection, to improve quality of peer reviews and to establish an internal system to be incorporated to the editorial process of handling manuscripts. 100 peer reviews of 55 manuscripts received during 2000 and 2001 were included. A questionnaire containing closed questions assessing specific and general components of reviews' quality was applied (answers Yes/No or on a 5-points scale). Descriptive and correlation analyses were performed for the different items in the questionnaire. An Index of Quality was obtained by adding the ratings on the items in the questionnaire measuring specific quality components. Peer reviews were rated high regarding completeness of the forms for reviewers (84%), constructiveness of the comments (reviews over 3: 63%), identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the method (reviews over 3: 59%) and substantiation of the reviewer comments (reviews over 3: 58%). Assessment of the manuscript's relevance (reviews over 3: 40%) or originality (reviews over 3: 35%) were less frequent. Quality of peer reviews in Gaceta Sanitaria is good. Some weaknesses in the reviews have been pointed out. It is possible to establish a systematic process for assessing peer reviewers using simple indicators such as general utility of the review for the editorial decision and general quality of the review.

  16. [Evaluation of the quality of life]. (United States)

    Velarde-Jurado, Elizabeth; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos


    This paper reviews the methods and principles for quality of life assessment. The aging of the population and the improved survival of people with acute and chronic conditions have produced several levels of disability requiring long-term treatment and rehabilitation. In 1948 the World Health Organization defined health as not merely the absence of disease but rather a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being. This term evolved from its conceptual definition to the development of scales to measure the quality of life beyond physical status. Thus, quality of life assessment includes areas such as mental health, social support, and life satisfaction. It is recognized that the expectations, vitality, pain, disability, and personal experiences influence the perception of a person's general health. A composite measurement aimed to quantify health according to physical, mental, and social well being simultaneously would likely find people at different points on the three different continua, but in the midranges of the composite. The multidimensionality problems and the level of subjectivity involved in the assessment of the quality of life require valid and reliable instruments. This paper present an inventory of 126 questionnaires aimed to measure the quality of life for several diseases and populations. A better understanding of the methods to assess the quality of life will allow the incorporation of these instruments in the comprehensive assessment of patients, into clinical trials, and for health services research. The English version of this paper is available at:

  17. [Methodological considerations for evaluating quality of life]. (United States)

    Velarde-Jurado, Elizabeth; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos


    This paper reviews the methods and principles for quality of life assessment. The aging of the population and the improved survival of people with acute and chronic conditions have produced several levels of disability requiring long-term treatment and rehabilitation. In 1948 the World Health Organization defined health as not merely the absence of disease but rather a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being. This term evolved from its conceptual definition to the development of scales to measure the quality of life beyond physical status. Thus, quality of life assessment includes areas such as mental health, social support, and life satisfaction. It is recognized that the expectations, vitality, pain, disability, and personal experiences influence the perception of a person's general health. A composite measurement aimed to quantify health according to physical, mental, and social well being simultaneously would likely include people at clearly different points on the three different continua, but in the midranges of the composite. The multidimensionality problems and the level of subjectivity involved in the assessment of the quality of life require valid and reliable instruments. This paper present an inventory of 126 questionnaires aimed to measure the quality of life for several diseases and populations. A better understanding of the methods to assess the quality of life will allow the incorporation of these instruments in the comprehensive assessment of patients, into clinical trials, and for health services research.

  18. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, Bertrand; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya


    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple indicators as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are frequently drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using rather arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as "critical mass' and "metrics" are often bandied about without proper understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent up...

  19. Total nutrient and sediment loads, trends, yields, and nontidal water-quality indicators for selected nontidal stations, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, 1985–2011 (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth; Chanat, Jeffrey G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) partners, routinely reports long-term concentration trends and monthly and annual constituent loads for stream water-quality monitoring stations across the Chesapeake Bay watershed. This report documents flow-adjusted trends in sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 31 stations in the years 1985–2011 and for 32 stations in the years 2002–2011. Sediment and total nitrogen and phosphorus yields for 65 stations are presented for the years 2006–2011. A combined nontidal water-quality indicator (based on both trends and yields) indicates there are more stations classified as “improving water-quality trend and a low yield” than “degrading water-quality trend and a high yield” for total nitrogen. The same type of 2-way classification for total phosphorus and sediment results in equal numbers of stations in each indicator class.

  20. How to evaluate objective video quality metrics reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; You, Junyong


    The typical procedure for evaluating the performance of different objective quality metrics and indices involves comparisons between subjective quality ratings and the quality indices obtained using the objective metrics in question on the known video sequences. Several correlation indicators can...... as processing of subjective data. We also suggest some general guidelines for researchers to make comparison studies of objective video quality metrics more reliable and useful for the practitioners in the field....

  1. Quality Management System Proposed to JENDL Evaluation Project


    Yamano, N; Yoshida, T.; Nakajima, K; Ishikawa, M.; Shibata, K.; Suyama, K.; Okumura, K.; IWAMOTO O.; Uematsu, M.; Tahara, Y.


    A concept of the quality management system proposed for the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL) is described. The concept is based on the process approach established as an International Standard of a quality management system (ISO 9001). In order to discuss how to guarantee the quality of JENDL, a working group focusing on a quality assurance strategy was established in the Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. After three years of discussions, the working group published a report abo...

  2. Data envelopment analysis in service quality evaluation: An empirical study


    Najafi, Seyesvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid


    Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A...

  3. Stormwater Field Evaluation and Its Challenges of a Sediment Basin with Skimmer and Baffles at a Highway Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fang


    Full Text Available A field-scale data collection plan to monitor and evaluate the performance of a sediment basin design was developed and implemented using portable automatic stormwater samplers, flow modules, a rain gauge, and inflow weirs. The design configuration consisted of a skimmer as the primary dewatering device, three coir baffles installed inside the basin, polyacrylamide flocculant blocks and ditch checks in the inflow channel. A sediment basin built on a highway construction site in Franklin County, Alabama, U.S. using the aforementioned design configuration was monitored over 16 rainfall events from 15 November 2011 to 6 February 2012. The basin effectively removed sediments during the early stages of construction when the correct type of polyacrylamide flocculant blocks was used, e.g., 97.9% of sediment removal after a rainfall event on 16 November 2011. It is difficult and challenging to dose sediment-laden stormwater inflow with an exact amount of flocculating agent across all runoff producing events since rainfall is a stochastic variable. Based upon results from this study, it is recommended that a minimum volume of 251.9 m3/ha of contributing drainage area be used to sufficiently size a basin, which is still significantly under-designed for a 2-year, 24-h storm event in the southeast. This paper presents challenges and lessons learned regarding sediment basin design, monitoring, and performance that are beneficial to future studies.

  4. Removal of organic contaminant toxicity from sediments - Early work toward development of a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) method (United States)

    Lebo, J.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Ho, K.T.


    Work was performed to determine the feasibility of selectively detoxifying organic contaminants in sediments. The results of this research will be used to aid in the development of a scheme for whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs). The context in which the method will be used inherently restricts the treatments to which the sediments can be subjected: Sediments cannot be significantly altered physically or chemically and the presence and bioavailabilities of other toxicants must not be changed. The methodological problem is daunting because of the requirement that the detoxification method be relatively fast and convenient together with the stipulation that only innocuous and minimally invasive treatments be used. Some of the experiments described here dealt with degrees of decontamination (i.e., detoxification as predicted from instrumental measurements) of spiked sediments rather than with degrees of detoxification as gauged by toxicity tests (e.g., 48-h toxicity tests with amphipods). Although the larger TIE scheme itself is mostly outside the scope of this paper, theoretical aspects of bioavailability and of the desorption of organic contaminants from sediments are discussed.

  5. Quality in Learning Objects: Evaluating Compliance with Metadata Standards (United States)

    Vidal, C. Christian; Segura, N. Alejandra; Campos, S. Pedro; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador

    Ensuring a certain level of quality of learning objects used in e-learning is crucial to increase the chances of success of automated systems in recommending or finding these resources. This paper aims to present a proposal for implementation of a quality model for learning objects based on ISO 9126 international standard for the evaluation of software quality. Features indicators associated with the conformance sub-characteristic are defined. Some instruments for feature evaluation are advised, which allow collecting expert opinion on evaluation items. Other quality model features are evaluated using only the information from its metadata using semantic web technologies. Finally, we propose an ontology-based application that allows automatic evaluation of a quality feature. IEEE LOM metadata standard was used in experimentation, and the results shown that most of learning objects analyzed do not complain the standard.

  6. Sediment-quality and water-toxicity data from 10 sites on the Westside Creeks and San Antonio River, San Antonio, Texas, 2014 (United States)

    Crow, Cassi L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Kunz, James L.


    Sediment samples and samples for water-toxicity testing were collected during 2014 from several streams in San Antonio, Texas known locally as the Westside creeks (Alazán, Apache, Martínez, and San Pedro Creeks) and from the San Antonio River. Samples were collected once during base-flow and again after periods of storm-water runoff (post-storm conditions) to determine baseline sediment- and water-quality conditions. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for selected constituents, including trace elements and organic contaminants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  7. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2014 through September 2015) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Turner, Matthew A.


    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in selected streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2014 through September 2015. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 13 sites during August 2015.This report presents the analytical results and quality-assurance data for water-quality, bed-sediment, and biota samples collected at sites from October 2014 through September 2015. Water-quality data include concentrations of selected major ions, trace elements, and suspended sediment. At 12 sites, samples for analysis of dissolved organic carbon and turbidity were collected. In addition, samples for analysis of nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at two sites. Daily values of mean suspended-sediment concentration and suspended-sediment discharge were determined for three sites. Seasonal daily values of turbidity were determined for four sites. Bed-sediment data include trace-element concentrations in the fine-grained fraction. Biological data include trace-element concentrations in whole-body tissue of aquatic benthic insects. Statistical summaries of water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data for sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin are provided for the period of record.

  8. Response of free-living Nematodes to the quality of water and sediment at Bou Chrara Lagoon (Tunisia during winter 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Bou Ghrara lagoon, a stretch of water in southeastern Tunisia, has shown an alarming reduction of its fishery resources since 1993. In order to study the response of free-living nematodes to the water and sediment quality of this area, thirteen stations have been sampled. According to this study, the heavy metal, organic carbon and hydrocarbon content of sediments are key factors negatively influencing the density, biomass and diversity of the nematofauna.

  9. From hydro-geomorphological mapping to sediment transfer evaluation in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps) (United States)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Mathieu, Alexandre; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Carlier, Benoit; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charney, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier


    The Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity such as in 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), and more recently in 2000 (R.I. 30 yr). In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by pre-existing saturated soils, explained the immediate response of the fluvial system and the subsequent destabilisation of slopes. This resulted in serious damages to infrastructure and buildings in the valley bottom, mostly along some specific reaches and confluences with debris flow prone tributaries. After each event, new protective structures are built. One of the purposes of this study, undertaken in the frame of the SAMCO (ANR) project, was to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of this upper Alpine catchment in a context of hazards mitigation and sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. To determine the main sediment storages that could be mobilised during the next major hydro-meteorological events, the first step of our study consists in the identification and characterisation of areas that play a role into the sediment transfer processing. From environmental characteristics (channel geometric, vegetation cover…) and anthropogenic factors (hydraulic infrastructures, urban development…), a semi-automatic method provides a typology of contribution areas with sediment storages sensitive to erosion, or areas that will be prone to deposition of sediments during the next flooding event. The second step of the study is focused on the sediment storages with their characterisation and connectivity to the trunk channel. Taking into account the entire catchment and including the torrential system, this phase analyses the sedimentary transfers from the identification and classification of sediment storages to the evaluation of the degree of connectivity with the main or secondary channels. The

  10. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995 (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid; King, K.A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William


    Because of concerns expressed by the U.S. Congress and the environmental community, the Department of the Interior began a program in late 1985 to identify the nature and extent of water-quality problems induced by irrigation that might exist in the western States. Surface water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from March through September 1995 along the lower Colorado River and in agricultural drains at nine sites in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, and analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents. Analyses of water, bottom sediment, and biota were completed to determine if irrigation return flow has caused, or has the potential to cause, harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife in the study area. Concentrations of dissolved solids in surface-water samples collected in March generally did not vary substantially from surface-water samples collected in June. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 712 to 3,000 milligrams per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Concentrations of chloride in 9 of 18 water samples and concentrations of sulfate in 16 of 18 water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Calcium and sodium were the dominant cations, and chloride and sulfate were the dominant anions. The maximum selenium concentration of 8 micrograms per liter exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of lead in 7 of 18 water samples and concentrations of mercury in 4 of 18 water samples exceeded the aquatic-life cronic criteria of 3.2 and 0.012 micrograms per liter, respectively. Concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, and silver in the water samples were below analytical reporting limits. Arsenic was detected in 3 of 9 bottom-sediment samples

  11. Evaluation of Erosion Potential of Estuarine Sediments in NY/NJ Harbor (Impact of In-Situ Stabilization on the Remediation of Soft Sediments - A preamble to Erosion Testing and Evaluation) (United States)


    The primary objective of the project are to perform a review of existing in-situ techniques of sediment erosion potential evaluation in contaminated "superfund" sites in the United States and those from Europe and Japan and the applicability of soft ...

  12. Evaluation of quality in social-work practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Blom


    Full Text Available This theoretical article describes and discusses the concept of quality in relation to the evaluation of social-work practice. Of particular interest are the difference between quality of services and quality of life and the importance of balancing the stakeholders’ different interests in order to make a sound judgement of quality in social work possible. This article begins with presenting some basic perspectives on quality as well as the transference of the concept of quality from manufacturing industry to social-work practice. Thereafter the two main issues are discussed: the concepts of quality of service and of quality of life and the importance of balancing different stakeholders’ perspectives in the evaluation of quality in social-work practice. This article concludes that: 1 it is crucial to be aware of and to consider the distinction between quality of service and quality of life; 2 clients’ perspective on quality of life is an aspect of outcome that currently receives insufficient attention; 3 clients’ subjective experiences of welfare of well-being deserve greater attention for ethical as well as methodological reasons; and 4 judgement of quality in social work are inevitably dependent on different stakeholders’ perspectives.

  13. Modeling and Evaluation of Multimodal Perceptual Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim T; Hansen, Steffen Duus; Sørensen, John Aasted


    The increasing performance requirements of multimedia modalities, carrying speech, audio, video, image, and graphics emphasize the need for assessment methods of the total quality of a multimedia system and methods for simultaneous analysis of the system components. It is important to take into a...

  14. Seasonal evaluation of groundwater quality around Igando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Correlation and Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship and variability of groundwater quality parameters around Solous 1 and 2 Dumpsites, in Igando, Lagos, for the wet and the dry seasons. The correlation between TDS and other hydrochemical parameters which.

  15. Seasonal evaluation of groundwater quality around Igando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation and Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship and variability of groundwater quality parameters around Solous 1 and 2 Dumpsites, in Igando, Lagos, for the wet and the dry seasons. The correlation between TDS and other hydrochemical parameters which constituted ...

  16. Evaluating Process Quality from an Appraisal Perspective (United States)


    through the generic practices (GPs), product and process quality assurance (PPQA), organizational process focus ( OPF ), organizational process perfor...judge whether or not the organization is measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of their processes. This is done through GPs, PPQA, OPF , OPP, and

  17. Information criterion for the categorization quality evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail V. Svirkin


    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the variation of information function as a quality criterion for categorizing a collection of documents. The performance of the variation of information function is being examined subject to the number of categories and the sample volume of the test document collection.

  18. Influence of visual appearance on loudspeaker sound quality evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming


    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order ...... to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance....

  19. Course Evaluation Systems for Open-ended Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piihl, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jens Smed


    Quality in higher education is widely controlled through surveys asking students to evaluate teaching. However, control of quality does not necessarily lead to enhancement of quality. Drawing on accounting research and a case study, a measurement-based and open-ended quality control system...... emphasising quality enhancement is suggested. The case shows how interactive use of performance measurement can lead to more engaged and enabling dialogue amongst involved actors concerning quality enhancement, however institutionalised beliefs regarding course evaluation systems makes a change challenging....... The chapter suggests that open-ended measurement systems enabling stakeholders to take responsibility for quality enhancement is not so much a matter of technical design as a matter of an enabling style of use....

  20. Evaluation of stream water quality in Atlanta, Georgia, and the surrounding region (USA) (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Kandell, S.J.


    A water-quality index (WQI) was developed from historical data (1986-1995) for streams in the Atlanta Region and augmented with 'new' and generally more comprehensive biweekly data on four small urban streams, representing an industrial area, a developed medium-density residential area and developing and developed low-density residential areas. Parameter WQIs were derived from percentile ranks of individual water-quality parameter values for each site by normalizing the constituent ranks for values from all sites in the area for a base period, i.e. 1990-1995. WQIs were developed primarily for nutrient-related parameters due to data availability. Site WQIs, which were computed by averaging the parameter WQIs, range from 0.2 (good quality) to 0.8 (poor quality), and increased downstream of known nutrient sources. Also, annual site WQI decreases from 1986 to 1995 at most long-term monitoring sites. Annual site WQI for individual parameters correlated with annual hydrological characteristics, particularly runoff, precipitation quantity, and water yield, reflecting the effect of dilution on parameter values. The WQIs of the four small urban streams were evaluated for the core-nutrient-related parameters, parameters for specific dissolved trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics, and a species diversity index for the macro-invertebrate taxa. The site WQI for the core-nutrient-related parameters used in the retrospective analysis was, as expected, the worst for the industrial area and the best for the low-density residential areas. However, macro-invertebrate data indicate that although the species at the medium-density residential site were diverse, the taxa at the site were for species tolerant of degraded water quality. Furthermore, although a species-diversity index indicates no substantial difference between the two low-density residential areas, the number for macro-invertebrates for the developing area was much less than that for the developed area

  1. Evaluation of Organochlorinated Pesticides Residues and PCBs in Sediments of Karavasta Lagoon, Albania


    , B Murtaj; , E Çomo; , A. Nuro; , E Marku; , A Emiri


    In this paper are presented concentrations of organochlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sediment samples of Karavasta Lagoons. Sediment sample were taken in May 2013 in different stations of lagoon. Ultrasonic extraction used for extracting organochlorinated pesticides, their residues and PCBs from sediment samples. Clean-up procedure using Şrstly metallic mercury followed a second clean-up procedure in an “open” şorisil column was performed. Analysis was realized in...

  2. Stability evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments during thermally-driven hydrate dissociation (United States)

    Kwon, T.; Cho, G.; Santamarina, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.


    Hydrate-bearing sediments may destabilize spontaneously as part of geological processes, unavoidably during petroleum drilling/production operations, or intentionally as part of gas extraction from the hydrate itself. In all cases, high pore fluid pressure generation is anticipated during hydrate dissociation. This study examined how thermal changes destabilize gas hydrate-bearing sediments. First, an analytical formulation was derived for predicting fluid pressure evolution in hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to thermal stimulation without mass transfer. The formulation captures the self-preservation behavior, calculates the hydrate and free gas quantities during dissociation, considering effective stress-controlled sediment compressibility and gas solubility in aqueous phase. Pore fluid pressure generation is proportional to the initial hydrate fraction and the sediment bulk stiffness; is inversely proportional to the initial gas fraction and gas solubility; and is limited by changes in effective stress that cause the failure of the sediment. Second, the analytical formulation for hydrate dissociation was incorporated as a user-defined function into a verified finite difference code (FLAC2D). The underlying physical processes of hydrate-bearing sediments, including hydrate dissociation, self-preservation, pore pressure evolution, gas dissolution, and sediment volume expansion, were coupled with the thermal conduction, pore fluid flow, and mechanical response of sediments. We conducted the simulations for a duration of 20 years, assuming a constant-temperature wellbore transferred heat to the surrounding hydrate-bearing sediments, resulting in dissociation of methane hydrate in the well vicinity. The model predicted dissociation-induced excess pore fluid pressures which resulted in a large volume expansion and plastic deformation of the sediments. Furthermore, when the critical stress was reached, localized shear failure of the sediment around the borehole was

  3. National uranium resource evaluation program: hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ely quadrangle, Nevada; Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Field and laboratory data are presented for 1937 sediment samples from the Ely Quadrangle, Nevada; Utah. The samples were collected by Savannah River Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  4. Water quality assessment of Australian ports using water quality evaluation indices


    Jahan, Sayka; Strezov, Vladimir


    Australian ports serve diverse and extensive activities, such as shipping, tourism and fisheries, which may all impact the quality of port water. In this work water quality monitoring at different ports using a range of water quality evaluation indices was applied to assess the port water quality. Seawater samples at 30 stations in the year 2016-2017 from six ports in NSW, Australia, namely Port Jackson, Botany, Kembla, Newcastle, Yamba and Eden, were investigated to determine the physicochem...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 12, 2015 ... Key Words: Groundwater, Itapa, Evaluation, Ekiti, Southwestern, Nigeria ... safe drinking water is a basic human right essential to all ... treatment were done according to standard .... will make the water poisonous to plants.

  6. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service quality levels in the industry. The SERVQUAL instrument has been used to measure service quality levels administered to 500 of the industry’s active customers, i.e. organisations utilising the services of the freight transportation industry. The targeted respondents were managers responsible for logistics in their organisations. It was found that gaps existed between expectations and perceptions of service quality on 14 of the 15 measured items. Recommendations are made as to how the industry can improve its service quality levels.

  7. The role of sediment-transport evaluations for development of modeled instream flows: policy and approach in Texas. (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T; Raphelt, Nolan


    Instream-flow scientists embrace streamflow as the master variable driving aquatic and riparian ecosystems, and that natural flow variability is imperative for river conservation and restoration efforts. Sediment transport, which is critical for maintenance of physical habitats in rivers and floodplains, has received less direct attention from instream-flow practitioners. This article serves to highlight the roles of sediment-transport evaluations in modifying or verifying instream-flow prescriptions based on hydrology alone. Two examples of sediment-transport evaluations are discussed in relation to the Texas Senate Bill 3 Environmental Flows allocation process, a mandate to "develop environmental flow analyses and a recommended flow regime" that "maintain(s) the viability of the state's streams, rivers, and bay and estuary systems" using "reasonably available science". The first example provides an evaluation of effective discharge of suspended-sediment load of the lower Brazos River. The magnitude and frequency of effective discharge occurs between typical high-flow pulses and overbank flows, indicating that hydrologic and physical processes are not optimally coupled in some flow-regime models. The second example utilizes the Hydrology-Based Environmental Flow Regime (HEFR) model to prescribe instream flows for the lower Sabine River, and compares modeled bed-material loads for observed and HEFR-prescribed flow regimes. Results indicate that annual water and sediment yields are greatly reduced for the modeled flow regime. It should be noted, however, that different input variables to the HEFR model would have resulted in different computations of water and sediment yields, reinforcing that instream-flow practitioners should exercise great caution when applying rule-of-thumb procedures to generate flow prescriptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of life: problems of measurement and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Biktimirova


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological aspects of measurement and evaluation of the quality of life, including at the regional level. The correlation concepts of well-being and quality of life. A feature of the work is that the author considers the quality of life and well-being in relation, highlighting the need to form a background to this approach. The analysis and grouping approaches to assessing quality of life. The features of regional statistics to be considered when analyzing the quality of life. Is a system of indicators, compiled with the possibilities of modern official statistics.

  9. Image aesthetic quality evaluation using convolution neural network embedded learning (United States)

    Li, Yu-xin; Pu, Yuan-yuan; Xu, Dan; Qian, Wen-hua; Wang, Li-peng


    A way of embedded learning convolution neural network (ELCNN) based on the image content is proposed to evaluate the image aesthetic quality in this paper. Our approach can not only solve the problem of small-scale data but also score the image aesthetic quality. First, we chose Alexnet and VGG_S to compare for confirming which is more suitable for this image aesthetic quality evaluation task. Second, to further boost the image aesthetic quality classification performance, we employ the image content to train aesthetic quality classification models. But the training samples become smaller and only using once fine-tuning cannot make full use of the small-scale data set. Third, to solve the problem in second step, a way of using twice fine-tuning continually based on the aesthetic quality label and content label respective is proposed, the classification probability of the trained CNN models is used to evaluate the image aesthetic quality. The experiments are carried on the small-scale data set of Photo Quality. The experiment results show that the classification accuracy rates of our approach are higher than the existing image aesthetic quality evaluation approaches.

  10. Evaluation of combined LED-fluorescence microscopy and bleach sedimentation for diagnosis of tuberculosis at peripheral health service level. (United States)

    Bonnet, Maryline; Gagnidze, Laramie; Guerin, Philippe J; Bonte, Laurence; Ramsay, Andrew; Githui, Willie; Varaine, Francis


    Sputum microscopy is the only diagnostic for tuberculosis (TB) available at peripheral levels of health service in resource-poor countries. Its sensitivity is reduced in high HIV-prevalence settings. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) specimen sedimentation prior microscopy and light-emitting diode (LED)-fluorescence microscopy (FM) can individually improve performance of microscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of combined LED-FM and NaOCl sputum sedimentation for TB detection at peripheral level of health services. A prospective study was conducted in an urban health clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Three sputum specimens were collected over 2 days from consecutive TB suspects. Smears were prepared and stained with auramine O and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) methods. Bleach (3.5%) was added to the remaining specimen before overnight sedimentation at room temperature. Auramine O staining was performed on smears of sediment. A 4(th) specimen was collected for TB culture. Auramine smears were read under the same microscope as used for ZN smears, but equipped with the LED FluoLED™ fluorescence illuminator. 497 patients were included, and 1394 specimens collected. The yield of positive specimen was significantly increased after NaOCl sedimentation (24.9%) compared to direct LED-FM (20.6%) and direct ZN (20.3%). In detecting smear-positive patients, sensitivity was 78.5% for LED-FM after NaOCl sedimentation compared to 73.2% and 72.0% for direct LED-FM (P = 0.06) and direct ZN (P = 0.06), respectively. Specificity was 87.8% for LED-FM after NaOCl sedimentation compared to 96.7% and 95.9% for direct LED-FM (PLED-FM in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB at peripheral health service level.

  11. Evaluating the role of sediment-bacteria interactions on Escherichia coli concentrations at beaches in southern Lake Michigan (United States)

    Thupaki, Pramod; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Schwab, David J.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.


    Association of bacteria with suspended sediment in the water column complicates the assessment and prediction of nearshore water quality. We examine the impact of sediment-bacteria interactions on Escherichia coli (EC) levels at beaches in southern Lake Michigan using three-dimensional EC fate and transport models with and without explicit descriptions of sediment-bacteria interactions. We simulate hydrodynamics using a nested-grid numerical model and use a semiparametric wave model to compute wave heights and net bottom shear stress. The attachment-detachment dynamics of bacteria in the water column are modeled using a linear partition coefficient. The numerical models were tested against data, collected in summer 2008, which included measurements of EC at three beaches and multiple ADCP deployments for currents and waves. Our results indicate that the model that accounts for sediment-bacteria interactions describes the observed data significantly better and that sediment, directly and indirectly, interacts with bacteria to influence their fate and transport. The improvement results from the model's ability to describe the multiple short-duration, low-intensity resuspension events at our sampling sites. A major resuspension event was noted during the simulation period but the sampling frequency during the event was inadequate to resolve the details of the peak. Using the linear isotherm model to simulate attachment-detachment dynamics of bacteria in the water column, we found that the fraction of bacteria attached to suspended sediment particles in the water column is highly variable in the vertical at offshore locations but nearly constant closer to the shore.

  12. [Grades evaluation of Scutellariae Radix slices based on quality constant]. (United States)

    Deng, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Jiao, Meng-Jiao; Zhong, Wen; Cui, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Jin-Tang; Chen, Sha; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An


    By measuring the morphological indexes and the marker components content of 22 batches of Scutellariae Radix slices as well as calculating the quality constant, this research was aimed to establish a new method of evaluating the specifications and grades of Scutellariae Radix slices. The quality constants of these samples were in the range of 0.04-0.49, which can be divided into several grades based on the real requirement. If they were divided into three grades, the quality constant was ≥0.39 for the first grade, grade, and grade. This work indicated that the quality constants characterizing both apparent parameters and intrinsic quality can be used as a comprehensive evaluation index to classify the grades of traditional Chinese medicine quantitatively, clearly and objectively. The research results in this paper would provide new ideas and references for evaluating the specifications and grades of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Evaluation of recent sedimentation rates in Guajara Bay (N Brazilian coast) with {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Neves, Patricia A.; Figueira, Rubens C.L., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico


    In the last 50 years the Amazon region suffered the negative effects of urban growth and industrial and agricultural development. Belem, capital city of the state of Para located, is one of its greatest urban centers, and, within its influence, Guajara Bay receives wastes discharges from Belem, which introduce many organic and inorganic contaminants to this bay. As the environmental accumulation of these pollutants is deeply related to intensity and volume of sediments deposition, this study aims to evaluate recent sedimentation rates (in a time range of 60 years) in Guajara Bay. By using high resolution gamma spectrometry, a nuclear technique proper for the analysis of radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 210}Pb, recent sedimentation rates were assessed in three sediment cores collected in 2011. The mean sedimentation rates found were 0.85 ± 0.12 cm yr{sup -1}for Anadim core, 1.02 ± 0.17 cm yr{sup -1}for Outeiro core and 0.53 ± 0.04 cm yr{sup -1}for Tucunduba core, which are within the range of expected values for systems such as bays, estuaries and lagoons with anthropic presence (the case of Guajara Bay). (author)

  14. Toward the quality evaluation of complex information systems (United States)

    Todoran, Ion-George; Lecornu, Laurent; Khenchaf, Ali; Le Caillec, Jean-Marc


    Recent technological evolutions and developments allow gathering huge amounts of data stemmed from different types of sensors, social networks, intelligence reports, distributed databases, etc. Data quantity and heterogeneity imposed the evolution necessity of the information systems. Nowadays the information systems are based on complex information processing techniques at multiple processing stages. Unfortunately, possessing large quantities of data and being able to implement complex algorithms do not guarantee that the extracted information will be of good quality. The decision-makers need good quality information in the process of decision-making. We insist that for a decision-maker the information and the information quality, viewed as a meta-information, are of great importance. A system not proposing to its user the information quality is in danger of not being correctly used or in more dramatic cases not to be used at all. In literature, especially in organizations management and in information retrieval, can be found some information quality evaluation methodologies. But none of these do not allow the information quality evaluation in complex and changing environments. We propose a new information quality methodology capable of estimating the information quality dynamically with data changes and/or with the information system inner changes. Our methodology is able to instantaneously update the system's output quality. For capturing the information quality changes through the system, we introduce the notion of quality transfer function. It is equivalent to the signal processing transfer function but working on the quality level. The quality transfer function describes the influence of a processing module over the information quality. We also present two different views over the notion of information quality: a global one, characterizing the entire system and a local one, for each processing module.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Organoleptic Quality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation. The crackers were placed in identical glass bowls coded in three digit numbers and presented to a panel of 60 students (20 university students aged 21 – 35 years and 40 primary school pupils aged 9 – 15 years). Panellists were requested to test each product, one at a time and rank them in terms of ...

  16. Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational Evaluation (EE) provides information for action by offering invaluable knowledge in terms of theoretical and practical capabilities and competencies possessed by man for the improvement of individual and society. This study sought to ascertain whether purpose of EE and the rethinking of EE best practices ...

  17. Agronomic evaluation and quality characteristics of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to evaluate some agronomical, physical and nutritional characteristics of seeds of three species of Cucurbitaceous, namely Citrulus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumeropsis edulus. Agronomic experiments were investigated over a two-year period during which, some agronomic ...

  18. Hydrogeochemical analysis and quality evaluation of groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 8, 2013 ... hydrogeochemical parameters were evaluated, while techniques such as sodium absorption ratio. (SAR), sodium percent, residual sodium ... water chemistry also has a potential use for tracing the origins and the history of water as well ... are especially subject to this action. It is hoped that this study would ...

  19. Hydrogeochemical analysis and quality evaluation of groundwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 20 groundwater samples from boreholes and hand dug wells withinOnicha-Uburu and its environs were assessed to determine their suitability for irrigation purposes. Physical and hydrogeochemical parameters were evaluated, while techniques such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percent, residual ...

  20. Evaluation of the potential for using Greenlandic marine sediments for brick production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor


    Fine grained marine sediments from near the Greenlandic towns of Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq and Sisimiut were assessed as raw materials for local production of building bricks. The assessment included both analysis of the sediment characteristics and physical properties of miniature test brick...

  1. Quality evaluation of stereo 3DTV systems with open profiling of quality (United States)

    Kepplinger, Sara; Hottong, Nikolaus


    Current work describes two evaluations in two different locations investigating possible differences in the experience of quality of stereo 3DTV systems. Herein, the work presents the usage of the Open Profiling of Quality method. This method allows going beyond up to now considered distinctive features (e.g., glasses wear comfort, brightness…). During the first evaluation standardized display-settings were used for each tested system. In the second study all systems were tested with their provided factory settings. Other factors like test stimuli, play out technology, laboratory settings, and viewing position were strictly standardized. Additionally, influencing factors like spectacle frames and display design have been minimized by using same eyeglass frames (but different technology) and hiding the display chassis. The results of both evaluations show distinct influences of display technology on quality perception. This is affirmed by the quality describing attributes deriving from the open profiling of quality method beyond the quantitative quality rating. This influence has to be considered within subjective evaluation of quality in order to support test-retest reliability and user centered approaches on quality evaluation of stereo 3D visualization. Different quality perception of different display technologies was confirmed even under different TV settings.

  2. Calculation and evaluation of sediment effect concentrations for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Haverland, Pamela S.; Brunson, Eric L.; Canfield, Timothy J.; Dwyer, F. James; Henke, Chris; Kemble, Nile E.; Mount, David R.; Fox, Richard G.


    Procedures are described for calculating and evaluating sediment effect concentrations (SECs) using laboratory data on the toxicity of contaminants associated with field-collected sediment to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus riparius. SECs are defined as the concentrations of individual contaminants in sediment below which toxicity is rarely observed and above which toxicity is frequently observed. The objective of the present study was to develop SECs to classify toxicity data for Great Lake sediment samples tested with Hyalella azteca and Chironomus riparius. This SEC database included samples from additional sites across the United States in order to make the database as robust as possible. Three types of SECs were calculated from these data: (1) Effect Range Low (ERL) and Effect Range Median (ERM), (2) Threshold Effect Level (TEL) and Probable Effect Level (PEL), and (3) No Effect Concentration (NEC). We were able to calculate SECs primarily for total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The ranges of concentrations in sediment were too narrow in our database to adequately evaluate SECs for butyltins, methyl mercury, polychlorinated dioxins and furans, or chlorinated pesticides. About 60 to 80% of the sediment samples in the database are correctly classified as toxic or not toxic depending on type of SEC evaluated. ERMs and ERLs are generally as reliable as paired PELs and TELs at classifying both toxic and non-toxic samples in our database. Reliability of the SECs in terms of correctly classifying sediment samples is similar between ERMs and NECs; however, ERMs minimize Type I error (false positives) relative to ERLs and minimize Type II error (false negatives) relative to NECs. Correct classification of samples can be improved by using only the most reliable individual SECs for chemicals (i.e., those with a higher percentage of correct classification). SECs

  3. Evaluation of depression and quality of life in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of depression and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep ... sleep, excessive sleepiness during the day, lack of concentration, memory loss, ... Conclusion: Decreased deep sleep duration, increased arousal index, and a ...

  4. Evaluation of quality of life of visually impaired

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; de Araújo, Moziane Mendonça; Braga, Fernanda Cavalcante; Fernandes, Giselle Taveira; Costa, Samira Cavalcante


    to evaluate the quality of life of visually impaired using WHOQOL-100. exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative study, performed between April and May 2013 with 20 visually impaired of the Blind Association of Ceará...

  5. 122 evaluation of the quality of locally manufactured antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Locally manufactured antimicrobial susceptibility discs are becoming increasingly used in both private and government hospital laboratories in Nigeria. Data on the quality of these locally manufactured antimicrobial discs are not available. In order to provide some data, we evaluated the quality of three brands ...

  6. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one kind of perishable food, fish product is at risk of suffering various damages during cold chain and temperature is the most important factor to affect the product quality. This research work on frozen tilapia fillet was aimed at evaluating the fish product quality and predict shelf-life through monitoring temperature change ...

  7. Professional women's evaluation of the quality of career wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic product features play a role in the consumer's quality evaluation. The intrinsic product features primarily influence the tangible quality indicators (functional and sensory indicators). Extrinsic product features, such as brand name, price, store image and the “hanger appeal” of the garment, directly ...

  8. Quality evaluation of kilishi , an intermediate moisture meat product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Klebsiella sp in commercial Kilishi which could pose high health risk to consumers. It is therefore advised that processors of Kilishi should imbibe good hygienic practices in order to improve the quality and reduce the risk of food borne illnesses while consuming this product. Keywords: Quality, Kilishi, chemical evaluation, ...

  9. Evaluation of patients ' satisfaction with quality of care provided at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The umpteenth threats to change of healthcare provider by dissatisfied patients on formal sector health insurance are well known and can be a proxy indicator for the need for quality improvement in service delivery. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating patientsf satisfaction with quality of care provided ...

  10. An evaluation of milk quality in Uganda: Value chain assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk quality was analysed at six stages of the commodity chain: farm, bicycle collector at the farm level, pick-up collecting centre, milk collecting centre, urban cooler, and vendor in Kampala city at the urban cooler level. Milk quality was evaluated using platform tests (Clot on boiling (COB), Alcohol test, milk temperature and ...

  11. An Evaluation of Partial Digestion Protocols for the Extraction and Measurement of Trace Metals of Environmental Concern in Marine and Estuarine Sediments (United States)

    Winters, S. J.; Krahforst, C.; Sherman, L.; Kehm, K.


    As part of a broad study of the fate and transport of trace metals in estuarine sediments (Krahforst et al., 2013), the efficacy of commonly-used partial digestion protocols, including ISO 11466 (treatment with aqua regia), EPA 3050B (nitric acid followed by H2O2) and a modified rock digestion method ('RD' method- H2O2 followed by nitric), were evaluated for two NIST SRM materials, marine sediment 2702 and estuarine sediment 1646a. Unlike so-called total sediment digestions, the methods studied in this work do not employ hydrofluoric acid and are thought to leave silicates substantially or wholly intact. These methods can in principle compliment studies based on total digestions by providing information about trace metals in phases that are potentially more labile in the marine environment. Samples were digested in ~150 mg aliquots. Application of ISO 11466 and EPA 3050B followed published protocols except that digestions were carried out in trace-metal clean 15 mL capped Teflon vessels in an Al block digester and, at the end of the procedure, the supernatant was decanted from undigested material following repeated centrifugation in 2% nitric acid. Digested solutions were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb content by ICPMS. All elements were analyzed in collision reaction cell mode to minimize isobaric interferences, except Cd and Ag, which were analyzed in standard mode. Instrument performance was monitored in-run by analyzing the SRM 1643e and several quality-check standards. Two repeated digestions of SRM 2702 and SRM 1646a using EPA 3050B produced identical yields, within the standard deviation of repeated analyses (0 - 5%), for all analyzed elements except Cu, which varied by 30% for SRM 2702. The same was true for ISO 11466, although the standard deviation of repeated analyses for this digestion series tended to be larger (digestions typically range from 5 - 15% higher than EPA 3050B for all studied elements. Comparisons between

  12. Synthesized Speech Quality Evaluation Using ITU-T P.563


    Kraljevski, Ivan; Chungurski, Slavco; Stojanovic, Igor; Arsenovski, Sime


    In this paper a method for speech quality evaluation of TTS system is presented and its usability is assessed. The ITU-T P.563 is used as a reference-free objective measurement method for speech sequences synthesized by concatenative TTS system. The method was examined and the achieved results were compared to those measured by subjective auditory tests and their correlation values were observed. It was shown that this method is useful for automatic evaluation of synthetic speech quality afte...

  13. Self evaluated oral status impact on quality of life


    Fabiana Andrade Botelho Mesquira; Sônia Vieira


    Objective: To associate people’s perception of the impact of oral health and disease status on the quality of life, with the following variables: Age bracket, socioeconomic conditions, educational level, dentition status, use of dental services, and oral hygiene habits.Methods: A subjective indicator (OHIP-14) was used to evaluate people’s perception of the impact of the self-evaluated oral health status on the quality of their own lives. A survey was made of demographic data, dentition statu...

  14. A New Software Quality Model for Evaluating COTS Components


    Adnan Rawashdeh; Bassem Matalkah


    Studies show that COTS-based (Commercial off the shelf) systems that are being built recently are exceeding 40% of the total developed software systems. Therefore, a model that ensures quality characteristics of such systems becomes a necessity. Among the most critical processes in COTS-based systems are the evaluation and selection of the COTS components. There are several existing quality models used to evaluate software systems in general; however, none of them is dedicated to COTS-based s...

  15. Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge Keithsburg Division Water and Sediment Quality Summary Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service surveyed environmental quality at a backwater system of the Upper Mississippi River between 1994 and 1996. The...

  16. Selected Hydrologic, Water-Quality, Biological, and Sedimentation Characteristics of Laguna Grande, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, March 2007-February 2009 (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.; Santos, Carlos R.


    Laguna Grande is a 50-hectare lagoon in the municipio of Fajardo, located in the northeasternmost part of Puerto Rico. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data were collected in the lagoon between March 2007 and February 2009 to establish baseline conditions and determine the health of Laguna Grande on the basis of preestablished standards. In addition, a core of bottom material was obtained at one site within the lagoon to establish sediment depositional rates. Water-quality properties measured onsite (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and water transparency) varied temporally rather than areally. All physical properties were in compliance with current regulatory standards established for Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations were very low and in compliance with current regulatory standards (less than 5.0 and 1.0 milligrams per liter for total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively). The average total nitrogen concentration was 0.28 milligram per liter, and the average total phosphorus concentration was 0.02 milligram per liter. Chlorophyll a was the predominant form of photosynthetic pigment in the water. The average chlorophyll-a concentration was 6.2 micrograms per liter. Bottom sediment accumulation rates were determined in sediment cores by modeling the downcore activities of lead-210 and cesium-137. Results indicated a sediment depositional rate of about 0.44 centimeter per year. At this rate of sediment accretion, the lagoon may become a marshland in about 700 to 900 years. About 86 percent of the community primary productivity in Laguna Grande was generated by periphyton, primarily algal mats and seagrasses, and the remaining 14 percent was generated by phytoplankton in the water column. Based on the diel studies the total average net community productivity equaled 5.7 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per day (2.1 grams of carbon per cubic meter per day). Most of this productivity was ascribed to periphyton and macrophytes

  17. Preliminary proposals for classification of marine environmental quality respecting micropollutants in water, sediments and selected organisms


    Knutzen, J.


    A compilation of water quality criteria and information about "background levels" of micropollutants (selected metals, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) have been used as basis for proposals of marine environmental quality classification. As knowledge of effects - except at levels wich must be regarded as strong contamination - is inadequate, the classification is based mainly on occurrence. The selected indicator organisms comprise benthic algae (metal indicators only), muss...

  18. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  19. Evaluation of Human Prehension Using Grasp Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz León


    Full Text Available One of the main features of the human hand is its grasping ability. Robot grasping has been studied for years and different quality measures have been proposed to evaluate the stability and manipulability of grasps. Although the human hand is obviously more complex than robot hands, the methods used in robotics might be adopted to study the human grasp. The purpose of this work is to propose a set of measures that allow the evaluation of different aspects of the human grasp. The most common robotic grasp quality measures have been adapted to the evaluation of the human hand and a new quality measure – the fatigue index – is proposed in order to incorporate the biomechanical aspect into the evaluation. The minimum set of indices that allows the evaluation of the different aspects of the grasp is obtained from the analysis of a human prehension experiment.

  20. Evaluation of Environmental Risk of Metal Contaminated Soils and Sediments Near Mining Sites in Aguascalientes, Mexico. (United States)

    Mitchell, Kerry Nigel; Ramos Gómez, Magdalena Samanta; Guerrero Barrera, Alma Lilian; Yamamoto Flores, Laura; Flores de la Torre, Juan Armando; Avelar González, Francisco Javier


    A total of sixteen composite soil and sediment samples were collected during the rainy and dry season in Asientos, Aguascalientes, Mexico, an area recently affected by increased mining operations. Physicochemical characterization showed that substrates were moderately to strongly calcareous with predominantly neutral to slightly alkaline pH, moderate to high cation-exchange capacity and high organic matter content. Due to these conditions, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were not water leachable despite high concentrations; up to 105.3, 7052.8, 414.7 and 12,263.2 mg kg(-1) respectively. However, Cd and Pb were considered to be easily mobilizable as they were found predominantly associated with exchangeable and carbonate fractions, whereas Cu and Zn were found associated with Fe/Mn oxide and organic matter fractions. The results highlighted the influence of physicochemical substrate properties on the mobility of metals and its importance during the evaluation of the potential current and future risk metal contamination presents in affected areas.

  1. Factor selection for service quality evaluation: a hospital case study. (United States)

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Najafi, Seyedvahid; Nejati-Zarnaqi, Bayram; Khalilifar, Seyed Omid; Ajam, Mahdi; Ansarimoghadam, Ahmad


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights. A novel sensitivity approach was used to test the service quality factor's impact on the PSQI. Findings A new service quality dimension named "trust in services" was found using EFA, which is not an original SERVQUAL factor. The approach was applied to assess the hospital's service quality. Since the PSQI value was 0.76 it showed that improvements are needed to meet customer expectations. The results showed the factor order that affect PSQI. "Trust in services" has the strongest influence on PSQI followed by "tangibles," "assurance," "empathy," and "responsiveness," respectively. Practical implications This work gives managers insight into service quality by following a systematic method; i.e., measuring perceived service quality from the customer viewpoint and service factors' impact on customer perception. Originality/value The procedure helps managers to select the required service quality dimensions which need improvement and predict their effects on customer perception.

  2. Data envelopment analysis in service quality evaluation: an empirical study (United States)

    Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid


    Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.

  3. Quality framework proposal for Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Naomi G.; Arfman, John F.; Limary, Siviengxay


    This report proposes the first stage of a Quality Framework approach that can be used to evaluate and document Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects. The first stage of the Quality Framework defines two tools that will be used to evaluate a CME project. The first tool is used to decompose a CME project into its essential elements. These elements can then be evaluated for inherent quality by looking at the subelements that impact their level of quality maturity or rigor. Quality Readiness Levels (QRLs) are used to valuate project elements for inherent quality. The Framework provides guidance for the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders for CME project prerequisites that help to ensure the proper level of confidence in the deliverable given its intended use. The Framework also Provides a roadmap that defined when and how the Framework tools should be applied. Use of these tools allow the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders to understand what elements the project will use to execute the project, the inherent quality of the elements, which of those are critical to the project and why, and the risks associated to the project's elements.

  4. Meat quality evaluation by hyperspectral imaging technique: an overview. (United States)

    Elmasry, Gamal; Barbin, Douglas F; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul


    During the last two decades, a number of methods have been developed to objectively measure meat quality attributes. Hyperspectral imaging technique as one of these methods has been regarded as a smart and promising analytical tool for analyses conducted in research and industries. Recently there has been a renewed interest in using hyperspectral imaging in quality evaluation of different food products. The main inducement for developing the hyperspectral imaging system is to integrate both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system to make direct identification of different components and their spatial distribution in the tested product. By combining spatial and spectral details together, hyperspectral imaging has proved to be a promising technology for objective meat quality evaluation. The literature presented in this paper clearly reveals that hyperspectral imaging approaches have a huge potential for gaining rapid information about the chemical structure and related physical properties of all types of meat. In addition to its ability for effectively quantifying and characterizing quality attributes of some important visual features of meat such as color, quality grade, marbling, maturity, and texture, it is able to measure multiple chemical constituents simultaneously without monotonous sample preparation. Although this technology has not yet been sufficiently exploited in meat process and quality assessment, its potential is promising. Developing a quality evaluation system based on hyperspectral imaging technology to assess the meat quality parameters and to ensure its authentication would bring economical benefits to the meat industry by increasing consumer confidence in the quality of the meat products. This paper provides a detailed overview of the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts exerted in hyperspectral imaging technology developed for evaluating the quality of different meat products and the possibility of its widespread

  5. Evaluation of CAESAR-Lisflood as a tool for modelling river channel change and floodplain sediment residence times. (United States)

    Feeney, Christopher; Smith, Hugh; Chiverrell, Richard; Hooke, Janet; Cooper, James


    Sediment residence time represents the duration of particle storage, from initial deposition to remobilisation, within reservoirs such as floodplains. Residence time influences rates of downstream redistribution of sediment and associated contaminants and is a useful indicator of landform stability and hence, preservation potential of alluvial archives of environmental change. River channel change controls residence times, reworking sediments via lateral migration, avulsion and incision through floodplain deposits. As reworking progresses, the floodplain age distribution is 'updated', reflecting the time since 'older' sediments were removed and replaced with 'younger' ones. The relationship between ages and the spatial extents they occupy can be used to estimate the average floodplain sediment residence times. While dating techniques, historic maps and remote sensing can reconstruct age distributions from historic reworking, modelling provides advantages, including: i) capturing detailed river channel changes and resulting floodplain ages over longer timescales and higher resolutions than from historic mapping, and ii) control over inputs to simulate hypothetical scenarios to investigate the effects of different environmental drivers on residence times. CAESAR-Lisflood is a landform evolution model capable of simulating variable channel width, divergent flow, and both braided and meandering planforms. However, the model's ability to accurately simulate channel changes requires evaluation if it is to be useful for quantitative evaluation of floodplain sediment residence times. This study aims to simulate recent historic river channel changes along ten 1 km reaches in northern England. Simulation periods were defined by available overlapping historic map and mean daily flow datasets, ranging 27-39 years. LiDAR-derived 2 m DEMs were modified to smooth out present-day channels and burn in historic channel locations. To reduce run times, DEMs were resampled to coarser

  6. evaluation of grain nutritional quality and resistant starch content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    EVALUATION OF GRAIN NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND RESISTANT STARCH. CONTENT IN KENYAN ... study was to evaluate the effect of wheat genotype and selected agro-ecological zones on kernel accumulation of zinc, iron, resistant starch and ...... Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for ...

  7. Taking Teacher Quality Seriously: A Collaborative Approach to Teacher Evaluation (United States)

    Karp, Stan


    If narrow, test-based evaluation of teachers is unfair, unreliable, and has negative effects on kids, classrooms, and curricula, what's a better approach? By demonizing teachers and unions, and sharply polarizing the education debate, the corporate reform movement has actually undermined serious efforts to improve teacher quality and evaluation.…

  8. Methods for evaluation of small scale quality improvement projects. (United States)

    Harvey, G; Wensing, M


    Evaluation is an integral component of quality improvement and there is much to be learned from the evaluation of small scale quality improvement initiatives at a local level. This type of evaluation is useful for a number of different reasons including monitoring the impact of local projects, identifying and dealing with issues as they arise within a project, comparing local projects to draw lessons, and collecting more detailed information as part of a bigger evaluation project. Focused audits and developmental studies can be used for evaluation within projects, while methods such as multiple case studies and process evaluations can be used to draw generalised lessons from local experiences and to provide examples of successful projects. Evaluations of small scale quality improvement projects help those involved in improvement initiatives to optimise their choice of interventions and use of resources. Important information to add to the knowledge base of quality improvement in health care can be derived by undertaking formal evaluation of local projects, particularly in relation to building theory around the processes of implementation and increasing understanding of the complex change processes involved.

  9. Consumer Evaluations of Food Risk Management Quality in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Houghton, J.R.; Krystallis, A.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.; Dijk, van H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.


    In developing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to understand how consumers evaluate the quality of food risk management practices. The aim of this study is to model the underlying psychological factors influencing consumer evaluations of food risk

  10. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk


    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  11. Spatial hydrological flow processes, water quality, sediment and vegetation community distributions in a natural floodplain fen – implication for the Flood Pulse Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, F.M.; Schot, P.P.; Wassen, M.J.; Kardel, Ignacy


    We studied spatial patterns in inundation water quality, sediment and vegetation distribution in a floodplain fen in Poland to map interacting peatland hydrological processes. Using PCA and K-means cluster analysis, we identified four water types, related to river water inundation, discharge of

  12. A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; PrakashBabu, C.; Mascarenhas, A.

    Organic carbon distribution in the surficial sediments of the Arabian Sea to some extends mirrors the surface productivity, being both high in the peripheral portions and low in the central region, suggesting that the productivity is a primary...


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight PAHs are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...

  14. Life cycle cost assessment and performance evaluation of sediment control technologies. (United States)


    This study was performed for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) : to better understand the environmental impacts associated with sediment control : technology currently employed on transportation projects. In this study, a review of : cu...

  15. Evaluation of contaminants in sediments and forage organisms, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), and fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax) were collected from 25 locations in and adjacent to Cape May National Wildlife Refuge...

  16. Current status of quality evaluation of nursing care through director review and reflection from the Nursing Quality Control Centers


    Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan


    Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample ...

  17. A free tool integrating GIS features and workflows to evaluate sediment connectivity in alpine catchments (United States)

    Crema, Stefano; Schenato, Luca; Goldin, Beatrice; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco


    The increased interest in sediment connectivity has brought the geomorphologists' community to focus on sediment fluxes as a key process (Cavalli et al., 2013; Heckmann and Schwanghart, 2013). The challenge of dealing with erosion-related processes in alpine catchments is of primary relevance for different fields of investigations and applications, including, but not limited to natural hazards, hydraulic structures design, ecology and stream restoration. The present work focuses on the development of a free tool for sediment connectivity assessment as described in Cavalli et al. (2013), introducing some novel improvements. The choice of going for a free software is motivated by the need of widening the access and improving participation beyond the restrictions on algorithms customization, typical of commercial software. A couple of features further enhance the tool: being completely free and adopting a user-friendly interface, its target audience includes researchers and stakeholders (e.g., local managers and civil protection authorities in charge of planning the priorities of intervention in the territory), being written in Python programming language, it can benefit from optimized algorithms for high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) handling and for propagation workflows implementation; these two factors make the tool computationally competitive with the most recent commercial GIS products. The overall goal of this tool is supporting the analysis of sediment connectivity, facing the challenge of widening, as much as possible, the users' community among scientists and stakeholders. This aspect is crucial, as future improvement of this tool will benefit of feedbacks from users in order to improve the quantitative assessment of sediment connectivity as a major input information for the optimal management of mountain areas. References: Cavalli, M., Trevisani, S., Comiti, F., Marchi, L., 2013. Geomorphometric assessment of spatial sediment connectivity in

  18. Identifying and Evaluating Options for Improving Sediment Management and Fish Passage at Hydropower Dams in the Lower Mekong River Basin (United States)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D. P.


    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing intensive and pervasive hydropower development to satisfy demand for increased energy and income to support its growing population of 60 million people. Just 20 years ago this river flowed freely. Today some 30 large dams exist in the basin, and over 100 more are being planned for construction. These dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, thereby impacting river morphology and ecosystems, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most valuable and productive freshwater fish habitats. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to potentially achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and fish passage. We introduce examples of such alternative SDO opportunities for Sambor Dam in Cambodia, planned to be constructed on the main stem of the Mekong River. To evaluate the performance of such alternatives, we developed a Python-based simulation tool called PySedSim. PySedSim is a daily time step mass balance model that identifies the relative tradeoffs among hydropower production, and flow and sediment regime alteration, associated with reservoir sediment management techniques such as flushing, sluicing, bypassing, density current venting and dredging. To date, there has been a very limited acknowledgement or evaluation of the significant uncertainties that impact the evaluation of SDO alternatives. This research is formalizing a model diagnostic assessment of the key assumptions and parametric uncertainties that strongly influence PySedSim SDO evaluations. Using stochastic hydrology and sediment load data, our diagnostic assessment evaluates and compares several Sambor Dam alternatives using several performance measures related to energy production, sediment trapping and regime alteration, and

  19. Longevity and effectiveness of aluminum addition to reduce sediment phosphorus release and restore lake water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huser, Brian J; Egemose, Sara; Harper, Harvey


    114 lakes treated with aluminum (Al) salts to reduce internal phosphorus (P) loading were analyzed to identify factors driving longevity of post-treatment water quality improvements. Lakes varied greatly in morphology, applied Al dose, and other factors that may have affected overall treatment ef...

  20. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of water quality and sediment-associated processes in natural lakes (United States)

    This chapter presents the development and application of a three-dimensional water quality model for predicting the distributions of nutrients, phytoplankton, dissolved oxygen, etc., in natural lakes. In this model, the computational domain was divided into two parts: the water column and the bed se...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    elsewhere. This report provides a preliminary evaluation, or ``screening assessment,'' of potential occupational, public, and environmental health risks from dredging, transporting, and treating contaminated harbor sediments with thermal treatment methods to render them suitable for disposal or beneficial use. The assessment was done in stages as the project advanced and data became available from other tasks on characteristics of sediments and treatment processes.

  2. Fecal pollution in coastal marine sediments from a semi-enclosed deep embayment subjected to anthropogenic activities: an issue to be considered in environmental quality management frameworks development. (United States)

    González-Fernández, D; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Nebot-Sanz, E; Sales-Márquez, D


    Sewage discharge is a major source of pollution in marine environments. Urban wastewaters can directly enter marine environments carrying pathogen organisms, organic loads, and nutrients. Because marine sediments can act as the ultimate fate of a wide range of pollutants, environmental quality assessment in this compartment can help to identify pollution problems in coastal areas. In the present study, characterization of surficial marine sediments allowed assessment of fecal pollution in a semi-enclosed deep embayment that is subjected to anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters and fecal indicators presented a great spatial heterogeneity. Fecal coliform and Clostridium perfringens showed accumulation in an extensive area, not only in proximity to sewage discharge points, but also in sediments at 100 meters depth. Results included herein demonstrated that, in coastal areas, urban wastewater discharge can affect the whole ecosystem through accumulation of fecal matter in bottom sediments. Application of multivariate techniques provided useful information with applicability for management of coastal areas in such complex systems. Environmental implications of wastewater discharge in coastal areas indicate the need to implement and include sediment quality control strategies in legislative frameworks.

  3. [Research on evolution and transition of quality evaluation of Shihu]. (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Jiao; Han, Bang-Xing; Peng, Hua-Sheng; Peng, Dai-Yin


    Shihu is one of the most valuable Chinese medicines in China. The sources of Shihu are complex and the quality evaluation of it mainly depends on morphologic characteristics distinction. In order to understand the Shihu's quality evaluation concept of Chinese herbalists in the past dynasties. This paper summarizes the methods of quality evaluation in ancient bencao systematically. The ancient bencao records that the quality of Shihu is closely related to its germplasm, habitat, processing and character. The concept of germplasm about shihu includes generalized and narrow sense, besides, the clinical applications of Dendrobium huoshanenese, D. officinale and D. nobile are focused on different diseases. D. huoshanenese has been regarded as Dao-di herbs since Qing Dynasty. The main products of Shihu contain fresh goods and dry goods, their clinical applications are also treated differently. Fengdou is one of the commodity specifications in Shihu. Its processing method probably dated from the Qing Dynasty, but now, it has become the mainstream commodityform. There was a common sense that different kinds of Shihu owed different characters and curative effects in ancient bencao, and the quality would enhance with the increasing viscidity. Therefore, the "Germplasm", "Geoherbs", "processing", "characters" were integrated into traditional quality evaluation methods of Shihu. Meanwhile, we should pay attention to the clinical efficacy of shihu with different species and processing methods. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.


    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of sewage-sludge disposal at the Lowry sewage-sludge-disposal area, near Denver, Colorado, on ground- and surface-water quality, to determine the fate of nitrates from sludge leachate, and to determine the source areas of leachate and the potential for additional leaching from the disposal area.Sewage-sludge disposal began in 1969. Two methods were used to apply the sludge: burial and plowing. Also, the sludge was applied both in liquid and cake forms. Data in this report represent the chemical composition of soil and streambed sediment from seven soil- and four streambed-sampling sites in 1986, chemical and bacterial composition of ground water from 28 wells from 1981 to 1987, and surface-water runoff from seven water-sampling sites from 1984 to 1987. Ground water samples were obtained from alluvial and bedrock aquifers. Samples of soil, streambed sediment, ground water and surface water were obtained for onsite measurement and chemical analysis. Measurements included determination of nitrogen compounds and major cations and anions, fecal-coliform and -streptococcus bacteria, specific conductance, and pH.Thirteen wells in the alluvial aquifer in Region 3 of the study area contain water that was probably affected by sewage-sludge leachate. The plots of concentration of nitrate with time show seasonal trends and trends caused by precipitation. In addition to yearly fluctuation, there were noticeable increases in ground-water concentrations of nitrate that coincided with increased precipitation. After 3 years of annual ground-water-quality monitoring and 4 years of a quarterly sampling program, it has been determined that leachate from the sewage-sludge-disposal area caused increased nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration in the alluvial ground water at the site. Soil analyses from the disposal area indicate that organic nitrogen was the dominant form of nitrogen in the soil.As a result of investigations at

  5. A review of sediment and nutrient concentration data from Australia for use in catchment water quality models. (United States)

    Bartley, Rebecca; Speirs, William J; Ellis, Tim W; Waters, David K


    Land use (and land management) change is seen as the primary factor responsible for changes in sediment and nutrient delivery to water bodies. Understanding how sediment and nutrient (or constituent) concentrations vary with land use is critical to understanding the current and future impact of land use change on aquatic ecosystems. Access to appropriate land-use based water quality data is also important for calculating reliable load estimates using water quality models. This study collated published and unpublished runoff, constituent concentration and load data for Australian catchments. Water quality data for total suspended sediments (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were collated from runoff events with a focus on catchment areas that have a single or majority of the contributing area under one land use. Where possible, information on the dissolved forms of nutrients were also collated. For each data point, information was included on the site location, land use type and condition, contributing catchment area, runoff, laboratory analyses, the number of samples collected over the hydrograph and the mean constituent concentration calculation method. A total of ∼750 entries were recorded from 514 different geographical sites covering 13 different land uses. We found that the nutrient concentrations collected using "grab" sampling (without a well defined hydrograph) were lower than for sites with gauged auto-samplers although this data set was small and no statistical analysis could be undertaken. There was no statistically significant difference (pland use. This is most likely due to differences in land condition over-shadowing the effects of spatial scale. There was, however, a significant difference in the concentration value for constituent samples collected from sites where >90% of the catchment was represented by a single land use, compared to sites with land use. This highlights the need for more single land use water quality data

  6. Evaluation of Urban Park Service Quality Based on Factor Analysis


    Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng


    Urban park is an important component of urban public green space which provides leisure, recreation, activity place, etc. Urban park service quality was evaluated by quantitative method in this paper to provide scientific evidence for renewal and development of urban park. 5 urban parks in Xinxiang, Henan province, China were selected as evaluation samples, and 13 indexes were evaluated, including plant landscape, cultural experience, activity place, ecological environment, road design, topog...

  7. A geochemical analytical approach for the evaluation of heavy metal distribution in lagoon sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacifico, R.; Cremisini, C.; Spaziani, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Sez. PROT-CHIM, Roma (Italy); Adamo, P. [Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Portici (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta, dell' Ambiente e delle Produzioni Animali; Ferrara, L. [Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica


    Background, Aim and Scope: Italian lagoon environments are of great importance due either to their frequency and distribution along the coasts or to their management. Agriculture, urban and industrial activities in lagoon catchments can be sources of heavy metal (HM) pollution by direct waste dumping, atmospheric deposition of fumes or, simply, as a consequence of a lack of natural water recharge. HM concentration in lagoon sediments is a tool of HM monitoring in the surrounding environment. Application of sequential extraction procedures (SEP) to sediments makes it possible to study the HM distribution among the main geochemical phases and to assess their potential mobilization as a consequence of environmental condition variations. In the present study, the three-step SEP (0.11 M HOAc; 0.1 M NH{sub 2}OH.HCl; 8.8 M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and then 1 M NH{sub 4}OAc), developed by the Measurement and Testing Programme of the European Commission (BCR), was combined with information on the chemical and mineralogical properties of the sediments in order to assess the level and risk of mobility of HM (Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn) in sediments from the Fusaro volcanic coastal lagoon of southern Italy. The effect of sediment air drying and physico-chemical properties on the metal distribution in various geochemical forms and fractions was considered. Materials and Methods: Surface (5 cm depth) sediment samples were collected from twenty-one sites on the Fusaro lagoon. Moisture, pH, organic carbon, carbonates, particle-size distribution and HM total content were determined on the dried sediment samples. The mineralogy of the clay fraction was determined at room temperature on random and oriented samples. The different forms of Al, Si and Fe in the bulk sediment (< 2 mm) were analyzed after oxalate, dithionite-citrate and pyrophosphate extractions. The BCR-SEP was used to fractionate trace element chemical forms in nine selected sediment samples. Effects of sediment air-drying on HM

  8. Automated Quality Evaluation for a More Effective Data Peer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Düsterhus


    Full Text Available A peer review scheme comparable to that used in traditional scientific journals is a major element missing in bringing publications of raw data up to standards equivalent to those of traditional publications. This paper introduces a quality evaluation process designed to analyse the technical quality as well as the content of a dataset. This process is based on quality tests, the results of which are evaluated with the help of the knowledge of an expert. As a result, the quality is estimated by a single value only. Further, the paper includes an application and a critical discussion on the potential for success, the possible introduction of the process into data centres, and practical implications of the scheme.

  9. Report. no. 20. Sensory evaluation of indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Bluyssen, Philomena; Clausen, Geo

    Human subjects are indispensable in the measurement of perceived indoor air quality. Chemical and physical methods of characterisation often are insensitive to odorous and sensory irritating air pollutants, or do not take account of combinations of singular pollutants in a biologically meaningful...... way. Therefore, sensory methods many times are the only or the preferred tool for evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. This report presents background to and advice on methodologies for sensory evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. It proposes methods which apply to source assessments...... as well as field investigations. The methods will assist in labelling of building materials, characterising air quality in indoor spaces, controlling ventilation performance, and measuring occupant responses in questionnaire field studies of the sick building syndrome. The proposed methods will enable...

  10. Evaluation of Virus Reduction by Ultrafiltration with Coagulation-Sedimentation in Water Reclamation. (United States)

    Lee, Suntae; Hata, Akihiko; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki


    The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Aichi virus (AiV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were targeted in addition to the main enteric viruses of concern for risk management, namely, norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II (GI and GII) and rotavirus (RoV). PMMoV, which is a plant pathogenic virus and is present at high concentrations in water contaminated by human feces, has been suggested as a useful viral indicator. We also investigated the reduction of a spiked model virus (F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2) to measure the effect of viral inactivation by both qPCR and plaque assay. Efficiencies of removal of NoV GI, NoV GII, RoV, and AiV by UF with and without CS were >0.5 to 3.7 log10, although concentrations were below the detection limit in permeate water. PMMoV was the most prevalent virus in both feed and permeate water following UF, but CS pretreatment could not significantly improve its removal efficiency (mean removal efficiency: UF, 3.1 log10; CS + UF, 3.4 log10; t test, P > 0.05). CS increased the mean removal efficiency of spiked MS2 by only 0.3 log10 by qPCR (t-test, P > 0.05), but by 2.8 log10 by plaque assay (t-test, P processes, but cultural assay is essential to understanding viral fate.

  11. Microbiological air quality of processing areas in a dairy plant as evaluated by the sedimentation technique and a one-stage air sampler Qualidade microbiológica do ar de ambientes de processamento em indústria de laticínios avaliada por amostrador de ar de um estágio e pela técnica da sedimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Costa Salustiano


    Full Text Available The microbiological air quality at processing areas in a dairy plant was evaluated by using a one-stage air sampler, based on Andersen principles (impaction technique and by culture settling plate technique, also known as sedimentation technique. Among these areas, milk reception, packaging, and pasteurization rooms were included. Rooms where cheese, yogurt, butter and "doce de leite"(Latin American typical treat made of concentrated milk and sugar are made were also evaluated. For all processing areas, the numbers of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds recovered by air sampler were higher than 90 CFU·m-3 - the maximum value recommended by American Public Health Association (APHA. In four of the six processing areas, the microbial numbers were higher than APHA's standard (30 according to culture settling plate technique. The results showed a difference (pFoi avaliada a microbiota do ar dos ambientes de recepção, embalagem e pasteurização de leite, produção de queijos, de iogurte e de doce de leite e manteiga em uma indústria de laticínios pelas técnicas de sedimentação e de impressão em ágar utilizando um amostrador de ar de um estágio baseado no princípio de Andersen. As contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios e de fungos filamentosos e leveduras pela técnica impressão em ágar ultrapassaram 90UFC·m-3 de ar, valor máximo recomendado pela APHA. Pela técnica de sedimentação, as contagens microbianas do ar de quatro ambientes também ultrapassaram 30UFC·cm-2·semana-1, conforme recomendação da APHA. Os ambientes diferiram (p<0,05 apenas para os números de Staphylococcus aureus. (<1,0 a 4,3 UFC.m-3. As contagens microbianas por impressão em ágar foram de 2 a 10 vezes maiores que as obtidas por sedimentação, evidenciando a maior capacidade da impressão em ágar em determinar microrganismos do ar, inclusive patógenos. Quanto à distribuição da microbiota do ar, houve a predomin

  12. Evaluation of paddy quality dried with zeolite under medium temperature (United States)

    Irfandy, F.; Djaeni, M.


    Drying becomes important role to obtain good quality product in post-harvest treatment for paddy. Adsorption drying process taken place on medium operation temperature can be an option to enhance paddy quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of paddy dried with zeolite as adsorbent. In case, paddy from local farmer in Semarang was dried from initial moisture content 23% (wet basis) under different temperature 40 and 60°C, both with and without zeolite. Moisture content was observed by gravimetry every 15 minutes during 60 minutes drying time. Furthermore, the quality of paddy represented by percentage of head rice and proximate was analyzed after drying process completed. Results showed that compared to conventional drying without zeolite, the adsorption dryer was more superior in term of drying time as well as product quality improvement and there are no much differences in proximate analyzed result.

  13. Breast mass evaluation: factors influencing the quality of US elastography. (United States)

    Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Seung Ja


    To investigate factors influencing the quality of ultrasonographic (US) elastography in the evaluation of suspicious breast masses. This prospective study was conducted with institutional review board approval; written informed consent was obtained. Between January 2009 and February 2009, real-time US elastography of 312 breast masses (245 benign, 67 malignant) was performed in 268 consecutive patients (mean age, 45.7 years ± 10.2 [standard deviation]) prior to US-guided core biopsy. Five breast radiologists who had performed the examinations assessed the quality of elasticity images as inadequate, low, or high without histologic information. Age, body mass index (BMI), mammographic density, lesion size, lesion depth, and breast thickness at US were analyzed for their association with image quality by using the χ(2) test, Student t test, and multivariate analysis. Sensitivities and specificities for the differentiation of benign from malignant masses on the basis of elastography were calculated and compared between groups of quality scores by using the logistic regression method. The quality of elasticity images was assessed as inadequate in 21 (6.7%) cases, low in 134 (42.9%), and high in 157 (50.3%). According to univariate analysis, smaller lesion size (P = .001), shallower lesion depth (P = .005), less breast thickness where the lesion was located (P image quality. There was no correlation of image quality with age (P = .213), BMI (P = .191), mammographic density (P = .091), or distance from the nipple (P = .100). Multivariable analysis showed that breast thickness at the location of target lesions was the most important factor influencing elasticity image quality (P = .001). There were significant differences in sensitivity between higher-quality and lower-quality images (87.0% vs 56.8%, respectively; P = .015) in the differentiation of benign from malignant masses. Breast thickness at the location of the lesion was the most important factor influencing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yamnaja


    Full Text Available The National Technical Committee on standardization “Quality Control” has proposed a mechanism for evaluation of quality management system efficiency while applying experts’ appraisal by points – ТК РБ 4.2-МР-16–2002 which has a number of disadvantages and which is complicated for being used at enterprises. A methodology for evaluation of quality management system efficiency has been developed on the basis of a qualimetric approach to the formation of an experts’ group, working out of estimation scales and their realization, ТК РБ 4.2-МР-16–2002 propositions. The methodology has been put to evaluation test at the enterprise which is dealing with manufacturing and repair of railway products and can be applied at mechanical engineering and other enterprises

  15. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines]. (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang


    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  16. Evaluating Frequency Quality of Nordic System using PMU data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael


    This paper focuses on analysing frequency quality of Nordic power system using measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). The PMU data of one year long period is used which has very high time resolution (20 ms per sample) and is able to provide detailed information in evaluating frequency...... quality and its correlation with time. The results show that the frequency quality of the Nordic power system is not satisfactory according to the suggested requirements. The electricity market operation is found to be one of the major reasons behind. Based on the results, discussion of frequency control...

  17. [The Italian instrument evaluating the nursing students clinical learning quality]. (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Grassetti, Luca; Mansutti, Irene; Destrebecq, Anne; Terzoni, Stefano; Altini, Pietro; Bevilacqua, Anita; Brugnolli, Anna; Benaglio, Carla; Dal Ponte, Adriana; De Biasio, Laura; Dimonte, Valerio; Gambacorti, Benedetta; Fasci, Adriana; Grosso, Silvia; Mantovan, Franco; Marognolli, Oliva; Montalti, Sandra; Nicotera, Raffaela; Randon, Giulia; Stampfl, Brigitte; Tollini, Morena; Canzan, Federica; Saiani, Luisa; Zannini, Lucia


    . The Clinical Learning Quality Evaluation Index for nursing students. The Italian nursing programs, the need to introduce tools evaluating the quality of the clinical learning as perceived by nursing students. Several tools already exist, however, several limitations suggesting the need to develop a new tool. A national project aimed at developing and validating a new instrument capable of measuring the clinical learning quality as experience by nursing students. A validation study design was undertaken from 2015 to 2016. All nursing national programs (n=43) were invited to participate by including all nursing students attending regularly their clinical learning. The tool developed based upon a) literature, b) validated tools already established among other healthcare professionals, and c) consensus expressed by experts and nursing students, was administered to the eligible students. 9606 nursing in 27 universities (62.8%) participated. The psychometric properties of the new instrument ranged from good to excellent. According to the findings, the tool consists in 22 items and five factors: a) quality of the tutorial strategies, b) learning opportunities; c) safety and nursing care quality; d) self-direct learning; e) quality of the learning environment. The tool is already used. Its systematic adoption may support comparison among settings and across different programs; moreover, the tool may also support in accrediting new settings as well as in measuring the effects of strategies aimed at improving the quality of the clinical learning.

  18. Evaluating the competing effects of lithology and sediment supply on the erosional dynamics of rivers crossing active faults. (United States)

    Whittaker, Alex; Boulton, Sarah; Kent, Emiko; Zondervan, Jesse; Hann, Madeleine; Watkins, Stephen; Bell, Rebecca; Brooke, Sam


    Lithology and sediment supply influence the erosional dynamics of rivers crossing active faults and together these effects govern the style, timescale and means by which landscapes respond to their tectono-climatic boundary conditions. Here, for transient bedrock catchments in the Gediz Graben, Turkey, and the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, for which the timing and rate of active faulting is known, we quantify the relative importance of rock strength and sediment supply on models of fluvial incision. We determine rock type, strength and erodibility using a Schmidt hammer and structural measurements of joint density and size. We evaluate the downstream distribution of channel width and stream power and calculate the extent to which the latter scales with tectonic rates and rock strength. Sediment supply is constrained using estimates of bedrock exposure, transport capacities and erosional fluxes. For the Turkish examples, stream powers in the metamorphic rocks are four times greater than in the Neogene sediment units, indicating a four-fold difference in bedrock erodibility, K, for a two-fold variation in in Schmidt hammer hardness. In the Gulf of Corinth examples, we interpret differences in stream powers near the active faults to represent order of magnitude differences in bedrock erodibility between carbonate and sandstone/conglomerate units. We also observe that in both cases, significant along-strike variation in fault slip rate is not associated with an increase in stream power for the sedimentary rocks and we assess the extent to which this stream power deficit may also represent the effects of sediment-flux-dependent incision.

  19. Quality management framework for evaluating academic libraries in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Odera-Kwach


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the performance measurements used for the evaluation of quality in Kenyan university libraries, with the aim of determining the perceptions of university librarians towards performance measurement. The study established that the majority of the university librarians considered 25 of the 26 performance indicators important. More than 60% of them considered 11 of the 20 performance indicators very important. The study recommends the use of nine performance criteria and 26 indicators for the evaluation of the quality of university libraries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev


    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to present a comparative analysis of the methods and technical means for assessment of the quality and safety of dairy products, particularly yellow cheese by spectral characteristics. As a result of the analysis are established appropriate methods for representation of the spectral characteristics and classification of the researched product. In the development are shown and evaluated the accuracy and performance of the results of studies conducted in the laboratory of the Trakia University, faculty of Technics and technologies with the discussed methods for evaluation the quality of the food product.

  1. Climatic Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Trends in Suspended Sediment Flux in the Upper Euphrates River Basin, Eastern Anatolia (United States)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.


    In recent years, some changes have been experienced in the climate in the region related to the dam constructions and lake formations within the scope of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP). In the study, we presented a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily gauge measurements of river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) from seven sites along Euphrates River for 30 years in average. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall we infer climatic evaluation of peak SSC events.All the data were obtained through time in order to provide to make the link to sediment removal and erosion - especially in the aftermath of agricultural development and dam construction. Moreover, we combine these data with remotely sensed rainfall to elucidate driving mechanisms for peak SSC (≥99th percentile) days and assess their impact on the suspended sediment budget. Preliminary results from the gauge data indicate positive correlations between daily river discharge and daily SSC for all stations , i.e. the higher the river discharge, the higher the sediment concentration. This correlation suggests increasing mobilization of transiently stored sediment along the river as the river discharge increases. However, some days are characterized by extraordinary high SSC values that occasionally range 1-2 orders of magnitude above the seasonal average and therefore exhibit large residuals from the fitted Q-SSC relationship. Our preliminary results indicate that in all stations of the study area, the 90th SSC percentile accounts for more than 55% of the total suspended sediment flux and similarly, the 90th discharge percentile accounts for maximum 50% of the total discharge flux. Besides, we defined rainstorms as days during which rainfall exceeds the 99th percentile of all days with rainfall ≥.1 mm/day during the last 15-yr rainfall data set and within each station. We also defined peak SSC days as

  2. Evaluation of water and sediment of Graminha and Aguas da Serra stream in Limeira (SP) by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazza, Elizete Vieira; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails:;


    Limeira city is located in the Sao Paulo State, in the second area of the State with the largest economic and demographic growth. It possesses expressive economy, with industries in several productive sections. As the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams present its nascent ones in the urban zone of the Limeira city, they cross part of the rural zone and it unites draining in the Piracicaba River, it is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts related to the environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Once the city have galvanization industries for the jewels, semi-jewels and bijoux production the descriptions and interpretations of the concentrations of heavy metals, in the water and in the sediments, are indicative to elucidate the influence anthropogenic and the loading of these compounds for Piracicaba River. For the metal determination Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples was 0.04 -{mu}g.L{sup -1} and in sediment samples 0.03 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples concentrations higher than permissive values established by CONAMA for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were observed. For sediment samples values higher than reference value quality defined by CETESB was verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb. (author)

  3. Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation. (United States)

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Saloranta, Tuomo; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Breedveld, Gijs D; Linkov, Igor


    Ecological and human risks often drive the selection of remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments. Traditional human and ecological risk assessment (HERA) includes assessing risk for benthic organisms and aquatic fauna associated with exposure to contaminated sediments before and after remediation as well as risk for human exposure but does not consider the environmental footprint associated with implementing remedial alternatives. Assessment of environmental effects over the whole life cycle (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) could complement HERA and help in selecting the most appropriate sediment management alternative. Even though LCA has been developed and applied in multiple environmental management cases, applications to contaminated sediments and marine ecosystems are in general less frequent. This paper implements LCA methodology for the case of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F)-contaminated Grenland fjord in Norway. LCA was applied to investigate the environmental footprint of different active and passive thin-layer capping alternatives as compared to natural recovery. The results showed that capping was preferable to natural recovery when analysis is limited to effects related to the site contamination. Incorporation of impacts related to the use of resources and energy during the implementation of a thin layer cap increase the environmental footprint by over 1 order of magnitude, making capping inferior to the natural recovery alternative. Use of biomass-derived activated carbon, where carbon dioxide is sequestered during the production process, reduces the overall environmental impact to that of natural recovery. The results from this study show that LCA may be a valuable tool for assessing the environmental footprint of sediment remediation projects and for sustainable sediment management.

  4. Ginger--chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1. (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S


    Ginger is used in more ways than any other spice. This monograph, published in two parts, comprehensively reviews production, trade, processing, chemistry, and evaluation of quality. Botany, world varieties, agronomy, crop improvement and potential are reviewed briefly with emphasis on the yield of functional components. Processing for the market, international trade patterns, and factors influencing them are discussed. Derived products such as ginger powder, syruped ginger, volatile oil, and oleoresin are discussed in greater detail. The increasing world demand for quality products of added value such as the oleoresin and volatile oil show prospects for their production in the growing countries. The chemistry of the components which contribute aroma and pungency that characterize ginger is critically reviewed. The second part deals with evaluation of quality. The physico-chemical parameters prescribed as a measure of quality for ginger and its products in the existing standards can assure only hygienic quality and purity, and possibly the source, when new parameters such as GC-fingerprints are included. The importance of sensorily evaluating flavor quality is emphasized to understand the variation in flavor quality required by the industrial and retail markets. Related areas, such as problems in sensory evaluation of intense flavored substances, objective flavor profile analysis, and correlation of instrumental and sensory data, are discussed and our recent work in this area is summarized. Areas where more research are needed are indicated. Other areas briefly discussed are functional, physiological, and toxicological properties in use of ginger; biosynthetic aspects of the components stimulating flavor; and structure and pungency and chemistry of spices from allied species and genera. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid in further study and research.

  5. Ginger-chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 2. (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S


    Ginger is used in more ways than any other spice. This monograph, published in two parts, comprehensively reviews production, trade, processing, chemistry, and evaluation of quality. Botany, world varieties, agronomy, crop improvement, and potential are reviewed briefly with emphasis on the yield of functional components. Processing for the market, international trade patterns and factors influencing them are discussed. Derived products such as ginger powder, syruped ginger, volatile oil, and oleoresin are discussed in greater detail. The increasing world demand for quality products of added value such as the oleoresin and volatile oil show the prospects for their production in the growing countries. The chemistry of the components which contribute aroma and pungency that characterize ginger is critically reviewed. The second part deals with evaluation of quality. The physicochemical parameters prescribed as a measure of quality for ginger and its products in the existing standards, can assure only hygienic quality and purity, and possibly the source, when new parameters such as GC-finger prints are included. The importance of sensorily evaluating flavor quality is emphasized to understand the variation in flavor quality required by the industrial and retail markets. Related areas, such as problems in sensory evaluation of intense flavored substances, objective flavor profile analysis, correlation of instrumental and sensory data are discussed, and our recent work in this area is summarized. Areas where more research is needed are indicated. Other areas briefly discussed are functional, physiological, and toxicological properties in use of ginger; biosynthetic aspects of components stimulating flavor; structure and pungency and chemistry of spices from allied species and genera. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid in further study and research.

  6. A semi-automated tool for treatment plan-quality evaluation and clinical trial quality assurance (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Chen, Wenzhou; Studenski, Matthew; Cui, Yunfeng; Lee, Andrew J.; Xiao, Ying


    The goal of this work is to develop a plan-quality evaluation program for clinical routine and multi-institutional clinical trials so that the overall evaluation efficiency is improved. In multi-institutional clinical trials evaluating the plan quality is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. In this note, we present a semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program which combines MIMVista, Java/MATLAB, and extensible markup language (XML). More specifically, MIMVista is used for data visualization; Java and its powerful function library are implemented for calculating dosimetry parameters; and to improve the clarity of the index definitions, XML is applied. The accuracy and the efficiency of the program were evaluated by comparing the results of the program with the manually recorded results in two RTOG trials. A slight difference of about 0.2% in volume or 0.6 Gy in dose between the semi-automated program and manual recording was observed. According to the criteria of indices, there are minimal differences between the two methods. The evaluation time is reduced from 10-20 min to 2 min by applying the semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program.

  7. Evaluation of mammographic image quality: pilot study comparing five methods. (United States)

    Caldwell, C B; Fishell, E K; Jong, R A; Weiser, W J; Yaffe, M J


    A radiograph is considered of high quality when it allows a radiologist to identify abnormalities with high sensitivity and specificity. Although many methods for assessing image quality have been devised, it is not clear which is most meaningful or how well these methods correlate with one another. A pilot study was undertaken to compare five methods of evaluating mammographic image quality. Each of the methods was used to form separate rankings of 11 mammographic system configurations. In two of the methods, observers (three radiologists and three physicists) subjectively ranked the "image quality" of radiographs of phantoms obtained with each configuration. The third method ranked the systems according to contrast as measured densitometrically with an aluminum step wedge, and the fourth, in terms of lowest to highest mean glandular radiation doses to the breast. In the final method, observers based their rankings on mammograms of patients. The intra- and interobserver variabilities of each ranking method were assessed, as well as the correlations between methods, by using standard nonparametric statistical tests. Intraobserver consistency was high with any of the image quality ranking methods; however, image quality rankings based on either of the two phantoms provided better agreement among observers than did rankings based on images of patients. Surprisingly, no significant degree of correlation was found between any two image quality evaluation methods. Our work may have two implications for the American College of Radiology Mammography Accreditation Program: (1) small variations in phantom scores do not necessarily correlate with subjective variation in image quality in radiographs of patients, and (2) when small numbers of radiographs are used, the assessment of the quality of mammograms of patients may vary considerably among radiologists.

  8. [Pollution and Potential Ecology Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in River Water, Top Sediments on Bed and Soils Along Banks of Bortala River, Northwest China]. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-yong; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Jiang, Feng-qing


    This paper focuses on the sources, pollution status and potential ecology risks of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in the surface water, top sediment of river bed and soil along banks of Bortala River, which locates in the oasis region of Xinjiang, northwest China. Results showed that: (1) As a whole, contents of 7 tested heavy metals of Bortala River were low, while the maximum values of Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr in the river water were significantly higher than those of Secondary Category of the Surface Water Quality Standards of People's Republic of China (GB 3838-2002) and Drinking Water Guideline from WHO. Analysis showed that the heavy metals contents of top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks were significantly higher than those of the river water. (Correlation analysis and enrichment factor (EF) calculation showed that in the river water, top sediment on river bed and soils along river banks, Hg, Cd, Pb, and Cr mainly originated from industrial emissions, urban and rural anthropogenic activities, transportation and agricultural production activities; While Cu, Zn, and As mainly originated from natural geological background and soil parent materials. (3) Pollution assessment showed that in three matrices, the single factor pollution index(Pi) and the integrated pollution index (Pz) of 7 heavy metals were all lower than 1, and they all belonged to safe and clean levels. (4) Potential ecology risk evaluation showed that as a whole the single factor potential ecological risk (Eir) and the integrated potential ecology risks (RI) of 7 heavy metals were relatively low, and would not cause threats to the health of water and soil environment of river basin, while the potential ecology risks of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr were significantly higher than those of other heavy metals.

  9. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure. (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo


    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Analysis of available information on nutrients and suspended sediment, 1974-91 (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Trinity River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. During the planning phase of this study, existing information on nutrients and suspended sediment was compiled and analyzed. A total of about 5,700 water-quality samples were analyzed from local, State, and Federal agencies. Of these, about 4,200 were from streams and about 1,500 were from wells. Additionally, atmospheric deposition data for two locations were obtained and analyzed.

  11. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J. [and others


    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough`s Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 214}Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected.

  12. PAH occurrence in chalk river systems from the Jura region (France). Pertinence of suspended particulate matter and sediment as matrices for river quality monitoring. (United States)

    Chiffre, Axelle; Degiorgi, François; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Bolard, Audrey; Chanez, Etienne; Badot, Pierre-Marie


    This study investigates the variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment upstream and downstream of the discharges of two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Relationships between the levels of PAHs in these different matrices were also investigated. The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 73.5 to 728.0 ng L(-1) in surface water and from 85.4 to 313.1 ng L(-1) in effluent. In SPM and sediment, ∑16PAHs ranged from 749.6 to 2,463 μg kg(-1) and from 690.7 μg kg(-1) to 3,625.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. Investigations performed upstream and downstream of both studied WWTPs showed that WWTP discharges may contribute to the overall PAH contaminations in the Loue and the Doubs rivers. Comparison between gammarid populations upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge showed that biota was impacted by the WWTP effluents. When based only on surface water samples, the assessment of freshwater quality did not provide evidence for a marked PAH contamination in either of the rivers studied. However, using SPM and sediment samples, we found PAH contents exceeding sediment quality guidelines. We conclude that sediment and SPM are relevant matrices to assess overall PAH contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a positive linear correlation between PAH contents of SPM and sediment, showing that SPM represents an integrating matrix which is able to provide meaningful data about the overall contamination over a given time span.

  13. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.


    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabell Pulido Caraballé


    Full Text Available The characterization of the dredging sediments is essential for environmental license, control and planning in dredging harbors. Sediment pollution was study in two harbor areas of the Cienfuegos Bay. Dredging sediments from “Camilo Cienfuegos” Refinery port and from area IX of Cienfuegos harbor were characterized. In order to evaluate dredging sediment quality, an analysis of water content, grain size, organic matter and trace metals was done. The results show that the trace elements in the sediments are at natural levels. Due to the absent of Cuban rules for these topics, international criteria for sampling, analysis and sediment quality evaluation were used in the study. Results show that these levels can be considered as typical for harbor areas in which authorization for dredging activities in docks and navigation channel should be granted. The results and methodologies will be applied in others Cuban harbors and navigation channel during the environmental license of dredging sediments.

  15. Imposex and surface sediment speciation: a combined approach to evaluate organotin contamination in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    Fernandez, M A; de Luca Rebello Wagener, A; Limaverde, A M; Scofield, A L; Pinheiro, F M; Rodrigues, E


    An integrated biological-chemical survey of organotin compounds was carried out in Guanabara Bay, the second most important Brazilian harbor complex. The biological survey revealed high levels of imposex in Stramonita haemastoma populations. Inside the bay values of relative penis length index from 42.7 to 107.6 and vas deferens sequence index from III to VI were found, while organisms collected outside the bay had values ranging from imposex was found in all stations. Surface sediments in the bay are contaminated by tributyltin (10-522 ng/g d.w.) and triphenyltin (imposex-sediment approach to evaluate organotin contamination in marine environments of South America, and also the first report of TPT detection in environmental matrices in this region.

  16. [Pain and quality of life. Evaluation of oral health]. (United States)

    Campian, R S; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Băciuţ, G; Hurubeanu, Lucia; Lucaciu, Ondine; Balog, Cristiana; Bran, S; Dinu, H; Rotaru, H; Crişan, B


    Life quality has a major importance in the actual social context. The evaluation af the pain sensation as a stress major factor is difficult regarding the variety of the methods, their relevance and their compliance. We've made an evaluation concerning the trigeminal essential neuralgia pain using different tipe of parameters. The results obtained proved a scientific and clinical value of the method that we've initiated and applied in these research.

  17. [Implementation and evaluation of quality circles in general practice]. (United States)

    Tausch, B; Härter, M; Niebling, W; Dieter, G; Berger, M


    In the beginning of 1993, society of panel doctors Südbaden, Germany, has constituted a group of experts from the Department of General Medicine of the university hospital and practising general practitioners (GPs) to develop an organisational and conceptional framework for setting up quality circles. At present, 23 quality circles with 6-12 participants are holding regular meetings every 4 to 8 weeks in the region of Südbaden. The group members, who are all physicians working in primary health care, are selecting and discussion topics which are important in general practice. In order to facilitate the discussions, the research group has developed predefined guidelines covering a wide range of common and important conditions in general practice (Hypertension, sleeping disorders, diabetes mellitus, COPD, dementia, lower back pain, cardio-vascular disease, depression, headache, vertigo etc). In presenting these structurized guidelines, the moderator prompts and encourage the group members to identify common problems in their own practices. The use of these guidelines in, quality circles and research may provide a starting point for developing consensus guidelines. The quality circle projects is given as systematic evaluation for both participants and moderators at different levels. Main objectives of the assessment are the recruitment, motivation and the specific goals of general practitioners to participate in quality circles. Currently, we are evaluating the development of quality circle for a period of 18 months.

  18. Module-based quality system functionality evaluation in production logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabbazi, M.R.; Wikander, J.; Onori, M.; Maffei, A.; Chen, D.


    This paper addresses a comprehensive modeling and functionality evaluation of a module-based quality system in production logistics at the highest domain abstract level of business processes. All domain quality business processes and quality data transactions are modeled using BPMN and UML tools and standards at the business process and data modeling. A modular web-based prototype is developed to evaluate the models addressing the quality information system functionality requirements and modularity in production logistics through data scenarios and data queries. Using the object-oriented technique in design at the highest domain level, the proposed models are subject further development in the lower levels for the implementing case. The models are specifically able to manipulate all quality operations including remedy and control in a lot-based make-to-order production logistics system as an individual module. Due to the specification of system as domain design structure, all proposed BPMs, data models, and the actual database prototype are seen referential if not a solution as a practical “to-be” quality business process re-engineering template. This paper sets out to provide an explanatory approach using different practical technique at modeling steps as well as the prototype implementation. (Author)

  19. [Care quality in intensive care evaluated by the patients using a service quality scale (SERVQUAL)]. (United States)

    Regaira Martínez, E; Sola Iriarte, M; Goñi Viguria, R; Del Barrio Linares, M; Margall Coscojuela, M A; Asiain Erro, M C


    The evaluation made by the patients on the quality of service received is important to introduce improvement strategies in the care quality. 1. To evaluate the care quality through the analysis of the differences obtained between expectations and perceptions, that the patients have of the service received in the ICU. 2. To analyze if there is any relationship between care quality evaluated by the patients and the sociodemographic variables. A total of 86 patients who were conscious and oriented during their stay in the ICU were studied prospectively. At 24h of the discharge from the ICU, the SERVQUAL (Service Quality) scale, adapted for the hospital setting by Babakus and Mangold (1992), was applied. This scale measures the care quality based on the difference in scores obtained between expectations and perceptions of the patients. The positive scores indicate that the perceptions of the patients exceed their expectations. The scale has 5 dimensions: Tangibility, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurances and Empathy. It includes 15 items for perceptions and the same for expectations, with 5 grades of response (1 totally disagree - 5 totally agree). The mean score of perceptions 66.92) exceeded that of the expectations (62.30). The mean score of the difference between perceptions and expectations for the total of the SERVQUAL scale was 4.62. It was also positive for each one of the dimensions: Tangibility=1.44, Reliability=0.53, Responsiveness=0.95, Assurances=0.99, Empathy=0.71. No statistically significant associations were found between care quality evaluated by the patients and the sociodemographic variables. The care quality perceived by the patients in the ICU exceeds their expectations, and had no relationship with the sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  20. On the complex non-linear interaction between bacteria and redox dynamics in sediments and its effects on water quality (United States)

    Sanchez-Vila, X.; Rubol, S.; Fernandez-Garcia, D.


    Despite the fact that the prognoses on the availability of resources related to different climate scenarios have been already formulated, the complex hydrological and biogeochemical reactions taking place in different compartments in natural environmental media are poorly understood, especially regarding the interactions between water bodies, and the reactions taking place at soil-water interfaces. Amongst them, the inter-relationship between hydrology, chemistry and biology has important implications in natural (rivers, lakes) and man-made water facilities (lagoons, artificial recharge pounds, reservoirs, slow infiltration systems, etc). The consequences involve environment, economic, social and health-risk aspects. At the current stage, only limited explanations are available to understand the implications of these relationships on ecosystem services, water quality and water quantity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to seek a full understanding of these physical-biogeochemical processes in water-bodies, sediments and biota and its implications in ecological and health risk. We present a soil column experiment and a mathematical model which aim to study the mutual interplay between water and bacteria activity in porous media, the corresponding dynamics and the feedback on nutrient cycling by using a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Singing power ratio: quantitative evaluation of singing voice quality. (United States)

    Omori, K; Kacker, A; Carroll, L M; Riley, W D; Blaugrund, S M


    This paper presents a parameter for objectively evaluating singing voice quality. Power spectrum of vowel sound /a/ was analyzed by Fast Fourier Transform. The greatest harmonics peak between 2 and 4 kHz and the greatest harmonics peak between 0 and 2 kHz were identified. Power ratio of these peaks, termed singing power ratio (SPR), was calculated in 37 singers and 20 nonsingers. SPR of sung /a/ in singers was significantly greater than in nonsingers. In singers, SPR of sung /a/ was significantly greater than that of spoken /a/. By digital signal processing, power spectrum of sung /a/ was varied, and the processed sounds were perceptually analyzed. SPR had a significant relationship with perceptual scores of "ringing" quality. SPR provides an important quantitative measurement for evaluating singing voice quality for all voice types, including soprano.

  2. [Evaluation of direct digital radiography image quality in dentistry]. (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qiong; Huang, Wen; Qin, Yan-Ling; Qin, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Yi-Fang; Tu, Xiao-Ning; Chang, Xiao-Jie


    To evaluate the quality of direct digital radiograph according to its application in dentistry. 1195 patients with dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical diseases, trauma of teeth or hypodontia were tested with Trophy elitys Radio Visio Graphy(RVG) and the quality of the tests was evaluated at four levels. It was convenient to operate RVG and easy to save the images, which reduced the amount of X-rays. 1587 pictures were taken, among which 92.3% was at level I, 6.3% was at level II,1.14% was at level III and level IV. The quality of the images at different positions is good, which can meet the requirement for clinical diagnosis. However, the radiography receptor should be improved for better images.

  3. Implementation of chemometrics in quality evaluation of food and beverages. (United States)

    Efenberger-Szmechtyk, Magdalena; Nowak, Agnieszka; Kregiel, Dorota


    Conventional methods for food quality evaluation based on chemical or microbiological analysis followed by traditional univariate statistics such as ANOVA are considered insufficient for some purposes. More sophisticated instrumental methods including spectroscopy and chromatography, in combination with multivariate analysis-chemometrics, can be used to determine food authenticity, identify adulterations or mislabeling and determine food safety. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge on the use of chemometric tools for evaluating quality of food products of animal and plant origin and beverages. The article describes applications of several multivariate techniques in food and beverages research, showing their role in adulteration detection, authentication, quality control, differentiation of samples and comparing their classification and prediction ability.

  4. Evaluating the Effect of Software Quality Characteristics on Health Care Quality Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Aghazadeh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Various types of software are used in health care organizations to manage information and care processes. The quality of software has been an important concern for both health authorities and designers of Health Information Technology. Thus, assessing the effect of software quality on the performance quality of healthcare institutions is essential. Method: The most important health care quality indicators in relation to software quality characteristics are provided via an already performed literature review. ISO 9126 standard model is used for definition and integration of various characteristics of software quality. The effects of software quality characteristics and sub-characteristics on the healthcare indicators are evaluated through expert opinion analyses. A questionnaire comprising of 126 questions of 10-point Likert scale was used to gather opinions of experts in the field of Medical/Health Informatics. The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Results: Our findings showed that software Maintainability was rated as the most effective factor on user satisfaction (R2 =0.89 and Functionality as the most important and independent variable affecting patient care quality (R2 =0.98. Efficiency was considered as the most effective factor on workflow (R2 =0.97, and Maintainability as the most important factor that affects healthcare communication (R2 =0.95. Usability and Efficiency were rated as the most effectual factor affecting patient satisfaction (R2 =0.80, 0.81. Reliability, Maintainability, and Efficiency were considered as the main factors affecting care costs (R2 =0.87, 0.74, 0.87. Conclusion: We presented a new model based on ISO standards. The model demonstrates and weighs the relations between software quality characteristics and healthcare quality indicators. The clear relationships between variables and the type of the metrics and measurement methods used in the model make it a reliable method to assess

  5. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolach Bartosz


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their lives. Conclusions: 1. Study aspects of perception of quality of life is a complex issue, but deserves proper attention and appropriate force to study it. 2. Athletes - Disabled involved both individual and team sports, the perception of quality of life is average.

  6. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bolach


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their lives. Conclusions: 1. Study aspects of perception of quality of life is a complex issue, but deserves proper attention and appropriate force to study it. 2. Athletes - Disabled involved both individual and team sports, the perception of quality of life is average.

  7. The tempering quality evaluation of cocoa liquor during industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tempering quality evaluation of the crude cocoa liquor with average fat content 55.0 ± 0.3 % and an average acid value, 1.57 ± 0.34) has been established. The various parameters considered were recasting time (RT) and appearance (AP) of the tempered product on one hand and the flow (F) of the crude liquor on ...

  8. Evaluation of surface quality by Fractal Dimension and Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims, the evaluation of the surface quality by the fractal dimension "D" and volume settings (Vmp, Vmc, Vvv). Experimental work was conducted by process of surface mechanical treatment; in this case ball burnishing was applied on a commercial aluminum alloy material. Three parameters of regime were ...

  9. Evaluating the quality characteristics of kunun produced from dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunun is a traditional beverage in Nigeria produced by wet milling from sorghum, maize or millet. This work evaluates kunun produced from dry-milled sorghum flour. The sorghum was dehulled, milled and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was steeped for 24 h and mixed with spices to produce kunun and the quality of the ...

  10. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples | Steiner-Asiedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was ...

  11. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 13, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in cold chain. Wang Tingman1,2, Zhang Jian2,3 and Zhang Xiaoshuan1,2*. 1College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, 100083, Beijing, China. 2Key Laboratory for Modern ...

  12. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia dysenterica DC.) coated with chitosan and associated with refrigeration. ... The color of cagaita fruits confirmed ripening during storage regardless of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the film solution did not adhere, as desired, to the cell ...

  13. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 6, 2009 ... The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control.

  14. Quality and safety evaluation of a Ghanaian polyherbal product EAF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dickson et al.: Polyherbal product EAF-2011 and superficial mycoses. Int J Med Biomed Res 2013;2(2):91-102. 92. The evaluation of the quality of medicinal products is very essential as they are affected by factors that include seasonal changes, harvesting time, cultivation sites, post-harvesting processing, adulterants or.

  15. evaluation of the microbiological quality of tchapalo process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOL BI

    Tchapalo and sweet wort are two traditional beverages made from cereals and prized by the population. However, their processing takes place most often in deplorable hygienic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of tchapalo process products to establish microbiological criteria for ...

  16. Evaluating Service Quality in Universities: A Service Department Perspective (United States)

    Smith, Gareth; Smith, Alison; Clarke, Alison


    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to report on an in-depth exploration of service quality in an Information Technology service department in a Higher Education Institute (HEI) and to evaluate the instrument used. Design/methodology/approach: The study surveys customers using the SERVQUAL instrument, which is one of the most widely used and…

  17. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  18. Production and Quality Evaluation of Candies from Date Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production and quality evaluation of candies produced from blends of date nuts (Phoenix dactylifera) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea) pastes was studied. The samples were analyzed for proximate, vitamin, physicochemical and sensory properties using standard methods. Results showed that, there were significant ...

  19. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  20. Quality evaluation of some branded and unbranded ice cream sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality evaluation of some branded and unbranded ice cream sold in Imo State, Nigeria. TE Ogbulie, SUN Anune. Abstract. No Abstract. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems Vol. 2 (1) 2008: pp. 83-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  1. Quality Evaluation of Maize Chips ( Kokoro ) Fortified with Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality evaluation of “kokoro” fortified with cowpea flour (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 %) was studied. The blends were reconstituted into a thick paste, manually moulded into kokoro stick and deep fried in hot vegetable oil at about 1700C for 5 minutes. These flour blends were analyzed for pasting, proximate and functional ...

  2. Evaluation of the Quality of Fixed Dose Combination Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Quality of Fixed Dose Combination Anti Tuberculosis Drugs in Public and Private Health Institutions in Lusaka District. ... Almost all areas of the world are affected by the availability of substandard and counterfeit medicines, but mounting evidence shows that the problem is disproportionately severe in ...

  3. Evaluation of microbial quality of selected blister-packed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of blister-packed paracetamol tablet and twenty brands of paracetamol syrup marketed in Nigeria were evaluated for their microbial quality. While no microbial contaminant was isolated from all blistered-packed paracetamol tablets, ten of syrups were contaminated with organisms such as Escherichia coli, ...

  4. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Improving Teaching Quality in Higher Education (United States)

    Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina J.; Ammons, Gracie; Chambers, Sheridan


    Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are widely used in both North America and the UK as a means of documenting and improving teaching quality. This article discusses current research on SET administration and interpretation in both regions. Sections of the article are dedicated to various problems associated with SETs and how these may be…

  5. Evaluation of Nutritional Quality and Haematological Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Nutritional Quality and Haematological Parameters of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Lam Leaves in the Diet of African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ). ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  6. Quality evaluation of some commercial baker's yeasts in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven different brands of commercial baker's yeast commonly found in Nigerian markets were evaluated for their acidity, viability and leavening activity. The baking and staling qualities of bread produced using the yeasts were also determined. Acidity and viability of yeast cells in the samples ranged from 2.09 to 2.78 and ...

  7. An evaluation of the subjective categorization of hair quality pelt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the subjective categorization of hair quality pelt traits in Karakul lambs. S.J. Schoeman* and Jaenette R. Albertyn 1. Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. In an investigationof the subjectivecategorizationof pelt traits in Karakul lambs it was ...

  8. Evaluating Quality in Associate Degree Culinary Arts Programs (United States)

    Hertzman, Jean; Ackerman, Robert


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine which categories and indicators of quality are best suited to evaluating associate degree culinary arts programs (ADCAP). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers surveyed a national sample of culinary educators and industry chefs in the USA. The instrument asked the participants to rate the…

  9. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  10. Evaluation of Pharmaceutical and Microbial Qualities of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The pharmaceutical qualities evaluated include tablet crushing strength, friability, disintegration time; density of the solutions and suspensions; particle size and angle of repose of the powders. Phytochemical tests were carried out to assess the class of compounds present in the formulations and the microbial ...

  11. Chemical evaluation of protein quality and phenolic compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work studies the chemical evaluation of protein quality and phenolic compound contents of some Cucurbitaceae (egusi) oilseeds from different areas in Cameroon. These seeds are Cucumeropsis mannii, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata, Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis sativus. The seeds were cleaned, dried, ...

  12. Evaluation of Technological Quality of Meat Produced from Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technological quality of raw meat from Nsukka local abattoir was evaluated by analyzing the proximate composition, water holding capacity, pH, Napole yield and sensory colour and texture of longissimus dorsi [LD] and psoas major [PM] of beef and pork. Results show that moisture [71.36 – 72.76%], protein [21.37 ...

  13. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  14. Quality evaluation of cortex berberidis from different geographical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an effective method for evaluating the quality of Cortex berberidis from different geographical origins. Methods: A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was first developed for simultaneous quantification of four active alkaloids (magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine ...

  15. 4. Evaluation of the quality of fixed dose combination anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (1/7) of the 2FDC samples were none compliant to the BP 2008 specification for percentage content. One sample of 4FDC had a percentage content of. Evaluation of the Quality of Fixed Dose Combination. Anti Tuberculosis Drugs in Public and Private Health. Institutions in Lusaka District. W Mweemba. University of Zambia ...

  16. Quality evaluation of yogurts produced commercially In Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yogurt of the natural-stirred and pineapple-stirred varieties manufactured commercially in Lagos, Nigeria were analyzed to evaluate the nutritional quality of the fresh and stored product. The carbohydrate and protein contents were higher in the pineapple than in natural yogurt with an average percent content of 12.7 and ...

  17. Motives, barriers and quality evaluation in fish consumption situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim; Olsen, Svein Ottar


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate motives and barriers for eating fish among light users and heavy users, to discuss consumer evaluation of fish quality, and to explore the existence of cross-cultural fish consumer  segments. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were...

  18. Health-educator performance evaluation for quality teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of health educator performance evaluation procedures using the Integrated Quality Management System. This quantitative study used questionnaires to collect data from three hundred and thirty eight respondents selected through a convenient sampling procedure.

  19. Evaluation of ship-based sediment flux measurements by ADCPs in tidal flows (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Grünler, Steffen; Winter, Christian


    In the past decades acoustic backscatter calibration developed into a frequently applied technique to measure fluxes of suspended sediments in rivers and estuaries. Data is mainly acquired using single-frequency profiling devices, such as ADCPs. In this case, variations of acoustic particle properties may have a significant impact on the calibration with respect to suspended sediment concentration, but associated effects are rarely considered. Further challenges regarding flux determination arise from incomplete vertical and lateral coverage of the cross-section, and the small ratio of the residual transport to the tidal transport, depending on the tidal prism. We analyzed four sets of 13h cross-sectional ADCP data, collected at different locations in the range of the turbidity zone of the Weser estuary, North Sea, Germany. Vertical LISST, OBS and CTD measurements were taken very hour. During the calibration sediment absorption was taken into account. First, acoustic properties were estimated using LISST particle size distributions. Due to the tidal excursion and displacement of the turbidity zone, acoustic properties of particles changed during the tidal cycle, at all locations. Applying empirical functions, the lowest backscattering cross-section and highest sediment absorption coefficient were found in the center of the turbidity zone. Outside the tidally averaged location of the turbidity zone, changes of acoustic parameters were caused mainly by advection. In the turbidity zone, these properties were also affected by settling and entrainment, inducing vertical differences and systematic errors in concentration. In general, due to the iterative correction of sediment absorption along the acoustic path, local errors in concentration propagate and amplify exponentially. Based on reference concentration obtained from water samples and OBS data, we quantified these errors and their effect on cross-sectional averaged concentration and sediment flux. We found that

  20. Current status of quality evaluation of nursing care through director review and reflection from the Nursing Quality Control Centers. (United States)

    Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan


    The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). This qualitative study used a sample of 12 directors from NQCCs who were recruited from 12 provinces in China to evaluate the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Four themes emerged from the data: 1) lag of evaluation index; 2) limitations of evaluation content; 3) simplicity of evaluation method; 4) excessive emphasis on terminal quality. It is of great realistic significance to ameliorate nursing quality evaluation criteria, modify the evaluation content based on patient needs-oriented idea, adopt scientific evaluation method to evaluate nursing quality, and scientifically and reasonably draw horizontal comparisons of nursing quality between hospitals, as well as longitudinal comparisons of a hospital's nursing quality. These methods mentioned above can all enhance a hospital's core competitiveness and benefit more patients.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzadeh


    Full Text Available Reconditioning of the power generating unit worn equipment and devices is conducted during the scheduled repair period. Quality of wear reconditioning is evaluated by technical state and repair work implementation. Quality of the repair work execution characterizes logistical activities of the power station and the repair services and is rated by a five-grade scale. There are three technical conditions: adequate, subject to reservations, falling short of the technical standard documentation requirements. In practical work these constraints give place to essential ambiguity of the decision. Further to regulating techniques by way of informational support, the authors propose conducting the wear-reconditioning quality evaluation (repair quality accordingly the technical-and-economic indexes pattern of change. The paper recommends applying similarly the fivegrade system in evaluating the power generating unit technical state and distinguishes intolerable, dissatisfactory, fair, good and model estimates. The study demonstrates the assessment criteria dependence on the character of reliability and economical efficiency of performance variation after the repair with increase or decrease of the technical-and-economic indexes in reference to their mean, minimum and maximum values before the repair. The cases ascribed to intolerable quality of the wear reconditioning are those with one or more technical-and-economic indexes that not only failed to improve their values but deteriorated, and at that they became the worst amongst observable values. The model quality estimate of the wear reconditioning is allotted under condition that the power unit technical-and-economic index valuations after the repair not merely improved but also exceeded the best among those under observation. The developed method and algorithm for quality evaluation of the scheduled repair implementation contribute to practical realization of the independent monitoring. This monitoring

  2. Effects of flow modification on a cattail wetland at the mouth of Irondequoit Creek near Rochester, New York: Water levels, wetland biota, sediment, and water quality (United States)

    Coon, William F.


    , nor from the short-duration increases in water levels that result from FCS operation. Fish surveys documented the use of the wetland by 44 species, of which 25 to 29 species were found in any given year. Community composition was relatively consistent during the study, but seasonal and year-to-year variations in dominant resident and nonresident species were noted, and probably reflected natural or regional population patterns in Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay. The FCS allowed fish passage at all water levels and had no discernible adverse effect on the fish community.Bird surveys documented the use of the wetland by more than 90 species for breeding, feeding, and migration. Ground-nesting birds were unaffected by the FCS. Seasonally high water levels, rather than short-duration increases caused by the FCS, might have caused the scarcity or absence of certain wetland species by limiting the extent of breeding habitat for some species and the exposure of mud flats that attracted other species. Some noticeably scarce or absent species also were rare or absent elsewhere along the south-central shore of Lake Ontario.Benthic-macroinvertebrate studies were of minimal use for evaluating the effect of the FCS because no surveys were conducted after FCS installation. The precontrol results allowed assessment of the ecological quality of the wetland on the basis of biotic indices, and generally indicated moderately to severely impaired conditions. Differences between the macroinvertebrate communities in the southern part of the wetland and those in the northern part were attributed to habitat differences, such as substrate composition, water depth, and density of submerged aquatic vegetation.Sedimentation rates in the areas upstream and downstream from the FCS increased after the flow modifications, more in the area upstream from the FCS than in the downstream area. The concurrent downstream increase and the dynamic patterns of deposition and scour indicated that although the

  3. Evaluating an ecosystem management approach for improving water quality in two contrasting study catchments in south-west England. (United States)

    Glendell, Miriam; Brazier, Richard


    detection of catchment-scale effects of mitigation measures typically requires high resolution, resource-intensive, long term data sets, we found that simple approaches can be effective in bridging the gap between fine-scale ecosystem functioning and catchment-scale processes. Here, the new macro-invertebrate bio-monitoring index PSI (Proportion of Sediment-sensitive Invertebrates) has been shown to be more closely related to a physical measure of sedimentation (% fine bed sediment cover) (P = 0.002) than existing non-pressure specific macro-invertebrate metrics such as the Lotic Index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE) and % Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera & Trichoptera abundance (% EPT abundance) (P = 0.014)(Glendell et al., 2014a). Thus PSI and % fine bed sediment cover have the potential to become a sensitive tool for the setting and monitoring of twin sedimentation targets to inform the delivery of WFD objectives. Finally, whilst upland ditch management has not had any discernible effect on water quality in the semi-natural upland catchment one year after restoration, future monitoring will evaluate the effectiveness of the recent and soon to be implemented land management changes on delivering water quality improvements in the lowland agricultural catchment. GLENDELL, M. & BRAZIER, R. E. (in review) Accelerated export of sediment and carbon from a landscape under intensive agriculture. Science of the Total Environment. GLENDELL, M., EXTENCE, C. A., CHADD, R. P. & BRAZIER, R. E. (2014a) Testing the pressure-specific invertebrate index (PSI) as a tool for determining ecologically relevant targets for reducing sedimentation in streams. Freshwater Biology, 59, 353-367. GLENDELL, M., GRANGER, S., BOL, R. & BRAZIER, R. E. (2014b) Quantifying the spatial variability of soil physical and chemical properties in relation to mitigation of diffuse water pollution. Geoderma, 214-215, 25-41.

  4. Data on Sediment Quality and Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls From the Lower Neponset River, Massachsuetts, 2002-03 (United States)


    Reactive sulfides Bottom sediment NETLAB Titrimetry Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Bottom sediment USEPA Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection...Concentration Elements (percent) Calcium 0.36 Magnesium .56 Sodium .37 Potassium .31 Phosphorus .11 Aluminum 1.35 Elements (ppm) Antimony ɝ Arsenic 10 Barium


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin AFRĂSINEI


    Full Text Available Quality management is a management domain very discussed and disputed nowadays and this is the first sign it is a very modern, needed and present concept in theory and practice. Some are seeing it as a solution to prepare things in the way they are needed, and the instrument which might guarantee a proper environment of keeping them in a specified and constant form. The application of quality management is a quality management system that has to be designed, developed and implemented to achieve the aim of quality. The article has the purpose to briefly present what a quality management system should mean in a software company, why it should be periodically evaluated and how it might be done. In the second part it points out the characteristics of the audit as a general evaluation instrument and the main contribution consists on the author’s endeavor to mark out the particularities of an audit process carried out on a software company, considering the fact that particularization increases the changes to easier and earlier succeed with such an activity on a practical basis.

  6. Evaluation of data quality in Japanese National Forest Inventory. (United States)

    Kitahara, Fumiaki; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro


    We evaluated the quality of data being collected for the Japanese National Forest Inventory (NFI). The inventory program commenced in 1999 but has not incorporated a quality assurance (QA) program; we sought to determine what effect this was having on the quality of data being collected. Forty-eight plots in four prefectures were measured by operational field teams and then remeasured by a control team that made careful and unhurried measurements. The paired data were evaluated, including diameter, total height, tree count, species richness, and topographic condition. Compared to the control team, all field teams of each prefecture tended to significantly underestimate all of the continuous variables. Most variables had larger variability in the inventory data than has been reported in the published literature. The findings of consistent bias and large variation in the field team measurements call for urgent implementation of a quality assurance program (extensive field training and regular remeasurement) in the Japanese NFI to improve data quality, and this conclusion could be applied to the inventory system of any country that does not include a QA program.

  7. [Evaluation of quality of life in patients with liver transplant]. (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Federico; Ramírez-González, Luis Ricardo; Reyes-Cruz, Alan Alejandro; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Hernández-Machuca, Joel Sealtiel; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde


    Complications in patients with liver transplant may occur in less than 10 % of cases. These appear in short and/or long term and are due to a vascular or biliary cause, rejection, recurrence of the disease or adverse effects of immunosuppression, among others, which may affect the quality of life. The aim of this article is to evaluate the quality of life in patients with deceased donor liver transplantation through the questionnaire SF-36. A descriptive cross-sectional study. The quality of life of patients with deceased donor liver transplantation was assessed during the period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2012. The variables evaluated were: age, sex, time and main reason for transplantation and quality of life using the short form SF-36 version 1.1 for Mexican population. 37 patients were included. The mean age was 48.7 years. The most frequent cause was cirrhosis (n = 35). The highest average score corresponded to the mental health component, and the lowest score to the physical component. The average time of liver transplantation was 6.73 ± 3.53 years. Liver transplantation is still the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. It can increase the patient's life expectancy and their quality of life, assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. The results were similar to those in other studies in both the physical and mental component.

  8. The 2011 Program Evaluation Standards: a framework for quality in medical education programme evaluations. (United States)

    Ruhe, Valerie; Boudreau, J Donald


    Based on input from 400 stakeholders over 6 years, the 2011 Program Evaluation Standards represents an in-depth analysis of values, meaning and measurement and their relationships in programme evaluation. Evaluation quality is achieved by balancing five attributes: utility, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and evaluation accountability. These attributes are used to organize 30 standards, 200 strategies and 197 hazards. In response to a call from the authors of the standards, we have used them to guide our meta-evaluation of McGill's undergraduate physicianship programme. Our findings show how the standards illuminate the tensions, dilemmas and hazards inherent in all stages of programme evaluation studies and offer helpful strategies for designing and conducting high-quality evaluation studies. Based on our experience, the third edition needs to be used as a reference document in all stages of evaluations of medical education programmes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Integral Criteria for Measuring the Quality of Teacher Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Navickienė


    Full Text Available Purpose—To construct the knowledge evaluation quality integral criteria, which allows to ascertain whether the different teachers properly assess the students’ knowledge. The criteria has been tested setting up the educational experiment and examining the six mathematics lecturers’ assessments.Design/methodology/approach—This research involved the Mykolas Romeris University students of Public Administration degree second year and Management of Organizations degree first year. The test questions for students were designed using the mathematical knowledge assessment information system, which allows for closed-ended mathematical test, to obtain statistical data about test takers, to perform quality analysis of the test; in the middle and the end of the semester.Findings—The construction technique for the evaluation quality criteria of the students’ working results assessment, which were performed by six different lecturers, during practical trainings, seminars, laboratory and other sessions is proposed in this article.Research limitations/implications—The constructed evaluation criteria is universal: it does not depend on the particular subject; it can be applied to several groups, courses or lecturers. It depends on three calculated indicators I, S, K, which show in two ways obtained estimates of the measured information compatibility of degrees, marks matching and correlation terms.Practical implications—The integral criteria has been tested examining the six mathematics lecturers’ assessments.Originality/Value—Constructing the criteria have been used the educational measurement models of authors of this article and other researchers, however its’ connection to general (integral criteria, best of authors’ knowledge, is original and have not be researched before.Keywords: knowledge evaluation, quality of teacher evaluation, evaluation of teachers, mathematical modeling.Research type: research paper.

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Manhattan NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas, are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 674 groundwater and 718 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. The groundwater data indicate that the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs in the western-northwestern part of the quadrangle where waters are produced from the Quaternary loess deposits, and the Cretaceous Greenhorn-Graneros and Dakota Formations. Associated elements in the quadrangle include arsenic, potassium, manganese, vanadium, and selenium. The stream sediment data indicate that the highest average uranium concentrations in sediments from the Manhattan Quadrangle are obtained from the Pennsylvanian Wabaunsee Group followed by the Cretaceous Carlile Shale, Greenhorn-Graneros and Dakota Formations. In the northwestern corner of the quadrangle, high concentrations of uranium are associated with high concentrations of barium, niobium, strontium, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium. In southeast Cloud County and extending to the northeast, high values of total uranium are associated with high values of titanium, yttrium, zirconium, and low U-FL/U-NT values. These associations indicate that the uranium is probably present in heavy and/or resistate minerals.

  11. Toxicity evaluation with the microtox® test to assess the impact of in situ oiled shoreline treatment options: natural attenuation and sediment relocation (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Wohlgeschaffen, Gary; Tremblay, Gilles H.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Sergy, Gary A.; Prince, Roger C.; Guenette, Chantal C.; Owens, Edward H.


    Changes in the toxicity levels of beach sediment, nearshore water, and bottom sediment samples were monitored with the Microtox® Test to evaluate the two in situ oil spill treatment options of natural attenuation (natural recovery––no treatment) and sediment relocation (surf washing). During a series of field trials, IF-30 fuel oil was intentionally sprayed onto the surface of three mixed sediment (pebble and sand) beaches on the island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway (78°56′ N, 16°45′ E). At a low wave-energy site (Site 1 with a 3-km wind fetch), where oil was stranded within the zone of normal wave action, residual oil concentrations and beach sediment toxicity levels were significantly reduced by both options in less than five days. At Site 3, a higher wave-energy site with a 40-km wind fetch, oil was intentionally stranded on the beach face in the upper intertidal/supratidal zones, above the level of normal wave activity. At this site under these experimental conditions, sediment relocation was effective in accelerating the removal of the oil from the sediments and reducing the Microtox® Test toxicity response to background levels. In the untreated (natural attenuation) plot at this site, the fraction of residual oil remaining within the beach sediments after one year (70%) continued to generate a toxic response. Chemical and toxicological analyses of nearshore sediment and sediment-trap samples at both sites confirmed that oil and suspended mineral fines were effectively dispersed into the surrounding environment by the in situ treatments. In terms of secondary potential detrimental effects from the release of stranded oil from the beaches, the toxicity level (Microtox® Test) of adjacent nearshore sediment samples did not exceed the Canadian regulatory limit for dredged spoils destined for ocean disposal.

  12. Assessment of the quality of pharmacoeconomic evaluation literature in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; He, Xu; Xiang, Wei; Li, Shu Chuen


    To evaluate the quality of Chinese pharmacoeconomic-evaluation literature published between 2012-2014 retrieved from the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) in order to assess their adherence to recommendations of the Chinese Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines. Identified literature was screened according to pre-specified criteria to access legibility for inclusion. Each included piece of literature was systematically compared against the recommendations proposed by the relevant Chinese guidelines. After culling, 259 studies were included in the comparative analysis. When compared to a previous study evaluating the quality of similar literature published between 1997-2007, the results showed improvements in certain technical aspects over the years. Particularly, an improvement was observed in more diverse evaluation methods being used, increased use of cost-utility analysis (2.43% in 2012-2014 vs 0.26% in 1997-2007) and use of discounting (45% in 2012-2014 vs 4.35% in 1997- 2007). In addition, a small number of studies were starting to apply modeling. The quality of economic evaluation literature has improved in recent years, with more researchers realizing the importance and necessity of using discounting, sensitivity analysis, and modeling when conducting economic evaluation. This study also highlights certain important areas needing further attention when conducting economic evaluations in China. These include the ICER threshold of economic analysis, more detailed guidance in performing sensitivity analysis and modeling, as well as transferability of cost data across different regions. Overall, the results would support the positive contribution of the Chinese Economic Guideline in promoting economic evaluations in China.

  13. [Establish quality evaluation system for standard Ephedrae Herba decoction]. (United States)

    Tong, Jia-Yu; Chao, Jung; Dai, Yun-Tao; Fan, Zi-Quan; Wang, Dan-Dan; Qin, Xue-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lin


    To establish the quality control methods for the standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba, and provide the reference for quality evaluation method of all Chinese herbal medicine decoction.Standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba was prepared, and UPLC-UV fingerprint was established to determine the total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Then UPLC-QTOF/MS was used to confirm the major common peaks in the fingerprint to clarify the main chemical constituents in the decoction. In addition, the stability of the process was evaluated by calculating the parameters such as the extraction ratio, transfer rate of the index components and the pH values.In the decoction of Ephedrae Herba, the total average concentration of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine was (2.11±0.70) g•L⁻¹; the similarities of all the fingerprints were more than 0.85; there were 10 major common peaks in the fingerprint, including alkaloids, flavonoids and organic acids; the extraction ratio was (17±3.2)%, and the overall transfer rate of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine was (32.4±8.1)%.The method for evaluating the quality of standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba was established in this article, providing reference for the quality control of products which were stemmed from the water extract of Ephedrae Herba. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Breast cancer practice guidelines: evaluation and quality improvement. (United States)

    Edge, S B


    The utility of practice guidelines in breast cancer management remains unproved. This paper examines the scope and goals of published guidelines and their utility in the process of breast cancer treatment quality improvement. Although existing breast cancer guidelines vary widely in scope and intent, they provide a framework for meaningful quality-of-care evaluation. Among the few comprehensive breast cancer guideline programs are those developed by the Ontario Cancer Treatment Practice Guidelines Initiative, the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center, the Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC), the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO), and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Ultimately, guidelines will prove useful only if they are utilized as part of a comprehensive program to improve quality, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes. To accomplish this, they must include mechanisms for revision and evaluation. The evaluation of guideline utility in quality improvement, particularly in breast cancer care, is a complex long-term process, which should include input from practitioners, institutions, payors, and government.

  15. Hydrology and Water and Sediment Quality at James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge near Kahuku, Island of Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Hunt, Charles D.; De Carlo, Eric H.


    The James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge occupies two lowland marsh and pond complexes on the northern coastal plain of Oahu: the mostly natural ponds and wetlands of the Punamano Unit and the constructed ponds of the Kii Unit. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages the Refuge primarily to protect and enhance habitat for four endangered species of Hawaiian waterbirds. Kii Unit is fed by artesian wells and rainfall, whereas Punamano Unit is fed naturally by rainfall, runoff, and ground-water seepage. Streams drain from the uplands into lowland ditches that pass through Kii Unit on their way to the ocean. A high-capacity pump transfers water from the inner ditch terminus at Kii to the ocean outlet channel. Stormwaters also exit the inner ditch system over flood-relief swales near the outlet pump and through a culvert with a one-way valve. A hydrologic investigation was done from November 1996 through February 1998 to identify and quantify principal inflows and outflows of water to and from the Refuge, identify hydraulic factors affecting flooding, document ground-water/surface-water interactions, determine the adequacy of the current freshwater supply, and determine water and sediment quality. These goals were accomplished by installing and operating a network of stream-gaging stations, meteorology stations, and shallow ground-water piezometers, by computing water budgets for the two Refuge units, and by sampling and analyzing water and pond-bottom sediments for major ions, trace metals, and organic compounds. Streamflow during the study was dominated by winter stormflows, followed by a gradual recession of flow into summer 1997, as water that had been stored in alluvial fans drained to lowland ditches. Outflow at the ditch terminus in 1997 was 125 million gallons greater than measured inflow to the coastal plain, mainly reflecting gains from ground water along the ditches between outlying gages and the ditch terminus. Of the measured 1997 outflow, 98 percent

  16. ISO 15189:2003--quality management, evaluation and continual improvement. (United States)

    Burnett, David


    The requirements of ISO 15189:2003 are discussed in the context of a process- and outcome-based quality management model in which the user's needs are the central focus. The requirements of ISO 15189:2003 are examined in terms of organisation and a quality management system, stressing the importance of evidence, document control, and control of records and clinical material. Examples are provided from the areas of resource management, and pre-examination, examination and post-examination processes. In the final section the importance of evaluation and continual improvement is presented in relation to internal audit and external assessment, non-conformity, corrective and preventative action and management review.

  17. Evaluation of Molecular Methods for the Detection and Quantification of Pathogen-Derived Nucleic Acids in Sediment (United States)

    Farkas, Kata; Hassard, Francis; McDonald, James E.; Malham, Shelagh K.; Jones, Davey L.


    The accurate detection of pathogens in environmental matrices, such as sediment, is critical in understanding pathogen fate and behavior in the environment. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of methods for the detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and norovirus (NoV) nucleic acids in sediment. For bacteria, a commonly used direct method using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) extraction was optimized, whereas for NoV, direct and indirect (virus elution—concentration) methods were evaluated. For quantification, commercially available quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) kits were tested alongside a digital PCR (dPCR) approach. CTAB-based extraction combined with 16 h polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) precipitation was found to be suitable for the direct extraction of high abundance bacterial and viral nucleic acids. For the indirect extraction of viral RNA, beef extract-based elution followed by PEG6000 precipitation and extraction using the NucliSENS® MiniMag® Nucleic Acid Purification System and the PowerViral® Environmental RNA/DNA Isolation Kit and qRT-PCR resulted in 83–112 and 63–69% recoveries of NoV, respectively. dPCR resulted in lower viral recoveries (47 and 9%) and ~4 orders of magnitude lower Vibrio concentrations (3.6–4.6 log10 gc/100 g sediment) than was observed using qPCR. The use of internal controls during viral quantification revealed that the RT step was more affected by inhibitors than the amplification. The methods described here are suitable for the enumeration of viral and/or bacterial pathogens in sediment, however the use of internal controls to assess efficiency is recommended. PMID:28174565

  18. Evaluation of model quality predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy


    CASP has been assessing the state of the art in the a priori estimation of accuracy of protein structure prediction since 2006. The inclusion of model quality assessment category in CASP contributed to a rapid development of methods in this area. In the last experiment, 46 quality assessment groups tested their approaches to estimate the accuracy of protein models as a whole and/or on a per-residue basis. We assessed the performance of these methods predominantly on the basis of the correlation between the predicted and observed quality of the models on both global and local scales. The ability of the methods to identify the models closest to the best one, to differentiate between good and bad models, and to identify well modeled regions was also analyzed. Our evaluations demonstrate that even though global quality assessment methods seem to approach perfection point (weighted average per-target Pearson\\'s correlation coefficients are as high as 0.97 for the best groups), there is still room for improvement. First, all top-performing methods use consensus approaches to generate quality estimates, and this strategy has its own limitations. Second, the methods that are based on the analysis of individual models lag far behind clustering techniques and need a boost in performance. The methods for estimating per-residue accuracy of models are less accurate than global quality assessment methods, with an average weighted per-model correlation coefficient in the range of 0.63-0.72 for the best 10 groups.

  19. A three-dimensional water quality model to evaluate the environmental capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay, China. (United States)

    Li, Keqiang; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Zhang, Longjun; Wang, Xiulin


    Jiaozhou Bay has recently suffered from serious problems with pollution and eutrophication. Thus, land-based pollutant load must be reduced through a national control program. In this study, we developed a 3D water quality model to determine the environmental capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiaozhou Bay. A 3D hydrodynamic model (the estuarine, coastal, and ocean modeling system with sediments) was coupled with a water quality model, which was adapted from the dynamic model of nitrogen and phosphorus for a mesocosm near Jiaozhou Bay. The water quality model is divided into seven components: dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, detritus, dissolved organic nitrogen, and dissolved organic phosphorus. Furthermore, it was calibrated based on data collected from Jiaozhou Bay in 2003. The proposed model effectively reproduced the spatiotemporal variability in nutrient concentration, thus suggesting that a reasonable numerical representation of the prototype system must be developed for further evaluation of environmental capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  1. The application of plant tests for sediment evaluation; Der Einsatz von Pflanzentests bei der Sedimentbewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiler, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany); Claus, E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany); Heininger, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Koblenz (Germany); Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany)


    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that the use of higher plants in biotests for analyses of anthropogenically contaminated sediments yields valuable results, which may be included in a concept for the integrated assessment of waters. The results of this study prove that the selected aquatic plant, Lemna minor, is basically able to indicate contamination. In the aquatic test of the sediment extracts, it showed weak, but very selective, responses to certain classes of contaminants. Fractionating of the sample and subsequent chemical analysis combined with toxicity tests allow to narrow down the groups of substances causing toxic effects. This toxicity was confirmed by analyses of the pore waters and whole sediment samples. Together with other toxicity tests (e.g. standardized bioassays) and combined with biological benthos examinations, an overall judgment can be given for the integrated assessment of waters. (orig.) [German] Ziel der hier vorgestellten Untersuchungen war es zu zeigen, dass der Einsatz von hoeheren Pflanzen in Biotests zur Untersuchung anthropogenen belasteter Sedimente wertvolle Ergebnisse liefert, die in einem Konzept zur integrierten Gewaesserbewertung verwendet werden koennen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit machen deutlich, dass die ausgewaehlte Wasserpflanze Lemna minor Schadstoffbelastungen grundsaetzlich anzeigt. Im aquatischen Test der Sedimentextrakte weist sie eine zwar schwache, aber sehr selektive Reaktion auf bestimmte Schadstoffklassen auf. Die Fraktionierung der Probe mit anschliessender Stoffanlayse kombiniert mit Toxizitaetstests erlaubt die Eingrenzung der toxisch wirksamen Stoffgruppen. Diese toxische Belastung wurde durch die Porenwasser- und Gesamtsedimentuntersuchung bestaetigt. Zusammen mit weiteren Toxizitaetstests (z.B. standardisierte Biotests) und in Kombination mit benthosbiologischen Untersuchngen ergibt sich eine Gesamtaussage zur integrierten Gewaesserbewertung. (orig.)

  2. Nutrient and suspended-sediment trends, loads, and yields and development of an indicator of streamwater quality at nontidal sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, 1985-2010 (United States)

    Langland, Michael; Blomquist, Joel; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) updates information on loads of, and trends in, nutrients and sediment annually to help the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) investigators assess progress toward improving water-quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. CBP scientists and managers have worked since 1983 to improve water quality in the bay. In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay. The TMDL specifies nutrient and sediment load allocations that need to be achieved in the watershed to improve dissolved oxygen, water-clarity, and chlorophyll conditions in the bay. The USEPA, USGS, and state and local jurisdictions in the watershed operate a CBP nontidal water-quality monitoring network and associated database that are used to update load and trend information to help assess progress toward reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to the bay. Data collected from the CBP nontidal network were used to estimate loads and trends for two time periods: a long-term period (1985-2010) at 31 "primary" sites (with storm sampling) and a 10-year period (2001-10) at 33 primary sites and 16 "secondary" sites (without storm sampling). In addition, loads at 64 primary sites were estimated for the period 2006 to 2010. Results indicate improving flow-adjusted trends for nitrogen and phosphorus for 1985 to 2010 at most of the sites in the network. For nitrogen, 21 of the 31 sites showed downward (improving) trends, whereas 2 sites showed upward (degrading) trends, and 8 sites showed no trends. The results for phosphorus were similar: 22 sites showed improving trends, 4 sites showed degrading trends, and 5 sites indicated no trends. For sediment, no trend was found at 40 percent of the sites, with 10 sites showing improving trends and 8 sites showing degrading trends. The USGS, working with CBP partners, developed a new water-quality indicator that combines the results of the 10-year trend

  3. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-two surficial sediment samples were collected from different locations covering the region that receives the majority of the industrial ... analysis was achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using the internal standard method. The total .... evaluate the environmental quality of this aquatic system.

  4. Criteria for the Evaluation of Quality Improvement Programs and the Use of Quality Improvement Data (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009


    This document provides a set of criteria to be used by psychologists in evaluating quality improvement programs (QIPs) that have been promulgated by health care organizations, government agencies, professional associations, or other entities. These criteria also address the privacy and confidentiality issues evoked by the intended use of patient…

  5. Ultrasound image quality assessment: a framework for evaluation of clinical image quality (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Petersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Nielsen, Michael Backmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500 from the International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication (ITU-R) for such subjective quality assessment, this work presents equipment and a methodology for clinical image quality evaluation for guiding the development of new and improved imaging. The system is based on a BK-Medical 2202 ProFocus scanner equipped with a UA2227 research interface, connected to a PC through X64-CL Express camera link. Data acquisition features subject data recording, loading/saving of exact scanner settings (for later experiment reproducibility), free access to all system parameters for beamformation and is applicable for clinical use. The free access to all system parameters enables the ability to capture standardized images as found in the clinic and experimental data from new processing or beamformation methods. The length of the data sequences is only restricted by the memory of the external PC. Data may be captured interleaved, switching between multiple setups, to maintain identical transducer, scanner, region of interest and recording time on both the experimental- and standardized images. Data storage is approximately 15.1 seconds pr. 3 sec sequence including complete scanner settings and patient information, which is fast enough to get sufficient number of scans under realistic operating conditions, so that statistical evaluation is valid and reliable.

  6. Quality in Family Child Care Networks: An Evaluation of All Our Kin Provider Quality (United States)

    Porter, Toni; Reiman, Kayla; Nelson, Christina; Sager, Jessica; Wagner, Janna


    This article presents findings from a quasi-experimental evaluation of quality with a sample of 28 family child care providers in the All Our Kin Family Child Care Network, a staffed family child care network which offers a range of services including relationship-based intensive consultation, and 20 family child care providers who had no…

  7. Water- and Bed-Sediment Quality of Seguchie Creek and Selected Wetlands Tributary to Mille Lacs Lake in Crow Wing County, Minnesota, October 2003 to October 2006 (United States)

    Fallon, James D.; Yaeger, Christine S.


    Mille Lacs Lake and its tributaries, located in east-central Minnesota, are important resources to the public. In addition, many wetlands and lakes that feed Mille Lacs Lake are of high resource quality and vulnerable to degradation. Construction of a new four-lane expansion of U.S. Highway 169 has been planned along the western part of the drainage area of Mille Lacs Lake in Crow Wing County. Concerns exist that the proposed highway could affect the resource quality of surface waters tributary to Mille Lacs Lake. Baseline water- and bed-sediment quality characteristics of surface waters tributary to Mille Lacs Lake were needed prior to the proposed highway construction. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Transportation, characterized the water- and bed-sediment quality at selected locations that the proposed route intersects from October 2003 to October 2006. Locations included Seguchie Creek upstream and downstream from the proposed route and three wetlands draining to Mille Lacs Lake. The mean streamflow of Seguchie Creek increased between the two sites: flow at the downstream streamflow-gaging station of 0.22 cubic meter per second was 5.6 percent greater than the mean streamflow at the upstream streamflow-gaging station of 0.21 cubic meter per second. Because of the large amount of storage immediately upstream from both gaging stations, increases in flow were gradual even during intense precipitation. The ranges of most constituent concentrations in water were nearly identical between the two sampling sites on Seguchie Creek. No concentrations exceeded applicable water-quality standards set by the State of Minnesota. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations at the downstream gaging station were less than the daily minimum standard of 4.0 milligrams per liter for 6 of 26 measurements. Constituent loads in Seguchie Creek were greater at the downstream site than the upstream site for all measured, including dissolved chloride (1

  8. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index. (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef


    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended.

  9. Measuring, evaluating and improving hospital quality parameters/dimensions--an integrated healthcare quality approach. (United States)

    Zineldin, Mosad; Camgöz-Akdağ, Hatice; Vasicheva, Valiantsina


    This paper aims to examine the major factors affecting cumulative summation, to empirically examine the major factors affecting satisfaction and to address the question whether patients in Kazakhstan evaluate healthcare similarly or differently from patients in Egypt and Jordan. A questionnaire, adapted from previous research, was distributed to Kazakhstan inpatients. The questionnaire contained 39 attributes about five newly-developed quality dimensions (5Qs), which were identified to be the most relevant attributes for hospitals. The questionnaire was translated into Russian to increase the response rate and improve data quality. Almost 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Frequency distribution, factor analysis and reliability checks were used to analyze the data. The three biggest concerns for Kazakhstan patients are: infrastructure; atmosphere; and interaction. Hospital staffs concern for patients' needs, parking facilities for visitors, waiting time and food temperature were all common specific attributes, which were perceived as concerns. These were shortcomings in all three countries. Improving health service quality by applying total relationship management and the 5Qs model together with a customer-orientation strategy is recommended. Results can be used by hospital staff to reengineer and redesign creatively their quality management processes and help move towards more effective healthcare quality strategies. Patients in three countries have similar concerns and quality perceptions. The paper describes a new instrument and method. The study assures relevance, validity and reliability, while being explicitly change-oriented. The authors argue that patient satisfaction is a cumulative construct, summing satisfaction as five different qualities (5Qs): object; processes; infrastructure; interaction and atmosphere.

  10. Quality of life at sea in Polish seafarer's evaluation. (United States)

    Jeżewska, Maria; Grubman-Nowak, Marta; Moryś, Joanna


    Work at sea is highly burdening, hazardous and stressful. Environmental, physical, and psychosociological factors have a great impact on the seafarer's quality of life and work. The research is a part of a broader psychological project performed on people working at sea in Poland during a period of 2011-2014. This report presents the self-evaluation of life quality conducted by a total of 1,700 Polish seafarers who took part in the study. The average age of the group was 45. Following methods were used: WHOQOL-BREF and the "Survey for people working at sea". Polish seafarers gave the highest rates to their social relationships (16.27), then the psychological functioning (15.62), and environment (15.51). The physical domain gave the lowest rates (14.63). The results have shown that quality of life of Polish seafarers is quite high.

  11. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn


    at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....... participated in the survey that yielded 86 complete responses. Findings The novel approach was successfully applied and its implementation demonstrated the usefulness of the tool even in countries with a high police service. Results showed that the participating stakeholders perceived human factors as more...

  12. Computerized evaluation of mammographic image quality using phantom images. (United States)

    Dougherty, G


    A simple, quick and computerized method for quantitatively evaluating the image quality of mammography phantom images has been developed. Images of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantoms were acquired under different X-ray techniques, scored and ranked subjectively by five expert readers, and digitized for quantitative analysis. The contrast and signal-to-noise (contrast-to-noise) ratios of the main nodule and microcalcification group were obtained accurately and reproducibly using an image processing protocol. The contrast values were successful at discriminating differences in image quality due to variations in scatter conditions (as a result of different kVp's, and the presence or absence of an acrylic scatterer and/or a moving Bucky grid). They were more precise, reproducible and sensitive than the ACR score. In particular, the contrast of the main nodule was highly correlated (r(s) = 0.988: pimage quality by our panel of expert readers.

  13. Service Quality Evaluation and Ranking of Container Terminal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh


    Full Text Available In the service industry, the regular assessment of service quality is considered as a means of promoting the quality of services. Container market is no exception, and the quality of providing service in a container terminal is of prime importance in attracting new customers and maintaining the existing ones. The main aim of present research is to evaluate the quality of service being offered at Shahid Rajaee Container Terminal (SRCT in Bandar Abbas port. The evaluation process uses SERVQUAL model which is an appropriate tool for measuring the service quality, identifying and analyzing available gaps between service expectations and perceptions. Target population in this research includes customers of SRCT. The standard and customized questionnaires were distributed among 165 samples, out of which 127 (77% were returned. For the purpose of data analyses, initially the reliability of SERVQUAL model was checked, and then paired sample t-test was performed to reveal any possible gap between expectations and perceptions of respondents. Finally, TOPSIS was used to rank the 9 main container service companies in the SRCT. The results indicated that there are significant gaps between customers’ expectations and perceptions in SRCT, in all five dimensions of services quality. Additionally, from weighing point of view, ‘Tangibles’ was the most important dimension, followed by ‘Reliability’, ‘Assurance’, ‘Responsiveness’ and ‘Empathy’. In addition, ‘Tangibles’ dimension had maximum gap and ‘Empathy’ dimension had minimum gap between customers’ expectations and perceptions. Finally, after ranking companies, BandarAbbas Aria Container Terminal (BACT Company was ranked first among nine companies in satisfying customers’ expectations.

  14. Backwater control on riffle pool hydraulics, fish habitat quality, and sediment transport regime in gravel-bed rivers (United States)

    Pasternack, Gregory B.; Bounrisavong, Michael K.; Parikh, Kaushal K.


    SummaryThe importance of channel non-uniformity to natural hydrogeomorphic and ecological processes in gravel-bed rivers is becoming increasingly known, but its use in channel rehabilitation lags behind. Many projects still use methods that assume steady, uniform flow and simple channel geometries. One aspect of channel non-uniformity that has not been considered much is its role in controlling backwater conditions and thus potentially influencing patterns of physical habitat and channel stability in sequences of riffles and pools. In this study, 2D hydrodynamic models of two non-uniform pool-riffle-pool configurations were used to systematically explore the effects of four different downstream water surface elevations at three different discharges (24 total simulations) on riffle-pool ecohydraulics. Downstream water surface elevations tested included backwater, uniform, accelerating, and critical conditions, which are naturally set by downstream riffle-crest morphology but may also be re-engineered artificially. Discharges included a fish-spawning low flow, summer fish-attraction flow, and a peak snowmelt pulse. It was found that the occurrence of a significant area of high-quality fish spawning habitat at low flow depends on riffles being imposed upon by backwater conditions, which also delay the onset of full bed mobility on riffles during floods. The assumption of steady, uniform flow was found to be inappropriate for gravel-bed rivers, since their non-uniformity controls spatial patterns of habitat and sediment transport. Also, model results indicated that a "reverse domino" mechanism can explain catastrophic failure and re-organization of a sequence of riffles based on the water surface elevation response to scour on downstream riffles, which then increases scour on upstream riffles.

  15. Integrated assessment of estuarine sediment quality based on a multi-biomarker approach in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. (United States)

    Tankoua, O Fossi; Buffet, Pe; Amiard, J C; Berthet, B; Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C


    The bivalve Scrobicularia plana has been proposed as a sentinel species for the assessment of estuarine sediment quality. The aim of this study was to test the responsiveness of a set of biomarkers in bivalves originating from a moderately contaminated site (Loire estuary, France) and a comparatively cleaner site (Bay of Bourgneuf, France) used as reference. Temporal fluctuations were examined in animals collected on eight occasions from March 2008 to October 2009 for the determination of biochemical (MTs, GST, AChE), physiological (energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, condition, hepato-somatic and gonado-somatic indices), and behavioural biomarkers (burrowing). Metals in clams were examined with the aim of understanding the variations in MT concentrations. The current findings indicate that among biochemical markers MTs must be used in a precautionary fashion, and comparison with a reference site remains indispensable together with an appreciation of any salinity effects. Clearer responses were obtained for GST activity which contributes to defence against organic compounds. However, any such defence was not sufficient to ensure total protection since a number of impairments were observed at the individual level (burrowing behaviour, condition index, gonado-somatic index). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) illustrated higher levels of stress in clams collected from the Loire estuary compared to those gathered from the reference site at most of the sampling periods. The interpretation of responses involved in the cascade of energetic events (from available food, digestive enzyme activities, energy reserves to condition and reproductive status) is complex but did reveal disturbances in the Loire estuary which is far from being the most contaminated estuary in France and over the world. However, no links can be established between effects at individual and supra-individual levels in organisms in the Loire estuary, even in the case of a small oil spill which


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicléia Aparecida Iensen Cherobini


    Full Text Available Belonging to the Meliaceae family, cedro (Cedrela fissilis Vell. presents a great economical and ecological importance. The wood is light and easy to work, being suggested to the manufacturing of furniture in general, also it is used to reset degraded areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the quality of Cedrela fissilis seedlings and seeds from Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, through the accomplishment of varied tests of vigor, test of health and evaluation of the quality of seedlings produced from these seeds. The present study showed that the presence of fungi pathological potential – Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. – can cause losses in the germination. Considering tests with seeds collected in the different states of the South Region, it was possible to verify that differences of the vigor levels exist. The fungi found in the seeds can cause damages in the production.

  17. Self evaluated oral status impact on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Botelho Mesquira


    Full Text Available Objective: To associate people’s perception of the impact of oral health and disease status on the quality of life, with the following variables: Age bracket, socioeconomic conditions, educational level, dentition status, use of dental services, and oral hygiene habits.Methods: A subjective indicator (OHIP-14 was used to evaluate people’s perception of the impact of the self-evaluated oral health status on the quality of their own lives. A survey was made of demographic data, dentition status, use of dental services and oral hygiene habits. The sample was constituted by employees of state schools in the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Statistical analysis was performed by parametric tests using the SPSS program. Results: The elderly perceived and recorded greater functional limitation and more pain than young persons. Edentulous perceived and recorded greater functional limitation and physical incapacity than dentate persons. Persons that required dental prostheses felt the impact of this situation on the quality of life. Better oral health is associated with better economic conditions, higher educational level, seeking paid dental services for prevention or routine care and regular use of dental hygiene instruments.Conclusion: The oral health and disease status perceived by people is associated with the researched variables. As people perceive the impact of oral health on the quality of life, more conditions to seek dental services for prevention or routine care and the regular use of dental hygiene instruments would improve the population’s oral health.

  18. Quality management framework for evaluating academic libraries in Kenya


    Beatrice A Odera-Kwach; Patrick Ngulube


    The purpose of this study was to identify the performance measurements used for the evaluation of quality in Kenyan university libraries, with the aim of determining the perceptions of university librarians towards performance measurement. The study established that the majority of the university librarians considered 25 of the 26 performance indicators important. More than 60% of them considered 11 of the 20 performance indicators very important. The study recommends the use of nine performa...

  19. The evaluation method of some physical qualities of boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov V.I.


    Full Text Available Possibilities of determination of the special physical qualities of boxers are considered by a trainer. In an experiment 40 sportsmen took part in the of age 17 - 19 years. It is rotined that application of the offered trainer will be given by possibility to the trainer constantly to watch change in the special physical preparedness of sportsmen and to bring in urgent corrective in a training process. Resulted recommendation as evaluated by the special capacity of sportsmen.

  20. Service Quality Evaluation Of Internet Banking In Malaysia


    P.Vijayan,; Bala Shanmugam


    This study evaluates the service quality of Internet banking in Malaysia. It focuses on the transaction sites of five leading anchor banks, which provide a platform for electronic banking and examines electronic banking performances through a set of 40 questions specifically prepared for this research. The survey was conducted in January 2002.Only two of the five banks surveyed obtained a four star rating out of a maximum possible of five stars. Three other banks have obtained three star rati...

  1. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis


    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J.


    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10–20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution...

  2. Survival of manure-borne E. coli in streambed sediment: effects of temperature and sediment properties. (United States)

    Garzio-Hadzick, A; Shelton, D R; Hill, R L; Pachepsky, Y A; Guber, A K; Rowland, R


    Escherichia coli bacteria are commonly used as indicator organisms to designate of impaired surface waters and to guide the design of management practices to prevent fecal contamination of water. Stream sediments are known to serve as a reservoir and potential source of fecal bacteria (E. coli) for stream water. In agricultural watersheds, substantial numbers of E. coli may reach surface waters, and subsequently be deposited into sediments, along with fecal material in runoff from land-applied manures, grazing lands, or wildlife excreta. The objectives of this work were (a) to test the hypothesis that E. coli survival in streambed sediment in the presence of manure material will be affected by sediment texture and organic carbon content and (b) to evaluate applicability of the exponential die-off equation to the E. coli survival data in the presence of manure material. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures (4 degrees C, 14 degrees C, and 24 degrees C) in flow-through chambers using sediment from three locations at the Beaverdam Creek Tributary in Beltsville, Maryland mixed with dairy manure slurry in the proportion of 1000:1. Indigenous E. coli populations in sediments ranged from ca. 10(1) to 10(3)MPNg(-1) while approx 10(3) manure-borne E. coli MPNg(-1) were added. E. coli survived in sediments much longer than in the overlaying water. The exponential inactivation model gave an excellent approximation of data after 6-16 days from the beginning of the experiment. Slower inactivation was observed with the increase in organic carbon content in sediments with identical granulometric composition. The increase in the content of fine particles and organic carbon in sediments led not only to the slower inactivation but also to lower sensitivity of the inactivation to temperature. Streambed sediment properties have to be documented to better evaluate the role of sediments as reservoirs of E. coli that can affect microbiological stream water quality during high

  3. Sources identification and pollution evaluation of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bortala River, Northwest China. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyong; Juying, Li; Mamat, Zulpiya; QingFu, Ye


    The current study focused on the Bortala River - a typical inland river located in an oasis of arid area in northwestern China. The sediment and soil samples were collected from the river and drainage basin. Results showed that: (1) the particle size of the sand fraction of the sediments was 78-697 µm, accounting for 78.82% of the total samples; the average concentrations of eight heavy metals fell within the concentration ranges recommended by the Secondary National Standard of China, while the maximum concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg exceeded these standards; (2) results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that Cu, Ni, As, and Zn originated primarily from natural geological background, while Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr in the sediments originated from human activities; (3) results of the enrichment factor analysis and the geo-accumulation index evaluation showed that Cd, Hg, and Pb were present in the surface sediments of the river at low or partial serious pollution levels, while Zn, Cr, As, Ni, and Cu existed at zero or low pollution levels; (4) calculation of the potential ecological hazards index showed that among the eight tested heavy metals, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cr were the main potential ecological risk factors, with relative contributions of 25.43%, 22.23%, 21.16%, and 14.87%, respectively; (5) the spatial distribution of the enrichment factors (EF(S)), the Geo-accumulation index (I(geo)), and the potential ecological risk coefficient (E(r)(i)) for eight heavy metals showed that there was a greater accumulation of heavy metals Pb, Cd, and Hg in the sediments of the central and eastern parts of the river. Results of this research can be a reference for the heavy metals pollution prevention, the harmony development of the ecology protection and the economy development of the oases of inland river basin of arid regions of China, Central Asia and also other parts of the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiometric Quality Evaluation of INSAT-3D Imager Data (United States)

    Prakash, S.; Jindal, D.; Badal, N.; Kartikeyan, B.; Gopala Krishna, B.


    INSAT-3D is an advanced meteorological satellite of ISRO which acquires imagery in optical and infra-red (IR) channels for study of weather dynamics in Indian sub-continent region. In this paper, methodology of radiometric quality evaluation for Level-1 products of Imager, one of the payloads onboard INSAT-3D, is described. Firstly, overall visual quality of scene in terms of dynamic range, edge sharpness or modulation transfer function (MTF), presence of striping and other image artefacts is computed. Uniform targets in Desert and Sea region are identified for which detailed radiometric performance evaluation for IR channels is carried out. Mean brightness temperature (BT) of targets is computed and validated with independently generated radiometric references. Further, diurnal/seasonal trends in target BT values and radiometric uncertainty or sensor noise are studied. Results of radiometric quality evaluation over duration of eight months (January to August 2014) and comparison of radiometric consistency pre/post yaw flip of satellite are presented. Radiometric Analysis indicates that INSAT-3D images have high contrast (MTF > 0.2) and low striping effects. A bias of specifications.

  5. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87 (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.


    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  6. Food Web Bioaccumulation Model for Resident Killer Whales from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean as a Tool for the Derivation of PBDE-Sediment Quality Guidelines. (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Gobas, Frank A P C


    Resident killer whale populations in the NE Pacific Ocean are at risk due to the accumulation of pollutants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To assess the impact of PBDEs in water and sediments in killer whale critical habitat, we developed a food web bioaccumulation model. The model was designed to estimate PBDE concentrations in killer whales based on PBDE concentrations in sediments and the water column throughout a lifetime of exposure. Calculated and observed PBDE concentrations exceeded the only toxicity reference value available for PBDEs in marine mammals (1500 μg/kg lipid) in southern resident killer whales but not in northern resident killer whales. Temporal trends (1993-2006) for PBDEs observed in southern resident killer whales showed a doubling time of ≈5 years. If current sediment quality guidelines available in Canada for polychlorinated biphenyls are applied to PBDEs, it can be expected that PBDE concentrations in killer whales will exceed available toxicity reference values by a large margin. Model calculations suggest that a PBDE concentration in sediments of approximately 1.0 μg/kg dw produces PBDE concentrations in resident killer whales that are below the current toxicity reference value for 95 % of the population, with this value serving as a precautionary benchmark for a management-based approach to reducing PBDE health risks to killer whales. The food web bioaccumulation model may be a useful risk management tool in support of regulatory protection for killer whales.

  7. Headache service quality: evaluation of quality indicators in 14 specialist-care centres. (United States)

    Schramm, Sara; Uluduz, Derya; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor; Siva, Aksel; Uygunoglu, Ugur; Gvantsa, Giorgadze; Mania, Maka; Braschinsky, Mark; Filatova, Elena; Latysheva, Nina; Osipova, Vera; Skorobogatykh, Kirill; Azimova, Julia; Straube, Andreas; Eren, Ozan Emre; Martelletti, Paolo; De Angelis, Valerio; Negro, Andrea; Linde, Mattias; Hagen, Knut; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Podgorac, Ana; Paemeleire, Koen; De Pue, Annelien; Lampl, Christian; Steiner, Timothy J; Katsarava, Zaza


    The study was a collaboration between Lifting The Burden (LTB) and the European Headache Federation (EHF). Its aim was to evaluate the implementation of quality indicators for headache care Europe-wide in specialist headache centres (level-3 according to the EHF/LTB standard). Employing previously-developed instruments in 14 such centres, we made enquiries, in each, of health-care providers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists) and 50 patients, and analysed the medical records of 50 other patients. Enquiries were in 9 domains: diagnostic accuracy, individualized management, referral pathways, patient's education and reassurance, convenience and comfort, patient's satisfaction, equity and efficiency of the headache care, outcome assessment and safety. Our study showed that highly experienced headache centres treated their patients in general very well. The centres were content with their work and their patients were content with their treatment. Including disability and quality-of-life evaluations in clinical assessments, and protocols regarding safety, proved problematic: better standards for these are needed. Some centres had problems with follow-up: many specialised centres operated in one-touch systems, without possibility of controlling long-term management or the success of treatments dependent on this. This first Europe-wide quality study showed that the quality indicators were workable in specialist care. They demonstrated common trends, producing evidence of what is majority practice. They also uncovered deficits that might be remedied in order to improve quality. They offer the means of setting benchmarks against which service quality may be judged. The next step is to take the evaluation process into non-specialist care (EHF/LTB levels 1 and 2).

  8. Sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst (Part 2): Numerical model development and application (United States)

    Husic, A.; Fox, J.; Ford, W.; Agouridis, C.; Currens, J.; Taylor, C.


    The authors develop a numerical model to elucidate time-distributed processes controlling sediment carbon fate in phreatic karst. Sediment carbon processes simulated in the new numerical model include in-conduit erosion and deposition, sediment carbon transport, surficial fine grained laminae evolution, carbon pool mixing, microbial oxidation, and the understudied process of sediment carbon exchange during equilibrium transport. The authors perform a model evaluation procedure that includes generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation to quantify uncertainty of the model results. Modeling results suggest that phreatic karst conduits sustain sediment transport activity long after surface storm events cease. The sustained sediment transport has the potential to shift the baseflow sediment yield of the phreatic karst to be on par with stormflow sediment yield. The sustained activity is suggested to promote the exchange of sediment carbon between the water column and subsurface karst deposits during equilibrium sediment transport conditions. In turn, the sediment carbon exchange impacts the mixing of new and old carbon pools and the flux of carbon from phreatic karst. Integrated numerical model results from this study support the concept that phreatic karst act as a biologically active conveyor of sediment carbon that temporarily stores sediment, turns over carbon at higher rates than surface streams, and recharges degraded carbon back to the fluvial system. The numerical modeling method adopted in this paper shows the efficacy of coupling carbon isotope fingerprinting with water quality modeling to study sediment carbon in phreatic karst.

  9. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program


    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio


    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool speci...

  10. A method to calculate sediment fluxes from infrequent data: application to 65 rivers of the French river quality database (United States)

    Delmas, Magalie; Cerdan, Olivier; Coynel, Alexandra; Mouchel, Jean Marie; Cheviron, Bruno


    Improving knowledge of sediment exports represents one major challenge for environmental sciences considering their role in geochemical cycles and their link with Earth's surface processes. Because suspended sediment (SS) fluxes in rivers reflect the integration of combined erosion, transport and deposition processes that occur within the drained area, their calculation is thus essential in surface processes studies. Suspended sediment fluxes are estimated from discharge measurements and SS concentrations, either by averaging methods or by predicting sediment concentration values from continuous discharge data. In the latter case, a power function (or power law relation) is often defined between the observed SS concentrations and the corresponding discharge data. However it seems unrealistic to consider a single relation between SS concentrations and river discharges. The reason is that sediment production processes are not homogeneous in time, showing local and seasonal effects for example in agricultural areas where land cover varies inside a year or in mountainous regions where snow melting has a strong influence. Moreover, these processes are also spatially heterogeneous, due to spatial patterns in landscape characteristics, meteorological phenomena and geomorphology. In addition, important gaps persist when calculating SS fluxes, mainly due to SS measurements are not always carried out with high frequency. Based on 65 river basins in France, with various sizes, geomorphologies and land uses, this study aims at testing methods for an estimation of annual sediment loads, based on infrequent SPM concentration data spanning over several decades.

  11. Chromium Distribution and Spatial Variations in the Finer Sediment Grain Size Fraction and Unfractioned Surficial Sediments on Nyanza Gulf, of Lake Victoria (East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Mwamburi


    Full Text Available Surficial sediments collected from the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa were used to determine spatial concentrations of Cr and determine differences in contents of the unfractioned (whole sediment and the finer grain size sediments, establishing any changes in Cr enrichment and potential ecological risks using sediment quality guidelines. A single pollution index was also used to evaluate level of Cr contamination. The spatial mean Cr contents in the <63 µm (silt-clay fraction were found to be significantly lower than those in the unfractioned sediments, but with a strong linear positive correlation. The study results show decreasing spatial amounts of Cr in surficial sediments of the Nyanza Gulf, when compared to a study done 20 years earlier. However, the 95% confidence limits of the overall mean Cr in unfractioned sediments exceed the threshold effect concentration (TEC, indicating the potential for Cr remobilization from sediments. In general the sediment enrichment is evidence of possible dominance of lithogenous sources of Cr in the surface lake sediments, with potential anthropogenic sources from the drainage system and nearshore urban areas. The sediments are unpolluted with respect to geoaccumulation index, and sediment enrichment factors suggest a minor to moderate enrichment of Cr in surficial sediments of three sites around the Nyanza Gulf zones and around the river mouth in the main lake.

  12. Evaluating investment in quality improvement capacity building: a systematic review. (United States)

    Mery, Gustavo; Dobrow, Mark J; Baker, G Ross; Im, Jennifer; Brown, Adalsteinn


    Leading health systems have invested in substantial quality improvement (QI) capacity building, but little is known about the aggregate effect of these investments at the health system level. We conducted a systematic review to identify key steps and elements that should be considered for system-level evaluations of investment in QI capacity building. We searched for evaluations of QI capacity building and evaluations of QI training programmes. We included the most relevant indexed databases in the field and a strategic search of the grey literature. The latter included direct electronic scanning of 85 relevant government and institutional websites internationally. Data were extracted regarding evaluation design and common assessment themes and components. 48 articles met the inclusion criteria. 46 articles described initiative-level non-economic evaluations of QI capacity building/training, while 2 studies included economic evaluations of QI capacity building/training, also at the initiative level. No system-level QI capacity building/training evaluations were found. We identified 17 evaluation components that fit within 5 overarching dimensions (characteristics of QI training; characteristics of QI activity; individual capacity; organisational capacity and impact) that should be considered in evaluations of QI capacity building. 8 key steps in return-on-investment (ROI) assessments in QI capacity building were identified: (1) planning-stakeholder perspective; (2) planning-temporal perspective; (3) identifying costs; (4) identifying benefits; (5) identifying intangible benefits that will not be included in the ROI estimation; (6) discerning attribution; (7) ROI calculations; (8) sensitivity analysis. The literature on QI capacity building evaluation is limited in the number and scope of studies. Our findings, summarised in a Framework to Guide Evaluations of QI Capacity Building, can be used to start closing this knowledge gap. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  13. Tissue culture of Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. and its quality evaluation. (United States)

    Kun-Hua, Wei; Lin-Xuan, Li; Yong-Cai, Huang; Mei-Ying, Wang; Cui, Li; Jian-Hua, Miao


    Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. is an important rare medicinal plant in China. There were only a few papers on the rapid propagation of S. tonkinensis through in vitro tissue culture, and still no report focuses on the quality analysis of in vitro tissue culture plantlets. The different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin (KT), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used to establish and screen the optimal rapid propagation technology of S. tonkinensis by orthogonal test; the different concentrations of a-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and ABT rooting power (ABT) were used to screen the optimal rooting technology. For quality evaluation of tissue culture plants, three different sites were chose to finish planting experiment. The leaf characteristics, radix ex rhizoma yield, and contents of matrine and oxymatrine were evaluated, respectively, to provide evidence of high yield and good qualities of tissue culture plants. A large number of buds could be induced directly from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA, and 0.5 mg/l KT; the best root induction medium was solid MS medium at half the macronutrient concentration supplemented with 1.0 mg/l NAA, 0.4 mg/l IBA, and 0.1 mg/l ABT. The rooting rate was 98%. All tissue culture plants showed normal leaf characteristics. Tissue culture plants from two sites possessed higher radix ex rhizoma yield and overall productivity of matrine and oxymatrine than those of seed plants. Tissue culture is a rapid, effective, and convenient propagation method for S. tonkinensis, and the quality of S. tonkinensis tissue culture plants meets the requirement of quality standard of China Pharmacopoeia (edition 2010), the crude drug from S. tonkinensis tissue culture plants will be suitable for substituting the crude drug from seed plants.

  14. Development of profession and quality in radiography with focus on evaluation criteria and image quality of chest x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Thomsen, Henrik; Conradsen, Jacob


    Learning Objectives: Learning Objectives: To improve quality of chest xrays by Education Conferences for radiographers and evaluation of image quality. Background: Introduction of digital imaging technology and picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has changed the workflow in the x...

  15. Features of distribution and quality of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the Great Peter Bay (Sea of Japan) (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Vasenev, Ivan


    The nature and distribution of organic carbon in marine waters depends on: 1) biological productivity and revenue of the autochthonous organic matter to the bottom; 2) sediment grain-size composition and conditions of dumping, which in turn depends of hydrothermic regime, topography, speed River mist and received major erosion products; 3) living conditions of the benthos (the quantity consumed of OM, gas regime of habitats, physiological capacity of heterotrophs). Autochthonous OM of phytoplankton plays a dominant role in the processes of formation of humus in aquatic conditions. Bottom sediments at different distance from the shoreline to depths from 0.5 up to 480 m of the Sea of Japan, which are formed in various conditions of facies, were selected as the objects of study. There is no clear relationships to the amount of organic matter in bottom sediments on the characteristics of the distribution and nature of living matter in the oceans and seas. This is because the process of sedimentation and fossilization of organic matter on the seabed and the ocean floor depends on many factors (currents, depth). Humus of studied bottom sediments in composition can be attributed mainly to the humic type. Nonhydrolyzing rest is 70-90%. This is characteristic of bottom sediments formed in facial types of small bays, internal coastal shelf bights and the underwater slope. At a fraction of the carbon of humic acids in organic matter, ranging from 4 to 80% of the amount of humic and fulvic acids. Fulvic acids content is much less. This is due to more favourable conservation situation of humic acids in precipitation with high content of organic matter, whereas fulvic acids in aquatic environments are more labile and almost not dumped. Despite the fact humic acids are not the most stable component (s), however, with increased content of humic acids, the mobility of organic matter and removing it from the bottom sediments are reduced. Internal shelf facies of the Great Peter Bay

  16. Spatiotemporal evaluation of the groundwater quality in Gharbiya Governorate, Egypt. (United States)

    Masoud, Alaa A; El Bouraie, Mohamed M; El-Nashar, Wafaa; Mashaly, Hamdy


    Groundwater quality indicators were monitored over 6 years (2007-2012) from 55 drinking water supply wells in Gharbiya Governorate (Egypt). The prime objective was to characterize, for the first time, the governorate-wide significant and sustained trends in the concentrations of the groundwater pollutants. Quality indicators included turbidity, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), Cl-, SO42-, Na+, total alkalinity, hardness (total, Mg, and Ca), Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, F-, NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, dissolved oxygen (DO), and SiO2 contents. Detection and estimation of trends and magnitude were carried out applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen trend statistical tests, respectively. Factor analysis was applied to identify significant sources of quality variation and their loads. Violation of groundwater quality standards clarified emergence of Mn2+ (46%), Fe2+ (35%), and NH4+ (33%). Out of the 55 wells, notable upward trends (deterioration) were significant (>95% level) for TDS (89%), NO3- (85), PO43- (75%), NH4+ (65%), total alkalinity (62%), Fe2+ (58%), NO2- (47%), Mg hardness (36%), turbidity (25%), and Mn2+ (24%). Ranges of attenuation rates (mg/l/year) varied for TDS (24.3, -0.7), Mg hardness (3.8, -0.85), total alkalinity (1.4, -1.2), NO3- (0.52, -0.066), PO43- (0.069, -0.064), NH4+ (0.038, -0.019), Mn2+ (0.015, -0.044), Fe2+ (0.006, -0.014), and NO2- (0.006, -0.00003). Highest rates marked Tanta (total alkalinity and Fe2+), Al-Mehala Al-Kubra (TDS, Mg hardness, and NO3-), Kafr Al-Zayat (NH4+), Zifta (Mn2+), Bassyun (NO2-), and Qutur (PO43-). Precision of the trend estimate varied in goodness of fit, for TDS (86%), Mg hardness (76%), total alkalinity (73%), PO43- (67.4%), NH4+ (66.8%), Mn2+ (55%), and Fe2+ (49.6%), arranged in decreasing order. Two main varimax-rotated factors counted for more than 55% of the quality variance and, in particular, significant loads of salinity (TDS, EC, Cl-, Na+, and SO42-), followed by the

  17. Water and Streambed Sediment Quality, and Ecotoxicology of a Stream along the Blue Ridge Parkway, Adjacent to a Closed Landfill, near Roanoke, Virginia: 1999 (United States)

    Ebner, Donna Belval; Cherry, Donald S.; Currie, Rebecca J.


    A study was done of the effects of a closed landfill on the quality of water and streambed sediment and the benthic macroinvertebrate community of an unnamed stream and its tributary that flow through Blue Ridge Parkway lands in west-central Virginia. The primary water source for the tributary is a 4-inch polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe that protrudes from the slope at the base of the embankment bordering the landfill. An unusual expanse of precipitate was observed in the stream near the PVC pipe. Stream discharge was measured and water and streambed sediment samples were collected at a nearby reference site and at three sites downstream of the landfill in April and September 1999. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nitrate, total and dissolved metals, total dissolved solids, total organic carbon, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Streambed sediment samples were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, percent moisture, and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, including organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. The benthic macroinvertebrate community within the stream channel also was sampled at the four chemical sampling sites and at one additional site in April and September. Each of the five sites was assessed for physical habitat quality. Water collected periodically at the PVC pipe discharge between November 1998 and November 1999 was used to conduct 48-hour acute and 7-day chronic toxicity tests using selected laboratory test organisms. Two 10-day chronic toxicity tests of streambed sediments collected near the discharge pipe also were conducted. Analyses showed that organic and inorganic constituents in water from beneath the landfill were discharged into the sampled tributary. In April, 79 percent of inorganic constituents detected in water had their highest concentrations at the site closest to the landfill; at the same site, 59 percent of inorganic

  18. Developing Cyberinfrastructure Tools and Services for Metadata Quality Evaluation (United States)

    Mecum, B.; Gordon, S.; Habermann, T.; Jones, M. B.; Leinfelder, B.; Powers, L. A.; Slaughter, P.


    Metadata and data quality are at the core of reusable and reproducible science. While great progress has been made over the years, much of the metadata collected only addresses data discovery, covering concepts such as titles and keywords. Improving metadata beyond the discoverability plateau means documenting detailed concepts within the data such as sampling protocols, instrumentation used, and variables measured. Given that metadata commonly do not describe their data at this level, how might we improve the state of things? Giving scientists and data managers easy to use tools to evaluate metadata quality that utilize community-driven recommendations is the key to producing high-quality metadata. To achieve this goal, we created a set of cyberinfrastructure tools and services that integrate with existing metadata and data curation workflows which can be used to improve metadata and data quality across the sciences. These tools work across metadata dialects (e.g., ISO19115, FGDC, EML, etc.) and can be used to assess aspects of quality beyond what is internal to the metadata such as the congruence between the metadata and the data it describes. The system makes use of a user-friendly mechanism for expressing a suite of checks as code in popular data science programming languages such as Python and R. This reduces the burden on scientists and data managers to learn yet another language. We demonstrated these services and tools in three ways. First, we evaluated a large corpus of datasets in the DataONE federation of data repositories against a metadata recommendation modeled after existing recommendations such as the LTER best practices and the Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD). Second, we showed how this service can be used to display metadata and data quality information to data producers during the data submission and metadata creation process, and to data consumers through data catalog search and access tools. Third, we showed how the centrally

  19. Evaluation of milk powder quality by protein oxidative modifications. (United States)

    Scheidegger, Dana; Radici, Paola M; Vergara-Roig, Víctor A; Bosio, Noelia S; Pesce, Silvia F; Pecora, Rolando P; Romano, José C P; Kivatinitz, Silvia C


    The objective of the present research was to evaluate commercially available milk powders according to their protein oxidative modifications and antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate if these characteristics are related to physical quality parameters such as dispersibility or stability during storage. Fifteen commercially processed spray-dried milk powders were evaluated: 6 whole milk powders (WMP), 4 skim milk powders (SMP), and 5 infant formula powders (IFP). Protein oxidative status was measured as protein carbonyl (PC) content, dityrosine content, and extent of protein polymerization. The level of PC was slightly lower in SMP than in WMP, whereas IFP had more than twice as much PC as WMP (2.8 ± 0.4, 2.1 ± 0.2, and 6.5 ± 1.3 nmol/mg of protein for WMP, SMP, and IFP, respectively). No differences were detected in dityrosine accumulation. Although all the possible pairs of parameters were tested for correlations, we found that 4 parameters were linked: PC, whey content, protein aggregate level, and dispersibility. After 9 mo of storage at -20°C or room temperature, all milk samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in protein oxidative status (PC, dityrosine, and protein integrity) and related parameters. Compared with the initial condition, PC increased in all tested samples after 9 mo of storage at -20°C or at room temperature. Stored milk powders had increased PC and decreased dispersibility compared with prestorage levels. Our results highlight the importance of protein oxidative status in milk powder and its relationship to other related quality parameters, such as protein integrity and dispersibility. Our findings suggest that the understanding of such relationships could help in developing quality differentiation for different types of milk powders in the product market. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Earthworm dispersal assay for rapidly evaluating soil quality. (United States)

    Kim, Shin Woong; Kim, Dokyung; Moon, Jongmin; Chae, Yooeun; Kwak, Jin Il; Park, Younsu; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo


    Earthworms enhance soil functioning and are therefore key species in the soil. Their presence is generally a positive sign for a terrestrial ecosystem, because these species serve as important biomarkers in soil quality evaluations. We describe a novel bioassay, the "dispersal assay," that is a simple and rapid technique for field-based soil quality evaluations. It is based on the premise that earthworms prefer optimal soils if given the choice. Thus, assay tubes containing a reference soil were inserted in target sites, and earthworms were placed into these tubes. According to their soil preference, the earthworms dispersed into the surrounding soil, remained in the initial soil within the tubes, avoided both by crawling up the tube, or died. Furthermore, sensitivity responses to metal concentrations, electrical conductivity, and soil pH were observed in field tests. Although the dispersal assay did not completely match traditional toxicity endpoints such as earthworm survival, we found that it can serve as an in situ screening test for assessing soil quality. Overall, our dispersal assay was relatively rapid (within 24 h), had low levels of variation, and showed high correlations between earthworm behavior and soil physicochemical properties. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2766-2772. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Processing and Quality Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing Monolayer Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wendt


    Full Text Available Although its importance has increased significantly, Additive Manufacturing is not yet a fully accepted industrial manufacturing process for load-carrying parts. The future success of the process group depends on its standardization. This work proposes a methodology for the design, manufacturing, and quality evaluation of specimens manufactured by Fused Layer Modeling that are composed of only one layer (so-called monolayers. The processing methodology and properties of monolayers have not been studied systematically yet. A first systematic design of monolayers for mechanical testing is presented. Rectangular and circular monolayers adapted to the loads of tensile and compression testing are manufactured using different trajectory strategies. Frequently occurring macro- and microgeometrical defects are evaluated and categorized in order to optimize the part quality. This work also studies the effect of some manufacturing parameters such as the gap between print head and machine bed, trajectory strategy, bed leveling, and temperatures on part quality. The most suitable specimens are tested mechanically in tensile or compression tests. In the case of study, tensile strength values are only 8.6% lower than the values for reference tests on the unextruded filament. However, the properties deviate more strongly for compression tests which may be due to the selected specimen geometry.

  2. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  3. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster


    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  4. Characterization of water quality and suspended sediment during cold-season flows, warm-season flows, and stormflows in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, 2007–2015 (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.


    From 2007 through 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, conducted a study in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, to characterize surface-water quality and suspended-sediment conditions for three different streamflow regimes with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Data collected during this study were used to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent discharge on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality samples were collected at 2 sites on Upper Fountain Creek, 2 sites on Monument Creek, 3 sites on Lower Fountain Creek, and 13 tributary sites during 3 flow regimes: cold-season flow (November–April), warm-season flow (May–October), and stormflow from 2007 through 2015. During 2015, additional samples were collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) during dry weather conditions at 41 sites, located in E. coli impaired stream reaches, to help identify source areas and scope of the impairment.Concentrations of E. coli, total arsenic, and dissolved copper, selenium, and zinc in surface-water samples were compared to Colorado in-stream standards. Stormflow concentrations of E. coli frequently exceeded the recreational use standard of 126 colonies per 100 milliliters at main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. Even though median E. coli concentrations in warm-season flow samples were lower than median concentrations in storm-flow samples, the water quality standard for E. coli was still exceeded at most main-stem sites and many tributary sites during warm-season flows. Six samples (three warm-season flow and three stormflow samples) collected from Upper Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence of Monument Creek, and two stormflow samples collected from Lower Fountain Creek, downstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, exceeded the acute water-quality

  5. Teacher evaluation system, institutions of technology higher education: quality guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Belkis Parada Romero


    Full Text Available Due to the globalization of education, it has become prevalent to strengthen the quality systems to ensure that educational actors in higher education institutions are the best. In this context teachers are given a main role since they are cornerstones in educational processes. Currently, teacher quality is assessed through an assessment or evaluation system. Almost every university evaluates its teachers, but there is no legal regulation on how to do it, in most institutions there is a professional in charge of designing and applying assessment instruments according to the authors he/she prefers. In most universities, on the one hand, it is used a traditional questionnaire aiming to collect data about dimensions associated with teaching, on the other hand, there is another option in which assessment models include self-evaluation, as in some cases in Chile. That’s why one of the concerns of this research is to propose guidelines for a more qualitative and formative assessment not exclusively following political parameters –based on administrative decisions–, but following emerging proposals with a deeper analysis. Nowadays the main actors in teacher evaluation are teachers, students and administrative staff, every six months these actors are evaluated by using an assessment tool that they usually do not know. The research investigates the perception actors in teacher evaluation have regarding its objectives, methods and stages, so they put forward ideas on how to restructure the current institutional assessment and propose improvements aiming at both the quantitative aspect and the qualitative analysis of performances and skills.

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality of at the management systems evaluation area near Piketon, Ohio (United States)

    Jagucki, M.L.; Finton, C.D.; Springer, A.E.; Bair, E.S.


    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, The Ohio State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to describe the hydrology, water quality, and geochemical factors controlling water quality at the Ohio Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA). The Ohio MSEA is located on a 650-acre farm in the Scioto River Valley in Pike County, south-central Ohio. The farm is underlain by an incised bedrock valley filled with about 70 feet of sand and gravel outwash deposits that are covered by a veneer of silty clay alluvium and silty loam and sandy loam soils. Outwash sediment are composed predominantly of dolomite, quartz, and calcite, and have a median organic carbon concentration of 0.39 weight percent. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sediment based on results of multiple-well aquifer tests ranges from 400 to 560 feet per day. Ground-water flow is from east to west-southwest at an average velocity of 1.5 to 2.5 feet per day. Ground water and surface water at the site are highly interconnected. Big Beaver Creek recharges the outwash aquifer along the eastern edge of the study area, and ground water discharges to the Scioto River at the western edge of the study area. High-stage events on the Scioto River cause frequent flow reversals in the aquifer that allow streamwater to travel a maximum observed distance of 190 feet inland. A zone of oxidizing waters (characterized by high dissolved oxygen concentration and Eh) is found in shallow ground water for several hundred feet adjacent to Big Beaver Creek and the Scioto River. This zone of oxidizing ground water is caused by the periodic inflow of surface waters to the aquifer. A ground-water budget for the study area indicates that the aquifer received 17.7 inches of recharge during water year 1992; of this amount, 72 percent originated as infiltrating precipitation, 28 percent as infiltration of surface water from Big Beaver Creek, and 0.2 percent as leakage from bedrock. Areal

  7. A critical evaluation of the use of cluster analysis to identify contaminated sediments in the Ria de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, B; Nombela, M. A; Vilas, F [Departamento de Geociencias Marinas y Ordenacion del Territorio, Vigo, Espana (Spain)


    The indiscriminate use of cluster analysis to distinguish contaminated and non-contaminated sediments has led us to make a comparative evaluation of different cluster analysis procedures as applied to heavy metal concentrations in subtidal sediments from the Ria de Vigo, NW Spain. The use of different clusters algorithms and other transformations from the same departing set of data lead to the formation of different clusters with a clear inconclusive result about the contamination status of the sediments. The results show that this approach is better suited to identifying groups of samples differing in sedimentological characteristics, such as grain size, rather than in the degree of contamination. Our main aim is to call attention to these aspects in cluster analysis and to suggest that researches should be rigorous with this kind of analysis. Finally, the use of discriminate analysis allows us to find a discriminate function that separates the samples into two clearly differentiated groups, which should not be treated jointly. [Spanish] El uso indiscriminado del analisis cluster para distinguir sedimentos contaminados y no contaminados nos ha llevado a realizar una evaluacion comparativa entre los diferentes procedimientos de estos analisis aplicada a la concentracion de metales pesados en sedimentos submareales de la Ria de Vigo, NW de Espana. La utilizacion de distintos algoritmos de cluster, asi como otras transformaciones de la misma matriz de datos conduce a la formacion de diferentes clusters con un resultado inconcluso sobre el estado de contaminacion de los sedimentos. Los resultados muestran que esta aproximacion se ajusta mejor para identificar grupos de muestras que difieren en caracteristicas sedimentologicas, tal como el tamano de grano, mas que el grado de contaminacion. El principal objetivo es llamar la atencion sobre estos aspectos del analisis cluster y sugerir a los investigadores que sean rigurosos con este tipo de analisis. Finalmente el uso

  8. Re-evaluation of the formalin-ether sedimentation method for the improvement of parasite egg recovery efficiency. (United States)

    Sato, C; Rai, S K; Uga, S


    The formalin-ether sedimentation (FES) method is considered as reliable method of fecal examination for the detection of parasites. In this study, we re-evaluated several aspects of FES such as (i) pretreatment of feces; (ii) filtration of fecal suspensions; (iii) test-tube material and (iv) substitution of ether by other organic solvents as to see an improvement in parasite egg recovery. The egg count was represented by the number of ova detected per 100 μg of sediment. Pre-treatment of feces with formalin (pH 7) increased egg detection rate remarkably compared with original FES method. Use of three layers of gauze dramatically reduced the sediment in the final product, and led to an increase in the number of ova detected. Use of polypropylene test tubes instead of glass test tubes also increased the number of egg detection. None of the organic solvents used to replace the ether produced better results. Based on these findings, we proposed a modified FES procedure. Further, we also compared the parasite positive rate and the number of ova recovered by using original FES and the modified FES procedures by examining 112 fecal samples collected from school children of parasite endemic area in Nepal. Feces collected from Nepal had many parasite ova, and these fecal samples barely displayed false-negative results even by method with low sensitivity. When the mean number of Hemenolepis nana, hookworm, T. trichiura, and A. lumbricoides ova recovered by original FES and the modified FES methods was compared, the values obtained by modified FES were superior (higher). This result suggested that the modified FES is effective and better for the recovery of parasite ova in areas of low-intensity parasitic infection.

  9. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management. (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R


    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  10. The impact of major earthquakes and subsequent sewage discharges on the microbial quality of water and sediments in an urban river. (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Moriarty, Elaine M; Wood, David; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J


    A series of large earthquakes struck the city of Christchurch, New Zealand in 2010-2011. Major damage sustained by the sewerage infrastructure required direct discharge of up to 38,000 m(3)/day of raw sewage into the Avon River of Christchurch for approximately six months. This allowed evaluation of the relationship between concentrations of indicator microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and F-RNA phage) and pathogens (Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) in recreational water and sediment both during and post-cessation of sewage discharges. Giardia was the pathogen found most frequently in river water and sediment, although Campylobacter was found at higher levels in water samples. E. coli levels in water above 550 CFU/100 mL were associated with increased likelihood of detection of Campylobacter, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, supporting the use of E. coli as a reliable indicator for public health risk. The strength of the correlation of microbial indicators with pathogen detection in water decreased in the following order: E. coli>F-RNA phage>C. perfringens. All the microorganisms assayed in this study could be recovered from sediments. C. perfringens was observed to accumulate in sediments, which may have confounded its usefulness as an indicator of fresh sewage discharge. F-RNA phage, however, did not appear to accumulate in sediment and in conjunction with E. coli, may have potential as an indicator of recent human sewage discharge in freshwater. There is evidence to support the low-level persistence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, but not Campylobacter, in river sediments after cessation of sewage discharges. In the event of disturbances of the sediment, it is highly probable that there could be re-mobilisation of microorganisms beyond the sediment-water exchange processes occurring under base flow conditions. Re-suspension events do, therefore, increase the potential risk to human health for those who participate in recreational

  11. Field evaluation of hydromulches for water quality and vegetation establishment. (United States)


    Soil erosion and sediment pollution can be major problems in and around construction sites due to land disturbing activities that leave areas of : unprotected soil during active construction. Establishing vegetation to control erosion can be difficul...

  12. Quantitative metrics to evaluate image quality for computed radiographic images (United States)

    Pitcher, Christopher D.

    Traditional methods of evaluating a computed radiography (CR) imaging system's performance (e.g. the noise power spectrum (NPS), the modulation transfer function (MTF), the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and contrast-detail analysis) were adapted in order to evaluate the feasibility of identifying a quantitative metric to evaluate image quality for digital radiographic images. The addition of simulated patient scattering media when acquiring the images to calculate these parameters altered their fundamental meaning. To avoid confusion with other research they were renamed the clinical noise power spectrum (NPSC), the clinical modulation transfer function (MTFC), the clinical detective quantum efficiency (DQEC) and the clinical contrast detail score (CDSC). These metrics were then compared to the subjective evaluation of radiographic images of an anthropomorphic phantom representing a one-year old pediatric patient. Computer algorithms were developed to implement the traditional mathematical procedures for calculating the system performance parameters. In order to easily compare these three metrics, the integral up to the system Nyquist frequency was used as the final image quality metric. These metrics are identified as the INPSC, the IMTFC and the IDQEC respectively. A computer algorithm was also developed, based on the results of the observer study, to determine the threshold contrast to noise ratio (CNRT) for objects of different sizes. This algorithm was then used to determine the CDSC by scoring images without the use of observers. The four image quality metrics identified in this study were evaluated to determine if they could distinguish between small changes in image acquisition parameters e.g., current-time product and peak-tube potential. All of the metrics were able to distinguish these small changes in at least one of the image acquisition parameters, but the ability to digitally manipulate the raw image data made the identification of a broad

  13. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Jialu River, China: Their relations to environmental factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhao, Changpo [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo, Yupeng [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kyzas, George Z. [Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Luo, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); An, Shuqing [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhu, Hailiang, E-mail: [State Key